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Sample records for cair organik tri-butil

  1. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu sebagai Pupuk Cair Organik terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Kangkung Darat (Ipomoea Reptans Poir)

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    Aliyenah, Aliyenah; A Napoleon, A Napoleon; Yudono, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian tentang Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu Sebagai Pupuk Cair Organik Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Kangkung Darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir) ini telah dilaksanakan pada Ja-nuari - Maret 2013. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan limbah cair industri tahu agar dapat digunakan sebagai pupuk cair organik untuk tanaman kangkung darat. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan meng-gunakan Rancang Acak Kelompok (RAK), dengan perlakuan konsentrasi pupuk cair organik dari ...

  2. PEMANFAATAN SEREH (Cymbopogon Cytratus DALAM MENURUNKAN BAU PADA PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR DAN POTENSINYA DALAM MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABAI (Capsicum Annum

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    Nurhasanah Nurhasanah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in the use of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus to reduce odors in liquid organic fertilizer has been conducted in Bogor for 6 months. This study begin with a liquid organic fertilizer produced from 1 kg of shrimp waste, 1 kg of maize, 1 kg of bean sprouts, 10 liters of coconut water, 500 ml of EM4 and 500 g of sugar through fermentation process for 6 weeks. Then the result of liquid organic fertilizer was added by an ingredient lemongrass as deodorizing with doses of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% (w/v. After that it is fermented for 2 weeks. The next stage was the application of liquid organic fertilizer as a foliar fertilizer at chillies (Capsicum annum planting using a completely randomized design (CRD 1 factors type of using liquid organic fertilizer (control, liquid organic fertilizer without lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 10% lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 20% lemongrass and liquid organic fertilizer + 30% lemongrass respectively at doses of 0, 6, 12 and 18 ppm. The parameters measured were odor (NH3 and H2S, levels of macro nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S and micro nutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe after fermenting process, and the production of crops (fruit number and fruit weight after planting. Research results show that the higher dose of lemongrass added cause levels of odor (NH3 and H2S in the liquid organic fertilizer decreased and content of macro nutrients, micro nutrients, and phytohormones increased. The planting results indicate liquid organic fertilizer which added 20% lemongrass in a dose of 12 ppm was the optimal dose in increasing crop production. Penelitian penggunaan sereh (Cymbopogon citratus dalam menurunkan bau pada pupuk organik cair telah dilakukan di Bogor selama 6 bulan. Penelitian ini diawali dengan membuat pupuk organik cair yang dihasilkan dari 1 kg limbah udang, 1 kg jagung, 1 kg touge, 10 Liter air kelapa, 500 ml EM4 dan 500 g gula pasir melalui proses fermentasi selama 6 minggu. Kemudian pada

  3. STRATEGI PRODUKSI PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR KOMERSIAL DARI LIMBAH RUMAH POTONG HEWAN (RPH SEMARANG

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    Wiharyanto Oktiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Limbah Rumah Pemotongan Hewan (RPH Kota Semarang yang didominasi oleh rumen sapi jika tidak diolah dapat menyebabkan ketidaknyamanan pada manusia dan kerusakan lingkungan. Dampak negatif dari limbah adalah proses pembuangan dan pembersihannya memerlukan biaya serta efeknya dapat mencemari lingkungan. Hal ini mendorong adanya inovasi dan pengembangan teknologi pengolahan air limbah yang murah dan mudah operasional dan pemeliharaannya serta biaya yang sedikit. Upaya meningkatkan keuntungan akan keberadaan limbah dilakukan cara mengolah limbah menjadi produk yang bermanfaat dan bernilai jual. Keuntungan yang bisa diperoleh dari proses pengolahan limbah tersebut menjadi biogas, bioenergi, dan pupuk. Pupuk yang mengandung magnesium yang tinggi yang beredar di pasaran biasanya berbentuk granul/ serbuk. Apabila tanaman mengalami kekurangan magnesium maka akan menyebabkan kuningnya daun dan menghambat proses fotosintesis yang terjadi di daun. Penambahan limbah garam pada penelitian ini diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kandungan unsur hara makro C,N,P,K, dan Mg, tidak mencemari lingkungan, tidak merusak struktur tanah, serta mudah dalam pengaplikasiannya. Variasi rasio serat kasar dengan cairan rumen bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan paling optimum,antara lain: 100:0 ,75:25 , 50:50 , 25:75 , 0:100 (serat kasar:cairan rumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa penambahan limbah garam tidak mempengaruhi terhadap kandungan unsur hara C-Organik dan Nitrogen, sedangkan pada kandungan Fospor, Kalium, dan Magnesium memiliki pengaruh dari penambahan limbah garam. Kandungan unsur hara makro paling optimum yaitu C-Organik pada fermentor B1 sebesar 1,44%, Ntotal pada fermentor B2 sebesar 0,73%, Fospor (P2O5 pada fermentor B3 sebesar 2,243%, Kalium pada fermentor B3 sebesar 13,05, dan Mg pada fermentor B3 sebesar 26,82%. meskipun demikian, pupuk organik cair ini belum memenuhi persyaratan teknis Permentan No.70/Permentan/SR.140/10/2011 tentang pupuk organik, pupuk

  4. UNJUK KERJA PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR TAHU SECARA BIOLOGI

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    Indriyati, Indriyati; Susanto, Joko Prayitno

    2016-01-01

    Sebagian besar industri makanan, termasuk industri tahu membuang limbah cairnya yang mengandung bahan organik dengan kadar tinggi (lebih dari 16,483 mg/L) langsung ke badan air. Dengan menggunakan teknologi yang tepat, limbah cair ini dapat diolah lebih lanjut untuk menghasilkan produk samping berupa biogas yang mengandunggas methan sebagai substitusi energi pada industri yang bersangkutan. Desa Kalisari merupakan salah satu sentra industri UKM tahu, untuk mengolah limbah cair yang dihasilkan...

  5. KEMAMPUAN GENTENG PLASTIK BERGELOMBANG (CORRUGATED PLASTIC SEBAGAI BIOFILTER PARTIKEL AMONIAK DAN BAHAN ORGANIK DI MEDIA BUDIDAYA DAN LIMBAH CAIR BUDIDAYA IKAN (Performance of Corrugated Plastic as Biofilter of Ammonia Particle and Organic Material

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    Muslim Muslim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pertumbuhan budidaya ikan dalam beberapa dekade ini berkembang sangat pesat, hal ini karena permintaan akan ikan meningkat. Meningkatnya kegiatan budidaya ikan selalu diiringi dengan meningkatnya limbah yang dihasilkan. Hal ini akan sangat cepat berpengaruh bila sistem budidaya yang dipakai adalah semi intesif atau intensif. Limbah tersebut harus segera dihilangkan atau dikurangi, karena akan berdampak pada ikan yang dibudidaya dan lingkungan seperti sungai dan laut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah ingin mengetahui kemampuan genteng plastik bergelombang mengurangi limbah yang dihasilkan budidaya ikan yaitu Total Suspended Sediment (TSS, Suspended Sediment (SS, amoniak dan bahan organik (COD. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa air limbah budidaya ikan yang mengandung TSS, SS, amoniak dan bahan organik setelah dilewatkan dengan genteng plastik bergelombang konsentrasinya menurun dengan tingkat efisiensi pengurangan yang terjadi di dalam kolam ikan dan di luar kolam ikan adalah sebagai berikut: 74,51% dan 54,42% (TSS; 39,20% dan 49,12% (SS; 19,82% dan 14,2% (amoniak; dan 24,82% dan 22,47% (COD. Ternyata genteng plastik bergelombang mempunyai tingkat pengurangan (g/m3/hr dan tingkat pengurangan spesifik (mg/m2/hr terhadap kandungan amoniak lebih efektif bila dibandingkan dengan material lain seperti plastic rolls, scrub pads, pipa PVC dan lain sebagainya.   ABSTRACT Aquaculture has been developing rapidly during the last few decades; it is due to the increase of fish demand. Increasing aquaculture activities especially with semi-intensive and intensive system have significant effect on waste production, which has to be removed or to be reduced quickly because will effect on fish in rearing tank and environment when through away to environment such as river and sea. The objectives of this study were to know the capability of corrugated plastic to remove or to reduce wastes content produced by aquaculture activities, i.e, Total Suspended

  6. KEPERCAYAAN KONSUMEN PADA PRODUK ORGANIK

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    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2016-10-01

      Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara di ASEAN yang memiliki populasi manusia cukup padat, salah satu provinsinya adalah Jawa Barat dengan Ibu Kota Bandung. Namun demikian jumlah populasi yang tinggi tidak diimbangi dengan pola hidup sehat, terlihat dari rendahnya konsumsi pada produk organik. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji faktor yang membentuk kepercayaan konsumen pada produk organik. Confirmatory Factor Analisys digunakan sebagai teknik analisis data, dengan survey pada konsumen yang ada di Kota Bandung sebanyak 351 reponden. Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa kepercayaan konsumen pada produk organik belum optimal. Penelitian ini menyempurnakan penelitian sebelumnya dimana terdapat faktor yang mampu membentuk kepercayaan konsumen pada produk organik diantaranya adalah  reliable, dependable, trustworthy, expectation, enviromental protection, dan safer.   Kata Kunci: Kepercayaan, Produk Organik, Confirmatory Factor Analisys

  7. Nilai orientasi alami manusia dan pengetahuan organik sebagai determinan perilaku beli pangan organik

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    Tony Wijaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji model perilaku beli pangan organik. Model ini mempresentasikan pengaruh dari orientasi nilai alami manusia, pengetahuan organik, sikap membeli pangan organik, norma subjektif, kontrol perilaku and niat beli terhadap perilaku beli pangan organik. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Sejumlah 516 responden dari Yogyakarta, Surabaya dan Jakarta berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Structural equation modeling (SEM digunakan untuk analisis data. Pengujian model sesuai dengan data empiris. Orientasi alami manusia dan pengetahuan organik berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap sikap membeli makan organik. Sikap membeli pangan organik, norma subjektif dan kontrol perilaku berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap niat beli makan organik. Kontrol perilaku memberikan kontribusi positif namun tidak signifikan terhadap perilaku beli pangan organik. Niat beli pangan organik berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap perilaku beli pangan organik.

  8. PERANCANGAN PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SAMPAH ORGANIK ZERO WASTE DI KABUPATEN TEGAL (STUDI KASUS DI TPA PENUJAH KABUPATEN TEGAL

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    Abdul Muiz Liddinillah Sanfiyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan sistem pengolahan sampah yang ada di Kabupaten Tegal adalah masih menggunakan sistem Open Dumping. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS Kabupaten Tegal pada tahun 2016, komposisi sampah organik adalah yang terbesar kedua setelah sampah plastik dan sangat berpotensi mengalami penambahan setiap tahunnya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat perancangan pembangkit listrik tenaga sampah organik zero waste di Kabupaten Tegal, dengan studi kasus di Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA sampah Penujah. Objek dalam penelitian ini adalah sistem pengolahan sampah organik yang ada di Kabupaten Tegal dengan menggunakan sistem pengolahan sampah zero waste. Sistem pengolahan sampah organik zero waste adalah sistem pengolahan sampah yang tidak menghasilkan sampah kembali. Jadi, diharapkan jumlah sampah organik akan berkurang secara bertahap. Sampah organik dapat dirubah menjadi biogas melalui proses fermentasi yang dibantu oleh bakteri secara anaerob di dalam reaktor biodigester. Biogas tersebut ditampung di dalam tempat penampungan untuk kemudian didistribusikan ke dalam genset biogas sebagai bahan bakar pembangkit listrik. Sisa pengolahan biogas dapat dirubah menjadi pupuk cair dan pupuk kompos yang bernilai ekonomis.

  9. Senyawa Organik Dalam Air Minum

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    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kadar zat   organik   yang berlebihan dalam  air  minum  tidak diperbolehkan karena selain menimbulkan warna, bau dan  rasa yang tidak  diinginkan, juga mungkin bersifat toksik baik secara langsung maupun setelah bersenyawa dengan zat lain yang ada.Zat organik yang ada dalam air minum dapat berasal dari alam atau sebagai dampak dari kegiatan manusia.

  10. DEGRADASI BAHAN ORGANIK LIMBAH CAIR NANAS OLEH BAKTERI INDIGENAgus Sutanto

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    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple Liquid Waste has high organic material and still unfulfilled required quality standard. Processing occurred at the waste processing installation with pond system (Lagoon required a wide space and keep long time so that less efficient. Based on this problem, it needs an environmentally sound waste management by utilizing bioprocess technology using indigenous bacteria’s ability in degrading organic pollutant called Bioremediation. The objective of this research was to get isolated indigenous bacteria, enables to decrease organic material. It was divided into four stages. First, performed characteristic observation of isolated bacteria that potentially decrease organic material, secondly decomposition capability test in vitro, and thirdly scale bioremediation test pilot plan, fourthly bioremediation test in ex situ at the microbiology laboratory of Malang State University. Data were analyzed by Varian analysis to test the presence or absence of differences and regression test to analyze the link between variables. First phase result: 15 isolated indigenous bacteria.. Potential consortia bacteria consisting of more effective 4 species, indicated by 4 consortia bacteria decreased BOD in 6 days. Starter bacteria with a consortia K1’s combination (ABCD, Volume: 5% (v/v and 6 days were the most effective incubation time in decreasing BOD. Second phase result: 1 A significant link among the number of bacteria, a. Bacillus cereus, b. Acinetobacter baumanni, c.Bacillus subtilis, d. Pseudomonas pseudomallei and not abcd against organic material with contribution of 72,7% and negatively correlated, 2 Media treatment and incubation time gave distinctive outcome against organic material, 3 there was a link between organic material organic acid concentration decrease would decrease BOD at scale bioremediation test Pilot plan, and ex situ scale. Threshold BOD achievement limit value on 10th day (75 quality standard: 75. In accordance with ministry decree LH No. 05 year 2007 industrial wastewater quality standard, suggested to industry to use this study in processing its waste.

  11. FOTODEGRADASI ZAT WARNA TARTRAZIN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI MIE MENGGUNAKAN FOTOKATALIS TiO2 - SINAR MATAHARI

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    Dian Windy Dwiasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu dampak negatif perkembangan industri mie di Indonesia adalah timbulnya pencemaran lingkungan dari limbah cair industri mie yang masih mengandung zat organik seperti zat warna tartrazin. Penurunan kadar zat warna tartrazin dalam limbah cair mie dapat diupayakan dengan cara mendegradasi zat warna tartrazin melalui proses fotodegradasi dengan metode fotokatalis. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan fotodegradasi zat warna tartrazin dalam limbah cair mie menggunakan fotokatalis TiO2. Perlakuan meliputi pengaruh variasi waktu kontak dan pH terhadap aktivitas fotokatalis TiO2 menggunakan sinar UV dan sinar matahari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas fotokatalitik yang terbaik untuk TiO2 adalah pada kondisi limbah cair mie dengan pH 2, dan waktu kontak 1 jam. Persentase penurunan kadar tartrazin dengan menggunakan lampu UV adalah sebesar 56,81%, sedangkan dengan penyinaran sinar matahari sebesar 61,64 %.

  12. SIKAP KONSUMEN TERHADAP BERAS ORGANIK

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    Northa Idaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study were (1 to analyze the product attributes which considered necessary by the consumers of organic rice in Sukabumi Region, (2 to analyze the contribution of attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward the intention to buy organic rice in Sukabumi Region, and (3 to formulate the managerial implication to improve the intention to buy organic rice in Kabupaten Sukabumi. The analyzed data on the 151 respondents were collected from four sub-districts in Sukabumi using convenience-sampling method. While analysis used were descriptive, cochran, and structural  equation  modelling. The result show that there were three attributes which were necessitated by the consumers in Sukabumi Region in buying organic rice, and there were big contributions from two constructs in forming the intention to buy organic rice in Sukabumi Region. Keywords: organic rice, consumer attittude, theory of planned behavior, structural equation modelling (SEMABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 menganalisis atribut-atribut produk yang dipentingkan oleh konsumen terhadap beras organik di Kabupaten Sukabumi. (2 menganalisis kontribusi sikap terhadap perilaku pembelian beras organik (attitude toward behavior, norma subjektif (subjective norms, dan kontrol perilaku (perceived behavioral control terhadap minat (intention membeli beras organik di Kabupaten Sukabumi, (3 merumuskan implikasi manajerial yang dapat diambil dari hasil penelitian untuk meningkatkan minat membeli beras organik di Kabupaten Sukabumi. Analisis data dilakukan terhadap 151 responden yang dikumpulkan dari empat kecamatan di Kabupaten Sukabumi menggunakan metode convenience-sampling. Analisis yang digunakan adalah deskriptif, Cochran dan structural  equation  modelling.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga atribut yang dipentingkan oleh konsumen di Kabupaten Sukabumi dalam membeli beras organik, serta kontribusi yang besar

  13. MODEL TANAMAN HORTIKULTURA ORGANIK PADA UNIT PELAKSANA TEKNIS PERTANIAN TERPADU UNIVERSITAS LANCANG KUNING

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    Latifa Siswati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian ini mengetahui model pertanian tanaman hortikultura organic  .Pertanian organik merupakan suatu usahatani untuk melakukan pemberian pupuk berasal dari urin sapi dan tidak mengandung zat kimia . ini berarti limbah yang dihasilkan akan dimanfaatkan kembali menjadi sumberdaya yang dapat menghasilkan.  Pada penelitian ini tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah menemukan tanaman hortikultura organik. Mengetahui pendapatan jenis hortikultura.menerapkan pengembangan agribisnis tanaman unggulan dengan   pupuk urin sapi di lahan  dengan pertanian terpadu memiliki manfaat ekonomis dan ekologis.Metode penelitian adalah ekperimen , dilakukan penanaman tanaman hortikultura kangkung,timun, pare, gambas Unit Pelaksana Teknis Univ.Lancang Kuning kota Pekanbaru. Penelitian ini  dapat memberikan model tanaman hortikultura organic serta  mengurangi biaya pupuk tanaman.Hasil penelitian Model tanaman kacang panjang diberikan pupuk urin sapi  yang terbaik. penaman sayur di Unit Pelaksana Teknis  Pertanian terpadu diperoleh hasil tanaman dengan pemakaian pupuk urin cair terjadi peningkatan berat tanaman .Pendapatan pertanian terpadu Rp 514.000- per periode.Key word: pupuk cair, hortikultura,pendapatan 

  14. Preferensi Konsumen dan Produsen Produk Organik di Indonesia

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    Sri Muljaningsih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari kebiasaan konsumen dan produsen produk organik. Sampling penelitian ini kebetulan dilakukan pada pertemuan yang diselenggarakan oleh Aliansi Organik Indonesia (AOI. Pemantauan pasar dilakukan di Jakarta, Bogor, Depasar, dan Malang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara langsung dengan responden. Responden terdiri atas 63 konsumen, 21 produsen produk organik. Analisis data dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor apa yang mempengaruhi preferensi masing-masing individu. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa preferensi konsumen terhadap beras, buah, dan sayuran organik adalah baik untuk kesehatan, tetapi keluhannya produk tersebut lebih mahal. Preferensi produsen bahwa produk organik semisal beras, buah, dan sayuran adalah harus mempunyai sertifikat. Preferensi konsumen tidak dibatasi usia dan pendidikan, sedangkan preferensi produsen masih tidak memahami manfaat kesehatan dari produk organik.Kata kunci: konsumen,  produsen, produk organik, survey pasar

  15. Studi Awal Desain Pabrik Pupuk Organik Granul Dari Organic Waste

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    Zulfatul Hanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Banyak pertanian di Indonesia yang masih bergantung pada penggunaan pupuk kimia. Padahal penggunaan pupuk kimia yang berlebihan dapat menyebabkan penurunan bahan organik tanah. Untuk menyeimbangkannnya saat ini petani juga sedang menggalakkan penggunaan pupuk organik. Sehingga membuat kebutuhan pupuk organik meningkat setiap tahunnya. Pendirian pabrik pupuk organik granul ini dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pupuk organik untuk petani. Prosess pembuatan pupuk organik granul terdiri dari pencampuran bahan baku, yakni sampah organik, kotoran sapi, kotoran domba, dan dipotong dengan rotary knife cutter. Tahap berikutnya adalah proses fermentasi, dengan penambahan bioactivator agar meningkatkan kandungan C-organik, phosphor, dan kalium. Selanjutnya adalah proses granulasi, pembesaran dari partikel dengan proses aglomerasi. Ukuran yang diharapkan pada proses granulasi ini adalah 2-4 mm sehingga produk undersize maupun oversize akan dikembalikan ke dalam granulator setelah melewati screener. Selanjutnya pupuk organik granul dikeringkan. Selanjutnya produk dipisahkan berdasarkan ukurannya lalu didinginkan di Rotary cooler. Setelah keluar dari Rotary Cooler suhu keluaran sekitar 40 oC dan masih mengandung kadar air sebesar 13,7%. Produk dari rotary cooler siap untuk di packaging dan masuk ke dalam pupuk organik granul storage. Dari analisa ekonomi didapatkan BEP sebesar 45% dengan POT sesudah pajak sebesar 4,8 tahun. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  16. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN BIOAKTIVATOR EM4 DAN PROMI DALAM PEMBUATAN PUPUK CAIR ORGANIK DARI SAMPAH ORGANIK RUMAH TANGGA

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    Marlinda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of household organic waste each year is increasing due to various problems will arise such as air pollution, can have an impact of the disease and the danger of flooding. Waste that can be used are organic waste such as leftover vegetables, fruits, leftover dried leaves and twigs. Household organic waste is the most widely used in daily life because of the need for food so that the quantity is more and more produced and will accumulate because the ground is not capable of degrading in significant amounts, so as to damage the environment in the form of air pollution (odor and can cause impact disease. Along with the impact of the organic waste to be treated in a household environment prior to turning it into more useful forms such as liquid organic fertilizer. Liquid fertilizers are more easily absorbed by plants and in the form konsetrat so it is more economical because it can be diluted. This research aims to use household organic waste into liquid fertilizer and see the impact of bio-activator EM4 and Promi to manufacture liquid fertilizer from organic C content. The method used in the form of waste materials vegetables such as kale, mustard greens, spinach and carrots as well as dried leaves 300 g cleaned and cut into small pieces and then put in the composter before fermentation in lightly mist or moistened with a bio-activator before hand and then fermented for 7 days , The fermentation process is done with a variety of bio-activator 2.5 mL, 5 mL, 7.5 mL, 10 mL, and 12.5 mL. Organic liquid fertilizer produced by using EM4 and Promi can be used as a bio-activator in fertilizer use but bio-activator EM4 provide more effective work in mengdegradasi organic waste to produce high levels of organic C approximately 23% compared to bio-activator Compromise approximately 18% and so is the content of other compounds EM4 such as nitrogen for 3.8%, 3.0% P2O5 content of K2O content of 4.2% and 3.2% Compromise Nitrogen levels, levels of 2.5% P2O5 and 3.0% K2O. From the analysis shows that the bio-activator EM 4 produces organic liquid fertilizer with a high C in comparison with the Compromise. Standard liquid fertilizer tailored to Permentan No.11/2011, but both bio-activator can be used to manufacture organic liquid fertilizer.

  17. STUDI EKSPERIMEN PEMILIHAN BIOMASSA UNTUK MEMPRODUKSI GAS ASAP CAIR ( LIQUID SMOKE GASES SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET

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    Sugeng Slamet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pengertian umum asap cair merupakan suatu hasil destilasi atau pengembunan dari uap hasil pembakaran tidak langsung maupun langsung dari bahan yang banyak mengandung karbon dan senyawa- senyawa lain. Bahan baku yang banyak digunakan untuk membuat asap cair adalah kayu, bongkol kelapa sawit, ampas hasil penggergajian kayu, dan lain-lain. Pembuatan asap cair menggunakan metode pirolisis yaitu peruraian dengan bantuan panas tanpa adanya oksigen atau dengan jumlah oksigen yang terbatas. Biasanya terdapat tiga produk dalam proses pirolisis yakni: gas, pyrolisis oil, dan arang, yang mana proporsinya tergantung dari metode pirolisis, karakteristik biomassa dan parameter reaksi. Metode yang dilakukan diawali dengan melakukan rancang bangun unit pirolisator lengkap dengan perangkat kondensor dengan pipa tembaga tipe spiral untuk memproduksi gas asap cair dari bahan biomassa yang dipilih yaitu tempurung kelapa dan sampah organik. Metode Pirolisis yang merupakan proses reaksi penguraian senyawa-senyawa penyusun kayu keras menjadi beberapa senyawa organik melalui reaksi pembakaran kering pembakaran tanpa oksigen. Reaksi ini berlangsung pada reaktor pirolisator dengan variasi temperatur 150oC, 250oC dan 300oC selama 8 jam pembakaran. Asap hasil pembakaran dikondensasi dengan kondensor yang berupa pipa tembaga melingkar. Hasil dari proses pirolisis diperoleh tiga produk yaitu asap cair, tar, dan arang. Kondensasi dilakukan dengan pipa atau koil melingkar yang dipasang dalam bak pendingin. Air pendingin dapat berasal dari air hujan yang ditampung dalam bak penampungan. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah biomassa tempurung kelapa menghasilkan jumlah senyawa fenol lebih besar 30-33%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pada jenis biomassa ini lebih unggul dalam fungsi sebagai antioksidan, karena kaya akan kandungan senyawa fenol, sehingga lebih optimal dalam hal menghambat kerusakan pangan dengan cara mendonorkan hidrogen. Sedangkan biomassa cangkang

  18. Pemanfaatan Residu Pembakaran Sampah Organik Rumah Tangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Naryono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pembakaran sampah organik rumah tangga menghasilkan residu padat 25-30% yang terdiri dari abu bawah (BA, abu atas (FA dan kondensat air yang mengandung tar. Abu bawah sebagian besar terdiri dari bahan anorganik seperti Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cl dan logam berat antara lain Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb dan Zn, sedangkan abu atas tersusun dari bahan organik dan anorganik. Bahan organik yang terdapat dalam residu antara lain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, chloro benzene (CB, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioksin (PCDD dan furan (PCDF. Residu pembakaran biomass perlu diolah atau dimanfaatkan agar tidak mengganggu lingkungan. Salah satu metode pengolahan yang mudah diterapkan dan aman terhadap lingkungan adalah pemadatan dan stabilisasi menggunakan semen atau lempung sebagai binder. Pemanfaatan produk ini dapat digunakan untuk batako atau batu bata. Berdasarkan prediksi, pembakaran sampah kota Malang sebesar 400 ton/hari menghasilkan abu 72 ton/hari. Pemakaian abu sebesar 25% pada pembuatan batako dengan perbandingan semen : pasir : abu sebesar 3,75 : 30 : 1,25 dapat menghasilkan batako setiap hari 366545 buah. Kata kunci : Abu, Batako, Residu, Pemadatan, Sampah organik rumah tangga

  19. KERAGAAN USAHATANI DAN PEMASARAN BUAH NAGA ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustiawati Ningsih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu faktor penting dalam agribisnis hortikultura adalah kelembagaan pemasaran dan salah satu komoditi yang menjanjikan adalah buah naga organik. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui penerimaan petani dan marjin pemasaran buah naga organik di Kabupaten Pamekasan. Hasil analisis usahatani menunjukkan adanya keuntungan dalam usahatani buah naga organik, hal ini ditunjukkan oleh nilai R/C=2,34. Bila dibandingkan dengan nilai R/C rasio usahatai tembakau Madura yaitu sebesar 1,38 maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa usahatani buah naga organik lebih efisien sehingga dapat dikatakan usahatani buah naga organik dapat dijadikan sebagai alternatif usahatani tembakau Madura. Kisaran (Acquirement marjin pemasaran antara lembaga-lembaga pemasaran cenderung bervariasi dan timpang. Besarnya marjin pemasaran pada tengkulak dan pedagang pengumpul masing-masing Rp 5.000/kg dan Rp 4.000/kg. Besarnya bagian petani (farmer share buah naga organik pada tengkulak dan pedagang pengumpul masing-masing 10%dan 10,67%. Secara ekonomi, buah naga organik masih menguntungkan. Keuntungan ini masih dapat ditingkatkan dengan memperbaiki sistem produksi, sehingga produktivitas dapat ditingkatkan. Diperkirakan dengan proses produksi ini dapat memperbaiki kualitas dan kuantitas, terutama pada tingkat lebih tinggi lagi, sehingga memiliki peluang mengakses pasar lebih luas, khususnya pasar luar negeri (ekspor.  ABSTRACTOne important factor in the agribusiness of horticulture is institutional marketing and one of the commodities that prospecive is organic dragon fruit. This study aims to determine the revenue of farmers and marketing margin of organic dragon fruit in Pamekasan. Results of the analysis showed profit in organic dragon fruit farming, this is indicated by the value of R / C = 2,34. When compared with the value of R / C ratio of Madura tobacco farming in the amount of 1.38 it can be concluded that organic dragon fruit farming more efficient so that it can be said dragon

  20. KUALITAS KIMIA ASAP CAIR RANTING CENGKEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnaini Yusnaini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahan baku produksi asap cair yang terpilih pada penelitian sebelumnya adalah ranting cengkeh. Penelitian tentang penggunaan ranting cengkeh masih sangat kurang sehingga produksi asap cair dari ranting cengkeh ini belum diketahui kualitasnya baik asap cair kasar maupun setelah dimurnikan. Begitupula dengan konsentrasi yang efektif digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet pada pangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas asap cair kasar dan asap cair yang telah dimurnikan dan mengevaluasi konsentrasi asap cair yang akan diaplikasi pada bahan pangan. Produksi asap cair dilakukan dengan suhu pirolisis 420°C selama 100 menit dan dilakukan pengukuran volume asap cair. Asap cair kasar kemudian didestilasi pada suhu 100°C selama1 jam, kemudian dilakukan pengenceran dengan konsentrasi 5%, 10%, 15% dan 20%. Dilakukan analisis kualitas antara lain kadar fenol, karbonil dan asam. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah rendemen asap cair kasar yang dihasilkan sekitar 36,44% dan yang setelah pemurnian 19,96%.  Proses pemurnian menyebabkan penurunan kadar fenol, karbonil dan asam yaitu secara berturut-turut sekitar 93-96%; 31-46%; dan 60-64%. Pengenceran asap cair mempengaruhi kadar fenol, karbonil dan asam asap cair. Makin tinggi konsentrasi asap cair maka persentase kadar senyawa fenol, karbonil dan asam makin tinggi pula. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah asap cair yang diproduksi dari ranting cengkeh dapat digunakan sebagai pengawet bahan pangan dan aplikasinya pada pangan dengan konsentrasi 10%.

  1. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR ORGANIK SECARA BIOLOGI MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR ANAEROBIK LEKAT DIAM

    OpenAIRE

    Indriyati, Indriyati

    2018-01-01

       Organic waste water can be treated biolocally by using anaerobic fixed bed reactor. Fixed bed reactor is bioreactor which is compleeted with support material inside reactor for bacteria fixation in the surface area of support material. The benefit of using this kind of technology are it needs low energy, low nutrien, low sludge production and could treat high organic concentraion waste water.   The support material  has important role in the  Fixed Bed reactor performance, therefore it mus...

  2. Degradasi Zat Warna Pada Limbah Cair Industri Tekstil Dengan Metode Fotokatalitik Menggunakan Nanokomposit Tio2 – Zeolit

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    Siti Naimah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian degradasi zat warna pada limbah cair industri tekstil menggunakan metode fotokatalitik dengan penambahan nanokomposit TiO2 - zeolit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektifitas kemampuan nanokomposit dalam mendegradasi zat warna serta parameter-parameter yang ditetapkan dalam Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 82 Tahun 2001 tentang pengelolaan kualitas air dan pengendalian pencemaran air. Zeolit alam diaktivasi terlebih dahulu sebelum dikompositkan dengan TiO2. Perbandingan TiO2 : zeolit yang digunakan pada pembuatan nanokomposit adalah 100:0, 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, dan 0:100. Percobaan pendahuluan dilakukan dengan menggunakan limbah cair tekstil buatan yang dibuat dari pewarna Synolon yellow S- G6LS (untuk warna kuning dan B/Blue R 150% special (untuk warna biru, sedangkan limbah cair industri tekstil diambil dari salah satu industri di Bogor. Waktu degradasi zat warna dilakukan dalam reaktor fotokatalitik selama 180 menit. Pada perbandingan TiO2 : zeolit 40:60 didapatkan degradasi zat warna tekstil buatan berwarna kuning maksimal adalah 99,9 % dan zat warna tekstil buatan berwarna biru maksimal 99,8%. Analisis warna menggunakan spektrofotometer dan HPLC. Nanokomposit TiO2 : zeolit 40 : 60 merupakan perbandingan optimal sehingga digunakan pada uji coba limbah cair industri tekstil. Degradasi maksimal warna kuning dengan pengolahan fotokatalitik yang ditambahkan nanokomposit pada limbah cair industri tekstil sebesar 98,4%, sedangkan untuk parameter uji zat organik, TSS, TDS, BOD, COD, dan lemak/minyak diperoleh nilai di bawah baku mutu yang dipersyaratkan. 

  3. Ekstraksi Pemisahan Neodimium dari Samarium, Itrium dan Praseodimium Memakai Tri Butil Fosfat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veronica Purwani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Nd(OH3 (neodymium hydroxide concentrate containing Y (yttrium, Sm (samarium and Pr (praseodymium as product of monazite processed has been done. The purpose of this study is to determine the separation of Nd from Y, Pr and Nd Sm in Nd concentrate. The aqueous phase was concentrated Nd (OH3 in HNO3 and extractant while organic phase was Tri Butyl Phosphate (TBP in kerosene. Parameters studied were pH and concentration feed, concentration of TBP in kerosene, extraction time and stirring speed. The result showed that the optimization of separation extraction neodymium from samarium, yttrium and praseodymium in Nd(OH3 concentrated with TBP, obtained the optimum condition of pH = 0.2, concentration of feed 100 g /L, concentration of TBP in kerosene 5%, extraction time 15 minutes and stirring speed 150 rpm. With the conditions, Separation Factor (SF obtained for Nd-Y, Nd-Pr, Nd-Sm are 2.242, 4.811, 4.002 respectively, while D and extraction efficiency of Nd are 0.236 and 19.07%.

  4. Inovasi Pupuk Organik Kotoran Ayam Dan Eceng Gondok Dikombinasi Dengan Bioteknologi Mikoriza Bentuk Granul

    OpenAIRE

    Asngad, A

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuat formula pupuk organik limbah dari campuran kotoran ayam dan eceng gondok sebagai pupuk organik dasar dan memproduksi pupuk organik unggul kombinasi pupuk organik dasar dan pupuk hayati spora CMA dalam kemasan granul. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimen dan analisis laboratorium dilakukan untuk mengetahui kuantitas dan kualitas hara pupuk yang dihasilkan, serta kandungan logam berat. Pupuk secara diskriptif dibandingkan dengan baku mutu pupuk orga...

  5. INOVASI PUPUK ORGANIK KOTORAN AYAM DAN ECENG GONDOK DIKOMBINASI DENGAN BIOTEKNOLOGI MIKORIZA BENTUK GRANUL

    OpenAIRE

    A Asngad

    2014-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuat formula pupuk organik limbah dari campuran kotoran ayam dan eceng gondok sebagai pupuk organik dasar dan memproduksi pupuk organik unggul kombinasi pupuk organik dasar dan pupuk hayati spora CMA dalam kemasan granul. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimen dan analisis laboratorium dilakukan untuk mengetahui kuantitas dan kualitas hara pupuk yang dihasilkan, serta kandungan logam berat. Pupuk secara diskriptif dibandingkan dengan baku mutu pupuk orga...

  6. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN USAHATANI DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI PADI ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudewo Krisna Jumna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sentra padi organik Kabupaten  Sragen adalah di Kecamatan Tanon, Sidoharjo, Gondang, Sambirejo, Masaran, Kabupaten Sragen adalah daerah penghasil padi organik terbesar di Jawa Tengah dan daerah yang pertama kali mendapatkan sertifikasi untuk padi organik di Jawa Tengah sejak tahun 2001, Pada tahun 2009 Sragen telah mengekspor 1.000 ton beras organik.Sampai dengan tahun 2012 Kabupaten Sragen mampu memberikan kontribusi luas panen dan Karangmalang. Produksi organik yang paling memenuhi standar adalah di Sukorejo, Kec. Sambirejo karena airnya langsung dari sumber. Desa Sukorejo merupakan salah satu desa yang konsisten dalam menerapkan pertanian organik. Petani organik Desa Sukorejo secara mandiri dapat menghasilkan pupuk organik dan pestisida organik. Sampel dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 12 key person yang terdiri dari unsur akademisi/peneliti, swasta, pemerintah, dan masyarakat. Adapun metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif kualitatif dengan teknik analisis AHP. Dari penelitian diperoleh hasil olah data mengunakan analisis hirarki proses (AHP dapat terlihat bahwa strategi pengembangan usahatani padi organik di Kecamatan Sambirejo Kabupaten Sragen tersusun atas beberapa kriteria program yang di prioritaskan dalam pembentukannya yaitu pertama kriteria pemasaran (nilai bobot 0,428, kedua kriteria budidaya (nilai bobot 0,221, ketiga kriteria input (nilai bobot 0,169, keempat kriteria lembaga (nilai bobot 0,092, dan kelima kriteria pasca panen (nilai bobot 0,090.Adapun saran dari penelitian ini antara lain diharapkan pemerintah dan pihak yang berkepentingan berkenan untuk mengaplikasikan kebijakan berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini. Serta dengan adanya pasar pemasaran produk pertanian organik di Kabupaten Sragen terutama di sentra-sentra produksi komoditas tertentu serta dengan mengadakan pameran gelar pangan organik, gelar budaya, desa wisata organik dan dengan adanya kemitraan antara petani dengan pihak swasta dan pengguna

  7. Penerapan Produksi Bersih Dalam Upaya Penurunan Timbulan Limbah Cair Di Pabrik Gula Tebu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith Vega Paramitadevi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tebu (Saccharum officianarum L. adalah tanaman yang mempunyai banyak manfaat, salah satunya sukrosa yang terdapat pada batang tebu yang dimanfaatkan untuk menghasilkan kristal gula. Kristal gula yang terbentuk mengalami pemrosesan yang panjang, dimulai dari penggilingan tebu hingga pemasakan. Pada proses pengolahan tersebut akan menghasilkan gula produk sekaligus limbah cair yang memiliki beban pencemaran organik tinggi. Tindak produksi bersih dalam industri gula tebu diperlukan agar penghematan air baku dan pencemaran air dapat terlaksana. Kajian terhadap produksi bersih dilakukan melalui studi kasus yang sifatnya deskriptif pada salah satu industri gula tebu di Indonesia. Identifikasi terhadap peluang produksi bersih dilakukan agar diperoleh pengaruh keseluruhan terhadap kinerja lingkungan, terutama pengurangan terhadap beban influen yang masuk ke IPAL. Sebanyak 6 alternatif peluang produksi bersih untuk penghematan konsumsi air baku dan 4 alternatif peluang produksi bersih untuk reduksi timbulan limbah cair diberikan. Peluang produksi bersih yang akhirnya dapat diterapkan yakni recycle air kondensat larutan gula, air bekas scrubber dan penerapan good house keeping. Debit air yang masuk ke IPAL berkurang 51.72%, setara dengan 4500 m3 air baku per hari, atau penghematan sebesar Rp 17.235.310,00 per tahun. Perancangan desain IPAL ulang juga diusulkan untuk mengatasi permasalahan konvensional yang melekat pada sistem kolam anaerobik-aerobik.

  8. Isolasi Dye Organik Alam dan Karakterisasinya Sebagai Sensitizer

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    Nurussaniah Nurussaniah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui cara mengisolasi dan karakteristik dye organik alam sebagai sensitizer. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui beberapa tahap yaitu persiapan, isolasi dye organik alam, karakterisasi sifat optik, analisis dan menyimpulkan. Isolasi dye organic alam dilakukan untuk memperoleh sari dari bahan-bahan alam. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan alam yaitu jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata. Karakterisasi optik dye organik alam dalam penelitian ini dilihat dari spektrum absorbansi yang diukur menggunakan Spektrophotometer Uv-Vis. Spektrum absorbansi dye diukur dalam kuvet optik, pada panjang gelombang 350-800 . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolasi dye organik alam diperoleh melalui metode ekstraksi, yaitu suatu metode untuk memperoleh sari dari bahan-bahan alam. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan melarutkan biji jagung (Zea mays dan daging buah labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata dalam pelarut etanol dengan konsentrasi 1:5. Karaktistik optik jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata  menunjukkan panjang gelombang yaitu berada pada cahaya tampak dengan rentang panjang gelombang 350 – 500 nm.  Dengan demikian  dye  beta-karoten yang berasal dari jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sensitizer dalam prototipe Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC.

  9. FABRIKASI TINTA PRINTER BERBAHAN DASAR PIGMEN ORGANIK DARI SAMPAH DAUN

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    Pradita Ajeng Wiguna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sampah menjadi salah satu permasalahan yang belum terselesaikan dalam masyarakat. Salah satu jenis sampah yang jumlahnya melimpah adalah sampah organik berupa dedaunan. Hal ini menuntut cara penanganan alternatif yang kreatif dan inovatif menjadi produk berdaya guna. Sebuah upaya yang dilakukan adalah pemanfaatan sampah daun sebagai pigmen warna organik untuk tinta printer. Pembuatan pigmen warna dilakukan dengan mereduksi sampah daun hingga berbentuk serbuk karbon yang homogen yaitu membakar sampah daun dalam kondisi oksigen rendah kemudian dilakukan proses pencampuran sederhana dengan bahan lain pembuat tinta. Tinta yang dihasilkan diuji transmitansinya dengan memvariasikan massa karbon yaitu dari 1 sampai 6 gram, hasilnya menunjukan bahwa semakin banyak massa karbon ,intensitas cahayanya semakin rendah. Uji laju absorbsi menunjukan bahwa tinta karbon memiliki kelajuan yang hampir sama dengan jenis tinta di pasaran, yaitu 1,04 mm/s. Saat uji kinerja tinta karbon pada printer menunjukan hasil yang lebih hitam dan halus sehingga sesuai jika diaplikasikan sebagai tinta printer.

  10. 40 CFR 97.223 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 97.223 Section 97.223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal of the CAIR SO2...

  11. 40 CFR 97.123 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 97.123 Section 97.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal of the CAIR NOX...

  12. 40 CFR 97.288 - CAIR SO2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO2 opt-in units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR SO2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO2 opt-in units. 97.288 Section 97.288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS...

  13. 40 CFR 96.288 - CAIR SO2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO2 opt-in units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR SO2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO2 opt-in units. 96.288 Section 96.288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR...

  14. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMENGARUHI RESISTENSI PEMBELIAN PANGAN ORGANIK DAN PROSES PENDIDIKAN KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fety Nurlia Muzayanah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic food market share in Indonesian only 0,5–2% from all agricultural products. There are problems in organic food marketing in Indonesia such as consumer confidence and limited information about organics food. This research aimed to analyze correlation of gender, occupation, age and education in intention to purchase organic foods, factors influencing purchase resistance of organic foods, and the pendidikan konsumen process. This research was involved 150 respondents. Data was collected using questionnaire survey. The result showed that gender, occupation, age and education not correlate with purchase intention of organic foods. Result from Structural Equation Modeling (SEM showed that factors caused purchase resistance was negative attitude toward organic foods, unaffordability of organic foods, and lack of awareness in organic foods but subjective norm don’t have significant correlation with purchase intention. Market Education process that can do is educate consumers about health benefits of organic food, organics certification and economics value of organic food.Keywords: consumer behavior, market education, organic foods,  SEMABSTRAKPangsa pasar pangan organik di Indonesia baru mencapai 0,5-2 persen dari keseluruhan produk pertanian. Beberapa kendala pemasaran pangan organik di Indonesia seperti consumer confidence dan terbatasnya informasi mengenai produk organik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis hubungan gender, pekerjaan, usia, dan pendidikan terakhir terhadap minat beli pangan organik, mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi resistensi pembelian pangan organik, dan mengidentifikasi proses pendidikan konsumen. Penelitian ini melibatkan 150 responden. Responden terdiri dari dosen, staf kependidikan, dan mahasiswa yang dipilih dengan teknik purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner. Hasil analisis menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan antara gender, pekerjaan, usia, dan pendidikan

  15. PENGARUH APLIKASI URIN KAMBING DAN PUPUK CAIR ORGANIK KOMERSIAL TERHADAP BEBERAPA PARAMETER AGRONOMI PADA TANAMAN PAKAN INDIGOFERA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been done during 6 months period in order to study the effect of goat urine and comersial liquid organic fertilizer (NASA® as fertizers on some agronomic parameters which are related with potential forage production. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment which is consist of PO = control, P1 = 50% goat urine + 50% mineral water, P2= 100% urine, P3= NASA 0.25%, P4 NASA= NASA 0.50% and P5 = NASA 0.75%, with 5 repetitions. Some agronomic parameters observed were biomass production of tajuk, leaves dry matter production, numbers of leafs and leaf square. To observe the effect of goat urine observation were conducted in two growth periodes. The results of the experiment showed that the application of goat urine and comercial liquid organic fertilizer produce better results in all treatments compared to control. 100% goat urine treatment showed that better results in all parameters compared to commercial liquid organic fertilizers

  16. PERANAN AERASI DAN SILIKA SERTA LAMA PEMERAMAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN UNSUR HARA PUPUK CAIR LUMPUR ORGANIK UNIT GAS BIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Junus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic sludge biogas unit (OSBGU is an organic product that is generally overlooked by the owner. Giving aeration and silica as treatment with longer curing 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days for prospective OSBGU liquid fertilizer is expected to change the percentage of the nutrient content of liquid manure OSBGU candidates become better liquid fertilizer. The results showed that the effect of treatment, curing time and the interaction between the percentage of liquid manure nutrient content OSBGU on posphor (P, potassium (K, sodium (Na and calcium (Ca was significantly different. Conclusion: The role of aeration and the addition of silica as well as their interactions and their long ripening turns very significant effect on the percentage of the nutrient content of liquid fertilizer OSBGU. Suggestion: to make the aeration and the addition of silica to the fermentation time to increase the percentage of liquid manure nutrient content OSBGU should use aeration and if necessary by adding silica and brooded until on day 7

  17. Kajian Pemanfaatan Pupuk Organik Cair Isi Rumen Kerbau Dan Air Kelapa Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Caisim (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Patmawati, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the best composition, consentrate and the frequency of rumen of buffaloes and coconut water as liquid organic fertilizer towards the growth and production of mustard greens. This research carried out at the land experiment of UMSU Agricultural Faculty, at the region of medan amplas subdistrict. This research was carried out in September up to November 2012. The enviroment design used in the research was split split plot design with 3 factors and repeated 2 time...

  18. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA ORGANIK TERINTEGRASI DENGAN KEMAMPUAN GENERIK SAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sudarmin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Learning Models of Organic Chemistry Subject Integrated with Science Generic Skills. The aim of the study is to investigate how Organic Chemistry and Generic Science Skills Teaching Model can be developed for prospective chemistry teachers. This research and development study involves 79 stu­dents of Chemistry Education Department of Sema­rang State University. The data are collected using a test of organic chemistry concepts and generic science skills, a questionnaire, and an observation sheet and then analyzed using N-gain test. The result shows that the OCGSSM teaching model improves the pro­spective chemistry teachers' generic science skills in high and medium category. The high achieving stu­dent group has better comprehension of generic skills in logical consistency, observation, abstraction, symbolic language, sense of scale, and logical frame aspects than low achieving student group. Abstrak: Model Pembelajaran Kimia Organik Terintegrasi Kemampuan Generik Sains. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan model pembelajaran kimia organik terintegrasi kemampuan generik sains. Penelitian dan pengembangan melibatkan 79 mahasiswa Pendidikan Kimia Jurusan Kimia Universitas Negeri Semarang. Data dikumpulkan dengan tes penguasaan konsep kimia organik terintegrasi kemam­puan generik sains, angket, dan lembar observasi, dan dianalisis dengan uji N-gain. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa penerapan MPKOKG meningkatkan penguasaan kemampuan generik sains calon guru kimia dengan taraf pencapaian tinggi dan sedang. Mahasiswa kelompok prestasi tinggi memiliki penguasaan kemam­puan generik sains konsistensi logis, pengamatan, abstraksi, bahasa simbolik, kesadaran tentang skala serta logical frame lebih baik dibandingkan kelompok prestasi rendah.

  19. Pengaruh Jenis Bahan pada Proses Pirolisis Sampah Organik menjadi Bio-Oil sebagai Sumber Energi Terbarukan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Cahyono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampah organik merupakan potensi sumber energi yang melimpah di Indonesia. Sampah organik berupa daun dan ranting kering bisa dikonversi menjadi bahan bakar berupa bio-oil melalui proses fast pirolisis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis bahan terhadap rendemen dan nilai kalor bio-oil yang dihasilkan dari proses pirolisis sampah organik. Bahan baku berupa daun dan ranting kering campuran tanaman angsana, mahoni dan mangga dengan komposisi daun bervariasi 0%, 50%, dan 100%, dipotong-potong dengan ukuran maksimal 10 cm. Kemudian bahan baku tersebut dipanaskan di dalam reaktor pirolisis pada suhu 500 C selama 1 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor tertinggi (5175,35 J/g dan rendemen tertinggi (24,5% didapatkan pada bio-oil yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis ranting 100%. Kata kunci: Sampah Organik, Bio-oil, Pirolisis, Rendemen, Nilai Kalor

  20. INOVASI PUPUK ORGANIK KOTORAN AYAM DAN ECENG GONDOK DIKOMBINASI DENGAN BIOTEKNOLOGI MIKORIZA BENTUK GRANUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asngad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuat formula pupuk organik limbah dari campuran kotoran ayam dan eceng gondok sebagai pupuk organik dasar dan memproduksi pupuk organik unggul kombinasi pupuk organik dasar dan pupuk hayati spora CMA dalam kemasan granul. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimen dan analisis laboratorium dilakukan untuk mengetahui kuantitas dan kualitas hara pupuk yang dihasilkan, serta kandungan logam berat. Pupuk secara diskriptif dibandingkan dengan baku mutu pupuk organik menurut SK Mentan 2009. Hasil analisis hara makro dan mikro, serta logam berat pada pupuk organik dasar sudah memenuhi persyaratan baku mutu pupuk organik. Perbanyakan pupuk  hayati CMA diperoleh 35 butir spora CMA/gram. Formula pembuatan campuran pupuk organik dasar: 2 kotoran ayam, 1 eceng gondok. Pupuk tersebut ditambah dengan 1 kg inokulum CMA atau pupuk hayati, 0,5 kg clay merah, 0,5 kg fosfat alam, 0,25 kg clay putih; 500 cc air. Hasil analisis hara makro dan mikro, campuran pupuk organik dasar dan hayati yang telah digranul sesuai dengan standar pupuk organik dari SK Mentan 2009. Disimpulkan bahwa campuran pupuk organik dari bahan dasar (kotoran ayam dan gulma air, yang ditambah dengan pupuk hayati dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pengganti pupuk anorganik. Pupuk granul lebih efisien dan efektif digunakan untuk berbagai campuran dan di lapang. The research objective is to make the formula of organic fertilizer from water weed and chicken poop mixture as the basic organic fertilizer and to produce excellent organic fertilizer from the combination of basic organic fertilizer and biologic CMA spore fertilizer in a granule package. The study was conducted with an experimental method and laboratory analysis to determine the quantity and quality of fertilizer nutrients and heavy metal content that was descriptively compared to the standard organic fertilizer by SK Mentan 2009. The results showed that the quantity and quality of the fertilizer

  1. The CAIR vacatur. A Dilemma for States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Royden-Bloom [National Association of Clean Air Agencies (NACAA) (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The vacatur of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) creates a dilemma for the many states that were relying on CAIR for reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from power plants. NOx is an ozone (O{sub 3}) precursor, NOx and SO{sub 2} are precursors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM2.5 impairs visibility, contributing to regional haze. Thus, reductions in these emissions are important to achieving the 8-hr O{sub 3} and PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and for improving visibility. With the vacatur of CAIR, the reductions States counted on in the near-term (2009-2011) are in jeopardy. Ultimately, Congress will hopefully enact stringent multipollutant legislation targeting EGUs. However, in the meantime, to protect public health from deadly air pollution, states will need to step in to fill the gap and act quickly to restrict air pollutant emissions from EGUs. 1 ref.

  2. 40 CFR 96.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 96.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided...

  3. 40 CFR 97.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of...

  4. 40 CFR 96.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 96.253 Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. (a)(1) After a...

  5. 40 CFR 97.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. 97... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 97.253 Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. (a)(1) After a compliance account is...

  6. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the 3 highest amounts of the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input...

  7. 40 CFR 96.223 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 96.223 Section 96.223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal...

  8. 40 CFR 96.123 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 96.123 Section 96.123 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision, or renewal...

  9. 40 CFR 96.323 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 96.323 Section 96.323 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... the permitting authority, as necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit...

  10. 40 CFR 97.323 - CAIR permit contents and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAIR permit contents and term. 97.323 Section 97.323 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... authority, as necessary to facilitate coordination of the renewal of the CAIR permit with issuance, revision...

  11. Studi Pengembangan Pertanian Padi Sawah Organik Berdasarkan Kesesuaian Lahan dan Potensi Pupuk Organik dari Limbah Pertanian di Kecamatan Temon Kabupaten Kulon Progo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusiyah Rusiyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Revolusi Hijau telah menimbulkan berbagai dampak negatif, baik pada lingkungan, keanekaragaman hayati pertanian, maupun sosial ekonomi masyarakat. Tujuan  penelitian ini mengkaji: 1 tingkat kesesuaian lahan untuk tanaman padi sawah, 2 potensi pupuk organik dari  limbah pertanian,3 karakteristik  sosial ekonomi petani, dan 4 merumuskan  strategi  pengembangan pertanian padi  sawah organik. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode survei. Teknik pengambilan sampel  dengan  purposive area sampling untuk aspek fisik lahan dan purposive sampling untuk sampel petani. Teknik  pengolahan data  dengan Software LCLP, tabel frekuensi, dan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan menggunakan analisis kuantitatif dan  kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelas kesesuaian lahan untuk tanaman padi sawah di daerah penelitian adalah sesuai marginal (S3 dengan luas 1.165,77 ha atau  99,11% dan tidak sesuai saat ini (N1 dengan luas 10,51 ha atau 0,89%, potensi pupuk organik dari limbah pertanian  pada  musim tanam I adalah  5.070,05 ton dan  musim tanam II adalah 3.595,04 ton, karakteristik sosial ekonomi internal petani  memiliki  kekuatan lebih baik dibandingkan karakteristik sosial ekonomi eksternal  petani bagi  pengembangan pertanian padi sawah organik di daerah penelitian, strategi pengembangan pertanian padi sawah  organik di Kecamatan Temon dapat dilakukan  sebagai berikut: (a pemberian penghargaan/apresiasi kepada petani yang telah berhasil mengembangkan pertanian organik, (b pemerintah perlu membantu petani dalam mendapatkan  sertifikat produk pertanian organik, (c pembuatan lahan percontohan/demplot pertanian organik, (d pemberdayaan peran kelembagaan, (e kegiatan sosialisasi kepada petani, konsumen  pedagang, pemerintah daerah, penyuluh, dan institusi terkait lainnya, (f mengintegrasikan pembangunan bidang pertanian dan peternakan,(g pelatihan teknologi pembuatan pupuk organik dan

  12. ANALISIS KADAR HARA PUPUK ORGANIK KASCING DARI LIMBAH KANGKUNG DAN BAYAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfayetti Elfayetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pertanian organik merupakan sistem pertanian yang holistik yang mendukung dan mempercepat biodeversiti, siklus biologi dan aktivitas biologi tanah(International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements,2014. Geografi Pertanian merupakan mata kuliah di Jurusan Pendidikan Geografi FIS Unimed. Dalam Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi yang diterapkan di Jurusan Pendidikan Geografi FIS Unimed merupakan matakuliah wajib pada semester genap, tepatnya pada semester IV (empat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan pertumbuhan berat cacing tanah pada pupuk kascing dari limbah kangkung dan bayam dan untuk mengetahui kandungan hara N, P, K dan pH kascing dari limbah kangkung dan bayam pada tanah ultisol. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan pada pupuk organik, maka harus diupayakan bagaimana memperoleh pupuk yang memiliki unsur hara yang padat dan pengadaannya relatif murah dan mudah. Pemanfaatan limbah organik untuk budidaya cacing tanah merupakan salah satu tindakan yang tepat untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Rendahnya bahan organik, N, P, K menunjukkan bahwa tanah pada percobaan ini membutuhkan bahan organik. Pemberian bahan organik seperti cacing diharapkan dapat meningkatkan Produktivitas Ultisol dimana Kascing mempunyai sifat-sifat kimia, fisika, dan biologi tanah yang baik, sehingga dapat meningkatkan serapan hara dan pertumbuhan tanaman. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa : 1. Jenis makanan berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan cacing tanah dan kualitas kascing yang dihasilkan. 2.Terdapat perbedaaan pada bobot cacing tanah yang dihasilkan dengan adanya perbedaan jenis makanan. Jenis makanan bayam memberikan tingkat pertumbuhan cacing tanah terbaik dengan terjadinya pertambahan bobot sebesar 650 gram yang awalnya hanya 250 gram. 3. Dari beberapa parameter sifat kimia dan biologi kascing, maka jenis makanan bayam memberikan nilai N tertinggi yaitu 0,52 dan pada pakan kangkung terdapatnilai p tertinggi yaitu 0,35. Kata Kunci

  13. Rekayasa Alat Penghasil Asap Cair untuk Produksi Ikan Asap 1. Uji Coba Alat Penghasil Asap Cair Skala Laboratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiah Nurbaya Sari

    2006-04-01

    penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada suhu pembakaran 200-250o C, tempurung kelapa dengan kadar air 11,40% menghasilkan asap cair sebanyak 48,10%, sisa pembakaran berupa arang sebanyak 31,33%, jumlah komponen yang hilang sebanyak 20,56% dengan kinerja alat sebesar 250,52 g/jam.m kondensor. Komponen terbanyak asap cair yang dihasilkan adalah senyawa 9-octadecenoic acid (Z-, tetradecyl ester (C32H62O2 sebanyak 71,68%. Pada suhu pembakaran 300–450oC asap cair yang dihasilkan sebanyak 48,66%, sisa pembakaran berupa arangsebanyak 26,30%, komponen asap yang hilang sebanyak 25,04% dengan kinerja alat 253,44 g/jam.m kondensor. Pada suhu tersebut komponen terbanyak asap cair adalah senyawa 2-lauro-1,3-didecoinyaitu 37,53%.

  14. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK PADA MEDIA TANAH YANG MENGANDUNG TIMBAL (Pb TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listiatie Budi Utami

    2016-06-01

    pupuk organik dengan dosis 0 gram, 50 gram, 100 gram, 150 gram, 200 gram, dan 250 gram dalam 2 kg tanah dari TPA Piyungan, Bantul. Setiap perlakuan diulang 4 kali dan dilakukan selama 4 minggu. Pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang daun, panjang akar, dan berat basah tanaman. Pada minggu ke-4, dilakukan pengukuran kadar timbal (Pb dalam daun. Dilakukan uji ANOVA dan BNT 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk organik dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat. Dosis yang paling efektif untuk pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat adalah 200 gram dalam 2 kg tanah. Pemberian pupuk organik tidak dapat menurunkan kandungan Pb dalam tanaman kangkung darat.

  15. 40 CFR 96.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.186 Section 96.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Opt-in Units § 96.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading...

  16. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.386 Section 97.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program...

  17. 40 CFR 97.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.186 Section 97.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Opt-In Units § 97.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program. Except as provided...

  18. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK PADA MEDIA TANAH YANG MENGANDUNG TIMBAL (Pb) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir.)

    OpenAIRE

    Listiatie Budi Utami; Ulfah Rachmawati

    2016-01-01

    Kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) merupakan tanaman hiperakumulator  logam timbal (Pb), padahal kangkung darat banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kandungan timbal (Pb) kangkung darat pada berbagai dosis pupuk organik; serta untuk mengetahui dosis pupuk organik yang paling efektif untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan menurunkan kandungan timbal (Pb) dalam kangkung darat. Penelitian dilakukan secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan...

  19. Organik Balık Üretimi'nin Mevcut Durumu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Adem Tekinay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Doğal koşullar altında, hiçbir koruyucu katkı maddesi ve genetik modifikasyona maruz bırakılmamış organik tarım prensiplerine göre üretilmiş tamamen doğal olan hammaddelerden hazırlanan yemlerle beslenen ve bir kontrol kuruluşunda sertifikalanan balıklar “organik balık” olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Organik balık, daha düşük stok yoğunluğu ile hayvanın refahını sağlayan, pestisid, kimyasal ürün ve genetik olarak değişime uğramamış ürünler kullanmayarak insan sağlığına önem veren bir üretim modelidir. Dünyanın birçok gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkesinde uygulanan bu alternatif üretim modeli, dünya akauakültür üretiminin sadece %0,01’ini oluşturmasına rağmen, bu ürüne olan talep üretim miktarının ve piyasaya sürülen tür çeşitliliğinin artmasına sebep olmuştur. Bununla birlikte, organik su ürünleri üretimi, organik tarım kadar hızlı gelişememiştir. Bu durumun en büyük nedenlerinden biri organik su ürünleri için geliştirilmiş uluslar arası standartların olmamasıdır

  20. Bibliothécaires, documentalistes, tous entrepreneurs ?

    CERN Document Server

    Vaissaire-Agard, Clotilde

    2018-01-01

    Bibliothécaires et documentalistes sont-ils des entrepreneurs qui s'ignorent ? Certes, les attributs classiques de l'entrepreneur - capacités stratégiques, d'innovation, d'investissement personnel, de persévérance... - sont généralement réservés aux chefs d'entreprises ; mais ne trouve-t-on pas des qualités comparables chez les professionnels des bibliothèques et de la documentation ? Si certains d'entre-eux ont franchi le pas en s'installant à leur compte, d'autres exercent leurs activités à l'intérieur même de leur institution en s'appuyant sur des valeurs que l'on retrouve en partie dans l'économie sociale et solidaire... Ne faut-il pas leur associer de plein droit des qualités d'entrepreneur ou mieux, d'intrapreneur ? Entrepreneur, entrepreneur social, intrapreneur, etc. c'est à travers le prisme de ces différents statuts et à partir des témoignages de nombreux professionnels que les auteurs de cet ouvrage abordent les évolutions des métiers de l'info-doc où le souci de l'innovati...

  1. Pengaruh macam limbah organik dan pengenceran terhadap produksi biogas dari bahan biomassa limbah peternakan ayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARTO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pamungkas GS, Sutarno, Mahajoeno E. 2012. Pengaruh macam limbah organik dan pengenceran terhadap produksi biogas dari bahan biomassa limbah peternakan ayam. Bioteknologi 9: 18-25. Kelangkaan bahan bakar merupakan masalah penting saat ini, sehingga diperlukan berbagai alternative sumbernya. Dengan sistem biodigester anaerob, limbah peternakan ayam dengan penambahan limbah organik lain dapat menghasilkan biogas, sebagai sumber energi terbarukan (renewable energy. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (i menguji produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob limbah peternakan ayam dengan perlakuan pengenceran, dan penambahan berbagai substrat sampah organik skala laboratorium, (ii mengetahui produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob sistem curah limbah peternakan ayam dengan frekuensi agitasi berbeda pada skala semi pilot. Penelitian dilakukan dua tahap yaitu penelitian skala laboratorium dan skala semi pilot. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari 2 faktor yaitu, rasio pengenceran, dan penambahan substrat. Hasil dari produksi biogas terbaik direkomendasikan pada penelitian skala semi pilot sistem curah. Perlakuan dalam tahapan semi pilot dengan interval waktu pengadukan, yaitu 4 jam/hari dan 8 jam/hari. Produksi biogas tertinggi diperoleh dari penyampuran kotoran ayam dengan eceng gondok pengenceran 1:1 sebesar 0,60 L dalam 6 minggu dan efisiensi perombakan COD, TSS, VS adalah 63,80%; 14,79%; 75,14%. Pada sekala semi pilot sistem curah dengan frekuensi pengadukan 8 jam/hari, diperoleh hasil biogas tertinggi sebesar 624,99 L dalam 6 minggu.

  2. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit... the first such 5 years. (2)(i) A unit's control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired... Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with...

  3. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK PADA MEDIA TANAH YANG MENGANDUNG TIMBAL (Pb TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listiatie Budi Utami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir. merupakan tanaman hiperakumulator  logam timbal (Pb, padahal kangkung darat banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kandungan timbal (Pb kangkung darat pada berbagai dosis pupuk organik; serta untuk mengetahui dosis pupuk organik yang paling efektif untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan menurunkan kandungan timbal (Pb dalam kangkung darat. Penelitian dilakukan secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan pemberianpupuk organik dengan dosis 0 gram, 50 gram, 100 gram, 150 gram, 200 gram, dan 250 gram dalam 2 kg tanah dari TPA Piyungan, Bantul. Setiap perlakuan diulang 4 kali dan dilakukan selama 4 minggu. Pengamatan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang daun, panjang akar, dan berat basah tanaman. Pada minggu ke-4, dilakukan pengukuran kadar timbal (Pb dalam daun. Dilakukan uji ANOVA dan BNT 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk organik dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat. Dosis yang paling efektif untuk pertumbuhan tanaman kangkung darat adalah 200 gram dalam 2 kg tanah. Pemberian pupuk organik tidak dapat menurunkan kandungan Pb dalam tanaman kangkung darat.

