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Sample records for caiman crocodilus fuscus

  1. El tracto reproductivo de la hembra en Crocodylia: Estudio histológico y ultraestructural de Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Alligatoridae El tracto reproductivo de la hembra en Crocodylia: Estudio histológico y ultraestructural de Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Alligatoridae

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    Ramírez Pinilla Martha Patricia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The histologycal features of the female reproductive system of Caiman crocodilus fuscus are described in this review, inclidung aspects not previously described for other Crocodylia species.Las características histofisiológicas del sistema reproductor femenino de  Caiman crocodilus fuscus es descrito en esta revisión, algunos caracteres del sistema reproductor no descritos en otras especies de Crocodylia, son comentados.

  2. El tracto reproductivo de la hembra en Crocodylia: Estudio histológico y ultraestructural de Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Alligatoridae) El tracto reproductivo de la hembra en Crocodylia: Estudio histológico y ultraestructural de Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Alligatoridae)

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    Ramírez Pinilla Martha Patricia; Romero de Pérez Gloria

    2002-01-01

    The histologycal features of the female reproductive system of Caiman crocodilus fuscus are described in this review, inclidung aspects not previously described for other Crocodylia species.Las características histofisiológicas del sistema reproductor femenino de  Caiman crocodilus fuscus es descrito en esta revisión, algunos caracteres del sistema reproductor no descritos en otras especies de Crocodylia, son comentados.

  3. El tracto reproductivo de la hembra en Crocodylia: Estudio histológico y ultraestructural de Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Alligatoridae

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    Gloria Romero de Pérez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The histologycal features of the female reproductive system of Caiman crocodilus fuscus are described in this review, inclidung aspects not previously described for other Crocodylia species.

  4. Aspectos reproductivos de la babilla Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Cope 1868, en condiciones de cautiverio

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    González Acosta Julio A.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on reproduction parameters of Caiman crocodilus tuscus in confimenet in the farm Saurus Ltd. during two periods of nesting and laying ( years 1992 - 1993 .Se realizaron observaciones sobre parámetros reproductivos en Caimsn crocodilus tuscus mantenidos en cautividad en el zoocriadero Saurus Ltda, durante dos épocas de anidación y postura (años 1992 - 1993.

  5. Descripción histológica del oviducto de Caiman crocodilus fuscus

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    Ramiro Elduardo Bahamón Vanegas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la histología del oviducto de 27 hembras de Caiman crocodilus fuscusdurante tresetapas del ciclo reproductivo anual (previtelogénesis, vitelogénesis y gravidez por microscopíaóptica de alta resolución (MOAR y, en algunas regiones, por microscopía electrónica detransmisión (MET. Con ayuda de pruebas histoquímicas (ácido peryódico de Schiff P.A.S. yazul de Alcian A.A., pH 2,4, se aproxima la función de cada una de las regiones. El oviductode C. c. fuscuses un órgano pareado, funcional, en forma de tubo muy contorneado. Desdeel extremo proximal al caudal se reconocen histológicamente las siguientes regiones:infundíbulo anterior, infundíbulo posterior, tubo, transición tubo-útero anterior, úteroanterior, útero posterior y vagina. Tres capas conforman la pared del oviducto: una externade revestimiento (serosa con células cúbicas bajas que no presentan cambios significativosa lo largo del ciclo reproductivo, una capa muscular longitudinal externa y circular internaque cambian según el estado reproductivo y la región, y una capa mucosa más interna. Lamucosa se hipertrofia en vitelogénesis y gravidez y está revestida por cuatro tipos de células:ciliadas, no ciliadas y secretoras PAS y AA positivas las cuales producen mucosubstanciasácidas o neutras que pueden lubricar la superficie de la mucosa y/o tomar parte de huevoen formación. Glándulas tubulares simples se encuentran en la mucosa del tubo y úteroanterior, presentan actividad secretora (PAS y AA negativa durante todo el ciclo y se ramifican en vitelogénesis y gravidez. En el útero posterior hay glándulas tubulares simples sinevidencia de secreción, las células glandulares son similares a las células del útero poste-rior de Alligator mississippiensisy a las células que transportan iones y material el dilución deloviducto de las aves (Gallus domesticus; estas glándulas no se describen en el oviducto de otrosreptiles y al parecer son únicas de

  6. Descripción histológica del oviducto de Caiman crocodilus fuscus

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    Ramírez Martha Patricia

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la histología del oviducto de 27 hembras de Caiman crocodilus fuscusdurante tresetapas del ciclo reproductivo anual (previtelogénesis, vitelogénesis y gravidez por microscopíaóptica de alta resolución (MOAR y, en algunas regiones, por microscopía electrónica detransmisión (MET. Con ayuda de pruebas histoquímicas (ácido peryódico de Schiff P.A.S. yazul de Alcian A.A., pH 2,4, se aproxima la función de cada una de las regiones. El oviductode C. c. fuscuses un órgano pareado, funcional, en forma de tubo muy contorneado. Desdeel extremo proximal al caudal se reconocen histológicamente las siguientes regiones:infundíbulo anterior, infundíbulo posterior, tubo, transición tubo-útero anterior, úteroanterior, útero posterior y vagina. Tres capas conforman la pared del oviducto: una externade revestimiento (serosa con células cúbicas bajas que no presentan cambios significativosa lo largo del ciclo reproductivo, una capa muscular longitudinal externa y circular internaque cambian según el estado reproductivo y la región, y una capa mucosa más interna. Lamucosa se hipertrofia en vitelogénesis y gravidez y está revestida por cuatro tipos de células:ciliadas, no ciliadas y secretoras PAS y AA positivas las cuales producen mucosubstanciasácidas o neutras que pueden lubricar la superficie de la mucosa y/o tomar parte de huevoen formación. Glándulas tubulares simples se encuentran en la mucosa del tubo y úteroanterior, presentan actividad secretora (PAS y AA negativa durante todo el ciclo y se ramifican en vitelogénesis y gravidez. En el útero posterior hay glándulas tubulares simples sinevidencia de secreción, las células glandulares son similares a las células del útero poste-rior de Alligator mississippiensisy a las células que transportan iones y material el dilución deloviducto de las aves (Gallus domesticus; estas glándulas no se describen en el oviducto de otrosreptiles y al parecer son únicas de

  7. ECOLOGÍA DE CAIMAN CROCODILUS FUSCUS EN SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA: UN ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR

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    FORERO-MEDINA GERMÁN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La isla de San Andrés, en el Caribe colombiano, es una reserva de la biosfera yuna región de gran importancia biológica y cultural. Su fauna y su flora cuentan,sin embargo, con algunas especies consideradas como introducciones recientes yvoluntarias, que no han sido estudiadas y cuyos efectos deben ser evaluados conprontitud. Las babillas, Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Cope 1868, fueron introducidasa la isla en los años setenta y no se había realizado ningún trabajo previo sobre suecología en la región. En este trabajo se ubicaron las diferentes localidades dondeC. c. fuscus está presente durante la época seca en San Andrés, se estimaron losíndices de abundancia por localidad por medio de censos nocturnos, y se realizó unestudio de su dieta usando la metodología de extracción de contenidos estomacales.También se observó la relación de la comunidad isleña con la especie. El estudiose realizó durante los meses de marzo a junio del 2002, en la temporada seca.La especie fue encontrada en cuatro lagunas de agua dulce permanentes, conabundancias locales de 8, 17, 34 y 22 individuos, y no fue encontrado ninguno en losmanglares. Se capturaron veinte individuos y sus contenidos estomacales mostraronque consumen coleópteros, ortópteros, otros insectos, miriápodos, cangrejos, pecesy aves. El elemento que apareció con mayor frecuencia fue el coleóptero del géneroHydrophilus. Las babillas son utilizadas por la comunidad con fines turísticos y nose observó una explotación o extracción de animales.

  8. ECOLOGIA POBLACIONAL DE LA BABILLA (Caiman crocodilus fuscus) EN EL VALLE DEL RIO MAGDALENA (CUNDINAMARCA, COLOMBIA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Moreno Arias; María Cristina Ardila Robayo; Willington Martínez Barreto; Robinson Manuel Suárez Daza

    2013-01-01

      To propose a conservation plan for the spectacled caiman, we studied wild populations and their habitats in lotic and lentic environments of ten sites in the Magdalena River valley, Department of Cundinamarca...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Caiman crocodilus in Mesoamerica and South America.

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    Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Crawford, Andrew J; Escobedo Galván, Armando H; Sanjur, Oris I; Densmore, Llewellyn D; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2008-12-01

    The Neotropical crocodylian species, Caiman crocodilus, is widely distributed through Mesoamerica, northern South America, and the Amazon basin. Four subspecies are recognized within C. crocodilus, suggesting some geographic variation in morphology. In this study, we utilized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data from 45 individuals of C. crocodilus throughout its range to infer its evolutionary history and population structure, as well as to evaluate genealogical support for subspecies and their geographic distributions. Our molecular phylogenetic results identified five mtDNA haplotype clades with a mean sequence divergence of 3.4%, indicating considerable evolutionary independence among phylogeographic lineages. Our results were also broadly consistent with current subspecific taxonomy, with some important additional findings. First, we found substantial genetic structuring within C. c. fuscus from southern Mesoamerica. Second, though we confirmed the existence of a widespread Amazonian clade, we also discovered a cryptic and divergent mtDNA lineage that was indistinguishable from C. c. crocodilus based on external morphology. Third, we confirm the status of C. c. chiapasius as a distinct evolutionary lineage, and provide evidence that C. c. fuscus may be moving northward and hybridizing with C. c. chiapasius in northern Mesoamerica. Finally, our results parallel previous phylogeographic studies of other organisms that have demonstrated significant genetic structure over shorter geographic distances in Mesoamerica compared with Amazonia. We support conservation efforts for all five independent lineages within C. crocodilus, and highlight the subspecies C. c. chiapasius as a unit of particular conservation concern. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Diet of the non-native spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) in Puerto Rico

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    Damien Bontemps; Elvira Cuevas; Eileen Ortiz; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; Rafael Joglar

    2016-01-01

    The spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) was introduced to Puerto Rico over 50 years ago with the Tortuguero Lagoon Natural Reserve (TLNR) as its epicenter, where it is now established as an apex predator. Although concerns have been raised regarding the potential impact of this naturalized predator on Puerto Rico’s native fauna, little was known of the caiman’s diet...

  11. Radiographic-anatomical aspects and gastrointestinal transit time in the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae

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    Heloisa Castro Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is increasing interest in the establishment of captive breeding programs for caiman. However, there is a paucity of in-depth studies on the proper care of these reptiles in captivity, particularly regarding optimal food type and frequency of feeding. The purpose of this study was to determine radiographic-anatomical aspects of, and gastrointestinal transit time of Caiman crocodilus crocodilus using contrast radiography. Ten caiman were used in the study, five males and five females, the animals were physically restrained for administration of a radiographic contrast medium, consisting of 10 ml/kg barium sulfate and mineral oil suspension (70%: 30% respectively, via the orogastric tube. Following contrast medium administration, radiographs were taken via dorsoventral projection first at five minutes, then at 6, 24, 30, 48, 54, 72, 80, 96, 104, 120, 130, 144 and 150 hours. This technique allows visualization of contrast medium passage through the GI tract, which enabled determination of gastrointestinal transit time in the spectacled caiman. The average time for contrast medium passage through the digestive tract of this species was 117 ± 29.6 h for females and 86.4 ± 21.5 h for males.

  12. Growth of Caiman crocodilus yacare in the Brazilian Pantanal.

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    Campos, Zilca; Mourão, Guilherme; Coutinho, Marcos; Magnusson, William E

    2014-01-01

    We studied growth of the caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare, in the Brazilian Pantanal for 27 years between 1987 and 2013.We recaptured 647 of 7769 C. c. yacare initially marked in an area of 50 km(2), in two ranches. We were able to determine size at age accurately for 24 male and17 female caimans that had been marked at hatching or less than 1 year old, and recaptured over periods of 5 to 24 years. The other 606 caimans were used to evaluate short-term growth rates. Age-size relationships were estimated using growth models from the Richards family of curves (full model, von Bertalanffy and monomolecular). The form of the relationships differed between analyses based on caimans of known age and analyses based on integration of growth rate on size relationships for caimans whose ages were not known. Individuals showed large variation in short-term growth rates, but data on known-age animals indicated little between-individual variability in long-term growth rates. There was evidence of a small effect of rainfall, but not temperature, on short-term growth of small caimans, but most variation in growth rates was unexplained by variables other than age and sex. Data on known-age individuals indicated that female C. c. yacare generally reach sexual maturity between 10 and 15 years of age. Because of the asymptotic relationship between age and size, deviations of observations from the model for age are larger than for size, and estimates of age at a given size have greater errors than estimates of size at a given age. Integration of growth rate on size relationships may be adequate for estimating size from age in many cases, but accurate estimates of age from size require data on known-age individuals over the size range of the species.

  13. Growth of Caiman crocodilus yacare in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Campos, Zilca; Mourão, Guilherme; Coutinho, Marcos; Magnusson, William E.

    2014-01-01

    We studied growth of the caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare, in the Brazilian Pantanal for 27 years between 1987 and 2013.We recaptured 647 of 7769 C. c. yacare initially marked in an area of 50 km2, in two ranches. We were able to determine size at age accurately for 24 male and17 female caimans that had been marked at hatching or less than 1 year old, and recaptured over periods of 5 to 24 years. The other 606 caimans were used to evaluate short-term growth rates. Age-size relationships were estimated using growth models from the Richards family of curves (full model, von Bertalanffy and monomolecular). The form of the relationships differed between analyses based on caimans of known age and analyses based on integration of growth rate on size relationships for caimans whose ages were not known. Individuals showed large variation in short-term growth rates, but data on known-age animals indicated little between-individual variability in long-term growth rates. There was evidence of a small effect of rainfall, but not temperature, on short-term growth of small caimans, but most variation in growth rates was unexplained by variables other than age and sex. Data on known-age individuals indicated that female C. c. yacare generally reach sexual maturity between 10 and 15 years of age. Because of the asymptotic relationship between age and size, deviations of observations from the model for age are larger than for size, and estimates of age at a given size have greater errors than estimates of size at a given age. Integration of growth rate on size relationships may be adequate for estimating size from age in many cases, but accurate estimates of age from size require data on known-age individuals over the size range of the species. PMID:24586719

  14. Pesticides in blood from spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) downstream of banana plantations in Costa Rica.

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    Grant, Paul B C; Woudneh, Million B; Ross, Peter S

    2013-11-01

    Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) are fish-eating crocodilians that inhabit freshwater habitat in tropical regions of the Americas. To assess the exposure of caiman to pesticides from banana plantations, the authors collected whole blood samples (30 mL) from 14 adult caiman that were captured in the North Atlantic region of Costa Rica. Blood samples were analyzed for 70 legacy- and current-use pesticides and breakdown products using newly developed ultra-trace, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Caiman accumulated pesticides ranked by concentration as dieldrin > permethrin > mirex > 4,4'-DDE > alpha-endosulfan > heptachlor epoxide > oxychlordane > heptachlor > cypermethrin. Caiman within the high-intensity banana crop watershed of Rio Suerte had higher pesticide burdens relative to other more remote locations (F = 12.79; p = 0.00). Pesticide concentration decreased with distance from upstream banana plantations in this river system (F = 20.76; p = 0.00). Caiman body condition was negatively correlated with total pesticide concentrations (F = 6.23; p = 0.02) and with proximity to banana plantations (F = 5.05; p = 0.04). This suggests that either pesticides elicited toxic effects in caiman, resulting in diminished overall health, or that the quantity or quality of their prey was reduced by pesticides downstream of plantation waterways. The authors' results indicate that pesticide use in banana plantations is impacting a high trophic level species inhabiting one of the most important wilderness areas in Costa Rica (Tortuguero National Park). © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Ecological aspects of nesting in Caiman crocodilus chiapasius (Bocourt 1876) in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

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    Gonzalez-Desales, G.A.; Monroy-Vilchis, O.; Charruau, P.; Zarco-Gonzalez, M.M.

    2016-07-01

    Studies on caiman, Caiman crocodilus chiapasius, in Mexico are scarce. The present study was conducted to evaluate the key characteristics regarding the reproductive ecology of caiman in Mexico. We conducted nest searches from April to September 2014. We observed that nests were built in June and that hatching occurred in September and October. The phase of the moon had an effect on nesting events. The height of the nest, the distance to the nearest tree, and the distance from the top of the nest to the first egg were related to hatching success and incubation temperature. (Author)

  16. Hepatozoon caimani in Caiman crocodilus yacare (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae) from North Pantanal, Brazil.

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    Bouer, Andréa; André, Marcos Rogério; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Luzzi, Mayara de Cássia; Oliveira, Juliana Paula de; Rodrigues, Adriana Carlos; Varani, Alessandro de Melo; Miranda, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira de; Perles, Lívia; Werther, Karin; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most common intracellular hemoparasite found in reptiles. Hepatozoon caimani, whose vectors are Culex mosquitoes, has been detected in a high prevalence among caimans in Brazil by blood smears examinations. The present work aimed to detect and characterize the Hepatozoon spp. found in 33 caimans (24 free-ranging and 9 captive; 28 males and 5 females) (Caiman crocodilus yacare) sampled at Poconé, North Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using blood smears examinations and molecular techniques. Hepatozoon spp.-gametocytes were found in 70.8% (17/24) and 88.8% (8/9) of blood smears from free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA DNA was found in 79.2% (19/24) and 88.8% (8/9) of free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Comparative analysis of parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes showed that all analyzed features were significantly different (PPantanal.

  17. Development of Hepatozoon caimani (Carini, 1909 Pessôa, De Biasi & De Souza, 1972 in the Caiman Caiman c. crocodilus, the frog Rana catesbeiana and the mosquito Culex fatigans

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    Lainson Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporogony of Hepatozoon caimani has been studied, by light microscopy, in the mosquito Culex fatigans fed on specimens of the caiman Caiman c. crocodilus showing gametocytes in their peripheral blood. Sporonts iniciate development in the space between the epithelium of the insect gut and the elastic membrane covering the haemocoele surface of the stomach. Sporulating oocysts are clustered on the gut, still invested by the gut surface membrane. Fully mature oocysts were first seen 21 days after the blood-meal. No sporogonic stages were found in some unidentified leeches fed on an infected caiman, up to 30 days following the blood-meal. When mosquitoes containing mature oocysts were fed to frogs (Leptodactylus fuscus and Rana catesbeiana, cysts containing cystozoites developed in the internal organs, principally the liver. Feeding these frogs to farm-bred caimans resulted in the appearance of gametocytes in their peripheral blood at some time between 59 and 79 days later, and the development of tissue cysts in the liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Transmission of the parasite was also obtained by feeding young caimans with infected mosquitoes and it is suggested that both methods occur in nature. The finding of similar cysts containing cystozoites in the semi-aquatic lizard Neusticurus bicarinatus, experimentally fed with infected C. fatigans, suggests that other secondary hosts may be involved.

  18. Mercury and methyl mercury ratios in caimans (Caiman crocodilus yacare) from the Pantanal area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L M; Nunes, V da S; Amaral, M C do A; Oliveira, A C; Hauser-Davis, R A; Campos, R C

    2011-02-01

    The Pantanal region is the largest floodplain area in the world and of great biological importance due to its unique flora and fauna. This area is continuously undergoing increasing anthropogenic threats, and has also experienced mercury contamination associated with gold mining and other anthropogenic activities. Pantanal caimans are top-level predators, and, as such, show great potential to accumulate mercury (Hg) by biomagnification. In this study 79 specimens from four locations in the Pantanal were analyzed for total Hg and methyl mercury (MeHg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total Hg contents ranged from 0.02 to 0.36 µg g(-1) (ww), and most specimens presented MeHg ratios above 70%. One of the sites, impacted by anthropogenic activities, presented significantly higher total Hg in comparison to three less impacted sites, supporting the hypothesis that caimans can, in fact, be considered effective bioindicators of ecosystem health.

  19. Evaluación sensorial de derivados cárnicos de carne de babilla (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus

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    William Raúl Mayorga Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar sensorialmente dos productos cárnicos (jamón de alta inyección y costillas ahumadas elaborados con base en carne de babilla (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus. Se utilizaron 21 animales con tallas entre los 90 y 120 cm de largo, los cuales procedían del Zoocriadero Santa Ana, situado en la ciudad de Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia. El análisis proximal (% grasa, % humedad, % proteína de los productos cárnicos elaborados fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Nutrición de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia para confirmar su clasificación como Categoría Premium según la Norma Técnica Colombiana 1325, quinta actualización (ICONTEC, 2008. Se realizaron paneles de aceptación con visitantes ocasionales en el Centro Agroindustrial del Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje del Meta (sede Hachón, en la Feria Agroindustrial de Catama y almacenes Éxito, sucursal Sabana; todos en Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia; completando un total de 400 evaluaciones tanto de jamón como de costillas ahumadas. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva para establecer el grado de aceptación para lo cual se establecieron cuatro niveles de aprobación posible en que se podían clasificar los productos, siendo estos niveles determinados por características como color, textura, sabor y olor. El jamón y las costillas ahumadas elaboradas con carne de babilla presentaron altos niveles de aceptación para las características de textura, sabor y olor a diferencia del color, lo cual se atribuyó al color pálido característico de la carne de babilla que contrasta con el color típico de los productos cárnicos de res y de cerdo, el cual es asociado normalmente por el consumidor a productos cárnicos con atributos de frescura y salubridad. Los valores de aceptación tanto para jamón de babilla como para costillas ahumadas de babilla fueron del 99 %.

  20. Evaluación sensorial de derivados cárnicos de carne de babilla (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus

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    Miguel Ángel Alarcón García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar sensorialmente dos productos cárnicos (jamón de alta inyección y costillas ahumadas elaborados con base en carne de babilla (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus. Se utilizaron 21 animales con tallas entre los 90 y 120 cm de largo, los cuales procedían del Zoocriadero Santa Ana, situado en la ciudad de Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia. El análisis proximal (% grasa, % humedad, % proteína de los productos cárnicos elaborados fue realizado en el Laboratorio de Nutrición de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia para confirmar su clasificación como Categoría Premium según la Norma Técnica Colombiana 1325, quinta actualización (ICONTEC, 2008. Se realizaron paneles de aceptación con visitantes ocasionales en el Centro Agroindustrial del Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje del Meta (sede Hachón, en la Feria Agroindustrial de Catama y almacenes Éxito, sucursal Sabana; todos en Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia; completando un total de 400 evaluaciones tanto de jamón como de costillas ahumadas. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva para establecer el grado de aceptación para lo cual se establecieron cuatro niveles de aprobación posible en que se podían clasificar los productos, siendo estos niveles determinados por características como color, textura, sabor y olor. El jamón y las costillas ahumadas elaboradas con carne de babilla presentaron altos niveles de aceptación para las características de textura, sabor y olor a diferencia del color, lo cual se atribuyó al color pálido característico de la carne de babilla que contrasta con el color típico de los productos cárnicos de res y de cerdo, el cual es asociado normalmente por el consumidor a productos cárnicos con atributos de frescura y salubridad. Los valores de aceptación tanto para jamón de babilla como para costillas ahumadas de babilla fueron del 99 %.

  1. Thermic Variation in Incubation and Development of Pantanal Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin, 1802 Kept in Metabolic Box

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    Maristela Parra Miranda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two eggs of Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin, 1802 were incubated at 30° C. After 20 days of incubation at 30° C, the remaining eggs were distributed in the following way: seven at 34° C, seven at 32° C, six at 30° C and six at 28° C. At 32° C and 34° C a 100% hatchability was obtained while at 30° C 83.3% and at 28° C 66.6%. After hatching, the animals were kept for 120 days at the same temperature of their final incubation. Weight (g control and morphometric (cm analysis were carried out. The statistic design was totally randomized and the data were treated by regression analysis showing a quadratic behavior ( pTrinta e dois ovos de Caiman crocodilus yacare foram incubados, inicialmente, à temperatura de 30° C. Durante a incubação foram retirados seis ovos para se conhecer o estágio embriológico e peso, além de breve descrição dos embriões. Após 20 dias de incubação a 30° C, os ovos foram assim distribuídos: sete em 34° C, sete em 32° C, seis em 30° C e seis em 28° C. Em 32 e 34° C obteve-se 100% de eclodibilidade, em 30° C - 83,3%, e a 28 ° C - 66,6 %. Após a eclosão os animais permaneceram durante 120 dias na mesma temperatura de incubação final. Foi realizado controle de peso (g e análise morfométrica (cm. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, e os dados foram analisados por regressão, que mostraram um comportamento quadrático (p<0,05. Constatou-se que o peso, comprimento total, comprimento da cauda, comprimento focinho-cloaca, comprimento da cabeça, comprimento do olho, comprimento do focinho, largura do focinho, largura da cabeça, largura das narinas, distância entre membros tiveram maior desenvolvimento na faixa de 31,2 a 31,8° C e, a circunferência da barriga a 30,6° C. A redução de 30 para 28° C, na incubação artificial, desencadeou eclosão de animais prematuros. Portanto, a redução da temperatura de 30 para 28° C, durante a incuba

  2. Aspectos ecológicos de la anidación de Caiman crocodilus chiapasius (Bocourt, 1876 en la reserva de la biosfera La Encrucijada, México

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    González–Desales, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of nesting in Caiman crocodilus chiapasius (Bocourt 1876 in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Mexico Studies on caiman, Caiman crocodilus chiapasius, in Mexico are scarce. The present study was conducted to evaluate the key characteristics regarding the reproductive ecology of caiman in Mexico. We conducted nest searches from April to September 2014. We observed that nests were built in June and that hatching occurred in September and October. The phase of the moon had an effect on nesting events. The height of the nest, the distance to the nearest tree, and the distance from the top of the nest to the first egg were related to hatching success and incubation temperature.

  3. Proterodiplostome Parasites (Digenea, Proterodiplostomidae of the Caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare (Reptilia, Crocodylia in the Pantanal mato-Grossense, Brazil, with the description of two new species

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    João B. Catto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species are described from the caiman. Caiman crocodilus yacare. Proterodiplostomum breve n. sp. differs from all other species in the genus by the following chacacteristics: (1 the paraprostate gland is shorter and club-shaped; (2 the genital cone is, in average, eight times longer than that of P. medusae; (3 the genital atrium is larger and without pseudosuckers; (4 the oral sucker and pharynx are longer; and (5 there are larger numbers of papillae surrounding the tribocytic organ (40 against 20 in P. longum, 16 in p. tumidilum, 8 in P. ophidum, and 16-18 in P. medusae. Proterodiplostomum globulare n. sp. differs from all the other species in the fenus by the following characteristics: (1 from P. tumidilum, P. lomgum, P. medusae, and P. breve n. sp. for the absense of pseudosuckers or muscular bunches in the inferior wall of the genital atrium; (2 the shape of the paraprostate gland, which is globular and not cylindrical as in P. longum, P. tumidilum, P. medusae, and P. ophidum; (3 the size of the tribocytic organ 201-407 long, 183-495 wide, while is 138-270 long, 102-292 wide in P. medusae, and 138-270 long, 255 wide in P. ophidum; (4 the number of papillae in the tribocytic organ (18-20 in P. globulare and 16-18 in P. medusae, and 8 in P. ophidum. Specimens belonging to six other species of proterodiplostomes are recorded for the first time infecting the caiman, C. c. yacare in the Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brazil, namely: Proterodiplostomum medusae, P. tumidilum, Cystodiplostomum hollyi, Prolecithodiplostomum constrictum, Paradiplostomum abbreviatum, and Herpetodiplostomum caimancola.

  4. Incubação artificial a 28ºC e crescimento inicial de jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare em diferentes temperaturas Artificial incubation at 28ºC and initial growth at different temperatures of Pantanal Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare

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    Elias Nunes Martins

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Vinte ovos de jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare foram submetidos à incubação artificial, à temperatura de 28ºC. Durante a incubação foram abertos três ovos para se verificar sua viabilidade. Obteve-se 94,11% de eclodibilidade, com a eclosão de 16 ovos. Os animais eclodidos foram, em seguida, colocados a duas temperaturas de crescimento: 28 e 32ºC e submetidos à análise morfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análises de variância. As características peso do animal e largura da cabeça não apresentaram diferenças (P > 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Circunferência da barriga e largura das narinas tiveram melhores (P Twenty Pantanal Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare eggs were artificially incubated at 28°C. During the incubation, three eggs were opened in order to check their viability. 94.11% of hatchability was detected, with the hatching of 16 eggs. The hatched animals were kept under two different temperatures during growth (28ºC and 32°C, and submitted to morphometrical analysis. The collected data were analyzed according to the analysis of variance. The characteristics of the weight of the animals and the width of the head did not present significant differences (P > 0.05 between the treatments. The circumference of the belly and width of snout at nostrils were the ones that had the best (P < 0.05 results at 28°C. The other characteristics as total length, tail length ,snout-vent length ,head length, eye length, snout length, width of snout at mid-point and distance between limbs showed better results at 32°C. It may be concluded that temperature variation did not influence the gain of weight, but the temperature of 32°C was the best for the general development of the animals.

  5. Abundancia de Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825, Paleosuchus trigonatus Schneider, 1801 y Caiman crocodilus L., 1758 en el cauce medio del río Mazán (Amazonas, Perú

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    TEJADO, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha analizado la estructura poblacional y la distribución de tres especies de caimanes: Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825, Paleosuchus trigonatus Schneider, 1801 y Caiman crocodilus L., 1758 en el cauce medio del río Mazán (norte de Perú. Se registró un total de 42 ejemplares a lo largo de un transecto de 62,8 km, en el cauce fluvial y cochas (meandros aislados adyacentes en 1992. La densidad promedio fue de 0,7 ej./km. El mayor número de observaciones correspondió a C. crocodilus, que acogió el 88,1% del total, con una densidad relativa de 0,6 ej./km y una estructura poblacional distribuida en 24,3% para la Clase I de tallas, 54,1% (Clase II, 17,0% (Clase III y 5,4 % (Clase IV. La presencia de M. niger y P. trigonatus en el área fue testimonial, con tasas muy bajas de densidad: 0,03 ej./km y 0,05 ej./km, respectivamente. Los datos obtenidos nos indican la existencia de poblaciones desequilibradas en el caso de C. crocodilus y casi extinguidas en M. niger, debido a la sobreexplotación por caza comercial a la que fueron sometidas en el pasado, y a la presión cinegética orientada a la caza de subsistencia con posterioridad. Se ofrecen pruebas cotejadas sobre la existencia en otras zonas de Perú de ejemplares extraordinariamente grandes de M. niger (3,60 y 3,77 m, que se acercan al récord de tamaño científicamente reconocido para la especie.

