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Sample records for caimito chrysophyllum cainito

  1. Origins and close relatives of a semi-domesticated neotropical fruit tree: Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer J; Parker, Ingrid M; Potter, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Understanding patterns and processes associated with domestication has implications for crop development and agricultural biodiversity conservation. Semi-domesticated crops provide excellent opportunities to examine the interplay of natural and anthropogenic influences on plant evolution. The domestication process has not been thoroughly examined in many tropical perennial crop species. Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae), the star apple or caimito, is a semi-domesticated species widely cultivated for its edible fruits. It is known to be native to the neotropics, but the precise geographic origins of wild and cultivated forms are unresolved. We used nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships among C. cainito and close relatives (section Chrysophyllum). We employed phylogeographic approaches using ITS and plastid sequence data to determine geographic origins and center(s) of domestication of caimito. ITS data suggest a close relationship between C. cainito and C. argenteum. Plastid haplotype networks reveal several haplotypes unique to individual taxa but fail to resolve distinct lineages for either C. cainito or C. argenteum. Caimito populations from northern Mesoamerica and the Antilles exhibit a subset of the genetic diversity found in southern Mesoamerica. In Panama, cultivated caimito retains high levels of the diversity seen in wild populations. Chrysophyllum cainito is most closely related to a clade containing Central and South American C. argenteum, including subsp. panamense. We hypothesize that caimito is native to southern Mesoamerica and was domesticated from multiple wild populations in Panama. Subsequent migration into northern Mesoamerica and the Antilles was mediated by human cultivation.

  2. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Chrysophyllum cainito

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysophyllum cainito leaves were processed into a herbal tea and the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of this herbal tea were evaluated on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. . The rats were grouped into four treatment groups: DC (diabetic group fed with rat feed and water), CON1 (diabetic group fed with rat ...

  3. Chrysophyllum cainito (apple-star): a fruit with gastroprotective activity in experimental ulcer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Roseane Leandra; de Almeida, Camila Leandra; Somensi, Lincon Bordigon; Boeing, Thaise; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Clarissa; de Souza, Priscila; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; da Silva, Luisa Mota; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2017-12-08

    The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0.3 mg/kg), MESe (0.3 mg/kg) and MEPu (1 mg/kg) also promoted gastroprotection against ethanol/HCl. In addition, MEPe (3 mg/kg, p.o), MESe (3 mg/kg, p.o) and MEPu (10 mg/kg, p.o) reduced indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice by 78, 70 and 50%, respectively. Regarding the mode of action, the gastroprotective effect of MEPe was decreased by the pre-administration of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, a sulfhydryl group chelator, 10 mg/kg, i.p), glibenclamide (a potassium channel blocker, 10 mg/kg, i.p), yohimbine (10 mg/kg, i.p, an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p) and indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 10 mg/kg, i.p). The gastroprotective effect of MESe was reduced by the pre-administration of NEM, glibenclamide, N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 70 mg/kg, i.p) and yohimbine, while MEPu had the gastroprotective effect decreased in animals pretreated with NEM and L-NAME. However, the extracts did not reduce gastric acid secretion. The supplementation with the flour from C. cainito fruit at 10% by 7 days, but not the juice intake, displayed gastroprotective potential, evidencing the fruit as a promising functional food. Together, the antiulcer effect of extracts of the C. cainito fruit in different experimental models was confirmed by the favoring of mucosal protective mechanisms among different, but complementary, modes of action. In parallel, the gastroprotective effects of

  4. Uji aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak air dan ekstrak metanol beberapa varian buah kenitu (Chrysophyllum cainito L. dari daerah Jember

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    Moch. Amrun H.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Star apple or Chrysophyllum cainito L., family Sapotaceae; which is indigenous in Central America has been grown locally arround Jember, East Java. Ethnobotanical data exhibits its medicinal properties such as: soothing inflammation in laringitis and pneumonia, treatment for diabetes mellitus and cancer remedy which are related to free radical mechanism. Therefore, it is necessary to determine its free radical scavenger activity. There are three types of Jember’s star apple fruit (local name: kenitu: big size, green color with round shape (kenitu hijau bulat; medium size, green color with oval shape (kenitu hijau lonjong; and small size, red purplish color with round shape (kenitu merah bulat. Previous research shown that both water and methanol extracts of kenitu hijau lonjong has DPPH free radical scavenger activity as its antioxidant capacity. In recent research the DPPH free radical scavenger activity was performed on both water and methanol extract of these three types of kenitu. The results showed that kenitu merah bulat exhibits the highest antioxidant activity of these three types with IC50 = 426.118 and 169.094 ppm for methanol and water extracts sequentially in 60th minutes.

  5. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with leaf extract of Chrysophyllum cainito (Star apple) and their applications as efficient catalyst for C-C coupling and reduction reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Tantayanon, Supawan; Bag, Braja Gopal

    2017-10-01

    A simple green chemical method for the one-step synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) has been described by reducing palladium (II) chloride with the leaf extract of Chrysophyllum cainito in aqueous medium. The synthesis of the palladium nanoparticles completed within 2-3 h at room temperature, whereas on heat treatment (70-80 °C), the synthesis of colloidal PdNPs completed almost instantly. The stabilized PdNPs have been characterized in detail by spectroscopic, electron microscopic and light scattering measurements. The synthesized PdNPs have been utilized as a green catalyst for C-C coupling reactions under aerobic and phosphine-free conditions in aqueous medium. In addition, the synthesized PdNPs have also been utilized as a catalyst for a very efficient sodium borohydride reduction of 3- and 4-nitrophenols. The synthesized PdNPs can retain their catalytic activity for several months.

  6. Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria Campechiana, Chrysophyllum Cainito, Citrus Limonum, and Annona Muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine. Drug Dev Res 78 : 91-97, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Determinación de tidiazurón (tdz para la fase de multiplicación in vitro de caimito (chrysophylum cainito l.

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    Laura Parismoreno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El caimito tradicionalmente se propaga de manera vegetativa mediante acodos, ya sea aéreo o terrestre, e injertos. El cultivo in vitro se utiliza para estimular el crecimiento y favorecer la formación de raíces. Se ha demostrado la eficiencia y aumento de la regeneración de brotes mediante el uso de tidiazuron (TDZ. Para lograr los objetivos propuestos, se obtuvieron explantes como yemas axilares y apicales; de los cuales se realizaron cortes de 4-5 cm para la siembra en medio de cultivo estéril. Se esperó que los explantes logren establecerse con varias hojas y observar yemas. Las yemas brotadas se replicaron en el medio de multiplicación MS ½; adicionando reguladores de crecimiento TDZ en dosis de 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 y 2 mg/L-1, G3 en dosis única de 1 mg/L-1, Phytagel 2 g L, sacarosa 40 g/L; y se mantuvieron a 25 °C y con intensidad de 5.000 lux durante 16 h/día. Las variables que se midieron fueron: número de brotación y longitud de los brotes a los 30 y 90 días después de iniciada la siembra. Los explantes tratados con 0.5 mg/l de TDZ, se logró el mayor número de brotes lo que evidenció la eficiencia de las fitohormonas.

  8. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. VII, Chrysophyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    In the neotropics, the genus Chrysophyllum consists of C. cainito and a number of species which have recently been assigned to the genus Cynodendron. Many taxonomists have not accepted the new genus Cynodendron and this is supported by the present study of the wood anatomy. In this restricted sense, Chrysophyllum consists of a group of closely related species that are...

  9. Isolation and characterization of gum from Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology, physicochemical and compressional characteristics of a natural gum derived from the fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum. Preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of Chrysophyllum albidum gum (in comparison with tragacanth gum) were determined while ...

  10. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the nutritive composition of Chrysophyllum albidum Linn. It was necessitated by the need towards creating awareness that this species can provide nutrient supplements for the larger percentage of the population in the rural and peri-urban communities. Chrysophyllum albidum locally called “Udara” is ...

  11. Late Holocene environmental history of southern Chocó region, Pacific Columbia; sediment, diatom and pollen analysis of El Caimito.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez, M.I.; Wille, M.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Metkalf, S.; Vandenberghe, J.; van de Borg, K.