  4. Organik Tavukçulukta Mera Kompozisyonu, Besleme ve Barındırma Teknikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eleroğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dünya’daki gelişmelere paralel olarak, Türkiye’de de organik tavukçuluk sektöründe gelişmeler yaşanmaktadır. Son yıllarda artan taleplerin karşılanması amacıyla üretim artışı söz konusu olup, yeni organik işletmeler sayısında artış gözlenmektedir. Hayvanların besin maddesi ihtiyaçlarının belli bir kısmının meradan sağlanması için yerel bitkilerden yararlanılarak, uygun mera kompozisyonunun ekonomik üretimi destekleyecek şekilde oluşturulması gerekmektedir. Bununla birlikte, çevre koşulları ve barındırma tekniklerinin kanatlının performansı, sağlığı, refahı, ürün kalitesi üzerine etkisi bulunmaktadır. Bu nedenle çevre koşulları ve barındırma tekniklerinin, yerel koşullara uyumlu ve organik standartları sağlayacak şekilde düzenlenmesi gerekmektedir. Hayvanların günlük besin maddesi ihtiyaçlarının dengeli olarak karşılanmasında, hayvanların severek tükettikleri buğdaygil ve baklagil yem bitkileri yanında otlatmaya dayanıklı endemik bitkilerden oluşan karışımlardan yararlanılarak, mera kompozisyonu belirlenmelidir. Sabit ve taşınır barındırma sistemlerinde kullanılacak malzemelerin organik üretim standartlarına uygun olmalıdır. Kümes içi ve mera donanımları arasında bulunan yemlik ve sulukların organizasyonunda yöresel iklim koşulları dikkate alınmalı, özellikle ısıtma sistemlerinde aydınlatma yapmayan ısı kaynaklarının seçilmesi gerekmektedir. Yabani kuş ve yırtıcı hayvanlardan korunma amaçlı geliştirilen sistemler üzerinde durulmalı, ürün elde etme ve değerlendirme aşamasında, ürün kalitesinin maksimum düzeyde korunabileceği uygulamalar üzerinde durulmalıdır. Bu çalışmada, organik tavukçuluk üzerinde durularak, örnek olarak Sivas koşullarında organik etlik piliç üretiminde kullanılmak üzere oluşturulan mera kompozisyonu ile birlikte organik tavuk yetiştirmede kullanılan barındırma sistemi

  5. Analisis Unsur Hara Pupuk Organik Cair dari Limbah Ikan Mujair (Oreochromis Mosambicus) Danau Lindu dengan Variasi Volume Mikroorganisme Lokal (MOL) Bonggol Pisang

    OpenAIRE

    Lepongbulan, Winda; Tiwow, Vanny M. A; Diah, Anang Wahid M

    2017-01-01

    The Lake Lindu is one of the potential water resources in Central Sulawesi with various species of fish and one of the most commonly found fish are species mujair fish. Mujair fish processing wastes such as offal can be polluted the environment if not managed properly. The study aim is to determine the contents of NPK nutrients in the liquid organic fertilizer by adding MOL banana weevil. The contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) was determined by using spectro direct. T...

  6. Pengaruh Pemberian Urea, Tsp, Kcl Dan Pupuk Organik Cair (Poc) Kulit Pisang Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Cabai Merah Keriting (Capsicum Annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    adrian, Edo; Yetti, Husna

    2017-01-01

    This research to determine the interaction of inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP, KCl)and banana peelliquid organic fertilizer (POC) to find the best results on the growth and yield of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).This study was conducted for four months (March-June, 2016), the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Riau Pekanbaru,using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial,consists of two factors and three replications.The results were analyzed by analysis of va...

  7. ANALISIS TUMBUH SELADA (LACTUCA SATIVA L) PADA PERBEDAAN JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR ( Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L) Growth Analysis At Different Type Of Liquid Organic Fertilizer)

    OpenAIRE

    Duaja, Made Deviani; Arzita, .; Redo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to analysis the growth and yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) at different type of organic liquid fertilizers. The experiment has conducted at Agriculture Faculty Research Farm, Jambi University. Six treatments were arranged in Randomized Completed Block Design. The treatments are kinds of liquid organic fertilizers, they are P0 (none of liquid organic fertilizers), P1 (Golden Harvest liquid organic fertilizers), P2 (NASA liquid organic fertilizers), P3 (C...

  8. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Rumah Sakit secara Sonochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Kusuma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital as a service provider has an important role in human life, especially for people who are experiencing physical and mental disorders. Various types of diseases and therapies performed in hospitals has made it as one of the producers of hazardous and infectious waste that requires special handling and processing so as not to pollute the water, soil, and air environment. Hospital wastewater treatment was conducted to determine the ability of sonochemical method to reduce level of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and determine the optimum conditions of the parameters used by the design of Response Surface Methodology Box-Behnken. The parameters that affected this process was the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, pH, and reaction time. The Waste used was taken from the waste water treatment plant in Zainoel Abidin General Hospital in Banda Aceh with COD value 260.65 ppm. The optimum conditions of this treatment process occured at pH 2, H2O2 concentration 500 ppm, and reaction time 119.98 minutes with reduction of COD was 81.88%.ABSTRAKRumah sakit sebagai penyedia layanan jasa memegang peranan cukup penting dalam kehidupan manusia, terutama bagi orang-orang yang sedang mengalami gangguan fisik dan mental. Berbagai jenis penyakit dan terapi yang dilakukan di rumah sakit telah menjadikannya sebagai salah satu penghasil limbah berbahaya dan infeksius yang memerlukan penanganan dan pengolahan khusus agar tidak mencemari lingkungan yaitu air, tanah dan udara. Pengolahan limbah cair rumah sakit dilakukan untuk mengetahui kemampuan metode sonochemical dalam menurunkan kadar Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD dan menentukan kondisi optimum dari parameter yang digunakan berdasarkan disain Response Surface Methodology Box-Behnken. Parameter yang mempengaruhi proses ini adalah konsentrasi hidrogen peroksida (H2O2, pH, dan waktu reaksi. Limbah yang digunakan diambil dari instalasi pengolahan air limbah di Rumah Sakit Umum Zainoel Abidin Kota Banda Aceh

  9. Asap Cair Sabut Kelapa sebagai Repelan Bagi Hama Padi Walang Sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmat S. Santoso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asap cair sabut kelapa berpotensi sebagai repelan terhadap hama padi walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius Corixa Acuta Thumb. Asap cair ini diperoleh melalui pirolisis dari bahan yang banyak mengandung biomasa yaitu hemi selulosa, selulosa dan lignin dimana dekomposisinya merupakan senyawa fenol dan asam serta turunannya. Hasil identifikasi asap cair ini ada 25 senyawa dan 3 senyawa dominan diantaranya asam palmitat, metal oleat, siklo tetraheksana, yang mampu bekerja aktif sebagai repelan terhadap walang sangit hingga dapat menekan populasi menuju arah nilai ambang ekonomi. Serta bersifat anti mikroba dan bacteria bagi hama dan penyakit tanaman.Kata kunci: Asap cair, Repelan, Walang sangit.

  10. STUDI PENDAHULUAN OZONASI (KATALITIK DAN NON KATALITIK LIMBAH CAIR KARBOFURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjarlis Enjarlis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Karbofuran adalah insektisida yang banyak digunakan oleh petani padi di Indonesia. Di perairan karbofuran berpotensi membentuk organoklorida dengan klor atau turunan klor. Oleh sebab itu,   karbofuran  digunakan sebagai objek  penelitian untuk disisihkan dalam air dengan proses ozonasi. Proses ozonasi  mampu menguraikan organik kompleks menjadi sederhana dan  meningkatkan sifat biodegradable. Tujuan penelitian yaitu membandingkan  penyisihan karbofuran  dalam air dengan proses ozonasi non-katalitik dan katalitik menggunakan katalis karbon aktif. Ragam percobaan yaitu pH (2, 7, dan 9 pada  suhu kamar  selama  60 menit.  Analisis konsentrasi karbofuran  menggunakan kromatografi gas dan konsentrasi zat organik  sebagai Chemical Oxigen Deman (COD secara titrasi pada satiap10 menit selama 60 menit. Hasil percobaan memperlihatkan proses ozonasi katalitik dan non-katalitik terbaik  pada kondisi basa (pH 9  dengan penyisihan karbofuran 100 % dan COD turun dari 134 ppm menjadi 38 ppm untuk ozonasi katalitik, sedangkan pada ozonasi non-katalitik penyisihan  karbofuran  46,4 % dan  COD turun menjadi  70 ppm. Perubahan suhu dan pH selama proses baik ozonasi katalitik maupun non-katalitik  tidak menunjukkan perubahan yang berarti.

  11. Caire - A real-time feedback system for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Brenk, H.D.; de Witt, H.

    1991-01-01

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Whatever the specific reason for the contingency may be, a quick and most accurate estimate of the radiation exposure in consequence of the emergency must be made. This is a necessary prerequisite for decisions on protective measures and off-site emergency management. With respect to this fact ant the recent experience of the Chernobyl accident, remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. this tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. The development phase of CAIRE has already been finished. CAIRE is now in an operational status and available for applications in emergency planning and response

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart III... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR SO2 Opt-In Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR SO2 Opt-In Units A Appendix A to Subpart III of Part 97 Protection... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units Pt. 97, Subpt. III... Concerning CAIR SO2 Opt-In Units 1. The following States have State Implementation Plan revisions under § 51...

  13. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.386 Section 96.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR... Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  14. EKOGENOTOKSISITAS LIMBAH CAIR BATIK DAN EFEK ANTIMUTAGENIK Lemna minor TERHADAP ERITROSIT IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Musbita Tyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair batik di Solo sebagian besar dibuang langsung ke perairan tanpa diolah terlebih dahulu dan menyebabkan pencemaran air. Kandungan logam berat di dalam limbah cair batik dapat memicu efek genotoksik seperti pembentukan mikronukleus. Lemna minor berpotensi sebagai antimutagen dan mencegah pembentukan mikronukleus karena mengandung senyawa aktif seperti karoten dan asam amino. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ekogenotoksisitas limbah cair batik dan efek antimutagenik Lemna minor terhadap eritrosit ikan nila. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Biologi UMS dengan pemaparan limbah cair batik 0ppm/L, 2500 ppm/L, 5000 ppm/L dan 7500 ppm/L terhadap 2 kelompok ikan nila dengan diet pelet dan Lemna minor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa paparan limbah cair batik memicu pembentukan mikronukleus dengan frekwensi tertinggi pada konsentrasi paparan 7500 ppm/L. Lemna minor juga terbukti memiliki potensi antimutagenik karena mampu menekan frekwensi mikronukleus lebih rendah dibandingkan diet pelet.

  15. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH PEPAYA (Carica papaya L DAN TOMAT (Solanum lycopersicum L UNTUK MEMPERCEPAT PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Baharudin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu penanganan sampah organik adalah memaanfaatkannya menjadi bahan baku kom-pos. Dalam penelitian ini, untuk mempercepat waktu pengomposan,digunakan limbah pepaya dan limbah tomat sebagai inokulan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis inokulan yang lebih efektif di antara dua jenis limbah buah tersebut, melalui eksperimen yang mengguna-kan rancangan post test only group. Obyek penelitian adalah sampah organik yang berasal dari halaman Asrama I Poltekkes Kemenkes Yogyakarta sebanyak 60 kg yang diperoleh dengan me-toda integrated sampling, sedangkan sampah limbah pepaya dan tomat sebanyak 2 kg yang di-peroleh dari Pasar Serangan, diambil dengan metoda purposive sampling. Berdasarkan indika-tor kompos matang, dari lima kali ulangan, rata-rata waktu terbentuknya kompos pada kelompok perlakuan dengan inokulan limbah pepaya adalah selama 32,3 hari dan inokulan limbah tomat selama 31,7 hari. Hasil uji statistik dengan t-test bebas memperoleh nilai p < 0,001 yang berarti bahwa perbedaan lama waktu pengomposan antara kedua inokulan tersebut memang bermak-na. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa limbah tomat lebih efektif dan cepat dibandingkan dengan limbah pepaya dalam mempercepat proses pengomposan.

  16. PENGARUH DOSIS PUPUK KANDANG TERHADAP STABILITAS AGREGAT TANAH PADA SISTEM PERTANIAN ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mustoyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter is important to soil aggregate stability. The research of effect dosage of goat manure tos oil aggregate in organic farming system was do neon Andisols soil in Permata Hati Farm, CiburialHamlet, North Tugu village, Cisarua sub-district, Bogor district, West Java province. The research was conducted on October 2012 until the end of February 2013. The research purposes are: a Know the goat manure’s dosage influence on soil aggregate in organik farming system, b Determine the dos age of goat manure that can provide the best Mean Weight Diameter (MWD and Aggregate Stability Index (ASIin organik farming system. The research used randomized completely block design (RCBD with 6 treatments and 3 replications. Goat manure dosage were used as treatments are 0 ton ha-1, 5 ton ha-1, 10 ton ha-1, 15 ton ha-1, 20 ton ha-1, and 25 ton ha-1. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’sMultiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. The research results are showed, with initial number of C-organic >4.5%, goat manure application was significant to change soil aggregate. Goat Manure 5 ton ha-1was enough to increasing Mean Weight Diameter (MWD and ASI (Aggregate Stability Index.

  17. ISOLASI MIKROBA YANG DAPAT MENGHILANGKAN BAU PADA PUPUK ORGANIK AIR LIMBAH CUCIAN BERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfarisna .

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Air limbah cucian beras jika difermentasi selama dua minggu menimbulkan bau. Penelitian yang dilakukan dengan menambah Efektif Microorganisme (EM 4 dapat memperpendek waktu fermentasi dan tidak menimbulkan bau. Efektif Microorganisme 4 adalah produk dari luar, sementara Indonesia mempunyai banyak mikroorganisme lokal yang potensial untuk dikembangkan. Pupuk organik ini telah diteliti pada tanaman anggrek, sayur-sayuran, dan kedelai. Tujuan penelitian untuk mendapatkan mikroorganisme lokal yang dapat menghilangkan bau pada air limbah cucian beras yang akan digunakan sebagai pupuk organik. Isolasi dengan menggunakan media Patato Dextrose Agar (PDA dan Mann Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA, dengan sumber inokulan air limbah cucian beras, ragi tape, kombucha, dan yoghurt. Hasil isolasi diperoleh 2 jenis Lactobacillus dari air limbah cucian beras dan yogurt. Ada tujuh khamir yang diperoleh, yaitu dari air limbah cucian beras (4 jenis, ragi tape (2 jenis, dan kombucha (1 jenis. Dari hasil penelitian ini dipilih 1 jenis Lactobacillus, dan 4 jenis khamir yang dapat hidup dengan baik di dalam air limbah cucian beras dan tidak menimbulkan bau.

  18. Pemanfaatan Polimer Hybrid Tmspma Dan Phosphor Organik Sebagai Bahan Luminesensi Untuk Solid State Lighting Planar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrilawati Fitrilawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lampu Solid State Lighting (SSL planar, diharapkan dapat menghasilkan distribusi cahaya yang lebih baik, dibandingkan dengan lampu fluoresensi biasa. Berbeda dengan lampu SSL biasa, pada SSL panel lebar (planar digunakan pendekatan kopling cahaya (Light Wave Coupling-L WC sehingga memerlukan sistem light guiding, yaitu cahaya pengeksitasi dikopling ke dalam substrat sebagai media pandu gelombang. Untuk aplikasi lampu SSL planar dengan pendekatan LWC diperlukan lapisan pengkonversi warna emisi yang berukuran lebar dengan karakteristik yang sesuai dengan perangkat preparasi dan media pandu gelombang. Media pandu gelombang yang akan digunakan adalah Light Guide Plate (LGP, dari PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan bahan luminesensi berbasis polimer hybrid trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMSPMA, yang dimodifikasi dengan teknik kopolimerisasi dan phosphor organik. Khusus pada bahan prekursor poli(TMSPMA dilakukan uji kelarutan yang menunjukkan bahan prekursor polimer hybrid poli(TMSPMA beserta kromofor organiknya dapat larut dengan baik pada pelarut polar. Dari hasil tersebut dipilih pelarut yang tepat sehingga pembuatan lapisan tipis dari bahan luminesensi organik dapat dilakukan secara sederhana dengan teknik screen printing. Lapisan tipis yang dihasilkan dengan teknik tersebut dapat mengemisikan cahaya ke seluruh permukaan secara merata sehingga memiliki potensi untuk pengembangan model lampu SSL planar. 

  19. Komposit Nano TiO2 Dengan PCC, Zeolit atau Karbon Aktif Untuk Menurunkan Total Krom dan Zat Organik Pada Air Limbah Industri Penyamakan Kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumiarto Nugroho Jati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk menurunkan total krom dan zat organik pada limbah industri penyamakan kulit dengan menggunakan nano TiO2 yang dikompositkan dengan adsorben karbon aktif, zeolit, dan precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC dalam suatu reaktor fotokatalitik yang disusun secara batch dan dilengkapi dengan 6 buah lampu UV dan magnetic stirrer. Penurunan kadar krom total diukur dengan menggunakan Atomic Absorption Spectro-photometer (AAS dan penurunan zat organik dianalisa dengan menggunakan titrasi permanganatometri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengolahan terbaik untuk penurunan kadar krom total adalah dengan menggunakan komposit TiO2:PCC = 8:2 yang dapat menurunkan total krom hampir 100% pada menit ke-170 dengan konsentrasi awal 214,35 mg/L. Untuk penurunan kadar zat organik, pengolahan terbaik dengan menggunakan komposit TiO2:PCC = 9:1 yang dapat menurunkan kadar zat organik hingga 100% pada menit ke-180. 

  20. PENGARUH SUPLEMENTASI HIDROLISAT BULU AYAM DAN MINERAL ORGANIK TERHADAP KECERNAAN ZAT MAKANAN, PERTAMBAHAN BOBOT BADAN, DAN EFISIENSI RANSUM KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWAH JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhtarudin Muhtarudin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi penggunaan suplementasi hidrolisat bulu ayam, mineral, makro organik (Ca, Mg organik serta mikro organik (Zn, Cu, Cr, Se organik guna meningkatkan kecernaan zat-zat makanan, pertambahan bobot badan, dan efisiensi ransum kambing peranakan Etawah jantan. Percobaan menggunakan kambing peranakan Etawah jantan sebanyak 20 ekor. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok dengan 4 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah: R0 = 40% rumput gajah + 60% konsentrat, R1 = R0 + 3 % tepung bulu ayam, R2 = R1 + Mineral Makro-organik (Ca, Mg organik, R3 = R2 + Mineral Mikro-organik (Zn,Cu, Cr, Se organik. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa perlakuan campuran bulu ayam, Ca-PUFA, Mg-PUFA (mineral makro organik dan Zn, Cu, Se, dan Cr, lisinat (mineral mikro organik atau R3 dapat meningkatkan kecernaan bahan organik, energi, pertambahan bobot badan, dan efisiensi ransum dari kambing peranakan Etawah jantan. THE EFFECT SUPLEMENTATION OF HYDROLYZED OF FEATHER MEAL AND ORGANIC MINERAL ON NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY, DAILY GAIN, AND RATIONS EFFICIENCY OF MALE ETAWAH CROSS GOATS ABSTRACT The objective of research were to evaluate the effect of supplementation of hydrolyzed of feather meal, organic macro mineral (Ca and Mg-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid /PUFA and organic micro mineral (Zn, Cu, Cr, and Se-lysinat to improve nutrient digestibility, daily gain and rations efficiency of male Etawah cross goats. The research were used 20 male Etawah cross goats. Random block design were used this research was used, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were arranged : R0= 40 % of forage + 60% concentrates; R1= R0 + 3% of hydrolyzed of feather meal ; R2= R1 + organic macro mineral (Ca and Mg -PUFA; R3 = R2+ organic micro mineral (Zn,Cu, Cr, and Se-lysinat. The results showed that mixing treatment of hydrolyzed feathers meal, organic macro and micro mineral (Ca and Mg

  1. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Pengempaan Gambir untuk Pewarnaan Kain Batik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Failisnur Failisnur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gambier is a potential plant in West Sumatra with production about 17,160 tonnes in 2014. It will be released about 4,290,000 L of unutilized wastewater from that production which is dumped around production area. The wastewater odor is acidic with pH of 3-4 and contaminating the surrounding environment. Tannin content of the wastewater is high enough so it is good to be used as a dye. The research objective was to utilize wastewater of gambir as a dye in some types of batik fabrics. Variations of treatment in this study were 4 types of fabrics: cotton, silk, viscose and dobby, and addition of mordant metal Al2(SO43, CaO, and FeSO4. The result showed that the color direction of the fabrics varied from light brown, brown to blackish brown. Viscose fabric provided the highest color strength, followed by dobby fabrics. Silk and cotton fabrics produced non significant color strength. The test results of color fastness to washing in 40°C, light, and rubbing were generally good to excellent value (4-5. Test result of tear strength when compared with fabric blank showed that dyeing with gambir not reduce the fabric tear strength.ABSTRAKGambir merupakan tanaman perkebunan yang cukup banyak di Sumatera Barat dengan produksi tahun 2014 sekitar 17.160 ton. Dari produksi tersebut akan menghasilkan limbah cair sekitar 4.290.000 L yang dibuang di sekitar area produksi dan belum dimanfaatkan. Limbah cair tersebut berbau asam dengan pH 3-4 dan berpotensi mencemari lingkungan sekitarnya. Kandungan tanin dari limbah cair ini cukup tinggi sehingga sangat baik untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai pewarna. Tujuan penelitian adalah memanfaatkan limbah cair gambir sebagai pewarna pada beberapa jenis kain batik. Penelitian ini memvariasikan perlakuan penggunaan 4 jenis kain yaitu kain katun, kain sutera, kain viskos, dan kain dobi, dengan penambahan logam mordan Al2(SO43, CaO, dan FeSO4. Hasil penelitian didapatkan arah warna kain bervariasi dari coklat muda, coklat sampai

  2. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI LARUTAN ASAP CAIR TERHADAP MUTU BELUT ASAP YANG DIHASILKAN

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    Bagus Sediadi Bandol Utomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan riset tentang pengaruh konsentrasi larutan asap cair terhadap mutu belut asap yang dihasilkan. Belut yang digunakan adalah jenis Monopterus albus dan asap cair yang dipakai diperoleh dari CV Pusat Pengolahan Kelapa Terpadu,Yogyakarta. Riset pendahuluan dilakukan untuk mengetahui waktu pengeringan yang terbaik, dengan melakukan pengeringan dalam oven pada suhu 90ºC selama 2, 4, 6, dan 8 jam diikuti pengujian kadar air terhadap produk yang dihasilkan. Riset utama dilakukan unluk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi asap cair terhadap mutu belut asap yang dihasilkan dengan variasi konsentrasi larutan asap cair 0, 10, 20, dan 30%. Penilaian mutu dilakukan berdasarkan analisis komponen asap, komposisi proksimat, den mutu organoleptik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi larutan asap cair terbaik untuk pembuatan belut asap adalah 30% dengan waktu pengeringan 8 jam yang menghasilkan rendamen 28,04%. Secara umum produk ini disukai oleh panelis dengan nilai orgenoleptik 7,36 dengan karakteristik kadar air 10,38%, lemak 2,74%, protein 68,96%, dan abu 15,81%. Asap cair den belut asap hasil pengolahan menggunakan asap cair tidak mengandung senyawa Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH, sebaliknya belut asap komersial mengandung senyawa PAH.

  3. Pengaruh Macam dan Waktu Aplikasi Bahan Organik pada Tanaman Ubi Jalar (Ipomoea batatas L. Var. Kawi

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    Nur Edy Suminarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversifikasi pangan merupakan langkah tepat untuk mengantisipasi kondisi rawan pangan.  Hal ini menjadi penting karena setiap tahun luas lahan basah telah mengalami penyusutan sekitar 0,1% dari total luas lahan di Indonesia. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, dan dalam upaya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan nasional, maka pemanfaatan ubi jalar sebagai sumber bahan pangan alternatif perlu dilakukan. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang macam dan waktu aplikasi bahan organik yang tepat telah dilakukan di Desa Landungsari, Kabupaten Malang. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Petak Terpisah, macam bahan organik ditempatkan pada petak utama, terdiri dari 3 macam, yaitu  pupuk kandang sapi, kompos azolla dan kompos sampah kota.  Waktu aplikasi bahan organik sebagai anak petak, terdiri dari 3 macam, yaitu : 30 hari sebelum tanam, 15 hari sebelum tanam dan bersamaan tanam. Pengumpulan data dilakukan secara destruktif, meliputi  komponen pertumbuhan dan panen, analisis pertumbuhan tanaman dan analisis tanah. Uji F taraf 5% ditujukan untuk menguji pengaruh perlakuan, sedang perbedaan diantara rata-rata perlakuan didasarkan pada nilai BNT taraf 5%. Interaksi nyata terjadi pada sebagian besar parameter yang diamati, dan hasil umbi tertinggi didapatkan pada kompos sampah kota yang waktu aplikasinya dilakukan 30 hari sebelum tanam : 28,03 ton umbi ha-1. Food diversification is a precise step to anticipate food shortage condition. It becomes important because wetland area is decreasing of approximately 0,1% each year of total area in Indonesia. Related to that point, also in order to meet food national demand, utilization of sweet potato as alternative food resource needs to be done. Research aimed to get information about proper kind and application time of organic matter had been done at Landungsari, Malang. The design used was Split Plot, kind of organic matter was placed as main plot, consisting of 3 kinds, ie: cow manure, azzola

  4. The accident information and management system CAIRE for real time applications. Das Stoerfall-Leitsystem CAIRE fuer Echtzeitanwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenk, H.D.; Kluttig, H.; Witt, H. de; Kistinger, S.; Kruschel, K.P.; Knaup, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. This tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. CAIRE allows the continuous feed-back of current measurements of environmental impacts into diagnostic calculations for bringing measurements and calculations into best correspondence. This is the main advantage of CAIRE compared to conventional emergency systems and it results in both, a consistent actual interpretation of a bulk of single measurements of dose rates and/or activity concentrations, and a more realistic set of model parameters. Subsequently these parameters are used as input data for the evaluation of actual dose commitments and projections of them by means of real-time calculation. A second advantage is a more realistic assessment of the source term if in-plant dose rate measurements are not available due to emissions out of leckages, e.g. In such cases the assessment of the source term can be based an of-plant dose rate measurements located on the ground within a source distance between 200 and 300 m. (orig./HP).

  5. Penyisihan Limbah Organik Air Lindi TPA Jatibarang Menggunakan Koagulasi-Flokulasi Kimia

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    Arya Rezagama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air lindi yang meresap ke dalam tanah yang berpotensi bercampur dengan air tanah sehingga menimbulkan pencemaran tanah, air tanah dan air permukaan. Komposisi limbah lindi dari berbagai TPA berbeda-beda bergantung pada musim, jenis limbah, umur TPA. Proses dalam TPA menghasilkan molekul organik recalcitrant yang ditunjukkan dengan rendahnya rasio BOD/COD dan tingginya nilai NH3-N. Belum optimalnya pengolahan air lindi di Jatibarang membutuhkan pretreatment sebagai bentuk upaya alternatif dalam proses pengolahan air lindi sebelum masuk ke dalam proses aerated lagun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh koagulan kimia pada penyisihan bahan organik air lindi TPA Jatibarang. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April- Agustus 2016. Karaktersitik air lindi TPA Jatibarang termasuk dalam kategori "moderately stable" dan lindi muda. Penyisihan bahan organik dengan menggunakan kuagulan kimia FeCl3 dan Al2SO4 menunjukkan nilai yang cukup signifikan untuk parameter COD, BOD, TSS. Penggunaan dosis optimal terjadi pada 16 g/L FeCl3 serta 16 g/L Al2SO4 dapat menurunkan nilai COD sebesar 51% dan 65%, BOD sebesar 50% dan 56%, dan TSS sebesar 24% dan 21%. Perubahan nilai pH akibat penambahan koagulan berpengaruh positif terhadap tingkat penyisihan, namun memberikan dampak negatif yaitu buih yang cukup banyak. Penurunan beban organik menguntungkan bagi sistem pengolahan lindi eksisting TPA Jatibarang.  [Title: Removal of Lindi Water Organic Waste of TPA Jatibarang using Chemical Coagulation- Floculation] Leachate grounding into the soil that potentially could mix with the groundwater caused contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water. The composition of waste landfill leachate from the various location is depending on the season, the type of waste, and landfill age. Process in the TPA produces recalcitrant organic molecules as indicated by the low ratio of BOD/COD and NH3-N high value. The ineffective treatment of leachate at Jatibarang

  6. SINTESA GULA DARI SAMPAH ORGANIK DENGAN PROSES HIDROLISIS MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS ASAM

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    Deddy Irawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SUGAR FROM ORGANIC WASTES VIA ACID CATALYSTHYDROLYSIS. Hydrolysis process is an important step from every process to produce biofuel withorganic wastes as raw material. Hydrolysis process with chemical uses hydrochloride acid as catalystin which will transform holocellulose to glucose. Raw material of 100 grams is put into hydrolysisreactor with batch system equipped with pressure control and ratio hydrochloride of 1 : 6 w/v. Thevariables studied were temperature of 110-140oC, HCl concentration of 0.5-1%, time of hydrolysis of15-60 minutes. The sugar concentration was taken and then be analyzed by Nelson-Somogy method.The hydrolysis, which was carried out with the temperature of 120oC, time of 30 minutes, HClconcentration of 0.75%, and the pressure of 6 bar, produced sugar reduction of 27.3 mg/mL and yieldof 15.07%. Proses hidrolisis merupakan satu tahap penting dari rangkaian tahapan proses produksi bahan bakarnabati menggunakan bahan baku sampah organik. Proses hidrolisis secara kimiawi menggunakanHCl sebagai katalis akan mengubah holoselulosa yang terdapat pada sampah organik menjadi gula.Gula yang dihasilkan inilah yang dapat difermentasi menjadi bahan bakar nabati. Bahanbaku sebanyak 100 g dimasukkan dalam reaktor hidrolisis sistem batch yang dilengkapi denganpengukur tekanan dan ditambahkan larutan HCl pada perbandingan 1:6 b/v. Hidrolisis dilakukandengan memvariasikan suhu operasi 100-140oC, waktu proses 15-60 menit, serta konsentrasi HCl 0,5-1%. Hidrolisat yang dihasilkan dianalisis kadar gula menggunakan metode Nelson-somogy. Hasilhidrolisis yang dilakukan pada suhu 120oC selama 30 menit serta konsentrasi HCl 0,75% dan tekananterukur 6 bar menghasilkan gula 27,30 mg/mL dan yield gula sebesar 15,07%.

  7. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMENGARUHI MINAT BELI PANGAN ORGANIK MELALUI SITUS ONLINE

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    Hasrini Sari

    2017-03-01

    organik, yaitu dengan merekomendasikan informasi-informasi yang sebaiknya ditampilkan pada situs. Kata kunci:  technology acceptance model, pemasaran online, situs, produk organik, structural equation modelling

  8. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS PRODUKSI PUPUK ORGANIK P-126 DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE LEAN MANUFACTURING (STUDI KASUS : PT. MOLINDO RAYA INDUSTRIAL

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    Muhammad Desryadi Ilyas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT. Molindo Raya Industrial merupakan perusahaan penghasil pupuk organik P-126 yang berlokasi di Lawang, Kabupaten Malang dengan kapasitas produksi lebih dari 10.000 ton per tahun. Untuk memenangkan persaingan di bidang produksi pupuk organik, perusahaan dituntut untuk melakukan peningkatan kualitas proses produksi secara berkelanjutan dengan mereduksi waste yang ada. Meskipun produksi pupuk organik P-126 di PT. Molindo Raya Industrial mengalami peningkatan, namun masih terdapat beberapa waste, diantaranya waiting yang disebabkan oleh breakdown mesin produksi yang mengakibatkan kerugian perusahaan lebih dari Rp. 500.000.000 per tahun. Waste kedua ialah defect berupa granul yang tidak memenuhi spesfikasi diameter, material hasil cleaning dan karung finished good yang sobek dan waste ketiga ialah over production yang mengakibatkan kerugian perusahaan lebih dari Rp. 400.000.000 per tahun. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut dilakukan perbaikan dengan menggunakan metode lean manufacturing yang fokus dalam mereduksi waste dan non value added activity. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan framework DMIC six sigma, tahapan pertama ialah tahap define untuk mengidentifikasi permasalahan dengan menggunakan tools Big Picture Mapping, Activity Classification dan identifikasi waste berdasarkan E-DOWNTIME. Tahapan kedua ialah measure yang digunakan untuk mengukur kerugian perusahaan yang diakibatkan adanya waste. Selanjutnya adalah tahap analyze menggunakan tools 5 Why’s dan FMEA untuk mengetahui root cause adanya waste, kemudian tahap terakhir ialah tahap improve, pada tahap improve dilakukan penyusunan dan pemilihan alternatif usulan perbaikan dengan mengunakan pendekatan value engineering. Usulan perbaikan terpilih dalam upaya meningkatkan proses produksi pupuk organik P-126 diantaranya mengevaluasi penjadwalan preventif maintenance mesin produksi, menyusun penjadwalan mesin produksi yang kritis, evaluasi SOP dan penerapan SOP, melaksanakan pelatihan untuk

  9. REDUKSI AKTIVITAS URANIUM DALAM LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF CAIR MENGGUNAKAN PROSES ELEKTROKOAGULASI

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    Prayitno Prayitno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK REDUKSI AKTIVITAS URANIUM DALAM LIMBAH RADIOAKTIF CAIR MENGGUNAKAN PROSES ELEKTROKOAGULASI. Limbah yang dihasilkan dari proses pengembangan bahan industri bersifat radioaktif yang mengandung uranium yang dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif pada manusia dan lingkungan. Pengolahan limbah radioaktif pada saat ini masih banyak menggunakan bahan-bahan kimia.Penambahanbahan kimiauntuk mereduksi bahan pencemar dinilai kurang efisien karena kurang ramah lingkungan, memerlukan waktu yang lama, dan biaya yang mahal. Untuk itu akan diterapkan metode proses elektrokoagulasi untuk menurunkan aktivitas uranium dari larutan limbah cair. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efisiensi penurunan aktivitas uranium dalam limbah radioaktif cair yang dihasilkan pada proses elektrokoagulasi dengan variasi tegangan, waktu tinggal, jarak elektroda dan pH inlet limbah. Limbah simulasi yang digunakan memiliki kadar kontaminan uranium sebesar 500 mg/L. Percobaan ini dilakukan dengan metode batch dengan elektroda aluminium. Hasil penelitian diperoleh parameter optimal pada tegangan 12,50 V, jarak 1 cm, pH 7, dan waktu proses selama 60 menit diperoleh efisiensi penurunan limbah uranium sebesar 97,20 %. Kata Kunci:elektrokoagulasi, reduksi limbah uranium, tegangan, aluminium. ABSTRACT REDUCTION OF URANIUM ACTIVITIES IN LIQUID WASTE RADIOACTIVE BY USING OF ELCTROCOAGULATION PROCESS.  Waste generated from the process of the industrial material development one of which waste containing uranium radioactive, can have negative impact on humans and the environment. In  the present time, chemicals are still mostly use in radioactive waste treatment. To reduce pollutants with the use of chemicals is less efficient, because less environmentally friendly, take long time and costly. Therefore, a system of electrocoagulation process will be applied to decrease the activity of uranium from waste solution. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of uranium

  10. PENGARUH TINGKAT YOGURT DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI TERHADAP KECERNAAN IN VITRO BAHAN KERING, BAHAN ORGANIK, PROTEIN, DAN SERAT KASAR KULIT NANAS FERMENTASI

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    Nurhayati (Nurhayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilaksanakan untuk melihat pengaruh tingkat yogurt dan waktu fermentasi terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, protein, dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu tingkat yogurt (0, 3, 6, dan 9 ml/kg dan lama waktu fermentasi (24, 48, dan 72 jam yang diulang sebanyak 5 kali. Bahan yang digunakan adalah kulit nanas, plain yogurt yang mengandung bakteri Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dan Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, bahan kimia yang digunakan untuk analisis proksimat protein dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi, larutan saliva buatan McDougall dan cairan rumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 tingkat yogurt terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar tetapi tidak berbeda nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Waktu fermentasi berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, protein kasar, dan serat kasar secara in vitro. Interaksi tingkat yogurt dengan waktu fermentasi memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik dan protein kasar tetapi tidak memberikan perbedaan pengaruh nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa tingkat yogurt 6 ml/kg dan waktu fermentasi 72 jam dapat meningkatkan kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar serta menurunkan kecernaan in vitro serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. (Kata kunci: Fermentasi, Kecernaan in vitro, Kulit nanas, Yogurt

  11. Penggunaan Unit Slow Sand Filter, Ozon Generator dan Rapid Sand Filter Skala Rumah Tangga Untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Air Sumur Dangkal Menjadi Air Layak Minum (Parameter Zat Organik dan Deterjen

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    Anindya Prawita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Air sumur merupakan air tanah yang sering kali digunakan masyarakat untuk aktivitas sehari-hari. Air sumur dengan kadar organik dan deterjen tinggi tidak layak dikonsumsi masyarakat karena dapat menyebabkan berbagai macam penyakit. Selain itu, adanya zat organik dan deterjen mempengaruhi warna dan bau air sumur sehingga tidak layak konsumsi. Slow sand filter merupakan unit pengolahan yang mampu meremoval zat organik pada air. Slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter tidak menggunakan bahan kimia dalam proses pengolahan sehingga lebih ekonomis dan efektif. Sedangkan ozon, efektif digunakan untuk meremoval zat organik yang ada dalam air dengan mengubah rantai zat organik menjadi lebih sederhana. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan penggunaan slow sand filter, ozon generator dan rapid sand filter dalam menyisihkan beban deterjen dan zat organik pada air sumur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi removal pada unit slow sand filter untuk beban organik dan deterjen sebesar 57,6% dan 60,5 %, pada unit ozonasi sebesar 47,4% dan 17,5%, dan pada unit rapid sand filter sebesar 50,0% dan 50,9 %.

  12. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

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    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  13. Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan Pengolahan Sampah Organik Rumah Tangga menjadi Kompos di Jorong IX Pancahan Kecamatan Rao Kebupaten Pasaman Tahun 2013

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    Nurdin ,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dari 10 responden yang di wawancarai oleh peneliti 6 responden mengaku mengetahui cara pembuatan kompos dan 4 di antaranya tidak mengetahui bagaimana cala pembuatan kompos. Dari hasil observasi yang peneliti lakukan responden membuang sampah rumah tangganya ke belakang rumah. Penelitian ini berlujuan untuk mengetahui Faktor-Faktor yang berhubungan dengan Pengolahan Sampah Organik Rumah Tangga Menjadi Kompos Di Jorong trX Pancahan Kecamatan Rao Kabupaten Pasaman Tahun 2013.Penelitian ini bersifat Deskriptif Analitik dengan pendekatan Cross secsional. Dan analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis univariat dan analisis bivariat dengan uji Chi Square. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah 330 kepala keluarga dengan jurnlah sampel 75 kepala keluarga yang ada di Jorong IX Pancahan Kecamatan Rao Kabupaten Pasatnan. Data diperoleh dengan cara wawancara dengan menggunakan kuesioner. Dimana variabel dependen adalah Pengolahan sampah organik rumah tangga menjadi kompos. sedangkan paria variabel independennya adalah pengetahuan, kebutuhan, dan kemampuan.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian terdapat 47 (6 I,8% responden mempunyai pengetahuan rendah dengan p=0,03 dan OR=0,308. Responden yang tidak membutuhkan kompos yaitu 44 (57,9% responden dengan p=0,05 dan OR=2,826. Responden yang mampu mengolah sarnpah organik rumah tangga 52 (68,4% responden dengan p=0,10 dan OR=2,623.Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di Jorong IX Pancahan memiliki pengetahuan yang rendah" Pengetahuan dan kebutuhan berhubungan dengan pengolahan sampah organik rumah tangga menjadi kompos, sedangkan kemampuan tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan. Diperlukan upaya meningkatkan pengetahuan pengolahan sampah organik rumah tangga menjadi kompos dan memberikan pemahaman kepada mayarakat tentang kebutuhan dan manfaat kompos.Kata Kunci: Pengetahuan, kebutuhan, kemampuan, Sampah rumah tangga

  14. Uji Coba Alat Penghasil Asap Cair Skala Laboratorium dengan Bahan Pengasap Serbuk Gergaji Kayu Jati Sabrang atau Sungkai (Peronema canescens

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    Rodiah Nurbaya Sari

    2014-05-01

    energi yang dilepas dari pembentukan asap menjadi asap cair (- 476,45 kJ/kg asap, energi yang diserap air kondensor sebesar 2,1 kJ/kg air sehingga jumlah air bersuhu 30,4oC yang dibutuhkan untuk mengembunkan 1 kg asap menjadi asap cair dengan suhu pirolisis 316,7oC adalah sebanyak 226,88 liter. Kinerja alat adalah 6,98 g/(jam. m. Komponen dominan dalam asap cair yang dihasilkan adalah senyawa 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester (C12H14O4 sebanyak 23,61%.

  15. EFEKTIVITAS KAPORIT PADA PROSES KLORINASI TERHADAP PENURUNAN BAKTERI Coliform DARI LIMBAH CAIR RUMAH SAKIT X SAMARINDA (The Effectiveness of Calcium Hypochlorite to Chlorination Process in Decreasing the Amount of Coliform Bacteria in the Wastewater of X

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    Muhammad Busyairi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kaporit pada limbah cair rumah sakit digunakan sebagai desinfektan, tetapi, penggunaan kaporit dengan dosis yang tidak tepat akan menyebabkan pembentukan senyawa Trihalomethane (THMs yang beracun dan bersifat karsinogenik. Pada limbah cair rumah sakit X Samarinda, diperoleh nilai MPN Coliform sebesar >160.000 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 0 ppm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum dari penggunaan kaporit menggunakan titik Breakpoint Chlorination (BPC dan pengaruhnya terhadap penurunan Coliform. Analisis dilakukan dengan titrasi iodometri dan menghitung jumlah bakteri Coliform memakai metode Most Probable Number (MPN. Penentuan dosis kaporit berdasarkan dosis optimum pada titik BPC dimaksudkan agar dapat menjaga residu klor dari penambahan dosis yang semakin meningkat. Hasil penelitian mempengarui rerata kadar bahan organik pada sampel limbah cair sebesar 137,26 ppm, sehingga dosis kaporit yang dibubuhkan dimulai dari 130-165 ppm. Titik BPC terjadi pada pembubuhan klor aktif 160 ppm untuk kedua waktu kontak yaitu 30 dan 40 menit. Pada titik BPC, waktu kontak 30 menit diperoleh rerata persentase penurunan nilai Coliform yaitu 98,21% sebesar 2.899 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 88 ppm. Pada waktu kontak 40 menit diperoleh persentase penurunan bakteri Coliform hingga 98,83%, yaitu dari >160.000/100 mL menjadi 1.866/100 mL dengan residu klor 97,5 ppm. ABSTRACT Calcium hypochlorite of hospital wastewater serves as disinfectant, however, inappropriate dose of it will lead to the formation of Trihalomethane (THMs which is toxic and carcinogenic. The value of MPN Coliform of wastewater in X hospital Samarinda is >160.000 MPN / 100 mL with residual chlorine 0 ppm. This research aims at determining the optimum dose of calcium hypochlorite usage by using Breakpoint Chlorination curve and its effect to Coliform decrease. Further, the analysis is done by employing iodometric titration and the amount of Coliform

  16. Analysis of NOx Budget Trading Program Units Brought into the CAIR NOx Ozone Season Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA analyzed the effect of having the large non-EGU units in the NBP and the CAIR NOX ozone season trading program and evaluated whether or not emissions from this group of units were reduced as a result of their inclusion in those trading programs.

  17. Penentuan Properties Bahan Bakar Batubara Cair untuk Bahan Bakar Marine Diesel Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Juhantoro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal water mixture (CWM adalah bahan bakar campuran antara batubara dan air dengan peambahan zat aditif yang dapat membentuk suspensi cairan homogen dan stabil selama penyimpanan, pengangkutan, dan pembakaran. Tahap pertama pembuatan bahan bakar batubara cair adalah dengan teknologi Upgrading Brown Coal (UBC. Pada proses upgrading ini digunakan larutan kerosen dan aspal sebagai media upgradingnya, sedangkan rasio antara larutan kerosen-aspal dengan batubara adalah 1,25. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pembuatan slurry bahan bakar batubara cair dengan teknologi Coal Water Mixtures (CWM. Pada proses CWM ini diameter batubara maximum 38 um. Komposisi antara batubara dengan air adalah 40% : 60%. Untuk menstabilkan CWM digunakan  bahan aditif berupa CarboMextyl Cellulose (CMC dan sebagai dipersant digunakan Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic  (ABS.  Perbandingan masing-masing aditif pada  komposisi campuran adalah 0.01% CMC dan 0.07% ABS. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan variasi temperatur pemanasan untuk mengetahui hasil fisik maupun karakteristik bahan bakar batubara cair. Dari hasil fisik dan karakteristik diperoleh keadaan batubara cair memiliki kemiripan dengan Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO pada temperatur pemanasan 15 0C dan 50 0C.

  18. 40 CFR 96.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit's control period heat input... control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired or oil-fired, for a calendar year under... allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance...

  19. 40 CFR 97.342 - CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit's control period heat input for... control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired or oil-fired, for a calendar year under... baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with respect to CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations under...

  20. PENERAPAN ELEKTROOSMOSIS UNTUK PENGERINGAN SLUDGE DARI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Darmawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APPLICATION OF ELECTROOSMOSIS FOR DEWATERING OF SLUDGE FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT. Wastewater treatment produces semi-solid residue (sludge that must be handled carefully during dumping and discharge to avoid polluting the environment. A low cost and easy treatment of dewatering is needed. This research aimed to apply electroosmosis technique for dewatering sludge in order to seek for parameters that can efficiently reduce water content of sludge, including range of voltage, type of electrodes, and distance between electrodes; and to determine the effect of electroosmosis processes on changes of chemical characteristics of sludge. The results showed that: (1 electroosmosis dewatering occurred on the sludge taken from waste water treatment of landfill but not on sludge from water purification plant (PDAM, (2 direct current voltage of 30 volts was the optimum voltage, (3 copper rod cathode provided electroosmosis process as good as stainless steel cathode and both were better than the woven stainless steel cathode, (4 the dewatering time to reduce 1200% (w/w water content to about 400% was about 40 hours for sludge of 2500 cm3 in volume (laboratory bench scale, (5 the anode need to reinserted gradually approaching the cathode due to current lost when the water content at the anode point reached 400% and sludge at the point shrink, and (6 some chemical elements in the sludge decreased significantly after treatment. Pengolahan limbah cair menghasilkan residu berupa bahan semi padat yang dikenal sebagai sludge. Sludge tersebut juga perlu dikelola penyimpanan dan pembuangannya agar tidak mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu pengelolaan sludge yang perlu dilakukan adalah pengeringan (dewatering. Salahsatu teknik dewatering yang mungkin diterapkan ialah teknik elektroosmosis, yaitu teknik yang memanfaatkan adanya pergerakan air pada media poros di dalam medan istrik searah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari parameter sistem dewatering secara

  1. Ruminant Beslemede Alternatif Yem Katkı Maddelerinin Kullanımı: 2. Organik Asit, Yağ Asiti, Adsorban

    OpenAIRE

    GÜÇLÜ, B. KOCAOĞLU; KARA, K.

    2010-01-01

    Organik asitler, yağ asitleri ve adsorbanlar ruminant beslenmesinde kullanılan alternatif katkı maddelerindendir.Bu katkı maddelerinin ruminantlarda sağlık, performans, verim kalitesi ve rumen fermentasyonu üzerinde oluşturabilecekleri etkileri ve bunun ruminant besleme açısından önemi üzerinde durulacaktır

  2. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN KLOBOT JAGUNG SEGAR DALAM RANSUM TERHADAP KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING DAN BAHAN ORGANIK SERTA PRODUKSI KARKAS KELINCI PERANAKAN NEW ZEALAND WHITE JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risang Pramudyo Wardhana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan klobot jagung sebagai pengganti sebagian kangkung dalam ransum terhadap kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan organik serta produksi karkas kelinci Peranakan New Zealand White jantan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2013 di Balai Pembibitan dan Budidaya Ternak Non Ruminansia (BPBTNR Surakarta. Penelitian ini menggunakan 16 ekor kelinci New Zealand White jantan berumur ±2 bulan dengan bobot badan awal 1301,69±155,01 g. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola searah dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Ransum basal disusun dari dedak halus, BR1 dan kangkung (Ipomoea aquatica. Keempat level perlakuan pakan tersebut adalah dedak halus 55% + BR1 25% + kangkung 20% + klobot jagung 0% (P0; dedak halus 55% + BR1 25% + kangkung 17,5% + klobot jagung 2,5% (P1; dedak halus 55% + BR1 25% + kangkung 15% + klobot jagung 5% (P2 dan dedak halus 55% + BR1 25% + kangkung 12,5% + klobot jagung 7,5% (P3. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan klobot jagung sampai level 7,5% dari total ransum tidak berpengaruh terhadap kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan organik serta karkas kelinci Peranakan New Zealand White jantan. (Kata kunci: Kelinci, Klobot jagung, Kecernaan bahan kering, Kecernaan bahan organik, Karkas

  3. Operation and validation of the decision aid system 'CAIRE' in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witt, H.; Nuesser, A.; Brenk, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Based on telemetric surveillance networks, an advanced automatic on-line decision support system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed and is in operation now at 4 sites as a real time emergency response tool. This tool is designed to provide decision makers with precise radiation exposure data for the population at risk. Depending on the individual layout of the connected telemetric networks, CAIRE is able to satisfy the following main requirements: automatic identification of the source location and of the source term, automatic diagnosis of the actual radiological situation and identification of the endangered area, projection of the radiological situation, delivery of all this information in the form computer graphics. (R.P.)

  4. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Crisnaningtyas; Hanny Vistanty

    2016-01-01

    Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr) pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate) 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih ...

  5. KANDUNGAN BAHAN ORGANIK DAN AKUMULASI MINERAL TANAH PADA BANGUNAN SARANG RAYAP TANAH Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (BLATTODEA: TERMITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Subekti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rayap Macrotermes gilvus Hagen mempunyai peranan ekologis rayap tanah M. gilvus sebagai degradator primer di dalam hutan, eksplorasi perananannya sebagai agen biologis dalam perbaikan vegetasi dan perbaikan kualitas tanah. Rayap dapat memodifikasi sifat fisik dan kimia tanah. Penelitian tentang kandungan bahan organik telah dilakukan dengan analisis proksimat (metode Weende, sementara akumulasi mineral tanah menggunakan metode X-Ray berdasarkan Analysis Program Cristallynity. Rayap M. gilvus Hagen merupakan komponen penting dalam memodifikasi beragam mineral dari tanah disekitarnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata antara komposisi mineral tanah dalam sarang rayap M. gilvus Hagen dengan mineral tanah disekitar sarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan bahan organik dalam bangunan sarang menghasilkan sebesar 98.33% dan padatannya 1.67%. Padatan ini terdiri dari karbohidrat sebesar 3.16%, abu 4.19%, lemak 23.95%, protein sebesar 39.52%, dan sisanya 29.18% berupa mineral-mineral. Bangunan sarang rayap yaitu SiO2 dan Despujolsite yang dibawa dari lingkungan sekitar kedalan bangunan sarang. Unsur-unsur yang lain diperoleh dari sebagian material yang berasal dari saliva, humus dan tanah sekitar sarang. The termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen plays an ecological role. Subterranean termites M. gilvus is considered as the primary degradator in the forest, and therefore the exploration of its role as the biological agent to recover the vegetation and soil quality might be useful. Termites could modify the physical and chemical nature of soil. M. gilvus Hagen was an important component in modifying various minerals of the surrounding soil.  Research on the content of the organic materials had been proximat analysis (Weende methode, and the accumulation of soil mineral structure in the mound with X-Ray Methode (Analysis Program Cristallynity 2006. The result of the research indicated that there was significant difference

  6. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI SUSU (Liquid Waste Management in Milk Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagini Wagini

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan suatu penelitian untuk mengetahui kondisi limbah cair industri susu. hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa limbah cair industri susu mengandung zat-zat pencemar dalam tingkat yang membahayakan lingkungan, sehingga limbah cair tersebut perlu didaur ulang. Untuk itu diperlukan suatu instalasi peralatan yang mampu mengolah limbah tersebut. Pada penelitian ini proses pengolahan dilakukan dengan mengkombinasikan proses-proses pengolahan secara Fisika, Kimia dan Biologi. Dengan tahapan proses pengolahan yang dipilih meliputi; Proses equalisasi, proses anaerob, proses aerasi, lumpur aktif, proses sedimentasi, proses koagulasi-flokulasi, proses sedimentasi, proses flotasi, proses pengendapan partikel ringan, proses penyaringan dengan pasir dan arang aktif.    Kualitas air hasil pengolahan dianalisa secara Fisika, Kimia dan Biologi melalui parameter-parameter: suhu, kekeruhan, zat padat tersuspensi, zat padat terlarut, daya hantar listrik, PH, BOD, COD dan jumlah bakteri. Penelitian ini menunjukkan air hasil pengolahan aman untuk dibuang ke lingkungan.   ABSTRACT A research to identify the condition of milk industry liquid waste was conducted. The result showed that the waste contained pollutants at the level the endangered the environment. Therefore, the waste had to be recycled in which a liquid waste treatment installation is needed. In this research, the process of milk industry liquid waste was done by combining processing techniques of physics, chemistry and biology. The processing steps include the processes of equalization, anaerobe, aeration, sedimentation, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, flotation, sedimentation, filtering with sand and activated carbon. The water resulted from the processes was analyzed in terms of physical, chemical and biological characteristics e.g. temperature, turbidity, suspended solid, solutes solid, conductivity, pH, BOD, COD and amount of bacteria. This research, shows that the water

  7. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Crisnaningtyas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih lanjut dengan menggunakan dua opsi proses: (1 fisika-kimia, dan (2 aerob. Koagulan alumunium sulfat dan flokulan kationik memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi (73% pada kecepatan putaran masing-masing 100 rpm dan 40 rpm. Uji coba aerob dilakukan pada kisaran MLSS antara 4000-5000 mg/L dan mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 97%. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi penurunan COD total yang dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan teknologi anaerob-aerob adalah 97%, sedangkan kombinasi anaerob-koagulasi-flokulasi hanya mampu menurunkan COD total sebesar 72,53%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, kombinasi proses anaerob-aerob merupakan teknologi yang potensial untuk diaplikasikan dalam sistem pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi. 

  8. High-pressure synthesis and structural, physical properties of CaIr1-xPtxO3 and CaIr1-xRhxO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, S.; Bromiley, G. D.; Klemme, S.; Irifune, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Attfield, P.; Nishiyama, N.

    2010-12-01

    in terms of materials science applications. To our knowledge, this will be the first report on structural, magnetic and charge-transport properties of B-site substituted solid solutions of post-perovskite oxides with 4d/5d transition metals. High-quality polycrystalline samples of CaIr1-xPtxO3 and CaIr1-xRhxO3 have been obtained at high pressures, and structural, magnetic and charge-transport properties of the compounds will be reported. ODF analysis reveals that solutions of CaIrO3, CaPtO3 and CaRhO3 exhibit similar grain growth features to the mother compound, although growth in [0 1 0] plays a more dominant role than the growth in [0 0 1] for the solid solutions. CaIrO3 is a characteristic hard magnet suitable for applications such as magnetic recording, with TN = 108K. A new phase of CaIr1-xPtxO3 synthesized at a high P/T condition has Raman modes which resemble those of CaIrO3 perovskite, suggesting this phase has a perovskite structure.The instability of the perovskite phase of CaIr1-xPtxO3 reveals why the post-perovskite to peovskite phase transition has not been observed for CaPtO3 unlike the case for CaIrO3, CaRhO3 and CaRuO3.

  9. Pemanfaatan Limbah Tanaman Rambutan Sebagai Pupuk dan Sirup Di Kelurahan Ngadirgo Mijen Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anas Dzakiy,

    2014-05-01

    Program IbM meliputi brainstorming enterpreneurship dan strategi mengoptimalisasi potensi daerah khususnya tanaman rambutan; pengenalan tentang rambutan dan alternatif pemanfaatannya; pengenalan tentang variasi pupuk dan dampak pupuk kimia terhadap lingkungan; pelatihan pembuatan sirup rambutan; serta pelatihan pembuatan pupuk organik cair berbahan dasar limbah tanaman rambutan dengan aktivator MOL (Mikro Organisme Lokal. Hasil yang dicapai adalah terbukanya wacana tentang strategi peningkatan taraf hidup masyarakat dengan mengoptimalkan potensi lokal tanaman rambutan sebagai produk sirup dan pupuk organik cair yang lebih murah dan ramah lingkungan Kata kunci : Rambutan, Enterpreneurship, Pupuk Organik Cair, Sirup

  10. Resin Poliester Tak Jenuh Untuk Imobilisasi Resin Bekas Pengolahan Simulasi Limbah Radioaktif Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlan Martono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang imobilisasi resin bekas pengolah limbah trans-uranium denganresin poliester tak jenuh untuk mengetahui kualitas blok polimer-limbah sebagai fungsi kandunganlimbah. Polimerisasi dilakukan dengan mencampurkan resin poliester tak jenuh dengan katalisdengan perbandingan katalis 1% dari jumlah resin poliester tak jenuh yang digunakan, kemudianditambahkan limbah cair transuranium simulasi. blok polimer-limbah yang terjadi diukur densitas,kuat tekan dengan alat Paul Weber, dan laju pelindihan dengan alat soxhlet pada 100 0C dan 1 atmselama 6 jam. Blok polimer dibuat dengan kandungan limbah 10, 20, 30, 40, dan 50 % berat. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar kandungan limbah maka kuat tekan blok polimerlimbahsemakin kecil, sedangkan laju pelindihannya semakin besar. Berdasarkan kuat tekan dan lajupelindihan, maka hasil terbaik diperoleh untuk blok-polimer dengan kandungan limbah 20 % dan 30%.

  11. PEMANFAATAN DAUN TANAMAN BERKAYU SEBAGAI PUPUK ORGANIK TANAMAN SAYURAN DAN JAGUNG - (UTILIZATION OF WOODY PLANT LEAVES AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR VEGETABLES AND CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Priadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use woody plant leaves as organic fertilizer (compost and their effects on vegetables and corn. The compost was made from leaves of Samanea saman, Swietenia macrophylla, Nephelium lappaceum and cow dung (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using OrgaDec (0.5% w/w, Decomic (0.1% v/w and Dectro (0.1 v/w as bioactivator. The result showed that compost from Samanea saman leaves and cow dung (1:3 using Decomic (0.1% v/w met the organic fertilizer standard. The compost was applied to Ipomoea reptans, Capsicum annuum and Zea mays on a media from compost and latosol soil (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 3 replications. The analyzed data using ANOVA showed no significant difference in the growth parameter of tested plants. The best media for Ipomoea reptans was the mixture of compost and latosol soil (3:1 meanwhile for Zea mays and Capsicum annuum were 1:3 and 2:2, respectively.Keywords: compost, compost application, organic fertilizer, woody plant leavesABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan daun tumbuhan berkayu menjadi pupuk organik (kompos serta pengaruhnya terhadap tanaman sayuran dan jagung. Kompos dibuat dari daun kihujan (Samanea saman, daun mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla daun rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum dan kotoran sapi (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 dengan penambahan bioaktivator OrgaDec (0,5% w/w, Decomic (0,1% v/w dan Dectro (0,1 v/w. Hasil analisis kimia menunjukkan bahwa kompos yang dibuat dari daun kihujan dan kotoran sapi (1:3 yang menggunakan bioaktivator Decomic (0,1% v/w adalah perlakuan yang paling sesuai dengan baku mutu pupuk organik berdasarkan Permentan No.70/Permentan/SR.140/10/2011. Kompos hasil penelitian diujicobakan kepada tanaman kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans, cabe keriting (Capsicum annuum dan jagung manis (Zea mays pada media campuran kompos dan tanah latosol (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 3 ulangan sedangkan data yang diperoleh diolah dengan ANOVA

  12. Desain Rantai Pasok Gas Alam Cair (LNG untuk Kebutuhan Pembangkit Listrik di Indonesia Bagian Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Arya Satya Dharma Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara yang memiliki gas alam yang melimpah, namun kurangnya kesadaran masyarakat Indonesia untuk memanfaatkan gas tersebut untuk kebutuhan listrik di Indonesia yang sekarang sedang dalam krisis terutama di Indonesia Timur. Salah satu penyebab krisis tenaga listrik yang terjadi di Indonesia adalah tingginya nilai harga bahan bakar minyak, dimana High Speed Diesel Oil merupakan bahan bakar utama bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia. Gas alam cair atau Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG dapat menjadi solusi alternatif bahan bakar bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia.Studi kali ini bertujuan untuk pemanfaatan gas alam cair (LNG untuk kebutuhan pembangkit listrik di Indonesia Timur dengan menentukan pola distribusi LNG dengan menggunakan Blok Masela sebagai sumber LNG dan menggunakan kapal untuk mendistribusikannya. Terdapat 39 pembangkit yang tersebar di 4 pulau yaitu Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, dan Papua. Kapal yang digunakan untuk mendistribusikan terdapat 5 kapal dengan ukuran 2500 m3, 7500 m3, 10000 m3, 19500 m3, 23000 m3. Untuk mendapatkan rute distribusi, studi ini menggunakan metode Linear Programing dan dalam Vehicle Routing Problem. Hasil optimasi pada distribusi ini adalah rute dan kapal yang optimal / terbaik dengan biaya ekonomi yang minimal.Dari hasil penelitian ini pembangkit akan dibagi menjadi 5 cluster dimana terdapat 5 rute yang terpilih dengan menggunakan 6 kapal yaitu 5 kapal ukuran 2500 m3 dan 1 kapal dengan ukuran 7500m3. Biaya total yang diperlukan dalam mendistribusikan LNG sebesar US$ 111,863,119.15 untuk Opex dan US$ 283,967,000.00 untuk Capex. Hasil dari kajian ekonomi menunjukan bahwa margin penjualan yang terpilih adalah antara US$ 3.5 sampai US$ 3.9 dengan payback period selama 6.8 – 4.7 tahun tahun dari waktu operasi 20 tahun.

  13. PENGARUH PEMASANGAN SIRDAM TERHADAP FREE SURFACE MUATAN CAIR PADA MODEL PALKA KAPAL PENGANGKUT IKAN HIDUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yopi Novita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muatan cair merupakan salah satu jenis muatan yang ada di atas kapal.  Sebagaimana sifat muatan cair, apabila di bagian permukaannya tidak dibatasi, maka akan munculah permukaan bebas.  Pengaruh permukaan bebas bagi kapal adalah dapat mempengaruhi posisi titik berat yang pada akhirnya akan mengurangi kualitas stabilitas kapal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh pemasangan sirip peredam dalam mengurangi efek permukaan bebas di dalam model palka. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental. Model palka yang telah dipasangi sirip peredam di sepanjang sisi dalamnya diisi dengan air laut dan kemudian digoyang-goyangkan sebagaimana gerakan rolling kapal terjadi. Selanjutnya, profil permukaan dan waktu redam permukaan bebas pada model kapal yang dilengkapi dan yang tidak dilengkapi dengan sirip peredam diamati dan dianalisis.  Dari hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa penggunaan sirip peredam mampu mengurangi efek free surface di dalam model palka. Liquid cargo in a ship is one kind of cargo that has free surface.  The effect of free surface on board might influence center of gravity position that cause lack of ship’s stability. The objective of the research is to analyze the effect of free surface damper constructed in the fish hold model. The research was carried out by experimental method. A fish hold model with and without free surface damper constructed in it was filled with sea water, then the profile and damping duration of free surface effect on fish hold model were observed and analyzed. The result show that the fish hold model with free surface damper is  able to decrese significantly of free surface effect on the fish hold model.

  14. Hasat Zamanının Nar Suyunun Şeker ve Organik Asit Bileşimleri Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Gölükcü

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada ülkemizde ticari olarak yetiştirilen Hicaznar çeşidinin hasat zamanına göre meyve suyunun, suda çözünür kurumadde miktarı (SÇKM, pH, titrasyon asitliği (susuz sitrik asit gibi temel özelliklerin yanında şeker ve organik asit bileşimleri tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında analize alınan örnekler beş farklı dönemde hasat edilmiş, analiz edilen kalite karakteristikleri hasat zamanları arasında istatistiksel olarak önemli farklılıklar göstermiştir. Nar suyunun bilişiminde tespit edilen organik asitlerden sitrik, malik, okzalik ve tartarik asit miktarları sırasıyla 6.70-10.19 g/L, 0.28-0.48 g/L, 0.23-0.41 g/L, 0.03-0.09 g/L; örneklerin bileşiminde tespit edilen fruktoz, glikoz, sakkaroz ve maltoz miktarları da sırasıyla %7.69-8.34, %5.44-5.7, %0.08-0.19, %0.59-0.68 değerleri arasında dağılım göstermiştir. Araştırma hasat zamanındaki ilerlemeyle narın şeker içeriğinde artış, asitlik miktarında ise azalış olduğunu göstermiştir.

  15. Penurunan Logam Timbal (Pb pada Limbah Cair TPA Piyungan Yogyakarta dengan Constructed Wetlands Menggunakan Tumbuhan Eceng Gondok (Eichornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Siswoyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu permasalahan lingkungan yang ditimbulkan dari adanya lindi di TPA Piyungan yaitu pencemaran pada badan air, sungai dan air tanah. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan ini salah satunya dengan sistem Constructed Wetlands dengan menggunakan tumbuhah eceng gondok. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat penurunan konsentrasi Timbal (Pb yang terdapat dalam limbah cair TPA Piyungan dengan Constructed Wetlands menggunakan tumbuhan eceng gondok dan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kapasitas serapan tumbuhan eceng gondok terhadap kandungan Timbal (Pb dalam limbah cair TPA Piyungan.Dalam penelitian ini digunakan reaktor yang terbuat dari kayu yang dilapisi plastik dengan ukuran 0,5 m x 1,0 m. Setiap reaktor diberi media tanah 5 cm, dan diberi tumbuhan sebanyak 14 buah. Reaktor tersebut diberi perlakuan dengan konsentrasi limbah yang bervariasi (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, dan 0%, dan waktu pengambilan sampel (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 hari. Dengan menggunakan metode SSA (Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom.Berdasarkan pengujian diperoleh bahwa penurunan logam Pb pada limbah cair TPA Piyungan hari ke- 12, yaitu sebesar 0.0501mg/L pada konsentrasi 100%, 0.0295mg/L pada konsentrasi 75%, 0.0267mg/L pada konsentrasi 50% dan 0.0041 mg/L pada konsentrasi 25%.