  6. Aspectos morfológicos e citoquímicos dos glóbulos sangüíneos de Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin, 1802 (Reptilia, Crocodilia

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    Weber Leal de Moura

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 10 jacarés Caiman crocodilus yacare, colhendo-se 5 ml do sangue periférico de cada animal. A análise morfológica foi realizada após coloração por Leishman. Para estudo citoquímico, empregaram-se os métodos do PAS, do Sudan black B, da o-toluidina e do azul de bromofenol. Foram identificados 7 tipos celulares: eritrócitos, trombócitos, heterófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos, linfócitos e monócitos azurófilos. Os eritrócitos nucleados apresentam formato elíptico com atividade mitótica e positividade citoplasmática para o azul de bromofenol. Os trombócitos são de formato elíptico, com citoplasma abundante nos pólos, contendo grânulos de glicogênio e núcleo com sulcos profundos. Heterófilos, grosseiramente esféricos, mostram núcleo esférico excêntrico e citoplasma repleto de grânulos corados em salmão, de formato fusiforme, em baqueta, oval ou esférico. A citoquímica nestas células revelou a presença de glicogênio, grânulos citoplasmáticos positivos para azul de bromofenol e parcialmente sudanófilos e positivos para mieloperoxidase. Eosinófilos mostram-se esféricos com núcleo lenticular excêntrico e citoplasma com grânulos esféricos ou ovais róseos positivos para Sudan e mieloperoxidase, porém fracamente para o azul de bromofenol. Basófilos apresentam formato esférico, de tamanho menor em relação aos demais granulócitos, núcleo esférico central e citoplasma com poucos grânulos fortemente basófilos. Linfócitos mostram-se polimórficos com núcleo de formato irregular, citoplasma escasso com projeções e grânulos azurófilos. Monócito azurófilo, de formato esférico, núcleo excêntrico e citoplasma basófilo contendo grânulos azurófilos abundantes.

  7. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis do músculo Ilio-ischiocaudalis de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare e maciez da carne Characterization of rigor mortis process of muscle Ilio-ischiocaudalis of pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare and meat tenderness

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    Juliana Paulino Vieira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho utilizou seis carcaças de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare com o objetivo de caracterizar o processo de rigor mortis do músculo Ílio-ischiocaudalis durante o resfriamento industrial e avaliar a maciez dessa carne. Os jacarés foram escolhidos aleatoriamente e abatidos na Cooperativa de Criadores do Jacaré do Pantanal (COOCRIJAPAN, Cáceres, Mato Grosso. Após a sangria, aferiu-se as variações das temperaturas da câmara de resfriamento, das carcaças e o pH. Foram colhidas amostras para determinação do comprimento de sarcômero, da força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento em diferentes intervalos de tempo (0,5, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24 e 36h. A temperatura da câmara de resfriamento variou de 2,6°C (0,5h a 0,9°C (36h e a temperatura média das carcaças variou de 21,0°C a 4,2°C, respectivamente. O pH médio inicial do músculo foi de 6,7 e o final 5,6 e a contração máxima do sarcômero do músculo Ilio-ischiocaudalis ocorreu na 15ª hora após a sangria (1,5µm. Essa carne apresentou força de cisalhamento menor que 6,0kg.This paper studied six pantanal alligators (Caiman crocodilus yacare carcass with goal of rigor mortis process characterization of Ilio-ischiocaudalis muscle during industrial cooling and meat tenderness. The alligators were randomly assembled and slaughtered at Cooperativa de Criadores do Jacaré do Pantanal (COOCRIJAPAN - Cáceres- Mato Grosso After exsanguination, were mensured temperature of chilling room and carcasses, pH and samples were collected for determination the sarcomere length, shear force and cooking loss at different times (0.5, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24 and 36 hours. The temperature of chilling room varied from 2.6°C (0.5h to 0.9°C (36h and the mean carcass temperature from 21.0°C to 4.2°C, respectively. The mean initial pH of the muscle was 6.7 and the final was 5.6. The smallest sarcomere size ocurred at 15 hours after exsanguination (1.5µm. This meat presents

  8. Estudo do aproveitamento das vísceras do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare em farinha de carne Study of the utilization of the pantanal alligator's viscera for meat flour

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    Pedro Fernando Romanelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a produção de farinha de carne a partir das vísceras do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare e o estudo das propriedades físico-químicas, bioquímicas e bacteriológicas da farinha elaborada. Essas características que servem de parâmetro de controle de qualidade, são normalmente exigidas na comercialização de farinhas de carne elaboradas a partir de vísceras e outros materiais de descarte para animais de consumo doméstico. Os resultados obtidos do pH, acidez solúvel, composição percentual dos componentes, dos minerais Ca e P, digestibilidade em pepsina, aspecto microbiológico (presença de "salmonela" e estabilidade avaliada pelo nº de TBARS da farinha mostram ser viável o uso das vísceras do jacaré do pantanal como fonte alternativa de nutrientes para incorporação nas formulações de ração animal .The present paper shidied study the production of the meat flour from the pantanal alligator's viscera as well as the physic-chemical, biochemical and microbiological proprieties of the obtained flour. These proprieties can be parameters of quality control and are normally demanded in the trade of meat flour made from viscera and other discharge animals for domestic use.The results obtained from pH, soluble acidity, components percentual composition, Ca and P minerals, digestibility in pepsin, the microbiological aspect (salmonella determination, and the stability to the meat flour according to the evaluation of the number of TBARS, demonstrate the use of the viscera of the pantanal alligator are feasible as alternate source of nutrients for the incorporation in the formulating of animal feed.

  9. Processamento da carne do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare Meat processing of pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare

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    Pedro Fernando Romanelli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo de algumas formas de processamento da carne de jacaré do pantanal como uma alternativa de consumo, de uma forma não convencional, da carne dessa espécie. Testa-se, ao mesmo tempo, a utilização de carne de cortes normalmente descartados tais como o tronco e os membros. Dessa forma relatam-se os seguintes processamentos: produtos de salsicharia não embutidos (tipo hambúrguer, carne em conserva (enlatado, carne curada e não cozida (defumada e produto curado e cozido (tipo apresuntado. Avalia-se a qualidade dos produtos através da análise sensorial e mede-se estatisticamente o grau de sua aceitação.This study considers different ways of processing alligator swampland meat as an alternative of consumption in a non conventional way for that species. It also evaluates the utilization of the meat coming from parts normally discarded such as muscle of the trunk and membranes. The following processes were accomplished to reach the objective: non sausage products (type hamburger preserved meat (canned, non-cooked cured meat (smoky, and cured cooked product (type ham. The quality of the products was evaluated through sensorial analyses and the data were submited to statistical treatment to determine the acceptance degree.

  10. ANÁLISE MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE DE JACARÉ DO PANTANAL (Caiman crocodilus yacare MICROBIAL ANALYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALLIGATOR'S MEAT (Caiman crocodilus yacare

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    Fernando Leite HOFFMANN

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar o levantamento das características microbiológicas da carne do jacaré, através da detecção e/ou enumeração dos microrganismos mais comumente encontrados na carne. Pela inexistência de padrões na legislação brasileira para a carne de jacaré, os resultados foram comparados com os padrões microbiológicos existentes para carne bovina e pescado. Encontrou-se a presença de S. aureus e de Salmonella sp, resultados estes considerados insatisfatórios, o que nos permitiu, classificar o produto como impróprio para o consumo. O trabalho sugere também, procedimentos para evitar e/ou minimizar a presença desses microrganismos indesejáveis na carne.This work subjects to collect data of the microbial characteristics of the alligator meat, and also to identify the microrganisms that can be found in it. The current Brazilian legislation does not have any specific regulations for the alligator meat, then the results were compaired to the microbial standards for the fresh beef and fish. The results has showed the presence of the S. aureus and Salmonella sp. These results let us to classify the product submited to the test, as unsatisfactory and, therefore, inadequate to the human consumption. The present study also suggests some procedures to avoid or minimize the presence of these microrganisms.

  11. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the color and texture parameters of refrigerated Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) tail meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, A C V C S; Lima, B R C C; Cruz, A G; Lázaro, C A; Freitas, D G C; Faria, Jose A F; Torrezan, R; Freitas, M Q; Silva, T P J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of applying high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the instrumental parameters of color and texture and sensory characteristics of alligator meat were evaluated. Samples of alligator tail meat were sliced, vacuum-packed, pressurized and distributed into four groups: control, treated with 200 MPa/10 min, 300 MPa/10 min and 400 MPa/10 min, then stored at 4°C±1°C for 45 days. Instrumental color, texture profile and a sensory profiling using quantitative descriptive analysis were carried out on the 1st, 15th, 30th and 45th days of storage. HHP was shown to affect the color and texture of the product, and the sensory descriptors (pmeat, especially low pressures (200 MPa) which can have positive effects on the quality of the product. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus ring recovery from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus ring recovery from Tanzania. Considered by some to be a discrete population and named the Baltic Gull. Larus fuscus (Olsen & Larsson 2003) the Lesser Black-backed Gull L. fuscus fuscus is well known to winter ...

  13. Allometry of reproduction in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris

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    VERDADE L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study regression equations are established between broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris captive reproductive females snout-vent length (SVL and body mass (BM and the following clutch characteristics: egg mass, egg "length" (maximal diameter, egg "width" (minimal diameter, hatchling BM, hatchling SVL, clutch size (number of eggs, clutch mass and relative clutch mass (clutch mass/female BM. Female body-length presented a positive correlation with egg mass, egg length, egg width, hatchling BM and hatchling SVL. No clear correlation was found between female SVL and clutch size. Female BM showed a significantly positive correlation with egg mass, egg-length, egg-width, hatchling BM, hatchling SVL and clutch mass. A highly significant negative correlation was found between female BM and the relative clutch mass. No clear correlation was found between female BM and clutch size.

  14. Histologia geral dos intestinos do Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin, 1802 (Crocodilia: Reptilia

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    Sonia Maria Jin

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available General histology of small intestine (duodenum and jejunum and the large intestine (colon and cloaca of C. c. yacare (Daudin, 1802 Crocodilia-Reptilia. A comparative description is made of the histology of the small and large intestine of C. c. yacare. In all segments mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa tunics were observed. The duodenum as very long villi, wich are well-developed and attached together to form irregular transverse ridges, covered with simple columnar epithelium with marginal and goblet cells. In the jejunum, the villi are shorter and less frequent. The colon as few folds, covered with the same epithelium; the lamina própria contains straight tubular glands with absortive cells, goblet and Paneth cells. The cloaca is very complex, with three well-defined regions: coprodeum, urodeum and proctodeum. In the coprodeum, the wall is folded, less muscular and the thin mucosa is covered by an epithelium with a few basal cells and mucosal cells. The urodeum as an additional external muscular tunic, with striated muscle fibers and a stritifield cylindrical epithelium with goblet cells. The proctodeum includes the free part of the penis in the male and, laterally, the ducts of a pair of holocrine cloacal glands. Near the opening of the ducts, the epithelium changes to a squamous keratinized type.

  15. Mercury concentrations in different tissues of turtle and caiman species from the Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Sam; Schneider, Larissa; Krikowa, Frank; Vogt, Richard C; Da Silveira, Ronis; Maher, William

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations of muscle, liver, blood, and epidermal keratin were measured in typically consumed, economically and culturally important species of turtle (Podocnemis unifilis and Podocnemis expansa) and caiman (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman crocodilus) from the Rio Purus in the Amazon basin, Brazil. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in muscle tissue, representing the first analysis of MeHg concentrations in Amazonian reptile species. In muscle tissues Hg was mostly MeHg (79-96%) for all species. No correlations existed between animal size and total Hg or MeHg concentrations for any species other than M. niger, possibly as a result of growth dilution or the evolution of efficient Hg elimination mechanisms. Significant linear correlations were found between total Hg concentrations in all pairs of nonlethally sampled tissues (keratin and blood) and internal tissues (muscle and liver) for M. niger and between keratin and internal tissues for P. expansa, indicating that nonlethally sampled tissues can be analyzed to achieve more widespread and representative monitoring of Hg bioaccumulation in Amazonian reptiles. Although mean Hg concentrations in muscle for all species were below the World Health Organization guideline for safe consumption (500 µg kg(-1)), mean concentrations in caiman liver were above the safe limit for pregnant women and children (200 µg kg(-1)). No significant differences were found between total Hg and MeHg concentrations in tissues from wild-caught and farm-raised P. expansa, suggesting that farming may not reduce Hg exposure to humans. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, Marja J L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080432565

    2013-01-01

    A 10 yr old broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris from a small Dutch animal park was presented with long-term variable periods of anorexia and weight loss. Blood chemistry showed slightly elevated uric acid levels and low ionised calcium concentration. Ultrasonographical thickening of the

  17. Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle Cinética de salga e difusividades de sal em carne de jacaré do Pantanal criado em cativeiro

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    Vânia Regina Nicoletti Telis

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare farming, in Brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. The objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. Limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20ºC. The analytical solution of second Fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. A good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. Salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m²/s.A criação de jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare em cativeiro tem sido estimulada, e entre as técnicas de processamento de sua carne, a salga é um processo de conservação relativamente simples e de baixo custo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de difusão de cloreto de sódio em carne de jacaré do Pantanal criado em cativeiro, durante a salga úmida. Foram utilizados volumes limitados de salmoura e os experimentos foram realizados com relações salmoura/músculo de 3, 4 e 5, com concentrações de salmoura de 15%, 20% e 25% em peso e temperaturas de 10, 15 e 20ºC. A solução analítica da segunda lei de Fick, considerando difusão unidimensional em uma placa infinita em contato com uma solução bem agitada de volume limitado, foi utilizada para calcular os coeficientes de difusão efetivos de sal e estimar o conteúdo de cloreto de sódio nos filés. Obteve-se boa concordância entre o modelo analítico considerado e os dados experimentais. As

  18. Abundance and local range of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Alligatoridae in the northwest of Santa Catarina Island

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    Walfrido Moraes Tomás

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the distribution and relative abundance of the broad-snouted caiman on Santa Catarina Island. The study estimated the relative abundance of caiman along the rivers at Estação Ecológica de Carijós, in addition to evaluating the occurrence of this species in the entire area of the Ratones River plain on the northwestern portion of the island. The mean relative abundance obtained by nocturnal counts was 0.25 (±0.07 caiman/km surveyed. There was a weak correlation between the number of caimans and the air temperature. Based on interviews with the local community and nocturnal surveys of caimans in rivers and reservoirs surrounding the protected area, we concluded that the range occupied by caimans covered the entire area of the Ratones river plain, inhabiting natural habitats (rivers, mangroves, swamps as well as artificial habitats (reservoirs and water channels. Although this study provides basic information about the broad-snouted caiman population on this part of the island, it is aimed mainly at providing guidance for future research.

  19. Parentage test in broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris, Crocodylidae) using microsatellite DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this study, microsatellite markers, developed for Alligator mississipiensis and Caiman latirostris, were used to assess parentage among individuals from the captive colony of Caiman latirostris at the University of São Paulo, in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Many of the females in the colony were full siblings, which made maternal identification difficult due to genotypic similarity. Even so, the most likely mother could be identified unambiguously among offspring in most of the clutches studied. Two non-parental females displayed maternal behavior which would have misled managers in assigning maternity based on behavior alone. This set of variable loci demonstrates the utility of parentage testing in captive propagation programs. PMID:21637468

  20. Lipids of Amazon Caimans: A source of fatty acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ariane

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... química da carne de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin. 1802) de idades diferentes. Ciênc. agrotec. 31:1430-1434. Vicente Neto J, Bressan MC, Faria PB, Vieira JO, Santana MTA,. Kloster M (2006). Composição centesimal e colesterol da carne de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin ...

  1. Growth of broad-nosed caiman, Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1802 hatchlings, fed with diets of animal origin

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    M. S. PINHEIRO

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the growth rate of broad-nosed caiman, Caiman latirostris hatchlings, fed on four animal protein diets: (a dead poultry from a poultry farm; (b dead piglet from nursery and farrowing house in a swine farm; (c whole tilapia (Tilapia rendalli e Oreochromis niloticus; and (d a balanced mixture of a, b, and c sources. Sixteen seven-month old caimans, average weight of 208 g and, 38 cm of total lenght (TL were distributed in four treatments. Four groups of four caimans each were placed in cement enclosures inside a greenhouse. Diets were supplied at the average rate of 97.8% ± 34.8% of the body weight per week (average and standard deviation; wet weight basis. Body mass and total length of caimans were measured every 30 days for six months (Nov. 1995-April. 1996. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed. Diets provided suitable growth for weight and TL (mean ± standard deviation, respectively: (a 2,157 ± 743 g and 79.5 ± 6.9 cm; (b 1,811 ± 222 g and 75.7 ± 1.9 cm; (c 2,431 ± 780 g and 80.7 ± 5.8 cm; (d 1,683.5 ± 736 g and 74.5 ± 7.2 cm. There was no significant effect of diet on weight, but diet effect on TL of hatchlings approached significance (p < 0.10. It is concluded that all diets have good potential, in growth sense, to be used in commercial farms or ranches and for captivity propagation programs of caimans.

  2. Ophthalmic diagnostic tests, orbital anatomy, and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Oliveira, Alberto Vinícius D; Pinna, Melissa H; Martins Filho, Emanoel F; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Peixoto, Tiago C; Silva, Renata Maria M da; Santana, Fernanda O; Meneses, Íris Daniela S; Requião, Kátia G; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal ophthalmic parameters for selected diagnostic tests, and to describe the orbital anatomy and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman. A total of 35 Caiman latirostris that were free of obvious ocular diseases were used to measure the parameters in this investigation. Ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Ophthalmic diagnostic tests were conducted, including evaluation of tear production with Schirmer Tear test-1 (STT1), culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, applanation tonometry, conjunctival cytology, nictiating membrane incursion frequency test (NMIFT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT), palpebral fissure length measurement (PFL) and B-mode ultrasonography. Adnexal histology and skull samples were studied. Mean (±SD) STT1 was 3.4 ± 3.6 mm/min (95% confidence interval of 2.01-4.78 mm/min), intraocular pressure (IOP) was 12.9 ± 6.2 mmHg, NMIFT was 6.0 ± 3.5, EAPPTT was 17.1 ± 2.5 mm/min, PFL was 28.9 ± 3.0 mm, anterior chamber depth was 3.1 ± 0.3 mm, lens axial length was 8.4 ± 0.6 mm, vitreous chamber depth was 7.9 ± 0.7 mm and axial globe length was 19.9 ± 1.3 mm. For all animals evaluated, Bacillus sp., Diphteroids and Staphylococcus sp. were predominant. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Vocal patterns of adult females and juveniles Caiman yacare (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae) in Brazilian Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuro, Fernando L; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos

    2013-09-01

    The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare) is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal). The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA). We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans.

  4. Evaluation of the infectivity of Trichinella spp. for reptiles (Caiman sclerops)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Bjørn, H.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental inoculation with nine well-characterised Trichinella isolates was performed on caimans (Caiman sclerops) to determine their infectivity for reptiles belonging to the family Crocodilidae. As controls, the same larval batches of Trichinella isolates were inoculated into mice and guinea...

  5. Geographical classification of wine and olive oil by means of classification and influence matrix analysis (CAIMAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Davide; Mauri, Andrea; Todeschini, Roberto; Buratti, Susanna

    2006-06-16

    Classification and influence matrix analysis (CAIMAN) is a new classification method, recently proposed and based on the influence matrix (also called leverage matrix). Depending on the purposes of the classification analysis, CAIMAN can be used in three outlines: (1) D-CAIMAN is a discriminant classification method, (2) M-CAIMAN is a class modelling method allowing a sample to be classified, not classified at all, or assigned to more than one class (confused) and (3) A-CAIMAN deals with the asymmetric case, where only a reference class needs to be modelled. In this work, the geographic classification of samples of wine and olive oil has been carried out by means of CAIMAN and its results compared with discriminant analysis, by focusing great attention on the model predictive capabilities. The geographic characterization has been carried out on three different datasets: extra virgin olive oils produced in a small area, with a "protected denomination of origin" label, wines with different denominations of origin, but produced in enclosed geographical areas, and olive oils belonging to different production areas. Final results seem to indicate that the application of CAIMAN to the geographical origin identification offers several advantages: first, it shows--on an average basis--good performances; second, it is able to deal in a simple way classification problems related to tipicity, authenticity, and uniqueness characterization, which are of increasing interest in food quality issues.

  6. Commercial cuts of Pantanal caiman meat according to sex

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    Vitória Regina Takeuchi Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the yield, color, and chemical composition of commercial cuts (tail, sirloin cut, back fillet, and thigh of Pantanal caiman meat in both sexes. The yield of tail was higher than other cuts, and the yield of females (17.0% was higher than males (15.9%. The thigh of males had lower protein content (20.8% compared with other cuts. Females showed a higher lipid content in the tail (2.4% and thigh (0.8% compared with males (1.7% and 0.4%, respectively. The tail presented the greatest content of monounsaturated fatty acids (45.2% and higher n6/n3 ratio (4.6. Although lightness was not different among cuts or between sexes, there were differences in color. Males have more yellowish meat compared with females. Thigh and back fillet were more reddish when compared to sirloin cut and tail, regardless of sex. In conclusion, female tail meat provided greater yield and lipid content than males, and this result was statistically significant. These findings can help producers and consumers alike, better understand yield, quality, and nutritional quality of Pantanal caiman meat.

  7. Systematization, description and territory of the caudal cerebral artery of the brain in broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris

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    Lygia Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with the neck segment of Caiman latirostris were used. The animals were provided from a creation center called Mister Caiman, under the authorization of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama. Animals were sacrificed according to the slaughtering routine of the abattoir, and the heads were sectioned at the level of the third cervical vertebra. The arterial system was washed with cold saline solution, with drainage through jugular veins. Subsequently, the system was filled with red colored latex injection. Pieces were than fixed in 20% formaldehyde, for seven days. The brains were removed, with a spinal cord segment, the duramater removed and the arteries dissected. At the level of the hypophysis, the internal carotid artery gave off a rostral branch, and a short caudal branch, continuing, naturally, as the caudal cerebral artery. This artery projected laterodorsalwards and, as it overpassed the optic tract, gave off its I (the first central branch. Penetrated in the cerebral transverse fissure, emitting the diencephalic artery and next its II (second central branch. Still inside the fissure, originated occipital hemispheric branches and a pineal branch. Emerged from the cerebral transverse fissure, over the occipital pole of the cerebral hemisphere. Projected rostralwards, sagital to the cerebral longitudinal fissure, as interhemispheric artery. This artery gave off medial and convex hemispheric branches to the respective surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres, anastomosed with its contralateral homologous, forming the common ethmoidal artery. This artery entered the fissure between the olfactory peduncles, emerging ventrally and dividing into ethmoidal arteries, right and left, which progressed towards the nasal cavities, vascularizing them. The territory of the caudal cerebral artery included the most caudal area of the base of the cerebral hemisphere, its convex surface, the olfactory

  8. In vitro evaluation of synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and broad snouted caiman serum against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroski, P A; Russi, N B; Ortega, H H; Formentini, E A

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and serum of broad snouted caiman on Escherichia coli was studied. The estimated MIC value of ciprofloxacin was 0.0188 µg/ml, and two assays of kill curve during 5 hours were performed: the first one in a standard culture medium and the second one in the presence of caiman serum. Different concentrations of ciprofloxacin were tested. Ciprofloxacin showed higher values of bacterial elimination rate in the presence of caiman serum in all concentrations tested. The combined activity of sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin and the humoral immune factors present in caiman serum determined an increase in the bacterial elimination observed in this assay. We suggest that the antibacterial activity of complement and natural antibodies present in caiman serum, which can bind to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and acting through the classical complement pathway, can inhibit bacterial growth of Escherichia coli by lysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal variation in black-caiman-nest predation in varzea of central Brazilian amazonia.

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    Kelly Torralvo

    Full Text Available On the Amazon floodplain, the main predators of black caiman (Melanosuchus niger eggs are jaguars (Panthera onca, tegu lizards (Tupinambis teguixim, capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus and humans (Homo sapiens. In this study, we investigated the relationship between predator attacks on nests and incubation period, and evaluated the influence of initial predation on subsequent predation in the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve. We also evaluated the influence of presence of females near the nests and manipulation of nests on the occurrence of attacks. We compared results from data obtained with camera traps and vestiges left by predators on estimates of rates of predation by different predators. Egg predation was recorded in 32% of the 658 black caiman nests monitored during two years. Our results suggest that the probability of predation on black caiman eggs is relatively constant throughout the incubation period and that predation on eggs was lower when adults, presumably females, were present. Careful opening of nests and handling of eggs did not increase the number of attacks on black caiman nests. Nest opening by a predator appeared to increase the chances of a subsequent attack because most of the attacks on nests occurred soon after a predator first opened the nest. However, attacks by another species of predator do not appear to be necessary to initiate attacks by any other species of predator. Results based on camera traps and vestiges differed, but use of vestiges was adequate for identifying the principal predators on eggs in black caiman nests and, in many circumstances, the vestiges may be better for estimating predation by humans. In this study, opening nests and handling eggs did not increase the number of attacks on black caiman nests.

  10. [Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Aldeima T T

    2008-03-01

    Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) under two captivity conditions. In order to determine the growth of Caiman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) under two conditions of captivity, 40 specimens were raised during 11 months and 15 days in two circular tanks, with 28.3 m2 of surface area and a volume of 62.2 m3 in each tank. The tanks were built with concrete walls and guarded blocks covered internally with sheets of myrrhlike resin, and a roof of galvanized sheets. One tank was covered partially with the galvanized sheets (tank I), the other was totally covered (tank II). Twenty caimans were placed in each tank, and both groups were fed with 85% beef, 10% fresh fish, 5% hen eggs and a mixture of minerals and vitamins. The length and weight differed significantly between the groups (p tank II, (tank I: 88.9 +/- 7.58 cm; 2 705 +/- 0.69 g). The greater growth in tank II reflects higher air and water temperatures. The survival rate was 97.5%. These results can be used for rearing caimans in captivity for conservation and commercial purposes.

  11. [Monitoring the Microtus fuscus plague epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li-Mao; Song, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic tendency of Microtus fuscus plague during 2000 - 2008 in Sichuan province. METHODS: To investigate the plague each year according to "overall Plan of the Plague in the Whole Nation" and "Surveillance Program of Sichuan Province Plague". RESULTS: There were plague...... of fleas, Callopsylla sparsilis, Amphipsylla tutua tutua and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina, with the overall infection rate as 0.054%. CONCLUSION: Plague among Microtus fuscus showed a continuous epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008....

  12. Geographic distribution and conservation status of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae in Uruguay

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    Claudio Borteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Caiman latirostris are known to occur in Uruguay but their geographic distribution remains uncertain. This work presents anupdate of the species distribution and conservation status in Uruguay. Surveys conducted by the authors confirmed the presence of this species in the previously known distribution range of northwestern Uruguay, where it seems to be widespread and relatively abundant in contrast to earlier reports. We report new localities for C. latirostris, most relevant being those of the Cebollatí and Tacuarí Rivers, and the Pelotas, India Muerta and San Miguel stream basins, which significantly expand its distribution through important wetlands in the eastern part of the country. The overall distribution is coincident with different landscape types, where lagoons, artificial impoundments, livestock waterholes, rivers, streams, creeks and marshes are inhabited by caiman. Illegal non-commercial hunting was detected all over the country.

  13. Hepatozoon caimani Carini, 1909 (Adeleina: Hepatozoidae) in wild population of Caiman yacare Daudin, 1801 (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae), Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Priscilla; Borghesan, Tarcilla Corrente; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Rolland; Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Paiva, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies showed infections of Hepatozoon caimani in wild populations of caimans in wide regions from Brazil; some of those demonstrated that trophic chain are linked to natural infections through paratenic hosts or by the direct ingestion of vectors. These studies life cycle of H. caimani contributed inestimably to the knowledge of transmission routes, yet but lack enhancement tools for better detail of parasite. This study reports the forms in the blood and tissues, and also partial molecular characterization of the H. caimani following part of the 18S rRNA region. In the southern Pantanal, there were sampling 39 adult caimans (Caiman yacare), where 31 (79.5%) were parasitized by H. caimani. Free gametocytes had an average intensity of 19.6% and intraerythrocytic forms 7.42%, in the blood smears. In stained smears of the liver and lungs of naturally infected caimans which were examined, monozoic and dizoic cysts were found in these tissues, generally next to the vessels. In the histopathology, meronts were observed in the wall of vessels from liver and kidney ducts. Blood samples were forwarded to PCR process and produced amplicons with about 600 and 900 bp, respectively, for the primers HEPF300/HEP900 and HEMO1/HEMO2. This was the first report of molecular confirmation of Hepatozoon in populations of naturally infected caimans of morphological detail of the gametocytes in scanning electron microscopy and histology of merogony in livers and kidneys of C. yacare.

  14. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

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    Vincenzo Mercurio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one of the ponds 13 years after its first finding in the area. This toad is also one of the most threatened species of amphibians in Europe and needs particular attention in order to be protected adequately.

  15. Morphohistology of the Digestive Tract of the Damsel Fish Stegastes fuscus (Osteichthyes: Pomacentridae

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    Bhaskara Canan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the morphohistology of the digestive tract and the mean intestinal coefficient of the damsel fish Stegastes fuscus captured from the tidal pools of Northeastern Brazil. The wall of the digestive tract of S. fuscus is composed of the tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The esophagus is short with sphincter and thick distensible wall with longitudinally folded mucosa. Mucous glands are predominant, and the muscular layer of the esophagus presented striated fibers all along its extension. The transition region close to the stomach shows plain and striated muscular fibers. Between the stomach and intestine, there are three pyloric caeca. The intestine is long and thin with four folds around the stomach. The anterior intestine presents folds similar to those of pyloric caeca. The estimated mean intestinal coefficient and characteristics of the digestive system of S. fuscus present morphological adequacy for both herbivorous and omnivorous feeding habits.

  16. The resistance of a North American bat species (Eptesicus fuscus to White-nose Syndrome (WNS.

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    Craig L Frank

    Full Text Available White-nose Syndrome (WNS is the primary cause of over-winter mortality for little brown (Myotis lucifugus, northern (Myotis septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is due to cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans (Pd. Cutaneous infection with P. destructans disrupts torpor patterns, which is thought to lead to a premature depletion of body fat reserve. Field studies were conducted at 3 WNS-affected hibernation sites to determine if big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are resistant to Pd. Radio telemetry studies were conducted during 2 winters to determine the torpor patterns of 23 free-ranging E. fuscus hibernating at a site where Pd occurs. The body fat contents of free-ranging E. fuscus and M. lucifugus during hibernation at 2 different WNS-affected sites were also determined. The numbers of bats hibernating at the same site was determined during both: a 4-7 years prior to the arrival of Pd, and, b 2-3 years after it first appeared at this site. The torpor bouts of big brown bats hibernating at a WNS-affected site were not significantly different in length from those previously reported for this species. The mean body fat content of E. fuscus in February was nearly twice that of M. lucifugus hibernating at the same WNS-affected sites during this month. The number of M. lucifugus hibernating at one site decreased by 99.6% after P. destructans first appeared, whereas the number of E. fuscus hibernating there actually increased by 43% during the same period. None of the E. fuscus collected during this study had any visible fungal growth or lesions on their skin, whereas virtually all the M. lucifugus collected had visible fungal growth on their wings, muzzle, and ears. These findings indicate that big brown bats are resistant to WNS.

  17. Late winter home range and habitat use of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Kely N. Mertz; Jennifer M. Menzel; Kenneth K. Sturm

    2007-01-01

    We radio-tracked two male and one female Virginia northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia at Snowshoe Mountain Resort, in winter 2003 and Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2004, respectively, to document winter home range and habitat use in or near ski areas. Male home range...