    2001-01-01

    We present a multi-proxy study of pollen, diatoms, sediment characteristics and major elements of a 610-cm sediment core from lake El Caimito, located in the humid rain forest of southern Chocó, Pacific Colombia. We propose an integrated reconstruction of the local basin development and of the

  12. Nutrient Values of Chrysophyllum Albidum Linn African Star Apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    comprehensively analyzed in Food Science and Technology Laboratory,. Rivers State University of Science and ... Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum C, Food fruits, nutrients, Fruit plantations, Income plantations. .... Riboflavin: This was determined by a fluorimetric method. n. Caffeine: This was determined by the ...

  13. The potential use of white star apple seeds ( Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-two (42) young male and female albino rats (Rattus norwegicus) were used in a preliminary study to assess the potential of non-conventional local materials, white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) 'udara' seeds and physic nut (Jatropha curcas) as feed ingredients for livestock. 'Udara' seed or physic nut meal were ...

  14. Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-13

    Nov 13, 2014 ... Musa, et al. 20. Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum. Fruit. 1. Musa, N. M.,. 2. Ikeh, P. O.,. 2. Hassan, L. G. and. 3. Mande, G. 1Department of Chemistry, Katsina University Katsina. 2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, UDUS. 3Department of Chemistry, F.C.E. (T) ...

  15. Ethnobotanique quantitative de l'usage de Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Chrysophyllum albidum (African star apple) is a multiple purpose tree in Benin. It is threatened because its habitat is ... Conclusion and application of result : The result are a very valuable source of information for the study of the environment and the target species. It could be a database for future research on C.

  16. Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others include heavy metal such as lead (0.09 ±0.08mg/100g), chromium (6.83± 6.26/100g) and cadmium was not detected. The pulp also contained appreciable amount of vitamin C (3.70 ± 0.17mg/100g). The results showed that the fruit pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum contained essential nutrients and mineral elements.

  17. the influence of replacing maize with chrysophyllum albidum seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    100. CSM- Chrysophyllum albidum Seedmeal. * Specification: each kg contains: Vitamin A , 4,000,000IU; Vitamin B, 800,000IU; Vitamin E, 16,000mg, Vitamin K3,. 800mg; Vitamin B1, 600mg; Vitamin B2, 2,000mg; Vitamin B6, 1,600mg, Vitamin B12,8mg; Niacin,16,000mg; Caplan,. 4,000mg; Folic Acid, 400mg; Biotin, 40mg; ...

  18. Pre and Post-Emergence Damping-Off of Chrysophyllum albidum G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nursery experiment on pre- and post-emergence damping off of. Chrysophyllum species was conducted in the Department of Forestry and. Wildlife Management in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria in 2010. The study assessed the fungi associated with seed and seedlings of. Chrysophyllum albidum and C. delevoyi ...

  19. Physical and mechanical properties of Chrysophyllum marginatum wood

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    Jussan Albarello de Cezaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the wood of Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. And Arn. Radlk. We used three trees with 20.3 ± 6 cm of diameter. It was determined by regression analysis the variation bottom-up of shrinkage, anisotropic coefficient, saturate moisture content and basic density. To characterize the static bending in the first log, in saturate and air dried conditions, it was performed variance analysis using Tukey›s test. It was observed a decrease in radial and tangential contractions and basic density on bottom-up direction. Saturate moisture content increased, considering the same direction. Anisotropic coefficient presented increase tendency up to 1.30 m height followed by stabilization from that position to the top. It was observed decreasing tendency of longitudinal contraction to approximately 40% of total height, followed by increasing up to the insertion of the first living branch. Mean anisotropic coefficient and basic density were 2.3kg m-³ and 594 kg m-³, respectively. Air dry condition showed greater static bending resistance than when saturate. Values of rupture and elasticity modulus were similar to those found in studies with Eucalyptus saligna and Carya illinoinensis.

  20. Chrysophyllum albidum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    vieillissement, l'urbanisation et le caractère sacré de l'espèce sont les principaux facteurs qui accentuent sa disparition sur le plateau d'Allada. Mots-clés : relevé floristique, ... Il est certain que les perturbations du milieu physique et les conséquences biologiques qu'entraînent l'abattage et l'extraction des arbres modifient ...

  1. Bio-guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a Plant Used in the Ivory Coast Pharmacopeia

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    Kurt Hosttetmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae is used in the traditional Ivory Coast pharmacopeia to cure fevers. The extract of C. perpulchrum used for this study was the powdered form obtained from the maceration of the dried plant bark in 96% methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. In the present study, the antioxidative and radical-scavenging activities of the methanolic extract were studied with three standard biological tests: DPPH reduction, ferric thiocyanate (FTC lipidic peroxidation inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Gallic acid and quercetin were used as references. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined by ultraviolet (UV spectrometry and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Catechin and two dimeric procyanidins were found to be the compounds responsible for the activities. They were chemically dereplicated in the extract by LC-MS. For quantitation purposes, they were isolated by successive chromatographic methods and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrometry. The quantities of these compounds in C. perpulchrum were 5.4% for catechin (P1, and 5.6 and 9.2% for dimers (compounds 2 (P2 and 3 (P3, respectively. They displayed antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.50 ± 0.15 µg/mL (P1, 2.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL (P2 and 2.10 ± 0.1 µg/mL (P3. The total extract, the active fractions and the pure compounds inhibited the lipid peroxidation by the FTC method and the TBARS method in the range of 60%. These values were comparable to those seen for quercetin.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chan-Zapata, Ivan. Vol 14, No 1 (2017) - Articles Immunosuppresive effects of the methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum cainito leaves on macrophage functions. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Immunosuppresive effects of the methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunosuppresive effects of the methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum cainito leaves on macrophage functions. Víctor Ermilo Arana-Argáez, Ivan Chan-Zapata, Jaqueline Canul-Canche, Karla Fernández-Martín, Zhelmy Martín-Quintal, Julio Cesar Torres-Romero, Tania Isolina Coral-Martínez, Julio Cesar Lara-Riegos, Mario ...

  4. Efeito da silvicultura pós-colheita na população de Chrysophyllum lucentifolium Cronquist (Goiabão em uma floresta de terra firme na amazônia brasileira

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    Marisol Taffarel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento de uma população de Chrysophyllum lucentifolium Cronquist (goiabão, considerando árvores com diâmetro igual ou superior a 35 cm, em 700 ha de floresta natural de terra firme explorada com técnicas de impacto reduzido, seguidas de tratamentos silviculturais, no Município de Paragominas, PA, Amazônia brasileira. Foram estabelecidos sete tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 25 ha em cada um, em que foram aplicados os tratos silviculturais, que constaram de corte de cipós e anelagem de árvores competidoras. O crescimento da espécie foi determinado por meio do incremento periódico anual em diâmetro, no período de 2005 a 2009. Além das medidas de diâmetro, foram observadas as formas das copas das árvores e a intensidade de luz recebida pelas copas. Chrysophyllum lucentifolium não respondeu significativamente aos tratamentos silviculturais, ou seja, a anelagem e o corte de cipós parecem não ter influenciado o crescimento da espécie no período de cinco anos. No entanto, as árvores com diâmetro de 40 a 49 cm, com copas de forma regular e recebendo alta intensidade de luz, cresceram mais, na maioria dos tratamentos. Portanto, é provável que o incremento ainda vá aumentar nos anos seguintes, embora em outras áreas da Amazônia o efeito da abertura do dossel tenha estimulado o crescimento das árvores apenas até o final do terceiro ano após a exploração. Outras avaliações silviculturais da espécie devem ser realizadas para constatar se houve aceleração no crescimento nos últimos anos ou se há a necessidade de aplicar novamente os tratos silviculturais.

  5. Elemental Analysis and Biological Activities of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sapotaceae) Leaves. ... The plant material could be used as a source of important elements required for the body. In suitable form, the plant could be used in the prevention and treatment of dental caries, oxidative damage, obesity and cancer.

  6. Ethnobotanique quantitative de l'usage de Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2015 ... 4780-4790. Sseremba O.E., Kaboggoza J.R.S., Ziraba N.Y.,. Mugabi P., Banana A.Y., Zziwa A., Kambugu. R.K., Kizito S., Syofuna A., Ndawula J. (2011). Timber Management Practices and Timber. Species used by Small Scale Furniture. Workshops in Uganda. Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología, 13:347–358.