  16. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out

  17. Analisis Minat Beli Konsumen Sabun Cair Lux, Biore dan Lifebuoy di Kotamadya Yogyakarta Ditinjau dari Pengaruh Sikapnya Setelah Melihat Iklan di Televisi dan Norma Subyektif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albari Albari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu program pemasaran yang intensitasnya semakin gencar dilakukan berupa periklanan merek di media televisi, termasuk pada sabun cuci cair. Kegiatan ini dimaksudkan untuk mempengaruhi minat konsumen untuk membeli, baik melalui sikap konsumen dan atau norma subyektif. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan Reasoned Action Model yang dianggap representatif mampu mengungkap minat beli konsumen.Populasi penelitian adalah konsumen potensial yang sudah pernah melihat iklan sabun cair merek Lux, Biore dan Lifebuoy di televisi Data penelitian diperoleh melalui dua tahap penyebaran angket dan dilakukan secara convenience sampling dan area random sampling. Hipotesis diuji melalui pendekatan uji–beda Friedman, serta analisis regresi dan koefisien determinan yang dikuatkan dengan uji-t dan uji-F pada taraf signifikansi 5%.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 10 atribut produk sabun cair dan empat kelompok referen relevan dijadikan sebagai dasar analisis. Di samping itu ada perbedaan keyakinan konsumen bahwa membeli sabun cair merek Lux, Biore atau Lifebuoy menimbulkan akibat tertentu. Perbedaan juga terjadi pada keyakinan normatif kon¬sumen. Secara umum faktor evaluasi lebih dominan berpengaruh positif terhadap sikap konsumen dibandingkan dengan keyakinan konsumen. Pengaruh positif dari keyakinan normatif konsumen dan atau motivasi untuk mengi¬kuti referen terhadap norma subyektif menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda-beda, dan tidak ada pengaruh positif si¬kap dan norma subyektif terhadap minat konsumen untuk membeli sabun cair Lux, Biore atau Lifebuoy.Keyword: Sikap, norma subyektif, minat membeli

  18. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) is a comprehensive data base containing more than 50,000 investigation reports of injury/illness, property damage and vehicle accident cases representing safety data from 1975 to the present for more than 150 DOE contractor organizations. A special feature is that the text of each accident report is translated using a controlled dictionary and rigid sentence structure called Factor Relationship and Sequence of Events (FRASE) that enhances the ability to retrieve specific types of information and to perform detailed analyses. DOE summary and individual contractor reports are prepared quarterly and annually. In addition, ''Safety Performance Profile'' reports for individual organizations are prepared to provide advance information to appraisal teams, and special topical reports are prepared for areas of concern such as an increase in the number of security injuries or environmental releases. The data base is open to all DOE and Contractor registered users with no access restrictions other than that required by the Privacy Act

  19. Penggunaan Hukum Hagen-Poiseuille dalam Penentuan Koefisien Viskositas Zat Cair dengan Prinsip Kontrol Berat Berbantuan Software Logger Pro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Adini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pengukuran koefisien viskositas zat cair menggunakan hukum Hagen-Poiseuille dengan metode Microcomputer Based Laboratory telah dilakukan. Viskositas merupakan ukuran penolakan fluida terhadap perubahan bentuk di bawah tekanan shear. Hukum Hagen-Poiseuille digunakan dalam penelitian ini karena zat cair yang digunakan merupakan zat cair Newtonian. Tangki viskometer kapiler yang dikaitkan ke sensor gaya diisi zat cair untuk kemudian dialirkan keluar melalui pipa kapiler dengan panjang (9,8±0,09×10-2 m dan diameter dalam (2,1620±0,0096 ×10-3 m. Data penurunan massa zat cair direkam menggunakan sensor gaya buatan Vernier Tecnology dan analisis fitting data menggunakan software Logger Pro. Nilai karakteristik waktu diperoleh dari hasil fitting data digunakan untuk perhitungan koefisien viskositas zat cair menggunakan hukum Hagen-Poiseuille. Dari percobaan ini diperoleh nilai koefisien viskositas air sebesar (1,063±0,113 mPa.s yang sesuai dengan nilai acuan teori yaitu 1,002 mPa.s, oli SAE 10W-30 sebesar (79,01±8,90 Pa.s sesuai dengan nilai acuan teori 76,8 Pa.s, dan gliserin sebesar (593,4±56,7 mPa.s sesuai dengan nilai acuan teori 612 mPa.s.Measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient using Hagen-Poiseuille law with Microcomputer-Based Laboratory method has been done. Viscosity is the fluid declination measure of form changes under sheer pressure. Hagen-Poiseuille law is used in this study because the liquid used is a Newtonian liquid. Capillary viscometer tanks attached to force sensors are filled with liquid to be streamed out through capillary tubes of length (9.8 ± 0.09 × 10-2 m and the inner diameter (2.1620 ± 0.0096 × 10-3 m. Data on the mass degradation of liquids was recorded using a Vernier Technology force sensor while the data fitting analysis using Logger Pro software. The time characteristic values which obtained from the data fittings are used in the calculation of the liquid viscosity coefficient using Hagen-Poiseuille law

  20. PERBANDINGAN DESAIN IPAL ANAEROBIC BIOFILTER DENGAN ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR UNTUK LIMBAH CAIR TEKSTIL DI SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogie Restu Firmansyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluen Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL di Pabrik Tekstil X belum memenuhi kriteria yang ada, terutama untuk masalah warna. Sistem pengolahan IPAL menggunakan Anaerobic Biofilter memiliki kelebihan menyisihkan bahan organik yang tinggi, kebutuhan lahan yang relatif tidak besar, dan biaya operasi yang murah dibandingkan dengan sistem lumpur aktif yang menggunakan proses aerasi. Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC juga memiliki kelebihan yang sama dengan anaerobic biofilter. Perbandingan antara kedua sistem tersebut diperlukan untuk mengetahui sistem yang paling efektif untuk mengolah air limbah di Pabrik Textil X. Pengolahan adsorbsi batok arang kelapa dipilih untuk menghilangkan warna. Perencanaan ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode yang sistematis dimulai pengumpulan data primer dan sekunder yang berupa data karakteristik dan debit air limbah, lalu dilakukan perhitungan dan penggambaran Detail Engineering Desan (DED, volume pekerjaan dan Rancangan Anggaran Biaya (RAB, setelah itu dilakukan pembahasan untuk membandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan dari unit anaerobic Biofilter yang dilengkapi adsorbsi arang batok kelapa dan Rotating Biological Contactor yang dilengkapi adsorbsi arang batok kelapa, lalu diambil kesimpulan dan saran yang relevan dengan tujuan dari perancanaan ini. Dari perhitungan DED didapat dimensi untuk masing masing unit IPAL sebagai berikut Bak ekualisasi (2,6 m x 2,6 m x 2 m, Septic tank (1,75 m x 1,5m x 2,5m, Anaerobic Filter 4 kompartemen (4,5m x 2,5m x 2,5m, , RBC 2 shaft  (2,75m x 2,75 m x 1m, Adsorbsi (3,5 mx 6,75m x 0,55m. Biaya investasi alternative 1 sebesar Rp   700.193.694,29, biaya operasi sebesar Rp 50.222.462,40, biaya perawatan sebesar Rp 3.495.000,00. Alternatif 2 biaya investasi sebesar Rp 777.526.655,53, biaya operasi sebesar Rp Rp 53.012.599,20  , biaya perawatan sebesar Rp 3.495.000,00. Kelebihan anaerobic filter adalah biaya investasi yang lebih kecil, kebutuhan lahan yang lebih sedikit yaitu

  1. Efek Pemordanan terhadap Pewarnaan Menggunakan Kombinasi Limbah Cair Gambir dan Ekstrak Kayu Secang pada Kain Rayon dan Katun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Failisnur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Combination of gambier liquid waste and secang wood (Caesalpinea sappan L. can add color variations of fabric dyed with natural dyes. This research explained the effect of dyeing combination of gambir liquid waste and secang wood with different mordant method and type on the color shade and other characteristics of rayon and cotton dyed fabric. The mordant process was performed as much as 1 and 2 times using CaO, Al(2SO43, FeSO4 mordant and then compared without mordant treatment. The result of the dyed fabrics was evaluated the color shade, color strength (K/S, and fastness properties. The results showed that the color shade of rayon and cotton fabrics were varied. Rayon fibers had a greater affinity and absorption to the liquids waste of gambier and secang wood than in cellulose fibers. The mordant process could increase color strength (K/S and color fastness to washing, acidic perspiration, rubbing, and light.ABSTRAKKombinasi limbah cair gambir dan kayu secang (Caesalpinea sappan L. dapat menambah variasi warna kain yang dicelup dengan pewarna alami. Penelitian ini menjelaskan tentang efek pewarnaan kombinasi limbah cair gambir dan kayu secang dengan metoda dan  jenis mordan yang berbeda terhadap arah warna dan karakteristik lainnnya dari kain rayon dan katun hasil celupan. Proses mordan yang digunakan adalah 1 kali dan 2 kali mordan menggunakan CaO, Al(2SO43, FeSO4 yang dibandingkan dengan tanpa mordan. Kain hasil pewarnaan dievaluasi arah warna, intensitas warna (K/S, dan ketahanan luntur warna. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan arah warna kain rayon dan katun yang lebih bervariasi. Serat rayon memiliki afinitas dan penyerapan yang lebih besar terhadap zat warna limbah cair gambir dan kayu secang dibandingkan dengan serat selulosa.  Proses mordan dapat meningkatkan intensitas warna (K/S dan ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian, keringat asam, gosokan, dan sinar.

  2. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH CAIR GARAM BAHAN BAKU 30˚ Be UNTUK PENGASINAN IKAN GABUS RENDAH NACl DAN MENGANDUNG Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilawati Nilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pengasinan merupakan metode pengawetan yang sudah lama dengan menggunakan garam krosok namun pengasinan dengan  limbah cair garam 30˚ Be belum banyak dilakukan. Keuntungan dengan metode ini akan menghasilkan produk ikan asin yang rendah NaCl dan tinggi kandungan Mg. Penelitian ini menggunakan 1 variabel yaitu konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be  yaitu B0 (0 persen- kontrol, B10 (10 persen. B20 (20 persen, B30 (30 persen,  B40(40 persen, B50 (50 persen  dan kontrol  B100 (100 persen  serta kontrol pembanding penggaraman kering dengan garam bahan baku G100 (100 persen atau dikenal garam krosok. Hasil penelitian diperoleh kandungan NaCl murni pada pemakaian larutan 30˚ Be sebanyak 10 persen  sebesar 6,952 persen. Dan pada konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be dengan konsentrasi   50 persen diperoleh kndungan NaCl murni sebesar 15,478 persen, namun untuk kontrol yang menggunakan garam krosok maka NaCl nya paling tinggi, sedangkan kontrol dengan 100 persen larutan 30˚ Be kandungan NaCl murninya sampai 25,134 persen, yang menggunakan garam bahan baku  kandungan NaCl sebesar 43,864 persen.  Perlakuan yang terbaik diperoleh pada pemakaian larutan garam 30˚ Be pada konsentrasi 40 persen. Kandungan Magnesium pada     penelitian ini berkisar antara 0,387 Sampai  3,444  persen.  Perlakuan mulai konsentrasi 30 persen keatas   penampakan ikan asin putih kecoklatan , empuk, bersih, namun kalau dibawah 30 persen penampakannya kecoklatan muda, daging liat agak keras namun NaCl nya rendah

  3. ELEKTRODEKOLORISASI LIMBAH CAIR PEWARNA BATIK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN BATANG KARBON DARI LIMBAH BATERAI BEKAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSK Amal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhodamin B (RhB, indogosol dan naphtol merupakan zat warna pada industri batik. Metode elektrodekolorisasi merupakan suatu proses elektrokimia untuk menghilangkan zat warna dengan menggunakan arus listrik searah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menurunkan konsentrasi limbah cair pewarna batik secara optimum menggunakan metode elektrodekolorisasi dengan memanfaatkan batang karbon baterai bekas. Limbah cair batik yang diuji adalah rhodamin B (RhB, naphtol blue black dan indigosol sebagai sumber limbah pewarna. Katoda sel elektrokimia berupa batang karbon berasal dari baterai bekas dan anodanya berupa lempeng besi. Optimalisasi pada proses degradasi pewarna ini dilakukan pada variasi arus, pH dan jarak elektrode. Variasi arus diatur pada 3, 5 dan 7 A; variasi pH pada 3, 5, 7, 9, dan 11; serta variasi jarak elektrode pada jarak 1; 1,5 dan 2 cm. Penurunan konsentrasi pewarna rhodamin B (RhB menunjukkan keadaan jarak, pH dan arus optimum berturut turut 1 cm, pH 9 dan arus 7 A sebesar 78,68%. Penurunan konsentrasi pewarna indigosol pada keadaan jarak, pH dan arus optimum berturut turut 1 cm, pH 11 dan arus 7 A sebesar 95,90 %, sedangkan pewarna naphtol blue black menunjukkan keadaan jarak, pH dan arus optimum berturut turut 1 cm, pH 9 dan arus 7 A sebesar 74,15 %.Rhodamine B (RhB, indogosol and naphtol dyes are used in batik industries. Electrodecolorization method is an electrochemical process to remove the dye using direct current. The purpose of this study is to decrease the concentration of the liquid waste of batik dye optimally by electrodecolorization method by utilizing the carbon rods of used batteries. The batik liquid waste is rhodamine B (RhB, naphtol blue black and indigosol as a source of dye. Electrochemical cell cathode in the form of carbon rod derived from used batteries and anode in the form of iron plate. Optimization in dye degradation process is done on the variation of the current, pH and distance of two electrodes. Current

  4. Pengujian Kemampuan Daya Samak Cube Black dan Limbah Cair Gambir Terhadap Mutu Kulit Tersamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustri Yeni

    2016-06-01

    Cube black dan limbah cair pengolahan gambir. Konsentrasi bahan penyamak yang digunakan dalam perlakuan adalah 2%, 3% dan 4% dengan berat kulit yang akan disamak sebanyak 1 kg. Kulit tersamak diuji terhadap derajat penyamakan (DP dan uji fisik meliputi kekuatan tarik, kemuluran dan kekuatan sobek. Pada perlakuan yang sama dibandingkan dengan penyamak krom. Hasil uji kulit tersamak menunjukkan makin tinggi konsentrasi bahan penyamak makin tinggi nilai DP dan sifat fisik kulit makin baik. Kulit tersamak dari kambing menggunakan Cube black gambir pada konsentrasi 4% menghasilkan nilai DP mendekati sama dengan penyamak krom (38,45% dan 36,60%. Untuk kulit ikan tuna tersamak menghasilkan nilai DP 39,57% dan 31,35%. Bahan penyamak gambir menghasilkan nilai kekuatan tarik, kekuatan sobek dan kemuluran lebih tinggi dari penyamak krom. Nilai kekuatan tarik kulit kambing 730,37 kg/cm2, ikan tuna 353,33 kg/cm2 diperoleh dari penyamak limbah cair. Nilai kekuatan sobek kulit kambing adalah 353,33 kg/cm2, kulit ikan tuna 29,96 kg/ cm2 dan nilai kemuluran kulit ikan tuna 202,0% diperoleh dari Cube black gambir. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahan penyamak gambir memiliki sifat penyamak yang dapat menggantikan penyamak krom.

  5. STUDI BIODEGRADASI POLI HIDROKSI BUTIRAT DALAM MEDIA CAIR (Biodegradation of Poly Hydroxy Butyrate in Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Sari

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Poli hidroksi butirat (PHS termasuk dalam golongan bioplastik. Plastik jenis ini diharapkan dapat menjadi plastik altematif yang ramah lingkungan sebagai pengganti plastik sintetis yang bersifat sangat suI it terdegradasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji potensi biodegradabilitas PHS komersial dalam media cair dengan menggunakan lumpur aktif dan unit pengolahan limbah pabrik plastik sintetik. Identifikasi proses degradasi dilakukan dengan cara mengamati perubahan karakteristik PHS yang meliputi perubahan visual, perubahan morfologi permukaan, penurunan berat, perubahan kristalinitas, dan perubahan berat molekul selama 15 pekan inkubasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kerusakan PHS se1ama proses degradasi dapat dilihat secara visual. Disamping itu, morfologi permukaan mengalami perubahan signifikan. Adapun penurunan berat, kristalinitas, dan berat molekul berturut-turut mencapai 22,91 %,57.44 %, dan 29,52 %.   ABSTRACT  Poly hidroxy butyrate (PHB is a member of bioplastic group. This type of plastic is expected to be alternative plastic which is environmently friendly to replace synthetic plastic that is known to be very difficult to degrade. This research aims to test the biodegradability of commercial PHB in liquid mediums used activated sludge from waste water treatment plant in plastic synthetic factory. Identification of biodegradation process  was done by monitoring the changes of PHB characteristics including visual change, surface morphology change, reduction of weight, reduction of crystallinity, and reduction of molecular weight during 15 weeks incubation. The result shows that  the damage of PHB sample during biodegradation could be seen visually and liquid medium show the existence of change which can be seen visually and the surface morphology of PHB changed significantly. Weight reduction, crystallinity  reduction, and molecular  weight reduction  revealed of 22.91%, 57.44%, and 29.52% respectively.

  6. TEKNIK PENGATURAN AIR PADA INTENSIFIKASI PADI AEROB TERKENDALI-BERBASIS ORGANIK (IPAT-BO UNTUK MENINGKATKAN POPULASI RHIZOBACTERIA, EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN AIR, PERAKARAN TANAMAN, DAN HASIL TANAMAN PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hingdri -

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teknik pengaturan air pada budidaya tanaman padi melalui Intensifikasi Padi Aerob Terkendali-Berbasis Organik (IPAT-BO perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengtahui aktivitas rhizobacteria, tingkat efisiensi penggunaan air, perkaran tanaman, dan hasil tanaman pada berbagai teknik pengaturan air.Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Winaya Mukti, Tanjungsari pada inceptisol pada skala pot plastik. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK faktor tunggal dengan 16 perlakuan dan diulang tiga kali, yaitu terdiri dari kombinasi antara perlakuan air dan empat varietas. Perlakuan air: tinggi muka air + 5cm, 0 cm, – 5 cm dan  – 10 cm. Empat varietas: Ciherang, Sintanur, Inpari 13 dan Fatmawati..Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat pengaruhnyata terhadap populasi Rhizobacteria, perkembangan akar, dan hasil tanaman. Perlakuan tinggi muka air – 10 cm varietas Fatmawati memberikan hasil tertinggi pada volume akar 186,67 ml, populasi bakteri Azotobacter sp. (1,43 x 1010 CFU g-1, bakteri pelarut fosfat (6,07 x 108 CFU g-1, hasil tanaman tertinggi 95,9 g rumpun-1 setara dengan 9,14 ton ha-1 serta meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air 47,1 % dibandingkan dengan pengenangan 5 cm.Kata kunci:  Teknik pengaturan air, efisiensi penggunaan air, IPAT-BO, populasi rhizobakteria

  7. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allocation of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances to such units under § 97.388(b): Indiana Michigan North Carolina Ohio South Carolina Tennessee 2. The following States have State Implementation Plan revisions... Ozone Season allowances to such units under § 97.388(c): Indiana Michigan North Carolina Ohio South...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart II of... - States With Approved State Implementation Plan Revisions Concerning CAIR NOX Opt-In Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under § 97.188(b): Indiana Michigan North Carolina Ohio South Carolina Tennessee 2. The following States... allocation of CAIR NOX allowances to such units under § 97.188(c): Indiana Michigan Ohio North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee [65 FR 2727, Jan. 18, 2000, as amended at 72 FR 46394, Aug. 20, 2007; 72 FR 56920, Oct...

  10. Tingkat Keamanan Konsumsi Residu Karbamat dalam Buah dan Sayur Menurut Analisis Pascakolom Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wispriyono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Karbamat merupakan salah satu jenis pestisida yang banyak digunakan untuk membasmi hama buah dan sayur. Untuk menentukan bahwa residu karbamat dalam sayuran masih aman dikonsumsi manusia, telah dilakukan analisis beberapa residu karbamat seperti metomil, karbaril, karbofuran, dan propoksur. Sampel-sampel tomat, apel, selada air, kubis, dan sawi hijau dikumpulkan dari tiga supermarket dan satu pasar tradisional di Depok, Jawa Barat. Analisis dilakukan serempak untuk ke empat residu karbamat menggunakan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi denganpereaksi o-ftalaldehida dan 2-merkaptoetanol dalam reaktor pascakolom dengan detektor fluoresensi. Dari sampel-sampel buah dan sayur yang dianalisis, hanya sawi hijau asal pasar tradisional yang positif mengandung propoksur dengan kadar 1,2 mg/25 gram berat basah (0,048 mg/g berat basah. Dengan Acceptable Daily Intake(ADI propoksur 0,005 mg/kg berat badan/hari, konsumsi sawi hijau harian seberat 20 g/hari masih cukup aman dari gangguan kesehatan akibat pajanan kronik propoksur dengan margin of safety 298,7 (> 100 sebagai batas aman. Carbamat is a group of pesticides which is commonly used to control fruits and vegetables pests. To determine that carbamat residues in fruits and vegetables are safe for human consumption, carbamate residues such as methomyl, carbaryl, carbofuran, and propoxur in vegetables and fruits have been analyzed. Samples of tomato, apple, water lettuces, cabbage, and mustard greens were collected from three supermarkets and one traditional market in Depok, West Java. The analysis was carried out simultaneously for all four carbamate residues by high performance liquid chromatography using o-phtaladehyde and 2 mercaptoethanol reagents in post-column reactor with a fluorescence detector. Of fruits and vegetable samples analyzed, only mustard greens from traditional market positively containe propoxur at 1.2 mg/ 25 gram wet weight (0,048 mg/gram wet weight. With Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI

  11. PENGEMBANGAN METODE PENETAPAN KADAR SIKLAMAT BERBASIS KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI GUNA DIIMPLEMENTASIKAN DALAM KAJIAN PAPARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wibowotomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop a method for determining cycla­mate content in foods based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography for exposure assessment of cyclamate. The extraction procedure is conducted by de­creasing pH sample until less than 2, and mobile phase is executed by applying the ratio of phosphate buffer-methanol as 75:25, 80:20, 85:15. The results of experiments be obtained colom: ODS RP-18, 5 μm, 250 x 4,6 mm ID; mobile phase: phosphate buffer/KH2PO4 pH 4,6 and metanol in a ratio of 85:15; flow rate: 1 ml/min; injection volume: 20 μl; and detector: UV-Vis 200 nm. The indication of extraction showed by parameter distribution ratio D ≈ KD and the extraction efficiency of 83.04–94.92%. The exposure estimated of cyclamate based concentration analysis is about 28.41 mg/kg bw/day (258.27% ADI, where SNI 01-6993-2004 regulates 2.99 mg/kg bw/day (27.21% ADI. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan metode penetapan siklamat ber­basis kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi untuk pengukuran konsentrasi siklamat. Prose­dur  ekstraksi menggunakan  modifikasi  pH sampel hingga pH lebih kecil 2, dan fase gerak diterapkan perlakuan rasio bufer fosfat–metanol 75 : 25, 80 : 20, dan 85 : 15. Hasil eksperimen diperoleh kolom: ODS RP-18, 5 μm, 250 x 4,6 mm ID; fase gerak: bufer fosfat/KH2PO4 pH 4,6 dan metanol rasio 85 : 15; laju aliran: 1 ml/menit; volume injeksi: 20 μl; dan detektor: UV-Vis 200 nm. Indikasi keberhasilan ekstraksi ditunjukkan dengan parameter rasio distribusi D ≈ KD dan efisiensi ekstraksi 83,04–94,92%. Estimasi paparan berdasar konsentrasi analisis langsung sebesar 28,41 mg/kg bb/hari (258,27% ADI, sedang estimasi paparan berbasis SNI 01-6993-2004 sebesar 2,99 mg/kg bb/hari (27,21% ADI.

  12. PENGARUH CAMPURAN ASAM SEMUT DENGAN ASAP CAIR CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT TERHADAP BAU DAN WAKTU KECEPATAN BEKU LATEKS KARET (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the effect of formic acid mixture with palm oil shell smoke to rubber agglomeration in terms of odor and latex freezing rate, to know the optimum concentration of formic acid mixing with palm oil shell liquid, to optimize the use of liquid smoke of palm shell in order to minimize the use of formic acid and to compare the quick-frozen time of mixed coagulant ingredients using coconut shell liquid cocoa coagulant in latex clotting process. The research procedure is that the latex is inserted into some baking sheet and each of the pans is mixed with coagulant formic acid and palm oil shell liquid with the concentration of ants acid 2.5%, 5%, 7,5%, 10%, 12,5% 15%, 100% and liquid smoke concentration 70%, 755, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100% 10 ml. The research parameters are the odor and level of latex freezing in rubber clotting process. The results show that mixing of formic acid coagulant material with liquid smoke of palm shell can accelerate the process of clotting latex (equivalent to acid ant, deodorizer that disturbs the society and time; and cost makes efficient and minimizes the use of formic acid. The optimum concentration of mixed coagulant material is 15% formic acid concentration + 70% palm oil shell liquid with average fast freeze time 5-6 minutes latex perliter or equivalent with coagulant material from formic acid. Keywords: formic acid; liquid smoke; palm shell; latex Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh campuran asam semut dengan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit terhadap penggumpalan karet dari segi bau dan kecepatan beku lateks, mengetahui konsentrasi optimum pencampuran asam semut dengan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit, mengoptimalkan penggunaan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit sehingga meminimalkan penggunaan asam semut dan membandingkan waktu cepat beku penggunaan bahan koagulan campuran dengan bahan koagulan asap cair tempurung kelapa dalam proses penggumpalan lateks. Prosedur

  13. Yeni Çevresel Paradigma Ölçeği ile organik gıda tüketicilerinin çevreye yönelik tutumlarının değerlendirilmesi: Ankara ili örneği

    OpenAIRE

    ATALAY, Ceyda

    2016-01-01

    Bu tezin temel amacı, araştırma kapsamındaki tüketicilerin organik gıda tüketirken çevreye yöneliktutumlarının “Yeni Çevresel Paradigma Ölçeği” ile incelenmesidir. Ayrıca, tüketicilerin organik gıdatüketimleri konusunda bilgileri, bu ürünleri tüketip tüketmeme nedenleri, organik gıda satın alırken tercihettikleri yerlerin seçimi ve bu gıdaları tüketirken çevreye duyarlı olup olmadıkları da araştırılmıştır.Araştırma Ankara’nın Çankaya ve Yenimahalle ilçelerindeki organik gıda satan 3 ...

  14. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI BUAH CABAI MERAH (Capsicum annum L. DAN BUAH CABAI RAWIT (Capsicum frutescens L. DALAM PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI SAMPAH ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamdan Cahyari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya kesejahteraan masyarakat Indonesia berdampak positif bagi peningkatan jumlah pasar tradisional dan komoditas perdagangannya. Namun, permasalahan sampah yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan perdagangan tersebut masih belum dapat ditangani dengan baik. Tidak hanya itu, sampah pasar tradisional yang hanya ditimbun di area tempat pembuangan akhir (TPA telah menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan berupa kontaminasi air tanah, emisi gas rumah kaca dan masalah kesehatan. Sampah pasar tradisional memiliki potensi yang besar untuk diolah menjadi biogas melalui metode anaerobic digestion. Dengan adanya mikroorganisme, proses ini mampu mendegradasi sampah organik menjadi bahan organik yang stabil dan biogas (metana dan karbondioksida. Salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi proses tersebut adalah adanya senyawa-senyawa antibiotik yang terkandung dalam sampah. Senyawa capsaicinoid dalam sampah buah cabai merupakan senyawa yang berperan dalam rasa pedas cabai memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap kinerja mikroorganisme dalam mendegradasi sampah menjadi biogas. Pengaruh konsentrasi buah cabai terhadap produksi biogas ini belum banyak diteliti dan diketahui sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk menentukan konsentrasi minimal yang menyebabkan proses inhibisi (penghambatan.Hasil penelitian membuktikan adanya pengaruh konsentrasi buah cabai (capsaicinoid terhadap produksi biogas. Sampah pasar tradisional dengan konsentrasi 8 g VS/liter yang diumpankan terhadap konsorsium mikroorganisme tanpa adanya buah cabai menghasilkan yield biogas yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan sampah yang tercampur buah cabai. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi buah cabai semakin besar pengaruh penghambatannya (inhibition. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan menurunnya yield biogas yang dihasilkan. Konsentrasi buah cabai yang menghasilkan yield optimal diperoleh pada nilai konsentrasi 5 dan 8 g VS/liter untuk cabai merah dan cabai rawit secara berturut-turut. Yield tertinggi biogas dan gas metana ialah

  15. ANALISIS DAN PREDIKSI BEBAN PENCEMARAN LIMBAH CAIR PABRIK PENGALENGAN IKAN (Analysis and Prediction of Liquid Waste Pollutant Level in Fish Canning Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Sahubawa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui kadar parameter pencemaran serta beban pencemaran limbah cair pabrik pengalengan ikan sardin. Manfaatnya adalah sebagai saran pertimbangan kepada industri untuk mengelola limbah cair secara profesional, menjamin kelestarian dan peruntukkan badan air penerima limbah cair, serta bahan informasi ilmiah kepada pengambil kebijakan (terutama pejabat daerah dalam pengelolaan kualitas lingkungan hidup secara berkelanjutan. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah neraca masa, dengan parameter pengamatan yaitu: debit limbah cair maksimum (DM dan debit limbah cair sebenarnya (DA, serta beban pencemaran maksimum (BPM dan beban pencemaran sebenarnya (BPA dari parameter pH, TSS, BOD, COD, dan minyak/lemak sesuai Kepmen LH. No. 06 Tahun 2007. Berdasarkan hasil pengukuran, tercatat debit air limbah aktual (Dp = 10,0 liter/detik, debit air limbah sebenarnya (DA = 2.880 m 3, serta debit air limbah maksimum (DM = 720 m 3, (jadi DA > DM. Dari hasil analisis laboratorium, kadar parameter indikator pencemaran limbah cair pabrik ikan kaleng, masing-masing: pH = 6,5; TSS = 250 mg/l; BOD 5 = 95,0 mg/l; COD = 105 mg/l; dan minyak/lemak = 0,5 mg/l. Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan, ternyata beban pencemaran sebenarnya dari masing-masing parameter (BPA-TSS, BOD 5 , dan COD lebih besar dari beban pencemaran maksimum (BPM, kecuali lemak di mana BPA MWD. Based on the laboratory analytical result, wastewater pollution indicator parameters are, respectively, pH=6.5; TSS=250 mg/l; BOD­5=95.0 mg/l; COD=105 mg/l; and oil/fat = 0.5 mg/l. Based on the measuring result, the substantive pollution load, respectively, higher than maximum pollution load (SPL>MPL, except fat parameter, while SPL less than MPL.  We can conclude that wastewater pollution load produced by canning industries, exceeded the allowed limit of wastewater quality for fisheries industries (Kepmen LH No. 06 Year 2007, and also resulted pollution (changing the utilization in

  16. PENURUNAN KADAR PROTEIN LIMBAH CAIR TAHU DENGAN PEMANFAATAN KARBON BAGASSE TERAKTIVASI (Protein Reduction of Tofu Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Purnawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penurunan kadar protein limbah tahu telah dilakukan dengan pemanfaatan karbon Bagasse teraktivasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum dari karbon teraktivasi NaOH dan H2SO4 dalam menurunkan kadar protein limbah cair tahu dan mengetahui jenis isoterm adsorpsi dari karbon aktif yang digunakan untuk menyerap protein limbah cair tahu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan konsentrasi NaOH yang optimum untuk aktivasi karbon aktif 15%, massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH adalah 2 g dan penurunan kadar proteinnya 71,95%, sedangkan massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 adalah 1 g dengan penurunan kadar protein sebesar 38,19%. Waktu kontak optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi  NaOH dan H2SO4 adalah 12 jam. Adsorpsi protein oleh karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH mengikuti isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich sedangkan karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 dominan mengikuti isoterm Freundlich.   ABSTRACT The protein reduction of tofu wastewater using activated carbon from bagasse  had been conducted. The purposes of this research were to analysis optimum condition of activated carbon bagsse using NaOH and H2SO4 for reduction protein in tofu wastewater, and analysis adsorption isotherm of activated carbon with protein. The result showed that optimum mass of carbon bagasse activated NaOH was  2 g with 71.95% protein reduction, while carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 has 1 g with 38.19% protein reduction. The optimum contact time between protein and activated carbon (with NaOH and H2SO4 was happened in 12 hours. Adsorption protein with carbon bagasse activated NaOH had followed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm, while adsorption with carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 dominantlyhad followed Freundlich adsorption isotherm

  17. ADSORPSI LOGAM SENG (Zn DAN TIMBAL (Pb PADA LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI KERAMIK OLEH TANAH LIAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Rianti Priadi

    2014-05-01

    /atau kegiatan industri keramik. Hasil penelitian menunjukan dosis efektif  adsorben sebesar 5 g/L dan waktu kontak 15 menit dengan kondisi pH 8 dan kecepatan pengadukan 150 rpm. Kadar logam setelah diadsorpsi telah mencapai baku mutu yaitu sebesar 0,614 mg/L dan 2,07 mg/L untuk Pb dan Zn dengan efisiensi pengurangan kadar logam Pb sebesar 61% dan Zn sebesar 9,8%. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan data bahwa limbah tanah liat berpotensi dijadikan adsorben untuk mengurangi kandungan logam pada limbah cair industri keramik. 

  18. KOMPOSISI DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI ASAP CAIR SABUT KELAPA YANG DIBUAT DENGAN TEKNIK PEMBAKARAN NON PIROLISIS Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Liquid Smoke of Coconut Fiber Made by NonPirolisis Combusting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feti Fatimah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food preservation by liquid smoke was one of the food conservation techniques that was easy to be conducted.Nonetheless, it was difficult in reality for people to product liquid smoke because of the complicated process in making pirolisis tools. This study was conducted to learn how to make liquid smoke by non pirolisis technique using the basic material of coconut fiber. And then, it must be performed in the liquid smoke, the redistilation and the adsorption process using active carbon. The quality of liquid smoke was examined by observing the components using Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS and performing test of antibacterial activity to three kinds of bacterias: Salmonella choleraeaeus, Bacillus subtilus, and Staphylococcus aureus using technic of well in the PCA media of 108/ml in population. Based on the study results, it was found that the original liquid smoke (without redistilation and adsorption process using active carbon consisted at least of 21 components, redistilated liquid smoke consist at least of 31 components, and adsorpted liquid smoke using active carbon consisted at least of 5 components. From the result of test of antibacterial activity, it was found that the redistilated liquid smoke showed better bacterial activity than in the original liquid smoke, whereas the absorpted liquid smoke using active carbon had the smallest activity among them. It was because of the content of the 2-methoxiphenol compound in the redistilated liquid smoke was the highest among them. And based on this phenomena, it was found that redistilation technique could increase the quality of liquid smoke of coconut fiber made by non pirolisis combusting method. ABSTRAK Pengawetan menggunakan asap cair merupakan salah satu teknik pengawetan bahan pangan yang mudah diaplikasikan.Meskipun demikian, pada kenyataannya, masyarakat kesulitan memproduksi asap cair dikarenakan sulitnya membuat peralatan pirolisis. Penelitian ini dilakukan guna

  19. Uji Daya Hambat Sabun Cair Cuci Tangan pada Restoran Waralaba di Kota Padang Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Fazlisia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSabun cair cuci tangan terbukti dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Sebagian besar restoran waralaba di Kota Padang menyediakan sabun cair cuci tangan yang telah diencerkan. Proses pengenceran mengubah kemampuan sabun dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji daya hambat sabun cair cuci tangan pada restoran waralaba di Kota Padang terhadap pertumbuhan E. coli dan S. aureus. Sampel diambil dari empat restoran waralaba dan diuji dengan metode difusi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keempat sabun dapat menghambat pertumbuhan S. aureus namun hanya sebagian yang memiliki daya hambat terhadap E. coli. Median daya hambat pertumbuhan E. coli dan S. aureus pada setiap periode yaitu 0, 7.4, 7.3 dan 0, 26.1, 23.3. Nilai maksimum daya hambat pertumbuhan E.coli dalam tiga periode yaitu 19.5, 35.4, 27.1 dan 20.7, 40.2, 36.6 untukS. aureus. Daya hambat minimum terhadap kedua bakteri adalah 0.00. Hal tersebut dapat dipengaruhi komposisi dan konsentrasi antiseptik, antibakteri, pH sabun, pengenceran dan struktur dinding sel bakteri. Disimpulkan bahwa sabun cair cuci tangan yang diuji memiliki kemampuan lebih besar dalam menghambat pertumbuhan S.aureus daripada E.coli.Kata kunci: sabun cair cuci tangan, restoran, pengenceran, uji daya hambat, pertumbuhan bakteriAbstractLiquid hand soaps proved to inhibit Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial growth. In Padang, most of Restaurants provide diluted liquid hand soaps. Research found dilution changed soap ability to inhibit bacterial growth. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of Padang City Restaurants’ liquid hand soaps to inhibit E. coli and S. aureus bacterial growth. The samples were taken from four restaurants and examined by using diffusion method. The results showed all of them could inhibit S. aureus but only a half inhibited Escherichia coli bacterial growth. Median for E. coli and S

  20. PERILAKU DAN PERSEPSI MASYARAKAT TERHADAP PROGRAM PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH CAIR DOMESTIK DENGAN SISTEM SANITASI TERPUSAT DI KECAMATAN GUBENG SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukriyah Kustanti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pertambahan jumlah penduduk berpengaruh pada peningkatan jumlah limbah domestik yang dihasilkan, sehingga membawa dampak terjadinya pencemaran lingkungan alam. Salah satu wadah penampung limbah domestik adalah saluran-saluran drainase. Seringkali pula berfungsi sebagai tempat buangan limbah dari kegiatan dapur dan kamar mandi beserta tinjanya. Saluran Kalidami adalah salah satu saluran hulu yang berasal dari 3 buah anak saluran yakni saluran Pucang Anom Timur, Saluran Pucang Adi, dan Saluran Kertajaya, yang semuanya itu bermuara di Saluran Kalidami. Kualitas Saluran Kalidami terkait dengan ditetapkannya Peraturan Daerah Kota Surabaya Nomor : 02 tahun 2004, tentang Pengolahan Kualitas air dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air sebagai badan air dengan klasifikasi kelas III. Salah satu poko permasalahan dalam melihat pengelolaan saluran-saluran tersebut adalah peran serta masyarakat, yang dalam hal ini merupakan kajian dalam penelitian ini. Peran serta masyarakat terkait dengan bagaimana sikap dan perilaku masyarakat tersebut terhadap obyeknya. Studi kasus dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat sejauh mana peran serta masyarakat di sepanjang anak Saluran Kalidami terhadap pengelolaan limbah cair domestik di sepanjang saluran drainase tersebut. Tujuan penelitian untuk melihat peran serta masyarakat di sepanjang saluran tersebut. Penelitian bersifat deskriptif, dengan teknik penarikan sampling random /acak terhadap sampel penelitian. Metode pengumpulan data adalah observasi dan survei lapangan, serta wawancara terbuka maupun wawancara dengan kuesioner. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan tinkat pemahaman responden positif, demikian pula untuk sikap masyarakatnya. Namun tidak berhubungan dan berkontribusi terhadap perilaku dan peranserta masyarakat. Sehingga disimpulkan bahwa aspek ekonomi tidak berkaitan dengan faktor peranserta masyarakat, namun lebih pada aspek nilai budaya masyarakat

  1. OPTIMASI SABUN CAIR EKSTRAK ETANOL RIMPANG Zingiber officinale Rosc. var.rubrum DENGAN VARIASI MINYAK JARAK DAN KALIUM HIDROKSIDA

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    Nanda Paramita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of skin diseases are bacterial infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Based on previous studies of red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc var.rubrum have antibacterial activity. The aimed of this research was to find the optimum concentration of castor oil and potassium hydroxide (KOH with good physicochemical properties with Simplex Lattice Design method, and determine the effectiveness of liquid soap against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with disc diffusion test. Extraction of red ginger with shoxletation and 96% ethanol. The optimization liquid soap design was using Simplex Lattice Design. The basic liquid soap composition was used to predict the optimum formula contain castor oil and KOH for comparasion (0: 100, (25:75, (50:50, (75:25, (100: 0. The research showed optimum consentration value of red ginger ethanol extract is 5%. The optimum formulas contained of 40,035 g of castor oil and 10,875 g KOH. The optimum liquid soap’s colour was brown, charateristic smell of ginger, stiff, with a pH value of 9,4, viscosity of 1233 cP, 1,14% free fatty acids and alkali-free 0%. The independent T test result by using the R-2.14.1 program was p values > 0.05 against S. epidermidis and p 0,05 terhadap S. epidermidis dan p<0,05 terhadap S.aureus. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa metode Simplex Lattice Design dapat menghasilkan formula sabun cair yang optimum dan memiliki efektivitas sebagai antibakteri. Kata kunci: Minyak Jarak, KOH, Simplex Lattice Design, Rimpang Jahe Merah

  2. Pengembangan Potensi Energi Alternatif Dengan Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Sumber Energi Baru Terbarukan Di Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Mara Alkusma

    2016-10-01

      ABSTRACT Energy has an important role in the development process and ultimately to achieve the objectives of social, economic and environment for as well as an environmental support for national economic activity. Renewable energy source derived from wastewater biogas utilization of oil palm can produce electrical energy which is currently heavily dependent on diesel generators at a cost that mahal.Limbah liquid palm oil (Palm Oil Mill Effluent, or POME is the wastewater that is greasy and non-toxic, derived from the processing of palm oil, but the liquid waste could cause environmental disaster if not used and disposed of in open ponds because it will release large amounts of methane and other harmful gases into the air that cause greenhouse gas emissions. The high content of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of 50000-70000 mg / l in the liquid waste palm oil provides the potential to be converted into electricity by capturing the biogas (methane gas produced through a series of stages of the purification process. In East Kotawaringin there are 36 palm oil processing factory that total factory capacity is of 2,115 TBS / hour, producing 1,269 tons of liquid waste wastewater / h and is capable of producing 42,300 m3 of biogas. Keywords:  Renewable Energy, Plam Oil Mill Effluent, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biogass, Methane Cara sitasi: Alkusma, Y.M., Hermawan, dan Hadiyanto. (2016. Pengembangan Potensi Energi Alternatif dengan Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit sebagai Sumber Energi Baru Terbarukan di Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan,14(2,96-102, doi:10.14710/jil.14.2.96-102

  3. Simulasi Penentuan Kebutuhan Daya Pompa Pada Sistem Transpor Bahan Pangan Cair Dengan Menggunakan Parameter Reologi Susu Kental Manis

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    Ratna Ratna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Simulasi penentuan kebutuhan pompa energi pada sistem bahan makanan transfer cair dengan menggunakan parameter software hasil krim reologi kental manis. Software ini dapat digunakan untuk menentukan energi pompa yang dibutuhkan oleh sistem transfer krim kental manis sehingga tidak terjadinya produk lompat dan gelembung yang menghancurkan krim kental manis. Sehingga pada saat dipasarkan, produk tidak lagi menarik dan baik untuk dikonsumsi. Sebelum melakukan simulasi dengan program komputer, dibutuhkan data viskositas (kekentalan parameter reologi krim kental manis. Hal ini diperlukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter reologi untuk energi pompa yang diperlukan oleh sistem transfer krim kental manis. Dari simulasi diperoleh gambaran yang baik lebih untuk merancang suatu sistem transfer krim kental manis di salah satu pabrik pengolahan. A Simulation to Determine the Requirement of Pump Power on Transport System for Liquid Food Material using Rheology Parameter of Sweetened Condensed Milk ABSTRACT. A simulation using a software to determine the requirement of pump power on transport system for liquid food material using rheology as parameter for sweetened condensed milk. The software was able to determine the pump energy required by a transfer system of sweetened condensed milk in order to prevent the occurrence of the product jump and the effervescence. The effervescence would destroy the cream of sweetened condensed milk, so at the time of marketing, the product was no longer in good condition to consume. Before conducting simulation using computer program, viscosity data of sweetened condensed milk was required to know the influence parameter of rheology on pump power required by a transport system of sweetened condensed milk. From the simulation, a more good description was obtained to design a transfer system of sweetened condensed milk at one particular factory.

  4. ANALISIS POLA INTERAKSI SERANGGA-GLMA PADA EKOSISTEM SAWAH SURJAN DAN LEMBARAN YANG DIKELOLA SECARA ORGANIK DAN KONVENSIONAL (Analysis of Insect-Weed Interaction Pattern in Surjan and Lembaran Rice Farm Ecosystems under Organic and Conventional

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    Tien Aminatun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis struktur food web dalam pola interaksi serangga-gulma pada ekosistem sawah surjan dan lembaran yang dikelola secara organik dan konvensional.        Penelitian dilakukan pada enam petak sawah surjan dan enam petak sawah lembaran di daerah Kulon Progo dalam dua musim tanam pada bulan Desember 2009 sampai Juli 2010.  Baik sawah surjan maupun sawah lembaran, masing-masing dibedakan dalam dua pengelolaan, yaitu pengelolaan organik dan konvensional, dengan ulangan masing-masing tiga petak.  Lima plot ukuran 1x1 m ditempatkan pada masing-masing petak yang tidak diubah posisinya sampai berakhir satu musim tanam. Inti dari penelitian lapangan ini adalah menghitung jenis dan kelimpahan gulma setiap tiga minggu sekali untuk setiap petak, demikian juga untuk jenis dan kelimpahan dari serangga herbivora untuk setiap jenis tanaman/gulma pada setiap plot. Analisis data dilakukan dengan program Bipartite in R statistics 2.12.0, dan dilakukan uji pengaruh tipe sawah dan cara pengelolaan lahan terhadap struktur dan network level (jumlah jenis trofik atas, jumlah jenis trofik bawah, keterhubungan, diversitas Shannon, dan kemerataan interaksi dengan menggunakan General Linear Model (GLM dalam program SPSS 17.0. Hasil penelitian sawah surjan yang dikelola secara organik mempunyai pola interaksi serangga-gulma yang lebih kompleks dengan lebih banyak link interaksi, jumlah jenis trofik atas dan bawah, indeks diversitas Shannon, dan kemerataan interaksi yang lebih tinggi, serta keterhubungan (connectance yang lebih rendah.  ABSRACT The aims of this research was to analyse food web structure of insect-weed interaction in surjan and lembaran rice field ecosystems under organic and conventional managements. We observed six rice fields of local farms called “surjan” rice fields, and six rice fields of “lembaran” farms in Kulon Progo District, central Java, in two planting seasons in December 2009 until

  5. Pengaruh Perlakuan Limbah dan Jenis Mordan Kapur, Tawas, dan Tunjung Terhadap Mutu Pewarnaan Kain Sutera dan Katun Menggunakan Limbah Cair Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb

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    Sofyan Sofyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gambier is an extract obtained from heat extraction of leaves and twigs of gambier plant followed by compression, sedimentation, and the formed paste is moulded and then dried. According to West Sumatra in figures, total production of gambier in West Sumatera in 2012 reached 14,220 tons. From the amount would be produced approximately 5,688,000 liters of liquid waste per year. The gambier waste is a by product of gambier production process which is untapped. High tannin content in the liquid waste is a dye that can be used as a textiles dye. The purpose of the research was to utilize liquid waste from gambier production process to dye silk and cotton fabrics with liquid waste treatment which was not stabilized or stabilized with mordant lime (CaCO3, alum Al2(SO43, and tunjung (FeSO4. The results of the research showed that dyeing with liquid waste by using different mordant would generate different colors. Silk and cotton fabrics were dyed with waste, whether stabilized or not stabilized and mordanted with lime, alum, and tunjung generated a reddish brown color,  bright yellow, and moss green respectively. When compared between silk and cotton, color absorption on silk was better. It could be seen from the darker color for the same treatment. The analysis results of color fastness to washing 40°C, the bright day light, and heat pressing generally ranged between good to excellent (scale 4-5.ABSTRAKGambir adalah getah yang diperoleh dari ekstraksi panas daun dan ranting tanaman gambir yang diikuti pengempaan, sedimentasi, dan pasta yang terbentuk dicetak lalu dikeringkan. Menurut Sumatera Barat dalam angka, total produksi gambir Sumatera Barat selama tahun 2012 mencapai 14.220 ton. Dari jumlah tersebut akan dihasilkan lebih kurang 5.688.000 liter limbah cair per tahun. Limbah gambir merupakan hasil samping dari proses produksi gambir yang belum dimanfaatkan. Kandungan tanin yang tinggi dalam limbah cair ini merupakan bahan pewarna yang dapat

  6. PERAN BAKTERI DALAM MENGUBAH ARSEN ANORGANIK MENJADI ARSEN ORGANIK DI PERAIRAN (The Roles of Bacteria in Modifying Inorganic Arsen to Organic Arsen in Waters

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    Eko Sugiharto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peranan bakteri Esherichia coli dan Pseudomonas sp. dalam menubah spesies arsen. Arsenik dikenal sebagai salah satu unsur kimia yang mempunyai toksisitas tinggi. Analisis mentenai spesiasi arsen yang terkandung dalam perairan dilakukan dengan metode gabungan Kromatografi cair Kinerja Tinggi – Spektrometri Serapan Atom (HPLC-AAS. Untuk mengetahui peranan bakteri E.Coli dan Pseudomnonas sp. maka dilakukan tiga perlakuan, yaituperlakuan dengan variasi media pertumbuhan, variasi pH, dan variasi suhu inkubasi. Media pertumbuhan yant ditunakan yai5u air, l – metionin, nutrient broth, czapek dox, dan garam mineral. Variasi pH dilakukan pada pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, dan 9, sedangkan variasi suhu silakukan pada 25oC sampai dengan 35oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada peningkatan persentase jumlah As (V yang terenduksi menjadi As (III dalam media garam mineral pH7 dengan suhu optimum 35oC. Enzim yang dihasilkan Pseudomonas sp. dapat mereduksi As (V menjadi As (III pada media garam mineral pH 8 dan optimum pada semua variasi suhu. Keseluruhan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bakteri E. coli dan Peseudomonas sp. dapat meningkatkan toksisitas arsen di perairan karena kedua bakteri dapat mereduksi As (V menjadi As (III pada pH dan temperatur optimum.   ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to know the roles of Escharichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. in arsenic speciation. Arsenic has been known as highly toxic chemical element. The analysis towards arsenic speciation which is contained in waters was done by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC – Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS coupling method. The observation towards the roles of E.coli and Pseudomonas.sp was done by variating the growth medium, pH and incubation temperature. The growth medium used in this observation were later, l – metionin, nutrient broth, czapek dox and mineral salt. The variation of pH was carried out at pH of 4

  7. ADSORPSI Pb2+ DALAM LIMBAH CAIR ARTIFISIAL MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ADSORPSI KOLOM DENGAN BAHAN ISIAN ABU LAYANG BATUBARA SERBUK DAN GRANULAR

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    Widi Astuti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Batubara  merupakan  salah  satu  sumber energi  alternatif  yang murah. Oleh karena itu,  penggunaan  batubara  di  Indonesia meningkat pesat  setiap  tahunnya. Penggunaan batubara  ini  menghasilkan  limbah  yang  dapat mencemari lingkungan baik limbah gas  seperti   CO2, NOX,  CO,  SO2,  hidrokarbon  maupun  limbah  padat  yang berupa abu  layang dan  abu  dasar. Abu  layang  mengandung SiO2, Al2O3,  dan sisa karbon yang tidak terbakar sehingga potensial digunakan sebagai adsorben. Pada penelitian ini, kemampuan adsorpsi abu layang ditingkatkan melalui aktivasi termal dan diuji untuk menjerap ion Pb2+ dalam limbah cair artifisial. Adsorpsi dilakukan pada sistem kolom yang berlangsung kontinyu menggunakan bahan isian abu layang teraktivasi, dalam bentuk serbuk dan granular, pada laju alir influen yang bervariasi. Hasilnya, laju alir mempengaruhi nilai kapasitas (qo, konstanta thomas (KtH dan waktu breakthrough.Kata Kunci : Pb2+ , adsorpsi, abu layang, breakthrough Coal is one of the inexpensive alternative energy. Therefore, the usage of coal in indonesia has been increased every year. It produces waste that can pollute the environment including gases waste such as CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons and solid waste including fly ash and bottom ash. Coal fly ash is composed of  SiO2, Al2O3 and unburned carbon that enables it to act as a potential adsorbent. In this research, the adsorption capasity has increased by thermal activation and used to adsorp Pb2+ ion in wastewater.  The adsorption was carried out in packed column contains powder and granular activated fly ash. In the system, flow rate was varied.  The results show that flow rate influences adsorption capacity, Thomas constant and breakthrough time.Keywords: Pb2+, adsorption, coal fly ash, breakthrough

  8. PEMANFAATAN KARBON AKTIF ARANG BATUBARA (KAAB UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR ION LOGAM BERAT Cu2+ DAN Ag+ PADA LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI

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    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2012-05-01

    0.994 for Cu2+ metals ion and 0.984 for the Ag+ metals ion at acidic solution, whereas 0.986 for Cu2+ metals ion and 9.69 for the Ag+ metals ion at neutral pH. Kinetic model of second order rate describe the adsorption process well at acidic and neutral conditions. At the optimum conditions, the correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.998 for Cu2+ and 0.999 for the Ag+ at acidic solution, whereas 0.993 for Cu2+ and 9.998 for the Ag+ at neutral pH were obtained.  Limbah cair industri bisa mengandung ion logam berat seperti Cu2+ dan Ag+ yang berbahaya bagi lingkungan jika dibuang tanpa melalui pengolahan dahulu. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengurangi ion logam berat dalam limbah cair sudah banyak dilakukan, salah satu diantaranya adalah adsorpsi, yaitu memisahkan komponen tertentu dari fluida ke permukaan zat padat. Adsorpsi merupakan metode yang mudah, akan tetapi kebanyakan adsorben yang digunakan harganya mahal, sehingga perlu adanya alternatif adsorben yang murah. Penelitian ini memanfaatkan karbon aktif arang batubara (KAAB sebagai adsorbennya. Arang batubara merupakan limbah hasil pembakaran batubara pada industri, yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi adsorben, sehingga dapat mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan. Pengaktifan arang batubara dilakukan dengan merendamnya dalam peroxide kemudian dilakukan pemanasan pada suhu 500°C. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter proses (konsentrasi, pH dan waktu proses terhadap persentase ion logam berat teradsorpsi dalam KAAB, mempelajari persamaan kesetimbangan adsorpsi dengan menggunakan model isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich, dan menghitung konstanta kinetika adsorpsi dengan pendekatan model kinetika pseudo-first-order dan pseudo-second-order. Pelaksanaan penelitian dengan batch, yaitu mengkontakkan 10 gram KAAB dengan 400 ml limbah sintetis. Pengujian kadar ion logam berat menggunakan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa KAAB dapat digunakan untuk

  9. KESETIMBANGAN ADSORPSI FENOL DARI ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HIBRIDA PADA ARANG AKTIF Adsoprtion Equilibrium of Phenol From Liquid Smoke of Coconut Shell onto Activated Carbon

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    Syahraeni Kadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of liquid smoke phenol of hybrid coconut shell on activated carbon was evaluated at various tempera- ture (30-70 °C and phenol concentration to determine the adsorption capacity and adsorption interaction. The data were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The results showed that the activated carbon ad- sorption capacity increased with an increase in liquid smoke concentration from 0.025 to 1.0 % but it declined due to an increase in the adsorption temperature from 30 to 70 °C. The affinity of phenol onto activated carbon was higher in the high liquid smoke concentration comparing with low concentration. Adsorption capacity decreased when the phe-nol equilibrium concentration (C was 342.78 mg/L, in which it decreased from 32.67 mg/g to 13.02 mg /g. Phenoladsorption onto activated carbon was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model than Langmuir isotherm model. Thephenol adsorption capacity of activated carbon at equilibrium concentration (K has decreased from 12.05 mg/g to 9.66 mg/g when the adsorption temperature increased from 30 to 50 °C. The adsorption capacity increased from 13.46 mg/g to 17.02 mg/g at an increase in the temperature from 60 to 70 °C. The value 1/n was above zero, which means that the adsorption interaction was cooperative with the activation energy of 403.43 KJ/mol. In summary, the adsorption was chemisorption. ABSTRAK Adsorpsi fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida pada arang aktif dievaluasi pada berbagai suhu (30-70 °C dan konsentrasi fenol untuk menentukan kapasitas adsorpsi dan mekanisme adsorpsi. Data yang diperoleh dievalusi meng- gunakan model Langmuir dan Freundlich. Data hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kapasitas adsorpsi arang aktif terhadap fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan konsentrasi asap cair dari 0,025 ke 1,0 %, namun kapasitas adsorpsi menurun akibat peningkatan suhu adsorpsi dari 30 ke 70 °C.  Hal ini

  10. Utilization Of Seeds Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr) Powder AS Biopolymer Additional Materials Of Coagulant Alum To Improve The Total Solids Removal Suspended (Tss) And Cod Using Leachate Coagulation-flocculation (Studi Kasus: Tpa Jatibarang, Kota Semaran

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    Alfa Christianty, Dina; Zaman, Badrus; Purwono, Purwono

    2017-01-01

    TPA Jatibarang menjadi salah satu sumber limbah cair di Semarang di mana lokasinya dekat dengan pemukiman penduduk. Limbah cair yang dihasilkan dari Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir (TPA) sampah berupa air yang dihasilkan dari timbunan sampah yang disebut air lindi (leachate). Lindi TPA Jatibarang umumnya memiliki kandungan senyawa organik yang tinggi dan keberadaannya yang melebihi baku mutu dapat mencemari lingkungan sekitar apabila tidak dilakukan pengolahan terlebih dahulu. Pengolahan lindi mengg...

  11. Pengaruh Laju Alir Inlet Reaktor MSL terhadap Reduksi BOD, COD, TSS, dan Minyak/Lemak Limbah Cair Industri Minyak Goreng

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    Salmariza Sy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by treating edible oil industry wastewater used Multi Soil Layering (MSL method. The MSL reactor was built from a 200x120x200 cm concrete basin. Andisol soil was mixed with sawdust and fine charcoal at each ratio 5:1:1 based on dry weight as an impermeable layer. The flow rate variations were 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 L/m2.day. The observed pollutant parameters were BOD, COD, TSS, oil/fat, and pH. The results showed that MSL reactor was effective to decrease the pollutant content of edible oil industry wastewater. The reactor could reduce concentration of effluent parameters below standard except for oil/fat parameters at high flow rates. In the effluent was found BOD 0.66-14.22 mg/L, COD 5-69 mg/L, TSS 9-26 mg/L, and oil/fat 2-9 mg/L. The flow rate had an effect on reduction efficiency of BOD, COD, TSS, and oil/fat but did not effect pH as all flow rate could raise pH 6.37-6.95 became pH 6.99-7.24. The lower the flow rate the higher the reduction efficiency. The reduction efficiency at flow rates 250 and 1500 L/m2 days for BOD were 99% and 86%, COD were 96% and 71%, TSS were 88% and 77%, and oil/fat were 80% and 60%.ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengolah air limbah industri minyak goreng menggunakan metoda Multi Soil Layering (MSL. Reaktor MSL dibuat dari beton berbentuk bak ukuran 200x120x200 cm. Tanah andisol dicampur dengan serbuk gergaji dan arang halus pada rasio masing-masing 5:1:1 berdasarkan berat kering sebagai penyusun lapisan impermeable. Variasi laju alir yaitu 250, 500, 1000, dan 1500 L/m2.hari. Parameter pencemar yang dianalisis meliputi BOD, COD, TSS, minyak/lemak, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktor MSL sangat efektif untuk menurunkan kandungan zat pencemar limbah cair industri minyak goreng. Reaktor dapat mereduksi konsentrasi parameter outlet sampai dibawah baku mutu yang distandarkan kecuali untuk parameter miyak/lemak pada perlakuan laju alir tinggi. Pada effluen

  12. APLIKASI MODEL QUAL2Kw UNTUK MENENTUKAN STRATEGI PENANGGULANGAN PENCEMARAN AIR SUNGAI GAJAHWONG YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH BAHAN ORGANIK (Aplication of Qual2Kw Model to Determine the Strategy in Solving Gajahwong River Water Pollution Caused by Organic Matter

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    Agnes Dyah Novitasari Lestari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan pemodelan kualitas air terhadap Sungai Gajahwong menggunakan model QUAL2Kw untuk parameter DO-BOD. Diselidiki dinamika DO-BOD sungai tersebut pada kondisi eksisting tahun 2011. Oleh karena beban pencemar pada kondisi hujan dan tanpa hujan berbeda, maka prediksi dilakukan pada kedua kondisi tersebut. Hasil pemodelan QUAL2Kw untuk kondisi eksisting Sungai Gajahwong tahun 2011 menunjukkan bahwa pada kondisi hujan dan tanpa hujan, konsentrasi BOD sungai telah melebihi bakumutu air kelas II. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa (1 Pembangunan perumahan yang membuang limbah cairnya ke Sungai Gajahwong pada debit total 0,1 m3/s dengan konsentrasi BOD 10 mg/L dapat meningkatkan BOD serta menurunkan DO Sungai Gajahwong, dan (2 Pengelolaan kualitas air dan penanggulangan pencemaran air oleh bahan organik pada Sungai Gajahwong dapat dilakukan dengan strategi pembuatan IPAL komunal di setiap kabupaten dengan penurunan konsentrasi BOD hulu hingga 2 mg/L.   ABSTRACT Water quality modelling of Gajahwong River has been done using QUAL2Kw model for DO-BOD parameters. The dynamics of DO-BOD of the river on the existing conditions in 2011 has been investigated. Because of  the load of pollutants in the rainy condition and no rain condition was different, then the predictions made on both conditions. QUAL2Kw modelling results for Gajahwong River in year 2011 showed that the BOD concentration of the river on both conditions has exceeded water quality standards class II. The simulation results showed that: (1 Housing construction that discharge its liquid waste into Gajahwong River on total discharge 0,1 m3/s with concentration of BOD 10 mg/L, increased the BOD and decreased the DO of Gajahwong River, and (2 Water quality management and organic pollution control of Gajahwong River can be done by a strategy of making communal WWTP in each district with reduction of the upstream BOD concentration to 2 mg /L.