  18. Thiophaeococcus fuscus sp. nov., isolated from a lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyasree, B; Lakshmi, K V N S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-08-01

    A brown-coloured bacterium, designated strain JA633(T), was purified from a photoheterotrophic enrichment culture obtained from black sand of a lagoon. Cells of strain JA633(T) were coccoid-spherical, Gram-stain-negative and motile by means of polar flagella. Strain JA633(T) had an obligate requirement for NaCl and could tolerate up to 4% (w/v) NaCl. Internal photosynthetic membranes were present as vesicles. Photo-organoheterotrophy was the only growth mode observed. Strain JA633(T) contained bacteriochlorophyll a and a major (>85%) unidentified carotenoid of the spirilloxanthin series. Thiamine and p-aminobenzoic acid were required for growth. Major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c/C(18 : 1)ω6c, C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 1)ω7c/C(16 : 1)ω6c. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphotidylcholine and an unknown aminophospholipid were the major polar lipids in strain JA633(T). The DNA G+C content of strain JA633(T) was 64.5 mol%. Strain JA633(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of Thiorhodococcus kakinadensis (96.9%), Thiophaeococcus mangrovi (96.3%) and Thiorhodococcus bheemlicus (96.2%), which belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria. However, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JA633(T) formed a separate clade along with Thiophaeococcus mangrovi JA304(T) whereas the members of the genus Thiorhodococcus remained as two distinct phylogenetic lineages. Based on morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and molecular evidence, strain JA633(T) was significantly different from the type strain of Thiophaeococcus mangrovi of the family Chromatiaceae. It is thus proposed that the strain be classified as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Thiophaeococcus fuscus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA633(T) ( = KCTC 15337(T) = NBRC 109958(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  19. Paraphyly of Cinclodes fuscus (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae): Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Camilo; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Maley, James M.; Lijtmaer, Dario A.; Tubaro, Pablo L.; Chesser, R. Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Andes are a hotspot of global avian diversity, but studies on the historical diversification of Andean birds remain relatively scarce. Evolutionary studies on avian lineages with Andean–Patagonian distributions have focused on reconstructing species-level phylogenies, whereas no detailed phylogeographic studies on widespread species have been conducted. Here, we describe phylogeographic patterns in the Bar-winged Cinclodes (Cinclodes fuscus), a widespread and common species of ovenbird (Furnariidae) that breeds from Tierra del Fuego to the northern Andes. Traditionally, C. fuscus has been considered a single species composed of nine subspecies, but its long and narrow range suggests the possibility of considerable genetic variation among populations. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes revealed three discrete and geographically coherent groups of C. fuscus, occupying the southern, central, and northern Andes. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that these groups were more closely related to other species of Cinclodes than to each other. Relationships of the southern and northern C. fuscus clades to other species of Cinclodes were straightforward; in combination with available information on plumage, behavioral, and vocal variation, this suggests that each should be recognized as a distinct biological species. The central Andean group was paraphyletic with respect to C. oustaleti, and relationships among these taxa and C. olrogi were poorly resolved. We suggest that the central Andean C. fuscus should also be considered a different species, pending new information to clarify species limits in this group. These new phylogenetic data, along with recently developed methods, allowed us to review the biogeography of the genus, confirming southern South America and the central Andes as important areas for the diversification of these birds.

  20. Mortality and physical damage of angled-and-released dusky flathead Platycephalus fuscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Cairns, Stuart C

    2008-08-27

    We completed 2 experiments to quantify the mortality and physical damage (fin, blood and scale loss) of angled dusky flathead Platycephalus fuscus during a live weigh-in tournament (Expt 1) and after being immediately released by anglers (Expt 2). In each experiment, 84 and 79 angled P. fuscus were placed into up to 6 replicate tanks and, along with appropriate numbers of controls, monitored for mortalities over 5 d. Five and 7 of the angled fish died within 12 h, providing mortalities of 3.6 and 8.9% in Expts 1 and 2, respectively. One control fish died, which was attributed to an incorrectly inserted tag. None of the continuous or categorical variables collected during angling and subsequent release, or the experimental design, could explain the few observed mortalities to treatment fish. However, knotted large-mesh landing nets caused significantly greater fin damage than knotless fine-mesh designs in both experiments (p Expt 1) were significantly poorer than the environment from which the fish were caught (p < 0.05). These latter differences may have had a cumulative negative impact on fish that manifested as the observed deaths. Simple changes to the post-capture handling of P. fuscus, involving appropriate landing nets and live wells, should reduce some angling impacts on this species.

  1. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.

  2. Physico-chemical and sensory attributes of low-sodium restructured caiman steaks containing microbial transglutaminase and salt replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Lima, Bruno R C Costa; Suman, Surendranath P; Lazaro, Cesar A; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Conte-Junior, Carlos A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Santos, Erica B; Silva, Teofilo J P

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of low-sodium restructured caiman steaks containing microbial transglutaminase (MTG) and salt replacers (KCl and MgCl2). Trimmings from caiman carcasses were processed into restructured steaks with or without MTG and salt replacers; the five treatments were CON (1.5% NaCl), T-1 (1.5% NaCl+1% MTG), T-2 (0.75% NaCl+1% MTG+0.75% KCl), T-3 (0.75% NaCl+1% MTG+0.75% MgCl2), and T-4 (0.75% NaCl+1% MTG+0.375% KCl+0.375% MgCl2). T-4 demonstrated the greatest (P0.05) to controls in salty flavor. Our findings suggest that the combination of MTG, KCl, and MgCl2 can be employed as a suitable salt reduction strategy in restructured caiman steaks without compromising sensory attributes and consumer acceptance. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  3. El pepino de mar, Isostichopus fuscus, recurso marino en peligro con altas necesidades de manejo

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; Guerra-Lima, Z.I.,; Collado, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    El pepino de mar (Isostichopus fuscus) es un equinodermo holoturoideo que habita sobre fondos rocosos y arrecifes de coral a lo largo del Pacífico Oriental Tropical. En Panamá, no existe una cultura para su consumo, sin embargo, al tener alta demanda en países asiáticos, es un recurso pesquero alternativo que requiere medidas de manejo y conservación. A la fecha, sólo se conocen para el país aspectos taxonómicos y de distribución .Existen informes de extracción ilegal de I. fuscusy otras esp...

  4. Phylogeography of colour polymorphism in the coral reef fish Pseudochromis fuscus, from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Vanessa; van Herwerden, Lynne; Munday, Philip L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2005-11-01

    Body colour has played a significant role in the evolution of coral reef fishes, but the phylogenetic level at which colour variation is expressed and the evolutionary processes driving the development and persistence of different colour patterns are often poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic relationships between multiple colour morphs of Pseudochromis fuscus (family Pseudochromidae), both within and among geographic locations. Pseudochromis fuscus is currently described as a single species, but exhibits at least six discrete colour morphs throughout its range. In this study, P. fuscus from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, formed three genetically distinct clades based on mitochondrial DNA (control region) sequence data: (1) yellow and brown morphs from the GBR and southern PNG, as well as an orange morph from southern PNG; (2) a pink morph from southern PNG; and (3) all three morphs (pink, orange and grey) found in Kimbe Bay, northern PNG. The three groups showed deep levels of divergence ( d=14.6-25.4%), suggesting that P. fuscus is a complex of polychromatic species, rather than a single widespread species with many different colour morphs. Population genetic analyses indicate that the three clades have experienced unique evolutionary histories, possibly from differential effects of sea level fluctuations, barriers to gene flow and historical biogeography.

  5. Area occupancy and detection probabilities of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) using nest-box surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Kurtis R. Moseley; Craig W. Stihler; John W. Edwards

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant with the delisting of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service mandated a 10-year post-delisting monitoring effort to ensure that subspecies population and distribution stability will persist following a changed regulatory status. Although criticized for the...

  6. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris oral cavity and cloaca, originating from Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil Microflora bacteriana aeróbica da cavidade oral e cloaca de jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris procedentes do Zoológico de João Pessoa, PB, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.A. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%, Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%, Escherichia coli (13.68% and Shigella sp. (11.58%, and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05% and Salmonella sp. (1.05%.This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis and injuries caused by crocodilians.O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar a microflora bacteriana aeróbica presente na mucosa da cavidade oral e da cloaca de exemplares de jacarés-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris nascidos e criados em cativeiro no Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, localizado na cidade de João Pessoa - PB. As bactérias mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus sp. (14,74%, Corynebacterium sp.(13,68%, Escherichia coli (13,68% e Shigella sp. (11,58%, e as menos prevalentes foram Citrobacter sp.(1,05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1,05% e Salmonella sp. (1,05%. Ressalta-se a importância da participação desses microrganismos em processos infecciosos (septicemias e em feridas provocadas por crocodilianos.

  7. Satellite tracking of the migratory pathways of the first-year Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus departing from the breeding grounds of different subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pütz, Klemens; Rahbek, Carsten; Saurola, Pertti

    2007-01-01

    of the other subspecies. In addition, first-year birds from cross-breeding experiments between the two subspecies (fuscus x intermedius) were also equipped with satellite transmitters. In total, eleven first-year birds were successfully tracked during their initial autumn migration, at least one from each...... study group. First-year birds from the Danish intermedius subspecies migrated either southwest along the coast of the North Sea or through central Europe to Algeria. By contrast, first-year birds from the Finnish fuscus subspecies migrated on a south-southeastern course towards Ukraine and the Bosporus......The migratory behaviour of two Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus subspecies, fuscus and intermedius, was studied using satellite telemetry. To this end, first-year birds were equipped with satellite transmitters and released either at their natal site, or after transferring to a breeding site...

  8. Sex reversal effects on Caiman latirostris exposed to environmentally relevant doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C; Rey, F; Rodriguez, H; Ramos, J G; Sirosky, P; Larriera, A; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2003-10-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) alters the development and function of reproductive organs in several species. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical that leaches from dental materials and plastic food and beverage containers. BPA has been found in sewage, surface and drinking water, and therefore poses a potentially significant risk for human and wildlife. Prenatal exposure of rodents to environmentally relevant doses of BPA alters the development of the reproductive organs of male and female offspring. Species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) could act as sentinels of ecosystem health by providing sensitive biomarkers of endocrine disruptor's effects. We selected Caiman latirostris as an animal model to study endocrine disruption caused by BPA. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure in ovum to BPA could cause estrogen-like effects on the reproductive system of C. latirostris. Sex determination and gonadal histoarchitecture were the endpoints evaluated after in ovum exposure to different doses of BPA and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). We confirmed that C. latirostris is a species with TSD and additionally demonstrated that BPA causes estrogen-like developmental effects by reversing gonadal sex and altering gonadal histoarchitecture. Differences in responses to BPA and E(2) in our in vivo system were on the order of 100-fold. In contrast published in vitro studies have reported differences on the order of 10,000x or more. These results support the utility of C. latirostris, a species in which sex determination is temperature dependent, as a tool in assessing estrogenic activity in vivo and as a sentinel to monitor EDs in aquatic environment.

  9. Unique characteristics of bat rabies viruses in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, April D; Gordy, Paul A; Bowen, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Rabies virus infection has been documented in several North American bat species, including Eptesicus fuscus. The virus-host relationship between bats and rabies virus (RV) is not well understood. The incidence of non-lethal RV exposure, based on the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies, demonstrates that exposure to RV does not always lead to clinical infection in bats. It is unknown how the route of exposure, rabies virus variant, or health of the bat affects the outcome following exposure. This paper describes the pathogenesis of two big brown bat RV variants in homologous host species. Our study demonstrates that RV variants obtained from the same species of bat from similar geographical areas may result in a diverse clinical progression of disease.

  10. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  11. MORFOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF THE ALLIGATOR Caiman latirostris OBSERVAÇÕES MORFOLÓGICAS E HISTOQUÍMICAS SOBRE AS GLÂNDULAS SALIVARES DO JACARÉ Caiman latirostris (Crocodilia Reptilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Herbert de Faria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Using histological and histochemical methods for glicoconjugates, the present work on the salivary glands of the alligator Caiman latirostris (Crocodilia Reptilia, was developed. On the bases of the results obtained, the authors believe that those glands are not well developed, appearing as unicellular structures goblet-like cells, in the stratified squamous epithelium of the oral cavity. Scattered glands alveolus without excretory tubules which extend directly with the epitelium were also present. By means of histochemical methods for glicoconjugates, it was possible to detect the glicoprotein and the sialic acid in the glandular formation of these animals.

    Empregando-se métodos histológicos e histoquímicos para glicoconjugados, desenvolveu-se um trabalho sobre glândulas salivares do jacaré Caiman latirostris. Com base nos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que estas glândulas são pouco desenvolvidas, aparecendo como estruturas unicelulares, semelhantes às células caliciformes, incluídas no epitélio estratificado pavimentoso da cavidade oral. Observou-se, ainda, a presença de esparsos alvéolos glandulares desprovidos de ductos excretores que continuam diretamente com o epitélio. Por meio de métodos histoquímicos para glicoconjugados, foi possível a detecção de glicoproteína e de ácido siálico nas formações glandulares desses animais.

  12. Total and differential white blood cell counts in Caiman latirostris after in ovo and in vivo exposure to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, María A; Romito, María L; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural activities associated mainly with soybean crops affect the natural environment and wildlife by habitat destruction and the extensive use of agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of the insecticides cypermethrin (CYP) and endosulfan (END) in Caiman latirostris analyzing total blood cell count (TWBC) and differential white blood cell count (DWBC) after in ovo and in vivo exposure. Eggs (in ovo) and hatchlings (in vivo) from nests harvested in natural habitats were artificially incubated and reared under controlled conditions in the Proyecto Yacaré (Gob.Santa Fe/MUPCN) facilities. Exposure of embryos was performed by topication on the eggshell during the first stage of development. The treatments were distilled water (negative control; NC), ethanol (vehicle control; VC), four groups treated with different concentrations of CYP and four groups with END. In vivo exposure was performed by immersion; treatments were NC, VC, two groups exposed to CYP and two to END. After embryonic exposure to the insecticides, no differences were found in TWBC or DWBC among the neonates exposed to pesticides versus controls. In the in vivo scenario, similar results were obtained for TWBC, but DWBC data showed differences between NC hatchlings and CYP-1 hosts for heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte levels, and between NC and END-1 hosts for lymphocyte and monocyte levels. Research on the effects of pesticide exposure on this species is of special interest not only to assess the impact on caiman populations, but also to further characterize the species as a potential sentinel of ecosystem health.

  13. Nonrandom patterns of roost emergence in big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, E.H.; O'Shea, T.J.; Brigham, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    In most colonial species of bats individuals emerge en masse from day roosts each evening to begin foraging. Although some aspects of emergence behavior are understood, one previously unexplored area is the specific order in which individuals emerge. The goal of our research was to determine if big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, fitted with passive integrated transponder tags emerge from roosts in buildings each evening in a nonrandom order. We assessed relative and absolute order of emergence to determine if order is concordant across nights and whether individuals consistently emerge in close association with specific roost mates. We found significant concordance in rank order among nights at all roosts. At 5 roosts concordance decreased as time between dates increased. Association rates between individuals were low, and temporal analyses revealed that associations rapidly degraded over time, indicating that bats do not emerge each evening consistently with the same group of roost mates. We discuss how social structure, information transfer, and/or individual energetic needs could be responsible for the observed nonrandom patterns of emergence. Our results suggest that emergence order represents behavioral information that traditionally has been overlooked and that might be useful for characterizing aspects of the ecology and social behavior of bats and other species with cryptic behavior. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Binaural interaction in the inferior colliculus of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong; Jen, Philip H-S

    2003-03-01

    Binaural interaction plays an important role in shaping response properties of central auditory neurons. Using single unit recording and iontophoresis, we examined frequency tuning curves (FTCs), interaural intensity difference (IID) curves, and rate-intensity functions of inferior collicular (IC) neurons of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, under closed system or free field stimulation conditions. We isolated 46 EI (excitation-inhibition), 24 EO (monaural excitation) and 6 EE (excitation-excitation) neurons. Inhibitory FTCs of EI neurons plotted under ipsilateral sound stimulation fell within (n=10, 22%), partly overlapped (n=26, 56%), or almost entirely encompassed (n=10, 22%) excitatory FTCs plotted by contralateral sound stimulation. The discharge rate of EI neurons was a sigmoid function of IID. The peak discharge rate occurred at IIDs at which contralateral sound stimulation was stronger than ipsilateral sound stimulation. Application of bicuculline, an antagonist for gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors, raised the IID curves and broadened the excitatory FTCs but partly or completely abolished the ipsilateral inhibitory FTCs. For EE neurons, excitatory FTCs and rate-intensity functions plotted by contralateral sound stimulation were always broader and higher than those plotted by ipsilateral sound stimulation. The sharpness of FTCs of EI neurons was significantly greater at ipsilateral 30 degrees than at 30 degrees contralateral. This direction-dependent frequency tuning was effectively abolished by occlusion of the ipsilateral ear. Possible mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed.

  15. Broadband noise exposure does not affect hearing sensitivity in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Hom, Kelsey N; Warnecke, Michaela; Simmons, James A

    2016-04-01

    In many vertebrates, exposure to intense sounds under certain stimulus conditions can induce temporary threshold shifts that reduce hearing sensitivity. Susceptibility to these hearing losses may reflect the relatively quiet environments in which most of these species have evolved. Echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) live in extremely intense acoustic environments in which they navigate and forage successfully, both alone and in company with other bats. We hypothesized that bats may have evolved a mechanism to minimize noise-induced hearing losses that otherwise could impair natural echolocation behaviors. The hearing sensitivity of seven big brown bats was measured in active echolocation and passive hearing tasks, before and after exposure to broadband noise spanning their audiometric range (10-100 kHz, 116 dB SPL re. 20 µPa rms, 1 h duration; sound exposure level 152 dB). Detection thresholds measured 20 min, 2 h or 24 h after exposure did not vary significantly from pre-exposure thresholds or from thresholds in control (sham exposure) conditions. These results suggest that big brown bats may be less susceptible to temporary threshold shifts than are other terrestrial mammals after exposure to similarly intense broadband sounds. These experiments provide fertile ground for future research on possible mechanisms employed by echolocating bats to minimize hearing losses while orienting effectively in noisy biological soundscapes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Hepatic Lipidosis in a Research Colony of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Brabb, Thea; Miller, Kimberly E; Covey, Ellen; Lencioni, Karen L

    2015-04-01

    During a nearby construction project, a sudden decrease in food intake and guano production occurred in an outdoor colony of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and one animal was found dead. Investigation revealed that the project was generating a large amount of noise and vibration, which disturbed the bats' feeding. Consequently the bats were moved into an indoor enclosure away from the construction noises, and the colony resumed eating. Over the next 3 wk, additional animals presented with clinical signs of lethargy, weight loss, ecchymoses, and icterus and were necropsied. Gross necropsy of the affected bats revealed large, pale yellow to tan, friable livers with rounded edges that floated when placed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. Some bats had ecchymoses on the webbing and skin and gross perirenal hemorrhage. Histologic examination showed hepatic and renal tubular lipidosis. The clinical and pathologic signs of hemorrhage and icterus were suggestive of hepatic failure. Hepatic lipidosis was attributed to stress and inappetence associated with environmental perturbations. Once the environmental stressor was removed, the colony morbidity and mortality decreased. However, 2 y later, a series of new environmental stressors triggered additional deaths associated with hepatic lipidosis. Over a 9-y period, 21 cases of hepatic lipidosis were diagnosed in this bat colony.

  17. Microhabitat selection of the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus Miller) in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus (Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel; VNFS) is a rare Sciurid that occurrs in the Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia and northwest Virginia. Previous work on this subspecies has confirmed close associations with Picea rubens (Red Spruce) at the landscape and stand levels in the region. However, ongoing Red Spruce restoration actions using canopy-gap creation to release single or small groups of trees requires a better understanding of within-stand habitat selection of VNFS to assess potential short- and medium-term impacts. To address these questions, we conducted a microhabitat study using radio-collared squirrels in montane conifer and mixed conifer—hardwood stands. We used points obtained from telemetry surveys and randomly generated points within each squirrel's home range to compare microhabitat variables for 13 individuals. We found that VNFS preferentially selected plots with conifer-dominant overstories and deep organic-soil horizons. VNFS avoided plots with dense Red Spruce regeneration in the understory in stands with hardwood-dominated overstories—the types of areas targeted for Red Spruce restoration. We also opportunistically searched for hypogeal fungi at telemetry points and found 3 species of Elaphomyces during our surveys. Our results indicate that microhabitat selection is associated with Red Spruce-dominant forests. Efforts to restore Red Spruce where hardwoods dominate in the central Appalachians may improve the connectivity and extent of habitat of VNFS.

  18. Tactic changes in dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus sneaker males: effects of body size and nest availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, T; Kaneko, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2013-02-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine the effects of nest availability and body size on changes in male mating tactics from sneaking to nest-holding in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus. In the field, the body size of nest-holding males decreased from early to mid-breeding season, suggesting the possibility of a change in the tactics of sneaker males to nest-holding. Many sneaker males did not use vacant spawning nests even when size-matched nests were available, but they continued to reproduce as sneakers. Similarly, in aquarium experiments with available vacant nests, some sneaker males became nest-holders irrespective of their body size, but some did not. These results showed that nest availability is not a limiting factor for changes in tactics by sneaker males in this species. Because tactic-unchanged sneaker males were co-housed with larger nest-holding males in the tanks, the body size of nearby nest-holding males may have affected the decision to change tactics for sneaker males. Moreover, smaller individuals among tactic-changed males tended to spend more time until spawning, probably because they had relatively larger costs and smaller benefits of reproduction as nest-holding males compared to larger males. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Categorización del estado de conservación de los caimanes (yacarés de la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller, Tomás

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Después de transcurridos más de 10 años desde la primera Lista Roja de la herpetofauna dela República Argentina realizada por la Asociación Herpetológica Argentina en el año 2000, se re-categorizaron las dos especies de caimanes presentes en el país (Caiman latirostris y C. yacare incorporando nueva información biológica, biogeográfica y ecológica y, correcciones metodológicas. Como resultado, ambas especies fueron categorizadas como No Amenazadas, en base a información actualizada sobre sus áreas de distribución y su abundancia. Los criterios aplicados para el desarrollo de los programas de manejo de ambas especies en Argentina han permitido ampliar el conocimiento de las mismas en una gran diversidad de aspectos. El aprovechamiento sostenible de los yacarés mediante la metodología de cría en granjas o "rancheo" ha demostrado ser de bajo impacto para las poblaciones silvestres y ha revalorizado los humedales que estos reptiles habitan. After more than a decade from the first Red List of the Herpetofauna of Argentina assessed in 2000, we reclassified the two species of argentine caimans, starting from actual information about their biology, biogeography and ecology and including methodological adjustments. As a result, both species Caiman latirostris and C. yacare were included in the Not Endangered category, based on new records about their geographic distribution and populations densities. The criteria applied to the development of management programs of crocodilians in Argentina has improved the knowledge of both species and made a great and wide contribution to several aspects of their biology. The sustainable use of both species of crocodilians has proved to have a minimum impact on wild populations and has put a new value on the wetlands inhabited by this reptiles.

  20. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  1. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  2. Rabies Virus Infection in Eptesicus fuscus Bats Born in Captivity (Naïve Bats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, April D.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2. PMID:23741396

  3. Ectoparasites in an urban population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Ectoparasites of an urban population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado, were investigated during summers 2002, 2003, and 2004. Eleven species of ectoparasites were found (the macronyssid mite Steatonyssus occidentalis, the wing mite Spinturnix bakeri, the myobiid mites Acanthophthirius caudata and Pteracarus aculeus, the chirodiscid mite Alabidocarpus eptesicus, the demodicid mite Demodex sp., the chigger Leptotrombidium myotis, the soft tick Carios kelleyi, the batfly Basilia forcipata, the batbug Cimex pilosellus, and the flea Myodopsylla borealis). Five species were analyzed by prevalence and intensity (C. pilosellus, M. borealis, L. myotis, S. bakeri, and S. occidentalis) based on 2,161 counts of 1,702 marked individual bats over the 3 summer study periods. We investigated 4 factors potentially influencing prevalence and intensity: age class of the host, reproductive status of adult female hosts, roosts in which the hosts were found, and abiotic conditions during the year sampled. The macronyssid mite, S. occidentalis, was the most prevalent and abundant ectoparasite. Adult big brown bats had more ectoparasites than volant juveniles for most of the species analyzed. In a sample of known age bats at 1 large colony, bats of 4 yr of age or greater had higher ectoparasite loads of S. occidentalis and S. bakeri when compared with younger bats. Lactating female bats had the highest prevalence and intensities of most ectoparasites. Annual differences in ectoparasite prevalence and intensity were related to temperature and humidity, which can affect the nidicolous species of ectoparasites. Residents of 2 buildings sprayed insecticides in response to Cimex sp., and this appeared to reduce ectoparasitism of S. occidentalis and C. pilosellus present at these buildings. Intensity of S. occidentalis had no influence on annual survival of big brown bats. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  4. Caracterización mineralógica de tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes para su beneficio por molienda diferencial

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    Juan M. Menéndez-Aguado

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron mineralógicamente las tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes de la región de Moa, con vistas a beneficiar y concentrar las fases zeolíticas mediante la molienda diferencial. Se emplearon técnicas de difracción de rayos X, análisis químico, análisis térmicos, microscopía óptica y microscopía electrónica de barrido para determinar, en la muestra inicial, la composición mineralógica cualitativa y cuantificar las fases presentes, establecer la textura, el grado de intercrecimiento y el tamaño de los granos. El software AUTOQUAN permitió determinar cuantitativamente las fases minerales en las diferentes clases granulométricas. Mediante la molienda diferencial se logró un concentrado del 95 % de zeolitas y contenido de clinoptilolita del 72 % en las fracciones menores de 0,074 mm al emplear molienda en seco durante 5 minutos y clasificación granulométrica por vía húmeda.

  5. An analysis of correspondence between unique rabies virus variants and divergent big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) mitochondrial DNA lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubaum, M.A.; Shankar, V.; Douglas, M.R.; Douglas, M.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    The literature supports that unique rabies virus (RABV) variants are often compartmentalized in different species of bats. In Colorado, two divergent mtDNA lineages of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) co-occur. RABV associated with this species also segregates into two clades. We hypothesized that unique RABV variants might be associated with mtDNA lineages of Colorado big brown bats. DNA was extracted from brain tissue of rabid big brown bats, the ND2 gene was amplified to determine mtDNA lineage, and the lineage was compared to a previously derived phylogenetic analysis of the RABV N gene. No correspondence was found between host bat lineage and RABV variant. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Echolocation behaviour of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) in an obstacle avoidance task of increasing difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sändig, Sonja; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette

    2014-08-15

    Four big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were challenged in an obstacle avoidance experiment to localize vertically stretched wires requiring progressively greater accuracy by diminishing the wire-to-wire distance from 50 to 10 cm. The performance of the bats decreased with decreasing gap size. The avoidance task became very difficult below a wire separation of 30 cm, which corresponds to the average wingspan of E. fuscus. Two of the bats were able to pass without collisions down to a gap size of 10 cm in some of the flights. The other two bats only managed to master gap sizes down to 20 and 30 cm, respectively. They also performed distinctly worse at all other gap sizes. With increasing difficulty of the task, the bats changed their flight and echolocation behaviour. Especially at gap sizes of 30 cm and below, flight paths increased in height and flight speed was reduced. In addition, the bats emitted approach signals that were arranged in groups. At all gap sizes, the largest numbers of pulses per group were observed in the last group before passing the obstacle. The more difficult the obstacle avoidance task, the more pulses there were in the groups and the shorter the within-group pulse intervals. In comparable situations, the better-performing bats always emitted groups with more pulses than the less well-performing individuals. We hypothesize that the accuracy of target localization increases with the number of pulses per group and that each group is processed as a package. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Redescripción de la morfología larval externa de dos especies del grupo de Leptodactylus fuscus (Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    José A. Langone

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of Leptodactylus gracilis (D’Orbigny y Bibron, 1840 and L. mystacinus Bumeister, 1861 are re-described and compared with previous descriptions noting intraspecific variation in oral disccharacteristics (arrangement of papillae and rows of cornified teeth. The external morphological analysis of larvae of the Leptodactylus fuscus group suggest that the lack of comparable descriptions among species, as well as the lack of analyses of theirintraspecific variation, limits the use of larval characteristics for diagnostic purposes.

  8. Recent records and distribution of the Indian Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae from the southern Western Ghats, India

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    R. Sreehari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting four new records of Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 from four protected areas in Western Ghats including Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Tiger Reserve and Pampadum Shola National Park and one new site record outside a protected area from Pambanar Tea plantation in Idukki dt. situated in Kerala part of southern Western Ghats. An updated distribution map of Brown Mongoose in Western Ghats is presented here.  

  9. Neonatal expression of amh, sox9 and sf-1 mRNA in Caiman latirostris and effects of in ovo exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, Milena; Cocito, Laura; Rodríguez, Horacio A; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Ramos, Jorge G; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2013-09-15

    Caiman latirostris is a reptilian species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Male-to-female sex reversal can be achieved after in ovo estrogen/xenoestrogen exposure. This is known as hormone-dependent sex determination (HSD). The amh, sox9 and sf-1 genes are involved in sex determination, sex differentiation, and steroidogenesis. The aims of this study were: (a) to establish the expression patterns of amh, sox9 and sf-1 mRNA in the gonad-adrenal-mesonephros (GAM) complexes of neonatal TSD-male and TSD-female caimans, (b) to compare the expression of these genes between TSD-females and HSD-females (born from E2-exposed eggs incubated at the male-producing temperature) and (c) to evaluate whether in ovo exposure to a low dose of E2 or bisphenol A (BPA) or to a high dose of endosulfan (END) modifies amh, sox9 or sf-1 mRNA expressions in neonatal males. The mRNA expressions of amh, sox9 and sf-1 in GAM complexes from TSD-males and TSD-females and from HSD-females were quantitatively compared by RT-PCR. A sexually dimorphic pattern of amh and sox9 mRNA expression was found, with a higher expression in TSD-males than in TSD-females. sf-1 mRNA did not differ between TSD-males and TSD-females. HSD-females exhibited a higher expression of sox9 than TSD-females. In males, increased mRNA expression of sex-determining genes was observed after in ovo exposure to END. E2 decreased sox9 but increased sf-1 mRNA expression. Changes induced by BPA were evident although not significant. These results provide new insights into the potential mechanisms that lead to the gonadal histo-functional alterations observed in caimans exposed to contaminated environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Winter Latitudinal Population Age-Structure of a Migratory Seagull (Larus fuscus Differs between Its Two Major Migratory Flyways

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    Paulo A. M. Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration is energy-demanding and is expected to greatly affect the distribution of individuals over the species range and condition the choice of migratory routes. We investigated the wintering distributions and migratory flyways use of geographically contiguous populations of Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus and difference in population winter age structure between migratory flyways. Recoveries of metal ringed pulli from Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were used. The results showed that contiguous populations can have distinct wintering distribution patterns and migratory flyways. More importantly, we found that depending on the place of origin, the population winter distribution may or may not show a latitudinal cline in the age structure. The population migrating via the eastern Atlantic flyway (western flyway showed a winter age-related latitudinal cline, with adults staying at more northern latitudes than immatures. In contrast, no such pattern was found in the population migrating along the Mediterranean/Black sea flyway (eastern flyway. Interestingly, immatures within the eastern population showed a more dispersed pattern of migratory bearings. Overall, our results enhance the importance of the migration flyway in shaping the age structure of populations in the winter quarters and how it may influence the effect of other factors like sexual maturation.