  7. Ethnobotanique quantitative de l'usage de Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2015 ... évaluer de façon quantitative les connaissances entre les différentes communautés sur l'utilisation de l'espèce. Méthodologie and résultats : Ainsi, une enquête ethnobotanique s'est intéressée à 331 personnes choisies de façon aléatoire et réparties en six groupes socio-culturels (Aizo, Goun, Fon, Nagot, ...

  8. La agricultura de las Antillas: un aporte substancial al mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mois\\u00E9s Blanco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del 12 de octubre de 1492, el mundo ya no fue el mismo. El almirante Cristóbal Colón tocaba tierras de un nuevo continente, al que posteriormente llamarían América. Cuando descubrió Las Antillas, encontró que estas islas estaban habitadas por diversas tribus donde la agricultura era el epicentro de sus vidas y de sus costumbres. De ella se han heredado muchas, las cuales se encuentran vigentes en el uso cotidiano. El presente trabajo hace descripción de algunas de estas vigencias y se citan ejemplos de su variada influencia como los nombres de: maní (Arachis hypogea L., maíz (Zea mays L., guanábana (Annona muricata L., pitahaya (Hylocerus undatus B & G y tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L., en usos particulares en el caso del mamey (Mammea americana L., icaco (Chysobalanus icaco L. y yuca (Manihot esculenta C., con propósito alimenticio el quequisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium Sh, batata (Ipomoea batatas L. y topee tambo (Callathea allonia y de origen autóctono como la piña (Ananas comosus L., nancite (Byrsonima crassifolia H. B. K., guayaba (Psidium guajava L., coco (Cocos nucí- fera L., caimito (Chysophylum cainito L., guayacán (Guayacum sanctum L. y la caoba (Swietenia microphyla L..

  9. 411 Pre and Post-Emergence Damping-Off of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    seeds each were collected randomly from the seed lot for both species and germinated in trays using a completely ... Problems in identifying species of Fusarium and other pathogens as well as the existence of several systems of ..... Disease of two Pulp and Paper Forest Species (Pinus caribaea. Morelet and Pinus oocarpa ...

  10. Two tropical conifers show strong growth and water-use efficiency responses to altered CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalling, James W; Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Virgo, Aurelio; Cheesman, Alexander W; Baresch, Andres; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-11-01

    Conifers dominated wet lowland tropical forests 100 million years ago (MYA). With a few exceptions in the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae, conifers are now absent from this biome. This shift to angiosperm dominance also coincided with a large decline in atmospheric CO 2 concentration (c a ). We compared growth and physiological performance of two lowland tropical angiosperms and conifers at c a levels representing pre-industrial (280 ppm), ambient (400 ppm) and Eocene (800 ppm) conditions to explore how differences in c a affect the growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) of seedlings from these groups. Two conifers (Araucaria heterophylla and Podocarpus guatemalensis) and two angiosperm trees (Tabebuia rosea and Chrysophyllum cainito) were grown in climate-controlled glasshouses in Panama. Growth, photosynthetic rates, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use and water-use efficiencies were measured. Podocarpus seedlings showed a stronger (66 %) increase in relative growth rate with increasing c a relative to Araucaria (19 %) and the angiosperms (no growth enhancement). The response of Podocarpus is consistent with expectations for species with conservative growth traits and low mesophyll diffusion conductance. While previous work has shown limited stomatal response of conifers to c a , we found that the two conifers had significantly greater increases in leaf and whole-plant WUE than the angiosperms, reflecting increased photosynthetic rate and reduced stomatal conductance. Foliar nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) and soil nitrate concentrations indicated a preference in Podocarpus for ammonium over nitrate, which may impact nitrogen uptake relative to nitrate assimilators under high c a SIGNIFICANCE: Podocarps colonized tropical forests after angiosperms achieved dominance and are now restricted to infertile soils. Although limited to a single species, our data suggest that higher c a may have been favourable for podocarp colonization of tropical South America 60

  11. Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed lipids of Persea americana and Chrysophyllum albidum were studied. Lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol, analysed with silicic column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The total lipid content of Persea americana was 10.8% while that of Chrysophyllum albidum was 7.7%. Fractionation of ...

  12. The classification of fatty acids of lipids from seeds of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and triolein (C18.1) were the fatty acids present in Chrysophyllum albidum. These studies show that Persea grattisima and Chrysophyllum albidum have high oil content hence can be classified as oil seeds and the fatty-acids of seed lipids could be potential sources of industrial oil. Keywords: Classification, fatty acids, ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    (IAR&T) in Ibadan to determine the percentage crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, ash, fibre, moisture content, vitamin C, titratable acidity and. pH in the ripe and unripe fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum. The method involved carrying out proximate analyses of both the ripe and the unripe fruits of the species as well as ...

  14. Comparative food contents of ripe and unripe fruits of African star ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the nutritive values of the edible portions of ripe and unripe fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum. Ripe and unripe fruits of C. albidum were harvested fresh from Ijan Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The fruits were weighed and then oven-dried at 80oC for 24 h. The seeds were extracted while the skin and the fleshy ...

  15. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Preliminary Environmental Constraints Survey U.S. Air Force, Space Division Advanced Launch System (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chrysophyllum olivaeforme Satinleaf E 3 Cocos nucifera Coconut palm T Conradina grandiflora Large-flowered 3 rosemary UR SP Dichromena floridensis Florida...white-top sedge SP Dryopteris ludoviciana Florida shield fern T 3 Encyclta tampensis Butterfly orchid II T Eulophia alta Wild coco II T 3 Habenaria

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 232 ... A.W. Otunyo, I.U. Friday, T.A. Israel. Vol 13, No 2 (2014), Extension of K-Means Algorithm for clustering mixed data, Abstract. F.E. Onuodu, E.O. Nwachukwu, O. Owolabi. Vol 7, No 2 (2008), Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of persea Americana miller and chrysophyllum albidum g. Don.

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for the Skid Strip Area Development Plan at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    E Nodding Pinweed Lechea cernua ---- T Satin Leaf Chrysophyllum olivaeforme ---- E Birds Arctic Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus tundrius...running along the ground beneath the scrub or by jumping from shrub to shrub. Insects , particularly orthopterans (e.g., locusts, crickets...the information. Taxonomy Peromyscus polionotus is a member of the order Rodentia and family Cricetidae. The southeastern beach mouse (SEBM) is

  18. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae : XVII. Gambeya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohumil Francis Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    Gambeya is an African genus to which Aubréville added Gambeya excelsa (Huber) Aubr., based on the Amazonian Chrysophyllum excelsum Huber. Whether Gambeya is the appropriate taxon for the American species remains to be resolved. Wood specimens indicate that several species occur in the Americas ranging from Southern Mexico to the Peruvian Amazon. The woods of the...

  19. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. VI, Chloroluma

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    The old genus Chloroluma has been reinstated to generic status after having been in synonomy under Chrysophyllum for many years. The description is based on the type species C. gonocarpa which is characterized by: Its clear yellow wood; pores in radial-echelon arrangement; rhombic, two-sized, and microcrystals frequent in the axial parenchyma and wood rays; colored...

  20. Farmer perspectives on the use of indigenous fruit tree species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysophyllum albidum, which is used as a shade tree in cocoa farms in some parts of Ghana, is one of those multi-purpose trees. The objective of the survey was to explore farmers' knowledge and perceptions on the interactions between C. albidum and cocoa trees, its management and challenges faced. The study was ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ikeh, PO. Vol 5, No 2 (2014) - Articles Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum Fruit Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 2 (2013) - Articles The Effect of Trichlia emetica Leaf Extract on the Flammability of Flexible Polyurethane Foam Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2384-6028. AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mensah, S.I.. Vol 19, No 2 (2017) - Articles The classification of fatty acids of lipids from seeds of Persea grattisima Miller and Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-4896. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  3. root rot disease of five fruit tree seedlings in the nursery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAMALDEEN

    Soursop (Annona muricata) Wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis O'Rorke),. Avocado pear (Persea Americana Mill), Local pear (Dacryodes eaulis G. Don) and Star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) are important fruit trees in Nigeria especially in the southern part of the country. The crops are widely cultivated in traditional.