  13. PENGGUNAAN PROTEASE ASPERGILLUS sp. DAN RHIZOPUS sp. DENGAN KONSENTRASI YANG BERBEDA DALAM TAHAPAN UNHAIRING TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK DAN LIMBAH CAIR PADA PENYAMAKAN KULIT DOMBA

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    Yunus Syafie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas proteolitik yang dihasilkan jamur Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dalam tahapan unhairing (buang rambut pada proses penyamakan kulit domba serta pengaruh penggunaan dengan konsentrasi berbeda, terhadap kuat tarik, kemuluran, suhu kerut, dan kualitas limbah (pH, BOD, dan COD. Materi yang digunakan yaitu 15 lembar kulit domba awetan garam dibagi 2 bagian sepanjang garis lurus punggung sehingga diperoleh 30 lembar kulit, kulit dibagi secara acak menjadi 10 kelompok. Perlakuan terdiri dari dua belas kombinasi yaitu protease dari Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp. serta gabungan antara Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dengan konsentrasi protease 2% (P1, 2,5% (P2, 3% (P3, dan sebagai kontrol P0. Proses unhairing secara konvensional menggunakan bahan kimia Na2S (3% dan kapur Ca(OH2 6% dengan 3 ulangan. Sampel air limbah setelah proses unhairing diambil dan dibawa ke laboratorium untuk uji kualitas. Kulit diproses lebih lanjut menjadi kulit samak glazed. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial 3 x 4, apabila berbeda nyata dilakukan uji banding dengan uji Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil uji aktivitas proteolitik paling tinggi adalah gabungan antara protease dari Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. yaitu sebesar 1.079,17 μM/ml/menit, sedangkan protease Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. masing-masing memiliki aktivitas proteolitik sebesar 542,96 μM/ml/menit dan 392,89 μM/ml/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan protease dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda dapat memberikan efek yang positif terhadap kualitas fisik dan limbah cair proses unhairing kulit domba. Konsentrasi protease 2,5% dan 3% dapat meningkatkan nilai kuat tarik dan suhu kerut kulit domba serta menghasilkan kulit yang bersih tanpa ada rambut yang menempel dan struktur serabut kolagen terbuka. Perlakuan protease sangat potensial karena dapat menekan angka BOD dan COD limbah

  14. Multiplication des statuts précaires et (déstructuration de l’espace professionnel

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    Cégolène Frisque

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à interroger les formes d’encadrement du marché du travail du journalisme, la diversification des statuts d’emploi qui y ont cours et ses effets sur l’espace professionnel. Il s’appuie sur une exploitation secondaire des donnéesde la Commission de la carte d’identité des journalistes professionnels (carte de presse non obligatoire mais largement répandue en France, sur la confrontation avec d’autres sources statistiques, et sur une quarantaine d’entretiens avec des journalistes « instables », n’ayant pas de contrat de travail permanent mais rémunérés sous d’autres formes, relevant de différents secteurs de la presse écrite, aux situations diversifiées. L’analyse conclut à un recul voire un dépérissement – invisible jusqu’à présent – de la « pige », forme de paiement à l’article, au feuillet ou à la journée, ponctuel ou plus régulier, mais qui est officiellement assimilée à un contrat de travail, selon une fiction juridique, et permet l’accès des personnes concernées à divers droits salariaux et sociaux. Ce statut classique est débordé par les divers statuts précaires qui se sont multipliés dans l’ensemble du salariat (contrats à durée déterminée, dont le terme, variant d’une journée à 12 voire 18 mois, est fixé à l’avance, et contrats aidés, bénéficiant de subventions de l’Etat avec des objectifs de réinsertion professionnelle. D’autres statuts utilisés proviennent de secteurs connexes aux médias d’information (artistes auteurs employés par la presse écrite au contact de l’édition, intermittents du spectacle employés en télévision au contact des métiers du spectacle et de l’audiovisuel. Ce processus de déstructuration du marché du travail a été accentué et amplifié par le statut d’auto-entrepreneur, considéré comme relevant du travail « indépendant », et rémunéré sous forme de factures pour des prestations de

  15. Organik Gübre Kullanımının Yaygınlaştırılmasında Biogaz Üniteli Süt ve Besi Üretim Çiftlikleri Vasıtası ile ile Sözleşmeli Çiftçilik Modelinin Uygulanabilirliği

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    Jülide ERKMEN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ülkemizde mevcut süt ve besi işletmelerinin hayvansal yem ve maliyet girdilerinde problem yaşamaları, hayvansal yem üreticisinin ise hasat ettiği ürünü çoğu zaman elden çıkaramaması ekonomisi tarım ve hayvancılığa dayalı bölgelerde önemli bir sorun olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bununla birlikte biyogaz üniteli süt ve besi üretim çiftliklerinin biyogaz ünitelerinden elde edilen organik gübrenin yakın çevredeki hayvan yemi üreten çiftçiye dağıtılması ve karşılığında üretilen hayvansal yemin alınması suretiylegerçekleştirilecek sözleşmeli çiftçilik modeli, hem organik gübrenin yaygınlaştırılmasında hem de çevresel kirliliğe sebep olan hayvansal atık probleminin ortadan kaldırılmasında güçlü bir rol oynayacaktır. Ayrıca mevcut süt ve besi işletmeleri ile hayvansal yem üreticileri entegre edilerek üretilecek gübre yakın çevrede kullanılacağından paketleme ve pazarlama giderlerini ve ürünlerin elde kalma ihtimalini ortadan kaldıracaktır. Sonuç itibariyle özellikle kırsal bölgelerde biyogaz ünitesinin kurulumu ile organik gübrenin kullanımı teşvik edilecek, yapılacak sözleşme ile yine bu bölgelerde kimyasal gübrenin kullanımı önlenmiş olunacaktır

  16. MODEL PREDIKSI PENGARUH LIMBAH CAIR HOTEL TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR LAUT DI PESISIR TELUK KUPANG (A Prediction Model of Liquid Waste Hotel Impact on The Sea Water along The Coast of Kupang Bay

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    Inty Megarini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hotel-hotel di pesisir Teluk Kupang sebagian besar membuang efluen limbah cairnya ke laut. Kondisi ini akan berpengaruh terhadap kualitas air laut dan berdampak pada kelangsungan hidup biota dan mikroorganisme laut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat prediksi pengaruh efluen limbah cair hotel yang dibuang terhadap kualitas air laut di hadapannya. Parameter yang diteliti adalah minyak dan lemak dan ortofosfat efluen limbah cair hotel. Parameter kualitas air laut yang diteliti adalah kekeruhan, minyak dan lemak dan klorofil. Metode pengambilan sampel dan pengujian menggunakan SNI dan USEPA. Analisis data menggunakan uji korelasi dan regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kekeruhan air laut pada jarak 0 meter dan 25 meter dapat diprediksi dari kadar minyak dan lemak efluen limbah cair hotel melalui model regresi y = 0,0051 x + 4,8456 dan y = 0,0015 x + 4,5440. Kadar klorofil air laut pada jarak 25 meter dan 75 meter dapat diprediksi dari kadar ortofosfat efluen limbah cair hotel melalui persamaan regresi y = 0,0430 x + 0,0004 dan y = 0,0075 x + 0,0001. ABSTRACT Most of the hotels located along the coast of Kupang Bay dump their effluent liquid waste to the sea. This action will definitely affect the sea water quality and in turn, will unavoidably give deep impact on the life of both microorganism and all the living things in the sea. This research intends to make an impact prediction on the sea water quality over the dumping hotels’ affluent liquid waste to the sea. The parameters which are observed are oil and fat and orthophosphate of the hotels’ affluent liquid waste. While the observed parameters of the sea water quality are turbidity, oil and fat, and chlorophyll. The methods used to take and test the sample are SNI and USEPA. And to analyze the data, testing on both correlation and regression are applied. The result of the study reveals that the turbidity of the sea water within the range of 0 to 25 meters can be

  17. 30 PENGGUNAAN KARBON AKTIF DARI SAMPAH PLASTIK UNTUK MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN PHOSPHAT PADA LIMBAH CAI R (Studi Kasus: Limbah Cair Industri Laundry di Temb alang, Semarang

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    Irawan Wisnu Wardhana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya jumlah industri laundry akan mengakibatkan meningkatnya penggunaan deterjen. Zat yang dominan terkandung dalam deterjen adalah natrium tripolyphosphat yang berfungsi sebagai builder dan surfaktan, sehingga limbahnyapun mengandung phosphat. Hampir semua industri laundry membuang limbahnya tanpa melalui pengolahan terlebih dahulu, hal tersebut akan menyebabkan eutrofikasi dimana badan air menjadi kaya akan nutrien terlarut, menurunnya kandungan oksigen terlarut dan kemampuan daya dukung badan air terhad ap biota air. Menurut hasi uji pendahuluan, limbah cair industri tersebut mengandung kadar phos phat sebesar 10,21 mg/l. Kadar tersebut melebihi baku mutu Perda Prop. Jateng No 10 tahun 2004, dimana kadar maksimum untuk phosphat total adalah 2 mg/l. Salah satu cara pengolahan limbah adalah dengan proses adsorpsi menggunakan karbon aktif dari sampah plastik jenis polyethylene. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemamapuan karbon aktif dari sampah plas tik dalam menurunkan kandungan phosphat dengan percobaan batch dan kontinyu. Percobaan batch menggunakan variasi berat karbon aktif dari sampah plastik 1,2, dan 3 gram untuk masing-masimg variasi ukuran media 30-60 mesh dan 100-200 mesh. Percobaan batch mempunyai efisiensi penurunan phosphat tertinggi pada berat 3 gram (100-200mesh sebesar 45,45%. Sedangkan percobaan kontinyu dilakukan pada kolom berdiameter 1 inchi dengan variasi debit 50 ml/menit dan 100 ml/menit. Percobaan kontinyu mempunyai efisiensi penurunan phosphat terbesar pada debit 50 ml/menit sebesar 54,75%. Nilai konstanta kecepatan (k1 0,0108 ml/mg.dtk dengan kapasitas serap (qo 0,677 mg/g.

  18. KEUNGGULAN KOMPETITIF GULA CAIR KIMPUL

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    Fungki Sri Rejeki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for sugar as a sweetener is increasing, therefore need to look for alternative other sweeteners as sugar cane substitution, among them by developing liquid sugar from starch. Purse as one type of root crops have a great opportunity to be developed because it has a high carbohydrate content. The purpose of this research was to determine the best process of purse liquid sugar with acid hydrolysis and enzyme hydrolysis. This research consists of 2 stages. The first stage is the processing optimization by acid hydrolysis and the second stage is the processing optimization by enzyme hydrolysis. The parameters tested were oBrix, moisture content, ash content, and reducing sugar. The best process is based on the highest expectation value based Value Expectations Method. Furthermore, the products produce from the selected process calculated caloric value and the Glycemic Index (GI. The results of this research showed that: (1 The best acid hydrolysis process is adding acid 15 ml  and hydrolysis time are 1 hour, which produces purse liquid sugar with 86.30% moisture content, 2,01% ash content, 13,33oBrix, 10,21% reducing sugar, 41 calories and IG value is 47,32; (2 The best enzyme hydrolysis process is adding 3 ml enzyme and hydrolysis temperature of 1000C, which produces purse liquid sugar with 73.73% moisture content, 0.24% ash content, 25.17 oBrix, 23,43% reducing sugar, 106 calories and IG value is 80.63.

  19. PENYULUHAN PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH TERNAK MENJADI PUPUK KANDANG (ORGANIK) DAN PEMBUATAN PESTISIDA ORGANIK

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    Taufiq, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Dusun Klumprit II is a dusun that located in Wukirharjo, Prambanan, District Sleman, Province of Yogyakarta. Dusun Klumprit II is a prosperous dusun with themajority of livelihoods are in agricultural and livestock. In this dusun there are alsoseveral home industries such as timber home industry. The residents of Dusun Klumprit II are dominated by old adult populations. The majority of the residents of DusunKlumprit II have a livestock, but unfortunately there were no further management forth...

  20. Karakter Morfofisiologi dan Fisikokimia Beras dengan Berbagai Dosis Pemupukan Organik dan Hayati pada Budidaya Padi Organik

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    Isna Tustiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe awareness of the negative impacts of conventional agriculture has been encouraging people to switch from conventional farming to the organic farming, using organic and biological fertilizers. This farming system changes will influence the character of the plant and the yield. The objective of the research was to investigate the morphophysiology and physicochemical characters of rice with various rates of organic and biological  fertilizer. The experiment was conducted at rice field in Karawang and Bogor, West Java, from May to September 2012. The experiment used a single factor randomized block design consisted of three replications with 12 treatments. The first 6 treatments were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ton organic fertilizer ha-1, and the other 6 treatments were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ton organic fertilizer ha-1 combined with 2 l biological fertilizer ha-1. As control treatment was application of anorganic fertilizer with the rate of 400 kg NPK (30-6-8 ha-1. Plot size was 15 m x 10 m, with a double row spacing (legowo 2:1 (25 cm x 15 cm x 50. The results showed that organic fertilizer either without or with biological fertilizers increased the weight of 1,000 grains and decreased amylose content of rice. The score of leaf color in plants with inorganic fertilizer was higher than those with organic fertilizer.Keywords: amylose, gelatinization temperature, leaf color, water uptake ratio, 1,000 grain weight

  1. Pengujian Alat Konversi Ban Bekas Menjadi Bahan Bakar

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    Saputra, Imron Aryadi; Arijanto, Arijanto

    2017-01-01

    Pirolisis dapat didefinisikan sebagai dekomposisi thermal material organik pada suasana inert (tanpa kehadiran oksigen) dan suhu tinggi sehingga terurai menjadi molekul yang lebih kecil. Pirolisis merupakan bentuk penghematan energi karena dapat menyuling bahan bakar atau bahan kimia yang berguna dari limbah padat. Produk pirolisis berupa gas, cair dan padat. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji alat konversi ban bekas menjadi bahan bakar, mengetahui jumlah minyak yang dihasilkan pada pr...

  2. Bayburt Koşullarında Organik Olarak Yetiştirilen Bazı Yerel Fasulye (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotiplerinin Bitkisel ve Tarımsal Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma

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    ümit girgel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Özet Bu araştırma, organik şartlarda fasulye (Phaseolus vulgaris L. yerel genotiplerinin morfolojik ve agronomik özelliklerini belirlemek amacıyla, Bayburt Üniversitesi, Gıda Tarım ve Hayvancılık Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi deneme alanında 2016 yetiştirme döneminde yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada 13 yerel fasulye genotipi ile 3 tescilli çeşit (Önceler-98, Horoz ve Dermason kullanılmıştır. Tesadüf Bloklarında Bölünmüş Parseller deneme desenine göre üç tekerrürlü olarak yürütülen çalışmada dekara 10 ton olacak şekilde çiftlik gübresi uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada, bitki boyu 32.1-44.3 cm, ilk bakla yüksekliği 6.7-11.1 cm, gövde kalınlığı 5.6-8.4 cm, bakla boyu 85.9-120.7 mm, bakla eni 12.5-15.4 mm, bitkide bakla sayısı 10.0-24.1 adet/bitki, baklada tane sayısı 3.5-5.5 adet/bakla, 1000 tane ağırlığı 393.7-545.5 g, dekara tane verimi 128.3-194.3 kg/da arasında değişim göstermiştir. En yüksek tane verimi dermason fasulye çeşidinden elde edilmiş olup, yine Önceler-98 çeşidi ve Aydıntepe genotipinin tane verimi ve bölgeye adaptasyonu yüksek bulunuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Phaseolus vulgaris L., Genotip, Verim, Verim Öğeleri, Organik Tarım A Research on Determination of the Morphological and Agronomic Characteristics of Local Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes Under the Organic Farming System in Bayburt Abstract This study was carried out Bayburt University Food and Agriculture and Livestock Application and Research Center in 2016 growing season to determine the morphological and agronomic characteristics of local genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under organic farming conditions. In the study, 13 local bean genotypes and 3 registered varieties (Önceler-98, Horoz and Dermason were used. The experiment was carried out to the randomized complete block design with three replications. By using cow manure, the area was fertilized with 10 tons per decares. In the

  3. Avaliação de fragilidade, funcionalidade e medo de cair em idosos atendidos em um serviço ambulatorial de geriatria e gerontologia Assessment of frailty, functionality and fear of falling in elderly assisted at an outpatient gerontologic and geriatric clinic

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    Silvia Lanziotti Azevedo da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da fragilidade é uma condição associada ao envelhecimento, com desfechos de saúde nos idosos como quedas, medo de cair e incapacidade. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a freqüência de fragilidade e verificar a existência de correlação desta com quedas, medo de cair e funcionalidade, em 30 idosos (média de 75,7±7,6 anos cadastrados em um serviço interdisciplinar de Geriatria e Gerontologia. Foram avaliados quanto à fragilidade, por características sugeridas pela literatura, e quanto aos desfechos quedas, funcionalidade e medo de cair. A análise descritiva identificou 20% de idosos frágeis, 46,7% pré-frágeis e 33,3% não-frágeis. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos frágeis e pré-frágeis e frágeis e não-frágeis em relação à funcionalidade mensurada pela escala de Lawton (p=0,000 e medo de cair, avaliada pela escala internacional de eficácia de quedas (FES-I, na sigla em inglês. Foi encontrada correlação significativa e moderada entre a pontuação na FES-I e o número de quedas; e correlação significativa, moderada e inversa, entre as pontuações da FES-I e de Lawton. A freqüência de fragilidade foi maior na amostra do estudo do que a encontrada em estudos prévios; e foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos de idosos, de acordo com as características de fragilidade, indicando que os mais frágeis apresentavam maior incapacidade para atividades de vida diária e mais medo de cair.The frailty syndrome is a condition associated to age-related vulnerability, bearing health outcomes such as falls, fear of falling, and disability. The purposes of this study were to determine frequency of frailty and to search for correlations between frailty and falls, fear of falling, and functionality, in a group of 30 elderly (mean age 75.7±7.6 registered at a geriatric outpatient clinic. They were assessed as to frailty according to features suggested by

  4. Pengaruh cairan lumpur organik unit gas bio terhadap persentase kandungan bahan organik dan protein kasar padatan lumpur organik unit gas bio

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    Mochammad Junus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze: 1 the constitution and characteristics of sludge, solid sludge and sludge flour derived from Biogas Unit (BGU; 2 the influence of organic sludge liquid on the percentage of organic and crude protein content of the BGU organic sludge (BGUOS. The methods used in the study were observation and randomized controlled trial experiments. Data derived from field study were analyzed descriptively while data derived from experiments were analyzed using variance analysis. Differences were shown using the smallest significance-p test with CI 95%. The results showed that organic sludge constitution were odious, the organic sludge was clotting after drying process. In addition it became powder as soft as bran after dried, powdered and brooded. The experiment showed that the composition of BGUOS liquid gave influence to the amount of organic content and crude protein in the powder constitution of BGUOS. The fifth treatment brought the optimum percentage of the organic content and crude protein. The research concluded that BGUOS constitution was detestable in its form of sludge, however it could be transformed into bran constitution by drying and brooding treatment. The optimum amount of organic content and crude protein of BGUOS bran were gained by using 5th treatment. The research suggest it is necessary to maintain BGUOS on the basis of local technology and to study the application of BGUOS solid powder or bran as fish and livestock feed. Keywords: Solid Biogas Unit Organic Sludge (Solid BGUOS, CP

  5. Les usages du sucre dans le manuel de pharmacie de Cohen al-‘Aṭṭār médecin juif du Caire au XIIIe siècle

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    Ouerfelli, Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of a pharmaceutical guide for the usage of apothecaries and merchants of drugs and drinks, which took into account the evolution of pharmacy and the development of pharmaceutical products, Cohen al-‘Aṭṭar wrote a new manual in which he reminded us not only of the writings of his predecessors, but also the point of view of his contemporaries, notably his proper experiences he carried out in his shop in Cairo to make pharmaceutical products and the means to preserve them. This pharmaceutical manual, the richest in medicine formulas, also stands out on account of the extensive use of sugar in the making of recipes. Given the fact that this product was available in large quantities in Egypt and Syria during the second half of the 13th century, it gradually substituted honey to become the principal ingredient in the making of drugs and drinks. Thus, sugar broke through the food world to become the privilege of the royal class, who turned it into one of the essential elements for their festivities.[fr] Face à l’absence d’un guide pharmaceutique à l’usage des apothicaires et des marchands de drogues et de boissons, qui tient compte de l’évolution de la pharmacie et du développement de la matière médicale, Cohen al-‘Aṭṭār propose un nouveau manuel dans lequel il rappelle non seulement les écrits de ses prédécesseurs, mais il livre également les points de vue de ses contemporains, et surtout ses propres expériences, qu’il mène dans sa boutique du Caire, pour la confection des médicaments et les moyens de les conserver. Ce manuel pharmaceutique, le plus riche en formules médicamenteuses, se distingue également par l’usage massif du sucre dans l’élaboration des recettes. Ce produit, disponible en grandes quantités en Égypte et en Syrie pendant la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle, se substitue progressivement au miel et devient l’ingrédient principal dans l’élaboration des médicaments et des

  6. PEMBUATAN TINTA PRINTER DENGAN PIGMEN ORGANIK BERBAHAN DASAR SAMPAH DAUN

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    Pradita Ajeng Wiguna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste became one of the unresolved issues in the society. One of the abundant number of waste is organic waste in the form of leaves. The high production of leaf litter on the environment are demanding alternative ways of handling the creative and innovative products useful. An attempt was made is the use of leaf litter as organic color pigments for ink printers. Manufacture of pigments made by reducing the leaf litter to form a homogeneous carbon powder that is burning leaf litter under conditions of low oxygen and then do a simple mixing process with other materials ink makers. The resulting ink tested of transmittance by varying the mass of carbon namely from 1 to 6 grams, the results indicate that the more carbon, the intensity of their light mass is getting low. At the time of adsorbtion rate test showed that carbon ink has almost the same velocity with the type of ink that is circulating in the market, i.e. 1.04 mm/s. Additionally carbon inks have dried faster speed compared to the existing inks on the market, i.e. the ratio of 106: 129 seconds. In the test performance of carbon ink on the printer shows the results that more black and smooth so that appropriate if applied as an inkjet printer.

  7. Gerakan Sosial Intelektual Muslim Organik dalam Transformasi Sosial

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    Agus Afandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci’s idea of organic intellectuals that dedicate their life to improve social life has been actually inherited within Indonesian Muslim intellectuals. The main characteristic of them is not conceptualizing and publishing their own interest in the context of academic field, but expressing and advocating social aims. This article attempts to capture Indonesian organic intellectual movement was fashioned from the era of HOS Cokroaminoto in colonial era until the existence of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO in the present time. The history of Indonesia has witnessed that such movement has actively promoted social purposes and aspirations. Although, in its progress, organic intellectual movement is always challenged by the regime (policy oriented studies, it always comes with its own academic-emancipatory explanation for social problems. After Reformation Era, the goal of this movement focuses on advocating society against global capitalism which is expressed in—for example—World Trade Organization (WTC and Multi-National Corporation (MNC. Another finding of this paper is that there are many NGOs in Indonesia based on Islamic values although their activists do not work on the name of Islam. The reason behind this view is that because all Muslim activists work on religious normative exercise social, economic, political, cultural, environment problems.

  8. NILAI DAN PENGETAHUAN SEBAGAI PREDIKTOR INTENSI BELI MAKANAN ORGANIK

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    Tony Wijaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine a model which presents effects of man-nature orientation, of organic knowledge and attitude toward organic food to purchase intention of organic food. Data collection method of this research used questionnaire. Survey data was consisted of 516 married women as an end user of organic food from Yogyakarta, Jakarta and Surabaya Indonesia. The empirical tests indicated that man-nature orientation and organic knowledge had significant effect on attitude toward organic food. Attitude toward organic food had significant effect on purchase intention of organic food. All hypotheses in this research were fully supported.

  9. NILAI DAN PENGETAHUAN SEBAGAI PREDIKTOR INTENSI BELI MAKANAN ORGANIK

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Wijaya

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to examine a model which presents effects of man-nature orientation, of organic knowledge and attitude toward organic food to purchase intention of organic food. Data collection method of this research used questionnaire. Survey data was consisted of 516 married women as an end user of organic food from Yogyakarta, Jakarta and Surabaya Indonesia. The empirical tests indicated that man-nature orientation and organic knowledge had significant effect on attitude toward organi...

  10. STUDI OZONISASI SENYAWA ORGANIK AIR LINDI TEMPAT PEMROSESAN AKHIR SARIMUKTI

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    Arya Rezagama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing treatment leachate from Sarimukti Landfill doesn’t meet the quality standards of waste water.Preliminary treatment is necessary to break down persistent leachate compounds. Ozone can act directly orindirectly with organic material (Glaze 1986. Column batch reactor system use one liter volume. Ozone ispumped into the leachate in the form of fine bubbles. Variations include Ozone Pumping Flow, Ratio ofhigh/diameter (t/d, and pH. Kinetic Reaction of oxygen dissolution in the average leachate is zero order.Increased pumping air discharge and increased pH makes ozone transfer process better. Best value occurs at pH11, where the value of the reaction rate constant ozone 1.48. The average percentage of organic materialallowance 31% COD and 26% TOC. The decline TOC and COD have a tendency to be influenced by the pHoptimum 8-9. At alkaline pH makes carbonate (CO3 formed the greater, that make ozone compounds killquickly. FTIR results showed the intensity of hydroxyl groups increased after ozone oxidation where thesubstitution of functional groups of organic matter associated with electrophilic addition reaction of oxygenatoms. Existence Fulfic acid also increased the effect compounds and Humic Acid, Humad large has been cut byradicals.

  11. Model Kelembagaan pada Agribisnis Padi Organik Kabupaten Tasikmalaya

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    Candra Nuraini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: (1 to identify the forms of institutional and analyze interaction at the institutional organic rice agribusiness; (2 to design the institutional model in organic rice agribusiness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method. Result of the analysis showed that the profile of organic rice agribusiness institutions include: farmers, farmers' groups combined Sympathy, organic farmers cooperatives, village cooperatives, private enterprises agro-industry (CV, BPP, NGO, exporters, agro-industry company. The conditions of farmer organizations today are more cultural and mostly just to government facilities, it has not been fully geared to take advantage of economic opportunities through the use of accessibility to information technology, capital and markets necessary for the development of organic rice agribusiness and agricultural businesses.On the other hand, institutional businesses in rural areas, such as the cooperative has not fully accommodate the interests of farmers / farmer groups as a forum for technical guidance. Various farmer institution that already exist such as farmers 'groups, farmers' groups combined, the association of water user farmers are expected on the challenges ahead to revitalize themselves and institutions that currently more dominant just as container technical development and social into institutional also serve as a platform for business development legal entity or can integrate other institutions in the agribusiness chain of organic rice. Model on organic rice agribusiness institution system is based on agribusiness and institutional dimensions as well as the three pillars of the new institutional.

  12. ANTESEDEN DARI MINAT PEMBELIAN PRODUK SHAMPO NATURAL DAN ORGANIK

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    Andrian Haro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to examine the consumer purchase intention of natural and organic shampoo products based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Specifically, this research considers that consumer values as antecedents of consumers’ attitude toward buying natural and organic shampoo products. A survey was conducted with many respondents from graduate students of Magister Management, Trisakti University, Jakarta, and structural equation modeling techniques was used to test the relationships among the variables. The results show that environmental consciousness and appearance consciousness have a positive effect on attitude. Meanwhile, health consciousness has no significant effect on consumers’ attitude. Moreover, the results showed that TPB predictors which consist of attitude and perceived behavioral control are significantly correlated with purchase intention for natural and organic shampoo products, but not with subjective norm. This research provides valuable insight into consumer purchase intention behavior regarding natural and organic shampoo products by examining the factors that influence consumers’ attitude toward buying natural and organic shampoo products and consumers’ purchase intentions for the products.

  13. Isolasi, Karakterisasi dan Potensi Bakteri Aerob sebagai Pendegradasi Limbah Organik

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    Zahidah, Dinda; Shovitri, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengisolasi dan mengkarakterisasi bakteri aerob yang mampu mendegradasi amilum, protein dan selulosa. Penelitian ini berhasil memurnikan dan mengkarakterisasi isolat bakteri C5 yang cenderung masuk ke genus Bacillus. Berdasarkan uji kualitatif amilolitik, selulolitik dan proteolitik, diketahui bahwa isolat C5 memiliki indeks amilolitik (IA) sebesar 0.93, indeks selulolitik (IS) sebesar 1.95 dan indeks proteolitik (IP) sebesar 1.39

  14. Analisis Perilaku Konsumen Produk Organik di Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Effendi, Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Organic consumer still quite new in the province of North Sumatra and is still growing. The growth of the organic consumer is still not satisfactory. Organic products have not been socialized in North Sumatra in Medan thus the amount of organic consumers is still not much in quantity in North Sumatra. This study is intended to find the right model in understanding the behavior of organic consumers in North Sumatra. Basic theory in this study is the theory of consumer behavior using the Theory...

  15. KETAHANAN PANGAN RUMAH TANGGA PETANI PENGHASIL BERAS ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Suhardianto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The study was designed to analyze level of household food secu­rity of farmers who plant organic rice and identify landholding that supporting household food security. For that purposes, 61 samples of household were selected from farming households in Ciburuy Village, Bogor Regency. Data collected was landholding, working capital, cooperation, education, purposes of practicing on organic farming, waste management, knowledge of organic farming, organic rice productivity, income, food consumption and level of household food security. Food recall 1 X 24 hours and food frequency (weekly, monthly, and yearly were used to obtain food consumption data. Household food security was deter­mined based on level of energy consumption. Landholding that supporting household food security was determined based on rice consumption and household productivity. The analyses results of household food security showed that 85.2% of households were secure and 14.8% were insecure. Variables that significantly influenced household food security were income, knowledge of organic farming, organic rice productivity, purposes of practicing on organic farming, landholding, and waste management. Pearson correlation analyses showed that in­come, knowledge of organic farming, organic rice productivity, and landholding had signifi­cant effect toward  household food security. Spearman correlation analyses showed that purposes of practicing on organic farming and waste management had significant association with household food security too.  Based on daily average of energy sufficiency, land-man ratio should be 318 m2/person. Keywords: household food security, organic farming, land-man ratio

  16. Kualitas Kompos dari Berbagai Kombinasi Bahan Baku Limbah Organik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI BUDI KUSMIYARTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Quality of Compost on Various Combinations of Organic Waste Raw Materials Evaluation of compost stability prior to its use is essential for the recycling of organic waste in agricultural soils. During composting, most of the biodegradable organic compound are broken down and a portion of the remaining organic material is converted into humic-like substances, with production of a chemically stabilized composted material. This experiment aimed to monitor the changes in physicochemical characteristics during composting of three kinds compost heap and to define parameters suitable for evaluating the stability of compost. The experiment were conducted from Mei to October 2011 and consisted of three treatments with six replicates for each treatment. Compost pile temperature,the pH, that reflected the initiation and stabilization of the compost, were measured during the composting process. The carbon organic material content, carbon and nitrogen content, the carbon to nitrogen ratio, organoleptic characteristics, and K2O, P2O5, Mg, Ca content were measured to evaluate the quality of the physicochemical properties of the compost. Compost toxicity level had evaluated using Germination Index. The result showed that the quality of compost from all treatments that were evaluated in this experiment meet the standard quality of SNI 2004.

  17. Pelatihan Memanfaatkan Lahan Sempit untuk Budidaya Sayuran Organik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Suyadi

    2017-12-01

    The conclusion of this IbM program was that there was an improvement on capability and skill of the cadres and PKK members  of RW 12 and 13 Karangklesem village in mastering the verticulture technology of organic vegetables from the making of bioactivator, liquid organic fertilizer, compost, biological pesticide, seed seedling, planting media, planting and plant treatment, harvesting and post-harvesting treatment, and organic vegetable entrepreneurship

  18. Drug adherence and multidisciplinary care in patients with multiple sclerosis: Protocol of a prospective, web-based, patient-centred, nation-wide, Dutch cohort study in glatiramer acetate treated patients (CAIR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siepman Theodora

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, for which no definitive treatment is available. Most patients start with a relapsing-remitting course (RRMS. Disease-modifying drugs (DMDs reduce relapses and disability progression. First line DMDs include glatiramer acetate (GA, interferon-beta (INFb-1a and INFb-1b, which are all administered via injections. Effectiveness of DMD treatment depends on adequate adherence, meaning year-long continuation of injections with a minimum of missed doses. In real-life practice DMD-treated patients miss 30% of doses. The 6-month discontinuation rate is up to 27% and most patients who discontinue do so in the first 12 months. Treatment adherence is influenced by the socio-economic situation, health care and caregivers, disease, treatment and patient characteristics. Only a few studies have dealt with adherence-related factors in DMD-treated patients. Self-efficacy expectations were found to be related to GA adherence. Patient education and optimal support improve adherence in general. Knowledge of the aspects of care that significantly relate to adherence could lead to adherence-improving measures. Moreover, identification of patients at risk of inadequate adherence could lead to more efficient care. In the near future new drugs will become available for RRMS. Detailed knowledge on factors prognostic of adherence and on care aspects that are associated with adequate adherence will improve the chances of these drugs becoming effective treatments. We investigate in RRMS patients the relationship between drug adherence and multidisciplinary care, as well as factors associated with adherence. Given the differences in the frequency of administration and in the side effects between the DMDs we decided to study patients treated with the same DMD, GA. Methods/design The Correlative analyses of Adherence In Relapsing remitting MS (CAIR study is

  19. Prevalência do medo de cair em uma população de idosos da comunidade e sua correlação com mobilidade, equilíbrio dinâmico, risco e histórico de quedas Prevalence of fear of falling among a population of older adults and its correlation with mobility, dynamic balance, risk and history of falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KT Lopes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar a prevalência do medo de cair em uma população de idosos da comunidade e sua correlação com mobilidade, equilíbrio dinâmico, risco e histórico de quedas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal randomizado. Participaram do estudo 147 idosos com idades entre 60 e 92 anos, sendo 94 (65,95% mulheres e 53 (36,05% homens. O medo de cair foi avaliado usando FES-I-BRASIL (FIB, a mobilidade foi avaliada por meio do teste "Timed Up and go" (TUG, o risco de quedas, por meio do "Functional Reach Test" (FRT e o equilíbrio dinâmico, pelo teste da Marcha Tandem (MT. RESULTADOS: Cento e trinta e três (90,48% idosos relataram medo de cair em pelo menos uma atividade, e 80 (54,42% dos idosos apresentaram histórico de quedas (HQ. A correlação de Pearson demonstrou resultado significante (pOBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of fear of falling among a population of older adults and its correlation with mobility, dynamic balance, risk and history of falls. METHODS: This was a randomized cross-sectional study. The participants were 147 older adults between the ages of 60 and 92: 94 women (65.95% and 53 men (36.05%. Fear of falling was assessed using FES-I-BRAZIL (FIB; mobility, using the "timed up and go" (TUG test; risk of falls, using the "functional reach test" (FRT; and dynamic balance, using the "tandem gait test"(TGT. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-three older adults (90.48% reported fear of falling in at least one activity and 80 older adults (54.42% had a history of falls (HF. Pearson's correlation was statistically significant (p<0.001 between fear of falling and the TGT (r=-0.44248, FRT (r=-0.51562, HF (r=0.54069, TUG (r=0.45738 and age (r=0.39772. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified high prevalence of fear of falling among older adults in the community, independent of their history of falls, and significant correlations between fear of falling and mobility, dynamic balance, risk and history of falls.

  20. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Industri Mie Instant Untuk Proses Pembuatan Sabun Mandi Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Markam A

    2013-01-01

    In the process of production, instant noodle industry using oil as a medium for frying stage. Cooking oil is a vegetable oil that has been purified and can be used as food. Cooking oil is one of the nine basic commodities consumed by the whole society. Consumption of cooking oil is usually used as a medium frying or food, flavor enhancer. In this research sample was take from the liquid waste that come from production process that contain an oil at the surface of the liquid. This Oil will be ...

  1. KOSEP PEMAHAMAN DAN TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH DI RUMAH SUSUN SEWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henita Rahmayanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merencanakan pengelolaan sampah di Tempat Penampungan Sampah yang terdapat di rumah susun sewa di Jakarta. Proses pengelolaan yang akan dilakukan dengan cara menanamkan konsep pemahaman pemilahan sampah organik dan anorganik di rumah masing-masing dan sistem pembuangan menggunakan saluran pembuangan secara terpisah. Prinsip pengelolaan sampah yang akan diterapkan yaitu merubah sampah yang tidak berguna menjadi bernilai guna. Semua sampah diolah dengan baik di Tempat Penampungan sampah sehingga tidak ada sampah yang diangkut keluar (Zero Waste. Teknologi pengelolaan sampah organik menggunakan sistem Anaerobic Digester sedangkan untuk pengelolaan sampah anorganik menggunakan sistem 4R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Replace. Hasil dari pengelolaan sampah organik adalah kompos, limbah cair untuk budidaya ikan lele serta biogas. Untuk hasil sampah anorganik akan dijual kepada pengumpul barang bekas, digunakan sebagai bahan yang dapat diolah untuk berbagai kreasi dan dapat mempunyai nilai ekonomis. Proses ini memerlukan peran aktif dari masyarakat untuk mengelola sampah secara terus menerus sehingga dapat dijadikan contoh untuk tempat-tempat lain.

  2. Burned after reading: the so-called list of Alexandrian librarians in P. Oxy. X 1241 Brûlée après lecture : la liste dite des Bibliothécaires d'Alexandrie dans le P.Oxy. X 1241 Burned after reading; la cosiddetta lista di bibliotecari alessandrini in P.Oxy. X 1241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Murray

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article remet en question la valeur et la fiabilité du contenu du P.Oxy. X 1241, la liste dite des Bibliothécaires d’Alexandrie. Plutôt que de traiter de la liste des grammairiens des colonnes i.5.-ii.30 pour elle-même, comme les savants l’ont fait depuis que le papyrus a été publié, cet article prend en considération le document dans son intégralité. Cette lecture plus attentive du P.Oxy. X 1241 démontre qu’il y a une évidente continuité thématique entre la liste des grammairiens et les catalogues militaires qui suivent, qui n’a jamais été observée précédemment parce que les deux parties du document ont été traitées séparement. Il en découle des questions concernant trois hypothèses essentielles émises par les éditeurs originaux, B. P. Grenfell et A. S. Hunt : (1 la liste des col. i.5-ii.30 est-elle en réalité une liste des Bibliothécaires en chef de la Bibliothèque d’Alexandrie ? (2 le document est-il une copie ou une compilation de quelque œuvre savante qui remonte à la période hellénistique, et non la production d’un savant/grammairien du deuxième siècle de notre ère environ ? (3 Est-ce que les contenus du papyrus reflètent l’œuvre d’un savant/grammairien compétent qui était suffisamment informé sur la chronologie de la période ptolémaïque pour donner un décompte historiquement exact de la succession d’individus liés à la cour des Ptolémées et à la Bibliothèque d’Alexandrie ? S’il est vrai que dans son contenu et son utilisation de citations savantes le P.Oxy. X 1241 partage de nombreux points communs avec les catalogues en prose des époques hellénistique et impériale, les stratégies du discours savant déployées par l’auteur dans le catalogue militaire ne sont pas conformes aux normes des exemples scientifiques fiables. En conséquence, la valeur du texte comme preuve documentaire de l’histoire de la Bibliothèque d’Alexandrie a besoin d

  3. Uji Stabilitas Kit Cair Tetrofosmin pada Berbagai Kondisi Penyimpanan

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    Yunilda Yunilda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetrofosmin radiopharmaceutical compound that is being developed by PTRR BATAN for use as myocardial perfusion imaging agent and cancer diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is observe the stability of this liquid kits after stored in various condition to determine its expire date various condition. The stability test was done of 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 7 hours after labeling. The radiochemical was determined its radiochemical purity has to be ≥ 90 %. Analysis of radiochemical purity was carried out by separation method which using Sep-Pak C18 cartride. Storage condition of tetrofosmin kit was carried out at various temperatures as in the deep freezer (-800C, freezer (-180C, refrigerator (2-60C and cool box (2-60C. The result showed that the liquid tetrofosmin kits stored in deep freezer, freezer, refrigerator were stable up to 23 months, 8 weeks and 4 days respectively. Simulation of stability  test after stored in a cool box was done by observing the temperature of cool box, and the result showed that the temperature in the cool box was constant as in refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Tetrofosmin which has been labeled with technetium-99m can with stand up 7 hours. It is concluded that expiry date of liquid tetrofosmin kit related with storage temperature, the lower the temperature the longer the expiry date of the kits.

  4. Penggunaan amiloglukosidase dalam produksi gula cair dengan bahan dasar ubiubian

    OpenAIRE

    Tatik Khusniyati; Abdul Choliq; E Djajakusuma; D Sastraatmadja

    2001-01-01

    Sugar cane limitation was found in refined sugar production, so it needed other alternative in sugar production with various cassava. Taro, sweet potato and cassava as high carbohydtrate of various cassava can be used in liquid sugar production by using microbial enzyme. Amiloglucosidase Mucorjavanicus can degrade various cassava carbohydrate. To know liquid sugar quality of various cassava, the use of amyloglucosidase Mucorjavanius in liquid sugar production with various cassava were researc...

  5. Penggunaan amiloglukosidase dalam produksi gula cair dengan bahan dasar ubiubian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Khusniyati

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane limitation was found in refined sugar production, so it needed other alternative in sugar production with various cassava. Taro, sweet potato and cassava as high carbohydtrate of various cassava can be used in liquid sugar production by using microbial enzyme. Amiloglucosidase Mucorjavanicus can degrade various cassava carbohydrate. To know liquid sugar quality of various cassava, the use of amyloglucosidase Mucorjavanius in liquid sugar production with various cassava were researched. Observation were conducted with six treatments of amyloglucosidase concentration, that is 0.00% (control; 0.05%; 0.10%; 0.15%; 0.20% and 0.25%. the liquid sugar quality was detected by measuring reduction sugar ("DNS" method, water content (AOAC, pH, colour, and amyloglucosidase activity ("Samogeny" titration method. Statistical analysis used Complete Randomized Design. The result showed that the highest reduction sugar and amyloglucosidase activity on each sugar were found on liquid sugar 0.20% enzyme (p<0.05. the highest reduction sugar and amyloglucosidase activity, was respectively on Taro 323 mg/100ml and 54.91 unit/100 ml; sweet potato 242 mg/100 ml and 47.72 unit/100 ml; and cassava 188 mg/100 ml and 41.09 unit/100 ml. the lowest total solid or the highest water content between three sugars was on taro liquid sugar 0.20% enzyme, that is 64.97% and 35.03% respectively (p<0.05. pH liquid sugar on three various cassava was on range between 5.78-6.01. the best colour was on taro liquid sugar, that is brown to yellow. From three sugars with different raw material, the best sugar quality was tari liquid sugar with 0.20%.

  6. Using the CAIR-method to derive cognitive error mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straeter, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the second-generation method CAHR (Connectionism Assessment of Human Reliability; Straeter, 1997) that was developed at the Technical University of Munich and the GRS in the years from 1992 to 1998. The method enables to combine event analysis and assessment and therefore to base human reliability assessment on past experience. The term connectionism' was coined by modeling human cognition on the basis of artificial intelligence models. Connectionism is a term describing methods that represent complex interrelations of various parameters (known for pattern recognition, expert systems, modeling of cognition). The method enables to combine event analysis and assessment on past experience. The paper will demonstrate the application of the method to communication aspects in NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) and will give some outlooks for further developments. Application of the method to the problem of communication failures, for examples, initial work on communication within the low-power and shut down study for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), investigation of communication failures, importance of procedural and verbal communication for different error type and causes for failures in procedural and verbal communication are explained. (S.Y.)

  7. EFISIENSI PEMBERIAN PERUPUK TERHADAP SERAPAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI KARET

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    Deddy Dharmaji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to analyze the ability of perupuk (Phragmites karka Trin in reducing the element of rubber industrial liquid waste polluters on the scale of the laboratory. The method used was the method of survey. The data from laboratory test were tabulated and analyzed descriptively and the level of efficiency was calculated. Referring to South Kalimantan Governor Regulation Number 36 in 2008, the results showed that, TSS parameters started to be effectively reduced on day 10 (T 1 with close to 84,33 mg/l (32.53%, BOD5 started to be effectively reduced on day 20  (T 2 with close to 24.00 mg/l (99,29%, and COD started to be effectively reduced on day 20 (T 2 with close to 44,65 mg/l (98,90% due to the levels were already below the value of the Quality Standard Liquid Waste (QSLW.  Generally, time retention was best accomplished on day 30 (T 3 in reducing liquid waste rubber industry.

  8. Pemanfaatan Minyak Goreng Jelantah Pada Pembuatan Sabun Cuci Piring Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Pratiwi Putri

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the basic commodities, is highly needed by the Indonesian people, especially by housewives. Consuming reused cooking oil can cause serious diseases; therefore, there is an effort to use the reused cooking oil effectively in order that it does not soil the environment by reprocessing it as natural cooking oil or as materials from which liquid soap is made. The sample of the research was the reused cooking oil for frying tofu and tempe (soybean cake) after it had been reu...

  9. Rancang Bangun Alat Pengaduk Sabun Cair Bahan Baku Minyak Jelantah

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hakim, Muhammad Imam

    2015-01-01

    The process in making liquid soap from used cooking oil is an interesting thing to know. This research was held to design, construct, test, and analyze economic value of liquid soap stirrer made from used cooking oil. The parameter observed were water content, free fatty acid (FFA), alcohol insoluble part, effective capacity, yield, and economic analysis. Based on this research, it was summerized that effective capacity of this equipment was 20,2 l/hr. Yield percentage was 97,8%. Basic cos...

  10. KOMBINASI PENAMBAHAN UREA DAN EM-4 TERHADAP KUALITAS BOKASHI CAIR

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    Muhammad Dzulfikri Haidla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study is to determine the effect of EM-4 and Urea addition on the liquid Bokashi quality of chicken manure. The field research was conducted at California Papaya Farm Pulau Sari, Pelaihari, and the nutrient levels of liquid Bokashi are then analyzed in the laboratory of PPLH Banjarbaru. The research was conducted from February to March 2015. It used Complete Randomized Design (CRD of factorial pattern 2 with three levels of treatment and three replications, the first factor is the addition of urea, consisting of three levels those are 0 g, 7.5 g, 15 g, the second factor is the addition of EM-4, consisting of three levels those are 0 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, so that the number of trial units becomes 27 units. The variables measured are the Levels of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorous (P, Potassium (K, C-Organic, temperature, pH, color, smell, and texture. Quantitative observation data were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT, while the qualitative observation data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that the interaction between the addition of EM-4 and Urea were able to increase levels of nutrients N, P, K, C-Organic, and the temperature of the liquid Bokashi. Overall obtained treatment provision of EM-4 25 ml and 15 g Urea is the best treatment among other treatments. The addition of EM-4 was able to increase the levels of N, K, C-Organic and liquid Bokashi temperature, but it is unable to increase levels of the element P. Giving Urea can increase the levels of nutrients N, P, K, C-Organic, and the temperature of the liquid Bokashi. In observation of the organoleptic treatment with the addition of EM-4 and Urea, it tends to produce materials with better color, smell, and texture than the control treatment.

  11. Connecter l'Afrique, du Cap au Caire

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    CRDI : H. Hudson. LA RECHERCHE BIEN APPLIQUÉE. CENTRE DE RECHERCHES POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT INTERNATIONAL ... optique et de micro-ondes dotant les pays d'une capacité de transmission nationale et internatio- ... d'Afrique restent en effet paralysés par un éventail ahurissant de cadres de politiques.

  12. Komponen Kimia Asap Cair Hasil Pirolisis Limbah Padat Kelapa Sawit

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    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical components of liquid smoke which is produced via pyrolisis of palm oil solid waste have been analyzed by using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Solid waste consists of shell, empty fruit bunch, and palm fiber. Solid waste was obtained from palm oil manufactory in Tanjung Semantok,  Aceh province. The objective of this research was to investigate the chemical components in liquid smoke obtained from various palm oil solid waste. Sample was pyrolyzed at 500°C for 5 hours by using tube furnace reactor type 21100 which is equipped by thermolyne as temperature adjustment. The yield of pyrolysis from shell, empty fruit bunch and palm fiber are 52,02; 29,59; and 34,88%, respectively. The results showed that 27; 13 and 11 compounds of chemical were observed in liquid smoke obtained by pyrolysis of shell, empty fruit bunch, and palm fiber, respectively. Overall, acetic acid and phenol are the highest concentration of chemical obtained in this research. Keywords: palm oil solid waste, pyrolysis, liquid smoke, chemical compound

  13. METODE ESTIMASI PROPERTI KRITIS UAP-CAIR KOMPONEN MURNI ESTER

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    Dhoni Hartantoa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel become eco-friendly renewable energy resources which is consisted of monoalkyl ester or long chain fatty acid from plants or animal. Biodiesel has more advantage than petrodiesel. Property of pure compound such as critical properties are the important thing to determine chemical mixtures behavior and also as base of equation of state. Joback method can show good results in estimating critical properties of monoalkyl ester.

  14. PENANGANAN SAMPAH ORGANIK DENGAN BAK SAMPAH KOMPOSTER DI DUSUN SUSUKAN KELURAHAN SUSUKAN KECAMATAN SUSUKAN KABUPATEN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aklis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Not properly managed of garbage will impact the health, social and economic. It occurs in RT 03, RT 04 RW 1, Susukan Village, Semarang District. Most residents of both RT are still throwing garbage in any place, and others make puddles for landfills. This paper addresses the issue of handling organic waste from the initially discarded in places and wallow carelessly processed into compost and liquid fertilizer in a composter in Susukan Village , District of Semarang. The activities begins with making management team that are divided according to their respective RT, provision of trash for inorganic waste, manufacture and operation of the composter training for the management team, training provision and operation of the composter for residents. The results of activities undertaken resident of RT 03 RW 04 has a system to manage garbage, produce fertilizer so the impact on improving the quality of health and social citizens.

  15. Pengelolaan Pelatihan Pembuatan Pupuk Organik Bagi Remaja Putus Sekolah Di Pampung Plumbon Karanganyar

    OpenAIRE

    Shintara, Galuh Ajeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the planning and implementation of training dropout, describes the factors driving and the problems encountered in the training dropout organic fertilizer, and describe the impact of the activity of teenagers dropping out of school in the training of organic fertilizer in the hamlet Pampung. The approach used in this study is qualitative descriptive. Data collection was conducted using interview, observation and documentation. From the results, the dat...

  16. Model Penerimaan Petani Terhadap Teknologi Sistem Pertanian Organik Di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Wiratmadja, Iwan Inrawan; Nurjanah, Noneng; Kurniawati, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    . The survey result of Indonesian Organic Alliance (AOI) shows that there were 40% increasing of organic food consumer during 2012 to 2013. This condition indicates that the availability of organic product should be increased. The purpose of this research is to develop a model which describes the factors that affect the farmers' intention on implementing organic farming technology, especially in Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, and to identify the influence of perceived usefulness toward the attitude ...

  17. Model Penerimaan Petani terhadap Teknologi Sistem Pertanian Organik di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Inrawan Wiratmadja; Noneng Nurjanah; Amelia Kurniawati

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The survey result of Indonesian Organic Alliance (AOI) shows that there were 40% increasing of organic food consumer during 2012 to 2013. This condition indicates that the availability of organic product should be increased. The purpose of this research is to develop a model which describes the factors that affect the farmers’ intention on implementing organic farming technology, especially in Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, and to identify the influence of perceived usefulness toward the a...

  18. Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Varietas Ciherang Terhadap Pemberian Pupuk Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Vira Irma

    2011-01-01

    VIRA IRMA SARI. Response of Growth and Production of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Variety Ciherang to The Application of Organic Fertilizer. Scarcity of inorganic fertilizer and the negative effect caused by inorganic fertilizer continuing to make organic fertilizer as a solution to overcome these problems. The availability of organic fertilizers is expected that the farmers can get the optimal production and profit, because the organic fertilizer is cheaper and easy ...

  19. Aplikasi Analytical Hierarchy Process Pada Pemilihan Metode Analisis Zat Organik Dalam Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Rimantho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the food products analyzed in water chemistry and environmental laboratories. One of the parameters analyzed are organic substances. The number of samples that were not comparable with the analytical skills can cause delays in test results. Analytical Hierarchy Process applied to evaluate the analytical methods used. Alternative methods tested include titrimetric method, spectrophotometry, and total organic carbon (TOC. Respondents consisted of deputy technical manager, laboratory coordinator, and two senior analysts. Alternative results obtained are methods of TOC. Proposed improvements alternative analytical method based on the results obtained, the method of the TOC with a 10-15 minute analysis time and use of CRM to the validity of the analysis results.

  20. EFIKASI TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM DENGAN BERBAGAI BAHAN ORGANIK DALAM PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG PADA LADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipta Ginting

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the influence of the kinds of organic matter on the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai to control foot rot of black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian.  Trichoderma spp. were isolated from suppressive and non-suppressive soils taken from black pepper fields with high disease incidence.  Screening of Trichoderma spp. isolates was conducted through antagonistic test with dual culture technique.  Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with six replications.  Treatments were rice husk, rice straw, wood dust, Arachis pintoi, mixture of the four organic matters, the mixture without T. harzianum, and without organic matter.  The test was conducted in greenhouse with media consisted of soil, organic matter, and sand (2 : 2 : 1, v/v.  After being otoclaved, the medium was infested with T. harzianum and P. capsici each with five mycelium plugs of 1-cm diameter.  Black pepper seedlings were planted 5 days after fungal infestation.  After planting the seedlings, five leaf cuts were partly inserted into the soil on each pot.  The variables observed were disease incidence on the leaf cuts inserted into the soil and disease severity on the stems and roots.  The results show that all 16 Trichoderma isolates inhibited P. capsici colonies and some isolates showed stronger inhibition than the others.  T. harzianum reduced disease severity, but there was no effect of the kinds of organic matter on the ability of T. harzianum to control foot rot.

  1. Bahan Organik Total dan Kelimpahan Bakteri di Perairan Teluk Benoa, Bali

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    Ni Luh Eta Yuspita

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Benoa Bay is semi-enclosed waters that have various activities. The existence of these activities will contribute to organic matter in the waters so that the effect on the presence of bacteria. This study aims to determine the total concentration of total organic matter (TOM and bacterial abundance as well as its spatial and temporal distribution, and to determine the relationship of TOM concentration to bacterial abundance in the waters of Benoa Bay. Data collection is conducted on the surface of the waters in December 2016 to February 2017 when ebb conditions at 5 Benoa Bay water stations. Measurement of organic matter using permanganate test in titimetry based on standard methods SNI 06-6989.22-2004. Measurement of bacterial abundance using Total Plate Count (TPC method. The TOM concentrations ranged from 63.20 to 65.10 mg/l and bacterial abundances ranged from 30 to 300 CFU/ml. Spatial distribution of TOM concentration and bacterial abundance tends to be higher close to Suwung Landfills (TPA activity, floating net cage cultivation (KJA activity in Serangan waters, and Buaji river estuary and tend to be lower approaching Benoa harbor activity and waters further from those activities. The concentration of TOM and bacterial abundance in December 2016 to February 2017 have fluctuating values. Based on the interpretation of the correlation coefficient, the level of relationship between BOT concentration and bacterial abundance in the waters of Benoa Bay is quite strong.

  2. Pengaruh Kombinasi Komposisi Media Organik dan Konsentrasi Nutrisi terhadap Daya Hasil Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Khoirul Bariyyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was addressed to study the effect of plant growth media composition and nutrients concentration on yield of Cucumis melo L. The research was designed in complete factorial test of 4x4 with three replicates. Mixed growth media of bokashi:cocopeat:husk charcoal were tested in four compositions, i.e. 90%:5%:5% (M1, 80%:10%:10%(M2, 70%:15%:15% (M3 and 60%:20%:20% (M4 respectively. The other tested factor was nutrients concentraion that consists of four levels, i.e. control/no nutrient given (K0, 2 g/L (K1, 4 g/L (K2 and 6 g/L (K3. The Action 434 variety of Cucumis melo L. seedlings were then transplanted into 10 kg’s polybag and allowed to grow till harvested. The results showed that Chlorophyll content of M1 plants were higher than others, but the highest sugar content was resulted by M3 plants, and the highest thick of flesh fruit was resulted by interaction 60% bokashi:20% cocopeat:20% husk charcoal with 4 g/L nutrient concentration.

  3. Metode Irigasi Tetes dan Perlakuan Komposisi Bahan Organik dalam Budidaya Stroberi

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    Afik Hardanto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a commercial fruit. It’s Growth and quality is influenced by soil condition, climate, and its self. Irrigation influences soil characteristic, such as: physical, chemical, and microbiological than influence an environment of its growth. this research used drip irrigation method with debit variation and organic matter composition. RCBD was used in this research. Variation of irrigation debit and organic matter composition are the independent variables, whereas dependent variables are C-Organic, N-available, characteristic of soil, and quality of strawberry fruit. Variation of debit irrigation did not significant influence to C-Organic, whereas organic matter composition had significant influence to C-Organic in 63th, 84th, and 105th day of planting. The highest C-Organic content on D3P3 treatment that is 17.92% and the lowest on D2P2 treatment that is 5.19%. Debit of irrigation influence to N-available content in 105th day of planting. The highest N-available content in D3P1 treatment that is 0.88 ppm, whereas the lowest N-available content in D2P3 treatment that is 0.67 ppm. Result of analysis, debit irrigation had significant influence and could increase fruit weight and reduction sugar-content. Organic matter composition had significant influence to increase fruit weight, vitamin C, total of soluble-solid, and reduction sugar-content. Combination of irrigation debit and organic matter composition had significant influence to fruit weight. In the treatment, debit of irrigation that make good influence to fruit quality is 300 ml/day/polybag and 1:2 ratio of organic matter composition.

  4. Pencirian Karbon Organik Air Sungai Citarum Hulu Dari Masukan Air Limbah Penduduk Dan Industri

    OpenAIRE

    Harsono, Eko; Nomosatryo, Sulung

    2010-01-01

    Characterisation of Organic Carbon of Up Stream Citarum River Water from Domestic andIndustrial Waste Effluent. The local government of Citarum upstream area has conducted theriver cleaning program to increase Disolved Oxygen since 1991 until now. The program hasimpacted to installments of to wastewater treatment for 80% industrials in the Upper Citarumdrainage area declining the load of BOD5 wastewater. However most of waste water comingfrom Banung population have been treated in the collect...

  5. ANALISIS PAKET TEKNOLOGI LOKAL DALAM PENGELOLAAN PRODUKSI MADU ORGANIK UNTUK PASAR GLOBAL DAN INDUSTRI

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    Rudi Hilmanto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of honey conventionally by community do generate constraint at marketing to global market and industry. Model local technological packet is hoped improve the value sell honey commodity to go in global market and industry. Activity of production organic honey use local technological packet is hoped able to face Free Trade Agreement (FTA for local farmer. Local Technological packet at activity produce honey commodity, is expected be able to develop and strengthen production quality commodity. The objective of this research was to analyse the local technological packet at activity produce organic honey commodity to industrial and the global market in the form of technological model of management produce honey. The research method use Knowledge Base Creation constructively computer program of Agroekological Knowledge Toolkit 5 (AKT5. Result of research indicate that application local technological packet at activity produce organic honey had to watched five activity, namely: (a system agroforestry as source of nectar and pollen; (b to improve the stock honeybee; (c select, breeder, making bee hive honey; (d give meal artificial (e time and technique of cropping, till the product was sold. The result of reseach showed that the responder group applying activity produce honey organic at species Apis cerana yield 2,5 kg each stup, rate moisture content 20%, not turbid, and cleared at yielded honey. Result Interpretation was showed fulfill ideal technology management target

  6. Pengaruh lama fermentasi EM-4 terhadap kandungan protein kasar padatan kering lumpur organik unit gas bio

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    M. Wildan Fajarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to know good duration against the influence of the duration of EM-4 fermentation by adding EM-4 to increase contents of crude protein for dry solids of unit organic sludge bio gas. The materials of this research were dry solids of organic sludge biogas unit resulted from the separation of organic sludge. The research method was experiments using Completely Randomized Design with different duration of fermentation treatments as follow 0 hour (P1, 24 hours (P2, 48 hours (P3, and 72 hours (P4 with 6 times recurrences to each treatments. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan's Multiple Range test if they were significantly different. The result of Analysis of Variance shows that there was an increase of rough protein to P1, P2, P3, and P4. Specifically for P4 treatment gave very different influence (P<0.01 against crude protein contents. The research suggested adding EM-4 in the fermentation process of organic sludge solids biogas unit for 72 hour to increase the crude protein content. Keywords: fermentation, biogas, sludge, crude protein

  7. Model Penerimaan Petani terhadap Teknologi Sistem Pertanian Organik di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya

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    Iwan Inrawan Wiratmadja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The survey result of Indonesian Organic Alliance (AOI shows that there were 40% increasing of organic food consumer during 2012 to 2013. This condition indicates that the availability of organic product should be increased. The purpose of this research is to develop a model which describes the factors that affect the farmers’ intention on implementing organic farming technology, especially in Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, and to identify the influence of perceived usefulness toward the attitude in implementing organic farming technology. The factors influencing farmers’ intention are identified through understanding about the influence of attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control. Research model testing was conducted using the approach of Partial Least Square (PLS with sample data obtained through interviews with 81 organic farmers in Tasikmalaya, West Java. The result of this research shows that perceived usefulness construct is significantly influence farmer’s attitude towards organic farming. Moreover, attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control are also significantly influenced towards farmer’s intention to organic farming. Keywords: Acceptance of Technology, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Acceptance Model, Organic Farming, Farmer’s Intention

  8. Efektivitas Pupuk Organik Dan Pupuk N Pada Pertumbuhan Bibit Eboni (Diospyros Celebica Bakh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Hartutiningsih M; Utami, Ning Wikan

    2002-01-01

    Eboni (Diospyros celebica Bakh.) merupakan tanaman keras dan termasuk jenis kayu mewah yang tumbuh alami di Sulawesi.Masalah yang dihadapi adalah pertumbuhan bibit yang lamban sehingga diperlukan percobaan tentang media pertumbuhan bibit yang sesuai. Bahan yang digunakan adalah bibit eboni berumur 6 bulan dengan pertumbuhan seragam.Percobaan I: Bibit ditanam pada polybag berkapasitas 5 kg yang masing-masing berisi campuran media tanam yakni A (tanah); B (tanah:kompos = 1:1); C (tanah:pupuk ka...

  9. Aplikasi Pengolahan Citra Digital dan Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan untuk Memprediksi Kadar Bahan Organik dalam Tanah

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    Hermantoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine organic matter content in soil using image processing and artificial neural network. The images of soil were captured using digital camera and processed using image process algorithm. The images parameter data i.e. red, green, blue, hue, saturation, intensity, mean, entropy, energy, contrast, and homogeneity were extracted from sixty soil sample with different organic matter content. Parameter images data were used as the inputs data for ANN analysis. Output layer of ANN is organic matter content in soil. Based on experiment found that application of image processing and ANN for predicting organic matter content in soil have the high accuracy with coefficient determination of 90.75 % and mean square error (MSE of 0.002762.

  10. Pengaruh Frekuensi Pengadukan Pada Pembuatan Kompos Dari Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dan Pupuk Organik Aktif

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Jeni

    2015-01-01

    The composting of an Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) by mixing it with activated organic fertilizer (AOF) was an alternative in the utilization of solid waste produced from the palm oil mill. This research was to study the composting technique for EFB and to collect the degration data during composting of EFB with turning frequency in order to get a high quality compost. The composting process was started with cutting the TKKS into 1-3 cm in size before it was put into "Takakura" ba...

  11. Karakteristik Beberapa Sifat Fisik, Kimia, dan Biologi Tanah pada Sistem Pertanian Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Margolang, Rizky Dharmawan

    2016-01-01

    This research was carried out in an organic garden Environmental Education Center (PPLH) Bohorok in the Village District of Bohorok Fight Weigh Langkat. This study was conducted in November 2013 - April 2014. The purpose of the study to determine the characteristics of some of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil in organic farming systems. The study was conducted by survey method by evaluating the nature of the soil in agricultural areas based on time implementation of o...

  12. Bioremediasi tumpahan minyak mentah dengan metode biostimulasi nutrien organik di lingkungan pantai Surabaya Timur

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    Munawar Munawar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present effects of nutrients in the bioremediation process of spilled crude oil in a coastal environment. An emphasis is directed at looking at effectiveness of organic-based nutrients in that process using a method of bio-stimulation. An insitu test was undertaken in a coastal area, located at the East side of Surabaya City, Indonesia, by making multiple trial compartments, with a size of 0.5 × 0.5 m2 each; and the space between the compartments is 0.25 m. At every compartment, one liter of crude oil was spilled. Three days later, it was added with organic-based nutrient on the treatment (0.2; 0.3 and 0.4 kg/kg soil.

  13. Karakteristik Beberapa Sifat Fisik, Kimia, Dan Biologi Tanah Pada Sistem Pertanian Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky Dharmawan Margolang,, Rizky Dharmawan Margolang; Jamilah, Jamila; Sembiring, Mariani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study to determine the characteristis of some of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil in organic farming systems. The study was held about 6 month from November 2013 to April 2014 in Bioenvironment Education Center of Organic Farming Bahorok in Timbang Lawan village, Bahorok, at Langkat district for observe the characteristic of some physical, chemical, and biological characteristic of soil in organic farming system. This research was conducted with sur...

  14. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAMAN KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomea reptans Poir)

    OpenAIRE

    Edi, Syafri

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for vegetables should be offset by the increasing of production. Kangkung is one of short-lived plants and the price can be reached by various circles of society. Therefore, kangkung can be used as food diversification in Indonesia. To get good quality vegetables and optimal yield, fertilization is a very important technology. Fertilization aims to add nutrients to the plants so that the plants can grow and produce well. The study aims to determine the effect of using or...

  15. Mekanisme Penambatan Nitrogen Udara oleh Bakteri Rhizobium Menginspirasi Perkembangan Teknologi Pemupukan Organik yang Ramah Lingkungan

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    GEDE MENAKA ADNYANA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of microbes with human living in the nature are able to seen from their capabilitiesimproving the environmental by composting waste of agriculture to become organic fertilizer. In thecontrary, the epidemic and infectious phatogens are also its contribution. In agriculture sector, the livingof microbes has been explored to keep the soil fertile, and to improve growth and plant production.The symbiosis of Rhizobium bacteria with the specific host plant from legumes is able to run because ofboth side giving a signal, where host plant give an organic molecoles called inducer. From the bacteriaside, also give an organic materials called nod factor. The step of nitrogen fixation mechanism can bedescribed from infection of root legume as the first step, followed by the nitrogen fixation by thebacteroid and synthesis of the nitrogen organic by host plant as the last step. These natural processesinspire finding and development of the ecologically organic fertilizer technology.

  16. PENGOMPOSAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN LUMPUR DARI INSTALASI PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH INDUSTRI KERTAS DAN SAMPAH DOMESTIK ORGANIK

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    Badrus Zaman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste water treatment of paper industry yield side product in the form of sludge which have generated problembecause there is no continuation processing. Composting sludge which come from waste water processing differfrom other composting organic solid waste, which generally in the form of dry substance. In this research usedadditional substance in the form of organic domestic solid waste, with variation sludge : domestic solid waste(kg/kg successively 1 : 1, 1 : 4, 1 7, 3 : 2, and 5 : 3. Composting method is done by open windrow, where thecompost heaped longly and let to be opened (aerob. Result of research indicate that to the overall of variationof compost really have fulfilled standard of good ripeness compost according to SNI 19-7030-2003 and alsoaccording to other ripe compost standard. Besides, all variation of compost have yielded ripe compost withcharacteristic fulfilling hara required by crop. Variation Compost 1 : 1 representing the best compost with COrganiccontent 41,507 %, N-Total content 3,008 %, ratio C/N 13,80, moisture rate 44,03 %, P-Total content1,085 %, K-Total content 4,183 %, final temperature 30,3° C and pH 7,98

  17. DESAIN KEMASAN MAKANAN KUB SUKARASA DI DESA WISATA ORGANIK SUKOREJO SRAGEN

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    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the design of packaging for both food products produced by KUB Sukarasa Tourism Village Organic Sukorejo Sragen. This is important because the packaging is one of the marketing tools. Food products in KUB Sukarasa in District Sambirejo Sragen sold in transparent plastic packaging and without label. This makes the level of sales is not maximized. This research has three objectives: first, create a packaging design that has the right size so easily carried by consumers and attractive for sale by the merchant. The second objective, informative designing packaging labels, such as product name, manufacturer's address, net weight, expiration date, product composition, and information about kosher. The research method used was experimental. The end result of this research is a product packaging design good food and interesting. This packaging design can be used by UMKM to develop their product marketing strategies in order to increase sales.