  11. Male and female meiosis in the mountain scorpion Zabius fuscus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): heterochromatin, rDNA and TTAGG telomeric repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mattoni, Camilo Iván; Mola, Liliana María

    2015-08-01

    All cytogenetically studied scorpions present male achiasmatic meiosis and lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In contrast, information about female meiosis in scorpions is scarce due to the difficulty of finding meiotic cells. The genus Zabius includes three described species and no chromosome studies have been performed on it until now. We analyzed the constitutive heterochromatin distribution, NORs and telomeric sequences in mitosis and meiosis of males and females of different populations of Zabius fuscus. All specimens presented 2n = 18 holokinetic chromosomes that gradually decreased in size. Male meiosis presented nine bivalents and a polymorphism for one reciprocal translocation in one population. Telomeric signals were detected at every terminal region, confirming also the presence of a (TTAGG) n motif in Buthidae. Constitutive heterochromatin was found in three chromosome pairs at a terminal region; moreover, NORs were embedded in the heterochromatic region of the largest pair. Chromosome size and landmarks allowed us to propose the chromosomes involved in the rearrangement. In four females, cells at different prophase I stages were analyzed. We describe a diffuse stage and the presence of ring-shaped bivalents. We discuss the possible origin of these bivalents in the framework of chiasmatic or achiasmatic female meiosis. These results contribute to increase the scarce evidence of female meiosis in scorpions and raise new questions about its mechanism.

  12. Biologia reprodutiva do peixe-donzela, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, em arrecifes rochosos no nordeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the damselfish, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, in the coastal rocky reefs of northeastern Brazil

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    Liliane de L. G. Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva do peixe-donzela, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, 1830 (Perciforemes, Pomacentridae, foi estudada nos arrecifes rochosos da praia de Búzios, Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente, medidos, pesados, dissecados, as gônadas foram removidas, pesadas e examinadas para identificação do sexo. Avaliação macroscópica dos estádios de maturação gonadal foi realizada. Um total de 549 exemplares foi capturado durante o período de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005. Foi registrada uma maior freqüência de fêmeas (78%, em relação aos machos (22%. Foi observado que 50% da população das fêmeas e dos machos iniciaram o processo de maturação gonadal com comprimento de 6,2 cm e 7,0 cm, respectivamente. Em relação à fecundidade absoluta, o número de ovócitos vitelogênicos variou entre 1790 a 14780, com média de 6832. A análise da relação gonadossomática para ambos os sexos indicou que o período de fevereiro a agosto de 2005 foi associado a um longo período de repouso gonadal. Os peixes foram considerados aptos à reprodução a partir de janeiro e em setembro-outubro com dois picos de desova registrados nesses meses, com desova do tipo parcelada. Cinco estádios de maturação gonadal foram identificados através de análises macroscópicas das gônadas: imaturo, em maturação, maduro, esgotado e repouso.Reproductive biology of the damselfish, Stegastes fuscus Cuvier, 1830 (Perciformes: Pomacentridae, was studied in the coastal rocky reefs of Búzios Beach, Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The fish were captured on a monthly basis, and were measured, weighed, dissected and the gonads were removed, weighed and examined in order to separate males and females. Macroscopic characterization of the stages of gonadal maturation was carried out. A total of 549 samples were captured from October 2004 to September 2005. A higher frequency of females (78% was registered

  13. Occurrence, biology and behavior of Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Ocorrência, biologia e comportamento de Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae em Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of some Pleurosticti Scarabaeidae as agricultural pests allied to information absence on the species that occur in Brazilian Central-West region, on studies occurrence, biology and behavior on this group of scarabs were conducted. Biology and behavioral studies started with Liogenys fuscus Blanchard, 1850 (Melolonthinae, a very common species and were developed in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. Adult beetles were collected from light traps from February 2005 to January 2007, at the experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul in Aquidauana (UEMS. In the laboratory adults were placed in plastic containers with soil with sprouts of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Poaceae. Eggs were transferred to a climatized chamber at 26 ± 1º C with a 12hourlight, 12hour darkness photoperiod cycle. Adult flight activity occurred in August and in September to December from 06:00 pm to 06:00 am, with the largest number of individuals flying from 07:00 to 10:00 pm. Eggs measured 1 x 1.5 mm and were laid individually or in groups in soil chambers; eggs were initially white and became yellow near hatching. The embryonic period lasted 14.3 days; first, second and third instars lasted 28.5, 48.8, and 68.2 days, respectively. The prepupal period lasted 120.2 days and the prepupa stayed inactive in soil. The mean duration of pupal stage was 27.5 days and the mean longevity of adults was 23.6 days. In laboratory the calling behavior between males and females was observed; copulation lasted, in mean, 25 minutes.Devido à importância de alguns Scarabaeidae Pleurosticti como causadores de danos à agricultura, aliada à ausência de informações sobre as espécies que ocorrem na região Centro Oeste, foram desenvolvidos estudos sobre a ocorrência, biologia e comportamento sobre este grupo de escarabeídeos. Foram iniciados com Liogenys fuscus Blanchard, 1850 (Melolonthinae, espécie muito comum em Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul

  14. Does advertisement call variation coincide with genetic variation in the genetically diverse frog taxon currently known as Leptodactylus fuscus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae?

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    W. RONALD HEYER

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The frog Leptodactylus fuscus is found throughout much of South America in open and disturbed habitats. Previous study of genetic differentiation in L. fuscus demonstrated that there was lack of genetic exchange among population units consistent with multiple species, rather than a single species. We examine advertisement vocalizations of L. fuscus to determine whether call variation coincides with genetic differentiation. Calls were analyzed for 32 individual frogs from 25 localities throughout the distributional range of L. fuscus. Although there is variation in calls among geographic samples, call variation is not concordant with genetic variation or geographic distance and the call variation observed is less than that typically found among other closely related species of Leptodactylus. This study is an example of the rare pattern of strong genetic differentiation unaccompanied by salient differences in advertisement calls. The relative infrequency of this pattern as currently understood may only reflect the lack of detailed analyses of genetic and acoustic differentiation within population systems currently understood as single species with substantial geographic distributions.A rã Leptodactylus fuscus é encontrada na maior parte da América do Sul em formações abertas ou em ambientes perturbados. Estudos anteriores de diferenciação genética mostraram ausência de fluxo gênico entre unidades populacionais, o que é compatível com a existência de diversas espécies em vez de uma única. Examinamos a vocalização de anúncio de L. fuscus com a finalidade de verificar se variações na vocalização coincidiam com a diferenciação genética. Foram analisadas vocalizações de 32 indivíduos provenientes de 25 localidades distribuídas em toda a área de distribuição da espécie. Embora exista variação geográfica na vocalização, essa diversificação não corresponde à diferenciação genética ou à distância geogr

  15. Variability in seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and associated factors in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Shea, Thomas J.; Bowen, Richard A.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Shankar, Vidya; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2001–2005 we sampled permanently marked big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at summer roosts in buildings at Fort Collins, Colorado, for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA). Seroprevalence was higher in adult females (17.9%, n = 2,332) than males (9.4%, n = 128; P = 0.007) or volant juveniles (10.2%, n = 738; Prabies viral RNA in oropharyngeal secretions of 261 seropositive bats or in organs of 13 euthanized seropositive bats. Survival of seropositive and seronegative bats did not differ. The presence of RVNA in serum of bats should not be interpreted as evidence for ongoing rabies infection.

  16. Satellite tracking of red-listed nominate lesser black-backed gulls (Larus f. fuscus: Habitat specialisation in foraging movements raises novel conservation needs

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    Risto Juvaste

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many other gull species, nominate lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus, nLBBG have shown generally decreasing population trends throughout their breeding area in northern and eastern Fennoscandia over the past decades and are now red-listed. Interspecific competition, predation, increased disturbance, organochlorine poisoning and food shortages were suggested as main reasons for the overall decrease. Here we contribute to a better understanding of population declines by comparing foraging movements of satellite tracked adult gulls in three geographical areas of Finland (West, South, and East that differ in their population trends. Our analysis examines potential differences and preferences in the feeding site behaviour of adult gulls. Our comparison of the three geographical areas showed that nLBBGs preferred feeding at fur farms in West Finland, waste dumps in South Finland, and lakes and fields in East Finland. We found individual gulls of this purportedly generalist species to be highly specialised in their foraging behaviour, particularly those that might be associated with their survival probabilities. We hypothesise that differences in foraging behaviour and food availability during the breeding season are partially responsible for differences in demographic trends between populations. Specifically, we identify potential local conservation problems such as shooting in birds visiting fur farms. Our data suggest that the effective conservation and management of endangered nLBBGs could be aided by simple actions in the breeding areas in addition to better protection throughout the annual movement cycle.

  17. Lack of association between ectoparasite intensities and rabies virus neutralizing antibody seroprevalence in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Shankar, V.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, bat ectoparasites have been demonstrated to harbor pathogens of potential importance to humans. We evaluated antirabies antibody seroprevalence and the presence of ectoparasites in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) sampled in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado to investigate if an association existed between ectoparasite intensity and exposure to rabies virus (RV). We used logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criteria adjusted for sample size (AICc) in a post-hoc analysis to investigate the relative importance of three ectoparasite species, as well as bat colony size, year sampled, age class, colony size, and year interaction on the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in serum of wild E. fuscus. We obtained serum samples and ectoparasite counts from big brown bats simultaneously in 2002 and 2003. Although the presence of ectoparasites (Steatonyssus occidentalis and Spinturnix bakeri) were important in elucidating VNA seroprevalence, their intensities were higher in seronegative bats than in seropositive bats, and the presence of a third ectoparasite (Cimex pilosellus) was inconsequential. Colony size and year sampled were the most important variables in these AICc models. These findings suggest that these ectoparasites do not enhance exposure of big brown bats to RV. ?? 2007 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  18. Protection of bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against rabies following topical or oronasal exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stading, Ben; Ellison, James A; Carson, William C; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli Subbian; Rocke, Tonie E; Osorio, Jorge E

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is an ancient neglected tropical disease that causes tens of thousands of human deaths and millions of cattle deaths annually. In order to develop a new vaccine for potential use in bats, a reservoir of rabies infection for humans and animals alike, an in silico antigen designer tool was used to create a mosaic glycoprotein (MoG) gene using available sequences from the rabies Phylogroup I glycoprotein. This sequence, which represents strains more likely to occur in bats, was cloned into raccoonpox virus (RCN) and the efficacy of this novel RCN-MoG vaccine was compared to RCN-G that expresses the glycoprotein gene from CVS-11 rabies or luciferase (RCN-luc, negative control) in mice and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Mice vaccinated and boosted intradermally with 1 x 107 plaque forming units (PFU) of each RCN-rabies vaccine construct developed neutralizing antibodies and survived at significantly higher rates than controls. No significant difference in antibody titers or survival was noted between rabies-vaccinated groups. Bats were vaccinated either oronasally (RCN-G, RCN-MoG) with 5x107 PFU or by topical application in glycerin jelly (RCN-MoG, dose 2x108 PFU), boosted (same dose and route) at 46 days post vaccination (dpv), and then challenged with wild-type big brown variant RABV at 65 dpv. Prior to challenge, 90% of RCN-G and 75% of RCN-MoG oronasally vaccinated bats had detectable levels of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies. Bats from the RCN-luc and topically vaccinated RCN-MoG groups did not have measurable antibody responses. The RCN-rabies constructs were highly protective and not significantly different from each other. RCN-MoG provided 100% protection (n = 9) when delivered oronasally and 83% protection (n = 6) when delivered topically; protection provided by the RCN-G construct was 70% (n = 10). All rabies-vaccinated bats survived at a significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher rate than control bats (12%; n = 8). We have demonstrated the efficacy of

  19. Protection of bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against rabies following topical or oronasal exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stading, Ben; Ellison, James A.; Carson, William C.; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli Subbian; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is an ancient neglected tropical disease that causes tens of thousands of human deaths and millions of cattle deaths annually. In order to develop a new vaccine for potential use in bats, a reservoir of rabies infection for humans and animals alike, an in silico antigen designer tool was used to create a mosaic glycoprotein (MoG) gene using available sequences from the rabies Phylogroup I glycoprotein. This sequence, which represents strains more likely to occur in bats, was cloned into raccoonpox virus (RCN) and the efficacy of this novel RCN-MoG vaccine was compared to RCN-G that expresses the glycoprotein gene from CVS-11 rabies or luciferase (RCN-luc, negative control) in mice and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Mice vaccinated and boosted intradermally with 1 x 107 plaque forming units (PFU) of each RCN-rabies vaccine construct developed neutralizing antibodies and survived at significantly higher rates than controls. No significant difference in antibody titers or survival was noted between rabies-vaccinated groups. Bats were vaccinated either oronasally (RCN-G, RCN-MoG) with 5x107 PFU or by topical application in glycerin jelly (RCN-MoG, dose 2x108 PFU), boosted (same dose and route) at 46 days post vaccination (dpv), and then challenged with wild-type big brown variant RABV at 65 dpv. Prior to challenge, 90% of RCN-G and 75% of RCN-MoG oronasally vaccinated bats had detectable levels of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies. Bats from the RCN-luc and topically vaccinated RCN-MoG groups did not have measurable antibody responses. The RCN-rabies constructs were highly protective and not significantly different from each other. RCN-MoG provided 100% protection (n = 9) when delivered oronasally and 83% protection (n = 6) when delivered topically; protection provided by the RCN-G construct was 70% (n = 10). All rabies-vaccinated bats survived at a significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher rate than control bats (12%; n = 8). We have demonstrated the

  20. Reporte de albinismo en Podiceps major, Pelecanus thagus y Cinclodes fuscus y revisión de aves silvestres albinas del Perú

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    Miriam Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos observaciones de individuos albinos en tres especies de aves peruanas, el Zambullidor Grande (Podiceps major, el Pelícano peruano (Pelecanus thagus y el Churrete cordillerano (Cinclodes fuscus. Los individuos eran albinos parciales casi totalmente blancos, aparentemente adultos, que mostraron un comportamiento normal entre sus conespecíficos. La supervivencia después de varios meses pudo ser comprobada para el Pelícano peruano y el Churrete cordillerano. Debido a que la información publicada sobre albinismo en aves peruanas es muy escasa, se realizó una revisión y se recopilaron registros para otras nueve especies que son también presentados.

  1. Lack of conventional oxygen-linked proton and anion binding sites does not impair allosteric regulation of oxygen binding in dwarf caiman hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Storz, Jay F.; Gorr, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other vertebrate hemoglobins (Hbs) whose high intrinsic O2 affinities are reduced by red cell allosteric effectors (mainly protons, CO2, organic phosphates, and chloride ions), crocodilian Hbs exhibit low sensitivity to organic phosphates and high sensitivity to bicarbonate (HCO3−), which is believed to augment Hb-O2 unloading during diving and postprandial alkaline tides when blood HCO3− levels and metabolic rates increase. Examination of α- and β-globin amino acid sequences of dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) revealed a unique combination of substitutions at key effector binding sites compared with other vertebrate and crocodilian Hbs: β82Lys→Gln, β143His→Val, and β146His→Tyr. These substitutions delete positive charges and, along with other distinctive changes in residue charge and polarity, may be expected to disrupt allosteric regulation of Hb-O2 affinity. Strikingly, however, P. palpebrosus Hb shows a strong Bohr effect, and marked deoxygenation-linked binding of organic phosphates (ATP and DPG) and CO2 as carbamate (contrasting with HCO3− binding in other crocodilians). Unlike other Hbs, it polymerizes to large complexes in the oxygenated state. The highly unusual properties of P. palpebrosus Hb align with a high content of His residues (potential sites for oxygenation-linked proton binding) and distinctive surface Cys residues that may form intermolecular disulfide bridges upon polymerization. On the basis of its singular properties, P. palpebrosus Hb provides a unique opportunity for studies on structure-function coupling and the evolution of compensatory mechanisms for maintaining tissue O2 delivery in Hbs that lack conventional effector-binding residues. PMID:23720132

  2. Temperature- vs. estrogen-induced sex determination in Caiman latirostris embryos: Both females, but with different expression patterns of key molecules involved in ovarian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesini, Guillermina; Stoker, Cora; Galoppo, Germán H; Durando, Milena L; Tschopp, María V; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica M; Ramos, Jorge G

    2018-04-01

    Caiman latirostris is a species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), which implies that the incubation temperature of the eggs is the main factor that determines the sex during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP). However, estrogens play a critical role in this process. The administration of 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) previous to TSP overrides the effects of male incubation temperature, producing phenotypic females. This effect has been defined as sex reversal or estrogen-induced sex determination (E 2 SD). The aim of the present study is to describe similarities and differences in the effects of TSD and E 2 SD treatment conditions on ovary development. Our results show that the two treatment conditions studied are able to produce different ovaries. Treatment with E 2 modified the expression pattern of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor, and expression of the enzyme aromatase. Moreover, in E 2 SD females, the proliferation/apoptosis dynamic was also altered and high expression of TAp63 was observed suggesting the presence of greater DNA damage in germ cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the morphology of the female gonad of C. latirostris in three stages of embryonic development and shows the expression of TAp63 during the gonad development of a reptile. It is important to emphasize that the changes demonstrated in E 2 SD female gonads of embryos show that environmental compounds with proven estrogenic activity alter the follicular dynamics of C. latirostris in neonatal as much as in juvenile animals, endangering their reproductive health and possibly bringing consequences to ecology and evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bases ósseas e musculares dos cortes comerciais da cauda de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I.S. Figueiredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A exploração comercial de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare constitui importante cadeia produtiva no Estado de Mato Grosso. As características nutricionais e representatividade na massa corporal de crocodilianos tornaram a região da cauda objeto de estudos morfofisiológicos, evolutivos e tecnológicos. Como inexiste a caracterização anatômica dos músculos e ossos que constituem os cortes comerciais dessa região, objetivou-se descrever os músculos e correspondentes bases ósseas da cauda. Na descrição óssea, foram utilizados um exemplar adulto e seis juvenis. Para caracterização muscular, 24 espécimes juvenis foram conservados em freezer e dissecados a fresco, em ambos os antímeros, para verificação de simetria de ocorrência, fixações musculares, relacões de sintopia, forma e arquitetura muscular. As vértebras caudais são procélicas, exceto a primeira da série, e possuem na superfície ventral do corpo áreas para articulação com os processos hemais, exceto a primeira e as quatro ou cinco últimas. Os cortes comerciais da região são o filé de cauda, composto pelos músculos semiespinhal caudal, longuíssimo caudal, ilioisquiocaudal, caudofemoral longo, transverso e profundo da cauda, enquanto o corte ponta de cauda é constituído pelos músculos longuíssimo caudal e ilioisquiocaudal, com as cinco ou seis últimas vértebras caudais.

  4. Abundância e locais de ocorrência do jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris, Alligatoridae no noroeste da Ilha de Santa Catarina, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fusco-Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n4p183 Este é o primeiro estudo sobre a distribuição e abundância relativa do jacaré-de-papo-amarelo na Ilha de Santa Catarina. Foi estimada a abundância relativa do jacaré ao longo dos rios na Estação Ecológica de Carijós, além de verificar a sua ocorrência em toda a planície do Rio Ratones, noroeste da ilha. A média da abundância relativa foi de 0,25 (±0,07 jacarés/km percorrido, sendo obtida através de contagem noturna. Houve uma fraca correlação do número de jacarés com a temperatura do ar. Através de entrevistas com moradores locais e levantamento noturno da espécie em açudes e rios no entorno da unidade de conservação, foi verificado que os jacarés cobrem toda a planície do Rio Ratones, podendo ser encontrados em habitats naturais (rios, banhados, manguezais e artificiais (canais de drenagem e açudes. Embora este estudo revele informações básicas sobre a distribuição do Caiman latirostris no noroeste da ilha, ele serve como base para futuras pesquisas.

  5. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R. Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppM DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppM Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their controls, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats.

  6. Principales características y parámetros físicos y físico-mecánicos de tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes para la simulación de la preparación mecánica

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Orozco-Melgar; Juan M. Menéndez-Aguado; Alfredo L. Coello-Velázquez; Francisco Martins-Pole; Mafefe Frazao-Ndumba

    2007-01-01

    A partir de establecer las características y parámetros físicos y fisicomecánicos de las tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes se elaboró una propuesta de variante tecnológica para la preparación mecánica. La composición granulométrica de los productos triturados se determinó mediante el análisis de tamizado por vía seco-húmeda. El índice de Bond, la cinética de molienda y la función selección fueron establecidos según las metodologías recomendadas en la literatura. La función de rompimi...

  7. Baroreflex control of heart rate in the broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris is temperature dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette K; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    in systemic blood pressure (Psys). At 30 °C the baroreflex was more pronounced at a blood pressure lower than control value (52.3 cmH2O) with a maximal baroreflex gain of 1.97 beats min-1 cmH2O- 1 at a Psys of 41.9 cmH2O, and therefore seems to counteract hypotension. In contrast, the maximal baroreflex at 15......It has been suggested that ectothermic vertebrates primarily control blood pressure to protect the pulmonary vasculature from oedema caused by high pressure, while endothermic vertebrates control blood pressure to maintain adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues. In the present study we have...... °C was found at a Psys almost equal to the control value. The highest baroreflex gain in response to change in blood pressure was measured at the highest temperature. Thus, C. latirostris exhibit a temperature dependent barostatic response....

  8. Principales características y parámetros físicos y físico-mecánicos de tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes para la simulación de la preparación mecánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Orozco-Melgar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de establecer las características y parámetros físicos y fisicomecánicos de las tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes se elaboró una propuesta de variante tecnológica para la preparación mecánica. La composición granulométrica de los productos triturados se determinó mediante el análisis de tamizado por vía seco-húmeda. El índice de Bond, la cinética de molienda y la función selección fueron establecidos según las metodologías recomendadas en la literatura. La función de rompimiento se determinó por el método del monotamaño y el Kapur-modificado. Para garantizar la reproducibilidad de los resultados se empleó el método de la 2s. Entre los principales resultados se obtuvo que el modelo experimental se asemeja considerablemente al modelo de Rozin- Rammler y el índice de Bond es de 13,51 kWh/t. Para obtener un producto granulométricamente más homogéneo y más fino se empleó un esquema de dos etapas de trituración en circuito cerrado, que es más efectivo que el esquema de dos etapas con circuito abierto. El valor de d80 obtenido fue de 1,823 mm.

  9. The role of tragus on echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen; Moss, Cynthia

    2005-04-01

    Echolocating bats produce ultrasonic vocal signals and utilize the returning echoes to detect, localize and track prey, and also to avoid obstacles. The pinna and tragus, two major components of the bats external ears, play important roles in filtering returning echoes. The tragus is generally believed to play a role in vertical sound localization. The purpose of this study is to further examine how manipulation of the tragus affects a free-flying bat's prey capture and obstacle avoidance behavior. The first part of this study involved a prey capture experiment, and the bat was trained to catch the tethered mealworms in a large room. The second experiment involved obstacle avoidance, and the bat's task was to fly through the largest opening from a horizontal wire array without touching the wires. In both experiments, the bat performed the tasks under three different conditions: with intact tragus, tragus-deflection and recovery from tragus-deflection. Significantly lower performance was observed in both experiments when tragi were glued down. However, the bat adjusted quickly and returned to baseline performance a few days after the manipulation. The results suggest that tragus-deflection does have effects on both the prey capture and obstacle avoidance behavior. [Work supported by NSF.

  10. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  11. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di-Poï, Nicolas; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2013-07-02

    During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin.

  12. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-08-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana), Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), one agouti (Dasyprocta sp.), and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca), Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari). The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani) in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus), Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca). Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  13. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert S. Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana, Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, one agouti (Dasyprocta sp., and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca, Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari. The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus, Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca. Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  14. Percepción y patronos de uso de la fauna silvestre o comunidades indigenas Embera - Katíos en la cuenca del río San Jorge, zona amortiguadora del PNN - Paramillo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alfonso Racero - Casarrubia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In workshops with four indigenous communities in the Embera-Katíos communal lands (resguardo , located in the upper San Jorge River Valley (Tres Playitas, Las Piedras, Boca San Cipriano, San Juan Medio, information about the wild fauna that they recognized inside their hunting grounds was collected. Mammals, reptiles, and birds, especially the Psittacidae family, are the vertebrates most used by the indigenous communities. No kind of use was found for amphibians. The consumption of reptiles such as Iguana iguana, Tupinambis teguixin, Caiman crocodylus fuscus, and Crocodylus acutus show them to be an important part of their culture. The indigenous communities associate environmental problems with habitat destruction due to the cultivation of illicit crops and forest clearing in the buffer zone around Paramillo National Park.

  15. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Chaves Baía Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus, 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca; 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, 0.5% deer (Mazama americana, 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus, and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis. Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94% already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1079-1088. Epub 2010 September 01.

  16. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baía, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture.

  17. Lipids of Amazon Caimans: A source of fatty acids | Junior | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no statistically significant differences in the total lipid content between them (p ≥ 0.05) and both had higher levels of palmitic, stearic (saturated), and oleic (unsaturated) acids. However, omega 3 (ω-3) and omega 6 (ω-6) were not detected in the samples of the commercial cut; they were present only in the fats ...

  18. CARACTERIZACION FISICO-QUIMICA DEL HUEVO DEL CAIMAN LLANERO, CROCODYLUS INTERMADIUS, GRAVES 1819

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Arango, Julián; Duarte-Guerrero, Marcela; Zúñiga, Herly

    2007-01-01

    Se determina algunas características físico-químicas del huevo Crocodylus intermedius tales como peso, morfometría, gravedad especifica, grosor de la cascara, calidad y cantidad del álbumen denso, concentración del calcio y fosforo inorgánico de la cascara, porcentaje de humedad en vitelo y albumen denso, contenido de proteína y contenido de grasa cruda. Los resultados obtenidos fueron peso (121.33 g), diámetro mayor longitudinal (84.12 mm), diámetro mayor transversal (51.64 mm), longitud per...

  19. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  20. Similarity of Crocodilian and Avian Lungs Indicates Unidirectional Flow Is Ancestral for Archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C G

    2015-12-01

    Patterns of airflow and pulmonary anatomy were studied in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus), the dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis), the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), and Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii). In addition, anatomy was studied in the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius). Airflow was measured using heated thermistor flow meters and visualized by endoscopy during insufflation of aerosolized propolene glycol and glycerol. Computed tomography and gross dissection were used to visualize the anatomy. In all species studied a bird-like pattern of unidirectional flow was present, in which air flowed caudad in the cervical ventral bronchus and its branches during both lung inflation and deflation and craniad in dorsobronchi and their branches. Tubular pathways connected the secondary bronchi to each other and allowed air to flow from the dorsobronchi into the ventrobronchi. No evidence for anatomical valves was found, suggesting that aerodynamic valves cause the unidirectional flow. In vivo data from the American alligator showed that unidirectional flow is present during periods of breath-holding (apnea) and is powered by the beating heart, suggesting that this pattern of flow harnesses the heart as a pump for air. Unidirectional flow may also facilitate washout of stale gases from the lung, reducing the cost of breathing, respiratory evaporative water loss, heat loss through the heat of vaporization, and facilitating crypsis. The similarity in structure and function of the bird lung with pulmonary anatomy of this broad range of crocodilian species indicates that a similar morphology and pattern of unidirectional flow were present in the lungs of the common ancestor of crocodilians and birds. These data suggest a paradigm shift is needed in our understanding of the evolution of this

  1. Clutter Interference and the Integration Time of Echoes in the Echolocating Bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    mealworm offered in forceps for each correct response (arrow), which consisted of crawling forward onto the left or right arm of the platform-- whichever...determined by its current body weight and the quantity of mealworms consumed after correct trials. Each day’s run constituted a block of trials for one

  2. Uptake of dietary PCB by pregnant big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and their fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In a previous study (CLARK and LAMONT 1976), 26 pregnant big brown bats were captured, caged, and fed uncontaminated mealworms until their litters were born. Immediately after parturition, female bats and litters were frozen. Five litters included at least one dead young, and these five litters contained significantly more of the PCB, Aroclor 1260, than did the 21 litters with only living young....The present study attempted to verify that Aroclor 1260 could cause stillbirths. I fed 18 of 36 pregnant big brown bats mealworms containing 6.36 ppm of Aroclor 1260 prior to birth of their litters. Both carcasses and litters of dosed females contained approximately 10 times more PCB than their respective controls, but no additional stillbirths resulted. Three of 18 control litters included dead young, whereas the comparable ratio among litters from dosed females was one of 18. Additional comparisons involving means of litter weight, adult female weight, parturition date, days in captivity, tooth wear, and percentage fat also failed to show any effect of the PCB....The association found earlier between PCB and dead young (CLARK and LAMONT 1976) was not one of cause and effect. In both studies, bats that had not been dosed showed greater PCB residues among younger females. Among control bats in the present series, females that produced dead young were significantly younger (that is, showed significantly less tooth wear) than other females. In sum, whereas dead young seemed to have been caused by greater residues, these two factors were actually independent of each other but associated with a third factor--age of the female parent bat.

  3. The use of ultrasound for communication by the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilliot, Matthew E.

    2007-12-01

    Communication signals are important regulators of mating behavior in many animals. Various pre- and post-copulatory mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in the reproductive success and mating strategies of many mammals. Recent studies have cited sperm competition as a possible post-copulatory mechanism of selection in bats, but few studies have examined which pre-copulatory mechanisms influence mate selection. Although it is generally accepted that bats emit vocalizations that function for communication purposes as well as the more universally recognized echolocation function, there is lack of actual empirical support for this idea. In this dissertation, I test the hypothesis that ultrasonic vocalizations of big brown bats are sexually dimorphic and differ contextually in the mating season. I used playback experiments to test the response of male and female big brown bats to variations in ultrasonic vocalizations of the opposite sex and to determine if ultrasonic vocalizations are used for mate selection. My data suggest that males were likely to select ultrasonic vocalization of frequently copulating females, but females did not select ultrasonic vocalizations of frequently copulating males over infrequently copulating males. These results suggest that mate selection of male big brown bats is influenced by ultrasonic vocalizations of females.

  4. De knoflookpad Pelobates fuscus in het dal van de Overijsselse Vecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottburg, F.G.W.A.; Stumpel, A.H.P.; Pullen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Eind vorige eeuw is de knoflookpad in Nederland sterk achteruit gegaan. Er zijn nog 38 leefgebieden met kleine populaties aanwezig. De belangrijkste oorzaken van achteruitgang zijn het verlies van habitat en het veranderde landgebruik. Dit onderzoek richt zich op de landhabitat, waarover erg weinig

  5. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen

    1991-01-01

    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  6. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  7. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    á (Polyborus plancus, jabiru (Jabiru mycteria; lizards (Tupinambis teguixin and small mammals, coati (Nasua nasua and crab-eating-fox (Cerdocyon thous. About 65,98% of nests of P. unifilis are predated (41,68% totally and 24,30% partially. Only 5,31% of P. expansa nests are partially predated. There are many aquatic predators, like carnivorous fish, mainly piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri and caimans (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. The predators of P. unifilis females are: black caiman (Melanosuchus niger, jaguar (Panthera onca and puma (Puma concolor, and of P. expansa females is the P. onca. In average 3,93% of P. unifilis females are predated annually while that to P. expansa the average is 5,66%.

  8. Mortalidad de vertebrados en la carretera Guanare-Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eloy Seijas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos más investigados en relación a la “ecología de la carretera” es el atropellamiento de vertebrados silvestres. Se evaluó la distribución espacial y temporal de los atropellos de vertebrados en la carretera Guanare-Guanarito, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela. Desde 2008 hasta el 2010 se realizaron 26 viajes en carro a lo largo de 74km, a 50-60km/h, para un total recorrido de 1 924km. Se encontraron 464 animales muertos: 66 aves (25 especies, 130 mamíferos (15 especies y 268 reptiles (18 especies. La serpiente Leptodeira annulata (n=119, el rabipelado Didelphis marsupialis (n=39 y la baba Caiman crocodilus (n=33 fueron las especies con mayor frecuencia de atropellos. Excluyendo a los animales domésticos, se localizaron 0.2282indviv./km; cifra 28.30% mayor que la reportada en estudios previos en la misma vía. Los cambios en la frecuencia relativa de atropellos de algunas especies con respecto a los reportados hace 20 años, se relacionan con el incremento en el flujo vehicular y por modificaciones en el uso de la tierra. Se identificaron segmentos donde el número de individuos atropellados supera al esperado por azar. Los atropellos pudieran ser la principal causa de mortalidad para especies como el oso melero (Tamandua tetradactyla y el oso hormiguero (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, esta última considerada como una especie vulnerable. Se recomiendan algunas medidas básicas para disminuir la mortalidad de fauna en la carretera.