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam, SM. Vol 7, No 2 (2008) - Articles Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of persea Americana miller and chrysophyllum albidum g. Don. Abstract. ISSN: 1118-1931. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  5. Root Rot Disease of Five Fruit Tree Seedlings in the Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of root rot disease in the nursery of Chrysophyllum albidun Dacryodes edulis, persea Americana, Irvingia gabonensis and Annona muricala was assessed. Ten fungal pathogen were isolated using serial dilution and pathogenicity tests were carried out on the 5 fruit trees with the 10 isolated fungi. The 5 fruit ...

  6. Evaluation of nutritional composition and anti-nutrients in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of nutritional composition and anti-nutrients in African white star apple ( Chrysophyllum abidum ) seed. ... In order to achieve this, some analyses like proximate composition, minerals as well as identification of some antinutrient contents of the seed were done. The seed was found to be moderately high in crude ...

  7. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-10

    Mar 10, 2014 ... Archives of Oral Biology. 57: 1034-1040. Chandrika, U.G., Jansz, E.R., Warnasuriya, N.D. (2005). Identification and HPLC quantification of carotenoids of the fruit pulp of Chrysophyllum roxburghii. Journal of. National Foundation Sri Lanka 33(2): 93-98. Chang, H., Ho, Y., Sheu, M., Lin, Y., Tseng, M., Wu, S.,.

  8. 2203-IJBCS-Article- Emmanuel Ebudinya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Osabohien E, Egboh SHO. 2007. Cure. Characteristics and physico-mechanical properties of Natural Rubber filled with seed shells of Cherry (Chrysophyllum albidum). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage,. 11(2): 430-48. Osabohien E, Egboh SHO. 2008. Utilization of Bowstring Hemp fiber as filler in. Natural Rubber Compounds.

  9. COMPORTAMIENTO DE ESPECIES DE FRUTALES AMAZÓNICOS DE UN MODELO DIVERSIFICADO EN AREAS DE LA “ASOCIACIÓN DE PRODUCTORES AGROPECUARIOS VEINTICUATRO DE OCTUBRE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Gonzáles Coral

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de cuatro especies de frutales amazónicos bajo  un modelo de diversificación instalada en la parcela del Sr. Ezequiel García Tapullima (UTM 9548994; 0669126. El suelo del área es desde franco (0-20cm a franco arcilloso (20-40 cm, pH fuertemente ácido y porcentaje (% de materia orgánica  de medio a bajo. La metodología del trabajo consistió en Investigación Acción  Participativa. Se instaló un modelo diversificado (5m x 5m  con plantones de macambo (Theobroma bicolor, caimito (Pouteria caimito, copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum  y cacao (Theobroma cacao, sembrados con una densidad de 400 plantas por hectárea (5m x 5m. A los 15 meses de instalado, se evaluó el porcentaje de prendimiento, mediciones biométricas trimestrales del crecimiento en 10 individuos por especie, elegidos al azar de un área de 0.5 hectáreas. Se encontró que el 80% de plantas de las cuatro especies se encontraban en  estado de foliación. Las especies que presentaron mejor comportamiento fueron T. bicolor y P. caimito  con una altura de 293.1 cm y 193.2 cm; y un diámetro basal promedio de 5.8 cm y 2.1 cm respectivamente, T. grandiflorum  presentó los menores registros con una altura promedio de 84.3 cm y diámetro basal de 1.4 cm.

  10. COMPORTAMIENTO DE ESPECIES DE FRUTALES AMAZÓNICOS DE UN MODELO DIVERSIFICADO EN AREAS DE LA “ASOCIACIÓN DE PRODUCTORES AGROPECUARIOS VEINTICUATRO DE OCTUBRE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Gonzáles Coral

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de cuatro especies de frutales amazónicos bajo un modelo de diversificación instalada en la parcela del Sr. Ezequiel García Tapullima (UTM 9548994; 0669126. El suelo del área es desde franco (0-20cm a franco arcilloso (20-40 cm, pH fuertemente ácido y porcentaje (% de materia orgánica de medio a bajo. La metodología del trabajo consistió en Investigación Acción Participativa. Se instaló un modelo diversificado (5m x 5m con plantones de macambo (Theobroma bicolor, caimito (Pouteria caimito, copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum y cacao (Theobroma cacao, sembrados con una densidad de 400 plantas por hectárea (5m x 5m. A los 15 meses de instalado, se evaluó el porcentaje de prendimiento, mediciones biométricas trimestrales del crecimiento en 10 individuos por especie, elegidos al azar de un área de 0.5 hectáreas. Se encontró que el 80% de plantas de las cuatro especies se encontraban en estado de foliación. Las especies que presentaron mejor comportamiento fueron T. bicolor y P. caimito con una altura de 293.1 cm y 193.2 cm; y un diámetro basal promedio de 5.8 cm y 2.1 cm respectivamente, T. grandiflorum presentó los menores registros con una altura promedio de 84.3 cm y diámetro basal de 1.4 cm.

  11. A floristic classification of the vegetation of a forest-savanna boundary in southeastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mapaure

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Chirinda Forest boundary was classified into eight types using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA. The moist forest comprises three types:  Strychnos mellodora-Chrysophyllum gonmgosanum Forest on deep dolerite soils; Chrysophyllum gorungosanum-Myrianthus holstii Forest on shallow dolerite soils; and  Teclea iiobilis-Ehretia cymosa Forest on drier, but deep dolerite soils. The non-forest vegetation comprises five types: Themeda triandra Grassland on shallow dolerite soils; Psidium guajava Bushland on sandstone; Bridelia micrantha-Harungana madagascariensis Mixed Woodland not restricted to any one particular soil type; Acacia karroo- Heteropyxis dehniae Woodland on shallow soils derived from sandstone but sometimes on dolerite; and  Julbemardia globiflora-Brachystegia spiciformis (Miombo Woodland on sandstone.

  12. Paradaemonia thelia (Jordan e seus estágios imaturos (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae Paradaemonia thelia (Jordan and its immature stages (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Arsenurinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurides Furtado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre os estágios imaturos, o comportamento e a distribuição de Paradaemonia thelia (Jordan são apresentados. A larva solitária alimenta-se de Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. & Arn. Radlk. (Sapotaceae, sua planta hospedeira natural. Os ovos são postos isolados na face dorsal de folhas maduras. O desenvolvimento larval leva 18 dias e o estágio pupal 32-37 dias. Adultos, ovos, larvas e pupa são ilustrados a cores.Data on immature stages, the behavior and the range of Paradaemonia thelia (Jordan, 1922 are presented. The solitary larva feed on Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. & Arn. Radlk. (Sapotaceae, its natural hostplant. Isolated ovae are deposited on dorsal surface of mature leaves. Larval development required 18 days; the pupal stage lasted 32-37 days. Adults, ovae, larvae and pupa are illustrated in color.

  13. Influence des changements climatiques sur la distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif principal d'évaluer l'influence des changements climatiques sur la distribution spatiale de Chrysophyllum albidum, une espèce prioritaire et menacée au Bénin. La modélisation de la distribution géographique actuelle et future de l'espèce est basée sur le principe d'entropie maximale ...

  14. 1880-IJBCS-Article-François Gbesso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    La présente étude a pour objectif principal d'évaluer l'influence des changements climatiques sur la distribution spatiale de Chrysophyllum albidum, une espèce prioritaire et menacée au Bénin. La modélisation de la distribution géographique actuelle et future de l'espèce est basée sur le principe d'entropie maximale.