  18. EKSTRAKSI TANNIN SEBAGAI BAHAN PEWARNA ALAMI DARI TANAMAN PUTRIMALU (MIMOSA PUDICA MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ORGANIK

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    Tjukup Marnoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EXTRACTION OF TANNINS AS NATURAL DYES FROM PUTRIMALU (MIMOSA PUDICA PLANT USING VARIOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS. Public awareness on using natural dyes has encouraged the extraction of tannins from putrimalu. Extraction was performed continuously using a Soxhlet apparatus. The parameter studied was the influence of solvent polarity on the amount of tannin and mass transfer coefficient. Tannin was extracted from ten grams of dried putrimalu plants using polar solvents (ethanol, acetone and methanol and a non-polar solvent (n-hexane. Extraction is considered complete when the concentration of tannins in the liquid is no longer changing with time. Liquid samples were withdrawn every 20 minutes interval for tannin analyses using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. The results showed that the maximum concentration of tannins in the extract (g/mL when extraction were performed using n-hexane was 0.0031, acetone (0.016, methanol (0.0274 and ethanol (0.044. From extract yield and mass transfer coefficient point of views, it can be concluded that the best solvent is ethanol. The relationship between tannin concentration in the ethanol 96% solvent and the time was expressed in term of mathematical equations             CAL=1.046(1-e-0.0213t with error was 3.6%. Where CAL is the concentration of tannins in the solvent (g/ml and t is the extraction time (minutes.  Kesadaran masyarakat untuk kembali menggunakan bahan pewarna alami mendorong dilakukannya ekstraksi tannin dari putrimalu. Ekstraksi dilakukan secara kontinyu menggunakan alat Soxhlet. Parameter yang dipelajari adalah pengaruh polaritas pelarut terhadap ekstrak tannin dan koefisien transfer massa. Tannin diekstrak dari sepuluh gram tanaman putrimalu kering menggunakan pelarut polar (etanol, aseton dan metanol dan pelarut non-polar n-heksana. Ekstraksi dianggap selesai jika konsentrasi tannin di dalam pelarut sudah tidak berubah. Tannin di dalam contoh cairan yang diambil setiap selang waktu 20 menit  dianalisis menggunakan Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi tannin maksimum (g/mL yang terdapat dalam larutan yang mengandung ekstrak jika ekstraksi menggunakan n-heksana adalah 0,0031, aseton (0,016, metanol (0,0274 dan etanol (0,044. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ditinjau dari perolehan ekstrak dan koefieisen perpindahan massa, maka pelarut yang terbaik adalah etanol. Hubungan antara konsentrasi tannin di dalam pelarut etanol 96% dan waktu dinyatakan dengan persamaan matematika: CAL=1,046(1-e-0,0213.t dengan kesalahan 3,6%. Dimana CAL adalah konsentrasi tannin dalam pelarut (g/mL dan t adalah waktu ekstraksi (menit

  19. Respon Pertumbuhan Planlet Anggrek Dendrobium sp. Melalui Aplikasi Ekstrak Tauge dan Air Kelapa pada Media Organik

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    HESTIN YUSWANTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Growth Response of Orchid Plantlets of Dendrobium sp. by Aplicación of Bean Sprouts Extract and Coconut Water in Organic Medium The aim of this researh is to obtain the effect of coconut water and bean sprouts extract and the best combination added to organic medium on growth of orchid planlets in vitro. The experiment was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, Udayana University, Pegok Denpasar from Mei until Oktober 2012. The research design was Completely Randomized Design (RAL with ten treatments and six replications. The results of this ezperiment showed that addition of coconut water at concentration of 150 ml/l and bean sprouts extract of 50 ml/l resulted in the best growth of orchid planlet which includes the height of plantlets (4,10 cm, the number of leaf (3,33 leaves, length of root (1,07 cm. The total fresh weight of plantlet was 0,20 g and total oven dry-weight of plantlet was 0,021 g.

  20. Pertumbuhan Dan Produktivitas Sawi Pak Choy (Brasica Rapa L.) Pada Umur Transplanting Dan Pemberian Mulsa Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Pribadi, Gandhi Yudhistira; Roviq, Mochammad; Wardiyati, Tatik

    2014-01-01

    Potensi produksi tanaman pak choy belum optimal, rendahnya produksi pak choy dikarenakan pada teknik budidayanya petani cendrung tidak memperhatikan kondisi lingkungan mikro dan masih belum adanya standart transplanting yang tepat. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan teknik budidaya pak choy dengan penggunaan mulsa dan saat transplanting yang tepat. Dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei - Juli 2013 di Desa Pandanrejo, Kecamatan Bumiaji - Batu. Penelitian menggunakan Ranca-ngan Acak Kelompok Faktoria...

  1. Penggunaan Kromium Organik dari Beberapa Jenis Fungi terhadap Aktivitas Fermentasi Rumen Secara in Vitro

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    W.D. Astuti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium appears to be an essential trace element since 1959, but its effect on ruminal microbes is not clear yet. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of organic chromium supplementation on rumen fermentation activity. An in vitro technique was held using randomized block design with 13 treatments and 3 replications. There were four kinds of organic Cr used, produced with four different species of fungi as carriers. Fungi used as carriers were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizophus oryzae and “ragi tape”. The result indicated that the optimum organic Cr supplementation was 1 mg organic Cr/kg dry matter. Supplementation of 1 mg organic Cr/kg dry matter increased dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. It also tended to increase NH3 and total VFA production. Propionate production increased, which decreased methane production and increased hexose conversion efficiency in several treatments. Each fungus used as carrier of organic Cr resulted in different effects on rumen fermentation activity, but the effects was within a normal range. It was concluded that either Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizophus oryzae or “ragi tape” could be used as carrier in organic Cr production.

  2. Analisa Asam Organik Dan Asam Amino Pada Natto Yang Difermentasi Oleh 7 Strain Bacillus Natto

    OpenAIRE

    SULISTYO, JOKO

    1986-01-01

    JOKO SUUSTYO. 1986. Analysis of organic acid and amino acid in natto fermented by 7 strains of Bacillus natto. Berita Biologi 3 (6): 277 - 282. The ability of seven strains of Bacillus natto produced a number of organic and amino acid components in natto were investigated. Raw, submerced and autoclaved soybeans for natto contained 1.15% 0.46% and 0.77% in organic acid and 0.19%, 0.30% and 0.30% in amino acid, while after fermentation those range were 0.36 - 0.90% in organic acid and 2.86 -6.0...

  3. Perancangan Marketing Plan sebagai Salah Satu Strategi untuk Meningkatkan Penjualan pada Pa Tani Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Rintan

    2016-01-01

    Ketertarikan masyarakat untuk mengkonsumsi makanan organic mulai meningkat, dalam hal ini adalah sayuran dan buah. Masyarakat mulai perduli terhadap kesehatan. “Pa Tani Organik” salah satu produsen penghasil sayur dan buah organic berusaha untuk memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat tersebut. Proses pemasaran yang selama ini dilakukan melalui direct marketing. Untuk meningkatkan penjualan pada “Pa Tani Organik” maka perlu dirancang marketing plan agar diperoleh hasil yang maksimal. Analisa strategi a...

  4. MENGGALI KEKUATAN INTERNAL MASYARAKAT MELALUI ENERGI BARU TERBARUKAN KHUSUSNYA LIMBAH TERNAK SAPI DI DESA WANAJAYA, KECAMATAN WANARAJA, KABUPATEN GARUT – PROVINSI JAWA BARAT

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    Sriyanti Sriyanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energi baru terbarukan merupakan suatu pengembangan teknologi dalam rangka pemanfaatan sumberdaya alam ataupun non-alami yang dimanfaatkan untuk menjadi suatu energy baru seperti biogas dan listrik. Tenaga listrik merupakan sumber energi yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan manusia baik untuk kegiatan industri,kegiatan komersial maupun kehidupan sehari-hari masyarakat. Termasuk untuk Desa Wanajaya, sebagai desa yang merupakan penghasil ternak khususnya sapi. Desa ini merupakan pilot project dalam pengembangan biomassa menjadi bio gas, namun karena adanya beberapa kendala maka pilot project tersebut tidak berkelanjutan. Pengolahan kotoran ternak menjadi biogas selain menghasilkan gas metan untuk memasak juga mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan, menghasilkan pupuk organik padat dan pupuk organik cair dan yang lebih penting lagi adalah mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap pemakaian bahan bakar minyak bumi yang tidak bisa diperbaharui. Tujuan kegiatan PKM ini yaitu melakukan tahapan awal di dalam rencana penerapan teknologi tepat guna pemanfaatan kotoran sapi sebagai sumber energi gas dan energi listrik alternatif di Desa Wanajaya, Kec. Wanaraja – Kabupaten Garut. Besarnya produksi kotoran sapi per hari atau per tahunnya menjadi daya tarik dan kekuatan untuk bisa memanfaatkan limbah ternak menjadi biogas dan energi alternatif bagi lingkungan masyarakat local. Selain ketersedian kotoran sapi sebagai modal utama untuk pemanfaatan limbah ternak (kotoran sapi ada factor-faktor lain yang harus diperhatikan, antara lain ; pakan ternak yang digunakan, pengelolaan limbah ternak, jumlah sapi, jarak lokasi timbunan kotoran dengan rumah dan lain-lain. Mengembangkan dan Meningkatkan kemampuan sumberdaya masyarakat didalam pemanfaatan limbah ternak menajdi berbagai alternatif baik sisi energi, biogas dan lainnya

  5. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH PETERNAKAN SAPI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KAPASITAS PRODUKSI PADA KELOMPOK TERNAK PATRA SUTERA

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    Danang Dwi Saputro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kelompok ternak Patra Sutera di Desa Ledok Kecamatan Sambong Kabupaten Blora yang berdiri pada tahun 2013 telah mempunyai sapi 8 ekor yang berada di kandang komunal yang dikelola oleh 6 anggota kelompok. Dalam satu hari setiap ekor sapi dapat menghasilkan limbah padat sebanyak 20-30 kg dan limbah cair sebanyak 100-150 liter yang selama ini belum dikelola dengan baik. Limbah dari kegiatan ternak belum terolah dengan baik dan dibuang ke lingkungan sehingga menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi kesehatan masyarakat sekitar kandang. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi kondisi ini adalah dengan memberikan pelatihan keterampilan atau pendampingan bagaimanakah teknik pembuatan pupuk organic dan reaktor biogas sederhana, mengoperasikan, serta memanfaatkan gas yang dihasilkan. Dalam kegiatan ini akan diberikan pelatihan keterampilan bagaimana cara mengolah limbah ternah untuk dijadikan pupuk dan pestisida organik,serta pengelolaan biodigester. Dari kegiatan ini Anggota kelompok ternak Patra Sutera mendapat pengetahuan dan mengolah limbah kotoran ternak (padat dan cair yang keliar dari biodigester menjadi pupuk yang lebih bermanfaat.

  6. Pertumbuhan, Hasil dan Analisis Produksi Tanaman Jagung (Zea mays L. yang Diperlakukan dengan Pupuk Organik dan Biourin di Lahan Kering

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    I MADE SUKADANA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth, Yield, and Production Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L. Treated by Organic Fertilizer and Cow Biourine in Dry Land Maize productivity in Bali is still low at around 3.4 ton/ha. Low soil fertility is one of the factors contributable to the low productivity of maize. Soil condition at the research field has low level of fertility with low levels of nitrogen and C-organic. This research aims at finding out the impact of organic fertilizers and cow biourine to the growth and yield of maize in dry land and to analyze it gross margin. Experiment was designed with randomized block design (RBD with two factors and four replications. The dosage of the first factor namely without organic fertilizer, cow organic fertilizer 15 tonnes/ha and worm casting fertilizer 15 tonnes/ha, whereas dosage of cow biourine namely 0 liter, 1.000 liters, 2.000 liters and 3.000 liters/ha respectively for the second factor. The research results show that there is highly significant interaction (p<0.01 between organic fertilizers and cow biourine to the number of leaves aged at 21, 35, 49 and 63 dap, trunk diameter, dry matter weight/plant, number of cobs/plant, and harvest index, however it shows significant interaction (p<0.05 to leave area index (LAI at age 35 dap and soil pH at harvest. The combination of worm casting fertilizer of 15 tonnes/ha with cow biourine 2.000 liters/ha resulted in the highest dry weight of seed/ha to 4,09 tonnes/ha, an increase of 69,71% compared to no fertilizer. The relationship between organic fertilizer and cow biourine to the dry matter yield follows a quadratic pattern, hence 15 tonnes/ ha worm casting fertilizer and 2000 liters/ha of cow biourine resulted in optimum yield from this research. Result from the gross margin analysis shows that revenue received at Rp 8.7935 million based on the price of dry shelled corn at Rp 2.150/kg does not cover the high variable cost at Rp 26.664,500.

  7. Pemanfaatan Bahan Organik sebagai Pembawa untuk Peningkatan Kepadatan Populasi Trichoderma viride pada Rizosfir pisang dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium

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    . Nurbailis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to determine the best organic matter as carrier for growth and increasing the density of Trichoderma viride strain TV-T1sk (TV-T1sk and its influence on Fusarium wilt disease development on banana seedling.  This research consisted of two experiments, i.e. (1. Growth  testing of TV-T1sk  in various organic matter, (2. Various organic matter testing for increasing the density of TV-T1sk in banana rhizosphere and its influence on  Fusarium wilt desease development.  The treatments were various organic matter, namely rice straw, sugar cane pulp, rice bran+banana plant waste,  hull of rice+sugar cane pulp and rice. The variables observed were  density and viability of conidia on various organic matter. Propagule density after introduction to banana rhizosphere was determined by observing TV-T1sk propagul from the rizosphere of banana seedling. The influence of density on Fusarium wilt disease development was determined by incubation period, the percentage of symptomized leaves and the intensity of corm damage. The results showed that both sugar cane pulp and rice were the best organic matter  for increasing  the growth and the density  of TV-T1sk  after introduction to banana rhizosphere. The density of TV-T1sk propagule on banana rhizophere influenced  the development of Fusarium wilt disease.

  8. EFEKTIFITAS KOMPOS LIMBAH MEDIA TANAM JAMUR TIRAM SEBAGAI PUPUK ORGANIK PADA BUDIDAYA BAWANG MERAH DI TANAH ULTISOL

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    Agus Mulyadi Purnawanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land resources is one of the critical success factors of farming systems. One of the potential land is Ultisol with an area of 47.5 million hectares, but has low soil fertility. So it needs to be studied regarding the use of compost of oyster mushroom growing media waste in Ultisol in onion cultivation. The research is based on a randomized block design with eight replications. Factors studied were oyster mushroom growing media waste consists of three levels ie without waste (L0, given the fresh waste as much as 20 t ha-1 (L1 and given compost waste as much as 20 t ha-1 (L2. The results showed that giving zeolite as much as 1 t ha-1 in Ultisol did not significantly affect onion crop, whereas giving of waste oyster mushroom growing medium as much as 20 t ha-1 significantly affected the onion crop, although there is no difference between waste fresh or composted. There is no interaction between the zeolite and the giving waste oyster mushroom growing media on growth and yield of onion.

  9. Evaluasi Penerapan Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP pada Usahatani Padi Organik di Kabupaten Bantul

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    Sriyadi Sriyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security has meaning not only the availability of adequate food, but also providing security for producers and consumers and ensuring environmental sustainability for sustainable production. Organic farming systems are expected to solve the problem for realizing food security and enhancement of people's welfare. The results of research indicated that, (1 The implementation level of Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming in Bantul district was quite high, (2 The implementation level of SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming related to the availability of capital, the selling price and the purchase price of inputs (seeds and fertilizers, (3 The level of the farmer's decision related to the implementation level of SOP-GAP of organic rice farming, and (4 development of organic rice farming required availability of sufficient capital. In this regard the government, particularly the agriculture authority and food security agency need to disburse or facilitate capital for farmers in revolving as well as low interest loans.

  10. Saluran Pemasaran Belimbing Organik (Averrhoa Carambola L.) pada Kelompok Tani Sekar Sari Subak Mambal, Desa Mambal, Kecamatan Abiansemal Kabupaten Badung

    OpenAIRE

    INDRASWARI, SAGUNG DWIYANTI; SUAMBA, I KETUT; DEWI, IDA AYU LISTIA

    2015-01-01

    Marketing Channel of Belimbing Organic (Averrhoa carambola L.) at Sekar Sari Farmer's Group of Subak Mambal, Mambal Village, Abiansemal District Badung Regency Marketing is economic activity which distributes goods from producen to consumen. Marketing aspect of Belimbing is the most important thing in supporting increase the result of Belimbing production. Many of institution involved in marketing will influence short and long of marketing chain and volume of marketing cost. The volume of m...

  11. EFIKASI ISOLAT TRICHODERMA TERPILIH DENGAN BAHAN ORGANIK UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG PADA LADA DI LAPANGAN

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    Cipta Ginting

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of selected Trichoderma isolate and organic matter to control foot rot of black pepper in the field. The objective of this experiment was to determine the efficacy of selected Trichoderma isolatand organic matter to control the disease. Dual culture method was used to select a Trichoderma isolate. The experiment to evaluate the efficacy of selected isolate consisted of control (no application of T. harzianum or organic matter, T. harzianum and rice straw, and T. harzianum and coffee husk. As starter, T. harzianum was grown in broken rice. Two liters of organic matter was infested with suspension of 10 g starter in 100 ml steril water and incubated for 2 weeks. The mixture was applied around the base of black pepper stem. The results showed that all plants treated with T. harzianum and organic matter did not show disease symptom. Ten percent of the control plants showed symptoms. However, statistical analysis showed that the occurrence of the disease was not significantly different between treatments. Applications ofT. harzianum and rice straw increased the density of Trichoderma for 1 and 2 months after application. T. harzianum and coffee husk increased the density of the fungus 1 month after application.

  12. Analisis Faktor Risiko kadar debu Organik di udara terhadap Gangguan fungsi Paru pada Pekerja Industri Penggilingan Padi di Demak

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    F. S. Nugraheni S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Industry will not only increase the prosperity of society, but also could bring on an effect of pollution, included rice mill industry at Demak Regency. The effect is air pollution, in which it would take along a disturbance on lung’s function of, especially, workers of the industry. The aim of this research is to find out risk factor of dust’s amount on air at working area to lung’s function of the workers inside, and also to measure the prevalence ratio of dust exposure’s effect to the disturbance of lung’s function on workers. Disturbance of lung’s function, on this research, is limited on lung function parameter, which are FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio and all are classified as dichotomy. Methods: This research is classified as survey analitic research with cross sectional approach. The population is workers on industry at Demak Regency. Research is carried on by measuring lung’s function parameter using Spirometer. The samples are 45 peoples of 3 (three rice mill industry. They are taken by Simple Random Sampling method of 85 existing workers. Results: The result shows that 34 of 45 respondents are working indoor with the amount of dust is bigger than Limiting Value. From the Statistical Test, we get that the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function on workers is influenced by the amount of dust on air at working area (p value = 0,002, and also strengthened by working duration (p value = 0,000, smoking habit (p value = 0,001, and the existence of history of lung disease (p value = 0,001. The prevalence ratios of each independent variables to the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function are : the amoung of organic dust on air (PR = 3,018, p value = 0.039, and also strengthened by the existence of history of lung disease (PR = 3.535, p value = 0.021, working duration (PR = 4.130, p value = 0.024. Meanwhile, the utilization of masker is proven not influencing in decreasing the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function. It is caused by the utilization on observation is not the real one during the working duration of respondents. Conclusions: Based on the results explained above, we need to implement some exact steps in order to decrease work diseases, which are caused by organic dust of the grain’s grinding, in form of monitoring and controlling held by the industrialists and related institutions to the amount of dust, safety aid (masker and the workers’ healthy by doing a continue examination of lung’s function Keyword : Organic dust, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, Rice mill industry.

  13. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Minat dan Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen Produk Pangan Organik di Supermarket Brastagi Medan

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    Marpaung, Fenny Krisna

    2016-01-01

    People’s awareness of the trend in having healthy lifestyle has developed since the last decade. Healthy lifestyle has encouraged people to consume organic foods. Brastagi Supermarket, Medan, is one of the modern retail stores which have great opportunity to market its organic food products. Consumers are expected to have preference to organic foods. The problem is that consumers from the upper and middle class are not regular customers. The objective of the research was to analyze some facto...

  14. Upaya Meningkatkan Kualitas Bokashi Melalui Pemberian Cangkang Telur, Abu Dapur, Dan Urine Sapi Serta Penerapannya Dalam Budidaya Sawi Secara Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Walunguru, Lena; Lende, Aloysius Ng

    2008-01-01

    Increasing Quality of Bokashi by Apply Eggshell Powder, Ash, and Cow Urine and Application in Cultivation of Organic Mustard Green. The research aimed to know quality of bokashi added eggshell powder, ash, and cow urine to plant productivity.The research used Completely Randomized Block Design consisting of eight treatments were bokashi (B0), bokashi added eggshell powder (B1), bokashi added ash (B2), bokashi added cow urine (B3), bokashi added eggshell powder and ash (B4), bokashi added egg...

  15. PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABE RAWIT (Capsicum frutescent L.) DI TANAH ULTISOL MENGGUNAKAN BOKASHI SAMPAH ORGANIK RUMAH TANGGA DAN NPK

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    Mega Silvia; Hilda Susanti; Samharinto Samharinto; Gt. Muhammad Sugian Noor

    2016-01-01

    Research on the production of chilli in utisol soil using organic household waste bokashi and NPK was conducted  in Banjarbaru from February to June 2015. The research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments. The treatments were (P1) 100% NPK, (P2) 100% NPK + bokashi, (P3) 75% NPK + bokashi, (P4) 50% NPK + bokashi, (P5) 25% NPK + bokashi, (P6) 100% bokashi. 100% NPK and 100% bokashi were 250 kg ha-1 NPK and 10 t ha-1 bokashi respectively. The result showed that the aplicat...

  16. PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABE RAWIT (Capsicum frutescent L. DI TANAH ULTISOL MENGGUNAKAN BOKASHI SAMPAH ORGANIK RUMAH TANGGA DAN NPK

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    Mega Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the production of chilli in utisol soil using organic household waste bokashi and NPK was conducted  in Banjarbaru from February to June 2015. The research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six treatments. The treatments were (P1 100% NPK, (P2 100% NPK + bokashi, (P3 75% NPK + bokashi, (P4 50% NPK + bokashi, (P5 25% NPK + bokashi, (P6 100% bokashi. 100% NPK and 100% bokashi were 250 kg ha-1 NPK and 10 t ha-1 bokashi respectively. The result showed that the aplication of treatments gave affected to height increase, number of nodes, first day of appearing flower, biomass, fruit number and weight of fresh fruit The combination of 75% NPK and organic household waste bokashi can be recomended as the best doses for production of chilli. Organic household waste bokashi can contribute to reduce 25% of NPK aplication on the production of chili.

  17. Produksi Tanaman Cabe Rawit (Capsicum Frutescent L.) Di Tanah Ultisol Menggunakan Bokashi Sampah Organik Rumah Tangga Dan Npk

    OpenAIRE

    Mega Silvia; Hilda Susanti; Samharinto Samharinto; Gt Muhammad Sugian Noor

    2016-01-01

    Research on the production of chilli in utisol soil using organic household waste bokashi and NPK was conducted in Banjarbaru from February to June 2015. The research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments. The treatments were (P1) 100% NPK, (P2) 100% NPK + bokashi, (P3) 75% NPK + bokashi, (P4) 50% NPK + bokashi, (P5) 25% NPK + bokashi, (P6) 100% bokashi. 100% NPK and 100% bokashi were 250 kg ha-1 NPK and 10 t ha-1 bokashi respectively. The result showed that the aplicat...

  18. Populasi dan aktivitas denitrifikasi serta emisi gas N2 O pada lahan pertanian organik, pertanian intensif, dan hutan

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    Dwi Agustiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigate the population and potentials denitrification activity from three different soils, organically farmed soil, intensive farmed soil and forest soil. Our objectives were to explore spatial gradients in denitrifier populations, examine whether populations density and its potential activity was related to soil chemical properties (C and N content, and determine the potential emission of gas N2O. Results indicated biological functional differences between these three different soil ecosystems. Forest soil had the highest population density of denitrifying bacteria and also had significant potential denitrifying activities. The highest potentials denitrifying activity in the soil affected to the lowest emission of N2O gas. The lowest population and potential denitrifying activity was measured in the intensive farmed soil. Those conditions might be promoted the potentials emission of N2O.

  19. PREFERENSI KONSUMEN TERHADAP BUAH-BUAHAN LOKAL DAN ORGANIK SERTA IMPLIKASINYA TERHADAP PENDIDIKAN KONSUMEN CINTA PRODUK NASIONAL

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    Ujang Sumarwan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to analyze factors influencing preferences towards fruits and to measure consumer preference on the three attributes of fruits which is a type of fruit, fruit origin (local and imported, as well as the way of cultivation (organic and non-organic fruits and determine what attributes are more preferred by consumers. The study involved 391 respondents students of the Bogor Agricultural Institute who were selected by convenience sampling technique. The survey was conducted by direct interview using a questionnaire with structured questions and choices. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and conjoint analyses. The results showed that the respondents have the highest preference to attribute cultivation of organic fruits, followed by aspects of the locality and the type of fruit. Respondents preferred organic fruit as compared to non-organic fruit, local fruit is more desirable than the imported fruit. The results of this study provide important implications for consumer education to love national fruit products. Consumer preferences towards local and organic fruits need to be maintained and enhanced through consumer education. Consumer education is necessary to build a spirit of love national fruit products and to increase consumer knowledge about the benefits of organic fruits.

  20. PELATIHAN PEMBUATAN PUPUK ORGANIK YANG BERKUALITAS DARI LIMBAH PETERNAKAN SAPI DAN BABI DI DESA MARGA DAUHPURI, KECAMATAN MARGA, KABUPATEN TABANAN

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    MEGA I M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The training programme of making the qualities organic fertilizers derived from waste livestock cattle and pig were conducted at Marga Dauhpuri village, Marga District, Regency of Tabanan, from June until October 2008. The purpose of this programme was improving society skill on making organic fertilizers.The methods of programme were : ! giving counseling to livestock farmers who merged into group of Livestock Sari Buana about : environmental contamination problem by waste of livestock of cattle and pig, and way of the settlement of disposal 2 Training of making organic fertilizers ( compost having quality from waste of ranch of cattle and pig. The results of devotion activity to this society were 1 can improve the society awareness specially group of farmer of livestock Sari Buana about : a livestock waste deriving from cattle and pig become the economic valuable substance in order not to spoil environment b Dirt of pig and cattle become the organic manure (compost which is good for crop 2 Can improve skilled in making organic fertilizers ( compost having quality from dirt of cattle and pig 3 The yielding of certifiable compost with the characteristic : dark brown color, granulous refine, not smell and content of element nutrient namely : C-Organic ( 3.04 %; N-Total ( 0.41 %, available-P ( 20.56 ppm, available-K ( 842.31 ppm, C / N ( 7.41 for the compost of cattle dirt, and C-Organic ( 3.70 %; N-Total ( 0.16 %, available-P ( 35.91ppm, available-K ( 2517.10 ppm, C / N (23.13 for the compost of pig dirt

  1. Kajian Mutu dan Palatibilitas Silase dan Hay Ransum Komplit Berbasis Sampah Organik Primer pada Kambing Peranakan Etawah

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    Yusmadi Yusmadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality and palatibility of silage and hay complete ration based on organic primer garbage in peranakan etawah (PE poad ABSTRACT. This research was conducted to study the quality and palatability of silage and hay complete ration based on organic primer garbage in nine heads of Peranakan Etawah (PE Goat. The quality of silage and hay was evaluated By measuring pH, total number of lactic acid Bacteria (LAB, palatability, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM aroma and color of silage. Nine heads of peranakan etawah were grouped based on their lactation periode and randomly assigned to one of tree dietary treatments. The treatments were (1 Control rations; (2 silage complete ration (SRK; and (3 Hay complete ration (HRK. The results indicated that the silage had PH 4.15 and total number of LAB was 2.4 x 10 cfu/g of silage. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility of SRK were better than those of HRK. The palatability of SRK was higher than HRK but less than control. Storage of SRK for did not change dry matter and organic matter content. Organoleptic analysis indicated that texture and color of HRK were changed at after storage, while SRK was still constant. It is concluded that silage composed of organic primer garbage has high quality in terms of physical, chemical and microbial characteristics, prolong storage.

  2. André Raymond, Égyptiens et Français au Caire, 1798-1801, Le Caire, IFAO, 1998, 391 p.

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    Jean-Charles Depaule

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La Description établie par les savants que Bonaparte avait emmenés en Égypte offre, on le sait, un riche tableau, d'autant plus précieux qu'il fixe un moment charnière : dans les décennies qui suivront le pays entrera dans une ère nouvelle, celle de sa "modernisation" et de la construction d'un État progressivement indépendant. Procédant par coupes, la vision de la Description était statique. André Raymond, dès le premier chapitre de son livre, anime en quelque sorte le monde enregistré par l...

  3. Kajian Kualitas Air Sungai Condong yang terkena Buangan Limbah Cair Industri Batik Trusmi Cirebon

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    Pipin Supenah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the water quality of the River Condong and Condong River Quality Statebased on physical, chemical and biological parameters. Sampling was carried out in seven stations with 3 repetitions at intervals of one month. Water quality were analyzed descriptively by reference raw Water Quality Standard.  Determination of the stateof water quality using methods Storet. Results of laboratory tests showed that the water quality of the River Condong exceed the Water Quality Standard Group II based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 and in particular textile waste quality standard TSS, DO, BOD5, COD, NH3, sulfide, Cr (VI, phenols, oils and fats, Biological parameters using makrobentos diversity index (H ' obtained a low value that is from 0 to 1.7077.  Quality state based Storet method, the value of  > -31. It can be concluded that the condition of physical, chemical and biological parameters, Condong River water showed waters not appropriate the Quality Standard for agricultural irrigation, freshwater fish breeding and infrastructure or water recreation facilities before and after the discharge of liquid waste of batik. Condong River quality state before and after the liquid waste of batik is heavily polluted.

  4. OPTIMASI DAN PEMODELAN PROSES RECOVER FLAVOR DARI LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN RAJUNGAN DENGAN REVERSE OSMOSIS

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    Uju

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The waste water of blue crab pasteurization has potential in environmental pollution. It contained TSS of 206.5mg.1-1, BOD 7,092.6mg.1-1 and COD of 51,000mg.1-1. on the other hand, it also contains an interesting flavor compound, which composed of 0.23% non protein nitrogen and 17 amino acids where the highest was glutamic acid one. In this study, pre-filtration step using filter size 0.3 µ followed by reverse osmosis has been used to reduce these pollutions load and flavor compound recovery. During pre-filtration steps, TSS was reduced to 74.8% so turbidity decrased reased until 31%. After reverse osmosis process, BOD, and COD decreased more than 99%, and there was no amino acids detected in permeate stream. Factors that affect performance of reverse osmosis were transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH. The higher transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH resulted the higher the flux permeate. The use of higher temperature make flux increasing, eventually increasing transmembrane pressure make the flux increased only at transmembrane pressure less than 716 kPa. The protein rejection was influenced unsignifanctly by transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH. During concentrating flux declined exponentially by time function. At concentration factor 2.75 resulted 79% and 12% of increasing protein and NPN, respectively. The amino acids content can be increased 2−23 times of the origin. Even arginin and sistin, the amino acids that were undetectable initially, but they can bedetected at concentration of 0.0360 and 0.0250 (w/v respectively at the end of the process. Hidrolysis and fermentation process can increase the amino acid content 31−45 times

  5. Peningkatan mutu blanket karet alam melalui proses predrying dan penyemprotan asap cair

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    Afrizal Vachlepi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of Indonesian rubber products SIR 20 are made from the material of raw rubber obtained from smallholders. However, the quality of this material is not good enough. Thus, quality improvement has to be carried out by manufacturers. The liquid smoke used during the blanket hanging process can improve the quality of the rubber products SIR 20. This research aimed to determine and study the effects of liquid smoke spraying and blanket hanging duration on the drying factor, the dry rubber content, technical quality, vulcanization characteristics, and physical properties of vulcanized natural rubber. Treatments consisted of various hanging duration (6, 8, and 10 days, and without hanging and spraying (with and without spraying of liquid smoke. The results showed that the spraying of liquid smoke on natural rubber blankets could improve the technical quality of the natural rubber, especially the values of Po and PRI. The spraying of liquid smoke could reduce the blanket hanging duration to 6-8 days. The blankets sprayed with liquid smoke had the optimum cure time of around 15 minutes and 19 seconds and the scorch time of around 3 minutes and 22 seconds. These values indicated that the vulcanization characteristics of blankets which were sprayed with liquid smoke were generally better than those of blankets which were not sprayed with liquid smoke

  6. PENURUNAN KADAR AMONIA, NITRIT, DAN NITRAT LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAHU MENGGUNAKAN ARANG AKTIF DARI AMPAS KOPI

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    Irmanto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The tofu industry is one of food industry which the product of organic waste to environment pollution. One of alternative methode which used to overcome tofu industrial waste water pollution is adsorption methode using activated carbon from coffee waste. The aim of this researched is to know about the activated carbon from coffee waste quality which observe of rendemen, water content, ash content, and iodium adsorption, to know optimum contact of time and pH of coffee waste to decrease ammonia, nitrite and nitrate contents in tofu industry waste water and to know decrease percentage of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate contents in tofu industrial waste water using activated carbon from coffee waste. The activated carbon made by soaking of coffee waste in HCl 0.1 M solution for 2 days. The activated carbon coaled in muffle furnace at temperature 350°C. The activated carbon analyzed consist of rendemen, water content, ash content, and iodium adsorption. Optimum contact of time and pH of coffee waste determined in order to get optimum adsorption ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in tofu industrial waste water. Contact time variation are 1, 10, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes and pH variation are 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. The result showed that the activated carbon from coffee waste fulfill the criteria SNI number 06-3730-1995. The activated carbon from coffee waste could be used to decrease the ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate contents in tofu industrial waste water at the optimum contact of time of 30 minutes and pH 7. Decreasing percentage of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate contents in tofu industrial waste water are 64,69% , 52,35% and 86,40% respectively.

  7. Pengurangan Kadar N dan P pada Limbah Cair Laboratorium secara Fitoremediasi Menggunakan Enceng Gondok (Eichornia crassipes

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    Nurmaya Arofah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory liquid waste contains both metal, nonmetal, organic and anorganic content. If it is discharged directly to environment, it will cause pollution that is harmful for living thing. Data of waste survey result in 2009-2010 indicated that liquid waste of Laboratory in Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (JTK UGM consist of various complex compound such as NH4+, PO43-. JTK UGM has wastewater treatment plant (WWTP to deal with environmental pollution coming from waste of each laboratory and have three process, anaerobe activated sludge, aerobe and phytoremediation. Because the laboratory’s waste was very complex, the WWTP have not operated maximally yet. So, it is necessary research on wwtp processing step, particularly for phytoremediation process using water hyacinth. Objective of this research was to study effect of concentrations N and P on adaptability and capability of water hyacinth to grow. In addition it developed a mathematical model to estimate of N and P concentration decrease rate in liquid. The research was done in batch by planting water hyacinth that has been acclimated in wastewater containing N-NH4OH and P-H3PO4. Parameter observed is N and P concentration in liquid. The result indicated that water hyacinth can absorb N and P. Water hyacinth grow well in N-NH4OH concentration of 9.651 ppm and 15.573 ppm and P-H3PO4 concentration of 2.013 ppm and 2.7373 ppm. It was marked with additional weight and colour of water hyacinth leaves of fresh green. Mathematical model presented to estimate N concentration decrease rate indicated good result in experiment. However, P concentration decrease in liquid phase, the presented model is still not good, because P nutrient decomposition process has not been accommodated during absorption by water hyacinth.

  8. ANALISIS UNSUR Ag PADA SAMPEL CAIR DENGAN LASER INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY (LIBS

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    Sinaga Natalia Declarossy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been done research on the analysis of Ag element in the liquid electrolyte with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS through electrolysis method. Observations conducted by LIBS using Nd-YAG laser (1064nm, 7ns. Prior to analyze, first looking for the optimum conditions of experiments had been done. The results showed that the optimum laser energy to the characterization of the elements Ag was 100 mJ and optimum conditions of electric current and time deposition on electrolysis process were 4.93 mA and 10 minutes, respectively. These conditions, next, for the application of quantitative analysis of Ag solution that started from concentration 300 ppm to the lowest concentration and limit of detection obtained 1 ppm.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS PERUPUK (Phragmites karka DAN MIKROORGANISME EFEKTIF (EM DALAM PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR DOMESTIK RUMAH TANGGA

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    Muhammad Ricky Saputra

    2016-10-01

    The results obtained from this study is that in water reservoir the combination of EM4 and Perupuk (Phragmites karka was the best treatment in this study that have been executed. The combination of two treatments that were able to repair four of the seven water quality parameters are DO (-31.48%, BOD5 (99.57%, COD (99.87%, and TSS (92.41% from standard of environment quality in Peraturan Pemerintah (PP No.82 tahun 2001 Kelas II

  10. PEMANFAATAN GULMA AIR PERUPUK (Phragmites karka Trin SEBAGAI TUMBUHAN PEREDUKSI LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI KARET

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    Deddy Dharmaji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed analyze the ability of perupuk (Phragmites karka Trin in reducing of rubber industrial liquid waste polluters on the scale of the laboratory. The method used was the method of survey. The data laboratory test were tabulated and analyzed descriptively and the level of efficiency was calculated. Referring to South Kalimantan Governor Regulation Number 36/2008, the results showed that, TSS parameters started to be effectively reduced on day 10 with close to 84,33 mg/l (32.53%, BOD5 started to be effectively reduced on day 20 with close to 24.00 mg/l (99,29%, and COD started to be effectively reduced on day 20 with close to 44,65 mg/l (98,90%. Referring to the decision of the Minister of Environment No. KEP-78/MENLH/10/1995, the parameters of the Sulfide started to be effectively reduced on day 10 with close to 0.001 mg/l (93,75% and Manganese start to be effectively reduced on day 20 with close to 0,70 mg/l (-134,00 %. Ph levels and temperature still normal condition.  Time retention was best accomplished on day 30 in reducing liquid waste rubber industry.

  11. Peningkatan Keterampilan Bagi Ibu Rumah Tangga Dalam Rangka Penghematan Pengeluaran Melalui Pembuatan Sabun Cair Sederhana

    OpenAIRE

    Haro, Andrian; AWS Waspodo, Agung; Wahyu Handaru, Agung

    2017-01-01

    The consumption pattern of housewives in several things has already changed. Recently, there are so many housewives are switching to use liquid soap for cleaning their kitchen utensils. This is due to the ease of use of product and the affordable price. Regarding to this community service activity which has aims to improve the skills and knowledge of housewives, especially in IKADANA groups at Srengseng, West Jakarta, through the production of simple liquid soap in order to make savings in ho...

  12. Bibliothécaire de recherche (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    assurer des services de recherche documentaire complets qui ajoutent à la valeur stratégique des travaux des usagers. L'assistance aux services de recherche spécialisée, la préparation et l'établissement des orientations, la formation et ...

  13. MODEL REGRESI TOBIT KONSUMSI SUSU CAIR PABRIK (Studi Kasus Rumah Tangga di Provinsi Bali

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    I PUTU JERYANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Regression analysis is used to study the relationship between dependent (response variable with one or more independent (causal variables. While response data were censored, then Tobit regression model could be applied.  According to Greene (2003, censored data were data with incomplete observation or the dependent variable has a value of zero, while for the other observations have particular value.  This research aimed to model dairy milk’s consumption from households at Bali Province.  By using data from Survey SosialEkonomiNasional (SUSENAS or Social Economy’s National Survey (SENS for year 2012, 615 households were selected as sampling unit using simple random sampling technique, and found 123 households who consumed dairy milk.  The independent variables in our model were last education level completed by head of household’s (X1, head of household’s work (X2, age of head of household’s (X3,  amount of expenditure for food consumption’s (X4, number of household members (X5, and household income (X6, the response variable was budget for buying dairy milk (Y.  From six independent variables, is found only last education level by head household and amount of expenditure for food consumption had siginficant effect on Y’s.  The final Tobit regression model were obtained using AIC (Akaike Information Criterion method is Y = -3314724 + 565429,7 X1 + 0,014278 X4 with pseudo R2 as much as 16.79 per cent.

  14. MODEL REGRESI TOBIT KONSUMSI SUSU CAIR PABRIK (Studi Kasus Rumah Tangga di Provinsi Bali

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    I PUTU JERYANA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regression analysis is used to study the relationship between dependent (response variable with one or more independent (causal variables. While response data were censored, then Tobit regression model could be applied.  According to Greene (2003, censored data were data with incomplete observation or the dependent variable has a value of zero, while for the other observations have particular value.  This research aimed to model dairy milk’s consumption from households at Bali Province.  By using data from Survey SosialEkonomiNasional (SUSENAS or Social Economy’s National Survey (SENS for year 2012, 615 households were selected as sampling unit using simple random sampling technique, and found 123 households who consumed dairy milk.  The independent variables in our model were last education level completed by head of household’s (X1, head of household’s work (X2, age of head of household’s (X3,  amount of expenditure for food consumption’s (X4, number of household members (X5, and household income (X6, the response variable was budget for buying dairy milk (Y.  From six independent variables, is found only last education level by head household and amount of expenditure for food consumption had siginficant effect on Y’s.  The final Tobit regression model were obtained using AIC (Akaike Information Criterion method is Y = -3314724 + 565429,7 X1 + 0,014278 X4 with pseudo R2 as much as 16.79 per cent.

  15. ADSORPSI PENCEMARAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENYAMAKAN KULIT OLEH KITOSAN YANG MELAPISI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA

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    Musrowati Lasindrang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been used as biosorbent. In addition to having advantages, chitosan as biosorbent also has disadvantages. Chitosan is very soluble in low pH, so it cannot adsorb Cr (total at low pH. It is because the active site (amine group of chitosan undergoes protonation, and its adsorption capability is easily influenced by anions in waters. Therefore, this research studied the use of chitosan coating on active charcoal of coconut shell to increase the adsorption capability of Cr (total, BOD, and COD. This research was done to evaluate the characteristics of the liquid waste quality with or without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL, and compare them with the Regulation of DIY Governor number 7/2010. It also studied the effect of pH and Concentration of chitosan coating on active charcoal as adsorbent on the decrease of Cr (total, BOD, and COD concentration in the liquid waste of leather tanning. The results indicate that the liquid waste of the leather tanning industry with and without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL have exceeded the quality standard for the liquid waste of leather tanning industry. An ANOVA statistical test indicated that Cr (total, BOD, and COD are significant at 0.05 (p < 0.05, with various pH influencing the decrease in Cr (total, BOD, and COD. The highest removal percentage resulting from the effect of chitosan concentration coating on active charcoal is obtained in adsorbent C (K3A1, with Cr (total (91.9%; BOD (99.5%; and COD (98.47%.;

  16. Pemisahan krom pada limbah cair industri penyamakan kulit menggunakan gelatin dan flokulan anorganik

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    Sugihartono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the ability of gelatin, ferrous sulfate, aluminium sulfate, and combination of gelatin with ferrous sulfate or aluminium sulfate for total chromium content (trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium separation from tannery wastewater. Reduction of total chromium content in the wastewater was conducted using combination of gelatin and ferrous sulfate or gelatin and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 4:0; 3:1; 2:2; 1:3; and 0:4 (w/w. The results showed that gelatin, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate, were able to reduce total chromium content in the wastewater. Combination of gelatin/ferrous sulfate or gelatin/aluminium sulfate as flocculants provide synergistic work in reducing the total chromium content. A 94.75% removal of total chromium content was achieved by combining gelatine and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 3:1, clearer wastewater, and followed by reduction of degree of turbidity up to 74.47%. The total chromium content after treatment was 0.61 ppm, which met the requirements of wastewater for business and or daily activities especially for tanning industry.

  17. KADAR ZAT GIZI DAN CITA RASA HASIL FERMENTASI CAIR IKAN RUCAH

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    Uken S.S. Soetrisno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Teri rucah (Stolephorus Spec. and udang rucah (Atydal Spec. as by-catch fishes had been used as basic materials in liquified fermentation process. The results were evaluated for its contribution to improve nutrient content and to add more variation on fermentation product for consumer choice. The proportion of basic materials to salt and water were varied depending on the kind of fish and the optimum values were chosen. Fermented teri rucah needed addition of one part of salt and two parts of water, or one part of salt and one and half parts of water; fermented udang rucah needed addition of one part of salt and one part of water, or nine-tenth parts of sah and one-tenth parts of water, forevery three part of basic material. All fermented products were analyzed for proximate nutrient contentand vitamin B-12 content Fermented teri rucah was higher in protein and vitamin B-12 content compared to that of udang rucah. In general liquefied fermentation increased vitamin B-12 content by 2 to 4 times. Incorporation of the produds into traditional cooking recipes need to be explored and socially marketed.

  18. Studi Sintesis Metil Ester Asam Lemak Dari Pitch Cair Melalui Tahap Reaksi Esterifikasi Dan Transesterifikasi

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    Turnip, Roselprida

    2015-01-01

    Pitch liquid having high Free Fatty Acid (FFA) derived from by product of process Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) became Fatty acid & Glycerine. The Reaction of making fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from Pitch liquid having high FFA min 25,60% was investigated in two step. The acid-catalyzed (H2SO4(p)) esterification follow to Transesterification by the base catalyzed (KOH) methanolysis with mol ratio of methanol and TG of Pitch liquid 6 : 1, The first step reduced the FFA 1.01% with reaction time ...

  19. Karakteristik Asap Cair yang Ditambahkan Ekstrak Aroma Daun Pandan Wangi (Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the characteristics of liquid smoke coconut shell pyrolysis results were added aroma extract fragrant pandan leaves. Coconut shell with ± 2.5 cm size for each treatment with a weight of 10 kg to the pyrolysis temperature (T1) 300 oC, (T2) 350 oC (T3) 400 oC and (T4) 450 oC with pyrolysis time (t1) 3 hours; (t2) 4 hours; (t3) 5 hours; and (t4) 6 hours. Liquid smoke highest yield of 18.644% of all treatment is obtained from the pyrolysis at temperatures of 400 oC for...

  20. Uji Efikasi Bioinsektisida Jamur Entomopatogen Berformulasi Cair terhadap Plutella xylostella (L. Di Laboratorium

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    Haperidah Nunilahwati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy test of liquid bio-insecticide of entomopathogenic fungi in control against Plutella xylostella in the laboratory.  The insect pest P. xylostella could reduce crop production of Brassicaceae. The aim of research was to test the efficacy liquid bio insecticide with active ingredient of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi to control P. xylostella. Bio-insecticide was applied by spraying  on mustard leaves infested with 50 individuals of third instar larvae of P. xylostella and a density of 1x106 conidia ml-1. Larval mortality was observed every 2 hours and LT50 of larvae was calculated. The study showed that the highest percentage of mortality found in Mt ES and Mt ES (cf isolates was 99.6%, the lowest mortality at Mt NES isolate was 96.80%. LT50 and LT95 values   Bb ES were the lowest i.e. 2.04 days and 2.95 days. The highest LT50 and LT95 of Mt NES isolate were 2.24 days and 3.32 days. The liquid bio-insecticide of entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were effective to control the larvae of P. xylostella.

  1. Karakter Kimia Pupuk Cair Asal Limbah Kulit Pisang Kepok dan Pengaruhnya pada Tinggi Tanaman Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Palupi, Nurul Puspita

    2015-01-01

    Chemical Character of Banana Skin Waste Liquid Fertilizer and their influences for the soya beans plant's height. MOL is a collection of microorganisms that can be developed, which serves as a starter in the bokasi or compost production. Utilization of agricultural waste such as fruit unfit for consumption is processed into MOL could increase the added value of waste, and reduce environmental pollution (Juanda, et al., 2011). MOL utilization in organic farming is still much to do, especially ...

  2. Connecter l'Afrique, du Cap au Caire | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... La recherche bien appliquée. Des recherches ... d'échelle essentielles pour mener à bien des projets d'envergure à des coûts abordables. Ironie du sort ... Même les personnes qui connaissent peu les TIC pourraient regarder les cartes et comprendre les enjeux », affirme Heloise Emdon, du CRDI. Dans le ...

  3. PARAMETER INTERAKSI BINER KESETIMBANGAN UAP-CAIR CAMPURAN ALKOHOL UNTUK OPTIMASI PROSES PEMURNIAN BIOETANOL

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    Asalil Mustain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the binary interaction parameters of vapor-liquid equilibrium for the mixtures of primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol with C5 alcohols were obtained. A total of 15 systems that consisted of isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data at atmospheric pressure were selected. The binary interaction parameters were determined as temperature function by correlating the selected vapor-liquid equilibrium data using the Wilson, Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL and Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC activity coeffi­cient models. The binary interaction parameters were described as the temperature-dependent to increase the capability of the parameters for the application in wide range of temperature. The correlation showed good results because the root mean square devia­tion (RMSD between the calculation values and experimental data were relatively low. The obtained parameters were very useful for optimizing the distillation column in the bio-ethanol purification process.

  4. ADSORPSI PENCEMARAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENYAMAKAN KULIT OLEH KITOSAN YANG MELAPISI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA

    OpenAIRE

    Musrowati Lasindrang

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan has been used as biosorbent. In addition to having advantages, chitosan as biosorbent also has disadvantages. Chitosan is very soluble in low pH, so it cannot adsorb Cr (total) at low pH. It is because the active site (amine group) of chitosan undergoes protonation, and its adsorption capability is easily influenced by anions in waters. Therefore, this research studied the use of chitosan coating on active charcoal of coconut shell to increase the adsorption capability of Cr (total),...

  5. EFIKASI ASAP CAIR DARI TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT (TKKS DALAM PENEKANAN PERKEMBANGAN JAMUR ASPERGILLUS NIGER

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    Hasan Ashari Oramahi, Farah Diba, & Wahdina .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of liquid smoke from oilpalm empty fruit bunch in suppressing the development of fungus. Fungi that have been grown on maize seed were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Aspergillus sp. From those species, A. niger is important species because of its toxigenic characteristic on agricultural product. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of oilpalm empty fruit bunch liquid smoke in suppressing the development of the fungus. This research was conducted in several steps i.e. pyrolisis of liquid smoke, analysis of liquid smoke content, and efficacy test of liquid smoke as antifungal. Agar media used was PDA (potato dextrose agar and concentration of liquid smoke was 0, 1, 2, and 3% (v/v. The results indicated that the liquid smoke inhibited the fungal growth. The highest result was on liquid smoke with temperature pyrolisis of 400 and 450oC and concentration 3% with average value of 100%. The contents of organic fraction of liquid smoke, such as acid and phenol might be responsible for the difference in antifungal activities among this liquid smoke.

  6. Efikasi Asap Cair dari Kayu Laban (Vitex pubescens terhadap Rayap Coptotermes curvignathus

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    HA Oramahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efficacy of liquid smoke from laban wood (Vitex pubescens against Coptotermes curvignathus. Antitermitic activities of liquid smoke produced from Vitex pubescens against C. curvignathus was evaluated in this study. This research was conducted in two steps, i.e. pyrolisis of liquid smoke and efficacy test of liquid smoke as antitermite. Three kinds of liquid smoke were produced at three different pyrolysis temperatures, i.e.  350 oC, 400 oC and 450 oC. Termiticidal activity was evaluated by a no-choice test.  The research indicates that concentration of liquid smoke and pyrolysis temperatures significantly affected  termite mortality and mass losses of the filter paper. The relationship between the concentration of liquid smoke (X and termite mortality (Y at 350 oC, 400 oC,  and  450 oC were Y = 31,4 + 11,76X,  (r2 = 0,60,  Y = 30 + 11,86X (r2 = 0,59,  and Y = 26,66 + 7,6X (r2 = 0,429. The relationship between concentration of liquid smoke (X and mass losses (Y at 350 oC,  400 oC, and 450 oC were Y= 85,12 -3,188X (r2 = 0,723, Y= 88,06 – 3,435X + (r2 = 0,953 and Y= 91,56 – 3,867X  (r2 = 0,886.

  7. Efektifitas sinar ultraviolet terhadap cemaran bakteri patogen pada makanan cair sonde untuk pasien immune-compremissed

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    Ni Luh Sulatri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Food safety remained as critical concern to immune-compremissed patient. Food safety assurance can be achieved through inhibition of pathogenic bacteria by physical treatment such as UV light radiation. However, a study regarding the effect of UV light on growth of pathogenic bacteria in contaminated liquid food are scarce. Objective : To determine the effectiveness of UV light on contamination of pathogenic bacteria in liquid food for immune-compremissed patient. Methods : Randomized design with two factor which were holding time for 60 and 120 minutes and radiation exposure (0, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The data was analyzed using ANOVA Result : The viscosity and pH of liquid foods were 20 centipoise and 7,15 respectively. Radiation of UV light on contaminated food that have been incubated for 60 and 120 minutes at 37oC showed significant increase (1-2 log cycle on growth of pathogenic bacteria. Conclusion : Radiation of UV light on contaminated liquid food were not effective to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria during holding time (60 and 120 minutes.

  8. Rancang Bangun Unit Penghasil Asap Cair yang Terintegrasi dengan Pengering Kabinet

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    Hendri Syah

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Utilization of released heat energy from the condensation of liquid smoke has not been widely applied. Recently, the heat generated from the process was discharged and circulated into water as a cooling media. This research aimed to design and test a functional of liquid unit integrated with a dryer cabinet. The study consisted of three steps including design (structural and functional design, manufacturing, and testing a functional of results designed. This research and development produced liquid smoke integrated with the dryer cabinet. This machine consisted of four main components including tube of pirolisator, heat exchanger, condenser and dryer cabinet. Based on the functional test, this machine had been able to produce liquid smoke, ranged from 2300 to 3182 ml for 5 hours burning process of coconut shells. The first container was a container that received much more liquid smoke compared with the second container 2.  This research revealed that condensation process occurs more frequently in the heat exchanger pipe.

  9. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroba Lipolitik dari Limbah Cair Surimi dan Rajungan

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    Devi Ambarwati Oktavia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Industri pengolahan hasil perikanan di sepanjang pantai Utara Jawa seperti pengalengan rajungan di Cirebon (Jawa Barat dan pengolahan surimi di Kendal (Jawa Tengah, menghasilkan air limbah yang mengandung banyak protein dan lemak. Bakteri yang hidup di limbah yang banyak mengandung protein dan lemak tersebut diperkirakan memiliki kemampuan untuk menghidrolisis lemak menjadi asam lemak dan gliserol sehingga berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai bioremedian alami bagi penanganan air limbah hasil perikanan di tempat lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan penapisan dan identifikasi bakteri lipolitik potensial sebagai bioremedian air limbah perikanan. Penapisan dilakukan terhadap 11 isolat bakteri lipolitik dari air limbah yang diambil dari industri pengalengan rajungan di Cirebon dan pengolahan surimi di Kendal dengan menggunakan media spesifik agar tributirin. Isolat bakteri lipolitik potensial ditentukan berdasarkan zona bening yang terbentuk di sekitar koloni, yaitu sekurang-kurangnya 6 mm. Isolat bakteri potensial ini selanjutnya diidentifikasi secara molekuler berdasarkan analisis sekuen 16S-rDNA. Dari penapisan diperoleh empat isolat bakteri potensial, yaitu isolat SPB, SHj, SOr dan SKn. Identifikasi molekuler menunjukkan bahwa isolat SPB dan SHj masing-masing adalah Serratia fonticola 10AdanBacillus cereus strain 103.2.2dengan kemiripan 97%, isolat SOr memiliki kemiripan 96% dengan Bacillus pumilus strain vit bac1 dan isolat SKn adalah Enterococcus pseudoavium strain L3C21K2dengan kemiripan 87%. Keempat isolat tersebut berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai bioremedian pada air limbah dari industri pengolahan hasil perikanan di Indonesia.

  10. IDENTIFIKASI KERAGAMAN JENIS BAKTERI PADA PROSES PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI MINUMAN DENGAN LUMPUR AKTIF LIMBAH TAHU

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    Ritni Megasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of activated sludge is a wastewater treatment method that utilizes microbial growth processes are suspended.  One of the microbes that play a role in wastewater treatment systems with activated sludge are bacteria. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of sampling time and the combination of retention time on levels of pH, BOD, TSS, H2S and turbidity effluent of beverage industry with waste activated sludge of tofu and identify the bacterial isolates obtained from the beverage industry wastewater treatment with activated sludge waste of tofu and to know the diversity of types of bacteria that play a role in it.  The diversity of bacteria identified in the beverage industry wastewater treatment by activated sludge are five types of Bacillus sp, Acinetobacter sp, Staphylococcos sp, Cardiobacterium sp, and Mycoplasma sp.  These bacteria are most likely a bacterium that plays a role in the degradation of the beverage industry wastewater. Activated sludge method, it is also able to improve water quality, especially for TSS parameter (<200 mg/l and H2S (<0.05 mg/l.  Sampling time in the morning better than afternoon in the improvement of water quality parameters; for the retention time of 8 hours of sample treatment is better than 6 hours.  Thus, the retrieval time (morning, afternoon and the retention time of wastewater samples generate all test parameters better than the control.

  11. Kajian Kualitas Air Sungai Bedog Akibat Pembuangan Limbah Cair Sentra Industri Batik Desa Wijirejo

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    Widayati Indarsih

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRACT Bedog River that flows along Wijirejo Village, Pandak, in Bantul has been indicated to be polluted by varieties of liquid waste including batik industry. The objectives of this research are : to determine the quality of batik liquid waste; the quality of Bedog River water from physical aspects (temperature, TDS, TSS; chemical aspects (pH, COD, BOD, Cu, Cr+6; and biological aspect (plankton; to measure participation of stakeholder and also to develop a management strategy to manage batik liquid waste so that it does not pollute the environment.This research use survey method, data collected by purposive sampling. Water sample is directly taken from batik liquid waste and from the Bedog River with six observation station : S1 is the location before the waste disposal point, located around Pedak Bridge; S2 (+ 350 m next to S1,  S3 (+ 750 m next to S2, located at Pijenan Bridge, S4 (+ 400 m next to S3 and S5 (+ 250 m next to S4 is location that has been polluted by batik liquid waste, and S6 (+ 400 m next to S5 is an area that is no longer able to contain more additonal batik waste. Chemical, physical and biological data is carried on in direct measurement in the field and at laboratory. Participation data of stakeholder data is carried on interview method using questionare . Result analysis used in this research is qualitative descriptive.The result of this research shows that the quality of batik liquid waste has surpassed from the quality standard. The water quality at location S4 has been polluted shown by the COD point 28 mg/L (quality standard 25 mg/L and BOD point 4,8 mg/L (quality standard 3 mg/L. S4 is the location of which has highest density of batik industry. Both organic and inorganic materials inside batik liquid waste have increased COD and BOD of Bedog River. According to the plankton diversity index, the water of Bedog River has been polluted at S2, S3, S4 and S5 locations. S1 and S6 locations are not classified into the polluted area. Batik liquid waste gives accumulatively effects to chemical and physical river ecosystem character, thus it decreases plankton diversity index which live in it. The grade of local government stakeholder participation generally (57,14% at middle category. The environment management strategy can be done by : improving participation of batik crafter both  individually (by applying clean production and minimalizing waste and collectively (by building IPAL in cluster; improving participation of stakeholder; and choosing properly  technology of waste water treatment (IPAL.

  12. PENGOLAHAN LINDI SEBAGAI PUPUK CAIR UNTUK MENDUKUNG PENGEMBANGAN TPA SAMPAH LESTARI

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    Nurhasanah Nurhasanah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale research to obtain environmentally safe effluent and liquid fertilizer from leachate from Final Waste Disposal Site in Galuga owned by Regional Government of Bogor City was conducted from July 2006 through to April 2007. The experiment was initiated by aerating the leachate in 4 difference aeration rates (0, 10, 30 and 70 liters/minute followed by processing the sediment to product the liquid fertilizer. The experiment of production liquid fertilizer was carried out by adding lime with different dosage into sediment generated from processing by aerating at 70 liters/minute followed by centrifugation process or secher. Further, the liquid fertilizer generated from such experiment was applied to chilis planting (Capsicum annum. The research found that the processing conducted by aerating at the rate 70 liters/minute was the most effective in reducing pollutant from leachate. The addition of 1000 ppm CaO or Ca(OH2 limes in sediment from aeration is the most effective in depositing the dissolved material compared to the addition of limes in other dosage. Liquid fertilizer generated through the addition of 1000 ppm CaO have the content of N = 375,83 ppm, P = 121,44 ppm, K = 948,11 ppm, Ca = 827,20 ppm, Mg = 959,50 ppm, S = 48,53 ppm, Cu = 8,23 ppm, Zn = 30,02 ppm, Mn = 230,57 ppm, Fe = 320,95 ppm, Pb = 10,34 ppm, Cd = 7,46 ppm and Cr = 2,05 ppm. The use of liquid fertilizer generated by adding 1000 ppm CaO was the most effective in enhancing vegetation growth and production of chili. The non essential elements (Pb, Cd and Cr in fruits from vegetation given liquid fertilizer produced from such treatment did not exceed tolerable threshold.

  13. GAMBARAN PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH CAIR DI RUMAH SAKIT X JAKARTA FEBRUARI 2006

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    Dwi Maniksulistya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospital Wastes Water Management in Jakarta February 2006. Hospital as a health facilities, serve ambulatory and hospitalized unhealthy community. Hospital operation and services could give negatif impact in to the environment such as environmental water pollution by un fullfil of hospital wastes water standard of disposal. Objective of this research is to identify the output of hospital wastes water treatment, whether it’s fulfill in the government standard. Data have been collected using observation and discusstion methode throught the personnel in charge for the hospital wastes water treatment prosess. Extended aeration process is used in orther to treat hospital wastes water. Most of the hospital effluent parameter standar have been fulfill in by the process applied (pH, BOD, COD, TSS, except for the amonia (NH4 parameter is still obove the standard. This is the lack in sludge management process. Sluged management process (digester should be improved in other to reduce amonia in the effluent up to the standard have been set up. Such as 10% of the sluged should be return in to the aeration process and the rest should be treated in sluged treatment process.

  14. Pembuatan Sabun Cair Menggunakan Alkali Dari Kulit Coklat (Theobroma cacao L.) dengan Minyak Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Paduana, Aulia Bismar

    2017-01-01

    120405037 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi kulit coklat sebagai alkali pada proses pembuatan sabun natural dan mengetahui sifat-sifat sabun natural yang dihasilkan dari minyak kelapa sebagai sumber asam lemak. Bahan ? bahan yang digunakan, antara lain minyak kelapa, alkali dari kulit coklat dan aquadest. Variabel ? variabel yang diamati, antara lain temperatur reaksi pembuatan sabun, waktu pengadukan dan waktu reaski penyabunan. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan alkali d...

  15. Communiquer ! les bibliothécaires, les décideurs et les journalistes

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    L'enjeu de la communication en direction des élus, des décideurs, mais aussi des journalistes, est devenu vital pour les bibliothèques : il s'agit de donner à voir aux tutelles leurs activités, de rendre intelligible leur stratégie de développement, de construire une image institutionnelle forte. De quels moyens dispose la bibliothèque pour faire la preuve du bien-fondé de son existence ? Comment communiquer en direction d'un élu municipal ou régional, d'un responsable politique de la bibliothèque ? Que peut apporter une bonne collaboration avec des journalistes, avec les partenaires naturels ou hiérarchiques au sein de l'université ou de la collectivité territoriale ? Comment utiliser à bon escient les méthodes du lobbying et du marketing, ou l'emploi des réseaux sociaux ? Voilà quelques-unes des questions abordées ici.

  16. Pembuatan Arang Aktif dari Tempurung Kelapa dan Aplikasinya untuk Penjernihan Asap Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Jamilatun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arang aktif merupakan senyawa karbon amorph, yang dapat dihasilkan dari bahan-bahan yang mengandung karbon atau dari arang yang diperlakukan dengan cara khusus untuk mendapatkan permukaan yang lebih luas. Arang aktif dapat mengadsorpsi gas dan senyawa-senyawa kimia tertentu atau sifat adsorpsinya selektif, tergantung pada besar atau volume pori-pori dan luas permukaan.. Arang aktif akan dibuat dari arang hasil pirolisis tempurung kelapa.dan diimplementasikan untuk menjernihkan asap cairnya. Adapun langkah yang pertama membuat arang aktif dari tempurung kelapa adalah, membuat arang tempurung kelapa dengan membersihkan tempurung kelapa terlebih dahulu dari bahan-bahan pengotor seperti tanah, kerikil. Kemudian mengeringkannya dibawah sinar matahari, selanjutnya membakar tempurung kering pada drum/bak pembakaran dengan suhu 300-500 0C selama 3-5 jam. Langkah yang kedua adalah arang hasil pembakaran direndam dengan bahan kimia CaCl2 dan ZnCl2 (kadar 25 % selama 12 sampai 24 jam untuk menjadi arang aktif. Selanjutnya melakukan pencucian dengan air suling/air bersih hingga kotoran atau bahan ikutan dapat dipisahkan. Arang aktif basah dihamparkan pada rak dengan suhu kamar untuk ditiriskan, kemudian dikeringkan dalam oven pada suhu 110 – 8000C selama 3 jam. Suhu aktivasi mempengaruhi kualitas karbon aktif yang terbentuk. Dari uji kualitas karbon aktif yang dilakukan, kualitas karbon aktif yang terbaik diperoleh pada suhu 800oC dengan kadar air 1,3 %, kadar abu 0,60 % memenuhi standar SII 0258-79 dan memiliki daya serap terhadap kadar iod sebesar 580,0 mg/g yang memenuhi standar SNI 06-3730. Penjernihan air limbah rumah tangga, air berwarna menggunakan karbon aktif dari suhu aktivasi 800oC menghasilkan air yang jernih, tidak berbau dan memenuhi pH standar air (7,0-7,5.

  17. Pencapaian Fase Embriosomatik Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L. dengan Penambahan Thidiazuron dalam Medium Setengah MS Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innaka Ageng Rineksane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems related to the establishment of mangosteen plantation is to obtain seedlings throughout the year, which can be solved by micropropagation.   The propagation of Mangosteen was done through somatic embryogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Thidiazuron concentration in ½ MS medium to achieve somatic embryo stages of mangosteen seed. The study consisted of two experiments. Experiment 1: The embryogenic callus c.a.1 g derived from MS solid medium containing of Thidiazuron (0,1; 0,5; dan 1 mg/l and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (4,6,8 dan 10 mg/l was subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium. 2. The embryogenic callus from the previous medium were subcultured into ½ MS liquid medium containing Thidiazuron (0, 1, 2, 4 dan 8 mg/L and Casein hydrolysate 500 mg/L. The results showed that cell suspension were developed after mangosteen embryogenic callus subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium.  Somatic embryo stages such as globular, heart and torpedo were formed after the calli derived from the previous ½ MS solid medium containing 10 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L Thidiazuron were subcultured into ½ MS0 liquid medium in 8 weeks.  Cell suspension in ½ MS liquid medium with or without the addition of  Thidiazuron and Casein hydrolysate has induced the formation of embryo somatic stages such as globular, heart and torpedo after 6 months of incubation.