  9. Fungal sampling of a maternity roost of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the research conducted on Baca National Wildlife Refuge that was focused on sampling fungal community diversity of a maternity roost of...

  10. Northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus (endangered), and Cheat Mountain salamander, Plethodon nettingi (threatened), evaluation; Bald Knob of Cabin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On April 17, 1991, the WVFO conducted an endangered species recon of properties in the southern end of Canaan Valley. Cheat Mountain Salamander A viable population...

  11. Comparison of auditory responses in the medial geniculate and pontine gray of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly; Covey, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The inferior colliculus has been well studied for its role of transmitting information from the brainstem to the thalamocortical system. However, it is also the source of a major pathway to the cerebellum, via the pontine gray (PG). We compared auditory responses from single neurons in the medial geniculate body (MGB) and PG of the awake big brown bat. MGB neurons were selective for a variety of stimulus types whereas PG neurons only responded to pure tones or simple FM sweeps. Best frequencies (BF) in MGB ranged from 8 kHz to > 80 kHz. BFs of PG neurons were all above 20 kHz with a high proportion above 60 kHz. The mean response latency was 19 ms for MGB neurons and 11 ms for PG neurons. MGB and PG contained neurons with a variety of discharge patterns but the most striking difference was the proportion of neurons with responses that lasted longer than the stimulus duration (MGB 13%, PG 58%). Both nuclei contained duration-sensitive neurons; the majority of those in MGB were band pass whereas in the PG they were long pass. Over half of the neurons in both nuclei were binaural. Differences between these nuclei are consistent with the idea that the thalamocortical pathway performs integration over time for cognitive analysis, thereby increasing selectivity and lengthening latency, while the colliculo-pontine pathway, which is more concerned with sensory-motor control, provides rapid input and a lasting trace of an auditory event. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acoustic scanning of natural scenes by echolocation in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Ghose, Kaushik; Moss, Cynthia F

    2009-01-01

    without fixating each important object separately. We tested this idea by measuring the directional aim and duration of the bat's sonar beam as it performed in a dual task, obstacle avoidance and insect capture. Bats were trained to fly through one of two openings in a fine net to take a tethered insect...... pointed and shifted their sonar gaze to sequentially inspect closely spaced objects in a manner similar to visual animals using saccades and fixations to scan a scene. The findings presented here from a specialized orientation system, echolocation, offer insights into general principles of active sensing...

  13. A revised strategy for the monitoring and management of the Galapagos sea cucumber Isostichopus fuscus (Aspidochirotida: Stichopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wolff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown sea cucumber fishery is active in the Galapagos Islands since the year 1991 after its collapse in mainland Ecuador. This paper analyzes the Galapagos Sea cucumber fishery over the past decade and the reasons for its management pitfalls and chronic over fishing, and proposes an improved strategy for estimating stock size and harvest potential. Based on the historical distribution of the fishing fleet and past fishery surveys, 15 macrozones were defined; their areas were estimated from the coastline to the 30m isobaths and the numbers of sample replicates per macrozone were calculated for a density estimate precision of ±25%. Overall stock size was calculated by summing over all macrozones and was multiplied by 0.122 to obtain the annual quota. This multiplier was derived by inserting an exploitation rate of E=0.3 and a published natural mortality value of M=0.17 into Cadimas formula, thereby obtaining a more conservative precautionary quota estimate. Pre-fishery stock densities in 2009 were below the legal threshold value and the fishery remained closed. Mean densities were significantly lower in the deeper (>15m than in the shallower (Este artículo analiza la pesquería del pepino de mar en Galápagos, durante la década pasada y se estudian las razones de su difícil manejo y la sobre-explotación crónica. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue proponer una estrategia mejorada para estimar el tamano poblacional y el potencial de captura. Se definieron 15 macrozonas, y para ello se tomo en cuenta la distribución histórica de la flota pesquera y los resultados de prospecciones pesqueras pasadas. Las respectivas aéreas fueron estimadas desde la línea de costa hasta la isobata de los 30m. El numero de replicas de muestreo por macrozona fueron calculadas para estimar la densidad poblacional con una precisión del ±25%. El tamano poblacional total fue calculado sumando la densidad poblacional de todas las macrozonas, luego el resultado fue multiplicado por 0.122 para obtener la cuota anual de captura. Este factor de multiplicación fue derivado mediante la fórmula de Cadima, en la cual se considero una tasa de explotación (E de 0.3 y una tasa de mortalidad natural (M de 0.17. Estos resultados permitieron obtener una estimación precautoria y más conservadora de la cuota total de captura. La densidad poblacional pre-pesquería en 2009 estuvo por debajo del punto de referencia límite establecido, en consecuencia fue declarada en veda. Las densidades poblacionales promedio fueron significativamente menores a profundidades mayores a los 15m, contrario a lo esperado por los pescadores. A través de una regresión empírica entre el logaritmo de la densidad poblacional pre-pesquería y la subsecuente cuota de captura anual para el periodo 1998-2008, se descubrió que las capturas totales en la mayoría de los años han excedido la cuota de captura propuesta en este articulo, lo que explica el estado actual de este recurso, el cual se encuentra colapsado.

  14. A revised strategy for the monitoring and management of the Galapagos sea cucumber Isostichopus fuscus (Aspidochirotida: Stichopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wolff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown sea cucumber fishery is active in the Galapagos Islands since the year 1991 after its collapse in mainland Ecuador. This paper analyzes the Galapagos Sea cucumber fishery over the past decade and the reasons for its management pitfalls and chronic over fishing, and proposes an improved strategy for estimating stock size and harvest potential. Based on the historical distribution of the fishing fleet and past fishery surveys, 15 macrozones were defined; their areas were estimated from the coastline to the 30m isobaths and the numbers of sample replicates per macrozone were calculated for a density estimate precision of ±25%. Overall stock size was calculated by summing over all macrozones and was multiplied by 0.122 to obtain the annual quota. This multiplier was derived by inserting an exploitation rate of E=0.3 and a published natural mortality value of M=0.17 into Cadimas formula, thereby obtaining a more conservative precautionary quota estimate. Pre-fishery stock densities in 2009 were below the legal threshold value and the fishery remained closed. Mean densities were significantly lower in the deeper (>15m than in the shallower (<15m stratum, contrary to fishermen expectations. Through an empirical regression of (log pre-fishery density versus subsequent annual catch for the period 1998-2008 we found that catches of most years greatly exceeded the here proposed quota explaining the collapsed nature of the stock. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 539-551. Epub 2012 June 01.

  15. Crocodylian–chelonian carnivory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Kofoed, Jens; Bromley, Richard Granville

    2010-01-01

    Predatory acts of the Recent Dwarf Caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, preying on Red-eared Sliders, Trachemys scripta, are investigated with regard to bite traces left in the turtle shells and the technique applied by the caiman to crack open the carapace of the turtle. The caiman manipulated the t...

  16. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Chaves Baía Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus, 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca; 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, 0.5% deer (Mazama americana, 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus, and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis. Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94% already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1079-1088. Epub 2010 September 01.En los bosques tropicales, el consumo de carne silvestre representa una opción o la única fuente de proteínas para algunas poblaciones humanas. Este estudio analizó el comercio ilegal de carne de animales silvestres con fines alimenticios en un mercado

  17. COMERCIO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN COLOMBIA WILDLIFE TRADE IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo ofrece un panorama sobre las actividades relacionadas con el comercio de bienes derivados de las especies de fauna silvestre en Colombia, abordando el tema desde el desarrollo que ha tenido su actividad productiva, el aprovechamiento extractivo, así como la dinámica de su comercio legal e ilegal en el país y el desarrollo y promoción de alternativas productivas sustentadas en su aprovechamiento. Se analizó la información secundaria de entidades como el Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y Autoridades Ambientales Urbanas, el Instituto Colombiano de Desarrollo Rural-INCODER, las Autoridades Policiales, los Institutos de Investigación, el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales-DIAN, el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, y PROEXPORT. entre otras. En Colombia, el comercio de especies de fauna silvestre está centrado principalmente en la extracción de ejemplares de forma ilegal, lo cual ha generado desequilibrios en las poblaciones naturales y ha repercutido en el deterioro de la dinámica de los ecosistemas. El comercio legal de fauna silvestre se basa en la producción de unas pocas especies entre las que se destacan la babilla (Caiman crocodilus, el chigüiro (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, cerca de 200 especies de peces ornamentales y en menor medida el lobo pollero (Tupinambis nigropunctatus, la iguana (Iguana iguana, la boa (Boa constrictor, escarabajos (Dynastes hercules y mariposas. En el país no se tiene información exacta sobre el número de incautaciones realizadas en los operativos de control al tráfico ilegal de fauna, y no existe un conocimiento de la dinámica de este comercio ilegal.This work offers a current view on the activities related to the trade of derived from the wildlife species in Colombia, approaching the topic from the development that has had its productive activity

  18. Fitness and growth of the ephemeral mudflat species Cyperus fuscus in river and anthropogenic habitats in response to fluctuating water-levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böckelmann, J.; Tremetsberger, K.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Grausgruber, H.; Bernhardt, K.-G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 234, Sept 2017 (2017), s. 135-149 ISSN 0367-2530 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : soil seed bank * phenotypic plasticity * wetland vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2016

  19. Composição centesimal e colesterol da carne de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin 1802 oriundo de zoocriadouro e habitat natural Proximate composition and cholesterol of the alligator-swampland meat (Caiman yacare Daudin 1802 originating from captivity and wild life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vicente Neto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 animais, sendo 06 (peso médio de 5,93 kg oriundos de zoocriadouro (Z autorizado pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA, Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil, e 06 (peso médio de 6,78 kg oriundos do habitat natural (H, provenientes do município de Cáceres MT. As amostras foram coletadas dos músculos ílio-ischio-caudalis e occipito-cervicalis medialis, cauda e dorso, respectivamente. Nesses músculos foram determinados: umidade, extrato etéreo, proteína e cinzas. A extração de lipídeos foi conduzida com uso de clorofórmio/metanol (2:1. O colesterol foi determinado por colorimetria em espectrofotômetro. O corte da cauda dos jacarés Z apresentou médias de 74,50; 24,20; 0,83; 0,91% e o corte dorso 76,20; 23,68; 0,49 e 0,99% para umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo e cinzas, respectivamente. Nos animais H, as médias foram 72,29; 21,83; 5,43 e 1,09% na cauda e 76,70; 21,93; 0,54 e 1,25% no dorso (umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo e cinzas, respectivamente. As médias de colesterol nos animais Z foram de 48,82 e de 53,73 mg/100 g na cauda e dorso, respectivamente. Nos animais H, as médias foram de 37,05 mg/100 g na cauda e 40,61 mg/100 g no dorso. Assim, os jacarés de Z apresentaram carne mais magra, do que os jacarés H. E quando comparados os cortes, a cauda apresentou mais proteína e extrato etéreo, enquanto o dorso apresentou mais umidade, cinzas e colesterol.They were used 12 animals, 06 (with average weight of 5.93 kg originating from captivity, authorized by Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, and 06 (with average weight of 6.78 kg originating from natural habitat, every animals coming from municipal district of Cáceres, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The samples were collected of the muscles ílio-ischio-caudalis and occipito-cervicalis medialis, tail and back, respectively. In those muscles they were determined: moisture, ethereal extract, protein and ashes. The lipids extraction was driven with chloroform/methanol (2:1. The cholesterol was determined by colorimeter in spectrophotometer. The cut tail of the alligators originating from captivity presented averages of 74.50; 24.20; 0.83; 0.91% and the cut back 76.20; 23.68; 0.49 and 0.99% for moisture, protein, ethereal extract and ashes, respectively. In the animals originating from natural habitat, the averages were 72.29; 21.83; 5.43 and 1.09% in the tail and 76.70; 21.93; 0.54 and 1.25% in the back (moisture, protein, ethereal extract and ashes, respectively. The cholesterol averages in the animals originating from captivity were of 48.82 and of 53.73 mg/100 g-1 in the tail and back, respectively. In the animals originating from natural habitat the averages were of 37.05 mg/100 g-1 in the tail and 40.61 mg/100 g in the back. Thus, the alligators originating from captivity presented thinner meat, than the alligators originating from natural habitat. When comparing the cuts, the tail presented higher protein and ethereal extract, while the neck presented higher moisture, ashes and cholesterol.

  20. Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology - Vol 31 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications:A Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus ring recovery from Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N E Baker, 30-31 ...

  1. WG1N5327 - Medical image database for lossless codec evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bédat, Laurent; Babel, Marie; Déforges, Olivier; Strauss, Clément; Pasteau, François

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the CAIMAN Project medical image database for JPEG commitee evaluation works purposes.; This document describes the CAIMAN ANR project contribution on medical images to be considered for AIC. In order to evaluate the medical image codec, we have compiled a list of medical image (X-ray, CT, MRI) for the development and analysis of medical image compression scheme. All images can be found on a secure FTP server, and can be use freely for research purpose.

  2. Role of amphibians and reptiles in creation of an ecological buffer against technogenic pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Bulakhov, V.; Gasso, V.

    2008-01-01

    It has shown that fossorial activity of common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) under conditions of heavy metals pollution of soils is able to reduce the level of the metals in soil. Tropho-metabolic activity (faeces excretion) of amphibians ( P. fuscus ) and reptiles (sand lizard Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758) decreases the content of heavy metals in soils.

  3. The Distribution of gull Larus species on the Red Sea coast of Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They place Sudan on the migration route of Lesser black-backed Gull, the ... bird distributions in Sudan appears to be the atlas compiled by Nikolaus (1987) from published .... This bird also has pale yellow legs, and restricted white spots on the folded wings. Plate 6. Adult Baltic Gull Larus. (fuscus) fuscus by the fish docks at.

  4. Notes on Gobioid fishes : 6. On the synonymy of some species from the Indo-Australian Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, F.P.

    1935-01-01

    Bathygobius fuscus (Rüpp.) Gobius fuscus Rüppell, Atl. Reise N. Afr. Fische 1828, p. 137. Gobius punctillatus Rüppell, l.c., p. 138. Gobius soporator Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poissons XII. 1837, p. 56. Gobius albopunctatus Cuvier & Valenciennes, l.c., p. 57. Gobius nebulopunctatus Cuvier &

  5. The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the species of wild animals at the Fadama farm sites are the rodents: cane rat Thryonomys Swinderianus, giant rat: Cricetomys gambianus, squirrel: Protoxerus, stangeri; Artiodactyla such as bushbuck: Tragelaphus scriptus, blue duiker: Cephalophus monticola; Reptilia such as black cobra, crocodile: Crocodilus ...

  6. High rate of prey consumption in a small predatory fish on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, W. E.; Lönnstedt, O. M.; Bosiger, Y.; Martin, J.; Jones, G. P.; Rowe, R. J.; McCormick, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Small piscivores are regarded as important regulators of the composition of coral reef fish communities, but few studies have investigated their predatory ecology or impact on assemblages of juvenile fishes. This study investigated the foraging ecology of a common coral reef predator, the dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, using underwater focal animal observations. Observations were conducted at two times of year: the summer, when recruit fishes were an available food item and winter, when remaining juveniles had outgrown vulnerability to P. fuscus. During the summer, P. fuscus directed 76% of its strikes at invertebrates and 24% at recruiting juvenile fishes. When striking at fishes, P. fuscus exhibited two distinct feeding modes: an ambush (26% successful) and a pursuit mode (5% successful). Predator activity in the field peaked at midday, averaging 2.5 captures h-1 of juvenile fishes. Monitoring of activity and foraging in the laboratory over 24-h periods found that P. fuscus was a diurnal predator and was active for 13 h d-1 during the summer. The number of hours during which foraging was recorded differed greatly among individuals ( n = 10), ranging from 4 to 13 h. The number of predatory strikes did not increase with standard length, but the success rate and consumption rate of juvenile fishes did increase with size. Estimated hourly mortality on juvenile fish ranged from 0.49 fish h-1 in small P. fuscus individuals (30-39 mm standard length, SL; equating to 6.3 per 13 h day) to 2.4 fish h-1 in large P. fuscus individuals (55-65 mm SL; 30.6 per 13 h day). During the winter, P. fuscus struck at invertebrates with a similar rate to the summer period. These observations of the predatory ecology of P. fuscus support the hypothesis that in coral reef systems, small piscivores, because of their high metabolism and activity, are probably important regulators of coral reef fish community composition.

  7. albicaudatus (Smith 1834)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Caiman, Quenum, Kerrest & Goueffon 1960). The gastric histology and ultrastructure of these species have not been examined and the functions of the papillae are unknown. A microscopical examination of the gastric morphology of M. albicaudatus was therefore initiated to determine its histology and ultrastructure, prior.

  8. Masendav pilguheit Ida-Saksamaa lähiajaloole / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2006-01-01

    10. PÖFFi filme: Sakslase Florian Henkel von Donnersmarcki debüütlavastus, äsja parimaks Euroopa filmiks tunnistatud "Teiste elu" ("Das Leben der Anderen"), mehhiklase Guillermo Del Toro "Paani labürint" ("El laberinto del fauno", Mehhiko - Hispaania 2006), itaallase Nanni Moretti "Kaiman" ("The Caiman")

  9. 77 FR 665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Two Distinct Population Segments of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... successful (wild populations are increasing), and broad-snouted caiman production and harvest is increasing... population has increased since the time of the original listing. Technical Corrections This proposed rule... status of the population in two ways: by creating incentives for landowners and by increasing public...

  10. A study of bat populations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: FY95--97 report to Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, M.A.; O`Shea, T.J.; Cryan, P.M.; Ditto, A.M.; Schaedla, W.H.; Valdez, E.W.; Castle, K.T.; Ellison, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1995, a three-year study was initiated to assess the current status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites of bats. The authors captured and released 1532 bats of 15 species (Myotis californicus, M. ciliolabrum, M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Corynorhinus townsendii, Antrozous pallidus, Tadarida brasiliensis, and Nyctinomops macrotis) and followed 32 bats of eight species (M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, E. fuscus, E. maculatum, C. townsendii, A. pallidus, and N. macrotis) to 51 active diurnal roosts. The most abundant species were L. noctivagans, E. fuscus, L. cinereus, M. evotis, M. volans, and M. ciliolabrum. Most of these species are typical inhabitants of ponderosa pine-mixed coniferous forests.

  11. Review of the species of Paratenetus Spinola inhabiting America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The North American (north of Mexico species of the tenebrionid genus Paratenetus Spinola are reviewed and a key is presented for their identification. Five species are recognized, P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, P. fuscus LeConte, P. punctatus Spinola and two sp. n., P. exutus [type locality: Tabusintac, Nova Scotia] and P. texanus [type locality: Port Isabel, Cameron County, Texas]. Two syn. n. are proposed: P. cribratus Motschulsky, 1868 with P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, 1868 and P. crinitus Fall, 1907 with P. fuscus LeConte, 1850. A lectotype is selected for Paratenetus punctatus Spinola. A type species is designated for Storthephora Mäklin, 1875 (Storthephora denticollis Mäklin, 1875.

  12. Assessment System for Aircraft Noise (ASAN) Citation Database. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Ammospermophilus 01.04.00.00.00.00 Amphibia 01.04.00.00.00.00 Amphibians 04.02.01.01.01.01 * Amphipod, Hay’s Spring 04.02.01.00.00.00 Amphipoda 04.02.01.00.00.00...01.03.03.02.02.00 .... Caiman 01.03.04.00.00.00 . Aznphisbaenidae Worm-lizards 01.04.00.00.00.00 Amphibia *Amphibians 01.04.01.00.00.00 . Anura Anurans

  13. Mehhiko filmikunst toob Cannes'i värskeid tuuli / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2006-01-01

    Cannes'i filmifestival. Nähtud filmidest : soomlase Aki Kaurismäki "Äärelinna tuled" ("Laitakaupungin valot"), hispaanlase Pedro Almodovari "Volver" ("Tagasitulek"), inglase Ken Loach'i "Tuul sasib odrapõldu" ("The Wind that Shakes the Barely"), türklase Nuri Bilge Ceylani "Kliima", itaallase Nanni Moretti "Kaiman" ("The Caiman"), mehhiklase Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu USA mängufilm Brad Pitt'iga peaosas "Paabel" ("Babel")

  14. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-07

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular evidence for long-distance colonization in an Indo-Pacific seahorse lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, PR; Hamilton, H; Palsboll, PJ; Choo, CK; Gabr, H; Lourie, SA; Santos, M; Sreepada, A; Cherry, MI; Matthee, CA

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial control region (mtDNA CR) diversity within and among 6 seahorse populations associated with the Indo-Pacific Hippocampus kuda complex (H. kuda from India, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, H. fuscus from the Red Sea and H. capensis from South Africa) was compared to determine

  16. Mammalian prey in Laridae: increased predation pressure on mammal populations expected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; de Boer, P.; Bouten, W.; Gronert, A.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian prey in the diet of two species of large gulls, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), was investigated in order to quantify and compare the predation on mammals in coastal and inland colony sites. Specialised coastal nesting

  17. Long-term partial cutting impacts on Desmognathus salamander abundance in West Virginia headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler

    2008-01-01

    To understand long-term impacts of partial cutting practices on stream-dwelling salamanders in the central Appalachians, we examined pooled abundance of Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola salamanders (hereafter Desmognathus) in headwater streams located within long-term silvicultural research compartments on...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11840-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 458598 |pid:none) Polypedates megacephalus mitochond... 278 1e-72 AB371085_3( AB3...... 278 1e-72 EF484219_1( EF484219 |pid:none) Margarops fuscus isolate MfusDOMFU... 278 1e-72 AY458598_3( AY

  19. Sexually distinct foraging strategies in an omnivorous seabird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.; Bouten, W.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-specific differences in foraging behaviour can have fitness consequences, especially during breeding. We combined GPS tracking data from 34 lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) encompassing 2029 foraging trips with dietary information and morphometric measurements to test the effect of

  20. PRELIMINARY DATA CONCERNING THE HERPETOFAUNA IN NEAM COUNTY (ROMANIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin ROŞU; Iulian GHERGHEL

    2005-01-01

    In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria) and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus). Within the region we identi...

  1. Coléoptères nouveaux de l’Afrique du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1888-01-01

    Long. 22 à 25 mill. — Elongatus, convexus, fuscus aut brunneo-castaneus, modice nitidus, fulvo-pubescens; capite dense punctato, inter oculos sat late impresso, antice declivi, margine obtuse rotundato; antennis fuscis, medium corporis attingentibus, articulo 1° punctato, 2° minuto, 3° vix majore,

  2. Nuevos datos de distribución de los Cholevinae hipogeos del Atlas marroquí (Coleoptera, Leiodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresneda, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available New distribution data for the hypogean Cholevinae from the Moroccan Atlas (Coleoptera, Leiodidae The authors report new findings on the distribution of Speonemadus maroccanus (Jeannel, 1936, Nargus (Demochrus rufipennis (Lucas, 1846, Choleva (Choleva kocheri Henrot, 1962 and Catops fuscus fuscoides Reitter, 1909. The geonemy of these species is updated and the research is illustrated with maps of their distribution.

  3. The breeding pattern and variations in timing and reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction of marine invertebrates. Vol. VI: Echinoderms and Lophophorates. Boxwood. Press, Pacific Grove, California. Pp. 663-750. Toral-Granda, V. & Martinez, P. (2007) Reproductive biology and population structure of the sea cucumber Isostichopus fuscus (Ludwig, 1875). (Holothuroidea) in Caamaño, Galápagos.

  4. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  5. What can two years of monitoring tell us about Venezuelan coral reefs? The Southern Tropical America node of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (STA-GCRMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Cróquer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of their economic importance, coral reef communities of the world are rapidly decreasing, and an adequate management planification is needed. The benthic and fish communities of Dos Mosquises Sur and Madrizquí at Los Roques National Park, and Caiman and Cayo Norte at Morrocoy National Park, in Venezuela were monitored during 2003 and 2004. The CARICOMP method was used to describe the benthic community, and the AGRRA protocol was applied to the fish community assessment. The benthic cover of five broad living categories (i.e. corals, algae, sponge and octocorals differed across the sites (Nested ANOVA, p < 0.05, but there were no statistical differences between parks. Despite being on different parks, the benthic cover in Dos Mosquises Sur and Cayo Norte was similar (76% based on Bray-Curtis, whereas Caiman differed greatly (57- 68% from all other sites. The cover of hard coral, algae, sponges and octocorals was similar between 2003 and 2004 in all four sites. Similarly, the fish community structure of both parks did not change over time, and was dominated by herbivores (Pomacentridae, Scaridae and Acanthuridae. However, commercially important carnivores (e.g. Lutjanids and Serranids were more abundant in Los Roques than in Morrocoy. Although it was expected that the benthic cover and fish community would reflect greater differences between Los Roques and Morrocoy, only the fish community appeared healthier in Los Roques, whereas Cayo Norte (Morrocoy, had a coral cover similar or higher than both sites of Los Roques. Thus, our results suggest that in Venezuela, oceanic reef sites are not necessarily ‘healthier’ (i.e. higher coral cover than land-influenced coral communities. The addition of three new sites and the reincorporation of Caiman has improved and expanded the monitoring capabilities in Venezuela and it represents the first step towards the consolidation of a coral reef monitoring program for the country. Rev. Biol. Trop

  6. PERILAKU HARIAN TARSIUS DALAM KANDANG DI PATUNUANG, TAMAN NASIONAL BANTIMURUNG BULUSARAUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryatul Qiptiyah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tarsius is one of the protected and endegered species. This study aims to examine the behavior of Tarsius fuscus in captivity in Patunuang, Batimurung Bulusaraung National Park, South Sulawesi Province. The observations were made from March until October of 2011, with 6 periods of observation and each the observations made during of three days from 15:00 pm until 8:00 am. The observations were not done during the day because Tarsius don't present any activity during daylight. The observed behaviors were ingestive, allelomimetic, agonistic, shelter-seeking, grooming, eliminative, playing, and resting behaviors. Observations indicated that the behavior of Tarsius which has the highest proportion was playing, followed by allelomimetic and rest behavior.Keywords : Daily behaviour, Tarsius fuscus, Captivity, Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park

  7. Crecimiento del caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae en dos condiciones de cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeima T Pérez T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available para determinar el crecimiento del caimán del Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius, en diferentes condiciones de cautiverio, se criaron 40 ejemplares durante 11 meses y 15 días. Se utilizaron dos tanques circulares, con una superficie de 28.3 m² y un volumen de 62.2 m³, construidos con bloques de concreto y protegidos con techo de láminas galvanizadas e internamente cubiertos con láminas de resina. Un tanque fue cubierto parcialmente con láminas galvanizadas (Tanque I y el otro se techó totalmente (Tanque II. Se colocaron 20 cocodrilos en cada tanque y a los dos grupos se les administró una dieta compuesta por 85% de carne de res, 10% de carne de pescado, 5% de huevos de gallina y mezcla de minerales y vitaminas. El crecimiento en longitud total y peso difirió entre grupos (p Growth of the Orinoco Caiman (Crocodylus intermedius, Crocodylia: Crocodylidae under two captivity conditions. In order to determine the growth of Caiman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius under two conditions of captivity, 40 specimens were raised during 11 months and 15 days in two circular tanks, with 28.3 m² of surface area and a volume of 62.2 m³ in each tank. The tanks were built with concrete walls and guarded blocks covered internally with sheets of myrrhlike resin, and a roof of galvanized sheets. One tank was covered partially with the galvanized sheets (tank I, the other was totally covered (tank II. Twenty caimans were placed in each tank, and both groups were fed with 85% beef, 10% fresh fish, 5% hen eggs and a mixture of minerals and vitamins. The length and weight differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.001. Mean growth (103.0 ± 6.81 cm and weight (3 987 ± 0.98 g were higher in tank II, (tank I: 88.9 ± 7.58 cm; 2 705 ± 0.69 g. The greater growth in tank II reflects higher air and water temperatures. The survival rate was 97.5%. These results can be used for rearing caimans in captivity for conservation and commercial purposes. Rev

  8. Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    but here, the polarity of the effect was reversed : There was a greater relative positivity to unknown (M = 1.20μV, SE = 0.14) than to known (M...52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 For Peer Review IMPLICIT MEASURES IN LOW-FUNCTIONING AUTISM_4 bread bolster brush caiman bus cainito...female; 7 Caucasian; 2 African American; 1 Asian; 1 Hispanic • 11 NCs matched on age and sex ; mean age 28 years (SD = 12); 10 males, 1 female; 7

  9. Final Environmental Assessment of the Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-Off Missile (JASSM) Development and Evaluation Testing, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Pip ito fuscus) ; white- crowned (Zonotrichia feucophrys) and vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus); and house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). Other...Organ Mtns. Colorado chipmunk (Tamias quadrivittatus australis,) lucifer hummingbird (Calothorax lucifer) Violet- crowned hummingbird (Amazi lia...servants and contractor staff. t N I Legend Las Crue <!!s NORTriERN CAU.-UP AREA (FIX) Stallion Range Center ~ 30, 50. 70. & 90 M;le Impact

  10. Status and distribution of breeding seabirds in the northern islets of Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; León, Leandro de; Martín, Aurelio; Alonso, Jesús; Nogales, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    We describe the results of a survey of breeding seabirds carried out between 2000 and 2002 in the northern islets of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, with particular emphasis on their status and distribution. For White-faced Stormpetrel Pelagodroma marina, Madeiran Storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro, Lesser Blackhacked Gull Larus [fuscus] graellsii and Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans atlantis, somenew colonies were discovered on different islets. All species have maintained their numbers over the ...

  11. The Microchip Optera Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    binaural differences in echo arrival time, intensity and spectrum for horizontal localization. The big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, has been shown...milli- second duration, bats are able to aggregate signals from many neurons to easily distin- guish targets that differ by ranges of 1 cm. Many...transformation in the bat’s brain. A class of neurons in the brain show echo- delay tuning, a response property believed to play a role in target ranging. These

  12. Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), parasites of the passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australia and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) are described from passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): Harpirhynchoides artamus n. sp. from Artamus fuscus Vieillot (Artamidae) from an unknown locality in South Asia and Neharpyrhynchus domrowi n. sp. from three host species of the family Meliphagidae, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham) (type-host) from Australia (New South Walles), Ptiloprora perstriata (De Vis) and Myzomela rosenbergii Schlegel from Papua New Guinea.

  13. Novos registros de Veronicellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca) para Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil e sua ocorrência no conteúdo estomacal de serpentes do gênero Dipsas Laurenti (Colubridae) New record for Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil of Veronicellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca) and its occurrence in the stomach contents of snakes Dipsas Laurenti (Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    José Willibaldo Thomé; Sinara Silveira Santos; Vivian Luciana Jeske

    2001-01-01

    The predominant occurrence of the species Sarasinula marginata (Semper, 1885) in 31 lots, all proceeding from the stomach contents of the snakes Dipsas Laurenri, 1768 was determined. A species still not determined of Novovaginula Thiele, 1931 was represented in 10 lots and in a living collected lot (with only one specimen, not mature). One-third species, Potamojanuarius fuscus (Heynemann, 1885) is represented only in a lot of slugs collected alive (seven specimens) and was confirmed in a lot ...