  15. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae) on tree-trunks in a non-flooded area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, M R; Castellón, E G

    1999-01-01

    Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  16. Distribution of Sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae on Tree-trunks in a Non-flooded Area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabanillas MRS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  17. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  18. Parasitismo entre especies (Diptera, Hymenoptera en los nidos de Stictia signata (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available S. signata es una de las avispas de la arena más frecuentemente observada en los cayos y las costas de Cuba. Las hembras construyen los nidos en la arena y los abastecen con moscas, para alimentar a la descendencia. Se describe la conducta de dos especies: Liohippelates n. sp. circa collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae y Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae para penetrar al interior de los nidos de S. signata. Las observaciones se efectuaron durante 1989 hasta 1991, en playa Caimito, sur de la provincia de La Habana, Cuba. Liohippelates cleptoparasitó el 100% de los nidos. Sus larvas necrófagas se alimentaron de los restos de las presas dejadas por la larva de S. signata, sin afectarla. Sólo en un caso la larva mostró signos de mortalidad, porque además del número alto de cleptoparásitos inmaduros, habían 53 moscas adultas alimentándose de los fluidos corporales de las presas. Hexacola sp. fue un parasitoide de las larvas de Liohippelates, en el interior de las celdillas. A pesar del elevado cleptoparasitismo, la población del esfécido se mantuvo elevada durante los años de observación.Stictia signata is one of the most frequently observed sand wasps in the Cuban keys and coasts. Females build their nests in the sand and supply them with flies to feed offspring. Here, I describe the behavior of two species, Liohippelates n. sp. near collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae and Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae, which enter the nests of S. signata. The observations were carried out from 1989 through 1991 in Caimito beach, Southern Havana province, Cuba. Liohippelates inhabited 100% of the nests. Its necrofagous larvae fed on the remnants of prey left by the larva of S. signata, without affecting the larva. Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids. Hexacola sp. parasitized the larvae of Liohippelates within the

  19. Factores de riesgo de las infecciones respiratorias agudas en pacientes menores de un año Risk factors of acute respiratory infections in patient younger one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adealvys Corcho Quintero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento de las infecciones respiratorias agudas es similar en los países desarrollados y en los subdesarrollados. Constituyen la primera causa de muerte por enfermedad infecciosa en los países desarrollados, y en Cuba se ubica entre las 10 primeras causas de muerte. Bajo un diseño de estudio de corte transversal, se detallan en este artículo los factores de riesgo asociados a estas infecciones en los pacientes menores de un año del Consejo Popular No. 2, perteneciente al Policlínico "Flores Betancourt", en Caimito, durante el año 2007. De los 67 niños estudiados fueron 54 los que enfermaron. Las infecciones respiratorias agudas altas no complicadas, fueron la forma de presentación más frecuente. Los factores que predominaron en los pacientes expuestos fueron: la lactancia mixta y artificial, la contaminación ambiental, la inmunización regular y/o deficiente, el bajo peso al nacer, la asistencia a instituciones infantiles, las edades maternas de 20 a 24 años de edad, y el nivel escolar materno de preuniversitario concluido.The behavior of acute respiratory infections is similar in developed countries and in those underdeveloped being the first cause of death from infectious disease in the developed ones and in Cuba it is place among the 10 first causes of death. In present cross-sectional study design are detailed the risk factors associated with these infections in patients younger one year from the No. 2 Popular Council from the "Flores Betancourt" Polyclinic in Caimito municipality over 2007. From the study children 54 become ill. The non-complicated high acute respiratory infections were the more frequent. The factors prevailing in exposed patients were: mixed and artificial breastfeeding, the environmental contamination, the regular and/or poor immunization, the low birth weight, attendance to children institutions, mother aged 20 to 24 and the mother pre-university level concluded.

  20. Biological aspects of Archaeoprepona demophon muson (Fruhstorfer, 1905 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the life cycle of the butterfly Archaeoprepona demophon muson, determine the species of plants to which it relates, characterize its habitat and contribute to the knowledge about their natural enemies. Fieldwork was conducted in two areas near Iquitos (Peru. For the description of the life cycle 20 eggs laid on leaves of it host plant were used. The cycle from egg to adult lasted 85.40 ± 4.66 days under laboratory conditions. The egg period took 5.60 ± 0.52 days. The larva goes through five stages: the first one lasts 8.61 ± 0.77 days; the second 6.12 ± 0.68; the third 11.44 ± 0.73; the fourth 8.13 ± 0.34; and the fifth 27.37 ± 1.29. The prepupa lasted 3.60 ± 0.51 days and the pupa 14.13 ± 2.62; adults were born approximately between 9:00 to 11:00 h. The female lived 41.00 ± 6.35 days and the male 19.25 ± 4.49 days. The host plants were Siparuna bifida (Poepp. & Endl. A.DC., Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav. Radlk. and Musa × paradisiaca L. We report two natural enemies, a spider and a fungus.

  1. Elemental contents in exotic Brazilian tropical fruits evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Alessandra Lopes de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The exotic flavor of Brazilian tropical fruits led to increased consumption. Consumers awareness regarding balanced diets, makes necessary determining nutritional composition - vitamins and minerals of the fruits ordinarily consumed. This study contributed to the evaluation of macro (K, Ca and microelements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in eight exotic Brazilian tropical fruits: "abiu" (Lucuma caimito Ruiz & Pav., "jenipapo" (Genipa americana L., "jambo rosa" (rose apple, Eugenia Jambos L., "jambo vermelho" (Syzygium malaccence L., Merr & Perry, "macaúba" (Acrocomia aculeata Jacq. Lood. Ex Mart., "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa, "pitanga" (Brazilian Cherry, Eugenia uniflora L., and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF technique. "jambo vermelho" and "macaúba" presented the highest values of K concentrations, 1,558 and 1,725 mg 100 g-1, respectively. On the other hand, Ca concentrations were highest in "macaúba" (680 mg 100 g-1 and "jenipapo" (341 mg 100 g-1. The microelemental concentrations in these eight fruits ranged from: 0.9 to 2.0 mg 100 g-1 for Mn, 3.9 to 11.4 mg 100 g-1 for Fe, 0.5 to 1.0 mg 100 g-1 for Cu, 0.6 to 1.5 mg 100 g-1 for, Zn and 0.3 to 1.3 mg 100 g-1 for Br. The amounts of macro and microelements in the eight fruits analyzed were compared to other tropical fruits and it was found that some of them could be classified as rich sources for these macro and microelements.

  2. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification and their market value and price evolution since the colonization time of the remnants of the Brazilian Semi-Evergreen Forest (Floresta Estacional Decidual do Rio Uruguai for potential timber production was assessed through 41 questionnaires, applied to timbermen and settlers from the surrounding region. The diversity of species for timber production commonly known by the people reached 63. From the 15 predominant species is relevant to mention Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana and Peltophorum dubium. The species with the highest commercial value were: Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Data from the interviews suggest that several species from the Lauraceae family and Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum had an increment in use and commercial value during the last 15 years. Changing in the commercial value of a species was pointed out as due not only to the timber quality but also to the amount of the timber availability. Overall, it was detected that the species values changed across time and that the timber industry found several ways to adapt to the demands of forest products.

  3. Properties of laminated strand panels used as an alternative to solid wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gomes Bravim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminated strand lumber and oriented strand lumber (LSL/OSL are structural composite lumber, which has beenrecently introduced in the building construction market, as an alternative to solid wood utilization. This research aimed to analyze thetechnical feasibility of producing LSL and OSL. Additionally, it was also investigated the effect of using different lengths of particles onphysical and mechanical properties of the composites and comparing it to Chrysophyllum sp solid wood. Six wood panels wereproduced, utilizing particles of 15 and 30 centimeters of length, divided into two analyses (OSL/LSL, with three repetitions in eachone. The following tests were performed: static bending (MOE//, MOR// non-destructive testing (MOEd//, parallel compressionstrength (COMP//; thickness swelling (TS, water absorption (AA and linear expansion (EL for 2 and 24 hours. These tests wereconducted according to the ASTM D 5456 (ASTM, 2006. It was not identified the effect of particle length on mechanical properties.On the other hand, the composite produced with shorter particles (OSL presented better dimensional stability than the LSL, producedwith longer ones. Flexural properties and compression strength of OSL/LSL composites presented values close, but still lower, thanthose observed for solid wood.

  4. The relationships between microbiological attributes and soil and litter quality in pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Barros, Nairam F; Moço, Maria Kellen S

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to link soil and litter microbial biomass and activity with soil and litter quality in the surface layer for different pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil. The purpose of the study was to see how strongly the differences among species and stands affect the microbiological attributes of the soil and to identify how microbial processes can be influenced by soil and litter quality. Soil and litter samples were collected from six pure and mixed stands of six hardwood species (Peltogyne angustifolia, Centrolobium robustum, Arapatiella psilophylla, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, Cordia trichotoma, Macrolobium latifolium) native to the southeastern region of Bahia, Brazil. In plantations of native tree species in humid tropical regions, the immobilization efficiency of C and N by soil microbial biomass was strongly related to the chemical quality of the litter and to the organic matter quality of the soil. According to the variables analyzed, the mixed stand was similar to the natural forest and dissimilar to the pure stands. Litter microbial biomass represented a greater sink of C and N than soil microbial biomass and is an important contributor of resources to tropical soils having low C and N availability.