  18. PENGARUH CITRA DAN KEPERCAYAAN MEREK TERHADAP LOYALITAS MEREK: SURVEI PELANGGAN LUX CAIR DI CARREFOUR MT. HARYONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the purposes of this research are: (1 Knowing the description of the brand image, brand trust, and brand loyalty, (2 Determining/Knowing the influence of brand image towards brand loyalty, (3 Determining/Knowing the influence of brand trust towards brand loyalty, (4 Determining/Knowing the influence of brand image and brand trust simultaneously towards brand loyalty. The units of analysis are buyers or users of Lux at Carrefour MT. Haryono. Observation units are 200 respondents who are the visitors of Carrefour MT. Haryono, who have bought or used liquid Lux for one year or more. The research type is descriptive and research method using explanatory causal survey. Descriptive analysis showed: (a benefit dimension is the most dominant dimension in brand image variables, (b company characteristic dimension is the most dominant dimension in brand trust variables, and (c commitment dimension is the most dominant dimension in brand loyalty variables. The results of hypothesis testing are: 1 brand image variable has a significant influence to brand loyalty with beta coefficient of 0.297, T-test of 4.850 with significance level of 0.000; 2 brand trust variable has a significant influence to brand loyalty with beta coefficient of 0.468, T-test of 7.657 with significance level of 0.000; 3 the influence of brand image and brand trust simultaneously towards brand loyalty is 44.5%.

  19. Peningkatan Keterampilan Bagi Ibu Rumah Tangga Dalam Rangka Penghematan Pengeluaran Melalui Pembuatan Sabun Cair Sederhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrian Haro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption pattern of housewives in several things has already changed. Recently, there are so many housewives are switching to use liquid soap for cleaning their kitchen utensils. This is due to the ease of use of product and the affordable price. Regarding to this community service activity which has aims to improve the skills and knowledge of housewives, especially in IKADANA groups at Srengseng, West Jakarta, through the production of simple liquid soap in order to make savings in household consumption expenditure. This activity is performed by using the survey and demonstration method. The result show almost all participants have understood the process of making simple liquid soap and so far they are interested to try further in their own home, where one of the benefits of making this liquid soap is to save household expenditure, especially the consumption of liquid soap. More addition, the housewives become open-minded and motivated to make their skills as a side business or home industry to improve their household economy.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN FORMULA SIRUP ZINK DARI EKSTRAK IKAN BILIH (Mystacoleucus- padangensis SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF SUPLEMENTASI ZINK ORGANIK PADA ANAK PENDEK (STUNTED USIA 12-36 BULAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yuniritha

    2015-03-01

      The extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis zinc syrup is made from basic ingredient of bilih fish which contains 27,8 mg zinc/100 gram syrup. It is much higher than other food zinc source. The use of the extract of bilih fish as an alternative of organic zinc supplementation can be used for those who have zinc deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to be studied as an alternative intervention program for stunting in children aged 12-36 months. This objective of this study is to develop zinc formula syrup from the extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis as an organic zinc supplementation for stunted children. This laboratory experimental research is begun by extracting the fish bilih using a standard method. The extract of bilih fish is formulated in the form of suspension syrup, at the laboratory of Biology and Liquid Preparation in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta. The extract of bilih fish is very high in zinc content (161, 97 mg/100 gram, with main preparation of Zinc Citrate, Vitamin A and protein, added with simplex syrup (64%, CMC-Na, Citric Acid, fruit flavor and food color subtances. This supplement syrup formula is based on International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG, with 3 best formulas based on organoleptic test, formula F 4.1, F 2.2 and F 2.3. The zinc syrup formula from extract of bilih fish could be an alternative of organic zinc supplementation to address zinc deficiency in stunted children. Keywords: extract bilih, zinc supplementation, stunting

  1. Pertanian Organik Terpadu di Desa Wukirsari, Sleman, Yogyakarta Sebagai Usaha Pemulihan Kesuburan Lahan Terimbas Erupsi Merapi 2010 dan Pencapaian Desa Mandiri Sejahtera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Umi Siswanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Community service activities at Wukirsari village was preceded by many concerns land damaged by the eruption of Merapi 2010. Researchers encourage Wukirsari people to self-sufficient in the provision of liquid organic fertilizer and manure plus. It is intended to restore the soil nutrient that improves soil structure. The target of this activity were increasing the agricultural productivity, cost efficiency of production, improvement of agricultural cultivation, encouraging self-sufficiency of liquid organic fertilizer and manure plus and the establishment of agricultural enterprises. The conclusion of these program are the liquid organic fertilizer producted by Wukirsari farmer response positively to the growth and productivity of rice plants. The barriers of this program was delayed of the establishment of business entities will be overcome with the implementation of the third period (2015 of the community service program which cooperate with the Student Community Service Program (KKN PPM UGM.

  2. Sifat Biologi Tanah Mineral Masam Dystrudepts Di Areal Piringan Kelapa Sawit Yang Diaplikasi Mulsa Organik Mucuna Bracteata Di Lahan Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Zahara, Fitri; ', wawan; ', Wardati

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research to determine the soil biological properties on the acidic mineral soil Dystrudepts in the area of disc palm oil applied of organic mulch Mucuna bracteata in the experimental garden of Agriculture Faculty, Riau University. Analysis of the soil biological was conducted in the Soil Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, Riau University, in October 2014 to February 2015. Application of mulch organic M. bracteata used purposive random sampling method which consisting of...

  3. Peran Pt.bloom Agro Dalam Implementasi Prinsip Fair Trade Di Indonesia (Studi Kasus: Ekspor Beras Organik Pt.bloom Agro Ke Mancanegara Tahun 2008-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Yealta, Den; Ikhsani, Munadia

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the role of PT.Bloom Agro to do Fair Teade implementation in Indonesia in the case study is the export of PT.Bloom Agros€™s organic rice to foreign country. Fair Trade is the kind of Alternatives trade which populer as donatian movement in 1940. But now in the globalitation era that causes of free trade, fair trade is more popular as alternatives trade movement and as a certification to mark a product has fair tarde guarantee. And in Indonesia PT.Bloom Agro which an ex...

  4. PENURUNAN KANDUNGAN PHOSPHAT PADA LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENCUCIAN PAKAIAN (LAUNDRY MENGGUNAKAN KARBON AKTIF DARI SAMPAH PLASTIK DENGAN METODE BATCH DAN KONTINYU (Studi Kasus : Limbah Cair Industri Laundry Lumintu Tembalang, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Wisnu Wardhana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the number of laundry industry influences on the increasing of detergent utilizzation. Thedominant substance contained in the detergent is Natrium Tripolyphosphat, a builder and surfactant.Therefore the waste contains Phosphate. Most of the laundry industry throw their waste without treatmentfirst. The waste would cause Eutrofication where the water body became rich of dissolved nutrient,descending of the dissolved oxygen and capability of water body assist power to water biota. Lumintu isone of the laundry industries which located in Tembalang district. According to the result of preexperiment,industrial waste water containes 10,21 mg/l phosphate. This value exceeds standard quality ofPerda Prov. Jateng no. 10 year 2004 about maximum value for total of phosphate is 2 mg/l. One ofwastewater treatment method is adsorption using the active carbon from plastic rubbish kind ofPolyethylene. This reseach purposes to know the capability of active carbon from plastic rubbish inreducing phosphate content with batch and column operation. The batch operation use 1,2 and 3 gramvariation weight active carbon from plastic rubbish for 30 - 60 mesh and 100 - 200 mesh variation mediasize. The batch operation has 45,45 % from the highest phosphate efficiency lowering on the 3 gram.Otherwise, column operation need 1 inch column diameter with 50 ml/minute and 100 ml/minute debitvariation. Continue trial had 54,75 % from the highest phosphate efficiency lowering on the 50 ml/minute.Constant value speed (k1 is 0,0108 ml/mg.s with capacity of adsorption (qo 0,677 mg/g.

  5. Perancangan Sistem Pengelolaan Limbah Cair Industri Tempe di Desa Bandungrejo –Kecamatan Mranggen – Kab. Demak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Problems  which often appear in small industrial environment especially from the central industry of tempe is lack of awareness of society in management of the environment It is associated with the limited fund to build waste water facility and also its operating expenses. The Central Industry of tempe in Bandungrejo District of Mranggen at this time. The amount of  is 26 home industries of tempe product are marketed to the region of Demak and its surroundings, amount to and also to region part of east town of Semarang. For the efficacy of product of tempe,  waste also generate problem especially related to contamination of ground water, decrease quality of wells, dig water  as the source of clean. Method : To overcome the mentioned hence, it requires a cheap waste water treatment system design, easy to operate and also with  economized  energy. Result : As conclusion of this research is that source of waste water of tempe industry comes from washing process, poaching of seed process, soaking and resolving of soy husk and seed process, debit/capacities waste water of tempe mean equal to 1,27 m3/day/industry, waste water characteristic of tempe Industry  has the character of organic with comparison of BOD/COD = 0,4 - 0,5, the proposed of IPAL design is by using batch system through anaerobic system with usage of PVC pipe media of wasp den at biofilter process. Suggested from results of this research are the importance of giving knowledge to society of central industry of tempe about tere impacts  to the  environment by activity making of tempe and also the importance of forming and stabilization of organization management of industrial waste water so that reaching of continuity of operation and maintenance of WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plan.   Key words : anaerobic biofilter, industrial  waste water of tempe

  6. Pemisahan Unsur Samarium dan Yttrium dari Mineral Tanah Jarang dengan Teknik Membran Cair Berpendukung (Supported Liquid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Amin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available he increasing use of rare earth elements in high technology industries needs to be supported by developmental work for the separation of elements. The research objective is fiercely attracting and challenging considering the similarity of bath physical and chemical properties among these elements. The rate separation of samarium and yttrium elements using supported liquid membrane has been studied. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE with pore size of 0.45 µm has been used as the membrane and di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP in hexane has been used as a carrier and nitric acid solution has been used as receiving phase. Result of experiments showed that the best separation rate of samarium and yttrium elements could be obtained at feeding phase of pH 3.0, di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP concentration of 0.3 M, agitation rate of 700 rpm, agitation time of 2 hours, and nitric acid and its solution concentrations of 1.0 M and 0.1 M, respectively. At this condition, separation rates of samarium and yttrium were 64.4 and 67.6%, respectively.   Keywords: liquid membrane, rare earth elements, samarium, yttrium

  7. Penerapan Aquaponic Sebagai Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair Kolam Ikan di Dusun Kergan, Tirtomulyo, Kretek, Bantul, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Annisa Maharani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kergan sub-village is located in the Tirtomulyo Village, Kretek District, Bantul Regency, on the process into a tourist village. Cultivation of carp and catfish become a favored activity in the village because most of the citizen has carp and catfish ponds for those will be used as priority to become a Tourism Village of Carp. However, the fish pond waste has become a problem. During this time the waste just being dumped into the environment, that cause a contamination on water wells. Therefore, solution to treat this fish pond waste in the village is necessary to be solved by community service activities. This community service activities concluded that making aquaponic is one of the solution. Public education, consultation and mentoring are the most effective 3 methods in solving the problems that exist in the village. The benefits of those activities that provide new knowledge about waste treatment pond fish and provide new skills in making aquaponics.

  8. Karakteristik Semen Segar dan Kualitas Semen Cair Kuda dalam Pengencer Dimitropoulos yang Disuplementasi dengan Fruktosa, Trehalosa dan Rafinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the characteristics of stallion fresh semen and the quality of sperm preserved in Dimitropoulos extender (DV supplemented with different concentration of fructose, trehalose and raffinose. Semen were collected using artificial vagina from three stallions. Semen characteristics and quality were evaluated macro- and microscopically. Prior to extension, semen were centrifugated at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes. The condensed sperm were re-suspended in DV supplemented with different types of carbohydrate to meet the concentration of 200 million spz/ml. All samples were stored at room and chilled temperature, and were evaluated for motility and viability every 3 h and 12 h. The results of the experiments indicated that fresh semen characteristics were fair good; the volume, consistency, motility, live-dead ratio, concentration (106/ml, total spermatozoa (109/ejaculate and abnormality were 29.25±9.33 ml, watery, 7.00±0.12, 67.08±9.08%, 77.89±6.46%, 211.88±21.15, 6.28±2.45 and 27.26±4.64%, respectively. The supplementation of different type and concentration of carbohydrates did not significantly affect the motility and viability. However, the supplementation of 50 mM fructose significantly increased the motility and viability of the sperm compared to the control. In conclusion, carbohydrate supplementation in DV may not maintain the sperm quality, particularly in the medium with the osmolarity higher than 400 mOsm/kg.

  9. PROFIL DISOLUSI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR TABLET MELOKSIKAM INOVATOR DAN GENERIK BERMEREK DENGAN KCKT (KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutiatikum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The determination of meloxicam and the dissolution test has been done. Drug dissolution test is an approach to evaluate drug release characteristics of product (Tablets/capsules in vitro. The tests are conducted for various durations from 5,10,15,20,25,30,40,50 and 60 minutes with appropriate sampling. The method of dissolution test and assay of meloxicam accords with British Pharmacopoeia 2007. A control  experiment wih HPLC was performed simoultaneously. The dissolution test of meloxicam at 30 minutes in tablet A is 97.79% and tablet B is 87.78% meet the requirement of the British Pharmacopoeia 2007. The content of meloxicam are in tablet A is 100.26%, tablet B is 104.07%. Both of its meet the requirement of British Pharmacopoeia 2007. The content of meloxicam are in tablet A is 100.26%, tablet B is 104.07%. Both of its meet the requirement of British Pharmacopoeia 2007.Key Words : Meloksikam, KCKT

  10. ISOLASI DAN OPTIMALISASI PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI PELARUT FOSFAT (BPF PADA LIMBAH TAHU CAIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KONSENTRASI KARBON (C YANG BERBEDA

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    Siti Didah Alawiah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the concentration giving Carbon (C the right to know the waste liquid as solvent Bacterial growth media Phosphate (BPF performed in the Laboratory of Microbiology, University of Udayana. Experimental research method by adding Dextrosa concentrations varying the liquid waste that has been given out bacterial isolates phosphate solvent the concentration of 0 g (as a control, 0,54 g, 0,77 g and 1,00 g Dextrosa. The results showed the growth of bacteria Solvent Phosphate (BPF E. gergoviae no significant differences (P <0.05 between the control and treatment of 0,54 g and 1,00 g, 0,77 g where as treatment showed significant differences (P> 0.05 are marked with the number of total number of bacterial colonies of E. gergoviae as many as 2,45 CFU / mL. Keywords : Tofu Liquid Waste, Bacteria Solvent Phosphate (BPF E. gergoviae, Dextrosa.

  11. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH KOTORAN SAPI DAN JERAMI KACANG TANAH SEBAGAI BOKASHI CAIR BAGI PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiana Artiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Has conducted a study entitled " Cow Manure Waste Utilization and Straw Peanut For Liquid Bokashi For Plant Growth mustard (Brassica juncea L.". This study aimed to analyze the nutrient content in the liquid Bokashi is derived from cow dung and straw peanuts, and study the effect of dosing Bokashi different liquid to the growth of the mustard plant (Brassica juncea L.. Methods using a completely randomized design with one factor at a dose of 125 ml, 250 ml, 375 ml and 500 ml, and as control using Bokashi solid. This research was conducted with four replications. Bokashi liquid nutrient content of C of 0,1045%, 0,0461% of N, P and K amounted to 0.0172% at 0.2500%. The content of nutrient dense Bokashi C of 6,0874%, 2,0169% of N, P and K amounted to 0,0218% at 5,7802%. Bokashi dosing different liquid to the growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L. significant effect on the growth of mustard, but still lower than the solid Bokashi. Dose liquid Bokashi most optimal for growing mustard (Brassica juncea L. is at 375 ml.

  12. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR SASIRANGAN MELALUI KOMBINASI METODE FILTRASI DAN FITOREMIDIASI SISTEM LAHAN BASAH BUATAN MENGGUNAKAN TUMBUHAN AIR YANG BERBEDA

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    Untung Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of a combination of filtration methods and fitoremidiasi Constructed wetland systems using different water plants to test the parameters of wastewater treatment sasirangan, analyze the effectiveness and efficiency. The method used is an experimental method. The results showed that the combination of filtration methods and fitoremidiasi artificial wetland systems using different water plants able to improve the quality of effluent sasirangan, where the best result is to use water hyacinth plants (Eichornia crassipes (Mart Solms with effectiv level and the highest efficiency for each the parameters include the effective Cr concentration 0.147 mg/L and an efficiency of 29.41%, the concentration of Cd metal with the effectiveness of 0.0981 mg/L and an efficiency of 83.07%, with a BOD concentration of the effectiveness of 101.81 mg/L and an efficiency of 59.84%, the concentration of COD with the effectiveness of 4866.99 mg/L and an efficiency of 91.32%, the effectiveness of the TSS concentration 140.62 mg/L and an efficiency of 60.61%.

  13. Pengaruh Suhu Terhadap Tegangan Permukaan Sabun Cuci Piring Cair Buatan Sendiri, Sunlight, Dan S.O.S

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Okio Patar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the surface tension of homemade liquid dish soap, Sunlight, and SOS was carried out. The temperatures was variated 280C(without heating), 300C, 400C and 500C. The homemade liquid dish soap was prepared by using an active ingredients. The active ingredient of the liquid dishwashing soap were sodium lauryl ether sulphate, sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate, and sodium lauril ether sulfate, respectively. The determination of surface tension was based the increasing of t...

  14. FORMULASI SEDIAAN SABUN CAIR ANTIBAKTERI MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN KEMANGI (Ocimumamericanum L. DAN UJI TERHADAP BAKTERI Staphylococcus epidermidis dan Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febry Astuti Abu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum americanum L. is a plant that has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis that is a bacteria can cause infection. Basil contains essential oils that act as an antibacterial. This research aims to formulate the essential oil of basil leaves into a liquid soap, determine antibacterial activity against S.aureus and S.epidermidis bacteria with the agar diffusion method using wells and determine the stability of the preparation. Antibacterial activity data that gain was analyzed by one-way ANOVA with a level of trust 95% followed by Duncan test. The results of the research showed basil essential oil liquid soap preparation has antibacterial activity. The analysis results showed that there were significant differences in the concentration of 2%, 3%, 4%, and the Duncan test results showed no significant difference between the concentration of 4% with control (+. The results of the t-student analysis of liquid soap include viscosity, pH and dispersive capacity does not fill the parameters of stability during the storage period of 28 days

  15. Federal NOx Budget Trading Program and CAIR NOx and SO2 Trading Programs (40 CFR Part 97)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This part establishes general provisions and the applicability, permitting, allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOx Budget Trading Program as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides

  16. Nicolas Michel, Une économie de subsistances. Le Maroc précolonial, IFAO, Le Caire, 1997.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Denoix

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Le titre de cet ouvrage peut apparaître paradoxal si l'on considère, comme le rappelle Nicolas Michel, que le Maroc, dès avant le XIXe siècle, était inséré dans une économie marchande internationale "faisant circuler dans tout le pays produits et espèces monétaires". En fait, les produits de première nécessité échappent au grand négoce et font plutôt l'objet d'un troc, d'un échange contre services, hors système monétaire. Néanmoins, dans un souci de rigueur méthodologique, l'auteur nous garde...

  17. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kotoran Sapi Dan Jerami Kacang Tanah Sebagai Bokashi Cair Bagi Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sawi (Brassica Juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Artiana Artiana; Lilis Hartati; Abrani Sulaiman; Jamzuri Hadie

    2016-01-01

    Has conducted a study entitled " Cow Manure Waste Utilization and Straw Peanut For Liquid Bokashi For Plant Growth mustard (Brassica juncea L.)". This study aimed to analyze the nutrient content in the liquid Bokashi is derived from cow dung and straw peanuts, and study the effect of dosing Bokashi different liquid to the growth of the mustard plant (Brassica juncea L.). Methods using a completely randomized design with one factor at a dose of 125 ml, 250 ml, 375 ml and 500 ml, and as control...

  18. Perilaku Krom Dalam Limbah Cair Penyamakan Kombinasi Krom-Gambir dan Krom-Mimosa Pada Penyamakan Kulit

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    Ardinal Ardinal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This study aims to determine the amount of chrome that come out together with tannery waste in a tanned combination process of chrome-gambier and chrome-mimosa. the process research performed by 2 stages. The 1st stage  using chrome with 5 concentration,    they were 2,4,6 and 8 %. Then it followed by the 2nd stage  tanning process by using vegetable tanning, gambier and mimosa, with each 7% and 9% concentration. The results showed that the combination of chrome-gambier tanned at the same concentration disposed chromium waste less than the combination of chrome-mimosa tanned. The lowest total chrome waste on the chrome-gambier tanning combination was 3.9 ppm at  2% chromium and 7% gambier concentration and the highest was 146.6 ppm at 8% chromium and 9% gambier concentrations.  The lowest total chrome waste on the combination of chrome-mimosa tanning was 2.2 ppm at  2% chromium and 7% mimosa concentration and the highest was 170.4 ppm at 8 % chromium and 9% mimosa concentration. The 2ndtanning, was combination tanning process, chrome-gambier able to reduce chromium levels more than the chrome-mimosa tanning.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah krom yang ikut terbuang bersama limbah proses penyamakan kulit yang di samak kombinasi krom-gambir dan krom-mimosa. Pelaksanaan penelitian proses penyamakan kulit  dilakukan dengan 2 tahap. Tahap I menggunakan krom dengan 5 variasi  konsentrasi yaitu 2, 4, 6 dan 8%. Setelah penyamakan tahap I kemudian dilanjutkan penyamakan tahap II dengan menggunakan penyamakan nabati, gambir dan mimosa, dengan variasi konsentrasi masing-masing 7 dan 9%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan penyamakan kombinasi krom-gambir pada konsentrasi yang sama menghasilkan limbah krom yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan samak kombinasi krom-mimosa. Jumlah limbah krom pada penyamak kombinasi krom-gambir terendah adalah 3,9 ppm pada konsentrasi krom 2% dan gambir 7% dan tertinggi 146,6 ppm pada konsentasi krom 8% dan gambir 9%. Jumlah limbah krom pada penyamak kombinasi krom-mimosa terendah adalah 2,2 ppm pada konsentrasi krom 2% dan mimosa 7% dan tertinggi 170,4 ppm pada konsentasi krom 8% dan mimosa 9%. Penyamakan tahap II, yang merupakan samak kombinasi, krom-gambir dapat menurunkan kadar krom lebih banyak dibandingkan kombinasi krom-mimosa. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH KOTORAN SAPI DAN JERAMI KACANG TANAH SEBAGAI BOKASHI CAIR BAGI PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Artiana Artiana; Lilis Hartati; Abrani Sulaiman; Jamzuri Hadie

    2016-01-01

    Has conducted a study entitled " Cow Manure Waste Utilization and Straw Peanut For Liquid Bokashi For Plant Growth mustard (Brassica juncea L.)". This study aimed to analyze the nutrient content in the liquid Bokashi is derived from cow dung and straw peanuts, and study the effect of dosing Bokashi different liquid to the growth of the mustard plant (Brassica juncea L.). Methods using a completely randomized design with one factor at a dose of 125 ml, 250 ml, 375 ml and 500 ml, and as control...

  20. Harcèlement sexuel au Caire : efficacité des données recueillies au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... Par harcèlement sexuel, on ne désigne pas uniquement le viol et les autres formes d'agression sexuelle. Les jeunes Égyptiens, en particulier, considèrent que le harcèlement sexuel englobe aussi les attouchements, les remarques et les expressions faciales non désirés. Tant les données recueillies au ...

  1. Tingkat Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Konsumen Produk Susu Cair dalam Kemasan Koperasi Peternakan Bandung Selatan (Kpbs) di Kota Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Yulita, Meyka; Lestari, Dyah Aring Hepiana; Haryono, Dwi

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze: the level of costumers satisfaction and costumers loyalty to the packaged liquid milk products of KPBS. The research was conducted in the largest distributors that supply liquid milk in KPBS packaging to costumers, at Pasundan street 165, Bandung. The number of respondents in this study are 100 respondents. The method of analysis used in this study are Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) and pyramid loyalt...

  2. FITOREMEDIASI TUMBUHAN AIR KIAMBANG (Salvinia molesta PURUN TIKUS (Eleocharis dulcis DAN PERUPUK (Phragmites karka SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR KARET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhidayah Norhidayah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study 1 assess the ability of aquatic plants Salvinia molesta, Eleocharis dulcis and Phragmites karka in reducing pollutant effluent, Zinc, DO, temperature, pH, BOD, COD, TSS, Turbidity  and Ammonia (NH3 in the rubber industry wastewater, 2 compare the water potential of plants to absorb pollutants wastewater rubber; 3 assess the status of the marine environment of rubber wastewater ponds to three (3 water treatment plant, the heavy metals zinc (Zn in liquid waste rubber. The results of the study resulted in plant water Purun Rat able to reduce BOD by 64%, COD by 17% and Turbidity by 80%, water kiambang able to lower Zinc by 49% and TSS by 70%, water plant perupuk able to reduce ammonia (NH3 by 23%. Stable temperature and pH value in each pool plant installation, the results of research conducted in this value in the effluent water quality rubber has not met the quality standard of waste according to Government Regulation No. 8 of 2001 concerning Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control. The results of the study resulted in plant water Purun Rat able to reduce BOD5 by 64%, COD by 17% and Turbidity by 80%, water kiambang able to lower Zinc by 49% and TSS by 70%, water plant perupuk able to reduce ammonia (NH3 by 23%. Stable temperature and pH value in each pool plant installation, the results of research conducted in this value in the effluent water quality rubber has not met the quality standard of waste according to Government Regulation No. 8 of 2001 concerning Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control.

  3. PEMANFAATAN ASAP CAIR ALANG-ALANG (Imperata cylindrica SEBAGAI PENGAWET TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK BUAH PISANG MAKAU (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Fitriarni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the utilization of liquid smoke especially for preservation of fruit has been done and become one of alternative methods that can be used to maintain fruit shelf life. Liquid smoke raw materials can come from a variety of sources one of which comes from the Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica. This study aims to determine the ability of liquid smoke made from  alang-alang as a preservative of bananas and to know the effect on the characteristics of bananas. The sample used in this research is a local banana known as Pisang Makau (Musa spp. This research uses experimental method with 7 days of storage time. Initial stages of the research are cleaning the fruit, dyeing, drying, and storage at room temperature. This research uses liquid smoke from alang-alang by using 2 various concentrations 50% and 100%. The next stage is the analysis of the characteristics of bananas such as color, fruit texture, fruit weight, sugar content, and vitamin C levels. Based on the analysis results obtained by Pisang Makau with the treatment of liquid has a longer shelf life than the control. Based on the results of the analysis of the shelf life of fruit treated with liquid smoke decreased levels of sugar and vitamin C levels. Percentage decrease levels of sugar and vitamin C between the fruit with the treatment and control not much different. This shows that liquid smoke from alang-alang has the ability to retain the shelf life of bananas without affecting sugar and vitamin C levels in bananas in this case for Pisang Makau. Levels of sugar and vitamin C in bananas decreased during the process of storage and bunding of fruit

  4. Pengaruh pemberian aditif cair buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus terhadap performa burung puyuh betina umur 16-50 hari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernanda Windi Laksmita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to know the effect of a liquid additive red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus on the performance of quail females aged 16-50 days with different treatment. The research was conducted at cage of Non Ruminant Feed Nutrition Science Laboratory, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed, Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University on September-December 2015. The research design based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD, with the control treatment and treatment liquid additives red dragon fruit twice a day, once a day and two days one. Each treatment was 5 times repeated. The parameters measured were feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion and feed efficiency. The results showed that the treatment was not significant (P> 0.05 effects on feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion and feed efficiency in quail. The average of T0, T1, T2 and T3 which feed consumption of 15.64; 15.85; 15.67 and 15.80 g/ head/day, weight gain of 118.70; 121.00; 124.20 and 126.90 g/head, feed conversion of 4.62; 4.58; 4.43 and 4.38 and feed efficiency of 21.68; 21.98; 22.65 and 22.92%. The conclusion is the treatment of a liquid additive red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus on quail resulted in feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion and feed efficiency were similar to the control treatment that has not been able to improve the performance of quail aged 16-50 days. Keywords : quail, red dragon fruit, feed consumption, performances

  5. Pengaruh pemberian aditif cair buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus terhadap kecernaan proein, energi metabolis dan produksi telur burung puyuh

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    Rika Dwi Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid additive red dragon fruit as the addition of drinking water on the digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and the production of quail eggs. Experimental animals used in the research were 200 female quails, 7 day old with average body weight of 13.61 ± 0.49 g. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications : T0 (control, T1 (addition of a liquid additive red dragon fruit about 5 ml twice a day, T2 (once a day and T3 (two days on time. The parameters measured were feed intake, digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and production of quail eggs. Data were analyzed using a variety of F test at the level 5%, followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range test when there are significant effects on the treatment. The results showed that liquid additives red dragon fruit was not significant (P>0.05 on the digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and the production of quail eggs. In conclusion, the adition of liquid additives reddragon fruit did not increase digestibility of protein, metabolizable energy and the production of quail eggs. Keywords: digestibility of crude protein, quail, quail egg production, red dragon fruit

  6. OVEN DESTILATOR PENGOLAH SAMPAH PLASTIK RAMAH LINGKUNGAN “Pemanfaatan Asap Cair Hasil Olahan Oven Destilator untuk Pengawetan Kayu

    OpenAIRE

    Ganefati, Sri Puji; Hendrarini, Lilik; Windarso, Sarjito Eko

    2016-01-01

    Up to now, the majority of people treat plastic waste by burning and disposing it directly to the surrounding environment. The burning of the waste causes air pollution due to toxic compound called dioxin which is harmful for human health. Meanwhile, the dumping of plastic waste into water bodies can causing some negative effects such as the clogging of water duct or river which may lead to flooding. Annually, the number of plastic bag used can reach 500 million – 1 billion, which is equal to...

  7. Oven Destilator Pengolah Sampah Plastik Ramah Lingkungan “Pemanfaatan Asap Cair Hasil Olahan Oven Destilator Untuk Pengawetan Kayu

    OpenAIRE

    Ganefati, Sri Puji; Hendrarini, Lilik; Windarso, Sarjito Eko

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, the majority of people treat plastic waste by burning and disposing it directly to the surrounding environment. The burning of the waste causes air pollution due to toxic compound called dioxin which is harmful for human health. Meanwhile, the dumping of plastic waste into water bodies can causing some negative effects such as the clogging of water duct or river which may lead to flooding. Annually, the number of plastic bag used can reach 500 million – 1 billion, which is equal to...

  8. Model Pengolahan Limbah Cair dengan Pendekatan Sistem Dinamik dalam Upaya Produksi Bersih pada Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Abdul Jabbar M

    2017-01-01

    The sustainability processing strategy of crude palm oil industry is a supply chain approach based on clean technology and housekeeping were the main factor to be considered are biophysical aspect(earth), economy(profit and welfare), and social (human and environment). The purpose of this research is to get an integrated production process model with clean technology by using crude palm oil liquid waste become a biomass, in other to get Environmental Sustainability of The Crude Palm Oil I...

  9. PROSES PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI LIMBAH CAIR GULA DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN POTENSI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR DALAM PERSPEKTIF LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusta Samodra Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle inventory assessment merupakan salah satu tahapan di dalam Life Cycle Assessment (LCA yang bisa digunakan untuk menggambarkan interaksi materi dan energi di dalam suatu proses produksi bioetanol. Studi kasus dilakukan di pabrik gula kawasan Subang dan pabrik bioetanol di kawasan Palimanan yang merupakan pabrik gula dan bioetanol terbesar di Jawa Barat. Inventory yang dilakukan adalah pada bagian perkebunan tebu, pabrikasi tebu menjadi gula, transportasi dari pabrik gula menuju ke pabrik bioetanol, dan pabrikasi etanol. Luas lahan kebun tebu yang dimiliki oleh pabrik gula di Subang adalah seluas 5000 hektar. Dari bahan baku tebu 3000 ton/hari dihasilkan molase sebanyak 60 ton/hari, sisanya menjadi gula dan ampas tebu. Pada inventory kali ini selain dari sisi proses juga dilakukan inventory pada sisi transportasi.

  10. Effects Of pH, Temperature And Salinity In Growth And Organic Acid Production Of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Penaeid Shrimp Intestine

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    Subagiyo Subagiyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakteri asam laktat telah lama dikembangkan sebagai probiotik. Penentuan kondisi lingkungan yang optimum untuk pertumbuhan sel serta asam organik memberikan gambaran aktivitas optimum untuk kinerja probiotik baik dalam sistem fisiologi inang maupun dalam sistem bioproses untuk produksi sel dan metabolit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh faktor lingkungan (pH, suhu dan salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi total asam organik tiga isolat bakteri asam laktat yang telah diseleksi dari intestinum udang penaeid. Eksperimen menggunakan  medium deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS cair. Perlakuan pH awal meliputi  nilai pH 4, 5 dan 6. Perlakuan suhu meliputi suhu 25, 30 dan 35OC serta perlakuan salinitas  meliputi salinitas 0,75 %, 1,5 % dan 3 %.  Setiap interval 6 jam dilakukan pengambilan sampel kultur bakteri dan penghitungan pertumbuhan berdasarkan perubahan optical density (pada panjang gelombang 600 nm sedangkan produksi asam laktat dianalisis dengan metode titrimetrik menggunakan NaOH 1 N sebagai larutan titrasinya. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa suhu, pH awal dan salinitas berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi asam organik. Nilai kondisi lingkungan terbaik untuk pertumbuhan dapat berbeda dengan nilai terbaik untuk produksi asam organic. Hal ini ditunjukan oleh nilai laju pertumbuhan dan produksi asam laktat tertinggi dari tiga isolat uji terjadi pada suhu, pH awal dan salinitas yang berbeda.  Isolat L12 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 0,75%. Isolat L14 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Isolat L 21 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30 oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Kata kunci: bakteri asam laktat, suhu, pH, salinitas, asamorganik, pertumbuhan, Lactic acid bacteria are widely distributed in intestinal tracts of various animals where they live as normal flora.Strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most common microbes employed as probiotics, The optimum

  11. RELASI-RELASI KEKUASAAN DI BALIK PENGELOLAAN INDUSTRI PARIWISATA BALI

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    I Nyoman Wijaya

    2012-09-01

    berbicara berhasil menangkap pengetahuan tersembunyi di balik ungkapan wacana Pariwisata Budaya untuk kepentingan kelompok masing-masing. Kata Kunci: pariwisata budaya, PKB, Ekadasarudra, invented art, intelektual organik

  12. Analisis Perilaku Konsumen Terhadap KeputusanPembelian Sayur Organik di Pasar Simpang limun Kota Medan ( Studi kasus Pada Keputusan Konsumen dalam pebelian keputusan di pasar simpang limun kota medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Polem, Ahmad Fadlan

    2016-01-01

    Purchasing decisions is one of the actions undertaken consumers to memebeli a pruduk. Consumer decision is unbelievably influential in earnings or sales and the achievement of the ultimate goal of the company. Therefore prusahaan must know what factors affect consumers in the decision to buy the product. Formulation of the problem in this research is: What are the factors purchasing decisions consisting of budanya, social, personal and pisikologis influencing consumer decision in purchasin...

  13. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  14. Imobilisasi Tembaga (Cu dan Netralisasi Aktivitas Ion Hidrogen (pH pada Limbah Cair Industri Peleburan Emas Dengan Batu Gamping (Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the effectiveness of  limestones in neutralizing hydrogen ion activity (pH, immobilizing cooper (Cu and to implement a waste water treatment process from the gold molten industry using a cost-effective method to prevent the environment contamination from hazardous wastes. Before  implementing technology, a preliminary study was done to determine a simple and cost effective  method to neutralize pH, immobilize and sedimentation of Copper (Cu  using limestones (CaCO3. The results of laboratory examination in preliminary study  showed that limestones may decrease the concentration of Cu from 23,070 mg/L to 0.711 mg/L, TDS from 30,302 mgLl to 18,289 mg/L and neutralize pH from 1.0-3.0 to 7.0. This research demonstrate that limestones may provide a cost effective method to immobilize  Cu and neutralize contaminated wastewater of the gold molten industry. Since the technology  is very simple, it is  suggested  to be used by home scale or  small industry to protect the environment from toxic waste pollution.   Keywords: Immobilizing cooper, lime stone, neutralization, waste water.

  15. Pengujian validasi analisis kadar andrografolid secara kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi (KCKT dengan eluasi gradien terhadap ekstrak herba sambiloto (Andrographis panuculata Ness

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    Toetik Aryani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide of Andrographis paniculata Nees have been isolated and determined Extraction was carried out by maceration with ethanol as solvent. The concentration of Andrographolide was determined by HPLC method.The eluation was carried by out gradiently using methanol: water as an eluent and UV spectrophotometer at maks 228 as detector. The result of HPLC analysis are selectivity >1.2–1.5; r was 0.9937; precision was KV 90%; DL was 0.075; QL was 0.50 and PW < F table. Andrographolide content of Andrographis paniculata Nees from Banyuwangi was 6.25%, Kediri was 14.69% and Surabaya was 6.83%

  16. Pengembangan Metode Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi Spektrometri Massa untuk Penetapan Kadar Rifampisin, Isoniazid dan Pirazinamid dari Plasma Manusia dan Sediaan Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Nerdy

    2012-01-01

    The drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis can be divided into two categories, i.e.: primary anti-tuberculosis and secondary anti-tuberculosis. The primary anti-tuberculosis have a higher efficacy and better safety than those of secondary anti-tuberculosis drugs. Primary anti-tuberculosis drugs are rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. In their use rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide are usually combined. According to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 36 yea...

  17. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

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    Asri Widyasanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experimental method with descriptive analysis. The treatments in this study were A =concentrations of VCO 100 %, B = concentrations of VCO 80 % and castor oil 20 %, C = concentrations of VCO 50 % and castor oil 50 %, D = concentrations of VCO 20 % and castor oil 80 %, and E = concentrations of castor oil 100 %,  from 200 gram soap base. The parameter observed for liquid soap included chemical properties, physical properties of soap, and organoleptic test. The result shows that all treatments complies the requirement SNI 06-4085-1996. The formula of liquid soap with treatment B was revealed as the best product with 0.01 % of total alkali content, pH value of 9.16 , specific gravity 1.06, and total plate count 5colonies/g. This technology process of natural liquid soap production with the VCO and castor oil could be develop and apply in industrial scale.

  18. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Minyak Kelapa Murni (Virgin Coconut Oil) dan Minyak Jarak (Castor Oil) terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia dan Organoleptik Sabun Mandi Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Asri Widyasanti; Shayana Junita; Sarifah Nurjanah

    2017-01-01

    VCO contains of lauric acid that perform to smooth and to moisturize the skin. Castor oil has ricinoleic acid that serves to protect the skin. Therefore, both of the oil are suitable to be the raw material for liquid soap making. This study aimed were to produce a liquid soap, to determine the exact concentration of VCO and castor oil for liquid soap and to find out the effect of VCO and Castor Oil concentrations to the characteristics of liquid soap. The method used was laboratory experiment...

  19. Uji Alat Pengaduk Sabun Cair Berbahan Baku Limbah Minyak Jelantah Dengan Ekstrak Serai Wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L.), Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.), dan Jeruk Nipis (Citrus aurantifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Fariz Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Use cooking Oil is the remains of frying oil that can not be reused. Therefore a further processing is needed, one of them is to be come liquid soap. The aim of this study was to process used cooking oil into liquid soap using the extract of lemongrass, pandan and lemon. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering and parameters tested at the Food Chemical Analysis Laboratorium Faculty of Agricultural in April 2015 to Mei 2015 by using a non-factorial completely rand...

  20. REDISTILAT ASAP CAIR CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET BAKSO SAPI [Redistilled Liquid Smoke of Oil-Palm Shells as a Preservative for Beef Meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suminar Setiati Achmadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid smoke has been used to extend the shelf life of food. However, its composition varies considerably depending on the type of raw materials used and preparation precedure. Liquid smoke derived from palm oil shell is potential due to the abundance of its byproduct sources in the palm oil industry. This study thus aims to prepare the best fraction of liquid smoke that can extend the shelf life of beef meatballs at room temperature. The raw liquid smoke was redistilled at 80, 90, and 100°C and was used as an ingredient in the beef meatballs production. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identification showed that there were no harmful compounds such as derivatives of tar and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Liquid smoke produced from redistillation at 80°C had the best result for providing higher acid value and lower pH, i.e. 5.14% and 2.26, respectively. The LC50 value of the redistilled liquid smoke in brine shrimp lethality assay was 0.16%. Inhibition zones of 0.1 and 0.8% redistilled liquid smoke on the antibacterial test against Staphylococcus aureus were both 6.10 mm, while the zones of inhibition for Escherichia coli were 0 and 7.0 mm, respectively. These resulting inhibition zones were less effective than that of 100 ppm chloramphenicol, i.e. 14.2 mm on S. aureus and 12.6 mm on E. coli. The usage of redistilled liquid smoke at concentration of 0.8% in meatballs was found to inhibit total microbial growth greater than that of the addition at 0.1%. Moreover, the addition of redistilled liquid smoke inhibited the growth of microbial up to 18 hours at room temperature.

  1. Os desastres podem até cair dos céus... Mas a culpa não é de Deus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Petrônio Quirino de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito desta pesquisa é apresentar uma reflexão sobre o descaso em que a politica de enfrentamento aos desastres naturais vem sendo abordada no Brasil nos últimos 100 anos.  Com uma população cada vez mais urbana as cidades passam a ser o centro não só do poder econômico e político, mas também dos mais diversos eventos decorrentes das mudanças climáticas. Uma série de problemas agrava essa urbanização vulnerável e desencadeiam uma crise socioambiental determinada por fatores sociais, políticos, econômicos, tecnológicos, culturais e ecológicos que, de forma integrada, provocam consequências devastadoras. Inundações, deslizamentos, ciclones, incêndios florestais, enxurradas, estiagens, enchentes, secas e terremotos provocam impactos inesperados e pressionam ainda mais este quadro urbano complexo a uma dinâmica preocupante. O desastre não são as principais ameaças, mas a incapacidade de planejamento e enfrentamento na gestão dos desastres demostraram o descaso com a questão foi tratado no país ao longo de décadas.

  2. Analisis Kadar Fosfat Setelah Perlakuan Berbagai Ketebalan Karbon Aktif Pada Limbah Cair Pencucian Pakaian (Laundry) di Kelurahan Tanjung Sari Kecamatan Medan Selayang Tahun 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Oktorina, Anggia Rizky

    2017-01-01

    Increasing of laundry washing services at this time, allowing waste liquid detergents containing phosphate as the constituent materials has a major contribution as environmental contaminants. One of the efforts to reduce phosphate levels contained in the waste washing clothes or laundry is to use activated carbon. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of activated carbon to decrease the thickness of the phosphate in laundry liquid waste in the area of Tanjung Sari subd...

  3. Kandungan kolesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL dan low density lipopro-tein (LDL darah burung puyuh dengan pemberian aditif cair buah naga merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabib Arrosichin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine, assess and evaluate the content of cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL blood quail which were treated with liquid additive red dragon fruit. Materials used in the study were 200 female quails aged 14 days with an average weight of 13.61 ± 0.49 g. Ration composed by metabolizable energy content of ± 3000 kcal/kg and ± 20% of crude protein. The study consisted of 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were (T0: without addition of liquid red dragon fruit (control; T1: addition of 5 ml liquid red dragon fruit twice a day; T2: addition of 5 ml liquid red dragon fruit once a day and T3: addition of 5 ml liquid red dragon fruit once in every two days. Blood sampling was performed in EDTA tube at the end of the study. Analysis of samples was carried out in health laboratory Semarang. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The study showed that the addition of liquid red dragon fruit additive had no significant effect (P> 0.05 on cholesterol, HDL and LDL of quil’s blood. Keywords: Quail, cholesterol; HDL, LDL, and red dragon fruit

  4. Mouton Jean-Michel édit., Le Sinaï de la conquête arabe à nos jours, Le Caire, IFAO 870, 2001, 227 p.

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    Thierry Bianquis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contributions : Katia Cytryn-Siverman, The settlement in Northern Sinai in Islamic period. Pascal Ballet, Un atelier de potiers aux « sources de Moïse » (‘Uyûn Mûsâ. Sâmî Sâlih ‘Abd al-Malik, Une inscription du sultan mamelouk Kitbuga découverte à al-Qurrays. Béatrice Dansette, Le Sinaï, lieu de solitude, centre de relations et d’échanges spirituels ? Essai d’interprétation des récits de pèlerins occidentaux au Sinaï aux derniers siècles du Moyen-Âge. Deltev Kraack, Chivalrous adventures...

  5. Perbandingan Angka Positivitas Dan Waktu Deteksi Pertumbuhan Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antara Media Biakan Cair Kolorometrik dan Media Padat Ogawa Pada Spesimen Sputum,Cairan Pleura, dan Cairan Serebrospinal

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    Indahwaty

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation is the gold standard in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB. M. tuberculosis needs 3-4 weeks to growth in solid media, but it is growing faster in liquid media. The aim of this study was to compare the positivity rate and detection time of M. tuberculosis growth using colorimetric liquid and Ogawa solid media. This study did in Laboratory of Clinical Pathology Hasan Sadikin Hospital during June-Desember 2007. The subject was pulmonary, pleuritis or meningitis TB patients. The statistic analyzed using chi square and independent t test. The specimens were 71 sputums, 24 pleural fluids, 20 cerebrospinal fluids (CSF. The positivity rate of liquid media for sputums were 69%, pleural fluids 41.7%, CSF 60%. The positivity rate of solid media for sputums were 52.1%, pleural fluids 25%, CSF 20%. The positivity rate in liquid media was significant for sputum and CSF (p=0..05. The mean detection time in liquid media for sputums were 15.2 (±8.7 days, pleural fluids 8 (±12.7 days, CSF 13.5 (±19.5 days. The mean detection time in solid media for sputums 23 (±9 days, pleural fluids 36 (±18.3 days, CSF 32 (±11.4 days. The mean detection time in liquid media was significant for sputum and pleural fluid (p=0.05. The positivity rate and detection time of M. tuberculosis growth in colorimetric liquid media are higher and faster than in Ogawa solid media, so it is better for diagnosing TB.

  6. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS EFLUEN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAHU PADA SISTEM LUMPUR AKTIF DENGAN VARIASI LAJU ALIR MENGGUNAKAN ARANG AKTIF KAYU ULIN (Eusideroxylon zwageri

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    Filomena Matilda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industry produces organic waste that can decrease the quality of the environment. The alternative processing method can be used among others is activated sludge system, but several types of research have not shown optimal results yet. To improve the quality of wastewater, the treatment of wastewater of tofu using activated charcoal needs to be done. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effects of the ironwood charcoal activation on the morphology and surface area of  ironwood activated charcoal, to analyze the effects of variations in the flow rate of tofu wastewater effluent from activated sludge using ironwood activated charcoal on the parameters of temperature, pH, TSS, BOD, COD and ammonia and to find out the optimum flow rate of tofu wastewater effluent from activated sludge using ironwood activated charcoal. This research used adsorption method with column system at 7 treatments of flow rate (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 mL/h with 3 replications. The activation of ironwood charcoal used Na2CO3 5% and was activated at 400oC. The results showed that the surface morphology of ironwood active charcoal had more open pore surfaces with more regular structures than before activation. The surface area of ironwood activated charcoal was 32.936 m2/g and increased to 53.7% compared with it before activation. Variations in the flow rate on the tofu wastewater effluent from activated sludge using ironwood activated charcoal showed highly significant (p < 0.01 in reducing the levels of TSS, BOD, COD, and ammonia. The optimum flow rate obtained at 50 mL/h with temperature was 25.8oC, pH 8.08, TSS 34.7 mg/L, BOD 43.8 mg/L, COD 117 mg/L and ammonia 14.8 mg/L. The value of temperature, pH, TSS and BOD have fulfilled the quality standards, the quality of tofu wastewater effluent increased from the activated sludge.

  7. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS EFLUEN SISTEM LUMPUR AKTIF LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAHU DENGAN VARIASI BERAT ARANG AKTIF TERHADAP VOLUME EFLUEN MENGGUNAKAN ARANG AKTIF KAYU ULIN (Eusideroxylon zwageri

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    Handayani Handayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (1 analyze the effect of the activation of iron wood charcoal towards improving the quality of activated charcoal based on moisture content, ash content and adsorption I2, (2 analyze the effect of weight variation activated iron wood charcoal in the activated sludge effluent to temperature parameter, TSS, pH, BOD5, COD and Ammonia, as well as getting the weight ratio of optimum active iron wood charcoal toward activated sludge effluent.  The research design used a completely randomized design. The variation of weight variation of active charcoal from 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g with 3 (three repetitions. This Research was done at the laboratory of Badan Lingkungan Hidup Banjarbaru. The conclusion of this study was that the effect of the activation of ironwood charcoal towards improvement of the quality of activated charcoal were moisture content, ash content and adsorption I2 obtained before activation was 3,02%; 2,41% and 609 mg/g, while moisture content, ash contents and adsorption I2 after being activated were 2,88%; 2,02 % and 685 mg/g. The moisture content and ash contents had reached the quality standard of SNI 06–3730-1995, but the adsorption I2 not yet. The eEffect of weight variation activated charcoal ironwood in the effluent sludge to the temperature, TSS, pH, BOD5, COD and ammonia parameter based on F-test results were highly significant (p<0,01. The parameter of temperature and pH increased as the weight of activated charcoal ironwood increased. The parameter of TSS, BOD5, COD and ammonia decreased as the weight of activated ironwood charcoal. The Parameter that did not reach the quality standard were COD and Ammonia. Optimum weight activated charcoal ironwood active against effluent activated sludge of 6 g. Optimum weight activated ironwood charcoal obtained temperature, TSS, pH, BOD5, COD and ammonia. The values of each were  27,7 0C; 35,7 mg/L; 9,01; 44,2 mg/L; 108 mg/L and 15,2 mg/L.

  8. POTENSI HAYATI SERAT PURUN TIKUS (ELEOCHARIS DULCIS DALAM PROSES ADSORPSI KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (HG, TSS DAN COD PADA LIMBAH CAIR PERTAMBANGAN EMAS

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    Chairul Irawan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activity of gold mining in Kalimantan potentially can give waste that include into “Bahan Beracun Berbahaya (B3” such as mercury. An effort to make out this contamination is adsorption method. Eleocharis dulcis contain high amount of cellulose, about 40,92% so it can be used as an adsorbent. The purpose of this research are studying the capability of eleocharis dulcis as a natural adsorbent, studying the process of biocomposite making from eleocharis dulcis with iron oxide nanoparticle, and studying the influent of result iron oxide nanoparticle added to biocomposite in order to make a lower amount of heavy metal mercury (Hg, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in waste water of gold mining. Eleocharis dulcis (PT through delignification process use 1% NaOH solution and then the PT-D is made to become biocomposite with iron oxide nanoparticle apply “one-pot solvothermal reaction” method. The biocomposite have two variation: without amina cluster added (PT-M and with amina cluster added (PT-MA. It’s characterization are consist of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Adsorption process is applied for 8 hours with mixing rate is 150 rpm. Analysis after adsorption process including three methods: AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method for Hg analysis, titrimetric method for COD, and gravimetric method for TSS. The result of adsorption process for mercury (Hg, COD, and TSS are optimally at pH 7 which the value of their effectiveness are 65,04%, 80%, and 81,25%. The maximum amount of Hg adsorption capacity for PT-D, PT-M, and PT-MA respectively are 6,504 mg/g, 6,984 mg/g, and 6,911 mg/g. The addition of iron oxide nanoparticle can increase adsorben capability of eleocharis dulcis.

  9. Perbedaan Efektivitas Zeolit Dan Manganese Greensand Untuk Menurunkan Kadar Fosfat Dan Chemical Oxygen Demand Limbah Cair “Laundry Zone” Di Tembalang

    OpenAIRE

    Lavina, Dahona Lenthe; Sulistyani, Sulistyani; Rahadjo, Mursid

    2016-01-01

    Laundry business is a business in clothes washing services. Preliminary test results show that the levels of phosphate and COD laundry liquid wastes is 12,36 mg/l and 5.920 mg/l. These levels exceeded the water quality standard of waste that phosphate concentration of 2 mg/l and COD concentration of 100 mg/l. This research aimed to determine the difference effectiveness of zeolite and manganese greensand to decrease phosphate and chemical oxygen demand on waste "laundry zone" in Tembalang. T...

  10. PERBANDINGAN JENIS MEDIA TANAM TANAH ENTISOL YANG TERPAPAR SATU KALI DAN DUA KALI OLEH LIMBAH CAIR NANAS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L. SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

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    Irma Yunita Sari Kartika Sari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research to know effect of Pineapple Liquid Compost (PLC in long term the growth of celery. This research conducted at the village in Yosodadi 21 Polos, East Metro, Metro City since 7 December until 28 February 2015. This research is experimental research, the design used the Complete Random Design (CRD. This research used entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice. The treatment was done to them both by giving PLC about 200ml in a time per three days. The data analysis was done by using normality test (liliefors, homogeneity test (barlett and Ttes. It shows that there is no negative effect of fertilizer use PLC in the long term against the growth of celery in entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice.

  11. PERBANDINGAN JENIS MEDIA TANAM TANAH ENTISOL YANG TERPAPAR SATU KALI DAN DUA KALI OLEH LIMBAH CAIR NANAS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.) SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Yunita Sari Kartika Sari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This research to know effect of Pineapple Liquid Compost (PLC) in long term the growth of celery. This research conducted at the village in Yosodadi 21 Polos, East Metro, Metro City since 7 December until 28 February 2015. This research is experimental research, the design used the Complete Random Design (CRD). This research used entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice. The treatment was done to them both by giving PLC about 200ml in ...

  12. Kecernaan protein dan energi metabolis akibat pemberian zat aditif cair buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus pada burung puyuh japonica betina umur 16-50 hari

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    Meina Yuniarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of crude protein and energy is used to measure digestibility in poultry, digestible shows of feed substances absorbed by the body which will affect the productivity of quail. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of red dragon fruit liquid additif (Hylocereus polyrhizus, digestibility protein and metabolizable energy by quail female age 16-50 days. Experiment used 200 japanese quails females, 7 weeks age with average body weight of 13.61±0.49 g. The study was conducted in battery cages. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 5 replications: T0 (control, T1 (Award liquid additives red dragon fruit twice a day, T2 (one a day and T3 (two days. The dose of a liquid additive is 5 ml/quail. Observation of digestibility of crude protein (KcPK and the energy carried by the method of total collection for 3 days, measurements using a bomb calorimeter gross energy and protein analysis using Kjeldahl method. Data were analyzed using a variety of test F at the level 5%, followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (UJBD there is significant effect of the treatment each treatment was showed liquid additives red dragon fruit was not significant (P> 0.05 on crude protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy. The conclusion, the given of liquid additives red dragon fruit did not increase digestibility of crude protein and apparent metabolizable energy. Keywords: quail, red dragon fruit, digestibility of crude protein

  13. Pemanfaatan Abu Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Untuk Menurunkan Kandungan Minyak/Lemak BOD Dan COD Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Riris Duma

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash to reduce the content of oil/grease, BOD and COD from oil mill effluent. Samples of palm oil mill effluent from wastewater treatment plant of PT Nusantara IV (Persero) oil processing unit sopsa of Padang Lawas district. Samples taken from the last pond will be discharged into the environment. Empty Fruit of Oil Palm Ash taken from the kitchen burning empty fruit bunches PT Nusantara IVB (Persero) units Sosa of Padang Law...

  14. QUANTIFICATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN STEERS FED GREEN TROPICAL GRASS

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    MARTHEN L. MULLIK

    2012-09-01

    alir digesta, dan konsentrasi amonia rumen. Nilai EMPS diestimasi menggunakan turunan purin dalam urin. Kandungan protein kasar dan karbohidrat mudah larut adalah 6.3 % and 7.4%. Rata-rata konsumsi BK adalah 1.6% berat badan. Konsentrasi amonia rumen 69 mg/L, sedangkan laju alir digesta cair sebesar 7.84 %/jam and padat sebesar 6.92 %/jam. Rata-rata EMPS hanya 72 g MCP/kg bahan organik tercerna. Disimpulkan bahwa nilai EMPS untuk rumput tropis segar yang dikonsumsi oleh sapi jantan berada di bawah nilai standar hijauan yang dipedomani dewasa ini.

  15. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

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    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  16. Enhancing Competitiveness Business Strategy of Organic Vegetables Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

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    Pristiana Widyastuti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Public awareness about healthy lifestyles leads people to want to understand more about the food they consume. Choosing organic vegetables is one alternative choices when seeking to have a healthy body and healthy lifestyle. Unfortunately, not a lot of organic vegetable farmers in Indonesia succeed in seizing the organic vegetable market rather than the non-organic and the competition with imported organic vegetables into Indonesia prevents farmers from thriving. This study aims to: 1 Analyze the factors affecting the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market; 2 Analyze the appropriate strategy for increasing the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market; 3 Analyze the factors priority strategies for improving the competitiveness of the organic vegetables market. Porter's Generic Model and Analysis Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to determine the best strategy. The research found that organic vegetables marketing channels are still dominated by conventional market; the higher cost for intensive cultivation of organic vegetables. The main strategies are derived from the analysis is focusing on market delivery. There needs to be retailers of organic vegetables either modern or traditional to display these products. The establishment of organic vegetable outlets and online marketing that are not dependent on large retail (hypermarket become recommendations in this study. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Kesadaran masyarakat tentang gaya hidup sehat memberi pilihan kepada masyarakat untuk memahami makanan yang mereka konsumsi. Pilihan sayuran organik merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk memiliki tubuh sehat dan gaya hidup sehat bagi masyarakat. Sayangnya, tidak banyak petani sayuran organik di Indonesia yang berhasil merebut pasar sayuran organik daripada non organic. Persaingan produk impor sayuran organik ke Indonesia membuat petani tidak bisa berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: 1 Menganalisis faktor-faktor yang

  17. Pengaruh Beberapa Dosis Kompos Dan Azolla ( Azolla Pinnata R. B ) Segar Pada Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil 2 Varietas Tanaman Wortel ( Daucus Carotta L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, M. Syahrial; Widaryanto, Eko; Nugroho, Agung

    2016-01-01

    Wortel termasuk jenis sayuran umbi yang bernilai ekonomis penting di dunia. Salah satu factor budidaya wortel adalah tanah yang tidak hanya sebagai media akar tanaman namun sebagai media tanaman dapat menyerap nutrisi, air dan oksigen. Salah satu peranan bahan organik adalah memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah. Azolla (Azolla pinnata) ialah tumbuhan paku air yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan organik untuk memperbaiki agregat tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk dapat mengetahui pengaruh dosis kom...

  18. Pengaruh Pemberian Berbagai Bentuk Azolla Dan Pupuk N Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea Mays Var. Saccharata)

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Dwi Firmansyah; Soenaryo, Soenaryo; Tyasmoro, Setyono Yudo

    2013-01-01

    Jagung manis sangat responsif terhadap pupuk N, agar kebutuhan N terpenuhi dan memberikan nilai tambah dapat menyuburkan tanah tanpa menurunkan produktifitas jagung manis, maka diperlukan penyeimbang berupa pupuk organik yang memiliki kandungan N tinggi. Pupuk organik potensial yang memiliki kandungan N tinggi yaitu Azolla. Azolla dapat ditemukan dalam 3 bentuk yaitu Azolla segar, Azolla kering dan kompos Azolla. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh aplikasi Azolla segar, Azolla...

  19. PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

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    Wisnu Cahyadi1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

  20. Glatiramer acetate treatment persistence - but not adherence - in multiple sclerosis patients is predicted by health-related quality of life and self-efficacy: a prospective web-based patient-centred study (CAIR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Lemmens, Wim A; Hoogervorst, Erwin L; Donders, Rogier

    2017-03-14

    In patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) the persistence of and adherence to disease modifying drug (DMD) treatment is inadequate. To take individualised measures there is a need to identify patients with a high risk of non-persistence or non-adherence. As patient-related factors have a major influence on persistence and adherence, we investigated whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-efficacy could predict persistence or adherence. In a prospective web-based patient-centred study in 203 RRMS patients, starting treatment with glatiramer acatete (GA) 20 mg subcutaneously daily, we measured physical and mental HRQoL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire), functional and control self-efficacy (Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale), the 12-month persistence rate and, in persistent patients, the percentage of missed doses. HRQoL and self-efficacy were compared between persistent and non-persistent patients, and between adherent and non-adherent patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess whether persistence and adherence were explained by HRQoL and self-efficacy. Persistent patients had higher baseline physical (mean 58.1 [standard deviation, SD] 16.9) and mental HRQoL (63.8 [16.8]) than non-persistent patients (49.5 [17.6]; 55.9 [20.4]) (P = 0.001; P = 0.003) with no differences between adherent and non-adherent patients (P = 0.46; P = 0.54). Likewise, in persistent patients function (752 [156]) and control self-efficacy (568 [178]) were higher than in non-persistent patients (689 [173]; 491 [192]) (P = 0.009; P = 0.004), but not in adherent vs. non-adherent patients (P = 0.26; P = 0.82). Logistic regression modelling identified physical HRQoL and control self-efficacy as factors that explained persistence. Based on predicted scores from the model, patients were classified into quartiles and the percentage of non-persistent patients per quartile was calculated: non-persistence in the highest quartile was 23.4 vs. 53.2% in the lowest quartile. Risk differentiation with respect to adherence was not possible. Based on these findings we propose a practical work-up scheme to identify patients with a high risk of non-persistence and to identify persistence-related factors. Findings suggest that pre-treatment physical HRQoL and control self-efficacy may identify RRMS patients with a high risk of early discontinuation of injectable DMD treatment. Targeting of high-risk patients may enable the efficient use of persistence-promoting measures. Nederlands Trial Register code: NTR2432 .

  1. Penurunan Kromium (Cr dalam Limbah Cair Proses Penyamakan Kulit Menggunakan Senyawa Alkali Ca(OH2, NaOH, dan NaHCO3 (Studi Kasus di Pt Trimulyo Kencana Mas Semarang

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    Tri Joko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABTRACT Background : One of the industrial type which use hazardous materials in its production process is leather tanning industry, by using chromium compound (Cr. Chromium is a heavy metal compound which recognized has a high poison energy. Result of analysis of sampel industrial liquid waste of leather tanning of PT Trimulyo Kencana Mas (TKM Semarang showed that total chromium concervation was 49,575 m/l. This total Chromium rate was still above the standard quality of which enabled maximal 2,0 mg/l, according to Kep51/MENLH/110/1995. Alkali compound of Ca(OH2, NaOH and NaHC03 is chemicals able to be used for the processing of industrial liquid waste of pregnant leather tanning of chromium, functioning to boost up condensation pH andprecipitated chromium so that obtained chrome in theform of hydroxide chromium (Cr(OH3. Methods : which used in this research is (quasi experimental, with experiment variable repeated or referred as one group pretest ‑ posttest design. Results : of this research showed that optimum pH for the compound of each alkali at condition of pH 8, with the efficiency dissociation of chromium was equal to 99,28 % by using alkali compound of Ca(OH2 and of NaOH, while usage of NaHC03 equal to 98,50 %. Conclusions: Alkali compound of Ca(OH2, NaOH and NaHCO3 can degrade chromium concentration (Cr in liquid waste with high efficiency, that is reaching under standard quality. The most effective Compound of Alkali, evaluated from the technical aspect for the degradation of chromium concentration in liquid waste is NaOH, because with only small dose can dissociate chromium in liquid waste with high efficiency (99,28 %, For economic reason and recommendation for application in the field is Ca(OH2. Keyword : Efficiency Ca(OH2,, hydroxide chromium, NaHCO3, NaOH, pH, Chromium Compound

  2. DAMPAK LIMBAH CAIR HASIL PENGOLAHAN EMAS TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR SUNGAI DAN CARA MENGURANGI DAMPAK DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ZEOLIT (The Impact of Liquid Waste of Gold Processing in the River Water Quality and The Method for Minimizing the Impact by Using Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Agus

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kegiatan penambangan emas oleh masyarakat di desa Jendi telah dilakukan sejak 1993. Meskipun telah menyediakan lapangan kerja untuk masyarakat lokal, kegiatan tersebut menurunkan kualitas lingkungan, khususnya sungai, karena penggunaan merkuri. Dalam hal ini penggunaan merkuri dalam proses pengambilan emas murni dari batuan telah mempengaruhi air sungai sehingga memiliki kandungan 0,002-1 mg/l Hg;0,05 mg/l Pb; 0,4 mg/l Cu and 28,39 mg/l Fe. Berdasarkan peraturan -pemerintah No. 822001 tentang pengelolaan kualitas air dan air irigasi, konstituen metal tersebut telah melebihi baku mutu air. Penggunaan mineral zeolite sebagai adsorben pada proses penambangan emas tradisional menunjukkan bahwa zeolit dengan ukuran 80- 100 mesh dapat mengurangi kadar hg sehingga masuk ke dalam baku mutu air.   ABSTRACT The gold mine activity of people in jendi village has been conducted since 1993. Even though this activity provide job for the local people. It will degrade the environmental quality especially river, because of Mercury use. The use of Mercury in the process to extract natural gold from concentrate of rock mill affects river water because it contains 0.002-1 mg/l Hg; 0,05 mg/l Pb; 0,4 mg/l Cu and 28,39 mg/l Fe. Based on the Government Regulation No. 82/2001 Concerning the Management of Water Quality and Irrigation water, those metal constituents have already been above the water standard quality. Using mineral zeolite as adsorbent on the traditional gold processing showed that zeolite with size 80-100 mesh could reduce the content of Hg, Pb, Cu, and Fe, which fall within the water standard quality.

  3. KOMBINASI BUMBU DAN ASAP CAIR DALAM MEMINIMALKAN PEMBENTUKAN HISTAMIN PADA IKAN KEMBUNG PEREMPUAN (Rastrelliger neglectus ASAP [Combination of Spice and Liquid Smoke in Minimizing Histamine Formation in the Smoked Mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Tawali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Four spices (clove, cinnamon, tamarind and ginger were combined and applied to produce smoked female mackerel. The use of liquid smoke was compared with redistilled liquid smoke. The result showed that there was lower histamine content in smoked fish treated with spices after the use of liquid smoke and redistilled liquid smoke at (1.00 – 1.20mg/100g compared with the raw material (1.55mg/100g. Histamine content in all treatments increased during storage from 0.96 – 1.13 mg/100g to 6.40 -20.29mg/100g. The phenol content decreased during storage from 2.19% - 2.44% to 0.72% - 0.84%. Using of liquid smoke in combination with spice as well as without spice,resulted in decreasing of the free fatty acid (FFA content until 20 days of storage then increased, whereas using redistilled liquid smoke, resulted decreased of FFA during 10 days storage before increased. Total psychrophilic microbe was not detectable at 0 and 10 days storage but then increased at 20 and 30 days storage to 6.5x103 – 10.1x103cfu/ml and 7.5x103 – 15.5x103cfu/ml, respectively. Overall, combination between clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke which was applied to female mackerel showed the best result i.e.: lower histamine content, lower FFA, lower total psychrophilic microbe and lower phenol content than other treatments. The acceptability of smoked fish treated with clove-cinnamon and liquid smoke after 30 days storage showed higher value than other treatments.