  14. Two new quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) parasitising the tapaculos (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Bozena; Kaszewska, Katarzyna; Skoracki, Maciej

    2014-12-16

    Two new species of syringophilid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with passeriform birds of the family Rhinocryptidae in South America are described: Syringophiloidus teledromas sp. nov. from Teledromas fuscus (Sclater and Salvin) in Argentina and Aulonastus pteroptochos sp. nov. from Pteroptochos tarnii (King) in Chile. The genus Aulonastus Kethley, 1970 is recorded from the tapaculos for the first time, and the new species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 described here is the second record of this genus on rhinocryptid birds.

  15. The role of lantern fish (Myctophidae) in the life-cycle of cetacean parasites from western Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Paula; Nardi, Valentina; Fraija-Fernández, Natalia; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Gil de Sola, Luis; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Myctophids (lantern fish) and cephalopods play a key role in trophic webs from the continental slope and oceanic waters linking the zooplankton to top predators. Many cetaceans feed on both lantern fish and cephalopods, and such prey would thus be expected to bridge the trophic gap in the life-cycles of helminths infecting cetaceans. However, information on the life-cycles of most of these helminths is extremely scanty. We examined the parasite fauna of myctophids and cephalopods in two areas from the western Mediterranean where at least 21 helminth taxa from cetaceans have been reported and both cetacean diversity and abundance is high. A total of 1012 individuals of 8 lantern fish species, namely, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Notoscopelus elongatus, Benthosema glaciale, Myctophum punctatum, Lobianchia dofleini, Diaphus holti and Hygophum benoiti, and 792 individuals of 2 cephalopod species, Alloteuthis media and Sepietta oweniana, were collected from the Gulf of Valencia and Alboran Sea (Spanish Mediterranean) during 2010-2012 and examined for larval helminths. All these species have been reported as prey for at least some cetacean species in the area. Only five helminth taxa were found. The nematodes Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis physeteris were detected in N. elongatus and C. maderensis (overall prevalence for Anisakis: 8.1% and 0.5%, respectively). Their prevalence in N. elongatus was significantly higher than that from the other three myctophid species with n>50 individuals. A single individual of Hysterothylacium sp. was found in N. elongatus (prevalence: 0.5%) and Raphidascarididae gen. spp. in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 20.3% and 0.7%, respectively). Juvenile didymozoid digeneans (Torticaecum type) were detected in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 18.5% and 4.3%, respectively). Two unidentified cestode plerocercoids were collected from N. elongatus. Our study suggests, for the first time, that myctophids

  16. The effects of epidermal fatty acid profiles, 1-oleoglycerol, and triacylglycerols on the susceptibility of hibernating bats to Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Ingala

    Full Text Available White Nose Syndrome (WNS greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus, Indiana (M. sodalis, northern (M. septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is caused by cutaneous infections with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are highly resistant to Pd infections. Seven different fatty acids (myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids occur in the wing epidermis of both M. lucifugus and E. fuscus, 4 of which (myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, and, linoleic acids inhibit Pd growth. The amounts of myristic and linoleic acids in the epidermis of M. lucifugus decrease during hibernation, thus we predicted that the epidermal fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit Pd growth. Laboratory Pd growth experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results demonstrated that the fatty acid profile of M. lucifugus wing epidermis during hibernation has a reduced ability to inhibit the growth of Pd. Additional Pd growth experiments revealed that: a triacylglycerols composed of known anti-Pd fatty acids do not significantly affect growth, b pentadecanoic acid inhibits Pd growth, and c 1-oleoglycerol, which is found in the wing epidermis of E. fuscus, also inhibits the growth of this fungus. Analyses of white adipose from M. lucifugus also revealed the selective retention of oleic and linoleic acids in this tissue during hibernation.

  17. Coral reef fish predator maintains olfactory acuity in degraded coral habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Natt

    Full Text Available Coral reefs around the world are rapidly degrading due to a range of environmental stressors. Habitat degradation modifies the sensory landscape within which predator-prey interactions occur, with implications for olfactory-mediated behaviours. Predator naïve settlement-stage damselfish rely on conspecific damage-released odours (i.e., alarm odours to inform risk assessments. Yet, species such as the Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, become unable to respond appropriately to these cues when living in dead-degraded coral habitats, leading to increased mortality through loss of vigilance. Reef fish predators also rely on odours from damaged prey to locate, assess prey quality and engage in prey-stealing, but it is unknown whether their responses are also modified by the change to dead-degraded coral habitats. Implications for prey clearly depend on how their predatory counterparts are affected, therefore the present study tested whether olfactory-mediated foraging responses in the dusky dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus, a common predator of P. amboinensis, were similarly affected by coral degradation. A y-maze was used to measure the ability of Ps. fuscus to detect and move towards odours, against different background water sources. Ps. fuscus were exposed to damage-released odours from juvenile P. amboinensis, or a control cue of seawater, against a background of seawater treated with either healthy or dead-degraded hard coral. Predators exhibited an increased time allocation to the chambers of y-mazes injected with damage-released odours, with comparable levels of response in both healthy and dead-degraded coral treated waters. In control treatments, where damage-released odours were replaced with a control seawater cue, fish showed no increased preference for either chamber of the y-maze. Our results suggest that olfactory-mediated foraging behaviours may persist in Ps. fuscus within dead-degraded coral habitats. Ps. fuscus may

  18. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam L L Perilli

    Full Text Available Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70. According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus, caiman (Caiman yacare and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu. The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits.

  19. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV, eastern (EEEV, western (WEEV and Venezuelan (VEEV equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3% were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3% for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9% were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8% for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4% for EEEV, one (0.4% for WEEV and three (1.3% for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1% and three (3.4%, respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  20. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Wesselingh, Frank P.; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman—Gnatusuchus pebasensis—bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  1. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90 for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3% equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8% for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2% for WNV, two (0.3% for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1% for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  2. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits.

  3. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  4. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  5. Nest survival estimation: a review of alternatives to the Mayfield estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, G.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Savidge, J.A.; Skagen, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Our research has focused on the ecology of commensal populations of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado (USA), in relation to rabies virus (RV) transmission. We captured 35 big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in late summer 2001 and held them captive for 4.8 mo. The bats were initially placed in an indoor cage for 1 mo then segregated into groups of two to six per cage. Two of the bats succumbed to rabies virus (RV) within the first month of capture. Despite group housing, all of the remaining bats were healthy over the course of the investigation; none developed rabies, although one of the rabid bats was observed to bite her cage mates. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Taqman® real-time PCR analysis of the RNA derived from the brain tissue, salivary glands, and oral swab samples confirmed RV infection in the dead bats. Rabies virus was also isolated from the brain tissue upon passage in mouse neuroblastoma cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the RV nucleoprotein (N) gene showed 100% identity with the N gene sequence of a 1985 E. fuscus isolate from El Paso County, Colorado. Bat sera obtained six times throughout the study were assayed for RV neutralizing antibodies using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. The RV neutralizing activity in the serum was associated with the IgG component, which was purified by binding to protein G Sepharose. Five bats were RV seropositive prior to their capture and maintained titers throughout captivity. Two adult bats seroconverted during captivity. Two volant juvenile bats had detectable RV antibody titers at the first serum collection but were negative thereafter. Four seronegative bats responded to a RV vaccine administration with high titers of RV antibodies. A serologic survey of big brown bats in the roost from which one of the captive rabid bats had originated showed a significant rise in seroprevalence during 2002.

  6. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  7. Dichomeris Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Dichomeridinae)  from Cambodia, including associated Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengnan; Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop; Li, Houhun

    2017-06-02

    In a faunal study of the micromoths in Cambodia, thirteen species of the genus Dichomeris (Gelechiidae, Dichomeridinae) are recognized, including associated Chinese species. Eight species are described as new: D. arcuata sp. nov., D. splendiptera sp. nov., D. samkosensis sp. nov., D. foliforma sp. nov., D. magnimacularis sp. nov., D. hainanensis sp. nov., D. cambodiensis sp. nov., D. acutivalvata sp. nov. Five species are newly recorded for Cambodia: D. orientis Park & Hodges, D. fuscusitis Li & Zheng, D. obsepta (Meyrick), D. microsphena Meyrick, and D. matsumurai Ponomarenko & Ueda. . Images of adults and genitalia are provided.

  8. Preliminary data concerning the distribution of amphibian fauna in Suceava county (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STRUGARIU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused upon an area in which the herpetofauna had previously been very poorly studied and aimed to identify the species of amphibians from the research area and to establish distribution areas. In the 54 investigated localities 16 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Pelobates fuscus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis, Rana ridibunda & Rana lessonae and 2 hybrids (Bombina bombina X Bombina variegata & Rana kl. esculanta have been identified. Of these, the Bombina hybrids have been identified for the first time in the studied region.

  9. Reviewing the structure and function of the scorpion's hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Warburg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During a long-terms study of scorpions, it was possible to follow changes taking place in the mass, water and lipid content of the hepatopancreas in freshly caught Scorpio maurus fuscus. Cyclic events in the female's reproductive state were shown to be affected by the hepatopancreas. There was a high variability among scorpions in the concentrations of metals in the hepatopancreas. The significance of the hepatopancreas in the scorpion, as a multifunctional organ for both storage and filtering constituents, is reviewed and discussed, and various future avenues of research are outlined.

  10. High rates of hybridisation reveal fragile reproductive barriers between endangered Australian sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Guinea, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The viviparous sea snakes include 62 ecologically diverse species, many of which are of very recent evolutionary origin and have overlapping distributions. Peak sea snake diversity and endemism is recorded from the isolated emergent reefs of the Timor Sea in Northwest Australia. However, nine...... designations, but revealed high frequencies of hybrids on all four reefs and individuals of pure A. fuscus ancestry only at Scott and (historically) Ashmore. Most unexpectedly, 95% of snakes sampled at Hibernia were hybrids that resembled A. laevis in phenotype, revealing a collapse of reproductive barriers...

  11. Ultrastructural organization of skin: classification on the basis of mechanical role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A S; Eikenberry, E F; Parry, D A

    1987-01-01

    In our previous developmental study on skin we reported that correlations existed between the collagen fibril diameter distribution, glycosaminoglycan content and composition, and mechanical role. In this work we present new but related electron microscope data on the ultrastructure of skins from flounder, marlin, cod, frog, toad, caiman, viper, pigeon, whale and opossum. It is shown that mammalian and avian body skins generally contain relatively sharp unimodal distributions of fibril diameter consistent with a "passive" mechanical role. In contrast most reptilian and fish skins have broad, right-skewed (or bimodal) distributions of fibril diameters compatible with the exotendinous attributes required of an "active" skin. A study of the changing form of the collagen fibril diameter distribution with depth in the dermis is also reported.

  12. Levantamento qualitativo de gêneros de parasitos em amostras fecais de jacarés criados comercialmente em sistema fechado no estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M.B. Batista

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um diagnóstico qualitativo dos gêneros de parasitos encontrados em amostras fecais ambientais de jacarés (Caiman latirostris Daudin, 1802, criados comercialmente em sistema fechado, no período de 2008 a 2009, no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Um total de 300 amostras foi coletado de 150 filhotes, 80 de animais de engorda e 70 de reprodução, e submetido a análises coproparasitológicas, de flutuação (método de Willis-Mollay e sedimentação simples (método de Lutz, de acordo com Hoffmann (1987. As amostras foram visualizadas à luz da microscopia óptica. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a presença de oocistos de Eimeria e Isospora, cistos de Balantidium e ovos de Acanthostomum e Dujardinascaris.

  13. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  14. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J. [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  15. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  16. Arcosaurios (Crocodilia, Dinosauria del Cretácico superior de la Conca de Tremp (Lleida, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscalioni, A. D.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of a great part of the material found during the excavation work carried out by a team of the «Institut de Paleontología de Sabadell» and other paleontologists of the universities of Madrid and Bellaterra, in the basin of Tremp (Maastrichtiense in 1984 and 1985 has made possible the recognition of: 1.º A large sized Crocodilian, attributable to an adult animal of the Alligatoridae family, comparable to Crocodilus affluvelensis. 2.° Dinosaur remains atributed to three difIerent families: Atlantosauridae (represented by a large sized Sauropod, probably Hypselosaurus; Iguanodontidae (afI. Rhabdodon, medium sized Omithopod; and Hadrosauridae (Ortbomerus, small sized. 3.° Dinosaur's footprints, not very well preserved, medium and large sized, attributable to biped Omithopod. The fauna remains were always found unconnected, scattered all over large areas and with no signs of depredation. The sort of materials found reveal a certain transport which caused a selective action over the remains. Later, the efIects of the orogenic processes suffered by this area in the Tertiary period would combine with this transport.El estudio de gran parte del material hallado en los trabajos de excavación realizados por un equipo del «Institut de Paleontología de Sabadell» y otros paleontólogos de las Universidades de Madrid y Bellaterra, en la cuenca de Tremp (Maastrichtiense, durante los años 1984 y 1985, ha permitido reconocer: 1.º Un crocodílido de gran talla, atribuible a un animal adulto de la familia Alligatoridae, comparable a Crocodilus affluvelensis. 2.° Restos de dinosaurios que se han atribuido a tres familias: Atlantosauridae (representada por un saurópodo de gran talla, probablemente Hypselosaurus; Iguanodontidae (afI. Rhabdodon, ornitópodo de talla media, y Hadrosauridae (Ortbomerus, de talla pequeña. 3.° Icnitas de dinosaurios, bastante mal conservadas, de tamaño medio y grande, atribuibles a omit

  17. Overwintering of Rabies Virus in Silver Haired Bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available Silver-haired bats, (Lasionycteris noctivagans are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. Despite the species rarity, the L. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (RABV in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the US. Unlike big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus and little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, L. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. It is unknown if RABV can overwinter in hibernating L. noctivagans or is only maintained in members of this taxa that migrate to warmer climates. To better understand RABV overwintering in this species, L. noctivagans were inoculated intramuscularly with either a homologous RABV (L. noctivagans Virus 1 or one of two heterologous RABV (Eptesicus fuscus Virus 2 and Myotis lucifugus Virus 1. Five days following inoculation, L. noctivagans were placed in a hibernation chamber for 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that rabies virus can overwinter in L. noctivagans yet the incubation period was extended 6 weeks when compared to bats maintained at ambient temperatures. Additionally, we found that the longer the incubation period, the greater the viral dissemination to the salivary glands. Similar to our previous studies, L. noctivagans were most susceptible to a homologous variant. In summary, we found that RABV incubation is extended following a subcutaneous exposure or maintenance in hibernation and longer incubation times increase dissemination and potential for transmission.

  18. Overwintering of Rabies Virus in Silver Haired Bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, April D; Morgan, Shannon M D; Dupuis, Michelle; Poulliott, Craig E; Jarvis, Jodie A; Franchini, Rhianna; Clobridge, Anne; Rudd, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Silver-haired bats, (Lasionycteris noctivagans) are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. Despite the species rarity, the L. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (RABV) in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the US. Unlike big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), L. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. It is unknown if RABV can overwinter in hibernating L. noctivagans or is only maintained in members of this taxa that migrate to warmer climates. To better understand RABV overwintering in this species, L. noctivagans were inoculated intramuscularly with either a homologous RABV (L. noctivagans Virus 1) or one of two heterologous RABV (Eptesicus fuscus Virus 2 and Myotis lucifugus Virus 1). Five days following inoculation, L. noctivagans were placed in a hibernation chamber for 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that rabies virus can overwinter in L. noctivagans yet the incubation period was extended 6 weeks when compared to bats maintained at ambient temperatures. Additionally, we found that the longer the incubation period, the greater the viral dissemination to the salivary glands. Similar to our previous studies, L. noctivagans were most susceptible to a homologous variant. In summary, we found that RABV incubation is extended following a subcutaneous exposure or maintenance in hibernation and longer incubation times increase dissemination and potential for transmission.

  19. First report of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Gray Fossil Site (late Miocene or early Pliocene), Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus . The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus . Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.

  20. First report of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera from the Gray Fossil Site (late Miocene or early Pliocene, Tennessee, USA

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    Nicholas J. Czaplewski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus. The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus. Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.

  1. 'Flying barnacles': implications for the spread of non-indigenous species.

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    Tøttrup, Anders P; Chan, Benny K K; Koskinen, Hannu; Høeg, Jens T

    2010-07-01

    The presence of adult barnacles of Fistulobalanus pallidus (Darwin) and Fistulobalanus albicostatus (Pilsbry) attached to field-readable plastic leg rings on the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus in Northern Europe is reported. L. fuscus is a long-distance palaearctic migrant, breeding in temperate areas spreading widely over inland and marine habitats outside the breeding season. The species is known to perform long-distance migration to Africa and the Middle East. Combining present knowledge on the birds' migratory pattern and the home range of the barnacle species, it is concluded that the cypris larvae of F. pallidus must have settled in African waters, whereas the area where F. albicostatus settled on the bird leg rings is less certain. The barnacles were of adult size and must thus have been attached for a period of no less than 2 months. More than 30 individual barnacles could occur together on a single field-readable plastic leg ring. The barnacles could therefore, if ported alive to a new area, reproduce successfully and thus either introduce the species or genetically affect other native populations. This may pose a new and wholly unexpected transportation pathway for barnacles as invasive species.

  2. Stream salamander species richness and abundance in relation to environmental factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Jung, Robin E.; Rice, Karen C.

    2005-01-01

    Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.

  3. A new species of ant-loving cricket from Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae

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    Stalling, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of ant-loving cricket, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on individuals collected on the Balearic island of Mallorca, Spain. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 was the host ant species. The habitat was evergreen oak forest. The holotype specimen was deposited in the collection of the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. The species is closely related to Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] and belongs to the subgenus Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de grillo mirmecófilo, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., procedente de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 es la especie hospedadora y su hábitat es el bosque perenne de roble. El holotipo se ha depositado en la colección del Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Ginebra. La nueva especie está estrechamente relacionada con Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] y pertenece al subgénero Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.

  4. Head shape variation in eastern and western Montpellier snakes

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    Marco Mangiacotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Montpellier snake Malpolon monspessulanus is a wide-ranging species that inhabits Western and Eastern Europe, North Africa and Middle East. Four clades have been recognised as two species, M. insignitus and M. monspessulanus, each with two subspecies. Clades have been substantially identified on the basis of molecular data, pholidosis and colouration, while morphometric traits have been ignored. We compared head shape of 54 specimens belonging to three out of the four clades (M. insignitus insignitus, M. i. fuscus, and M. monspessulanus monspessulanus by means of geometric morphometrics. We found a significant differentiation: the supraocular and frontal area showed the largest amount of variation, being respectively much thinner in M. i. insignitus, a bit less thin in M. i. fuscus and definitely wider in M. m. monspessulanus. Our findings are fully in agreement with the genetic studies and phylogeny explains more than 20% of the observed variation, supporting the taxonomic distinction inside the genus Malpolon. The functional and/or adaptive meaning of the observed differences is not clear, but it seems unlikely that it may be related to diet. Combining morphological data with phylogeography and environmental features, we formulated an explanatory hypothesis that allowed a precise and testable prediction.

  5. Damsel in distress: captured damselfish prey emit chemical cues that attract secondary predators and improve escape chances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I

    2015-11-07

    In aquatic environments, many prey animals possess damage-released chemical alarm cues that elicit antipredator behaviours in responsive con- and heterospecifics. Despite considerable study, the selective advantage of alarm cues remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate one of the more promising hypotheses concerning the evolution of alarm cues, we examined whether the cue functions in a fashion analogous to the distress vocalizations emitted by many terrestrial animals. Our results suggest that chemical alarm cues in damselfish (Pomacentridae) may have evolved to benefit the cue sender by attracting secondary predators who disrupt the predation event, allowing the prey a greater chance to escape. The coral reef piscivore, the dusky dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus), chemically eavesdrops on predation events and uses chemical alarm cues from fish prey (lemon damselfish; Pomacentrus moluccensis) in an attempt to find and steal prey from primary predators. Field studies showed that Ps. fuscus aggregate at sites where prey alarm cue has been experimentally released. Furthermore, secondary predators attempted to steal captured prey of primary predators in laboratory trials and enhanced prey escape chances by 35-40%. These results are the first, to the best of our knowledge, to demonstrate a mechanism by which marine fish may benefit from the production and release of alarm cues, and highlight the complex and important role that semiochemicals play in marine predator-prey interactions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOPHAGOUS SCARABAEIDAE (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA LARVAE IN DIFFERENT SUCCESSION CROP SYSTEMS OCORRÊNCIA DE LARVAS DE SCARABAEIDAE FITÓFAGOS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE SUCESSÃO DE CULTURAS

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    Elison Floriano Tiago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about Scarabaeidae phytophagous are still rare for the Center-West Region of Brazil. Thus, in the experimental area of the Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, the succession of soybean, maize, and forage turnip was sowed from February 2004 to October 2005, when the larvae population dynamics was evaluated. From October 2006 to May 2008, nine succession systems were sowed, the larval density evaluated, and the identification of the current species was carried out. When the larvae were sampled for soybean, in January 2005 and 2006, the highest densities were found in the field (3.44 larvae m-2 and 4.19 larvae m-2, respectively. The forage turnip, sampled in October 2004 and 2005, showed the lowest densities (0.03 larvae m-2 and 0.02 larvae m-2, respectively. In the crop succession systems, the following species were found: Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (highest amount, Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, Anomala testaceipennis Blanchard, Paranomala inconstans (Burmeister, Geniates borelli Camerano, Cyclocephala forsteri Endrodi, Cyclocephala verticalis Burmeister, and Phyllophaga sp. For the succession systems with maize sowed at the traditional season, the highest larval densities were found, specially favoring the development of L. fuscus, while the succession systems with soybean, maize, and under fallow, and soybean, crotalaria, and forage turnip, as well as the three systems with cotton-plant, did not favor it.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; Glycine max; Raphanus sativus; soil pests; larvae density.Informações sobre Scarabaeidae fitófagos são ainda escassas para a região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Por esta razão, na área experimental da Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, em Aquidauana (MS, foi semeada, de fevereiro de 2004 a outubro de 2005, a sucessão de culturas soja, milho e nabo forrageiro, onde se avaliou a dinâmica da densidade larval. De outubro de 2006 a maio

  7. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

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    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  8. A Cultural Herpetology of Nile Crocodiles in Africa

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    Simon Pooley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a growing problem worldwide wherever humans share landscapes with large predators, and negative encounters with eight species of the crocodilians is particularly widespread. Conservationists' responses to these adverse encounters have focused on the ecological and behavioural aspects of predators, rather than on the social, political, and cultural contexts, which have threatened their existence in the first place. Few studies have thus far tried to understand the rich, varied, contradictory, and complex relations that exist between particular humans and human societies, and particular predators and groups of predators. It is in the spirit of Brian Morris's explorations of the interactional encounters and co-produced sociabilities that exist between humans and animals in specific places and regions that this paper offers a cultural herpetology (an account of human-crocodile interrelations of the Nile crocodile (Crocodilus niloticus and C. suchus in Africa. It draws on extensive historical documentation of the interactions of humans and crocodiles across Africa to examine how diverse and complex human responses to Nile crocodiles have been, and continue to be, and suggests some implications for improving human-crocodile relations.

  9. Deep-sea ichthyofauna from Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt: Update and new records

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    Mahmoud M.S. Farrag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work sheds light on deep sea resources that update the list of deep sea ichthyoids fauna with new records from the Egyptian coast, Mediterranean Sea. Fish samples were collected from April to November 2015 at depths of 350–750 m using deep red shrimp bottom trawlers. The presented fauna were constituted mainly of deep red shrimp (Aristeomorpha folicea and Aristeus antennatus as target species followed by by-catch and discards which were represented by 36 fish species; Of them, 21 species were recorded previously. The rest of the species, were new ichthyofauna identified in fifteen species including 4 cartilaginous species (Centrophorus uyato, Etmopterus spinax, Hydrolagus mirabilis and Chimaera monstrosa, while the other 11 species were bony fishes (Chauliodus sloani, Diaphus metopoclampus, Sudis hyaline, Microstoma microstoma, Chlorophthalmus agassizi, Avocettina infans, Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Notacanthus bonaparte, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Centrolophus niger and Nettastoma melanurum. Centrophorus uyato was reported for the first time in the Levant Basin. The present findings added new species to the Egyptian ichthyofauna and raised the total known deep water fauna to 38 species, enhancing knowledge about such species requires continuous monitoring and studies on deep sea resources.

  10. Estudios adicionales sobre los Crocodylia y Testudinata del Alto Caquetá y Río Caguán Estudios adicionales sobre los Crocodylia y Testudinata del Alto Caquetá y Río Caguán

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    Medem Federico

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo estudios adicionales sobre problemas de reproducción de la babilla (Caiman sclerops y tres especies de tortugas (Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemis unifilis y Phrynops geoffroanus tuberosus.  Los resultados principales son los siguientes:  1 Caiman sclerops. Los huevos miden de 67.0 : 41.5 mm. a 73.5 : 41.0 mm.  La longitud total de los recién nacidos comprende de 239.5 mm. a 255.5 mm.; pesan entre 32 g, 250 mg. y 47 g.  2 Podocnemis expansa. No es nativa del Alto Caquetá, sino ha sido introducida de su curso bajo y del Putumayo en 1940, 1943 y 1955.  Actualmente está establecida y se reproduce. Los huevos miden de 44.5 : 36.5 mm, a 48.5 : 45.5 mm., y pesan de 34 g, 350 mg. a 44 g, 300 mg. La Iongitud del Carapax de los recién nacidos varía entre 39.5 mm. y 45.0 mm.; pesan de 17 g, 300 mg. a 20 g.  3 Podocnemis unifilis. Los huevos miden de 41.0 : 28.5 mm. a 51.0 33.5 mm., y pesan entre 15 g. y 31 g.; los recién nacidos de 34.0 a 48.0 mm., pesan de 8 g, 750 mg. a 21 g, 100 mg. Evidentemente, la luz constituye el factor más decisivo en relación con la orientación de la cría recién salida del nido, pero indudablemente existen también otros factores todavía desconocidos. Desarrollan una velocidad considerable para llegar al agua, así, por ejemplo, necesitan unos 25 minutos para recorrer una distancia de 96 metros; no permanecen en las aguas poco profundas cerca de la orilla, sino buscan en seguida las partes hondas donde encuentran mejor protección. En cambio, las babillas recién salidas si permanecen cerca de las orillas, ya que están protegidas por la hembra.  4 Phrynops geoffroanus tuberosus. Los huevos miden entre 32.5 31.5 mm, y 35.0 : 34.0 mm.; pesan de 13 g, 550 mg. a 22 g.; los recién nacidos entre 38.5 mm, y 48.0 mm., .y pesan de 7 g, 700 mg. a 14 g, 750 mg.  5 La Matamata (Chelus fimbriatus es, en realidad, nativa en el Alto Caquetá, y no ocasionalmente traída de otros ríos, como se

  11. Scorpion speciation in the Holy Land: Multilocus phylogeography corroborates diagnostic differences in morphology and burrowing behavior among Scorpio subspecies and justifies recognition as phylogenetic, ecological and biological species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talal, Stav; Tesler, Itay; Sivan, Jaim; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Muhammad Tahir, H; Prendini, Lorenzo; Snir, Sagi; Gefen, Eran

    2015-10-01

    Scorpio Linnaeus, 1758 (family Scorpionidae Latreille, 1802) was considered monotypic for over a century, and comprised a single species, Scorpio maurus Linnaeus, 1758, with 19 subspecies, distributed from West Africa, throughout the Maghreb and the Middle East, to Iran. Two parapatric subspecies, Scorpio maurus fuscus (Ehrenberg, 1829) and Scorpio maurus palmatus (Ehrenberg, 1828), have long been recognized in the eastern Mediterranean region. We examined morphological variation, burrow architecture and genetic divergence among 39 populations across the distribution of the two subspecies to assess whether they are conspecific and, if not, how many species might be involved. Cuticle coloration, pedipalp chela digital carina condition, and selected measurements were recorded. Sixty burrows were excavated and examined for burrow structure and depth. A multilocus dataset comprising concatenated fragments of one nuclear (28S rDNA) and three mitochondrial (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I) loci, totaling ca. 2400 base-pairs, was produced for 41 individuals, and a single-locus dataset comprising 658 base-pairs of the COI locus for 156 individuals. Despite overlapping ranges in morphometric characters of pedipalp chela shape, the putative subspecies were easily distinguished by cuticle coloration and condition of the pedipalp chela digital carina, and were also found to differ significantly in burrow architecture and depth. Phylogeographical analyses of the COI and multilocus datasets recovered seven distinct clades. Separate analyses of mitochondrial sequences, and combined analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences support most clades. The two major clades corresponded with the geographical distributions of S. m. fuscus and S. m. palmatus in the region. Specimens from these clades were genetically distinct, and exhibited different burrow structure in geographically-proximate localities, suggesting reproductive isolation. The palmatus clade

  12. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  13. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

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    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  14. Anuran helminth communities from contrasting nature reserve and pasture sites in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, K M; Ribas, A C A; Silva, I C O; Dalazen, G T; Tavares, L E R

    2017-01-01

    Studies of amphibian macroparasites are relevant for the investigation of parasite community ecology and disease dynamics. Here, the parasite communities of five anuran species (Hypsiboas raniceps, Phyllomeduza azurea, Pseudis paradoxa, Leptodactylus fuscus and Leptodactylus podicipinus) are described from two habitats with different levels of preservation (pasture versus nature reserve). Specifically, we used mixed-effect models to test whether helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance differ between the two host collection sites. A total of 120 anuran individuals and 25 helminth parasite taxa were collected. Helminth communities differed between collection sites and among host species. In general, helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance were higher in hosts collected in the pond from the nature reserve. In all, these data help fill the gap in parasite biodiversity knowledge in a changing area, within a sensitive group of vertebrate hosts.

  15. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

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    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  16. [Study of catalase and proteolytic activities of different variants of Bacillus mesentericus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskaya, I A; Kolchinskaya, I D; Sergeichuk, M G; Roy, A A

    1975-01-01

    Catalase and proteolytic activity of the culures and morphological variants of Bacillus mesentericus fuscus, Bac. mesentericus vulgatus were studied. The variants were obtained as a result of prolonged cultivation of the stock strains in the potato mash under the layer of vaseline oil. The level of catalase activity varies in different morphological variants of the same culture, changes with age and depends on the storage conditions. The catalase activity in the rough, smooth and papillar variants that were freshly isolated from the potato mash was 1.5=2.5 times lower than that in the variants long kept on the agar medium. The quantitative indexes of the proteolytic activity of different variants also varied.

  17. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

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    Kara L. Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  18. Anthrenus (Florilinus loebli n. sp. (Coleoptera, Dermestidae, Anthrenini from the Middle East

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    Kadej, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species Anthrenus (Florilinus loebli from Israel, Lebanon and Jordania is described, illustrated and compared with the similar species classified within the subgenus Florilinus Mulsant & Rey, 1868. The new species is characterized by oval eyes, eight-segmented antenna and subtriangular, occasionally triangular, scales on the dorsum. The yellowish/light brown scales are present on the anterior and terminal part of the elytra and create three irregular, transverse bands. Antennal segment eight are at least 4.8 to 5x longer than segment 7 in male, 2.1x longer in female. The new species is most similar to A. (F. museorum (Linnaeus, 1761; A. (H. fuscus Olivier, 1789 and A. (F. flavidus Solsky, 1876. An identification key to externally similar species of the genus is given. The most distinctive taxonomic characteristics concern the male genitalia and antenna (in ratio of length of segments of antennal club and are also described.