  5. Frugivory by the fish Brycon hilarii (Characidae) in western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reys, Paula; Sabino, José; Galetti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Frugivory and seed dispersal have been poorly studied in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by the piraputanga fish ( Brycon hilarii, Characidae) in the Formoso River, Bonito, western Brazil. We examined the stomach contents of 87 fish and found the diet of piraputanga consisted of 24% animal prey (arthropods, snails, and vertebrates), 31% seeds/fruits and 45% other plant material (algae/macrophytes/leaves/flowers). The piraputangas fed on 12 fruit species, and were considered as seed dispersers of eight species. Fruits with soft seeds larger than 10 mm were triturated, but all species with small seeds (e.g. Ficus, Psidium) and one species with large hard seed ( Chrysophyllum gonocarpum) were dispersed. Piraputangas eat more fruits in the dry season just before the migration, but not during the spawning season. Fish length had a positive relation with the presence of fruits in their guts. The gallery forest of the Formoso River apparently does not have any plant species that depend exclusively on B. hilarii for seed dispersal because all fruit species are also dispersed by birds and mammals. Based on seed size and husk hardness of the riparian plant community of Formoso River, however, the piraputangas may potentially disperse at least 50% of the riparian fleshy fruit species and may be particularly important for long-distance dispersal. Therefore, overfishing or other anthropogenic disturbances to the populations of piraputanga may have negative consequences for the riparian forests in this region.

  6. EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON THE SPOILAGE FUNGI OF SOME SELECTED EDIBLE FRUITS IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele J. Akinyele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electromagnetic field wave on the survival of spoilage fungi associated with some edible fruits consumed in southwestern, Nigeria was studied using cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., pineapple (Ananas comosus, carrot (Daucus carota, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, apple (Malus domestica and African star apple (Chrysophyllum africanum. The spoilage fungi used include the genera of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Articulospora, Mucor, Staphylotrichum, Bisbyopeltis, Fusarium, Rhizopus and a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a general decrease in fungal growth as shown in the number of spores produced with increase in exposure time of isolates to electromagnetic field except in Articulospora inflata, Penicillium italicum and Mucor mucedo where there was stimulatory effect as there was increase in the fungal spores compared to the control. A decrease was also observed in growth of the fungal isolates with increase in the intensity of the electromagnetic field at voltage of 7 V to 10 V and from 10 V to 13 V. The highest percentage reduction was recorded by Bisbyopeltis phoebesii at intensity of voltage 13V after 60 minutes of exposure. Exposure of the fruits to electromagnetic field wave did not alter the nutrient components of the fruits as observed in the proximate and mineral contents of the treated and untreated fruits. The result of the study revealed that electromagnetic field wave has great potential for use in the control of fruits spoilage and food preservation.

  7. Determination of the energy efficiency of sensitized solar cells with pigments obtained from natural extracts, and microbiological processes and nanoparticles of germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Diaz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Sensitized solar cells are characterized with pigments from natural extracts, pigments extracted from microorganisms and nanoparticles of germanium as co-sensitizers. The assembly process of the cells is enhanced in conjunction with the working group of solar cells of the CELEQ (Centro de Electroquimica y Energia Quimica of the Universidad de Costa Rica), and with the help of the experience of the Ph.D. Thomas Moehl. Improvements in the process have achieved to increase the efficiency of sensitized cells with the dye of reference Z907 from 0,36% to 4,3%. The reproducibility of the assembled cells are characterized with the improved process. 12 sensitized cells are assembled with the dye of reference Z907 and have obtained the averages of the characteristic parameters, J SC 12,6 ± 0,7 mA/cm 2 , V OC 0,71 ± 0,03 V, P max 43,0 ± 4,6 W/m 2 , FF 0,48 ± 0,02 and %η 4,30 ± 0,46%. These values are found within the values generally reported in the literature for cells sensitized with Z907. The electrolyte used in the cells 0,6 M BMII, 0,3 M I 2 and 0,5 M TBP have reported efficiency values between 6% to 7%, therefore, the average value obtained has been low and should be improved until to obtain values similar to those mentioned. However, the deviations with respect to the mean of the data efficiency of the 12 cells, are found mostly between ± 1 S, within a Student-t distribution, so the assembly method has been good and reproducibility of the samples obtained has been statistically reliable. The sensitized cells are characterized with 4 different natural pigments, extracted from picramnia, curcumin, caimito and rosa de jamaica. 7 cells are assembled with each pigment following the same conditions for the dye Z907 and obtained the characteristic parameters for each pigment, , J SC 2,398 ± 0,398 mA/cm 2 , V OC 0,455 ± 0,013 V, P max 0,868 ± 0,148 W/m 2 , FF 0,648 ± 0,038 and %η 0,087 ± 0,015% for the pigment of picramnia. For the pigment of curcumin, J SC 5

  8. EVOLUÇÃO DO USO E VALORIZAÇÃO DAS ESPÉCIES MADEIRÁVEIS DA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL DO ALTO-URUGUAI, SC

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    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas informações coletadas em 41 entrevistas feitas junto a madeireiros, ex-madeireiros e colonizadores, determinou-se quais as espécies potencialmente madeiráveis, o valor de uso e a valorização econômica das espécies madeiráveis para os remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Decidual na região do Alto--Uruguai, SC, desde o início da colonização daquela região. A diversidade de espécies florestais de uso madeirável conhecida popularmente na região foi de 63 espécies. Contudo, em termos de dominância esse grupo reduz-se a 15 espécies. A maior dominância foi observada para as espécies Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana e Peltophorum dubium. As espécies de maior valor comercial foram Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus e Balfourodendron riedelianum. Já Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum e várias espécies da família Lauraceae apresentaram, no decorrer do tempo, incremento no uso e na comercialização. O valor de uma espécie é condicionado tanto pela qualidade quanto pela quantidade ofertada. Em geral, verificou-se uma evolução no valor das espécies bem como na indústria madeireira que utilizou várias maneiras para se adaptar às demandas desses produtos florestais.

  9. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC.

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    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas informações coletadas em 41 entrevistas feitas junto a madeireiros, ex-madeireiros e colonizadores, determinou-se quais as espécies potencialmente madeiráveis, o valor de uso e a valorização econômica das espécies madeiráveis para os remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Decidual na região do Alto--Uruguai, SC, desde o início da colonização daquela região. A diversidade de espécies florestais de uso madeirável conhecida popularmente na região foi de 63 espécies. Contudo, em termos de dominância esse grupo reduz-se a 15 espécies. A maior dominância foi observada para as espécies Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana e Peltophorum dubium. As espécies de maior valor comercial foram Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus e Balfourodendron riedelianum. Já Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum e várias espécies da família Lauraceae apresentaram, no decorrer do tempo, incremento no uso e na comercialização. O valor de uma espécie é condicionado tanto pela qualidade quanto pela quantidade ofertada. Em geral, verificou-se uma evolução no valor das espécies bem como na indústria madeireira que utilizou várias maneiras para se adaptar às demandas desses produtos florestais.

  10. Plant resources in the biosphere reserve peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Cuba

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    Sonia Rosete Blandariz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Biosphere Reserve Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, plant species are mainly used as food, medicine, honeybee feeders and timber. They are collected by folk people in the nearby forests but these collections can be a severe threat to many of the extant plant resources. An ethnobotanical study and a tree inventory were carried out in the 80 plots of the Unidad Silvícola El Valle in order to define a basis for the management and sustainable development of the useful species of the localities La Bajada, El Valle y Vallecito in the BRPG. Informal and structured interviews were made to 200 collectors as well as participant observations and hiking tours from October 1987 to September 2007. Results show that most useful plants are found in the lowland tropical forest, the seashore scrub thicket and the sandy and rocky coasts. Areas with least diversity are found in the northern zone where mangrove forests are dominant with two species: Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle. Plot 15 has the largest amount of species (249. Over 200 species were found in the plots 73 (232, 70 (232, 80 (232, 68 (229, 74 (229 and 78 (229 where the following species are dominant: Gerascanthus gerascanthoides, Oxandra lanceolata and Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp. foetidissimum.. According to the inventory, Talipariti elatum is abundant and therefore the controlled exploitation of its flowers is recommended for the production of green dye and medicine against colds. The propagation of pioneer species like Chrysobalanus icaco, Chrysophyllum oliviforme and Genipa americana during the first years of forest regeneration, followed by the propagation of foliage trees like Oxandra lanceolata (useful in the perfume industry and Crescentia cujete will help to recuperate and/or restore the original forests.