  4. IDENTIFIKASI ANTOSIANIN BUAH DUWET (Syzygium cumini MENGGUNAKAN KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI - DIODE ARRAY DETECTION [Identification of Anthocyanins in Jambolan Fruit (Syzygium cumini by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Diode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Sari1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the content of total monomeric anthocyanins and to identify the anthocyanin composition of jambolan fruit (Syzygium cumini growing in Indonesia. Anthocyanins were extracted with methanol containing 0.1% HCl, removed from non-polar impurities by partition with chloroform and purified in a C18 solid phase cartridge. Anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD, UV-visible spectral analysis, and physico-chemical reactions. Using pH-differential method, it was known that the content of total monomeric anthocyanin in the ripe fruit was 161 mg/100 g fresh fruit (731 mg/100 g skin on wet basis or 3430 mg/100 g skin on dry basis, based on cyanidin-3-glucoside. Furthermore, five anthocyanins without acylating groups were identified as 3,5-diglucoside derivatives of delphinidin (41.29%, petunidin (27.79%, malvidin (25.60%, cyanidin (4.19%, and peonidin (1.13%. These results demonstrate that the skin of jambolan fruit especially the ripe one is rich in anthocyanin, with wide range in anthocyanidin backbone (five aglycons.

  5. STUDI PENENTUAN JENIS OUTLET LIMBAH CAIR KARET REMAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN MIKROALGA DENGAN SISTEM OPEN PONDS [Study of determination the type of crumb rubber waste water outlet for the growth of microalgae with open ponds system

    OpenAIRE

    Tanto Pratondo Utomo; Otik Nawansih; Anggun KOmalasari

    2015-01-01

    Waste water of crumb rubber industry is originated from coagulation, milling and leaching stage contains organic material that is derived from serum and rubber particles which haven’t been coagulated yet. The materials are potential to pollute the water therefore the crumb rubber industry must be treated through the wastewater plant. However, the characteristics of waste water are predicted suitable for the cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. media a biofuel feedstock, especially biodiesel tha...

  6. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  7. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  8. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  9. Pengolahan Lindi Menggunakan Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor dengan Proses Anaerobik-Aerobik-Anoksik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriflalail Rio Jusepa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lindi mengandung konsentrasi organik, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, amonium, nitrit dan nitrat yang tinggi sehingga lindi yang tidak diolah dapat mencemari lingkungan. Pengolahan biologis dengan sistem fluidized attached growth seperti Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR dapat digunakan untuk menurunkan senyawa organik dan senyawa nitrogen. Konsentrasi organik dan nitrogen yang tinggi pada lindi dapat diolah dengan mengatur proses aerobik-anaerobik-anoksik di dalam MBBR. Kapasitas pengolahan MBBR yang digunakan sebesar 10 L dan media Kaldness (K1 sebanyak 2 L. MBBR dioperasikan dengan sistem batch, dengan kondisi aerobik yang berasal dari aerator dan pompa submersible, kondisi anaerobik berasal dari pompa submersible saja, dan kondisi anoksik yang berasal dari pompa submersible dan aerator. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa MBBR dapat digunakan untuk menurunkan senyawa nitrogen dan senyawa organik. Efisiensi penyisihan optimum senyawa organik sebesar 87% pada proses anaerobik baik pada sistem fluidized attached growth maupun suspended growth. Efisiensi penyisihan optimum senyawa nitrogen sebesar 72% pada proses anoksik baik pada sistem fluidized attached growth maupun suspended growth.

  10. EFEKTIVITAS PEMANFAATAN PUPUK BOKASI, CASTING DAN PUPUK GENDONING (LARVA KUMBANG KELAPA/Orcyctes rhinoceros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lianah l

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kotoran hewan dan sampah organik dapat mencemari di lingkungan air, udara dan  tanah. Penelitian ini bertu- juan untuk membandingkn keefektifan antara pupuk gen- doning dan pupuk bokashi. Proses pengomposan dapat dipercepat dengan bantuan aktifator EM4 (Efektif Mik- roorganisme. Proses pengomposan tersebut juga dapat melibatkan hewan lain yaitu Cacing tanah dan larva kum- bang kelapa (Orcyctes rhinoceros yang disebut dengan nama gendon (bahasa Jawa yang bekerja sama dengan mikroba dalam proses dekomposer. Gendon dalam hal ini memakan bahan organik yang tidak terurai, mencampur bahan organik dan membuat lubang-lubang aerasi. Keha- diran gendon dapat mempercepat penghancuran bahan or- ganik karena mempunyai mulut yang tajam sebagai mesin pencacah sampah organik. Metode penelitian eksperimen sampah organik ditreatmen yaitu dengan menggunakan EM4, dan dengan menggunakan gendon. Peruraian oleh EM4 disebut pupuk Bokashi. Sedang keterlibatan gendon dalam proses pengomposan menghasilkan butir-butir kecil berwarna hitam dinamakan pupuk Gendoning (penemuan pribadi. Dari kedua pupuk tersebut dipraktekan untuk menanam labu air (Lagenaria leucantha. Dari experimen tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa pupuk gendoning ini ter- bukti lebih efektif dan efisien dari pupuk bokashi, karena gendon mampu melakukan dekomposisi lebih sempurna dari EM4. Dekomposisi tersebut dilakukan baik secara me- kanik maupun secara enzimatis. Pupuk gendoning adalah hasil bioteknologi sederhana yang dapat menjadi alternatif dalam mengatasi kelangkaan pupuk, sebagai pupuk organ- ik yang efektif dan efisien serta bernilai ekonomis sebagai.

  11. PEMANFAATAN SENYAWA BIOAKTIF DARI EKSTRAK KULIT BATANG Artocarpus sp SEBAGAI INHIBITOR TIROSINASE PADA PIGMENTASI KULIT

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Maria Titin Supriyanti

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pemanfaatan senyawa bioaktif dari ekstrak kulit batang Artocarpus sp sebagai inhibitor tirosinase pada pigmentasi kulit. Pada penelitian ini digunakan tiga jenis Artocarpus, yaitu A. heterophyllus (nangka), A. altilis (sukun) dan A. communis (kluwih). Kajian difokuskan pada penentuan jenis Artocarpus apakah yang potensial dalam menginhibisi reaksi tirosinase, serta pelarut organik apakah yang mampu mengekstrak senyawa bioaktif tersebut secara optimum. Metode...

  12. Proses Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa Sitimulyo Kecamatan Piyungan Kabupaten Bantul Dalam Pembentukan Kelompok Pengelola Sampah Mandiri (KPSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Teguh Sulistyani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste management generally is the responsibility of local government.“Kartamantul” cooperation of waste management in Yogyakarta, Sleman and Bantul, waste disposal is concentrated in TPSA (waste dump Piyungan, particularly in Sitimulyo Village. The volume of the waste is increased which leads to the limitation of TPSA capacity. Recently, government has been experiencing difficulty to provide waste dump facility. In this critical period, the participation of college institution to deliver its sollution and devotion is highly required. Universitas Gadjah Mada, as one of college institutions that concerns to problem raised in environment, has carried out society empowerment. Through action research methodology and data collection technique of direct participative observation, interview, documentation, and focus group discussion can arrange action plan. UGM team along with the society continuously performs experiments until KPSM has professional to produce both solid and liquid organik fertilizer. The intensity of education, consultation, and mentoring has resulted in KPSM capacity enhancement. Pioneering program in environment and household waste management is the opening to the development of “Sitimulyo” organik fertilizer. Besides organik fertilizer produced with organik waste is used by local community, it also has been sold to consumer.

  13. Senyawa Flavonoida, Fenil Propanoida dan Alkaloida

    OpenAIRE

    Sovia Lenny

    2006-01-01

    06003489 Sebagian besar senyawa organik bahan alam adalah senyawa-senyawa aromatik. senyawa-senyawa ini tersebar luas sebagai zat warna alam yang menyebabkan warna pada bunga, kayu pohon tropis, bermacam-macam kapang dan lumut termasuk zat warna alizarin, oleh Sovia Lenny

  14. 77 FR 68076 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... preserve the environmental benefits provided by CAIR, North Carolina v. EPA, 550 F.3d 1176, 1178 (DC Cir... CSR 19. See 71 FR 64468 (November 2, 2006) (approving NSR program into the SIP) and 77 FR 63736...

  15. Defeasible inheritance-based description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available of Artificial Intelligence Research 2013 Defeasible Inheritance-based Description Logics Giovanni Casini GCASINI@CSIR.CO.ZA Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research (CAIR), CSIR Meraka Institute and UKZN, South Africa Umberto Straccia UMBERTO...

  16. Pengaruh Kandungan Uranium Dalam Umpan Terhadap Efisiensi Pengendapan Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Torowati

    2010-01-01

    PENGARUH KANDUNGAN URANIUM DALAM UMPAN TERHADAP EFISIENSI PENGENDAPAN URANIUM. Setiap aktivitas analisis di Laboratorium Kendali Kualitas, Bidang Bahan Bakar Nuklir selalu dihasilkan limbah radioaktif cair. Limbah radioaktif cair di laboratorium masih mengandung uranium yang cukup besar ± 0,600 g U/l dengan keasamaan yang cukup besar pula. Karena uranium mempunyai nilai ekonomis yang cukup tinggi maka perlu USAha untuk mengambil kembali uranium tersebut. Pada kegiatan ini telah dilak...

  17. Pirolisis Kulit Biji Jambu Mete (Anacardium Occidentale L.) dengan Katalis Ni-Ag/Zeolit

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Eva Noer; Suyati, Linda; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan pirolisis kulit biji jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale L.) dengan katalis Ni-Ag/zeolit untuk mendapatkan produk cair hasil pirolisis dan membandingkannya dengan produk cair pirolisis dengan katalis Ni/zeolit.. Pirolisis dilakukan dengan variasi temperatur 200, 250, 300, 350, dan 400°C. Produk yang berupa gas dikondensasikan pada pendingin es-garam kemudian dianalisis dengan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin tinggi temperatur pirolisis semakin banyak massa produk cai...

  18. Pirolisis Kulit Biji Jambu Mete (Cashew Nut Shell) dengan Katalis Ag/Zeolit

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Rimby Puji; Suyati, Linda; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2012-01-01

    Tanaman jambu mete, Anacardium occidentale L. merupakan salah satu komoditi perkebunan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi cukup tinggi. Kulit biji jambu mete mengandung 50% minyak yang terdiri dari senyawa fenolat berupa 90% asam anakardat dan 10% berupa kardol dan kardanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis dan mengkarakterisasi katalis Ag/zeolit, melakukan pirolisis kulit jambu mete, mengetahui pengaruh temperatur pirolisis terhadap produk cair pirolisis dan membandingkan produk cair hasi...

  19. Profile in various organic soil depth shrimp pond, Tambak Inti Rakyat, Karawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Puji Hastuti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOrganic material in the bottom of the pond is part of the land is a complex and dynamic system, which is sourced from the rest of the feed, plants, and or animals found in the soil that continuously change shape, because it is influenced by biology, physics, and chemistry. This study was aimed to see the profile of organic material consisting of C, N, and C/N ratio and phosphate in different depths of pond with different culture systems. Observation were conducted at Tambak Inti Rakyat, Karawang in traditional, semi-intensive and intensive culture systems. Observation at mangrove area was also observed as control. Sediment samples at the inlet and outlet at three different depths (0‒5 cm, 5‒10 cm, and 10‒15 cm was taken every 30 days to measure the content of C, N, C/N ratio, and total phosphate. During the 120 day maintenance period could be known that in all pond systems were used (traditional, semi-intensive, and intensive the concentration of C-organic and organic-N on average was located in the bottom layer which is a layer of 10‒15 cm. The lack of human intervention from ground pond system, the more diverse the type and amount of organic material contained therein.Keywords: organic materials, subgrade, depth, aquaculture systems, long maintenanceABSTRAKBahan organik di dasar tambak merupakan bagian dari tanah yang merupakan suatu sistem kompleks dan dinamis, yang bersumber dari sisa pakan, tanaman, dan atau binatang yang terdapat di dalam tanah yang terus menerus mengalami perubahan bentuk, karena dipengaruhi oleh faktor biologi, fisika, dan kimia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat profil bahan organik yang terdiri dari C, N, dan C/N rasio serta fosfat pada kedalaman tambak yang berbeda dengan sistem budidaya yang berbeda pula. Pengamatan dilakukan di Tambak Inti Rakyat Karawang pada sistem budidaya tradisional, semi intensif, dan intensif. Pengamatan di daerah mangrove diamati pula sebagai kontrol. Sampel sedimen di

  20. KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Supli Effendi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the  value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

  1. Métropolisation, habitat précaire et relogement forcé: entre phénomènes d'exclusion et tactiques populaires d'intégration: le cas du canal Nhieu Loc-Thi Nghe à Ho Chi Minh-Ville, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Wust, Sébastien

    2001-01-01

    This work was carried out within the interdisciplinary scientific program named "Sustainable Development, Metropolisation and Pollution of Natural Resources in Ho Chi Minh-City, Vietnam". This program, launched in 1994, is financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Priority Program Environment, Module 7 "Environment and development"). The main goal of this thesis is to grasp the social, economic and spatial dimensions at stake of involuntary ...

  2. R.-P. Gayraud (dir., Colloque international d'archéologie islamique, IFAO, Le Caire, 3-7 février 1993, Paris, Publications de l'IFAO, Textes arabes et études islamiques 36, 1998, 460 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Démians d'Archimbaud

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available L'initiative prise par l'IFAO de réunir dès 1993 un premier colloque international d'archéologie islamique - une table ronde élargie, en fait, selon le souhait de son concepteur et maître d'œuvre, Roland-Pierre Gayraud - concrétise les mutations rapides en train de se développer dans ce secteur de la recherche, comme ce fut le cas un peu antérieurement en Occident. Après des recherches pionnières mais restées longtemps isolées ou dispersées, voire même non publiées, sur des sites le plus souv...

  3. Pengolahan Limbah Rumah Makan dengan Proses Biofilter Aerobik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Zoraya Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berkembangnya rumah makan/restoran yang semakin pesat dapat dipastikan akan turut menambah buangan air limbah domestik dengan kadar organik yang tinggi dalam jumlah yang tidak sedikit yang dibuang ke badan air.Tingginya kadar organik dalam limbah domestik rumah makan akan menyebabkan aroma yang tidak sedap jika tidak ada pengolahan terlebih dahulu, maka pengolahan yang dapat digunakan untuk mengolah air limbah rumah makan tersebut adalah proses biofilter aerobik. Penelitian dilakukan dengan proses biofilter aerobik dengan aliran downflow dan menggunakan sistem intermitten.Variabel dalam penelitian ini adalah media biofilter berupa kerikil dan batu alam serta Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT 8 jam. Parameter pencemar yang diukur efisiensinya adalah BOD, COD, dan TSS. Besarnya penyisihan parameter BOD, COD dan TSS dengan menggunakan biofilter aerob berturut-turut mencapai 94,83%, 92,95%, dan 95%. Reaktor paling baik dalam mengolah air limbah adalah reaktor biofilter dengan media kerikil pada HRT 8 jam.

  4. PENERAPAN HACCP BUBUR BAYI BERAS MERAH TERHADAP PENERIMAAN DAN LAMA WAKTU SIMPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riska Listyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini secara umum bertujuan terlaksananya penerapan HACCP untuk bubur beras me-rah yang ditujukan untuk bayi usia 6-10 bulan, dan secara khusus menetapkan perbedaan lama waktu simpan bubur tersebut antara penerapan HACCP (variasi 1 dengan penerapan HACCP tanpa pengendalian CCP persiapan bahan (variasi 2; sanitasi alat (variasi 3; penjamah (variasi 4; cara pengolahan (variasi 5; penyimpanan (variasi 6 dan penyajian (variasi 7, serta mene-tapkan perbedaan penerimaan bubur beras merah variasi 1 dan bubur organik sebagai kontrol positif. Hal ini dilatar-belakangi karena dalam proses pembuatan bubur beras merah oleh ibu bayi, pada pemilihan bahan, sanitasi alat, penjamah dan cara pengolahan tidak memenuhi sya-rat. Begitu juga pada proses pengolahan bubur organik, pada sanitasi alat, penjamah, penyim-panan dan penyajian juga tidak memenuhi syarat. Metoda pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah observasi, dengan bahan penelitian bubur hasil olahan sendiri. Hasil analisis menunjukan bahwa: bayi homogenisasi yang menerima bubur beras merah olahan sendiri adalah sebesar 73,25 %, dan yang menerima bubur organik pabrikan sebesar 46,5 %; penerimaan bubur beras merah dengan bubur organik berbeda secara bermakna (nilai p: 0,022. Selain itu diketahui pula bahwa lama waktu simpan bubur beras merah variasi 1 lebih dari 12 jam; variasi 2, 12 jam ( p: 1,00; variasi 3, 12 jam (p: 0,831; variasi 4, 11 jam (p: 0,862; variasi 5, 11 jam (p: 0,478; variasi 6, 8 jam (p: 0,155; dan variasi 7, 11 jam (p: 0,473. Dengan demiki-an dapat disimpulkan bahwa lama waktu simpan bubur beras merah variasi 2, 3, 4, 5 dan 6 tidak berbeda dengan variasi 1.

  5. IDENTIFIKASI JENIS JAMUR ASOSIASI KUDA LAUT Hippocampus barbouriYANG HIDUP DI PERAIRAN ALAMI DAN PENANGKARAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ratna

    2017-01-01

    Jamur merupakan organisme heterotrof yang menggunakan bahan organik untuk nutrisinya. Jamur dapat sebagai patogen yang bersifat infeksi sekunder. Penyakit yang umum terjadi pada banyak ikan dapat juga terjadi pada kuda laut, diantaranya adalah jamur, parasit dan bakteri.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenisjamuryang berasosiasi dengan kuda laut (Hippocampus barbouri). Jamur asosiasi kuda laut diperoleh dengan metode swab menggunakan cotton swab microbiology. Identifikasi dil...

  6. Organic Waste Anaerobic degradation with bio-activator-5 Effective Microorganism (EM-5) to Produce Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Metri Dian Insani

    2014-01-01

    Degradasi Anaerob Sampah Organik dengan Bioaktivator Effective Microorganism-5 (EM-5) untuk Menghasilkan Biogas Abstract: The purpose of this study was to: (1) analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to biogas pressure, (2) analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow dung for a long time flame biogas produced, and (3) analyze the different uses corn cobs,...

  7. Perwujudan/Implementasi Konsep Interaksi Aerotropolis Berbasis Tata Ruang di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jermanto Setia Kurniawan

    2016-01-01

    Banyak kegiatan USAha atau jasa komersial di sekitar kawasan bandar udara menjadi dasar terbentuknya konsep/model kota bandara (airport city) yang merupakan embrio terbentuknya konsep aerotropolis. Konsep ini berkembang secara organik dan dimulai dari bandar udara itu sendiri, dimana bandar udara tak hanya sebatas sebagai pendukung kegiatan penerbangan. Lebih dari itu, ada berbagai jenis kegiatan bisnis lainnya, sehingga bandar udara dan wilayah sekitarnya merupakan kawasan komersial yang ter...

  8. Hipoplasia Enamel Pada Penderita Penyakit Eksantema

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi saputri

    2008-01-01

    Hipoplasia enamel merupakan gangguan pada masa pemhentukan matriks organik yang menyebabkan gangguan struktur pada enamel sehingga secara klinis terlihat pada suatu bagian dari gigi tidak terbentuk enamel dan kadang-kadang sama sekali tidak terbentuk enamel, serta diikuti dengan perubahan warna pada gigi. Dikenal berbagai faktor penyebab hipoplasia enamel, salah satunya adalah penyakit eksantema yaitu menyebabkan infeksi pada bayi dan anak-anak. Gambaran histopatologis hipoplasia enamel adala...

  9. Studi Eksperimental Pembuatan Ekosemen dari Abu Sampah dan Cangkang Kerang sebagai Bahan Alternatif Pengganti Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieska Ariesta Syafnijal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dibuat ekosemen dari bahan abu sampah organik dan abu cangkang kerang. Sampah organik dibakar dengan insinerator pada suhu 1000oC. Abu cangkang kerang dipanaskan dengan furnace pada suhu 700oC. Hasil pengujian komposisi awal XRD (X-Ray Diffraction, Abu sampah organik mengandung 69,7% CaCO3; 12,1% KCl; 4% Cd0.15Gd0.85; 3% SiO2; 8,1% Fe ( Se0.5Te0.5 dan 3% Al2ErGe2, Abu cangkang kerang mengandung 100% CaCO3. Ditentukan tiga variasi jumlah komposisi Abu sampah:Abu cangkang kerang yaitu Ekosemen A (58,2%:40%; Ekosemen B (49,1%:49,1% dan Ekosemen C (54,01%:44,09%. Sebagai variabel kontrol digunakan Semen Portland jenis OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement merek ‘Semen Gresik’. Dilakukan pengujian fisika yaitu kuat tekan mortar dan densitas serbuk. Pengujian XRD dilakukan untuk mengetahui komposisi kimia dari ekosemen. Dari hasil pengujian fisika didapat ekosemen B paling mendekati nilai ‘Semen Gresik’ OPC yaitu kuat tekan 3 hari (7,2 kg/cm2 dan densitas serbuk (2,535 gr/ml.   

  10. PENGARUH VARIETAS DAN SISTEM BUDIDAYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI, DAN KANDUNGAN GIZI JAGUNG (ZEA MAYS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukarie Ayu Wulandari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jagung merupakan bahan pangan yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai pangan lokal, pakan, dan bahan baku industri. Mengingat pentingnya jagung, maka perlu adanya upaya untuk peningkatan produktivitasnya. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh varietas dan sistem budidaya terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi, dan kandungan gizi jagung. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terbagi dengan petak utama varietas (Srikandi Putih-1 dan Srikandi Kuning-1 dan anak petak sistem budidaya (organik dan inorganik yang diulang lima kali. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa varietas Srikandi Putih-1 memberikan hasil tertinggi pada tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, luas daun, lingkar batang, pati, dan vitamin A. Varietas Srikandi Kuning-1 memberikan hasil tertinggi pada produksi, protein dan lemak. Sistem budidaya inorganik memberikan hasil tertinggi pada tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang tongkol, bobot bersih tongkol, bobot pipilan kering, bobot 100 butir, konversihasil/ha, patidan protein. Interaksi varietas Srikandi Putih-1 dengan sistem budidaya organik memberikan hasil tertinggi terhadap jumlah daun, lingkar batang dan kandungan vitamin A. Varietas Srikandi Kuning-1 yang dibudidayakan secara inorganik memberikan hasil tertinggi terhadap bobot bersih tongkol, bobot pipilan kering, bobot 100 butir, konversi hasil ha-1 dan kandungan protein. Kandungan pati tertinggi pada varietas Srikandi Putih-1 yang dibudidayakan secara inorganik, sedangkan kandungan lemak tertinggi pada varietas Srikandi Kuning-1 yang dibudidayakan secara organik.

  11. FINDIK TARIMI YAPILAN TOPRAKLARIN BİYOKİMYASAL AKTİVİTE ÖZELLİKLERİ İLE TOPRAK ÖZELLİKLERİ ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten KARACA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Terme - Ünye yöresinde fındık tarımı yapılan topraklarda üreaz, ß- Glikosidaz, asit ve alkali fosfataz enzim aktiviteleri belirlenmiş ve bu aktiviteler ile toprakların bazı önemli özellikleri ile, iz element ve ağır metal içerikleri arasındaki ilişkiler ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Yapılan regrasyon-korelasyon analiz sonuçlarına göre, üreaz enzim aktivitesi ile organik madde, azot ve ekstrakte edilebilir Cu , asit fosfataz aktivitesi ile organik madde, organik C ve azot arasında pozitif, ekstrakte edilebilir Mn arasında da negatif bir ilişki belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, alkali fosfataz enzim aktivitesi ile pH, alınabilir P, ekstrakte edilebilir Cu, Zn ve Pb arasında önemli pozitif ilişki bulunmuştur. Toprakların ß-Glikosidaz aktivitesi ile toprak özellikleri arasında C/N oranı ve ekstrakte edilebilir Cd miktarı hariç, hiçbir önemli ilişki bulunamamıştır.

  12. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Controlled release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollner, L.

    1991-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a two weeks (of one month) mission from 2 to 15 April 1991 to the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of BATAN in Jakarta. Expert held a seminar, discussed and carried out experiments on Controlled Release Formulations (CRF). Discussed further experiments, cleaned and reinstalled an ECD of the Shimadzu gas chromatograph and optimized the analytical conditions for chlorinated pesticides. He also developed a project for possible submission to the Government of Germany, to allow the staff of CAIR to undertake a more intensive research and to be able to set up training facilities in his research center in Munich/Germany. He furthermore assessed needs for supply of instruments, accessories and radiolabelled pesticides. An agreement for continuing the scientific and technical mission was obtained with the staff of CAIR, in connection with the DDT-RCM at the end of November 1991, provided approval by IAEA

  13. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Indonesia. Food irradiation process control, market testing and economic feasibility RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission to Indonesia between 9 and 16 March 1991, to the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of BATAN at Jakarta. This mission included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to radiation processing and food irradiation relevant to Indonesia and its on-going programmes, including meetings with CAIR Director, Mrs. Nazly Hilmy, and NAEA Deputy Director General, Dr. H. Nazir Abdullah. Consultations were also held with the various groups within the CAIR regarding their research and development programmes, and in particular the group involved specifically with food irradiation. In the company of CAIR staff members, a meeting was held at the Ministry of Health's Directorate for Food and Drug Control regarding legislative, regulatory and industrial food irradiation actions and activities in other countries, prospects for international trade, and the status of these aspects in Indonesia. A visit and tour was made at the Jakarta facilities of New York City - New Jersey (USA) - based International Flavours and Fragances (IFF) which has certain of its raw materials irradiated for hygienic purposes at the (CAIR). A separate meeting was held at the offices of P.T. Perkasa Rubberindo, whose Sterilindo subsidiary is having an industrial gamma irradiator installed at its rubber products manufacturing site East of Jakarta. The expert provided a seminar on radiation processing in general, followed by a question and - answer session. The expert plus CAIR counterparts visited the Jakarta headquarters of the Indonesian Consumer Organization, an International Organization of Consumer Unions affiliate, that has been the most active in the opposition to food irradiation in Indonesia. Following debriefings the expert moved on the Vietnam leg of the three nation mission trip. (author)

  14. Report on the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    Since 1981 the Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has administered a semi-annual course on radiation safety in uranium mines under contract to and in consultation with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The course is intended primarily for representatives from mining companies, regulatory agencies, unions, and mine and mill workers. By the terms of its contract with the AECB, CAIRS is required to submit a report on each course it conducts. This is the report on the June 1987 course. It lists the course objectives and the timetable, outlines for each lecture, the lecturers' resumes, and the participants. The students' evaluations of the course are included

  15. EMERGE - ESnet/MREN Regional Science Grid Experimental NGI Testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mambretti, Joe; DeFanti, Tom; Brown, Maxine

    2001-07-31

    This document is the final report on the EMERGE Science Grid testbed research project from the perspective of the International Center for Advanced Internet Research (iCAIR) at Northwestern University, which was a subcontractor to this UIC project. This report is a compilation of information gathered from a variety of materials related to this project produced by multiple EMERGE participants, especially those at Electronic Visualization Lab (EVL) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Argonne National Lab and iCAIR. The EMERGE Science Grid project was managed by Tom DeFanti, PI from EVL at UIC.

  16. IMPACT OF SRI ORGANIC AS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF PT MEDCO E&P INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Ayudia Fitriyani

    2015-03-01

    program tanggung jawab sosial sebagai kontribusi untuk masyarakat. Salah satu bentuk dari tanggung jawab sosial adalah program pengembangan masyarakat yang dinilai lebih bermanfaat. System Rice Intensification Organic atau SRI Organik adalah salah satu program pengembangan masyarakat yang dikembangkan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan petani. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah 1 mengevaluasi dampak yang diberikan SRI Organik sebagai program pengembangan masyarakat; 2 mengukur tingkat pendapatan petani SRI Organik; 3 menganalisis peluang SRI Organik dimasa depan sebagai program yang mandiri dan berkelanjutan. Dengan melakukan studi kasus kepada program pengembangan masyarakat yang dilakukan PT Medco E&P Indonesia pada dusun Parit 9 kab. Banyuasin, penulis melakukan analisis dan evaluasi dampak dengan menggunakan SEAGA terhadap 20 responden. Hasil dari penelitian tersebut dimaksudkan untuk memberikan masukan agar menjadikan program pengembangan masyarakat yang lebih efektif di masa depan.   Kata kunci: kesejahteraan, tanggung jawab sosial, pengembangan masyarakat, SRI organik, SEAGA

  17. 40 CFR 97.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arrangement means a unit participation power sales agreement under which a utility or industrial customer... a CAIR NOX source and shall include, but not be limited to, any holding company, utility system, or... coal-fired boiler with one of the following coal-fired technologies at the same source as the coal...

  18. 40 CFR 96.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arrangement means a unit participation power sales agreement under which a utility or industrial customer... a CAIR NOX source and shall include, but not be limited to, any holding company, utility system, or... coal-fired boiler with one of the following coal-fired technologies at the same source as the coal...

  19. Tropical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996. 84(3); 199-202. 23 Kobayashi T, Asahina T, Machara K, Itah M, kanayama. N, Terao T. Congenital afibrinogenaemia with successful delivery. Gyneacolgy and Obs Investigation. 1996; 42(1): 66-69. 24 Caires D, Arocha- Pinango CL, Rodriquez S, Linares J. factor VIIIR:Ag/factor VIII:C and their ratio in obstetrical cases.

  20. Cybergouvernement local en Égypte - intégration des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Université du Caire d'examiner la maturité, l'efficacité et l'impact des services de cybergouvernement offerts par les gouvernorats sur Internet et par le truchement de bornes électroniques (dites " centres intelligents "). Le cadre d'évaluation ...

  1. PENGARUH VARIASI KONSENTRASI ADSORBEN BIJI TREMBESI TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR LOGAM KROMIUM (CR TOTAL PADA LIMBAH INDUSTRI SASIRANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Indah hayati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Proses pembuatan kain sasirangan menghasilkan limbah cair yang berasal dari proses pewarnaan dan pencelupan kain. Salah satu polutan yang terkandung pada limbah cair industri sasirangan adalah logam Cr. Reduksi logam Cr total limbah cair industri sasirangan dilakukan dengan proses adsorpsi menggunakan adsorben dari biji Trembesi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi adsorben 1, 2, 3 dan 4% w/v terhadap proses reduksi logam Cr total industri sasirangan. Variasi konsentrasi adsorben yang digunakan sebesar 1 g/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL, 3 g/100 mL dan 4 g/100 mL limbah sasirangan dengan pengadukan selama 30 menit pada 100 rpm suhu 55oC dengan ukuran adsorben 250 mikron. Proses pirolisis berlangsung selama 5 jam dengan suhu operasi 450oC. Adsorben diaktifkan menggunakan HCl 0,1 N yang berlangsung selama 24 jam. Analisa yang dilakukan yaitu ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma untuk mengetahui kadar logam yang masih tersisa didalam limbah setelah dilakukannya proses adsorpsi. Semakin banyak jumlah adsorben yang ditambahkan maka penurunan konsentrasi logam Cr dalam air limbah semakin besar. Hasil penelitian diperoleh penurunan konsentrasi logam Cr maksimum sebesar 82,65%. Konsentrasi logam Cr mula-mula pada limbah cair kain sasirangan sebesar 2 ppm dan penurunan konsentrasi logam Cr maksimum pada penambahan adsorben 2 g sebesar 0,347 ppm.

  2. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal. To...

  3. 40 CFR 96.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting...

  4. 77 FR 76883 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... secondary manner through chemical reactions or other processes in the atmosphere. \\6\\ NO X and SO 2 are precursors for fine particulates through chemical reactions and other related processes in the atmosphere... and includes emission reductions associated with CAIR, EPA's modeling indicates that the area would...

  5. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in...

  6. 1762-IJBCS-Article-Abdourhamane Hamidou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    individus/ha) serait due entre autres aux conditions climatiques précaires et à la pression des populations ... niveau global, les pertes forestières pour la ... écologique, dans un milieu sahélien qui fait ... La présente étude rentre dans ce.

  7. 75 FR 33174 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... appointment for public inspection in the Region 6 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Review Room between the...\\ Id. \\4\\ In this action the expression ``CAIR'' refers to the final rule published in the May 12, 2005... in 2012.\\14\\ \\13\\ In this action the expression ``UBAQS'' refers to the ``FINAL REPORT UBAQS...

  8. Donner une voix aux pauvres en milieu urbain : les chiffonniers de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 mars 2018 ... Pour les pauvres en milieu urbain de Bolivie, il est essentiel d'adopter des « stratégies de survie » pour gagner un revenu supplémentaire qui compense les salaires bas et précaires.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Pt. 97, App. C Appendix C to Part 97—Final Section 126 Rule: Trading Budget ST F126-EGU F126-NEGU Total DC 207 26...

  10. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  11. 76 FR 82219 - Regional Haze: Revisions to Provisions Governing Alternatives to Source-Specific Best Available...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... public hearing? E. How is this notice organized? II. What action is the EPA proposing to take? III. What... 1178. The EPA replaced CAIR with the Transport Rule on August 8, 2011.\\12\\ The Transport Rule will take... trading program in the recently promulgated Transport Rule, also known as the Cross-State Air Pollution...

  12. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  13. KAJIAN STRATEGI PROMOSI KESEHATAN SANITASI TOTAL BERBASIS MASYARAKAT (STBM DI KELURAHAN TIRTO KECAMATAN PEKALONGAN BARAT KOTA PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulis Indriyani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM merupakan pendekatan untuk mengubah perilaku higienis dan saniter melalui pemberdayaan masyarakat dengan cara pemicuan. Fenomena yang terjadi di Kelurahan Tirto masih terdapat perilaku BABS sebanyak 84 KK, perilaku buang sampah secara sembarangan (di lahan kosong dan sungai, dan mengalirkan limbah cair rumah tangga (limbah deterjen dan air bekas mandi ke sungai. Tujuan penelitian: Mengkaji secara mendalam strategi promosi kesehatan (advokasi, bina suasana, dan pemberdayaan masyarakat STBM di Kelurahan Tirto Kecamatan Pekalongan Barat Kota Pekalongan. Rancangan penelitian ini menggunakan metode studi kasus dengan desain eksploratoris kualitatif. Hasil penelitian: Pencapaian lima pilar  STBM di Kelurahan Tirto belum maksimal yaitu pada pilar stop BABS dan pilar pengelolaan limbah cair rumah tangga secara aman. Terdapat beberapa hambatan yang mempengaruhi hasil capaian tersebut diantaranya konsistensi komitmen yang tegas belum diterapkan bagi pelaku yang mengalirkan pembuangan feses ke sungai, belum adanya pelatihan teknis STBM bagi tokoh masyarakat, metode CLTS bersifat terbatas di satu RW, dan masyarakat Kelurahan Tirto belum mengoptimalkan swadaya atau iuran secara kolektif untuk menyediakan penambahan sarana sanitasi berupa septic tank dan bak penampungan. Saran: Pertama, penerapan punishment dari Kelurahan Tirto untuk mencapai Kelurahan ODF bagi pelaku yang mengalirkan pembuangan feses ke sungai. Kedua, pertemuan untuk menjalin koordinasi antara Pemerintah Kota Pekalongan dan Pemerintah Kabupaten Pekalongan untuk bersama mengelola limbah cair rumah tangga secara aman. Ketiga,  pelatihan teknis STBM bagi tokoh masyarakat untuk mencapai perilaku buang air besar secara sehat di Kelurahan Tirto. Keempat, penambahan bak penampungan limbah cair rumah tangga melalui swadaya masyarakat.

  14. 40 CFR 96.272 - Out of control periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the quality-assurance and quality-control requirements or data validation requirements of part 75 of... appendix D to part 75 of this chapter. (b) Audit decertification. Whenever both an audit of a monitoring... the time of the audit, the permitting authority or, for a CAIR SO2 opt-in unit or a unit for which a...

  15. 77 FR 24793 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of New York; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...- air quality environmental impacts of compliance, (3) any existing pollution control technology in use.... Implication of Clean Air Interstate Rule and Cross State Air Pollution Rule II. What is the background for EPA... CAIR rule, on July 6, 2011 EPA finalized the Cross- State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR); a rule intended...

  16. Sud du Sahara | Page 89 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Remittances to Conflict Zones : the Sudanese Diaspora in Cairo. Langue English. Read more about Envois de fonds vers les zones de conflit - le cas de la diaspora soudanaise au Caire. Langue French. Read more about Social and Health Protection of Women Migrants from Sénégal in Agricultural ...

  17. Sud du Sahara | Page 76 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Remittances to Conflict Zones : the Sudanese Diaspora in Cairo - Phase II. Langue English. Read more about Envois de fonds vers les zones de conflit - le cas de la diaspora soudanaise au Caire - phase II. Langue French. Read more about Intégration systématique de l'évaluation (théorie et pratique) au ...

  18. Sud du Sahara | Page 240 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Remittances to Conflict Zones : the Sudanese Diaspora in Cairo. Langue English. Read more about Envois de fonds vers les zones de conflit - le cas de la diaspora soudanaise au Caire. Langue French. Read more about Réseau africain de recherche sur la justice transitoire - phase II. Langue French ...

  19. : tous les projets | Page 425 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: CONFLICTS, REFUGEES, REMITTANCES, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, PEACE RESEARCH. Région: Egypt, Sudan, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 42,800.00. Envois de fonds vers les zones de conflit - le cas de la diaspora soudanaise au Caire. Projet.

  20. Inde | Page 90 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, as entrepreneurs scour the world in search of new commodities, a voice of dissent is growing and striving to be heard. ... entreprises doivent se faire concurrence pour survivre, prendre de l'expansion et occuper une part du marché, les bibliothécaires et les professionnels de l'information doivent jouer un rôle plus ...

  1. A Task-Based Analysis of Information Requirements of Tactical Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    work began with the precept that military maps are primarily intended to serve users in the performance of functional tasks. By capitalizing on the task...Recherche Des Facteurs, Humaine de la Defense Natimla Onissels 2 Canadian ,losir Stall Washtington 1 C/Air Staff. Royal Canadian AF, ATTN: Pars Slid

  2. 77 FR 30279 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; CAIR To Reduce Interstate Transport... Management and Budget (OMB), Attention: Desk Officer for EPA, 725 17th Street NW., Washington, DC 20503. FOR... logically divided into two categories: (1) Annualized startup/capital and operational costs associated with...

  3. 77 FR 31240 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Florida; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... CAIR to address BART requirements related to both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2..., memorandum from William L. Wehrum, Acting Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation, to EPA Regional... generating plant with a total generating capacity in excess of 750 megawatts (MW), a state must use the...

  4. Radioactive and toxic wastes from the Bancroft uranium mines: where are we going? who is in charge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    In 1985 the Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) was asked by cottagers and residents in the Bancroft area for assistance in obtaining information about possible radiation hazards from the various uranium mine waste dumps in the area, and for help in evaluating that information. This report reviews the history of the tailings piles and evaluates the risks they present

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    12 août 2015 ... facteurs de risque sont : la pandémie VIH, les conditions de vie précaire, la ... permettra un diagnostic précoce et une prise en charge adéquate. ... La recherche .... où les plateaux techniques sont souvent très limités et ne.

  6. 40 CFR 96.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.83 Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit. (a) Applying for...

  7. 40 CFR 96.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit...

  8. 40 CFR 96.24 - Effective date of initial NOX Budget permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of initial NOX Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.24 Effective date of initial NOX Budget permit. The initial NOX Budget permit...

  9. 40 CFR 97.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 97... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit will contain all elements...

  10. 40 CFR 97.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.83 Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit. (a) Applying for initial NO X Budget opt...

  11. 78 FR 29314 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Interstate Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R08-OAR- 2012-0350. EPA's policy is that all comments received... reiterated the recommendations for western states made by EPA in previous guidance addressing the 110(a)(2)(D... stated that EPA was working on a new rule to replace CAIR that would address issues raised by the court...

  12. 40 CFR 96.255 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.255 Section 96.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Tracking System § 96.255 Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a...

  13. 40 CFR 97.155 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.155 Section 97.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account or a...

  14. 40 CFR 97.355 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.355 Section 97.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... System § 97.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in...

  15. 40 CFR 96.355 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.355 Section 96.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Allowance Tracking System § 96.355 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowances may be banked for future...

  16. 40 CFR 96.155 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.155 Section 96.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Tracking System § 96.155 Banking. (a) CAIR NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a...

  17. 40 CFR 97.255 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.255 Section 97.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. (a) CAIR SO2 allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account or a...

  18. Kenya | Page 61 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le défi : amorcer la révolution numérique. Read more about Connecter l'Afrique, du Cap au Caire. Langue French. IDRC-supported research helps unleash the potential of Very Small Aperture Terminal networks, the new generation of satellite-based technologies. Read more about Cape Town to Cairo: connecting Africa.

  19. 40 CFR 97.73 - Notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notifications. 97.73 Section 97.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.73...

  20. 76 FR 763 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Kansas Section 110 State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit issued its decision to vacate and remand both CAIR and the... provision, is not defined. We interpret it to mean a time period that is sensible or logical, based on all... health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under Executive Order...

  1. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter... (August 8, 2011, 76 FR 48208). The Transport Rule was intended to replace the earlier Clean Air Interstate..., 2005); and Transport Rule or Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, 76 FR 48208 (August 8, 2011). \\4\\ CAIR...

  2. Structural Analysis of the Active Site Geometry of N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole Ribonucleotide Synthetase from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.; Firestine, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    N 5 -Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N 5 -CAIR synthetase) converts 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR), MgATP, and bicarbonate into N 5 -CAIR, MgADP, and P i . The enzyme is required for de novo purine biosynthesis in microbes yet is not found in humans suggesting that it represents an ideal and unexplored target for antimicrobial drug design. Here we report the X-ray structures of N 5 -CAIR synthetase from Escherichia coli with either MgATP or MgADP/P i bound in the active site cleft. These structures, determined to 1.6-(angstrom) resolution, provide detailed information regarding the active site geometry before and after ATP hydrolysis. In both structures, two magnesium ions are observed. Each of these is octahedrally coordinated, and the carboxylate side chain of Glu238 bridges them. For the structure of the MgADP/P i complex, crystals were grown in the presence of AIR and MgATP. No electron density was observed for AIR, and the electron density corresponding to the nucleotide clearly revealed the presence of ADP and P i rather than ATP. The bound P i shifts by approximately 3 (angstrom) relative to the γ-phosphoryl group of ATP and forms electrostatic interactions with the side chains of Arg242 and His244. Since the reaction mechanism of N 5 -CAIR synthetase is believed to proceed via a carboxyphosphate intermediate, we propose that the location of the inorganic phosphate represents the binding site for stabilization of this reactive species. Using the information derived from the two structures reported here, coupled with molecular modeling, we propose a catalytic mechanism for N 5 -CAIR synthetase.

  3. Pengaruh Bokhasi Eceng Gondok pada Tanaman Selada (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seprita Lidar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isu pertanian organik akhir-akhir ini memang mulai berkembang kembali dengan semakin banyaknya masyarakat yang menyadari pentingnya kesehatan dan mutu bahan pangan yang dikonsumsi. Selain alasan kesehatan, pertanian organik juga diyakini ramah lingkungan karena dapat meminimalkan penggunaan bahan kimia dalam proses produksinya, karena penggunaan pupuk kimia secara terus-menerus dengan dosis yang meningkat justru dapat menyebabkan tanah menjadi keras dan keseimbangan unsur hara tanah terganggu.  Permintaan pasar terhadap tanaman sayuran khususnya selada yang biasanya dikonsumsi mentah terus meningkat, apalagi tanaman selada yang dipupuk dengan pupuk organik. Tanah di Kota Pekanbaru tergolong tanah Podsolid Merah Kuning (PMK yang kandungan bahan organik dan unsur haranya relatif rendah, maka salah satu usaha untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah dengan cara pemupukan yang aman bagi tanaman dan tanah yaitu pupuk bokhasi eceng gondok yang mengandung unsur hara N, P dan K, juga memanfaatkan yang ada di lingkungan yang kalau tidak dimanfaatkan akan menyebabkan pencemaran di perairan.  Dari penelitian yang dilakukan pemberian bokhasi eceng gondok berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman selada dengan dosis terbaik adalah 2000 g/m2. Kata Kunci : Selada, Bokhasi, Eceng Gondok.The issue of organic farming lately indeed began to grow back more and more people will realize the importance of health and quality of food consumed. In addition to health reasons, organic farming is also believed to be environmentally friendly because it can minimize the use of chemicals in the production process, due to the use of chemical fertilizers continuously with increasing doses it can cause the soil to be loud and disturbed soil nutrient balance. Market demand for vegetable crops, especially lettuce is usually consumed raw continue to rise, especially lettuce plants are fertilized with organic fertilizer. Land in the city of Pekanbaru classified as

  4. Relation on phitoplankton community with Litopenaeus vannamei productivity in biocrete pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTManagement of phytoplankton is generally conducted by controlling the concentration of organic matter, fertilization and water exchange.  Organic materials are from uneaten feed and excretion of shrimp.  By using post facto method it was found four class of phytoplankton in biocrete pond at one cycle rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei.  Population at early rearing period was dominated by Bacillariophyceae (50.4%; 13 species and Cyanophyceae (42.41%; 1 species, followed by Dynophyceae (6.2%; 5 species and Chlorophyceae (1.3%; 1 species.  Increment in phytoplankton density was followed by increment in chlorophyll-a and oxygen from photosynthesis, and productivity was 2132 kg/pond.Keywords: phytoplankton, white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, biocrete pond ABSTRAKPengelolaan fitoplankton umumnya dilakukan dengan mengoptimalkan bahan organik serta pemupukan dan pergantian air. Bahan organik berasal dari pakan buatan yang tidak terkonsumsi (sisa pakan dan ekskresi dari udang. Dengan menggunakan metode post facto selama satu siklus pemeliharaan udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei pada tambak biocrete diperoleh empat kelas fitoplankton. Dominasi Bacillariophyceae (50,4%; 13 jenis, Cyanophyceae (42,41%; 1 jenis terjadi pada awal pemeliharaan yang diiukuti oleh Dynophyceae (6,2%; 5 jenis dan Chlorophyceae (1,3%; 1 jenis. Peningkatan kelimpahan fitoplankton secara keseluruhan diikuti oleh peningkatan kandungan klorofil-a dan oksigen hasil fotosintesis total sehingga produktifitasnya mencapai 2132 kg/petakKata kunci: fitoplankton, udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei, tambak biocrete

  5. KLASİK ÇÖZÜCÜLERE BİR ALTERNATİF; İYONİK SIVILAR

    OpenAIRE

    KOLANCILAR, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Organik reaksiyonlar genelde çözücü ortamında yapılır. Son yıllarda yeni bir çözücü sınıfı bulundu ve bunlar iyonik sıvı olarak adlandırılır. Bu çözücüler çoğunlukla oda sıcaklığında sıvıdırlar ve iyonik türlerden oluşurlar. Düşük buhar basınçları, mükemmel kimyasal ve termal kararlılıkları, potansiyel geri kazanımları ve tekrar kullanımları gibi dikkat çekici özelliklere sahiptirler. İyonik sıvılar geniş olarak araştırılmaktadır ve organik sentez, enzimatik kataliz, ayırma işlemleri vb. gibi...

  6. Farklı Otların Otlu Peynirin Biyojen Amin İçeriği ve Bazı Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Andiç, Yusuf Tunçtürk, Issa Javidi Gençcelep

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalıflmada 90 günlük depolama süresi boyunca farklı otların (Allium sp., Ferula sp. and Anthriscus sp.Otlu peynirin bazı özellikleri üzerine etkisi incelenmifltir. Otlu peynir örneklerinin organik asit (formik,laktik, asetik, sitrik, ve bütiric ve biyojen amin (feniletilamin, histamin, tiyramin, kadaverin, putresin,ve triptamin içerikleri belirlenmifltir. Otlu peynirlerde en yüksek miktardaki organik asidin laktik asitve biyojen aminin ise feniletilamin oldu¤u bulunmufltur. Otlu peynirlerin kontrol grubu örneklere göredaha yüksek miktarda feniletilamin ve histamin içerdi¤i tespit edilmifltir. Peynir örnekleri arasında ya¤asitleri açısından istatistiksel olarak önemli bir fark bulunmamıfltır. Toplam mezofililik aerob bakteri,laktik asit bakterisi ve koliform bakteri sayılarının depolama süresi boyunca tüm peynir örneklerindeazaldı¤ı saptanmıfltır

  7. Pengaruh Penambahan Inhibitor Alami terhadap Laju Korosi pada Material Pipa dalam Larutan Air Laut Buatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Prasetia Yanuar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Korosi merupakan penurunan mutu logam akibat adanya reaksi elektrokimia dengan lingkungannya. Banyak faktor yang dapat menyebabkan korosi suatu material, salah satu diantaranya yakni pengaruh konsentrasi media korosi. Ada banyak metode untuk menghambat proses terjadinya korosi. Salah satu diantara banyak metode yaitu penggunaan inhibitor. Inhibitor organik salah satu jenis inhibitor yang bersifat non-toksik, murah, sudah tersedia di alam, mudah diperbaharui dan tidak merusak lingkungan. Inhibitor organik tersebut diperoleh dengan mengekstrak beberapa bahan yang ada di alam. Dalam penetilitian ini inhibitor yang digunakan antara lain daun jambu biji, daun teh, kedelai dan kopi. Inhibitor tersebut digunakan pada material pipa baja dalam media air laut buatan yang memiliki kadar salinitas 35 ‰. Metode perhitungan laju korosi baja menggunakan metode weight loss dan electroplating. Laju korosi paling kecil yakni sebesar 3.10 mpy untuk API 5L dan 1.94 mpy untuk ASTM A53 dengan inhibitor daun teh. Inhibitor yang kurang maksimal dalam menghambat laju korosi yaitu inhibitor kopi yakni 6.12 mpy untuk API 5L dan 2.66 mpy untuk ASTM A53. Nilai laju korosi spesimen API 5L dan ASTM A53 yang tidak menggunakan inhibitor masing-masing 50.26 mpy dan 3.83 mpy. Inhibitor teh memiliki nilai effisiensi mencapai 93.83%. Sedangkan daun jambu biji memiliki nilai effisiensi mencapai 93.45%. Nilai effisiensi inhibitor kedelai mencapai 91.72% dan inhibitor kopi memiliki nilai effisiensi paling rendah hanya mencapai 87.83%.

  8. KONYA ANA TAHLİYE KANALINDA KLORLU BİLEŞİKLERİN BELİRLENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin AYDIN

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Konya ana tahliye kanalı Konya ovasının drenaj sularını toplayarak tuz gölüne boşaltmaktadır. Konya ovasında Konya şehri atık sularının tabi bir drenaj noktası bulunmaması sebebiyle kent atıksuları da bu kanala deşarj edilmektedir. Kanal güzergahı boyunca bu drenaj suları ve atık sular sulama suyu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bazı klorlu organik bileşikler toksik ve kanserojen oldukları bilinen bileşiklerdir. Bu çalışmada Konya atıksularının deşarj edildiği ana tahliye kanalından alınan saatlik, günlük ve aylık numuneler gaz kromotoğraf (GC ile analiz edilerek klorlu organik bileşik içerikleri araştırılmıştır.

  9. Bibliographie générale

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aalund (F.). — « La wakāla Bazār‛a », in Arkitekten, Copenhague, 1977. ‛Abd al-Laṭif Aḥmad (Laïla), al-Idāra fī Miṣr fi l‛aṣr al-‛uṯmānī, Le Caire, 1978. Abdul Tawab (A.) et Raymond (Α.). — « La waqfiyya de Muṣṭafā Ğa‛far », in Annales Islamologiques, XIV. 1978, 177-193. ‛Abd ar-Rāziq (Aḥmad). — La femme au temps des Mamelouks en Égypte, Le Caire, I.F.A.O., 1973. Abu-Lughod (Janet). — Cairo, Princeton, 1971. Abouseif (Doris). — « The north-eastern Extensions of Cairo under the Mamluks », in A...

  10. DAMPAK FASILITATIF TUMBUHAN LEGUM PENUTUP TANAH DAN TANAMAN BERMIKORIZA PADA SUKSESI PRIMER DI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG KAPUR (Facilitative Impacts of Legume Cover-crop and Mycorrhizal-inoculated Plant on Primary Succession of Limestone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Prayudyaningsih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penambangan batu kapur dengan metode penambangan terbuka yang meliputi penghilangan vegetasi, pengeboran dan pengebomanan untuk mengeksplotiasi material batu kapur mengakibatkan kerusakan ekosistem. Pemulihan secara alami pada lahan tersebut berjalan lambat karena kondisi tapak dalam proses suksesi tidak mendukung perkembangan vegetasi alaminya. Pembentukan pertanaman diduga memfasilitasi kehadiran tanaman lain melalui perbaikan karateristik lingkungan yang rusak dan/atau peningkatan ketersediaan sumber hara. Dampak fasilitatif pembentukan pertanaman tumbuhan legum penutup tanah (Centrosema pubescens dan tanaman bermikoriza (Vitex cofassus dipelajari pada suksesi primer di lahan bekas tambang kapur TNS. Kehadiran tumbuhan alami diukur menggunakan kerapatan individu, keanekaragaman dan jumlah jenis melalui sampling vegetasi dengan metode plot kuadrat secara sistematis berdasarkan tingkat habitusnya. Kondisi tapak diukur berdasarkan ketebalan dan biomasa seresah, kadar bahan organik tanah dan kadar karbon organik tanah. Penelitian dilakukan pada 4 tipe areal di lahan bekas tambang kapur yaitu areal terbuka/kondisi alami tanpa pertanaman, areal pertanaman legum penutup tanah, areal pertanaman tanpa mikoriza dan areal pertanaman bermikoriza. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pertanaman legum penutup tanah dan pertanaman bermikoriza memperbaiki kondisi tapak lahan bekas tambang kapur. Pembentukan tanaman legum penutup menghasilkan banyak seresahdengan ketebalan 1,08 cm dan biomassa 188,96 g/m2 dan dekomposisi selanjutnya meningkatkan bahan organik tanah sebesar 3,80% dan kandungan karbonorganik sebesar 2,20%. Pembentukan pertanaman juga memberikan dampak yang sama, khususnya yang diinokulasi FungiMikoriza Arbuskula (FMA menghasilkan seresah dengan ketebalan 1,32 cm dan biomassa 220,48 g/m2, dengan kadar bahan organik tanah sebesar 3,66% dan karbon organik tanah sebesar 2,03%. Perbaikan kondisi tapak tersebut mempercepat kehadiran tumbuhan alami

  11. Prinsip termodinamika dalam proses pendinginan sperma sapi (semen) beku

    OpenAIRE

    Kholifah, Kholifah; Bahari Nurdin, Wira; Harimei, Bambang; Yusuf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian prinsip termodinamika dalam proses pendinginan sperma sapi (semen) beku. Sperma sapi (semen) sebagai sampel utama dan besi sebagai sampel pembanding. Nitrogen cair sebagai bahan pendingin untuk membekukan semen dalam tangki kriogenik. Motility Analysis Semen dilakukan untuk mengetahui gerakan massa atau kualitas semen. Hasil Motility Analysis Semen menggunakan mikroskop menunjukkan bahwa semen Messi memiliki kualitas yang baik dengan gerakan massa (+++) dan semen Ro...

  12. Air quality monitoring using mobile microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yi-Chen; Shiledar, Ashutosh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Wong, Jeffrey; Feng, Steve; Chen, Xuan; Chen, Christine; Jin, Kevin; Janamian, Saba; Yang, Zhe; Ballard, Zachary Scott; Gö rö cs, Zoltá n; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    Rapid, accurate and high-throughput sizing and quantification of particulate matter (PM) in air is crucial for monitoring and improving air quality. In fact, particles in air with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm have been classified as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization. Here we present a field-portable cost-effective platform for high-throughput quantification of particulate matter using computational lens-free microscopy and machine-learning. This platform, termed c-Air, is also integrated with a smartphone application for device control and display of results. This mobile device rapidly screens 6.5 L of air in 30 s and generates microscopic images of the aerosols in air. It provides statistics of the particle size and density distribution with a sizing accuracy of ~93%. We tested this mobile platform by measuring the air quality at different indoor and outdoor environments and measurement times, and compared our results to those of an Environmental Protection Agency–approved device based on beta-attenuation monitoring, which showed strong correlation to c-Air measurements. Furthermore, we used c-Air to map the air quality around Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) over 24 h to confirm that the impact of LAX on increased PM concentration was present even at >7 km away from the airport, especially along the direction of landing flights. With its machine-learning-based computational microscopy interface, c-Air can be adaptively tailored to detect specific particles in air, for example, various types of pollen and mold and provide a cost-effective mobile solution for highly accurate and distributed sensing of air quality.

  13. Analisis Kualitas Udara dan Keluhan Kesehatan yang Berkaitan dengan Saluran Pernafasan Pada Pekerja Batubara di PLTU Labuhan Angin Kabupaten Tapanuli Tengah Tahun 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Sari Puspita

    2017-01-01

    131000721 Pembangkit listrik tenaga uap (PLTU) merupakan suatu kegiatan yang memproduksi tenaga listrik dengan menggunakan bahan bakar padat, cair, dan/atau gas untuk memanaskan air dalam ketel uap (boiler) yang memproduksi uap untuk menggerakkan turbin yang seporos dengan generator sehingga membangkitkan tenaga listrik. Salah satu pembangkit listrik tenaga uap yang terdapat di sumatera utara adalah pembangkit listrik tenaga uap (PLTU) Labuhan Angin di Kabupaten Tapanuli Tengah. Pembangkit...

  14. ALGUNS ASPECTOS DA ATUAL DISCUSSÃO SOBRE O ABORTO E AS POSIÇÕES DA IGREJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Ribeiro Junior

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Para que se possa tratar da questão do aborto no âmbito da Igreja católica, é importante que, antes de mais nada, se amplie o horizonte da reflexão de modo a evitarmos cair em posicionamentos preconceituosos e passionais, tão comuns tanto por parte daqueles que não se compreendem dentro da Igreja, como também pelos que se consideram membros dela.

  15. One-pager - Chercheurs financés par le CRDI (français)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Melanie Brunet

    Aide à la recherche : la bibliothécaire du CRDI peut… • Aider à définir des stratégies de recherche (notions clés et ressources appropriées). • Montrer comment effectuer une recherche dans des bases de données. • Aider à effectuer des recherches documentaires complexes. • Fournir des conseils au sujet de la façon de ...

  16. Marketing Information Products and Services : A Primer for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La bibliothéconomie et les sciences de l'information connaissent une période de changement radical. De nos jours, tout comme les entreprises doivent se faire concurrence pour survivre, prendre de l'expansion et occuper une part du marché, les bibliothécaires et les professionnels de l'information doivent jouer un rôle ...

  17. Des décennies de recherche sur le manioc portent fruit | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... Le professeur Nassar a commencé à s'intéresser au manioc au début des années 1970 alors qu'il enseignait la biologie culturale africaine à l'Institute of African Studies de l'Université du Caire, en Égypte. On avait, dit-il, toutes les raisons de croire que le manioc pouvait sauver l'Afrique de la famine, qui ...

  18. 40 CFR 52.170 - Identification of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Chapter 14—CAIR NO X Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions Reg. 19.1401 Adoption of Regulations 07/15/07 09/26/07 (72 FR 54556) Reg. 19.1402 State Trading Budget 07/15/07 09/26/07 (72 FR 54556) Reg... Offsets 07/03/06 04/12/07 (72 FR 18394) Reg. 31.305 Zones Targeted for Economic Development 07/03/06 04/12...

  19. Liste des personnes citées1

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AAHOA Asian American Hotel Owner Association ABCD American Born Confused Desi AFMI American Association of Muslims from India AIC American Islamic College AIM Association of Indian Muslims AMASES American Muslim Alliance Social and Family Services AMC American Muslim Council AMM American Muslim Mission AMSE Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers AMSS American Muslim Social Scientists BCCI Bank of Credit and Commerce International BJP Bharatiya Janata Party CAIR Council on American-Isl...

  20. Ce que nous faisons | Page 130 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Envois de fonds vers les zones de conflit - le cas de la diaspora soudanaise au Caire. Très peu de recherches ont été réalisées sur les envois de fonds Sud-Sud, par exemple les envois entre le pays d'origine et des pays voisins se trouvant hors de la zone de conflit. Égypte, Soudan, Nord Du Sahara, Sud Du Sahara.

  1. Réduction du fossé numérique

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pro fi ter et y contribuer. Par exemple, on estime qu'un centre qui a vu le jour au Caire en 1990, avec l'aide du CRDI, a permis d'éviter une nouvelle flambée de botulisme en 1992. Et grâce à lui, plus d'un millier de médecins en Égypte savent maintenant traiter les empoisonnements. Des organismes d'une soixantaine de ...

  2. Croissance de l'économie et débouchés économiques des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... travail, elles peuvent également faire l'objet d'un manque de reconnaissance et de protection juridique, être confinées dans des emplois précaires et être victimes de violence et de harcèlement. Au Mexique, par exemple, 80 % des 20 millions de jeunes qui sont sans emploi et ne fréquentent pas l'école sont des femmes.

  3. Résultats de recherche | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    HarassMap : la collecte de données grâce à l'impartition à grande échelle appliquée aux sciences sociales. Au Caire, les femmes peuvent maintenant signaler les cas de viol, de harcèlement et d'agression grâce à HarassMap, un projet pilote mis en oeuvre dans cette ville d'Égypte. Projet.

  4. Résultats de recherche | Page 30 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    HarassMap : la collecte de données grâce à l'impartition à grande échelle appliquée aux sciences sociales. Au Caire, les femmes peuvent maintenant signaler les cas de viol, de harcèlement et d'agression grâce à HarassMap, un projet pilote mis en oeuvre dans cette ville d'Égypte.

  5. HarassMap : la collecte de données grâce à l'impartition à grande ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    HarassMap : la collecte de données grâce à l'impartition à grande échelle appliquée aux sciences sociales. Au Caire, les femmes peuvent maintenant signaler les cas de viol, de harcèlement et d'agression grâce à HarassMap, un projet pilote mis en oeuvre dans cette ville d'Égypte. Partout dans le monde, la difficulté de ...

  6. Air quality monitoring using mobile microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yi-Chen

    2017-09-08

    Rapid, accurate and high-throughput sizing and quantification of particulate matter (PM) in air is crucial for monitoring and improving air quality. In fact, particles in air with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm have been classified as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization. Here we present a field-portable cost-effective platform for high-throughput quantification of particulate matter using computational lens-free microscopy and machine-learning. This platform, termed c-Air, is also integrated with a smartphone application for device control and display of results. This mobile device rapidly screens 6.5 L of air in 30 s and generates microscopic images of the aerosols in air. It provides statistics of the particle size and density distribution with a sizing accuracy of ~93%. We tested this mobile platform by measuring the air quality at different indoor and outdoor environments and measurement times, and compared our results to those of an Environmental Protection Agency–approved device based on beta-attenuation monitoring, which showed strong correlation to c-Air measurements. Furthermore, we used c-Air to map the air quality around Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) over 24 h to confirm that the impact of LAX on increased PM concentration was present even at >7 km away from the airport, especially along the direction of landing flights. With its machine-learning-based computational microscopy interface, c-Air can be adaptively tailored to detect specific particles in air, for example, various types of pollen and mold and provide a cost-effective mobile solution for highly accurate and distributed sensing of air quality.

  7. Activity of Liquid Smoke of Tobacco Stem Waste as An Insecticide on Spodoptera litura Fabricius Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Prabowo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical insecticide in crop protection around the world has resulted in disturbances of the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop for environmentally friendly insect pest management techniques such as the activity of liquid smoke made from tobacco stem waste as an insecticide to Spodoptera litura. Activity of liquid smoke of tobacco stem waste was carried out at the laboratory condition. The results showed that the application of liquid smoke by using the spraying method (direct method showed better results compared to the results of feeding method (indirect method. Lethal concentration (LC at 5 days after treatment, LC50 and LC75 values the direct method of 2.9% and 8.87%, while the indirect method of 6,99% and 21.03%. The sub lethal concentration did not cause mortality of S. litura larvae, but inhibited the growth such as indicated by lower weight of larval and pupal in treated larvae than in control. Liquid smoke of tobacco stem waste has activity as an insecticide to S. litura.   INTISARI Penggunaan pestisida kimia dalam pengendalian hama di dunia telah menimbulkan gangguan terhadap lingkungan. Maka teknik pengendalian hama yang ramah lingkungan perlu dikembangkan, misalnya aktivitas asap cair limbah batang tembakau sebagai insektisida pada Spodoptera litura. Aktivitas asap cair limbah batang tembakau dilakukan pada kondisi laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi asap cair secara langsung (metode semprot lebih efektif daripada tidak langsung (metode celup pakan. Lethal concentration (LC pada 5 hari setelah perlakuan, LC50 dan LC75 pada aplikasi langsung sebesar 2,9% dan 8,87%, sedangkan pada aplikasi tidak langsung 6,99% dan 21,03%. Konsentrasi subletal tidak menyebabkan kematian S. litura tetapi mampu menghambat pertumbuhan yang diindikasikan dengan rendahnya bobot larva dan pupa S. litura. Asap cair limbah batang tembakau bersifat insektisida terhadap larva S. litura.

  8. Map ‘Webucation’: Using the World Wide Web for the Continuing Education of Map Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Bauer

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Working Group for Education of the Groupe des Cartothécaires (GdC de LIBER and gives a progress report of the Group’s activities from 1998 to the present. It also discusses the impact of the Working Group’s decision to put up an Internet platform in terms of the opportunities, achievements, and difficulties encountered when using this particular information platform.