  19. Analysis and visualization of animal movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; van Loon, E. Emiel; Purves, Ross S.; Speckmann, Bettina; Weiskopf, Daniel; Camphuysen, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    The interdisciplinary workshop ‘Analysis and Visualization of Moving Objects’ was held at the Lorentz Centre in Leiden, The Netherlands, from 27 June to 1 July 2011. It brought together international specialists from ecology, computer science and geographical information science actively involved in the exploration, visualization and analysis of moving objects, such as marine reptiles, mammals, birds, storms, ships, cars and pedestrians. The aim was to share expertise, methodologies, data and common questions between different fields, and to work towards making significant advances in movement research. A data challenge based on GPS tracking of lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) was used to stimulate initial discussions, cross-fertilization between research groups and to serve as an initial focus for activities during the workshop. PMID:21865243

  20. PRELIMINARY DATA CONCERNING THE HERPETOFAUNA IN NEAM COUNTY (ROMANIA

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    Sorin ROŞU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus. Within the region we identified species quoted (Coglniceanu et al. 2000 to have the lowest altitudinal limit of their spreading area at much higher altitudes. The species Triturus montandoni was identified at 320 m altitude at Agârcia and Doamna. Most of the amphibian and reptilian species are not endangered in the researched area.

  1. A new species of lizard of the genus Eublepharis (Squamata: Eublepharidae from India

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    Zeeshan A. Mirza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new species of the genus Eublepharis from the Satpura Hills in central India. The new species closely resembles E. fuscus, but can be differentiated from it by the following suite of characters: SVL 125–130 mm; dome shaped tubercles lacking keels arranged in ~20 rows on dorsum, inter-tubercular space greater than width of a tubercle; 46–48 ocular fringe scales, three pale bands between the nuchal loop and caudal constriction; medial subdigital lamellae smooth; 13–14 preanal pores, which may be interrupted medially by a single poreless scale. Description of the new species sheds light on the limited knowledge of Eublepharis in India. We provided in identification key to the species of the genus Eublepharis.

  2. Revision of the Ambrysus hybridus Montandon species complex (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) with the description of a new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W

    2016-09-19

    The Ambrysus hybridus Montandon species complex is revised and includes A. convexus Usinger, A. fuscus Usinger stat. rev., A. hybridus Montandon, A. lattini La Rivers, A. plautus Polhemus & Polhemus, A. spiculus Polhemus & Polhemus, A. thermarum La Rivers, and A. ultimus La Rivers. Ambrysus lariversi n. sp. is the ninth species in this complex and is described from Mexico. A. tridentatus La Rivers and A. woodburyi Usinger are proposed as junior synonyms of A. hybridus Montandon and for which a lectotype is designated. Most of the species in this complex occur only in Mexico, although A. thermarum is known only from the United States and A. hybridus occurs from the southwestern United States to southern Mexico and has the widest distribution of any species in this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and structures associated with the male and female genitalia.

  3. Isomucor (Mucoromycotina): a new genus from a Cerrado reserve in state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, José Ivanildo; Pires-Zottarelli, Carmen Lidia Amorim; Dos Santos, Jailson Francisco; Costa, Janaina Pinheiro; Harakava, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    During a survey of mucoralean fungi from a Cerrado reserve (Brazilian savanna) some isolates of a Mucor-like fungus were isolated from soil plates. Characterization based on morphological, physiological and molecular data from translation elongation factor (EF-1α), 28S (D1/D2) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequences was made. The isolates produce lateral branches bearing multispored sporangiola in addition to the multispored sporangia and a uniformly septate mycelium as the main differentiating characteristics. To our surprise this fungus possesses two EF-1α genes 1.4 and 1.5 kb long. Evidence from the analyzed datasets supports the delimitation of a new genus and the inclusion of Mucor fuscus based on 28S and ITS rDNA data.

  4. Novos registros de Veronicellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca para Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil e sua ocorrência no conteúdo estomacal de serpentes do gênero Dipsas Laurenti (Colubridae New record for Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil of Veronicellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca and its occurrence in the stomach contents of snakes Dipsas Laurenti (Colubridae

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    José Willibaldo Thomé

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The predominant occurrence of the species Sarasinula marginata (Semper, 1885 in 31 lots, all proceeding from the stomach contents of the snakes Dipsas Laurenri, 1768 was determined. A species still not determined of Novovaginula Thiele, 1931 was represented in 10 lots and in a living collected lot (with only one specimen, not mature. One-third species, Potamojanuarius fuscus (Heynemann, 1885 is represented only in a lot of slugs collected alive (seven specimens and was confirmed in a lot of four specimens, this of the Museum of Zoology, University of São Paulo (USP, São Paulo. All the other lots were sent by F.Q. Alves, Department of Zoology, State University of São Paulo (UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo.

  5. Intra-generic and interspecific karyotype patterns of Leptodactylus and Adenomera (Anura, Leptodactylidae) with inclusion of five species from Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ana Carolina; de Mattos, Thais Lemos; Viana, Patrik; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Menin, Marcelo; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-02-01

    The genera Leptodactylus and Adenomera comprise 92 species distributed throughout the Neotropical region. These species have a modal diploid chromosome number 2n = 22. However, chromosome rearrangements are evident in the differentiation of five intra-generic groups in the genus Leptodactylus (L. fuscus, L. latrans, L. marmoratus (formally composed by the species of the genus Adenomera), L. melanonotus, L. pentadactylus), yet it is not clear if there is a karyotype pattern for each group. Aiming to understand the intra-generic and interspecific karyotype patterns of Leptodactylus and Adenomera, cytogenetic analyses were performed in A. andreae, L. macrosternum, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, and L. riveroi using conventional staining, C-banding, nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and hybridization in situ fluorescent (FISH). The karyotype of Leptodactylus riveroi was described for the first time. Adenomera andreae had 2n = 26, while the remaining species 2n = 22. The NOR was found on pair No. 8 of A. andreae, L. macrosternum, L. pentadactylus, and L. riveroi, whereas L. petersii had it on pairs Nos. 6 and 10. These locations were confirmed by the FISH with 18S rDNA probe, except for pair No. 10 of L. petersii. The C-banding pattern was evident at the centromeres of chromosomes of all species and some interspecific variations were also observed. 2n = 22 was observed in the species of the L. latrans group, as well as in the intra-generic groups L. fuscus and L. pentadactylus; in the L. melanonotus group there were three diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 20, 22 and 24; and a larger variation in 2n was also evident in the L. marmoratus group.

  6. AvrRxo1 Is a Bifunctional Type III Secreted Effector and Toxin-Antitoxin System Component with Homologs in Diverse Environmental Contexts.

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    Lindsay R Triplett

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are ubiquitous bacterial systems that may function in genome maintenance and metabolic stress management, but are also thought to play a role in virulence by helping pathogens survive stress. We previously demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola protein AvrRxo1 is a type III-secreted virulence factor that has structural similarities to the zeta family of TA toxins, and is toxic to plants and bacteria in the absence of its predicted chaperone Arc1. In this work, we confirm that AvrRxo1 and its binding partner Arc1 function as a TA system when expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequences of avrRxo1 homologs were culled from published and newly generated phytopathogen genomes, revealing that avrRxo1:arc1 modules are rare or frequently inactivated in some species and highly conserved in others. Cloning and functional analysis of avrRxo1 from Acidovorax avenae, A. citrulli, Burkholderia andropogonis, Xanthomonas translucens, and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria showed that some AvrRxo1 homologs share the bacteriostatic and Rxo1-mediated cell death triggering activities of AvrRxo1 from X. oryzae. Additional distant putative homologs of avrRxo1 and arc1 were identified in genomic or metagenomic sequence of environmental bacteria with no known pathogenic role. One of these distant homologs was cloned from the filamentous soil bacterium Cystobacter fuscus. avrRxo1 from C. fuscus caused watersoaking and triggered Rxo1-dependent cell collapse in Nicotiana benthamiana, but no growth suppression in E. coli was observed. This work confirms that a type III effector can function as a TA system toxin, and illustrates the potential of microbiome data to reveal new environmental origins or reservoirs of pathogen virulence factors.

  7. Evidence of cryptic individual specialization in an opportunistic insectivorous bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat use and feeding behaviors of cryptic animals are often poorly understood. Analyses of stable isotope ratios in animal body tissues can help reveal an individual's location and resource use during tissue growth. We investigated variation in stable isotope ratios of 4 elements (H, C, N, and S) in the hair of a sedentary species of insectivorous bat (Eptesicus fuscus) inhabiting a chemically complex urban landscape. Our objective was to quantify population-level isotopic variation and test for evidence of resource specialization by individuals. Bats were sampled over 3 annual molt cycles at maternity roosts in buildings and variance components analysis was used to test whether intraindividual isotopic variation among molts differed from interindividual variation, after controlling for year and roost-group effects. Consistent with prior evidence that E. fuscus is opportunistic in its habitat use and foraging at the population level, we observed wide population-level variation for all isotopes. This variation likely reflects the chemical complexity of the urban landscape studied. However, isotopic variation among years within marked individuals was lower than variation among marked individuals within year for all isotopes, and carbon signatures indicated resource specialization by roost groups and individuals. This is the 1st study to examine variation in stable isotope ratios of individual wild bats over multiple years. Although our results suggest this population tends toward opportunistic habitat use or prey selection, or both, during molt periods, results also indicate that individuals and groups of bats composing the population might be habitat or dietary specialists—a novel finding for insectivorous bats.

  8. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-02-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull.

  9. Territorial hypothesis predicts the trade-off between reproductive opportunities and parental care in three species of damselfishes (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii La hipótesis territorial predice la compensación entre las oportunidades reproductivas y el cuidado parental en tres especies de peces damisela (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paternal care is rare in most animals, but common in fishes, including Pomacentridae. One way of explaining it is through the territorial hypothesis, which predicts that paternal care may evolve when caring for a territory with eggs will not cost more than territories without eggs. Here we describe the reproductive behavior of three pomacentrids from São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluate if the territorial hypothesis explains their behavioral variation through five predictions. We checked if females have multiple spawns (prediction 1, if they forage more (prediction 2 and if territory defence demands more when eggs are present (prediction 3. We also described how visible eggs are (prediction 4 and how available nesting sites are (prediction 5. Chromis multilineata differed from Abudefduf saxatilis and Stegastes fuscus by not guarding the eggs, spending less time with territoriality and fanning eggs; and more time feeding and foraging. Females of the three species are iteroparous. Females' A. saxatilis and S. fuscus foraged more than males, which spent the same amount of time in territorial defence before and after eggs were delivered. These two species also have very conspicuous egg clutches on clean rock surfaces defended by them. On the other hand, males and females of C. multilineata spent the same time foraging, while territoriality took more effort after eggs were present and it spawns cryptic eggs amid Sargassum, a common and disperse micro-environment in São Paulo rocky shores. Territorial hypothesis explains why paternal care by A. saxatilis and S. fuscus lasts longer than by C. multilineata.El cuidado paterno es raro en la mayoría de los animales, pero común en los peces, incluyendo los Pomacentridae. Una forma de explicar este fenómeno es la hipótesis territorial, que predice que el cuidado paterno puede evolucionar cuando la protección de un territorio con huevos no cuesta más que la de territorios sin huevos. Aquí se describe el

  10. Larval fish distribution and their relationship with environmental factors in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (central Mediterranean during two years of sampling

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    Adriana Profeta

    2014-06-01

    The results of this study could have implications for the management of marine resources, because the investigated area has already been identified as a nursery area for many pelagic and coastal fishes and a natural habitat for many species of high commercial interest. Fig. 1. Results of CCA analysis for larval fish species and sampled stations during June 2006. Two first axes (CCA1 and CCA2 are represented. Species abbreviations in alphabetical order: An_a (Anthias anthias, Ap_i (Apogon imberbis, Ar_k (Arnoglossus kessleri, Ar_h (Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Ar_l (Arnoglossus laterna, Ar_r (Arnoglossus rueppelii, Ar_t (Arnoglossus thori, Be_g (Benthosema glaciale, Bl_o (Blennius ocellaris, Bo_b (Boops boops, Bo_p (Bothus podas, Ca_a (Capros aper, Ca_p (Callyonimus maculatus, Ce_m (Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Ce_m1(Cepola macrophtalma, Ci_l (Citharus linguatula, Co_j (Coris julis, Co_n (Ophidion barbatum, Cy_b (Cyclothone braueri, Cy_p (Cyclothone pygmaea, En_e (Engraulis encrasicolus, Di_a (Diplodus annularis, Di_h (Diaphus holti, Di_r (Diaphus rafinesquei, El_r (Electrona rissoi, Go_n (Gobius niger, He_d (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Hy_b (Hygophum benoiti, Hy_h (Hygophum hygomii, La_c (Lampanyctus crocodilus, La_p (Lampanyctus pusillus, Le_c (Lepidotrigla cavillone, Le_j (Lestidiops jayakari, Lo_d (Lobianchia dofleini, Ma_m (Maurolicus muelleri, Ma_s (Macrorhamphosus scolopax, Me_m (Merluccius merluccius, Mi_p (Micromesistius poutassou, My_p (Myctophum punctatum, Mu_s (Mullus surmuletus, Ne_s (Nemichthys scolopaceus, No_b (Notoscopelus bolini, No_e (Notoscopelus elongatus, No_r (Arctozenus risso, Ob_m (Oblada melanura, Pa_s (Paralepis speciosa. Sc_p (Scorpaena porcus, Sc_s (Scorpaena scrofa, Se_c (Serranus cabrilla, Se_h (Serranushepatus, Sp_f (Spicara maena, Sp_s (Spicara smaris, Sy sp. (Symphurus nigrescens, Sy_v, (Symphurus ligulatus, St_b (Stomias boa boa, Tr_d (Trachinus draco, Tr_me (Trachurus mediterraneus, Tr_t (Trachurus trachurus, Ur_s (Uranoscopus scaber

  11. Observações sobre stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis calman, 1917 na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul Observation on the Stamatopoda Squilla brasiliensis Calman, 1917 on the continental shelf of the Rio Grande do Sul State

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    Luiz Roberto Tommasi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available O Stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis ocorreu em 60 estações na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul. É aparentemente, bastante freqüente entre 19 e 285 m de profundidade, mas especialmente entre 100 e 150 m, temperatura da água de fundo de 12,22 a 24,45ºC, salinidade de 30,20 a 36,16º/.., fundo de areia fina e lodo com baixo teor de calcario (0-20% na fração menor do que 44µ. Ocorreu especialmente em fundos sob influencia da massa de água Subtropical. As maiores abundancias ocorreram entre 30º e 31ºS e entre 49º e 50ºW. Vários exemplares, tanto machos como fêmeas, apresentaram telso com bordos entumescidos, o que sugere não ser essa uma característica ligada ao sexo nesta espécie .The distribution of Squilla brasiliensis Caiman, 1917 (Crustacea Stomatopoda is by the first time discussed in the continental plataform in the region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in relationship with depth, temperature and salinity. Apparently the distribution of that species is more related to salinity than to depth and temperature, and specially to the water mass of Subtropical origin. The largest densities were found between 84 and 128 m depth.

  12. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance study of portable devices for the real-time measurement of airborne particle number concentration and size (distribution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Sébastien; Payet, Raphaël; Witschger, Olivier; Jankowska, Elżbieta

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the performance of both portable and transportable devices devoted to the real-time measurement of airborne particle number concentration and size (distribution). Electrical mobility spectrometers (SMPS, FMPS, Nanoscan) as well as diffusion chargers (DiSCmini, Nanotracer) were studied. Both monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols were produced within the CAIMAN facility to challenge the instruments. The monodisperse test aerosols were selected in the 15-400 nm diameter range using a differential mobility analyser (DMA), and presented number concentrations of between 6.102 and 2.105 cm-3. The polydisperse test aerosols presented modal diameters of between 8 and 270 nm and number concentrations between 4.103 to 106 cm-3. The behavior of the different devices is expressed as (1) the ratio of the reported diameter to the reference diameter, and (2) the ratio of the reported number concentration to the reference concentration. These results are displayed as boxplots to better represent the statistical distribution of the experimental results. For the group of electrical mobility spectrometers, a good agreement between SMPS and FMPS and the reference was demonstrated. A slight tendency for the Nanoscan to underestimate particle size distribution for particles above around 100 nm was observed. The data reported for the group of diffusion chargers demonstrate that all, except the Nanotracer, show a tendency to underestimate particle diameter, by a factor around -40% to -10%. In the case of particle concentration, larger deviations were observed.

  14. When You Get What You Haven't Paid for: Molecular Identification of "Douradinha" Fish Fillets Can Help End the Illegal Use of River Dolphins as Bait in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Haydée A; da Silva, Vera M F; Santos, Teresa E C; Moreira, Stella M; do Carmo, Nivia A S; Solé-Cava, Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The fishery for Calophysus macropterus, an Amazonian necrophagous catfish, is highly detrimental to river dolphins and caimans, which are deliberately killed for use as bait. In the Brazilian Amazon, this fishery has increased over the last decade, in spite of the rejection of scavenger fishes by Brazilian consumers. It was suspected that C. macropterus fillets were being sold in Brazilian markets, disguised as a fictitious fish (the "douradinha"). We collected 62 fillets from "douradinha" and other suspiciously named fish from 4 fish-processing plants sold at 6 markets in Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon, and sequenced the cytochrome b gene to identify fillets to species. Sixty percent of fillets labeled "douradinha" or with other deceptive names were actually C. macropterus. Six other fish species of low commercial value were also found. The presence of dolphin tissue in the stomach contents of C. macropterus was confirmed by mtDNA control region sequencing. Our results formed the scientific basis for a moratorium on the fishing and fraudulent selling of C. macropterus, issued by the Brazilian Ministries of the Environment and Fisheries. Exposure of this fraud via the mass media can help end the illegal use of dolphins as bait in Brazil. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, 54519 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Gensdarmes, Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Laboratoire de Physique et de Metrologie des Aerosols, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Thomas, Dominique [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique, LSGC/CNRS, Nancy Universite, BP 2041, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak{sup x2122} 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  16. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821 (Diptera, Tabanidae, an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limeira-de-Oliveira Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Anseriformes, Anatidae. The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  17. Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Tabanidae), an ornithophilic species of Tabanid in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco; Rafael, José Albertino; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro

    2002-09-01

    In Central Amazon, Brazil, the tabanid Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann) was recorded attacking the native duck Cairina moschata (Linnaeus) (Anseriformes, Anatidae). The flight and behavior of the tabanid during the attacks and the host's defenses were videotaped and analyzed in slow motion. The tabanid was recorded flying rapidly around the heads of the ducks before landing. Landing always took place on the beak, and then the tabanid walked to the fleshy caruncle on the basal part of the beak to bite and feed. Firstly the duck defends itself through lateral harsh head movements, and then, when it is being bitten, it defends itself by rubbing its head on the body, or dipping the head into water, when swimming. If disturbed, the fly resumed the same pattern of flight as before and would generally try to land again on the same host and bite in the same place. This feeding activity was observed predominantly between 9:30 am and 4:30 pm and always in open areas, near aquatic environments, from June 1996 to January 1997, the dry season in Central Amazon. To test the attractiveness of other animals to P. cinereus, mammals, caimans and domestic and wild birds were placed in suitable habitat and the response of P. cinereus observed. P. cinereus did not attack these animals, suggesting that this species has a preference for ducks, which are plentiful in the region.

  18. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  19. Evaluation of microbiology and nutritive quality of exotic meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Pilegi Sfaciotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum-packed and frozen of ostrich (Struthio camelus, alligator (Caiman latirostris and wild boar (Sus scrofa meat samples were obtained in an authorized commercial store in Maringá/Paraná. Of each kind meat were analyzed 6 samples, where were studied counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria psichrophilic, coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp., and protein and fat analysis. The results of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged between <1.0 a 3.6 log CFU/g, being the biggest counting in ostrich meat. The meat that had the biggest counting of micro-organisms psychrotrophs was also the ostrich, but even so, it was not considered high, ranging between 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/g. There were no counting for coliforms and E. coli on wild boar and alligator meats (except sample 4 of wild boar meat that had a count of 1.0 log CFU/g of coliforms but, all ostrich meat had count, ranged between 1.3 a 2.7 log CFU/g. In generally, the literature shows that wild animals meats have higher protein values (19.5 to 22.8% CP than domestic animals, this values agree with the values found in this work, 19.9 to 29.9% CP.

  20. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ewig, F. [GRS Koln (Germany); Dickenson, S. [AEAT, (United Kingdom); Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L. [IPSN (France); Rydl, A. [NRIR (Czech Republic); Royen, J. [OECD/NEA (France)

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I{sup -} concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  1. FullSSR: Microsatellite Finder and Primer Designer

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    Sebastián Metz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are genomic sequences comprised of tandem repeats of short nucleotide motifs widely used as molecular markers in population genetics. FullSSR is a new bioinformatic tool for microsatellite (SSR loci detection and primer design using genomic data from NGS assay. The software was tested with 2000 sequences of Oryza sativa shotgun sequencing project from the National Center of Biotechnology Information Trace Archive and with partial genome sequencing with ROCHE 454® from Caiman latirostris, Salvator merianae, Aegla platensis, and Zilchiopsis collastinensis. FullSSR performance was compared against other similar SSR search programs. The results of the use of this kind of approach depend on the parameters set by the user. In addition, results can be affected by the analyzed sequences because of differences among the genomes. FullSSR simplifies the detection of SSRs and primer design on a big data set. The command line interface of FullSSR was intended to be used as part of genomic analysis tools pipeline; however, it can be used as a stand-alone program because the results are easily interpreted for a nonexpert user.

  2. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.R. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: nemitala@dfn.if.usp.br; Aburaya, J.H.; Rizzutto, M.A. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 {mu}C for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts.

  3. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P. R.; Added, N.; Aburaya, J. H.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 μC for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts.

  4. Los géneros de anfibios y reptiles de Colombia, IV: Cuarta y ultima parte: reptiles, ordenes testudineos y crocodilinos

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    Dunn Emmett Reid

    1945-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se consideran los dos órdenes restantes de reptiles de Colombia concluyéndose la serie que se ha venido publicando en los tres últimos números de CALDASIA sobre la fauna herpetológica de este país. Las publicaciones referentes a los Testudineos y Crocodilinos de Colombia son muy escasas y, además, los ejemplares colombianos que he podido examinar son muy pocos; por lo tanto, el trabajo que aquí ofrezco a los estudiantes de herpetología de este país no es tan completo como yo lo hubiera deseado. El hecho de que no existan numerosos ejemplares de caimanes y tortugas en los museos y colecciones científicas se explica principalmente por el tamaño y peso de estos animales y por la dificultad de conseguirlos, prepararlos y transportarlos. A falta de información más precisa acerca de las especies que habitan en Colombia me ha parecido conveniente dar en este articulo una guía de los géneros que se encuentran en la parte nor-occidental del continente suramericanoy en los mares adyacentes. Espero que en el futuro sea posibledefinir con mayor exactitud y certeza cuales grupos pertenecen realmente a la fauna colombiana.

  5. Surface oceanographic fronts influencing deep-sea biological activity: Using fish stable isotopes as ecological tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Navarro, Joan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; de Sola, Luis Gil; Forero, Manuela G.

    2017-06-01

    Ecotones can be described as transition zones between neighbouring ecological systems that can be shaped by environmental gradients over a range of space and time scales. In the marine environment, the detection of ecotones is complex given the highly dynamic nature of marine systems and the paucity of empirical data over ocean-basin scales. One approach to overcome these limitations is to use stable isotopes from animal tissues since they can track spatial oceanographic variability across marine systems and, in turn, can be used as ecological tracers. Here, we analysed stable isotopes of deep-sea fishes to assess the presence of ecological discontinuities across the western Mediterranean. We were specifically interested in exploring the connection between deep-sea biological activity and particular oceanographic features (i.e., surface fronts) occurring in the pelagic domain. We collected samples for three different abundant deep-sea species in May 2004 from an experimental oceanographic trawling cruise (MEDITS): the Mictophydae jewel lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus and two species of the Gadidae family, the silvery pout Gadiculus argenteus and the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou. The experimental survey occurred along the Iberian continental shelf and the upper and middle slopes, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the SW to the Cape Creus in the NE. The three deep-sea species were highly abundant throughout the study area and they showed geographic variation in their isotopic values, with decreasing values from north to south disrupted by an important change point around the Vera Gulf. Isotopic latitudinal gradients were explained by pelagic oceanographic conditions along the study area and confirm the existence of an ecotone at the Vera Gulf. This area could be considered as an oceanographic boundary where waters of Atlantic origin meet Mediterranean surface waters forming important frontal structures such as the Almeria-Oran front. In fact, our results

  6. Equinodermos del Parque Nacional Isla Isabel, Nayarit, México Echinoderms of the National Park Isla Isabel, Nayarit, Mexico

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    Eduardo Ríos-Jara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la composición específica de equinodermos del Parque Nacional Isla Isabel, ubicado en el Pacífico central mexicano. Los muestreos y recolectas se realizaron durante octubre de 2004, marzo y julio de 2005 mediante búsqueda directa en diferentes playas rocosas y mediante transectos en banda en los sustratos rocoso y arenoso del submareal hasta los 19 m de profundidad. Se incluyen también ejemplares recolectados con redes de arrastre en el barco camaronero "América" en aguas adyacentes. Se registraron 299 individuos correspondientes a 31 especies y 19 familias de equinodermos. La mayor abundancia se registró en las regiones norte (43% y este (39% de la isla donde existe mayor heterogeneidad de sustratos y la menor en la oeste (3%. La mayor riqueza de especies correspondió a las zonas este (36%, norte (31% y sur (29% de la isla. Los holoturoideos fueron los más diversos con 10 especies. Las especies más importantes de acuerdo al índice de valor biológico son: Diadema mexicanum, Toxopneustes roseus, Phataria unifascialis, Pharia pyramidatus, Ophiocoma alexandri, Holothuria lubrica, Isostichopus fuscus y Eucidaris thouarsii representando el 60% de los individuos. La afinidad de especies es mayor con el golfo de California que con la región centro-sur del Pacífico.This study describes the species composition of echinoderms from Isla Isabel National Park, in the central Mexican Pacific. The samplings and collection transects band were made in October 2004, March and July 2005 by direct search on several rocky beaches, and on rocky and sandy substrates in subtidal areas to 19 m depth. The specimens collected with a trawling net from the shrimp vessel "America" in adjacent waters were also included. A total of 299 organisms belonging to 31 species and 19 families of echinoderms were registered. The greatest abundance was recorded in the nothern (43% and eastern (39% regions of the island where there is greater substrate

  7. Riqueza e densidade de vocalizações de anuros (Amphibia em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Richness of species and density of vocalization of anurans in an urban area of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Waldemar Ávila

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza e intensidade de vocalizações de anuros em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram estudadas de fevereiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2003 em uma poça temporária. Foi utilizado um transecto com quatro pontos de escuta onde foram consideradas as espécies visualizadas e a intensidade das respectivas vocalizações. Foram registradas 16 espécies de quatro famílias: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1 e Leptodactylidae (6. O período reprodutivo dessas espécies esteve correlacionado com a estação chuvosa, de dezembro a março (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. As espécies que apresentaram maior intensidade de vocalização foram Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 e Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, com picos em janeiro. A espécie que apresentou maior período de vocalização foi Leptodactylus fuscus, de setembro a fevereiro. O maior número de espécies e de indivíduos vocalizando ocorreu de 19:00 às 23:00 h.The richness and intensity of vocalization of anurans in urban areas of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were studied from February 2002 to January 2003 in a secondary forest and surroundings of a temporary pond. We used a transect with four stop sites on which the presence of species and the intensity of vocalization were recorded according to North American Amphibian Monitoring Population index. The turn when vocalization happened was also recorded. We registered 16 species of four families: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1, and Leptodactylidae (6. The reproduction of these species was correlated to the rainy season, from December to March (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. The species that presented greater intensity of vocalization were Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 and Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, with peaks during January. The species that presented the greater period of vocalization was Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799

  8. Water economy of three Cinclodes (Furnariidae species inhabiting marine and freshwater ecosystems Economía hídrica en tres especies de Cinclodes (Furnariidae que habitan ecosistemas marinos y de agua dulce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds living in desert environments have been the preferred models for the study of physiological adaptations to water scarcity. Passerine birds living in marine coastal habitats face similar problems, yet physiological adaptations to water conservation in such species have been poorly documented. We measured total evaporative water loss (TEWL and rates of oxygen consumption (VO2 in three species of passerine birds dwelling in marine and fresh water habitats. Mass specific total evaporative water loss was significantly lower in the marine species, Cinclodes nigrofumosus, than in species inhabiting areas near freshwater sources. We found a positive relationship between TEWL and VO2. The ratio of TEWL to VO2 (relative evaporative water loss, RTEWL showed significant variation among Cinclodes species, and was highest for the fresh-water living species, C. oustaleti and C. fuscus. The variation in TEWL found in Cinclodes is likely a consequence of differential exploitation of marine prey with high osmotic loads, which, in turn, may impose the need for water conservationLas aves que habitan ambientes desérticos han sido modelos de estudio preferidos para el estudio de adaptaciones fisiológicas a la escasez de agua. Las aves paseriformes que habitan hábitat costeros enfrentan problemas similares, aunque las posibles adaptaciones fisiológicas para la conservación de agua en dichas especies han sido pobremente documentadas. En este estudio se determinó la pérdida total de agua por evaporación (TEWL y la tasa de consumo de oxígeno (VO2 en tres especies de aves paseriformes que habitan ambientes marinos y de agua dulce. La pérdida total de agua por evaporación masa-específica fue significativamente menor en la especie marina, Cinclodes nigrofumosus, que en especies que habitan áreas cercanas a fuentes de agua dulce. Se encontró una relación positiva y significativa entre TEWL y VO2. La razón entre TEWL y el VO2 (pérdida relativa de agua

  9. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

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    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  10. What can two years of monitoring tell us about Venezuelan coral reefs? The Southern Tropical America node of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (STA-GCRMN

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    Aldo Cróquer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of their economic importance, coral reef communities of the world are rapidly decreasing, and an adequate management planification is needed. The benthic and fish communities of Dos Mosquises Sur and Madrizquí at Los Roques National Park, and Caiman and Cayo Norte at Morrocoy National Park, in Venezuela were monitored during 2003 and 2004. The CARICOMP method was used to describe the benthic community, and the AGRRA protocol was applied to the fish community assessment. The benthic cover of five broad living categories (i.e. corals, algae, sponge and octocorals differed across the sites (Nested ANOVA, p En este estudio se describe la condición de las comunidades bentónicas e ictícolas en cuatro arrecifes que fueron monitorizados durante 2003 y 2004 en Venezuela: Dos Mosquises Sur y Madrizquí en el Parque Nacional Archpiélago Los Roques y Caimán y Cayo Norte en el Parque Nacional Morrocoy. Para ello, empleamos los protocolos de CARICOMP y AGRRA para describir la comunidad bentónica e ictícola, respectivamente. La cobertura de los cinco principales grupos bentónicos difirió entre arrecifes (ANOVA anidado, p < 0.05 más no entre parques. A pesar de pertenecer a diferentes parques la estructura de la comunidad bentónica entre Dos Mosquises Sur y Cayo Norte mostró un índice de similitud (Bray-Curtis de 76%, mientras que Caiman difirió entre 57 y 68% con respecto a todos los arrecifes. Como se esperaba, la cobertura coralina, algas esponjas y octocorales no cambió entre 2003 y 2004. De forma similar, la comunidad de peces tampoco cambió en el tiempo y estuvo dominada por especies de herbívoros (Pomacentridae, Scaridae and Labridae. Sin embargo, en Los Roques los carnívoros de importancia comercial (e.g. lutjanidos y serranidos fueron más abundantes que en Morrocoy. Aunque se esperaba encontrar diferencias en la comunidad bentónica e ictícola de Los Roques y Morrocoy, solo la de peces reflejó las diferencias, encontr

  11. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Cahais, Vincent; Galtier, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2012-07-27

    The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. These results provide a phylogenetic framework

  12. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes, to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles, or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation

  13. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results

  14. Major shifts in Amazon wildlife populations from recent intensification of floods and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, Richard; Mayor, Pedro; Antunez, Miguel; Chota, Kimberlyn; Fang, Tula; Puertas, Pablo; Pittet, Marlini; Kirkland, Maire; Walkey, Mike; Rios, Claudia; Perez-Peña, Pedro; Henderson, Peter; Bodmer, William; Bicerra, Andy; Zegarra, Joseph; Docherty, Emma

    2017-08-02

    In the western Amazon Basin, recent intensification of river-level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011 to 2015 during high-water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low-water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal, and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest in the Loreto region of Peru (99,780 km 2 ) to study the effects of intensification of natural climatic fluctuations on wildlife populations and in turn effects on resource use by local people. Shifts in fish and terrestrial mammal populations occurred during consecutive years of high floods and the drought of 2010. As floods intensified, terrestrial mammal populations decreased by 95%. Fish, waterfowl, and otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) abundances increased during years of intensive floods, whereas river dolphin and caiman populations had stable abundances. Arboreal species, including, macaws, game birds, primates, felids, and other arboreal mammals had stable populations and were not affected directly by high floods. The drought of 2010 had the opposite effect: fish, waterfowl, and dolphin populations decreased, and populations of terrestrial and arboreal species remained stable. Ungulates and large rodents are important sources of food and income for local people, and large declines in these animals has shifted resource use of people living in the flooded forests away from hunting to a greater reliance on fish. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. VICHADA: LA HOSPITALIDAD DEL ORINOCO. Pag. 150-157

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Velandia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Donde el cielo y la sabana se unen en el infinito, se vislumbra una sola montaña en la lejanía, parece un gigante, antiguo y oscuro al final de la inmensidad un “Tepuye”, después de unas cuantas horas de camino se acerca este gran anciano que data del precámbrico, pero no está solo. Se observan algunos compañeros iguales a él, se podrían considerar como los guardianes del imponente y hermoso Orinoko, considerado en lengua Sikuani como la gran serpiente enroscada acompañada de una gran riqueza paisajística cultural y biodiversa; bosques de galería, diferentes tipos de sabana, esteros, lagunas, morichales, bosques inundables, las que recorren aguas blancas, negras y mixtas, rodeadas por diferentes etnias y grupos indígenas como Piaroas, Sikuanis – Guahibos, Cuibas y Amoruas, que viven en forma pacífica con llaneros y colonos, orgullosos de estas tierras, amables y hospitalarios que desde hace muchos años comparten este paraíso con: bagres, pirañas, anguilas, rayas, arawanas, anacondas, ranas, sapos, caimanes, babos, iguanas, tortugas, loros, búhos, guacamayas, azucareros, pavones, paujiles, águilas, zamuros, aulladores, armadillos, ocarros, chigüiros, osos hormigueros, ocelotes, jaguares, nutrias, murciélagos, cuerpo espines, zorros, venados y delfines, que pasan sus días entre; cedros, moriches, saladillos, caraños, yarumos, laureles, caimos, guaduas, guamos, alcornoques, chaparros, arepillos, palmiches y gualtes.