  11. Balanço de carbono e nutrientes em plantio puro e misto de espécies florestais nativas no sudeste da Bahia Carbon and nutrient balance in pure and mixed stands of native tree species in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil

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    Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção da produção florestal depende da quantidade e do fluxo de nutrientes no ecossistema, os quais são afetados pelas técnicas de manejo utilizadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferenças na ciclagem e no balanço de C e nutrientes, em plantio puro e misto de espécies florestais nativas, bem como em fragmentos florestais de Mata Atlântica. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em solos de tabuleiro do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1994 a julho de 1995, em plantios, com 22 anos de idade, de pau-roxo, Peltogyne angustiflora; putumuju, Centrolobium robustum; arapati, Arapatiella psilophylla; arapaçu, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum; claraíba, Cordia trichotoma; e óleo-comumbá, Macrolobium latifolium. Como referências, foram utilizadas uma floresta secundária, praticamente em estado clímax, e uma capoeira de 40 anos de idade. As quantidades totais de carbono e nutrientes no sistema (solo + parte aérea + serapilheira variou marcadamente entre as espécies florestais. O plantio misto apresentou maior acúmulo desses elementos do que os plantios puros. O plantio misto apresentou maior intensidade de ciclagem bioquímica para todos os nutrientes do que a média dos plantios puros. Resultado similar ocorreu para a ciclagem biogeoquímica, à exceção de Ca. O balanço de C, P e K foi negativo em todas as coberturas florestais; entretanto, para N o balanço foi positivo. O balanço de Ca foi positivo apenas para o arapaçu, enquanto o de Mg foi negativo somente no putumuju e óleo-comumbá. O balanço mais negativo foi de P, seguido de K e Ca. O plantio misto apresentou balanço próximo à média dos plantios puros. Desse modo, o plantio misto mostrou-se mais adequado, por proporcionar, simultaneamente, maior eficiência da ciclagem bioquímica e biogeoquímica e balanços mais equilibrados de carbono e nutrientes.This study aimed to evaluate the differences in carbon and nutrient cycling and balance in two

  12. Alterações edáficas sob plantios puros e misto de espécies florestais nativas do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil

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    A. C. Gama-Rodrigues

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relacionar o acúmulo de serapilheira com sua composição química e desta com as características físicas e químicas do solo, em plantios puros e misto de espécies florestais nativas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em solos de tabuleiro do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1994 a novembro de 1996, em plantios, com 22 anos de idade, de pau-roxo (Peltogyne angustiflora, putumuju (Centrolobium robustum, arapati (Arapatiella psilophylla, arapaçu (Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, claraíba (Cordia trichotoma e óleo-comumbá (Macrolobium latifolium . Foram utilizadas uma floresta secundária, praticamente em estado clímax, e uma capoeira, de 40 anos de idade. O solo na camada de 0-5 cm estava mais bem estruturado no plantio misto do que sob as outras coberturas vegetais. A estruturação dessa camada foi positivamente relacionada com o acúmulo de C orgânico no solo e de serapilheira sobre este. O nível de fertilidade do solo (0-10 cm sob as espécies implantadas nos sistemas puros e misto foi superior ao da capoeira e da floresta natural. A fitomassa e a qualidade nutricional da serapilheira revelaram a capacidade diferenciada das coberturas florestais para absorver e reciclar nutrientes; o plantio misto representou uma situação intermediária em relação ao sistema de plantios puros. A quantidade de serapilheira acumulada dependeu da sua composição química. Segundo resultados deste trabalho, a estruturação e o nível de fertilidade do solo distinguiram-se de acordo com as coberturas florestais, em razão da quantidade, da composição química e da taxa de decomposição da serapilheira. As espécies claraíba, arapaçu e pau-roxo revelaram-se promissoras em melhorar a fertilidade do solo. Contudo, o plantio misto mostrou ser o sistema florestal mais adequado, por proporcionar simultaneamente melhor estruturação, maior quantidade de C orgânico, maiores níveis de nutrientes do solo e

  13. COMPOSICIÓN, ESTRUCTURA Y PATRÓN ESPACIAL DE UN BOSQUE TUCUMANO-BOLIVIANO EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TARIJA (BOLIVIA

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    F. Santiago Zenteno-Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El bosque tucumano-boliviano, en su sector correspondiente a Bolivia, ha comenzado a ser conocido con mayor detalle en los últimos años. Sin embargo, los estudios realizados han tenido un carácter más cualitativo o se han realizado en superficies pequeñas (0,1 ha; además, la biogeografía de sus zonas más bajas no está del todo clara. Por otro lado, algunos aspectos ecológicos, como los referidos a patrones espaciales de los árboles, no han sido nunca abordados. Nosotros realizamos el estudio de una hectárea de bosque tucumano-boliviano a 700-950 m, y mapeamos todos los árboles y lianas con DAP ¿10 cm a fin de caracterizar cuantitativamente un área representativa de este bosque. El propósito fue conocer su composición, abundancia y estructura. Realizamos el primer estudio de patrones espaciales para este tipo de bosque en Bolivia. Registramos 591 individuos agrupados en 31 familias, 47 géneros y 57 especies. Seis especies fueron las más abundantes: Urera caracasana, Trichilia clausenii, Piper tucumanum, Diatenopteryx sorbifolia, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum y Cupania vernalis. El bosque estudiado puede considerarse parte del bosque tucumano-boliviano más que del Arco Pleistocénico. El área basal total fue de 29.4 m2/ha. La presencia de lianas fue relativamente baja, lo que indica que se trata de un bosque relativamente poco perturbado. Se trata de un lugar diverso. La riqueza específica resultó comparable a la de los bosques secos de Madidi (La Paz, Bolivia, y superior a la del tucumano-boliviano en el lado argentino, y fue estimada en 74 especies de árboles. La diversidad (3,5 índice Shannon-Wiener es tan alta como la de muchos bosques más tropicales, e incluso algunos amazónicos. Encontramos un patrón espacial aleatorio en los individuos de la comunidad, y la mayoría de las especies presentó agregación a alguna escala espacial.

  14. VARIAÇÃO DA ESTRUTURA DA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL NO ESTADO DE SANTA CATARINA E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A ALTITUDE E CLIMA

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    André Luís de Gasper

    2015-01-01

    results in the analysis, we highlight Apuleia leiocarpa, Rauvolfia sellowii, Bastardiopsis densiflora, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Cordia trichotoma, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus and Pisonia zapallo, which are common in seasonal forests of the hinterlands of southern Brazil. The analysis through the ACC pointed to similar results and joint interpretation of environmental data indicated that the basins located in the east are associated with colder climates where frosts are more frequent as a result of higher altitudes. As the altitudes tend to decline from east to west and portions, the authors propose the existence of a transition zone between the two phytoecological regions (MOF and SDF in the range of 600 m asl, where occurs the interdigitation of elements from seasonal flora and those of Araucaria forest, resulting in the delineation of a core area of the SDF below this altitudinal level.