  9. : tous les projets | Page 150 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Forum de recherche économique - Financement de base 2012-2014. Projet. Le Forum de recherche économique (ERF) est un réseau régional de recherche économique établi au Caire, qui compte 269 chercheurs affiliés. Date de début : 22 janvier 2013. End Date: 22 janvier 2016. Sujet: MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, ...

  10. Immunization registries in the EMR Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lindsay A.; Palma, Jonathan P.; Pandher, Kiran K.; Longhurst, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The CDC established a national objective to create population-based tracking of immunizations through regional and statewide registries nearly 2 decades ago, and these registries have increased coverage rates and reduced duplicate immunizations. With increased adoption of commercial electronic medical records (EMR), some institutions have used unidirectional links to send immunization data to designated registries. However, access to these registries within a vendor EMR has not been previously reported. Purpose: To develop a visually integrated interface between an EMR and a statewide immunization registry at a previously non-reporting hospital, and to assess subsequent changes in provider use and satisfaction. Methods: A group of healthcare providers were surveyed before and after implementation of the new interface. The surveys addressed access of the California Immunization Registry (CAIR), and satisfaction with the availability of immunization information. Information Technology (IT) teams developed a “smart-link” within the electronic patient chart that provides a single-click interface for visual integration of data within the CAIR database. Results: Use of the tool has increased in the months since its initiation, and over 20,000 new immunizations have been exported successfully to CAIR since the hospital began sharing data with the registry. Survey data suggest that providers find this tool improves workflow and overall satisfaction with availability of immunization data. (p=0.009). Conclusions: Visual integration of external registries into a vendor EMR system is feasible and improves provider satisfaction and registry reporting. PMID:23923096

  11. KINERJA INDUSTRI KAYU LAPIS DI KALIMANTAN SELATAN MENUJU EKOEFISIENSI Performance of Plywood Industry in South Kalimantan Towards Ecoefficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darni Subari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertuiuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran umum kineria industri lapis di Kalimantan Selatan saat ini.  Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan mengamati data industri kayu lapis di Kalsel saat ini dan detail pengamatan pada 3 (tiga industri, yaitu PT. SST, PT. WTU dan PT. BIC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa industri kayu lapis umumnva memiliki kesamaan dalam proses dan mesin produksinya. Dari ke 3 industri kayu lapis yang diteliti vang membedakan adalah macam produk dan bahan baku kayunva. Efektifitas mesin dan proses masih cukup tinggi dengan rata-rata efisiensi mesin > 90% dan rendemen rata-rata ± 64%. Dalam penanganan aspek lingkungan, industri kavu lapis mempunyai kesamaan dalam hal penanganan limbahnva.  Penanganan limbah kayu dengan memanfaatkan kembali sebagian limbah kayu sebagai produk blockboard dan sisanva sebagai bahan bakar boiler. Untuk penanganan limbah cair. yaitu menggunakan kolam treatment dengan pencapaian mutu mengacu SK Gubernur Kalsel Nomor 036 tahun 2008 tentang Baku Mutu Limbah Cair bagi Kegiatan Industri dan penanganan limbah debu dengan teknologi penyedot debu dan filter pada cerobong, sehingga emisi memenuhi baku mutu (SK Gubernur Kalsel Nomor 70 tahun 2008 tentang Baku Mutu Emisi. Kata kunci: industri plywood, proses produksi, hasil dan kualitas, limbah cair

  12. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Flavonoid Ekstrak Etanol Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C.Weber Briton & Rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa flavonoid dari ekstrak etanol buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C.Weber Briton & Rose.  Ekstrak buah naga merah diperoleh melalui maserasi serbuk buah naga merah dengan pelarut etanol 96%. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh di partisi dengan metode partisi cair-cair menggunakan pelarut n-heksana, etil asetat dan air. Hasil partisi ekstrak etil asetat  kemudian dilakukan pemisahan dengan Kromatografi vakum cair, sedangkan ekstrak air dihidrolisis terlebih dahulu dengan HCl lalu dipartisi dengan etil asetat (fraksi etil asetat. Berdasarkan  hasi pemurnian ekstrak etil asetat dan fraksi etil asetat dengan KLT Preparatif diperoleh 5 isolat tetapi hanya isolat 3 yang positif senyawa flavonoid. Hasil spektroskopi UV-Vis isolat 3 menghasilkan puncak pada 330 nm (pita I dan 280 nm (pita II, sedangkan pada penambahan pereaksi geser tidak mengalami pergeseran batokromik dan hipsokromik. Berdasarkan data-data yang diperoleh isolat 3 diduga merupakan golongan senyawa flavanon.

  13. Resident duty hours in Canada: a survey and national statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Mark F; Shrichand, Pankaj; Maniate, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in general, and residents in particular, are adapting to duty schedules in which they have fewer continuous work hours; however, there are no Canadian guidelines on duty hours restrictions. To better inform resident duty hour policy in Canada, we set out to prepare a set of recommendations that would draw upon evidence reported in the literature and reflect the experiences of resident members of the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). A survey was prepared and distributed electronically to all resident members of CAIR. A total of 1796 eligible residents participated in the survey. Of those who responded, 38% (601) reported that they felt they could safely provide care for up to 16 continuous hours, and 20% (315) said that 12 continuous hours was the maximum period during which they could safely provide care (n=1592). Eighty-two percent (1316) reported their perception that the quality of care they had provided suffered because of the number of consecutive hours worked (n=1598). Only 52% (830) had received training in handover (n=1594); those who had received such training reported that it was commonly provided through informal modelling. On the basis of these data and the existing literature, CAIR recommends that resident duty hours be managed in a way that does not endanger the health of residents or patients; does not impair education; is flexible; and does not violate ethical or legal standards. Further, residents should be formally trained in handover skills and alternative duty hour models.

  14. Spatial mapping and analysis of aerosols during a forest fire using computational mobile microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yichen; Shiledar, Ashutosh; Luo, Yi; Wong, Jeffrey; Chen, Cheng; Bai, Bijie; Zhang, Yibo; Tamamitsu, Miu; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2018-02-01

    Forest fires are a major source of particulate matter (PM) air pollution on a global scale. The composition and impact of PM are typically studied using only laboratory instruments and extrapolated to real fire events owing to a lack of analytical techniques suitable for field-settings. To address this and similar field test challenges, we developed a mobilemicroscopy- and machine-learning-based air quality monitoring platform called c-Air, which can perform air sampling and microscopic analysis of aerosols in an integrated portable device. We tested its performance for PM sizing and morphological analysis during a recent forest fire event in La Tuna Canyon Park by spatially mapping the PM. The result shows that with decreasing distance to the fire site, the PM concentration increases dramatically, especially for particles smaller than 2 µm. Image analysis from the c-Air portable device also shows that the increased PM is comparatively strongly absorbing and asymmetric, with an aspect ratio of 0.5-0.7. These PM features indicate that a major portion of the PM may be open-flame-combustion-generated element carbon soot-type particles. This initial small-scale experiment shows that c-Air has some potential for forest fire monitoring.

  15. Yan akımlı anaerobik membran biyoreaktör veriminin araştırılması: Sentetik atıksu ve alkollü içki sanayi atıksuyu

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    Nurdan BÜYÜKKAMACI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yan akımlı anaerobik membran biyoreaktörlerin verimi yüksek kirliliğe sahip atıksular için laboratuvar ölçekli bir sistem kullanılarak irdelenmiştir. Sistem, yukarı akışlı çamur yataklı anaerobik (UASB reaktör ve ultrafiltrasyon (UF membran modülünden oluşturulmuştur. Sistemin verimi öncelikle seyreltilmiş melastan hazırlanan sentetik atıksu ile farklı hidrolik alıkonma süreleri (1-3 gün ve organik yükleme oranlarında (5-15 kg KOİ/m3.day incelenmiştir. Yapılan deneysel çalışmalar neticesinde, maksimum KOİ giderme verimi (%95 7.5 kg KOİ/m3.gün organik yükleme değerinde (KOİgiriş=15.000 mg/L, HRT=2 gün elde edilmiştir. Organik yükleme değeri 15 kg KOİ/m3.gün değerine çıkartıldığında sistem performansı aniden düşmüştür. Daha sonra, besleme suyu bir alkollü içki sanayi atıksuyu ile değiştirilerek gerçek atıksu ile çalışmalar yürütülmüştür. Bu çalışmada, maksimum toplam sistem verimi ve metan gazı oluşumu sırasıyla %88 ve %74 olarak belirlenmiştir.

  16. HAZRO DADAŞ (DİYARBAKIR KÖMÜRLERİNİN ORGANİK JEOKİMYASAL VE PETROGRAFİK ÖZELLİKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan KAVAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, Hazro–Dadaş (Diyarbakır mevkiinde yer alan, bölgedeki tek kömür oluşumunun bulunduğu havzada yapılmıştır. Permiyen yaşlı kömürlerin kimyasal, petrografik analizleri yapılmış ve organik jeokimyasal özellikleri değerlendirilmiştir. Kömür kalite değerlendirilmesi, kimyasal (nem, uçucu madde, sabit karbon, kül ve elementer analizler (C, H, O, S, N yapılarak ortaya konmuştur. Hüminit yansıma değerleri organik maddece zengin ve kömürlü düzeylerde % 0.458 ve 1.141 arasında değişmekte olup, düşük olgunluk düzeyine karşılık gelmektedir. Bu parametre flüoresans renkleri, kalorifik değer (ortalama orijinal 3165; kuru 3432 Kcal/kg ve ortalama Tmax (418 oC ile uyumludur. Organik petrografik analizler ve kimyasal analiz verilerine bağlı olarak, Hazro-Dadaş kömürlerinin düşük olgunlaşma derecesi gösterdikleri ve alt-bitümlü kömür, bitümlü kömür kömürleşme derecelerine sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bunun da muhtemelen, örtü tabakalarının kalın olmaması ve dolayısı ile litostatik basınç etkisinin düşük kalması sonucu oluştuğu tahmin edilmektedir. Rock-Eval analiz sonuçları Tip II/III karışımı ve Tip III kerojeni, ortalama 418 oC Teder. Kömürler baskın olarak hüminit maserallerinden meydana gelmekte, egemen olarak gelinit maserali, az miktarlarda da liptinit ve inertinit maseralleri içermektedir. Mineral maddeleri ise başlıca killer, kuvars ve kalsit minerallerdir. Hazro kömürlerinin limnik ortam bataklıklarında oluştuğu düşünülmektedir

  17. Pengaruh Parameter Fisika dan Mikrobiologi Leachet terhadap Kesehatan Lingkungan di TPA Muara Fajar Rumbai Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riski Novera Yenita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum kondisi sampah kota memperlihatkan karakteristik yang khas. Kondisi sampah kota memiliki komposisi terbesar sampah organik dengan nilai rata-rata 79,164%, sedangkan sampah anorganik hanya sebesar 20,836%. Jenis penelitian ini adalah metode survey, dimana TPA Muara Fajar Pekanbaru dijadikan lokasi pengambilan sampel. Sampel yang diambil kemudian dianalisis kadar fisika dan biologi leachet di laboratorium, selanjutnya data yang didapat dilakukan analisis secara deskriptif sesuai dengan SNI 06-2412-1991. Sumber data penelitian yaitu wawancara, observasi dan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Dua kode sampel pada air lindi didapatkan hasil analisis bahwa pada kode sampel I dan II suhu yang didapatkan adalah 25oC. TSS pada kode sampel I didapatkan hasil sebesar 70 mg/l dan kode sampel II 190 mg/l. pH pada kode sampel I dan II didapatkan hasil sebesar 8, sedangkan untuk kadar E.Coli pada kode sampel I dan II didapatkan hasil tidak terhingga. 

  18. INTERAKSI DAN HARMONI UMAT BERAGAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2012-05-01

    Masyarakat Singkawang adalah masyarakat yang terdiri atas berbagai kelompok suku bangsa dan agama. Secara historis, masyarakat Singkawang mampu mem­pertahankan harmoni antar agama. Model interaksi sosial yang bersifat asosiatif tampaknya potensial untuk mendukung harmoni di dalam masyarakat. Ber­dasarkan paradigma fungsional-struktural, masyarakat diasumsikan sebagai sistem organik yang memiliki huungan antar bagiannya untuk mempertahankan masyarakat. Interaksi sosial di dalam masyarakat Singkawang dikembangkan melalui interaksi di dalam lingkup keluarga, lingkungan sekitar, aktifitas ekonomi, para pimpinan agama, dan hubungan di dalam lingkup budaya dan tradisi. Meskipun demikian, hubungan antar unsur masyarakat masih kosmopolitan, yang di dalamnya anggota masyarakat kurang aktif dalam mengembangkan harmoni masyarakat.

  19. Mangan (III) asetatın yeni bir yöntemle hazırlanması, saflığının ve kullanılabilirliğinin araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAKIYAN, İffet

    1992-01-01

      Bu çalışmada Mangan bileşikleri arasında bilimsel ve teknik yönden önemi büyük olan Mangan ( III )asetat yeni bir metod geliştirilerek sentezlendi. Mangan(II)asetat susuz asetik asit ortamında PbO? ile yükseltgenerek Mangan(III)asetata dönüştürüldü ve kararlı bir madde olarak ayrılması sağlandı. Susuz ortam çalışmalarında organik maddelerin potansiyometrik metodlarla kantitatif tayinlerinde titrant olarak kullanılmasına ve Mangan(III) komplekslerinin sentezine yöneli...

  20. PENGARUH MOTIVASI KERJA DAN KEADILAN ORGANISASI TERHADAP ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR (OCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmah Nazmah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh motivasi kerja dan keadilan organisasi terhadap organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB. Populasi penelitian adalah karyawan tetap/organikPT. Summit Oto Finance dengan masa kerja lebih dari dua tahun. Jumlah anggota populasi adalah 61 orang. Dikarenakan jumlah subyek yang terbatas, maka seluruhnya dilibatkan sebagai sampel penelitian (teknik total sampling. Data penelitian dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan skala motivasi kerja, skala persepsi keadilan organisas,i dan skalaorganizational citizenship behaviour (OCB. Analisis regresi linier berganda digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis penelitian. Analisa data menunjukkanadanya pengaruh  yang signifikan antara motivasi kerja dan keadilan organisasi terhadap organizational citizenship behavior pada karyawan PT. Summit Oto Finance. Variabel motivasi kerja dan keadilan organisasi memiliki kontribusi terhadap organizational citizenship behavior sebesar 54.7%. Secara spesifik diketahui bahwa karyawan PT. Summit Oto Finance memiliki motivasi kerja, persepsi mengenai keadilan organisasi, serta organizational citizenship behavior yang berada di kategori sedang.

  1. Vermikompos Sampah Kebun dengan Menggunakan Cacing Tanah Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etik Rahmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Durasi yang panjang diperlukan dalam pengomposan konvensional sampah organik yang memerlukan waktu selama 2-3 bulan. Pengurangan waktu pengomposan dapat dilakukan dengan digunakannya cacing sebagai dekomposer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat degradasi sampah kebun menggunakan proses vermikomposting dan menentukan pengaruh jenis cacing Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida. Empat reaktor berukuran 8 L digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Percobaan dilakukan secara duplo selama 60 hari. Parameter yang dianalisis pada penelitian ini adalah ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, nitrat nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN, dan C/N. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat degradasi sampah kebun dengan pengolahan vermikomposting yang dapat dicapai adalah 64,94-72,52%. Produksi kompos yang lebih tinggi dengan penggunaan Eisenia fetida.

  2. 2008 Chinese Milk Products Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-10-01

    Abstrak. Susu merupakan salah satu produk pangan yang paling penting untuk pertumbuhan anak-anak dan kesehatan. Melamin (2,4,6-triazina-1,3,5-triamino adalah senyawa organik yang digunakan dalam pembuatan pestisida, plastik, pembersih, dan disinfektan. Melamin ketika ditambahkan ke susu meningkatkan jumlah keseluruhan nitrogen dalam susu sehingga mengelabui tes umum untuk kandungan protein. Melamin juga sangat berbahaya bila tertelan, terutama untuk anak-anak. Sanlu, salah satu produsen susu terbesar di China, mengencerkan produk susu mereka dengan air dan menambahkan melamin untuk mengelabui tes protein. Konsumsi susu yang mengandung melamin dalam jumlah yang lebih besar dari 1 mg/kg dapat menyebabkan gagal ginjal, kanker kandung kemih dan kematian. Pengujian susu menggunakan LC-MS/MS dan metode GC-MS/MS dapat mengungkapkan kontaminasi melamin. Tindakan lebih lanjut yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengurangi pemalsuan susu antara lain penelusuran produk, transparansi perusahaan, 100% prosedur pengujian produk dan penegakan hukum yang konsisten.

  3. Yeşilırmak Nehir Teraslarında Toprakların Oluşumu ve Sınıflandırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Durak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada ana materyali alüviyaller olan, Yeşilırmak nehir terasları üzerinde oluşmuş topraklar incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla çalışma alanında 4 farklı profil açılmıştır. Açılan profillerden horizon esasına göre toplam 27 adet örnek alınmış ve laboratuvarda fiziksel ve kimyasal analizleri yapılmıştır. Tanımlanan profiller Toprak Taksonomisi’ne göre, Alt grup düzeyinde; Kum Ocağı ve Çakıl profilleri Typic Ustipsamments, Havaalanı profili Typic Haplustolls ve Mera profili ise Typic Argiustolls olarak sınıflandırılmıştır. Toprakların pH değerleri 7,38-8,41 arasında değişmekte olup, topraklar hafif ve kuvvetli bazik reaksiyonlu olarak sınıflandırılmıştır. Toprakların çoğunda, pH değerleri profil içinde düzensiz olarak dağılmıştır. Bir kısmında is pH değerlerinde derinliğe bağlı olarak artış görülmüştür. Çalışma alanı topraklarında kireç %0,8-25,4 arasında değişmiştir. Toprakların kireç içerikleri geniş sınırlar içinde değişmesine rağmen, büyük çoğunluğu fazla kireçli olarak sınıflandırılmıştır. Toprakların önemli bir kısmında, kireç profil içinde düzensiz olarak dağılmıştır. Topraklarda organik madde içeriği %0,14-6,11 arasındadır. Toprakların organik madde içerikleri geniş sınırlar içerisinde değişim göstermesine rağmen, büyük çoğunluğunun organik madde içeriği düşük düzeydedir. Organik madde içeriği sadece iki profilin yüzey horizonlarında %4’ün üzerindedir. Çalışma sonunda alüviyal ana materyal, tekstür, topoğrafya ve zamanın; tanımlanan toprakların oluşumunu farklı derecede etkilediği ortaya konmuştur.

  4. POMPA AIR BERTENAGA HIBRID UNTUK IRIGASI TANAMAN BUAH NAGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danar Susilo Wijayanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan angin dan radiasi matahari sebagai sumber energi bisa mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap penggunaan bahan bakar fosil, mengurangi biaya operasional dalam jangka panjang, dan mendukung konservasi sumber daya alam. Pengabdian ini menerapkan penggunaan sumber energi terbarukan untuk pompa air yang digunakan sebagai sumber irigasi tanaman buah dan sayuran pada pertanian organik di Balai Percontohan Pertanian (BPP Ngasinan, Kelurahan Beji, Kecamatan Nguntoronadi, Kabupaten Wonogiri. Teknologi hibrid menggabungkan turbin tenaga angin dan sel surya untuk memberikan pasokan listrik kepada pompa yang mengangkat air dengan Total Dynamic Head (TDH 12 meter. Sistem hibrid turbin angin dan solar sel mampu menghidupkan pompa air, sehingga pompa bisa mengalirkan air dari sumur ke tandon air. Sistem irigasi tetes dari tandon ke tanaman buah naga menyebabkan tanaman selalu lembab, sehingga mengurangi resiko kekeringan dan penyakit tanaman.

  5. PERAN MIKROBA STARTER DALAM DEKOMPOSISI KOTORAN TERNAK DAN PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PUPUK KANDANG (The Role of Microbial Starter in Animal Dung Decomposition and Manure Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyono Agus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pupuk organik perlu didekomposisi oleh mikroba dan memerlukan lingkungan yang sesuai agar cepat matang sempurna dan tidak memberikan dampak negatif pada aspek sosial, estetika maupun kesehatan pada makluk hidup dan lingkungan. Dekomposisi bahan pupuk organik dilakukan dengan menggunakan kotoran sapi, dengan 2 perlakuan mikroba (tanpa dan dengan mikroba starter dan 3 variasi waktu, yaitu 0, 6 dan 24 jam setelah diberi mikroba starter. Analisis meliputi  uji fisik bahan pupuk yang meliputi pH, warna, aroma, lengas, dan DHL,  uji mikroba patogen (Eschericia. coli dan Salmonella pada pupuk, pengujian kandungan hara pupuk total (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Cd, Cr, B, Fe, Cu, Zn  dan Ntersedia (NH4 dan NO3,  serta analisis emisi gas amonia (NH3, oksigen (O2, karbon monoksida (CO, karbon dioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, NOx, NO, dan SO2. Mikroba starter mengandung mikrobia dan unsur hara yang sangat diperlukan dalam proses dekomposisi bahan organik. Pupuk kandang sapi setelah aplikasi  mikroba starter masih mengandung E. coli dan Salmonella sp. yang cenderung menurun seiring dengan lama waktu inkubasi. Terjadi dinamika kandungan unsur-unsur hara seperti P, K, Mg, Fe dan Cu serta logam berat Cr selama proses inkubasi baik pada pupuk kandang ayam maupun sapi. Dengan perlakuan mikroba starter, bagian senyawa sulfur dari bahan organik banyak yang terombak menjadi gas SO2 yang relatif tidak berbau, dan sebaliknya H2S serta senyawa reduktif sulfida lainnya menjadi terhambat pembentukannya. Perombakan dengan  mikroba starter sebaiknya diupayakan dalam suasana aerobik atau dengan suasana lembab tetapi tidak sampai anaerobik sehingga kehadiran senyawa H2S dan senyawa sulfur reduktif lainnya dapat dikurangi atau tidak terbentuk. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkkan pentingnya penggunaan mikroba starter optimal dan benar untuk memperbaiki kandungan nutrisi dan kualitas pupuk kandang.   ABSTRACT Process of decomposition of organic fertilizer relies on the

  6. HÜMİK ASİT VE HÜMİK ASİT KAYNAKLARININ ÖNEMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk AY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available İnsanoğlu tarımsal alanda verimi arttırmak ve kaliteli ürün elde etmek için çok eski çağlardan günümüze değin bir çaba içerisindedir. Bu amaca yönelik olarak kimyasal gübre kullanımı uzun zamandan beri başvurulan yöntemlerden biridir. Kimyasal gübreleme ile bitkiler bazı inorganik besin maddelerini bu yolla temin edebilmekte fakat toprağa karıştırılan kimyasal gübreler bitki tarafından yeterince kullanılamamakta, bitki tarafından kullanılmayan kısım yağmur, kar ve sulama suyu vasıtasıyla topraktan uzaklaşıp yer altı kaynak sularına, denizlere, göllere karışarak önemli ekolojik sorunlara neden olmaktadır. Bu nedenle tarımda organik madde kullanımı giderek önem kazanmaktadır. En önemli toprak organik maddelerinden olan hümik asit ve fulvik asidin bitki gelişimi üzerindeki yararlı etkileri yapılan pek çok araştırmayla belirlenmiştir. Bu hümik maddelerin toprağın fiziksel, kimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik özelliklerini, dolayısıyla da bitki gelişimini etkilediği bilinmektedir.Ülkemizin birçok bölgesinde linyit ve turba rezervleri bulunmaktadır. Türkiye’de yaklaşık 8,4 milyar ton linyit rezervi saptanmıştır. Bu tür kömürler genellikle ısınma ve Hidroelektrik Santrallerinde kullanılmaktadır. Ancak bu yöntemlerde kullanılan linyitlerden fazla miktarda verim sağlanamamaktadır. Topraklarımızın kimyasal gübreler sonucu oluşan deformasyonunu ve verimini artırmak için, ülkemizin birçok alanında bulunan özellikle düşük kalorili linyit yataklarının ekonomik açıdan değerlendirilmesi ve ülkemizin topraklarının zenginleştirilmesi için gerekli olan organik gübre (Hümik Asit üretiminde kullanılması daha yararlı olacağı görüşü gittikçe dikkat çekici olmaktadır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Linyit, hümik asit, fülvik asit, organik gübre.

  7. Studi Efisiensi Penyisihan COD dalam Lindi dengan Sistem Evapotranspirasi Menggunakan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza dan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrus Zaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available COD dalam lindi merupakan salah satu parameter yang secara umum berada pada konsentrasi yang tiggi sebagai salah satu hasil biodegradasi material organik dan anorganik dalam sampah di TPA. Sistem evapotranspirasi yang menggunakan tumbuhan lokal merupakan salah satu sistem yang menjanjikan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi penyisihan COD dalam lindi dengan reaktor evapotranspirasi secara kontinyu yang menggunakan tumbuhan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza dan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica. Hasil uji menunjukkan efisiensi pada semua reaktor mulai sekitar hari ke 3 hingga hari ke 25 mengalami fluktuasi yang cenderung menurun (dari ± 75% menjadi ± 50%, tetapi hari selanjutnya cenderung meningkat. Pola tersebut dipengaruhi oleh peran media tanam, bakteri dalam media tanam, bakteri pada akar tumbuhan dan aktivitas metabolisme tumbuhan uji. Secara keseluruhan reaktor yang menggunakan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza lebih fluktuatif dibandingkan denga menggunakan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica yang dipengaruhi pola pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya.

  8. Senyawa Bufadienolida yang bersifat Insektisida, Daigremontianin dari daun Cocor Bebek (Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Mayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian berkelanjutan untuk pencarian senyawa-senyawa yang bersifat insektisida daritanaman Kalanchoe (Cocor bebek Indonesia, diperoleh hasil bahwa ekstrak metanol daun Cocorbebek (Kalanchoe daigremontiana memberikan aktivitas insektisida yang kuat terhadap instar ke tigalarva ulat sutera (Bombyx mori. Ekstrak metanol yang diperoleh selanjutnya dipisahkan senyawasenyawanyamenggunakan partisi dengan pelarut organik dan kombinasi kolom kromatografi padasilika gel dan ODS sehingga dihasilkan satu senyawa aktif insektisida. Struktur kimia senyawa yangbersifat insektisida tersebut ditentukan dengan metoda spektroskopi dan perbandingan data spektrasenyawa analog yang telah diperoleh dari penelitian sebelumnya sehingga senyawa aktif insektisidatersebut diidentifikasikan sebagai senyawa turunan bufadienolida, daigremontianin. Daegremontianinmenunjukkan aktivitas insektisidal yang kuat terhadap instar ke tiga ulat sutera (Bombyx mori denganLD50 0,9 μg/g diet.

  9. Potensi Daur Ulang dan Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Pengelolaan Sampah di Kecamatan Jabon, Kabupaten Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezi Adriwan Giandi Iskandar Sumantri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan potensi timbulan sampah organik, potensi daur ulang dan menentukan rekomendasi untuk meningkatkan partisipasi masyarakat dalam pengelolaan sampah di Kecamatan Jabon. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 2 aspek yaitu aspek teknis dan aspek masyarakat. Untuk aspek teknis melakukan sampling timbulan, komposisi dan densitas sampah rumah tangga, sentra industri tempe dan kerupuk, peternakan ayam dan bebek. Sedangkan untuk aspek masyarakat menyebarkan kuisioner yang berisikan kategori pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku yang kemudian akan diolah dengan metode likert scale dan chi kuadrat. Jumlah responden rumah tangga berjumlah 100 KK yang tersebar di 3 desa. Rata-rata timbulan sampah yang dihasilkan untuk sampah rumah tangga adalah 0,27 kg/org/hari, sentra industri tempe 28.639,16 kg/hari, sentra industri kerupuk 9.766,83 kg/hari, peternakan ayam 166,70 kg/hari dan peternakan bebek 630,15 kg/hari.

  10. Changing Roles of Librarians and Library Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norene James

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What significant changes are librarians and library technicians experiencing in their roles? A survey put forward across Canada to librarians and library technicians addressing this question was conducted in February 2014. Eight hundred eighty-two responses were obtained from librarians, defined as MLIS graduates, and library technicians, defined as graduates from a two-year library diploma program. Respondents needed to have been employed in the last two years in these roles and students of either an MLIS or LIT program were also welcome to participate. The results suggest that both librarians and library technicians perceive their roles as growing in scope and complexity and that the lines of responsibility are blurring. A majority of respondents indicated that they perceive a change in their roles in the past five years and commented on what the perceived changes were. Librarian and library technician roles may be shifting away from what may be viewed as traditional or clearly defined responsibilities and both librarians and library technicians may be taking on new tasks as well as experiencing task overlap. All library staff will need to be fluid, adaptable, and open to change. Library school curricula and workplace training need to incorporate the development of these competencies. Quels sont les changements importants éprouvés par les bibliothécaires et les bibliotechniciens dans leurs rôles? Un sondage mené en février de 2014 a posé cette question aux bibliothécaires et aux bibliotechniciens dans tout le Canada. On a reçu huit-cent quatre-vingt-deux réponses des bibliothécaires, définis comme étant diplômés en MSIB, et les bibliotechniciens, définis comme étant diplômés d’un programme de deux ans en bibliotechnique. Les sondés devaient avoir travaillé au cours des deux dernières années dans ces fonctions et les étudiants d’un programme MSIB ou de bibliothéconomie/ sciences de l’information pouvaient aussi y

  11. The benefits and costs of reducing emissions from the electricity sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Karen; Burtraw, Dallas; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2007-04-01

    Recent federal policy proposals to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury from the US electricity sector promise important improvements in air quality and reductions in acid deposition. The cost of achieving these reductions depends on the form and stringency of the regulation. In this research, we analyze the economic benefits and costs of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as characterized in the supplemental rule proposed in June 2004, and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed in February 2004. The assessment integrates a model of the electricity sector, two models of atmospheric transport of air pollutants, and a model of environmental and public health endpoints affected by pollution. We model explicitly the emissions of SO(2), NO(x), mercury and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and the effects of changes in emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) on environmental and public health. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications not only for the cost of the regulation, but also for emission levels for SO(2) and NO(x) and where those emissions are located. We find the economic benefits of CAIR and CAMR are far greater than the costs. Recent estimates of benefits of reductions in mercury and acidification indicate that our model captures the lion's share of quantifiable benefits. We also find that the EPA would have been justified on economic grounds in pursuing additional SO(2) emissions reductions beyond the requirements of CAIR.

  12. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladowski, Krzysztof, E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland); Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  13. Loss experience from natural phenomena hazards in the Department of Energy (50 years of natural phenomena hazard losses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historical prespective on losses due to natural hazard incidents (1943-1993) at Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). This paper also demonstrates how an existing DOE resource can be used to gain valuable insight into injury or property damage incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System. CAIRS data selected the 1981-1991 DOE injury/illness reports, from all the accident reports of the AEC that cited a natural phenomena hazard as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/property damage. Specifically, injury or property damage reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to severe weather or natural phenomena hazard categories. Natural phenomena hazard categories are injury/property damage caused by hurricane/tornado, earthquake, lightning, or flood. Severe weather categories are injury/property damage associated with other than normal weather conditions. The lessons learned, as a result of reviewing case histories, are presented, as are suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of future injuries/property damage as a result of similar events. A significant finding, is that most injuries and property damage were the result of an indirect causal link to a natural phenomena hazard and thus, may be more preventable than previously thought possible. The primary message, however, is that CAIRS and other incident data bases are valuable resources and should be considered for use by those interested in identifying new ways of protecting the health and safety of the worker and for reducing building losses due to the effects of natural phenomena hazards

  14. Activité antérieure – Leadership en évaluation au Moyen-Orient et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 avr. 2016 ... Le réseau d'évaluation de la région MOAN (EvalMENA) a tenu son assemblée générale au Caire du 23 au 26 février 2015 soulignant ainsi le début de l'Année internationale de l'évaluation. Fondé en 2011 grâce à du financement du CRDI, EvalMENA favorise la pratique professionnelle de suivi et ...

  15. Komputasi Data Isotermal Reaksi Pertukaran Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarbagiono Sumarbagiono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian besar data penelitian yang masih bersifat teknis perlu dievaluasi lebih lanjut denganmenggunakan metode komputasi Data Isotermal Reaksi Pertukaran Ion dalam proses penyerapanlogam berat dan radionukleotida oleh material sorben dari limbah cair. Melalui perhitungan KonstantaKesetimbangan (Ka dan Kuotisi Kielland diperoleh nilai entropi dan entalpi yang dapat digunakanuntuk mengetahui selektifitas unsur yang teradsorsi dalam zeolit. Program Kielland denganmenggunakan Delphi 5 dapat digunakan secara praktis oleh para peneliti untuk menganalisa dataisothermal pertukaran ion dari reaksi kesetimbangan dengan menghasilkan data yang lebih baik.

  16. le biofilmen industrielaitière:caractérisation facteur de dévellopement et élimination cas du biofilm de bacillus,cereus dans quelques laiteries de la région de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    Malek, fadila

    2013-01-01

    En industrie agroalimentaire, le développement des biofilms sur les surfaces en contact avec les aliments peut-être à l’origine de la contamination des produits transformés. Ce qui conduit à la réduction de leur durée de vie et à des risques potentiels pour la santé du consommateur. La qualité précaire du lait pasteurisé produit à l’échelle nationale illustre bien cette situation. L’évaluation de la microflore du biofilm formé à la surface des équipements laitiers dans quelques laiteries d...

  17. Trajectory control of robot manipulators with closed-kinematic chain mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.; Premack, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    The problem of Cartesian trajectory control of a closed-kinematic chain mechanism robot manipulator, recently built at CAIR to study the assembly of NASA hardware for the future Space Station, is considered. The study is performed by both computer simulation and experimentation for tracking of three different paths: a straight line, a sinusoid, and a circle. Linearization and pole placement methods are employed to design controller gains. Results show that the controllers are robust and there are good agreements between simulation and experimentation. The results also show excellent tracking quality and small overshoots.

  18. Liste des périodiques cités

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    cAbîr (Al-) Mensuel, Jérusalem Alawdah English Weekly Hebdomadaire, Jérusalem Aswâq (Al-) Quotidien, Amman cAwda (Al-) Hebdomadaire, Jérusalem Ayyâm (Al-) Quotidien, Râmallâh Bayâdir (Al-) Al-Siyâsî Hebdomadaire, Jérusalem Bulletin Associated Christian Press Mensuel, Jérusalem Bulletin du CEDEJ Trimestriel, Le Caire Charq (Al-) Al-Awsat Quotidien, Londres Chihân Hebdomadaire, Amman Chu’ûn Tanmâwiyya Trimestriel, Jérusalem Confluences Méditerranée Trimestriel, Paris Cultures et Conflits Trimes...

  19. PEMERIKSAAN CEMARAN PESTISIDA DALAM KOMODITI CABAl MERAH BESAR DAN CABAI MERAH KERITING DI BEBERAPA KOTA DALAM UPAYA PENETAPAN BMR (BATAS MAKSIMUM RESIDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutiatikum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap residu pestisida dalam komoditi cabai merah besar dan cabai merah keriting yang berasal dari pasar di kota Cianjur, Semarang dan Surabaya. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan alat KCKT (Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi. Hasil pengujian terhadap beberapa golongan pestisida kemudian dikaji kembali berdasarkan pola konsumsi cabai orang Indonesia dan dihitung BMR-nya dan dibandingkan terhadap BMR pustaka. Dari hasil pemeriksaan terdeteksi pestisida golongan organoklorin seperti lindon, aldrin, heptaklor, endosulfon. Golongan organofosfat yang terdeteksi adalah paration, klorpirifos, dimethoat, profenofos, protiofos. Golongan karbamat yang terdeteksi adalah karbofuran, sedangkan golongan piretrin tidak terdeteksi, hasil perhitungan lebih kecil dari BMR pustaka.   Kata kunci : Pestisida, cabai

  20. Pensament i mística en Ramon Llull

    OpenAIRE

    Torné Cubells, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Contra una primera impressió d’enorme distància entre les obres del beat Ramon Llull que segueixenrigorosament el seu Art i les que tenen un caire més literari, a partir del Llibre d’amic e Amat es fanotar la constant presència en ell d’elements fonamentals del sistema de pensament lul·lià, indispensablesper a la recta comprensió d’aquesta obra. També s’indiquen alguns trets característics de lamística del Doctor Il·luminat.

  1. La création d'un quartier à Lima (District de Mariategui)

    OpenAIRE

    Collin Delavaud , Anne

    2000-01-01

    Le manque de terrain plat à proximité de Lima a poussé des milliers d'habitants à) occuper les pentes fortes des contreforts des Andes pour creuser des terrasses pour y bâtir une maison d'une pièce ou deux en matériaux précaires ' roseaux, brique de terre cuite au soleil ) ou brique. Des sentiers et des escaliers relient les maisons. L'éclairage public est déjà là. Linge qui sèche.

  2. Patina????o: uma alternativa nas aulas de educa????o f??sica

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Cindya Katerine

    2016-01-01

    Introdu????o: A patina????o ?? sem duvida um fen??meno social. Nas crian??as, apresenta-se como um jogo motivante, de vertigem, produz sensa????es de domina????o do medo de cair e da velocidade. Desenvolve v??rios aspectos psicomotores que s??o trabalhados nas aulas de educa????o f??sica. Objetivo: Apresentar e incluir a patina????o no ambiente escolar, no ensino fundamental, como uma alternativa para as aulas de Educa????o F??sica. Materiais e M??todos: Foi realizada uma revis??o bibliogr??f...

  3. Política da imagem na era da convocação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Aidar Prado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Criticar os dispositivos biopolíticos convocadores das sociedades de controle não significa cair num determinismo apocalíptico. A partir de Didi-Huberman e Rancière, pensaremos, na trilha benjaminiana, o conceito de imagem dialética, a fim de evitar o caminho da denúncia da imagem como idolatria ou do espectador como passivo. Trata-se de pensar uma política crítica da imagem.

  4. RR. PP. A. Jaussen et R. Savignac - Mission archéologique en Arabie (Publication de la Société des fouilles archéologiques, 3 tomes [Tome I : De Jérusalem au Hedjaz Médaine-Saleh (mars-mai 1907, Paris, 1909 ; Tome II : El-'Ela, D'Hégra à Teima, Harrah de Tebouk, Paris, 1914 avec un Atlas (153 planches, cartes et plans et un supplément au volume II : Les coutumes des Fuqarâ ; Tome III : Les châteaux arabes, Quseir 'Amra, Kharâneh et Tûba, Paris, 1922], Paris (P. Geuthner - Le Caire (Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1997 (2ème édition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Farès-Drappeau

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Les cinq volumes en trois tomes des Pères Raphaël Savignac (1874-1951 et Antonin Jaussen (1871-1962 furent publiés entre 1909 et 1922 . Ils sont le résultat de leurs missions entreprises en 1907, 1909 et 1910. Les deux premiers tomes relatent le voyage à Madâ’in Sâlih et à al-‘Ulâ, ils sont consacré surtout au récit de voyage, à l'archéologie et à l'épigraphie. Le supplément au tome II contient des notes ethnologiques recueillies au cours de la deuxième expédition, en 1909. Ces notes conce...

  5. Publisher Correction: Discordant congenital Zika syndrome twins show differential in vitro viral susceptibility of neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Goulart, Ernesto; Melo, Uirá Souto; Araujo, Bruno Henrique Silva; Alvizi, Lucas; Soares-Schanoski, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Danyllo Felipe; Kobayashi, Gerson Shigeru; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Musso, Camila Manso; Amaral, Murilo Sena; daSilva, Lucas Ferreira; Astray, Renato Mancini; Suárez-Patiño, Sandra Fernanda; Ventini, Daniella Cristina; da Silva, Sérgio Gomes; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Ezquina, Suzana; Naslavsky, Michel Satya; Telles-Silva, Kayque Alves; Weinmann, Karina; van der Linden, Vanessa; van der Linden, Helio; de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; Arrais, Nivia Maria Rodrigues; Melo, Adriana; Figueiredo, Thalita; Santos, Silvana; Meira, Joanna Goes Castro; Passos, Saulo Duarte; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Bispo, Ana Jovina Barreto; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Nakaya, Helder; Andreata-Santos, Robert; de Souza Ferreira, Luis Carlos; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Ho, Paulo Lee; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Zatz, Mayana

    2018-03-13

    The original PDF version of this Article contained errors in the spelling of Luiz Carlos Caires-Júnior, Uirá Souto Melo, Bruno Henrique Silva Araujo, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Murilo Sena Amaral, Kayque Alves Telles-Silva, Vanessa van der Linden, Helio van der Linden, João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira, Nivia Maria Rodrigues Arrais, Joanna Goes Castro Meira, Ana Jovina Barreto Bispo, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata-Santos, which were incorrectly given as Luiz Carlos de Caires Jr., UiráSouto Melo, Bruno Silva Henrique Araujo, Alessandra Soares Schanoski, MuriloSena Amaral, Kayque Telles Alves Silva, Vanessa Van der Linden, Helio Van der Linden, João Mendes Ricardo de Oliveira, Nivia Rodrigues Maria Arrais, Joanna Castro Goes Meira, Ana JovinaBarreto Bispo, EsperAbrão Cavalheiro, and Robert Andreata Santos. Furthermore, in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article, the top panel of Fig. 3e was incorrectly labeled '10608-1' and should have been '10608-4', and financial support from CAPES and DECIT-MS was inadvertently omitted from the Acknowledgements section. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

  6. Application of isotopes and radiation to increasing agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Phase 2 Project was primarily aimed at consolidating the advances made during the previous phase, formulating practical agricultural technologies which can be adopted by farmers, disseminating and applying these technologies, and enhancing the capability of the Centre for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) to conduct agricultural research using nuclear and related techniques. Outputs generated by this project were generally in accordance with those anticipated in the Project Document. Some outputs have been transferred to the target beneficiaries (farmers) through existing systems of extension, in co-operation with the main implementing agency (BATAN). Other outputs have potential for further assessment, and may lead to practical applications in future. The rest remain as important contributions to scientific knowledge. The project has been managed to assure sustainability after project termination. A strong indication of such sustainability is evident in the on-going research and development work at CAIR and the adoption of transferred technologies by the end-users. To keep up with rapid global advancements in bio-science and technology, a new project on application of nuclear and related techniques in agricultural bio-science and technology would be needed in relation to the second long-term phase of the national development programmes. (author)

  7. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

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    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  8. THE EFFECT OF PICLORAM AND LIGHT ON SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS REGENERATION OF PINEAPPLE

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    Ika Roostika

    2012-10-01

    embriogenesis somatik nenas. Kalus diinduksi menggunakan pikloram (21, 41, dan 62 μM dan penambahan thidiazuron 9 μM. Selanjutnya, kalus dipindahkan ke media MS atau Bac yang diperkaya dengansenyawa N-organik dengan atau tanpa penambahan pikloram 21 μM dalam kondisi gelap atau dengan pencahayaan. Kalus kompak disubkultur pada media MS yang mengandung kinetin 4,65 μM, sedangkan kalus remah dipindahkan ke media BIG (MS modifikasi + bensil adenin 1.1 μM + indole butyric acid 0,9 μM + giberelic acid 0,09 μM atau media B (MS + bensil adenin 0,018 μM. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan bahwa tahapan embriogenesis somatik diawali dengan polarisasi sel, pembelahan asimetris, pembentukan proembrio sebagai jaringan embriogenik danjaringan embriogenik remah, serta perkembangan embrio. Perlakuan terbaik untuk induksi kalus adalah pikloram 21 μM. Penambahan pikloram 21 μM pada media yang diperkaya dengan senyawa N-organik mampu meningkatkan jumlah kalusembriogenik. Media Bac yang diperkaya senyawa N-organik dan kondisi pencahayaan menghasilkan jumlah embrio somatik dewasa terbanyak (17 embrio per eksplan dalam 2 bulan. Media B lebih baik daripada media BIG untuk regenerasi embrio somatik dari jaringan embriogenik remah. Metode embriogenesis somatik yang dihasilkan dari penelitian ini berpotensi diterapkan untukperbanyakan massal dan produksi benih nenas.

  9. Limon Ekşisi Üretimi Üzerine Bir Araştırma

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    Filiz Uçan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, limon ekşisi açık kazanda ve vakum altında olmak üzere iki farklı yöntemle üretilmiş, limon ekşilerinin bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri incelenmiştir. Limon suyunun, limon ekşisine işlenmesiyle pH değerlerinde yaklaşık %50 azalma, titrasyon asitliğinde ise yaklaşık 8-10 kat artış belirlenmiştir. Açık kazanda üretilen limon ekşisi örneklerinde askorbik asit içeriği kaybının, vakumda üretilenlere göre %48.36 daha fazla olduğu belirlenmiştir. Limon ekşisi örneklerinde en yüksek toplam fenolik ve karotenoid madde içeriği açık kazanda üretilenlerde tespit edilmiştir. Her iki yöntem ile üretilen örneklerin L* ve Hueo değerlerinde azalışlar, a*, b* ve Croma* değerlerinde ise artışlar olmuştur. En yüksek esmerleşme indeksi ve HMF (hidroksimetilfurfural miktarı, açık kazanda üretilen örneklerde, en yüksek antioksidan aktivite değeri ise vakumda altında üretilen örneklerde tespit edilmiştir. Limon ekşisi örneklerinde tartarik, kuinik, okzalik, malik, sitrik ve süksinik olmak üzere 6 adet organik asit belirlenmiştir. Organik asit içerikleri en fazla vakum altında üretilen limon ekşisi örneklerinde belirlenmiştir.

  10. KONDISI SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA TANAH PADA BEKAS TAMBANG NIKKEL SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TRENGGULI DAN MAHONI

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    Merryana Kiding Allo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities through land clearing, dredging and backfilling will lead to changes in the ecosystem. Land conditions badly damaged among other unproductive, high erosion and loss of top soil layer of soil. The physical properties of the soil pH is acid soil, the texture increased dust causes soil compacted is difficult to be processed and chemical properties of the soil decreased to lower and lower, that it can not support the root system of plants and would affect the plant growth is not normally. The need for nutrients origin of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers combined with the planting hole and alcosorb can spur the growth of trengguli and mahoni that is expected to speed up the recovery process mined lands of nickel. Planting  trengguli and mahogany produced by percentage grew to 95% by using a experiments using completely randomized design (CRD with a combination of the size of the hole, the dosage of fertilizer and alcosorb on trengguli and mahoni plants produce the best height and diameter growth on the kind trengguli obtained from treatment of the planting hole size 0.30 mx 0.40 mx 0.30 m ( A2 15 kg of organic fertilizer (B3 with alcosorb 3 gr and the best diameter growth in mahoni generated by the use of manure dosage of 7.5 kg and 7.5 gr NPK (B2. Kegiatan penambangan secara land clearing, pengerukan dan penimbunan  akan menyebabkan perubahan ekosistem. Kondisi lahan rusak berat antara lain tidak produktif, terjadi erosi berat dan hilangnya lapisan top soil tanah. Sifat fisik fisik pH tanah menjadi masam, tekstur debu meningkat menyebabkan pemadatan tanah sukar diolah dan sifat kimia tanah menurun menjadi makin rendah, sehingga tidak dapat mendukung sistem perakaran tanaman dan akan berdampak pertumbuhan tanaman tidak normal. Kebutuhan akan unsur hara asal pupuk organik maupun pupuk anorganik yang dikombinasikan dengan lubang tanam dan alcosorb dapat memacu pertumbuhan tanaman jenis trengguli dan mahoni yang

  11. Organic Waste Anaerobic degradation with bio-activator-5 Effective Microorganism (EM-5 to Produce Biogas

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    Metri Dian Insani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradasi Anaerob Sampah Organik dengan Bioaktivator Effective Microorganism-5 (EM-5 untuk Menghasilkan Biogas Abstract: The purpose of this study was to: (1 analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to biogas pressure, (2 analyze the differences in the use of corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow dung for a long time flame biogas produced, and (3 analyze the different uses corn cobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to the C / N ratio end. Experimental study was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD, with three treatments each in 3 repetitions. The research proves that: (1 there is a difference corncobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to biogas pressure, (2 there is a difference corncobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to the length of time the flame and (3 there is a difference corncobs, kelaras bananas and banana peel with the addition of cow manure to the C / N ratio end. Key Words: anaerobic degradation, organic waste, EM-5, biogas Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk: (1 menganalisis perbedaan penggunaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penambahan kotoran sapi terhadap tekanan biogas, (2 menganalisis perbedaan penggunaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penam-bahan kotoran sapi terhadap lama waktu nyala api biogas yang dihasilkan, dan (3 menganalisis per-bedaan penggunaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penambahan kotoran sapi terhadap rasio C/N akhir. Penelitian eksperimen didesain menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan tiga perlakuan masing-masing dalam 3 kali ulangan. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa: (1 terdapat perbedaan tongkol jagung, kelaras pisang, dan kulit pisang dengan penambahan kotoran sapi terhadap tekanan biogas, (2 terdapat

  12. Karakter Morfologi dan Pertumbuhan Tiga Jenis Cacing Tanah Lokal Pekanbaru pada Dua Macam Media Pertumbuhan

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    Dewi Indriyani Roslim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Limbah organik dari limbah rumah tangga, pertanian, perkebunan, dan peternakan sering menimbulkan masalah, karena mencemari lingkungan. Cacing tanah dapat menggunakan limbah organik tersebut sebagai media pertumbuhannya dan juga merombaknya menjadi pupuk kasting. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pertumbuhan tiga jenis cacing tanah yang ditemui di kota Pekanbaru pada dua media pertumbuhan. Tiga jenis cacing tanah yang diteliti adalah Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh, Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah, dan Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Faktorial Lengkap. Masing-masing cacing tanah ditumbuhkan pada dua media, yaitu serasah dan campuran kotoran sapi+tanah, di dalam pot plastik. Medium tanpa cacing tanah digunakan sebagai kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan cacing tanah Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh, Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah, dan Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu memiliki perbedaan karakter morfologi pada panjang tubuh, warna kulit, jumlah segmen, tipe prostomium, jumlah seta per segmen, warna dan posisi klitellum, posisi dan jumlah lubang jantan. Medium campuran kotoran sapi+tanah lebih cocok untuk pertumbuhan Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu, media serasah untuk pertumbuhan Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh, dan media kotoran sapi saja tanpa penambahan tanah untuk Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah.Organic waste produced from household, agriculture, plantation, and animal husbandry may cause environmental pollution. Earthworms can utilize this organic waste for their growth medium and decompose them to produce casting fertilizer. The objective of this study was to analyze the growth of three earthworm species from Pekanbaru using two types of media, i.e. Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah, Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu, and Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh. All these earthworms were grown in litter media and manure-soil mixture. Media without the earthworms were used as control. The experiment design used in this

  13. Pemanfaatan Limbah Daun Kelapa Sawit sebagai Bahan Baku Pupuk Kompos

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    Ramayanty Bulan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Limbah padat pada perkebunan kelapa sawit telah diketahui potensial sebagai bahan baku pupuk organik padat melalui proses pengomposan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan teknik dan mengkarakterisasi proses pengomposan limbah daun kelapa sawit sebagai bahan dasar pupuk organik potensial. Proses pengomposan dilakukan dengan dua faktor perlakuan, meliputi komposisi bahan katalisator kompos (Bokashi, Vermikompos dan Natural dan ukuran cacahan daun sawit (2 cm, 4 cm 6 cm. Parameter yang diamati meliputi persentase penyusutan massa dan fluktuasi perubahan suhu selama proses pengomposan, serta pengukuran zat hara Nitrogen, Phospor, Kalium (NPK dan rasio C/N yang terkandung pada hasil pengomposan yang diukur setelah 10 dan 14 minggu proses pengomposan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode pengomposan dengan bokashi memberikan penyusutan massa terbesar jika dibandingkan dua metode lainnya pada semua ukuran cacahan yaitu sebesar 32%. Cacahan daun sawit yang berukuran kecil cenderung memberikan proses pengomposan yang lebih cepat dan memberikan produk kompos yang lebih baik. Hasil pengukuran setelah proses pengomposan menunjukkan bahwa interaksi dua faktor perlakuan yang diberikan hanya berpengaruh signifikan pada rasio C/N dan tidak signifikan pada zat hara NPK.   Utilization of Waste Palm Leaves as Raw Material Palm Compost Abstract. The use of oil palm plantation solid waste, particularly oil palm leaf as organic compost raw material are now receiving greater attention by researchers, but have not been fully utilized on large scale, either agriculturally or industrially. The aim of present study was to characterize composting process with oil palm leaf as raw material. The research of composting conducted with two combination of composting factor, namely: composting starter composition (i.e. Bokashi, vermi-compost and natural composting and piece of frond dimension (2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm. The percentage of mass reduction and temperature

  14. Analisis Kualitas Batu-bata Bersumber Bahan Tambahan Sampah Serbuk Gergaji dalam Berbagai Variasi Berat

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    Sri Slamet Mulyati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Serbuk gergaji kayu merupakan salah satu sumber sampah organik yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Keberadaannya tidak jauh di sekitar kita, relatif murah dan mudah mendapatkannya. Di beberapa negara luar seperti Uganda, Algeria, India dan lain-lain memanfaatkan serbuk gergaji ini untuk berbagai keperluan diantaranya sebagai bahan campuran batu-bata, pembentuk polimer selulosa nitrat, dan bahan adsorben polutan organik phenol. Penelitian sebelumnya memanfaatkan serbuk gergaji sebagai bahan tambahan campuran batu-bata (kaolin, tanah liat, serbuk gergaji dengan rasio 90:70:40. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan eksperimen semu. Selanjutnya penulis tertarik untuk mengembangkan penelitian tersebut, untuk serbuk gergaji dibuat variasi berat bahannya, sementara yang lainnya tetap. Ukuran batu-bata dirancang berukuran 10,00 x 5,00 x 2,00 cm. Untuk mengetahui kualitas batu-bata yang dihasilkan, penulis melakukan analisis kualitas terhadap batu-bata yang dihasilkan dengan berbagai variasi berat tersebut. Kualitas yang diuji baru pada tahapan daya serap air dan kandungan garam. Selain uji kualitas batu-bata juga dilakukan analisis valuasi ekonominya. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada skala laboratorium dengan harapan dapat dijadikan bahan acuan apabila akan diaplikasikan di lapangan. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variasi berat serbuk gergaji antara rasio 20:70:90 dan 40:70:90 menunjukkan ada perbedaan peringkat rata-rata yang bermakna dalam hal daya serap batu-bata terhadap air begitu juga antara rasio 20:70:90 dan 60:70:90. Semua campuran batu-bata berdaya serap > 20%, belum memenuhi standar kualitas berdasarkan SNI 15-2094-2000, namun semua campuran batu-bata mempunyai kadar garam  (NaCl 20%, yet meet the standards of quality based on SNI 15-2094-2000, but all of a mixture of brick had higher levels of salt (NaCl <50%, this means that it meets quality standards based on SNI 15-2094 -2000. Conclusion:Burning of bricks made from sawdust

  15. PENGARUH TEPUNG DAUN GAMAL DAN DAUN KELOR DALAM UREA CASSAVA BLOK (UCB TERHADAP KECERNAAN, KADAR VFA, DAN NH3 IN-VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M. WITARIADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh tepung daun gamal dan daun kelor sebagai sumber protein dalam urea cassava blok (UCB terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, kadar VFA, dan NH3 cairan rumen pakan jerami padi secara invitro. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan mempergunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Sehingga secara keseluruhan terdapat 15 unit penelitian. Adapun ketiga perlakuan tersebut adalah: Perlakuan A (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor; B (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun gamal, dan C (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor dan daun gamal. Varibel yang diamati adalah kecernaan bahan kering (KCBK , kecernaan bahan organik (KCBO in-vitro, produksi vollatile fatty acid (VFA, produksi NH3, dan pH supernatan. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa KCBK, KCBO invitro, VFA, NH3, dan pH supernatan pada ketiga perlakuan berbeda nyata (P<0,05. Penggunaan daun gamal sebagai sumber protein pada UCB menghasilkan KCBK, KCBO, VFA, NH3, tertinggi dibandingkan dengan daun kelor maupun kombinasi antara daun gamal dan daun kelor. EFFECT OF USING GLIRICIDIA (Gliricidia sepium AND MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAVES MEALS IN UREA CASSAVA BLOCK (UCB ON DIGESTIBILITY, VOLLATILE FATTY ACID, AND NH3 IN-VITRO. ABSTRACT The experiment has been conducted in order to now the effect of Gliricidia sepium and Moringa oleifera leaves meal a source of protein in urea cassava block (UCB to the digestibility dray matter and organic matter , VFA and ammonia concentration with rice straw diet. The experiment set in completely randomized design using three treatment. The treatment are: A (rise straw + UCB with Moringa; B (rise straw + UCB with Gliricidia sepium, and C (rise straw + UCB with Moringa and Gliricidia sepium. The observed variable are: dry matter, organic matter digestibility, volatile fatty acid, ammonia concentration, and pH rumen juice

  16. APLIKASI DOSIS FERMENTASI PROBIOTIK BERBEDA PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei POLA INTENSIF

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    Gunarto Gunarto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi dosis probiotik yang tepat menjadi satu di antara penentu utama dalam peningkatan produksi udang di tambak, karena berkaitan dengan kemampuannya mengurai limbah organik sisa pakan dan sisa metabolisme udang yang dibudidayakan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan dosis fermentasi probiotik yang berbeda pada pertumbuhan, sintasan, produksi udang, nilai rasio konversi pakan, dan kualitas air tambak budidaya intensif udang vaname di tambak. Enam unit tambak masing-masing ukuran 4.000 m2 ditebari benur vaname PL-10 dengan padat tebar 50 ekor/m2. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 2,5%-100% dari total biomassa udang dengan frekuensi 2–4 kali/hari selama pemeliharaan 105 hari. Tiga dosis berbeda dari aplikasi fermentasi probiotik komersial dijadikan perlakuan, yaitu A. 1 mg/L/minggu, B. 3 mg/L/minggu, dan C. 5 mg/L/minggu. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Aplikasi fermentasi probiotik di tambak dilakukan setiap minggu sekali dan dimulai seminggu sebelum tebar hingga mendekati waktu panen. Sampling pertumbuhan dan kualitas air (amoniak, nitrit, nitrat, fosfat, bahan organik total (BOT, klorofil-a, total bakteri Vibrio sp. dan total bakteri dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali. Pengamatan fluktuasi oksigen terlarut di air tambak selama 24 jam dilakukan pada hari ke-43, 60, dan 90. Sintasan, produksi, dan nilai konversi pakan dihitung setelah udang dipanen. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari perlakuan, maka data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan analisis varian pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT apabila terjadi perbedaan yang nyata. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian nampak bahwa dosis 5 mg/L fermentasi probiotik, mampu menghasilkan sintasan yang lebih baik dan juga efisien dalam pemanfaatan pakan, yang ditunjukkan dengan nilai Rasio Konversi Pakan lebih rendah apabila dibandingkan dengan nilai Rasio Konversi Pakan yang diperoleh pada dosis fermentasi probiotik 3 dan 1 mg/L, meskipun demikian

  17. KOMBINASI ULTRAFILTRASI DAN DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION UNTUK PEMEKATAN MIKROALGA

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    I Nyoman Widiasa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Mikroalga merupakan mikroorganisme fotosintetik prokariotik atau eukariotik yang dapat tumbuh dengan cepat. Pemanfaatan mikroalga tidak hanya berorientasi sebagai pakan alami untuk akuakultur, tetapi terus berkembang untuk bahan baku produksi pakan ternak, pigmen warna, bahan farmasi (β-carotene, antibiotik, asam lemak omega-3, bahan kosmetik, pupuk organik, dan biofuel (biodiesel, bioetanol, biogas, dan biohidrogen. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi kombinasi ultrafiltrasi (UF – dissolved air flotation (DAF untuk pemekatan mikroalga skala laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penurunan fluks membran UF secara tajam sebagai akibat dari deposisi sel mikroalga terjadi pada 20 menit pertama proses filtrasi. Backwash pada interval 20 menit selama 10 detik dengan tekanan 1 bar memberikan pengendalian fouling yang efektif dalam nilai kestabilan fluks yang layak. Membran UF yang digunakan dapat memberikan selektivitas pemisahan biomassa mikroalga ~ 100%. Kualitas permeat sangat stabil, yaitu kekeruhan < 0,5 NTU, kandungan organik < 10 mg/L, dan warna < 10 PCU. Lebih lanjut, pemekatan retentat membran dengan DAF pada tekanan saturasi 6 bar dapat menghasilkan pasta mikroalga dengan konsentrasi 20 g/L. Koagulan PAC perlu ditambahkan kedalam umpan DAF dengan dosis 1,3–1,6 mg PAC/mg padatan tersuspensi.   Kata Kunci: ultrafiltrasi; dissolved air flotation; pemanenan mikroalga; pemekatan mikroalga   Abstract COMBINATION OF Ultrafiltration and Dissolved Air Flotation for Microalgae CONCENTRATION. Microalgae is a prokaryotic photosynthetic microorganism or eukaryotic microorganism  that proliferate rapidly. Cultivation of the microalgae is not only oriented  as natural food for aquacultures, but also developed  for animal food, color pigment, pharmaceutical raw material (β-carotene, antibiotic, fatty acid omega-3, cosmetic raw material, organic fertilizer, and biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, and biohydrogen. This

  18. Libraries as Trenches: Resistance, Militancy and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Civallero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how libraries and librarians resist and mobilize by sharpening the mind and strengthening solidarity, withstanding adverse conditions and providing shelter, and allowing for new community paths to be traveled despite the neoliberal insistence that there is no alternative. Militancy and commitment on the part of librarians are both discussed in terms of reading, literacy, identity, learning, training, and a form of leisure linked to culture.Everyday engagement in community-level activities and problem-solving by libraries goes hand-in-hand with supporting values such as justice, equality, solidarity, pluralism, freedom, equity, and respect. Trenches are used as a metaphor for libraries because the resistance work and struggle of librarians create spaces where certain fires are kept burning to inspire people sitting around them, and where resistance, planning, building, and counteracting are all possible. Cet essai prend en compte comment les bibliothèques et les bibliothécaires résistent et se mobilisent en façonnant l’esprit, en renforçant la solidarité, en résistant à des conditions défavorables et en fournissant des abris, et en permettant de prendre de nouveaux sentiers communautaires malgré l’insistance néolibérale qu’il n’y pas de solution de rechange. Le militantisme et l’engagement de la part des bibliothécaires sont tous deux examinés en fonction de la lecture, la littératie, l’identité, l’apprentissage, la formation et une forme de loisir liée à la culture. L’engagement quotidien dans les activités de la communauté et la résolution de problème des bibliothèques vont main dans la main avec le soutien des valeurs tels la justice, l’égalité, la solidarité, le pluralisme, la liberté, l’équité et le respect. La métaphore de la tranchée peut être employée pour les bibliothèques, car leur travail de résistance et les défis qu’ont les bibliothécaires à créer des

  19. Airborne Mission Concept for Coastal Ocean Color and Ecosystems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Morrow, John H.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Palacios, Sherry L.; Torres Perez, Juan L.; Hayashi, Kendra; Dunagan, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA airborne missions in 2011 and 2013 over Monterey Bay, CA, demonstrated novel above- and in-water calibration and validation measurements supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The resultant airborne data characterize contemporaneous coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems spanning a next-generation spectral domain (320-875 nm). This airborne instrument suite for calibration, validation, and research flew at the lowest safe altitude (ca. 100 ft or 30 m) as well as higher altitudes (e.g., 6,000 ft or 1,800 m) above the sea surface covering a larger area in a single synoptic sortie than ship-based measurements at a few stations during the same sampling period. Data collection of coincident atmospheric and aquatic properties near the sea surface and at altitude allows the input of relevant variables into atmospheric correction schemes to improve the output of corrected imaging spectrometer data. Specific channels support legacy and next-generation satellite capabilities, and flights are planned to within 30 min of satellite overpass. This concept supports calibration and validation activities of ocean color phenomena (e.g., river plumes, algal blooms) and studies of water quality and coastal ecosystems. The 2011 COAST mission flew at 100 and 6,000 ft on a Twin Otter platform with flight plans accommodating the competing requirements of the sensor suite, which included the Coastal-Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) for the first time. C-AIR (Biospherical Instruments Inc.) also flew in the 2013 OCEANIA mission at 100 and 1,000 ft on the Twin Otter below the California airborne simulation of the proposed NASA HyspIRI satellite system comprised of an imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared multispectral imager on the ER-2 at 65,000 ft (20,000 m). For both missions, the Compact-Optical Profiling System (Biospherical

  20. ANALISIS WAKTU PEMUPUKAN TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis DENGAN TEKNIK PERUNUT RADIOAKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Sutapa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis waktu pemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensisdengan teknik perunut radioaktif. Untuk menuju sistem pertanian berkelanjutan perlu adanya perbaikan pertanian(intensifikasi selama beberapa tahun yang lalu masih signifikan, karena ketersediaan sumber daya alam danteknologi pertanian cukup memadai dan berimbang dengan ketersediaan lahan dan peningkatan jumlah penduduk.Keadaan ini sulit untuk dipertahankan dimasa yang akan datang, kecuali ada pendekatan baru yang menawarkan ide dan teknik untuk meningkatkan produktifitas pertanian. Efesiensi pemupukan tanaman dengan teknik perunut (tracer radioisotop adalah salah satu potensi menujusistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Teknik perunut dapat digunakan antara lain untuk mempelajari hubungan antaratanah dan tanaman, menentukan kondisi optimal dalam penggunaan pupuk (waktu pemupukan, pola perakaranaktif tanaman, jenis dan takaran pupuk, mempelajari proses dekomposisi dan mineralisasi bahan organik, sertamempelajari proses fotosintesis tanaman,baik dengan metoda langsung maupun tidak langsung.Waktu pemupukanyang lebih tepat dapat ditentukan dengan teknik perunut tersebut, sehingga optimalisasi pemupukan dapat dicapai,tanpa pemborosan yang tidak berguna.Dari penelitian dengan menggunakan radioisotop P, ternyata waktupemupukan pada tanaman sawi hijau (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis yang paling signifikan adalah padapukul 9.00 pagi. Waktu siang hari mulai pukul 11.00 sampai pukul 15.00 adalah waktu pemupukan yang sangatburuk. Sedangkan waktu sore hari yaitu pukul 15.00 sampai 17.00 menunjukkan waktu pemupukan yang semakinbaik namun tidak signifikan.32