  15. Composição florística e estrutura de um trecho de floresta ombrófila densa atlântica com uso pretérito de produção de banana, no parque estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

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    Alexandro Solórzano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar florística e estruturalmente um trecho de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Submontana urbana e avaliar os fatores que contribuíram para a regeneração, a partir do último uso do solo para produção de banana, há 50 anos. Para a amostragem da área foram implantadas 25 parcelas de 100 m², totalizando 0,25 ha. O critério de inclusão adotado foi diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP > 5 cm. Foram amostrados 311 indivíduos de 92 espécies, 67 gêneros e 31 famílias. A área basal total foi de 34,18 m²/ha, enquanto a densidade, de 1.244 ind./ha. As espécies mais importantes na comunidade, representando 42% do valor de importância (VI da área, foram: Aiouea saligna Meisn., Tachigali paratyensis (Vell. H.C. Lima, Ficus insipida Willd., Bathysa gymonocarpa K. Schum, Chrysophyllum flexuosum Mart., Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J.F. Macbr., Piper rivinoides Kunth., Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão, Miconia cinnamomifolia (DC. Naudin e Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer. O elevado valor do Índice de diversidade de Shannon (H'= 4,13 nats/ind., bem como o de equabilidade (J = 0,91, compara-se aos valores referenciados para florestas conservadas e inventariadas no Sudeste brasileiro. A floresta amostrada encontra-se em processo de regeneração e representa um estágio intermediário de sucessão. O cultivo da banana, após seu abandono, permitiu a entrada de espécies com estratégias de estabelecimento e propagação em condições de pouca luminosidade. A presença de uma árvore remanescente, do gênero Ficus, está relacionada a uma crença popular que acabou influenciando a estrutura da vegetação. Dessa forma, as espécies amostradas neste estudo refletiram o uso do solo passado e a cultura local.

  16. Biomass and nutrient cycling in pure and mixed stands of native tree species in southeastern Bahia, Brazil Biomassa e ciclagem de nutrientes por espécies florestais nativas em plantio puro e misto no sudeste da Bahia, Brasil

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    Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study selected components of the nutrient cycle of pure and mixed stands of native forest species of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Tree diameter, height, above-ground biomass, and nutrient content were determined in 22-year-old stands. Litterfall, litter decomposition, and nutrient concentration were evaluated from August 1994 to July 1995. The following species were studied: Peltogyne angustiflora, Centrolobium robustum, Arapatiella psilophylla, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, Cordia trichotoma, Macrolobium latifolium. The litter of a natural forest and a 40-year-old naturally regenerated second-growth forest was sampled as well. The mixed-species outmatched pure stands in height, stem volume and total biomass (29.4 % more. The greatest amount of forest litter was observed in the natural forest (9.3 Mg ha-1, followed by the mixed-species stand (7.6 Mg ha-1 and secondary forest (7.3 Mg ha-1, and least litterfall was measured in the pure C. robustum stand (5.5 Mg ha-1. Litterfall seasonality varied among species in pure stands (CV from 44.7 to 91.4 %, unlike litterfall in the mixed-tree stand, where the variation was lower (CV 31.2 %. In the natural and second-growth forest, litterfall varied by 57.8 and 34.0 %, respectively. The annual rate of nutrient return via litterfall varied widely among forest ecosystems. Differences were detected between forest ecosystems in both the litter accumulation and quantity of litterlayer nutrients. The highest mean nutrient accumulation in above-ground biomass was observed in mixed-species stands. The total nutrient accumulation (N + P + K+ Ca + Mg ranged from 0.97 to 1.93 kg tree-1 in pure stands, and from 1.21 to 2.63 kg tree-1 in mixed-species stands. Soil fertility under mixed-species stands (0-10 cm was intermediate between the primary forest and pure-stand systems. The litterfall rate of native forest species in a mixed-species system is more constant, resulting in

  17. Eventos adversos de la vacuna cubana antimeningocóccica Adverse events of antimeningococcal Cuban vaccine

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    Georgina Cruz Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en nuestro país hay un sistema de vigilancia exhaustivo que brinda información estadística sobre los eventos adversos a vacunas graves, menos graves y leves. Esta vigilancia es llevada a cabo por el Equipo Básico de Salud; no obstante, en muchas ocasiones al presentar estos eventos una sintomatología poco definida y de poca gravedad, pueden quedar sin diagnóstico y sin investigación. Objetivo: caracterizar los eventos adversos a la vacuna antimeningocóccica VAMENGOC-BC® en los lactantes del municipio Caimito durante el año 2006. Métodos: con un diseño de estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, se analizaron los 381 lactantes de 3 y 5 meses de edad que recibieron de forma programada la vacuna VAMENGOC-BC® según esquema nacional en el año 2006. El instrumento que se empleó para la recogida de la información de las historias clínicas fue la Encuesta Epidemiológica de Eventos Adversos a la Vacunación, establecida por el Programa Nacional de Inmunización. Resultados: de los 381 lactantes que recibieron la vacuna en ese año, hubo 17 con eventos adversos. El mayor porcentaje fue después de administrar la primera dosis (3,01 %. Las manifestaciones locales más frecuentes fueron dolor en el sitio de la inyección con un 50,00 % después de la primera dosis y la induración (66,67 % después de la segunda. Los eventos adversos sistémicos más frecuentes en la primera dosis fueron la fiebre (54,55 % e irritabilidad (27,27 %. La incidencia de lactantes con eventos adversos fue mayor en las primeras 72 horas (3,41 % y en la primera dosis (2,46 %. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las manifestaciones desaparecieron en las primeras 72 horas (3,41 x cada 100 lactantes vacunados, es decir que la recuperación fue rápida. Conclusiones: los eventos adversos locales y sistémicos fueron discretos, con predominio de los segundos, para ambas dosis de la vacuna, y fue la fiebre el evento más frecuente después de aplicadas las dos dosis

  18. Composição florística e fitossociologia de espécies arbóreas do Parque Fenológico da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental Floristic composition and phytosociology of tree species in the Phenological Site of the Embrapa Western Amazonia

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    Kátia Emídio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    , Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Fabaceae, Humiriaceae, Moraceae, Vochysiaceae and Apocynaceae. These families constituted 67% of the local species richness and 75,8% of the number of individuals, suggesting that diversity is concentrated in a few families. Lecythidaceae had the largest dbh and number of individuals, and Sapotaceae the greatest richness species in the area. The most important species (IVIs were Eschweilera coriacea (DC. S.A. Mori; Qualea paraensis Ducke; Vantanea macrocarpa Ducke; Eschweilera atropetiolata S.A. Mori; Couratari stellata A.C. Sm.; Lecythis usidata Miers.; Eperua duckeana R.S. Cowan; Eschweilera amazonica R. Knuth and Chrysophyllum manaosense (Aubr. T.D. Penn. The Shannon diversity and Sorensen similarity indexes indicated a low diversity and a high dissimilarity floristic among plots in this study for the minimum dbh considered. The diameter of the first class measuring 20cm - 30cm presented the most number of individuals, contributing 45% of samples. Above the center class of 55cm of dbh, around 90% of species have been represented by only one.

  19. Decomposição e liberação de nutrientes do folhedo de espécies florestais nativas em plantios puros e mistos no sudeste da Bahia

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    Gama-Rodrigues A. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As taxas de decomposição e os fluxos de nutrientes do folhedo de espécies florestais são distintos em plantios puros e mistos, porque são regulados não apenas pela qualidade do substrato, mas também pela qualidade do microambiente de acordo com o tipo de sistema de produção florestal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as taxas de decomposição e a liberação de N e P do folhedo de espécies florestais em dois sistemas de plantio. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em solos de tabuleiro do sudeste da Bahia, em plantios puros e mistos, com 22 anos de idade, de pau-roxo, Peltogyne angustiflora; putumuju, Centrolobium robustum; arapati, Arapatiella psilophylla; arapaçu, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum; claraíba, Cordia trichotoma, e óleo-comumbá, Macrolobium latifolium. Também foram utilizadas uma floresta secundária, praticamente em estado clímax, e uma capoeira, de 40 anos de idade. A decomposição de folhedo, colocado em sacos de malha de 1 mm, foi seguida durante um ano. O modelo que proporcionou melhor ajuste foi exponencial de 1ª ordem. No plantio misto, as taxas de decomposição do folhedo do pau-roxo e óleo-comumbá foram significativamente superiores àquelas dessas espécies em seus plantios puros, ao contrário do observado para o arapati. No entanto, as taxas de decomposição do folhedo do putumuju, arapaçu e claraíba não foram alteradas significativamente. O P, e não o N, seria o nutriente mais limitante para a decomposição do folhedo dessas espécies. A liberação de N e P do folhedo de cada espécie variou de acordo com o microambiente. Dentre os ecossistemas heterogêneos, a taxa de decomposição do folhedo do plantio misto diferiu significativamente apenas da floresta natural. A maior liberação do N ocorreu no plantio misto; já para o P, a capoeira foi o ecossistema que apresentou significativamente a menor liberação. Conclui-se que o plantio misto proporciona maior capacidade em reciclar matéria org