  16. Mesopelagic fishes across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic: Biogeographical and vertical patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Hulley, P. Alexander; Castellón, Arturo; Emelianov, Mikhail; López, Cristina; Tuset, Víctor M.; Contreras, Tabit; Molí, Balbina

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation we analysed the changes in fish species occurrences and relative abundances across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, and their vertical distribution patterns in relation to the different environmental scenarios. The study covers a wide region encompassing different water masses, and marked differences in productivity, from an oligotrophic zone close to the Brazilian coast, to a very productive upwelling region close to the Northwest African upwelling. Fishes were collected with a medium-sized midwater trawl (Mesopelagos), complemented by hauls made with a macrozooplankton net (MOCNESS). Species richness in the region was higher than in subtropical, temperate and cold regions. The total number of species and their overall abundance was lower in the stations closer to the Brazilian coast. Abundant species across the entire region were the gonostomatids Cyclothone alba, Cyclothone acclinidens, Cyclothone pallida and Cyclothone pseudopallida, the myctophid Lampanyctus alatus, the sternoptychid Sternoptyx diaphana, and the phosichthyid Vinciguerria nimbaria. The occurrences and abundances of C. parapallida, Lampanyctus nobilis and Lepidophanes guentheri were related to zones where AAIW waters occupied the mesopelagic layers, while other species such as Cyclothone livida and Polyipnus polli increased their abundance when AAIW disappears from their living depths. The presence of Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) was associated with the occurrence of several myctophids (Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Diaphus holti, Diaphus rafinesquii, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Myctophum punctatum, Symbolophorus veranyi), and the gonostomatid Cyclothone braueri. In spite of the important differences in hydrographic features across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, all stations showed either the general night migration into the epipelagic layers carried out by myctophids, phosicthyids, and some stomiids, or the

  17. Diel-depth distributions of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) under two environmental scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Sabatés, Ana; Alemany, Francisco; Balbín, Rosa; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz; Torres, Asvin Pérez

    2014-10-01

    The diel vertical distribution of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands during late autumn and summer was analysed in relation to the environmental conditions. Four fixed sampling stations, located in the outer shelf and slope zones, were sampled during both the day and night by means of oblique hauls at different water depths. In autumn the first 60 m were characterised by vertical mixing and relatively higher fluorescence values, while summer was characterised by strong near-surface stratification and the presence of a Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM). The fish larval community was dominated by mesopelagic species, myctophiforms and stomiiforms, with some differences in species composition and their relative contribution between periods. A higher number of species was observed to reproduce in summer. The diel vertical distribution patterns differed among species and, within species, some differences were detected between the day and night. Although their relative depth preferences were similar between surveys, seasonal comparisons for the most abundant species showed that in autumn larvae presented both a shallower distribution during the day and a deeper distribution during the night than in the summer period. The larvae of all species, except for Argyropelecus hemigymnus, were absent from layers below 200 m. In these deeper layers, only A. hemigymnus larvae and juvenile stages of myctophiforms and stomiiforms were found. Another group of species, including Hygophum benoiti, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Cyclothone braueri and Lampanyctus crocodilus, characterised the surface assemblage, mainly appearing in the first 50 m during the day, while at night their distribution was wider, extending to deeper layers. Benthosema glaciale, Symbolophorus veranyi and Myctophum punctatum were located at intermediate levels (mostly 50-100 m). Larval size stratification was evident for the most abundant species, with younger stages being found at shallower depths in the water

  18. Nutritional Stress Causes Heterogeneous Relationships with Multi-Trait FA in Lesser Black-Backed Gull Chicks: An Aviary Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Gupta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stressors have the potential to induce perturbations in the development of young individuals, leading to aberrant and unstable development. This may manifest as fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, non-directional changes in the bilateral symmetry of morphological traits. Although widely regarded as a proxy for stress effects, the use of FA as a biomarker is still a topic of much debate. We investigated the applicability of FA as an indicator of nutritional stress (brought about by energetic constraints by experimental manipulation of the diet composition and quantity during the growth of Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus chicks. FA as an endpoint was measured across the tarsus, wing and 10th primary feather when chicks reached 30 days of age. Although levels of asymmetry were found to increase with stress in the feather, relationships with tarsus and wing FA were mixed and mostly non-significant. Furthermore, we did not find any correlations in unsigned FA between traits, indicating the absence of organism-wide asymmetry. Our study was therefore unable to find unequivocal evidence in support of the application of FA as a reliable estimator of nutritional stress.

  19. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  20. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  1. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  2. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kitzes

    Full Text Available Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis, big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus, hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus, and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans. The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  3. Dichotic sound localization properties of duration-tuned neurons in the IC of the big brown bat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riziq eSayegh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies on duration-tuned neurons (DTNs from the mammalian auditory midbrain have typically evoked spiking responses from these cells using monaural or free-field acoustic stimulation focused on the contralateral ear, with fewer studies devoted to examining the electrophysiological properties of duration tuning using binaural stimulation. Because the inferior colliculus (IC receives convergent inputs from lower brainstem auditory nuclei that process sounds from each ear, many midbrain neurons have responses shaped by binaural interactions and are selective to binaural cues important for sound localization. In this study, we used dichotic stimulation to vary interaural level difference (ILD and interaural time difference (ITD acoustic cues and explore the binaural interactions and response properties of DTNs and non-DTNs from the IC of the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus. Our results reveal that both DTNs and non-DTNs can have responses selective to binaural stimulation, with a majority of IC neurons showing some type of ILD selectivity, fewer cells showing ITD selectivity, and a number of neurons showing both ILD and ITD selectivity. This study provides the first demonstration that the temporally selective responses of DTNs from the vertebrate auditory midbrain can be selective to binaural cues used for sound localization in addition to having spiking responses that are selective for stimulus frequency, amplitude, and duration.

  4. Dichotic sound localization properties of duration-tuned neurons in the inferior colliculus of the big brown bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Riziq; Aubie, Brandon; Faure, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies on duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) from the mammalian auditory midbrain have typically evoked spiking responses from these cells using monaural or free-field acoustic stimulation focused on the contralateral ear, with fewer studies devoted to examining the electrophysiological properties of duration tuning using binaural stimulation. Because the inferior colliculus (IC) receives convergent inputs from lower brainstem auditory nuclei that process sounds from each ear, many midbrain neurons have responses shaped by binaural interactions and are selective to binaural cues important for sound localization. In this study, we used dichotic stimulation to vary interaural level difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD) acoustic cues and explore the binaural interactions and response properties of DTNs and non-DTNs from the IC of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Our results reveal that both DTNs and non-DTNs can have responses selective to binaural stimulation, with a majority of IC neurons showing some type of ILD selectivity, fewer cells showing ITD selectivity, and a number of neurons showing both ILD and ITD selectivity. This study provides the first demonstration that the temporally selective responses of DTNs from the vertebrate auditory midbrain can be selective to binaural cues used for sound localization in addition to having spiking responses that are selective for stimulus frequency, amplitude, and duration.

  5. High resolution acoustic measurement system and beam pattern reconstruction method for bat echolocation emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Jason E; Kloepper, Laura N; Warnecke, Michaela; Simmons, James A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the transmit beam patterns emitted by echolocating bats have previously been limited to cross-sectional planes or averaged over multiple signals using sparse microphone arrays. To date, no high-resolution measurements of individual bat transmit beams have been reported in the literature. Recent studies indicate that bats may change the time-frequency structure of their calls depending on the task, and suggest that their beam patterns are more dynamic than previously thought. To investigate beam pattern dynamics in a variety of bat species, a high-density reconfigurable microphone array was designed and constructed using low-cost ultrasonic microphones and custom electronic circuitry. The planar array is 1.83 m wide by 1.42 m tall with microphones positioned on a 2.54 cm square grid. The system can capture up to 228 channels simultaneously at a 500 kHz sampling rate. Beam patterns are reconstructed in azimuth, elevation, and frequency for visualization and further analysis. Validation of the array measurement system and post-processing functions is shown by reconstructing the beam pattern of a transducer with a fixed circular aperture and comparing the result with a theoretical model. To demonstrate the system in use, transmit beam patterns of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, are shown.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, M. van [Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boheemen, S. van [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jong, A.A.W. de [Department of Pathology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuiken, T., E-mail: t.Kuiken@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.

  7. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  8. Neuronal connexin expression in the cochlear nucleus of big brown bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S; Stamper, Sarah A; Simmons, James A

    2008-03-04

    We present immunohistochemical data describing the presence and distribution of connexins, structural component of gap junctions, in the cochlear nuclei of adult big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Echolocating big brown bats show microsecond scale echo-delay sensitivity that requires accurate synchronization of neuronal responses to the timing of echoes. Midbrain and auditory cortical neuronal response timing is similar to that observed in other non-echolocating mammals, suggesting that lower auditory processing nuclei may have specialized mechanisms for obtaining the required temporal hyperacuity. Our data shows that connexin 36, a gap junction protein specific to neurons, is most densely expressed in the bat's cochlear nuclear complex, the medullary region that receives and processes first-order afferents from the auditory nerve. Cx36 expression is absent in the cochlear nucleus of normal mice, which have high-frequency hearing sensitivity similar to big brown bats. Glial connexins, Cx26 and Cx43, expressed in astrocytes and several inner ear structures, are also found in the bat cochlear nucleus complex, associated with major fiber tracts in and around the cochlear nuclei. The extensive presence of neuronally-associated Cx36 in brainstem auditory structures of adult bats suggests a possible role for gap junctions in mediating echo-delay hyperacuity.

  9. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  10. Comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of the cleavage process in tailed amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnitskiy, Alexey G; Litvinchuk, Spartak N

    2015-10-01

    The order Caudata includes about 660 species and displays a variety of important developmental traits such as cleavage pattern and egg size. However, the cleavage process of tailed amphibians has never been analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. We use published data on the embryos of 36 species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal, longitudinal or variable) and the magnitude of synchronous cleavage period (up to 3-4 synchronous cell divisions in the animal hemisphere or a considerably longer series of synchronous divisions followed by midblastula transition). Several species from basal caudate families Cryptobranchidae (Andrias davidianus and Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and Hynobiidae (Onychodactylus japonicus) as well as several representatives from derived families Plethodontidae (Desmognathus fuscus and Ensatina eschscholtzii) and Proteidae (Necturus maculosus) are characterized by longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss of synchrony as early as the 8-cell stage. By contrast, many representatives of derived families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae have latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and extensive period of synchronous divisions. Our analysis of these ontogenetic characters mapped onto a phylogenetic tree shows that the cleavage pattern of large, yolky eggs with short series of synchronous divisions is an ancestral trait for the tailed amphibians, while the data on the orientation of third cleavage furrows seem to be ambiguous with respect to phylogeny. Nevertheless, the midblastula transition, which is characteristic of the model species Ambystoma mexicanum (Caudata) and Xenopus laevis (Anura), might have evolved convergently in these two amphibian orders.

  11. Toxicity of methyl parathion to bats: Mortality and coordination loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The 24-h oral LD50 of methyl parathion (phosphorothioic acid O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester) to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) (372 mg/kg) was 8.5 times the LD50 for mice (Mus musculus) (44 mg/kg). However, orally dosed mice either died or appeared behaviorally normal after 2 to 3 h, whereas many dosed bats, although alive at 24 h, could not right themselves when placed on their backs. The oral dose estimated to cause this loss of coordination in 50% of a sample of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was one-third or less the LD50 of this species. Cholinesterase activity depression in brains of little brown bats was similar whether dosage was oral or dermal. With death as the criterion, bats proved relatively insensitive to methyl parathion in 24-h tests, but considerations of the chemical's potential to cause coordination loss, leading to capture and death by predators, coupled with bats' naturally low reproductive rates, suggest possible injury to exposed bat populations.

  12. Using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multimonth movement and behavioral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kevin T.; Weller, Theodore J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    1. Determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (wind turbines and diseases. 2. We tested a novel method of attaching lightweight global positioning system (GPS) tags and geolocating data loggers to small bats. We used monofilament, synthetic, absorbable sutures to secure GPS tags and data loggers to the skin of anesthetized big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) in California. 3. GPS tags and data loggers were sutured to 17 bats in this study. Three tagged bats were recaptured seven months after initial deployment, with tags still attached; none of these bats showed ill effects from the tag. No severe injuries were apparent upon recapture of 6 additional bats that carried tags up to 26 days after attachment, however one of the bats exhibited skin chafing. 4. Use of absorbable sutures to affix small tracking devices seems to be a safe, effective method for studying movements of bats over multiple months, although additional testing is warranted. This new attachment method has the potential to quickly advance our understanding of small bats, particularly as more-sophisticated miniature tracking devices (e.g., satellite tags) become available.

  13. Stream water temperature limits occupancy of salamanders in mid-Atlantic protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Wiewel, Amber N. M.; Rice, Karen C.

    2014-01-01

    Stream ecosystems are particularly sensitive to urbanization, and tolerance of water-quality parameters is likely important to population persistence of stream salamanders. Forecasted climate and landscape changes may lead to significant changes in stream flow, chemical composition, and temperatures in coming decades. Protected areas where landscape alterations are minimized will therefore become increasingly important for salamander populations. We surveyed 29 streams at three national parks in the highly urbanized greater metropolitan area of Washington, DC. We investigated relationships among water-quality variables and occupancy of three species of stream salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus, Eurycea bislineata, and Pseudotriton ruber). With the use of a set of site-occupancy models, and accounting for imperfect detection, we found that stream-water temperature limits salamander occupancy. There was substantial uncertainty about the effects of the other water-quality variables, although both specific conductance (SC) and pH were included in competitive models. Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH have some importance in structuring stream salamander distribution.

  14. Foraging success, kleptoparasitism and feeding techniques in scavenging seabirds: does crime pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Stefan; Hüppop, Ommo

    1998-06-01

    Scavenging seabirds in the North Sea exploit discards with different success and by different feeding techniques. Northern gannet ( Sula bassana) had the highest foraging success index, followed by lesser black-backed gull ( Larus fuscus) and black-legged kittiwake ( Rissa tridactyla). Northern fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), mew gull ( Larus canus) and black-headed gull ( Larus ridibundus) were the least successful species. Ranking species according to the ratio of fish stolen from vs. lost to other species (=robbery index), northern gannet, great black-backed gull ( Larus marinus) and great skua ( Catharacta skua) were at the top, northern fulmar and black-legged kittiwake at the bottom. Varying compositions of the feeding flocks influenced the foraging success of the species significantly. Both body length and body mass of the birds can well explain species order in the robbery index but not in the foraging success index. Our hypothesis that the most successful species employ particular feeding techniques and/or exhibit the strongest kleptoparasitic abilities could be confirmed to a large extent but not totally. During reduced overall feeding rates, some less successful species and/or species with weaker kleptoparasitic capabilities fared better than during intense feeding rates as predicted, some others did not.

  15. Design tradeoffs in long-term research for stream salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Adrianne B,; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2017-01-01

    Long-term research programs can benefit from early and periodic evaluation of their ability to meet stated objectives. In particular, consideration of the spatial allocation of effort is key. We sampled 4 species of stream salamanders intensively for 2 years (2010–2011) in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA to evaluate alternative distributions of sampling locations within stream networks, and then evaluated via simulation the ability of multiple survey designs to detect declines in occupancy and to estimate dynamic parameters (colonization, extinction) over 5 years for 2 species. We expected that fine-scale microhabitat variables (e.g., cobble, detritus) would be the strongest determinants of occupancy for each of the 4 species; however, we found greater support for all species for models including variables describing position within the stream network, stream size, or stream microhabitat. A monitoring design focused on headwater sections had greater power to detect changes in occupancy and the dynamic parameters in each of 3 scenarios for the dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) and red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber). Results for transect length were more variable, but across all species and scenarios, 25-m transects are most suitable as a balance between maximizing detection probability and describing colonization and extinction. These results inform sampling design and provide a general framework for setting appropriate goals, effort, and duration in the initial planning stages of research programs on stream salamanders in the eastern United States.

  16. Identification of Biocontrol Agents to Control the Fungal Pathogen, Geomyces destructans, in Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings

  17. Small carnivores of Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreehari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first ever detailed study on the small carnivores of the Parambikulam Tiger Reserve (PkTR in the southern Western Ghats, using camera trap techniques, reported 11 species.  A total of 1,350 camera-trap nights were used for the study.  This was supplemented with 242km of day transects and 344km of night transects using spot-lights.  The small carnivores reported were the Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus jerdoni, Indian Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii, Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsii, Jungle Cat Felis chaus and Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis.  About 90% of the small carnivores captured in the camera traps in PKTR were members of the Viverridae family such as the Small Indian Civet (31.67%, Common Palm Civet (30% and Brown Palm Civet (28.33%.  The study recorded all the four species of mongoose known from the Western Ghats from PkTR.  Two out of the 11 small carnivores belong to the ‘Vulnerable’ category on the IUCN Red List. 

  18. Real-time PCR assay to detect brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in environmental DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Rafael E; Maslo, Brooke; Lockwood, Julie L; Pote, John; Fonseca, Dina M

    2016-10-01

    Early detection before establishment and identification of key predators are time-honored strategies towards effective eradication or control of invasive species. The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is a recent exotic pest of several important crops in North America and Europe. Resulting widespread applications of insecticides have countered years of careful integrated pest management and are leading to the resurgence of other agricultural pests. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used effectively to detect aquatic invasives. We developed a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for BMSB in a conserved region of the ribosomal DNA interspacer 1 (ITS1). We validated this assay on worldwide populations of BMSB and tested its specificity and sensitivity against other US Pentatomidae species and on guano of big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, which we confirmed is a BMSB predator in New Jersey. We also detected BMSB DNA after rapid (and inexpensive) HotSHOT DNA extractions of soiled paper from cages briefly holding BMSB, as well as from discarded exuviae. Given the high sensitivity of our assay to BMSB environmental DNA (eDNA) in terrestrial samples, this tool should become a cost-effective approach for using eDNA to detect terrestrial invasive species and their key predators. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A; O'Shea, Thomas J; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A; Neubaum, Daniel J; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2013-04-01

    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.

  20. A tale of two genomes: contrasting patterns of phylogeographic structure in a widely distributed bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmelle, Amy S; Kunz, Thomas H; Sorenson, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    One of the most widely distributed bats in the New World, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) exhibits well-documented geographic variation in morphology and life history traits, suggesting the potential for significant phylogeographic structure as well as adaptive differentiation among populations. In a pattern broadly consistent with morphologically defined subspecies, we found deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. In contrast, sequence data from two nuclear loci suggest a general lack of regional genetic structure except for peripheral populations in the Caribbean and Mexico/South America. Coalescent analyses suggest that the striking difference in population structure between genomes cannot be attributed solely to different rates of lineage sorting, but is likely due to male-mediated gene flow homogenizing nuclear genetic diversity across most of the continental range. Despite this ongoing gene flow, selection has apparently been effective in producing and maintaining adaptive differentiation among populations, while strong female site fidelity, maintained over the course of millions of years, has produced remarkably deep divergence among geographically isolated matrilines. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating multiple genetic markers for a more complete understanding of population structure and history. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Modeling structured population dynamics using data from unmarked individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Zipkin, Elise; Thorson, James T.; See, Kevin; Lynch, Heather J.; Kanno, Yoichiro; Chandler, Richard; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The study of population dynamics requires unbiased, precise estimates of abundance and vital rates that account for the demographic structure inherent in all wildlife and plant populations. Traditionally, these estimates have only been available through approaches that rely on intensive mark–recapture data. We extended recently developed N-mixture models to demonstrate how demographic parameters and abundance can be estimated for structured populations using only stage-structured count data. Our modeling framework can be used to make reliable inferences on abundance as well as recruitment, immigration, stage-specific survival, and detection rates during sampling. We present a range of simulations to illustrate the data requirements, including the number of years and locations necessary for accurate and precise parameter estimates. We apply our modeling framework to a population of northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) in the mid-Atlantic region (USA) and find that the population is unexpectedly declining. Our approach represents a valuable advance in the estimation of population dynamics using multistate data from unmarked individuals and should additionally be useful in the development of integrated models that combine data from intensive (e.g., mark–recapture) and extensive (e.g., counts) data sources.

  2. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  3. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Richard A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A.; Neubaum, Daniel J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.

  4. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in dead captive psittacines in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Gomes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg infection of wild native Brazilian psittacines (Psittaciformes which died of any cause during sorting, rehabilitation, or conservation, was investigated by PCR. Two previously described PCR methodologies using Mg specific primers were employed for the analyses of 140 swab samples (cloaca, trachea, or palatine cleft. Average positive Mg detection in cloacal swabs was 51.9%, with 80.0% (n=5 of Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, 60.0% (n=3 Dusky Parrots (Pionus fuscus, 52.5% (n=59 Amazon Parrots (Amazona aestiva, 50.0% (n=2 Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica, 50.0% (n=2 Jandaya Parakeetsor Jandaya Conures (Aratinga jandaya, 0% (n=2 Golden Conures or Golden Parakeets (Guarouba guarouba, and 0% (n=2 Hyacinth Macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus. Palatine cleft swab sampling was more sensitive to detect Mg, with 85.4% (n=17 detection rate, as compared to 67.4% (n=46 obtained with tracheal samples, and 53.5% (n=77 with cloacal swabs. The surprisingly high Mg incidence in psittacines kept in conservation or triage environments is possibly due to the proximity or cohabitation with several bird species during confinement and housing psittacines of different origins together. The implementation of biosecurity measures and species-specific facilities is recommended.

  5. The aerodynamic cost of head morphology in bats: maybe not as bad as it seems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Razak, Norizham Abdul; Verstraelen, Edouard; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat's morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads.

  6. Molecular and morphological description of a Hepatozoon species in reptiles and their ticks in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcins, Inger-Marie E; Ujvari, Beata; Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    Ticks, representing 3 species of Amblyomma, were collected from the water python (Liasis fuscus) and 3 additional reptile species in the Northern Territory, Australia, and tested for the presence of Hepatozoon sp., the most common blood parasites of snakes. In addition, blood smears were collected from 5 reptiles, including the water python, and examined for the presence of the parasite. Hepatozoon sp. DNA was detected in all tick and reptile species, with 57.7% of tick samples (n = 187) and 35.6% of blood smears (n=35) showing evidence of infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene demonstrated that half of the sequences obtained from positive tick samples matched closest with a Hepatozoon species previously identified in the water python population. The remaining sequences were found to be more closely related to mammalian and amphibian Hepatozoon species. This study confirms that species of Amblyomma harbor DNA of the same Hepatozoon species detected in the water pythons. The detection of an additional genotype suggests the ticks may be exposed to 2 Hepatozoon species, providing further opportunity to study multiple host-vector-parasite relationships.

  7. Feeling the heat: the effect of acute temperature changes on predator-prey interactions in coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Bridie J M; Domenici, Paolo; Munday, Phillip L; McCormick, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the elevated temperatures predicted to occur by the end of the century can affect the physiological performance and behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes; however, little is known of the effect of these temperatures on ecological processes, such as predator-prey interactions. Here, we show that exposure to elevated temperatures significantly affected the predator-prey interactions of a pair of common reef fish, the planktivorous damselfish (Pomacentrus wardi) and the piscivorous dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). When predators exposed to elevated temperatures interacted with prey exposed in a similar manner, maximal attack speeds increased. This effect coupled with decreasing prey escape speeds and escape distances led to increased predation rates. Prey exposed to elevated temperatures also had decreased reaction distances and increased apparent looming threshold, suggesting that their sensory performance was affected. This occurred despite the increase in maximal attack speeds, which in other species has been shown to increase reaction distances. These results suggest that the escape performance of prey is sensitive to short-term increases in ambient temperature. As marine environments become more thermally variable in the future, our results demonstrate that some predators may become more successful, suggesting that there will be strong selection for the maintenance of maximal escape performance in prey. In the present era of rapid climate change, understanding how changes to individual performance influence the relationships between predators and their prey will be increasingly important in predicting the effects of climate change within ecosystems.

  8. Need for multiscale planning for conservation of urban bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Travis; Lehrer, Elizabeth W; Fidino, Mason; Kilgour, R Julia; Wolff, Patrick J; Magle, Seth

    2017-11-10

    For over a century there have been continual efforts to incorporate nature into urban planning. These efforts - known as urban reconciliation- aim to manage and create habitats that support biodiversity within cities. Given that species select habitat at different spatial scales, understanding the scale at which urban species respond to their environment is critical to the success of urban reconciliation efforts. We assessed species-habitat relationships for common bat species at local (50-m), medium (500-m), and broad (1-km) spatial scales in the Chicago metropolitan area and predicted bat activity across the greater Chicago region. We found that habitat characteristics across all measured scales were important predictors of silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) activity, and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) activity was significantly lower at urban sites compared to rural sites. We also found that open vegetation had a negative effect on silver-haired bat activity at the local scale but a positive effect at the medium-sized scale, indicating potential shifts in the relative importance of some habitat characteristics at varying scales. These results demonstrate that local-scale effects may be constrained by broader spatial patterns. Our findings highlight the importance of considering scale in urban reconciliation efforts and our landscape predictions provide information that can help prioritize urban conservation work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Echolocation behavior in big brown bats is not impaired after intense broadband noise exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Kelsey N; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Simmons, James A; Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2016-10-15

    Echolocating bats emit trains of intense ultrasonic biosonar pulses and listen to weaker echoes returning from objects in their environment. Identification and categorization of echoes are crucial for orientation and prey capture. Bats are social animals and often fly in groups in which they are exposed to their own emissions and to those from other bats, as well as to echoes from multiple surrounding objects. Sound pressure levels in these noisy conditions can exceed 110 dB, with no obvious deleterious effects on echolocation performance. Psychophysical experiments show that big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) do not experience temporary threshold shifts after exposure to intense broadband ultrasonic noise, but it is not known if they make fine-scale adjustments in their pulse emissions to compensate for any effects of the noise. We investigated whether big brown bats adapt the number, temporal patterning or relative amplitude of their emitted pulses while flying through an acoustically cluttered corridor after exposure to intense broadband noise (frequency range 10-100 kHz; sound exposure level 152 dB). Under these conditions, four bats made no significant changes in navigation errors or in pulse number, timing and amplitude 20 min, 24 h or 48 h after noise exposure. These data suggest that big brown bats remain able to perform difficult echolocation tasks after exposure to ecologically realistic levels of broadband noise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Echolocation of static and moving objects in two-dimensional space using bat-like frequency-modulation sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo eMatsuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bats use frequency-modulated echolocation to identify and capture moving objects in real three-dimensional space. The big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, emits linear period modulation sound, and is capable of locating static objects with a range accuracy of less than 1 microsecond. A previously introduced model can estimate ranges of multiple, static objects using linear frequency modulation sound and Gaussian chirplets with a carrier frequency compatible with bat emission sweep rates. The delay time for a single object was estimated with an accuracy of about 1.3 microsecond by measuring the echo at a low signal-to-noise ratio. This model could estimate the location of each moving object in two-dimensional space. In this study, the linear period modulation sounds, mimicking the emitting pulse of big brown bats, were introduced as the emitted signals. Echoes were measured from moving objects at two receiving points by intermittently emitting these sounds. It was clarified that this model could localize moving objects in two-dimensional space by accurately estimating the object ranges.

  11. Effect of passive acoustic sampling methodology on detecting bats after declines from white nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Laci S.; Ford, W. Mark; Dobony, Christopher A.; Britzke, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant with the emergence and spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS) and precipitous decline of many bat species in North America, natural resource managers need modified and/or new techniques for bat inventory and monitoring that provide robust occupancy estimates. We used Anabat acoustic detectors to determine the most efficient passive acoustic sampling design for optimizing detection probabilities of multiple bat species in a WNS-impacted environment in New York, USA. Our sampling protocol included: six acoustic stations deployed for the entire duration of monitoring as well as a 4 x 4 grid and five transects of 5-10 acoustic units that were deployed for 6-8 night sample durations surveyed during the summers of 2011-2012. We used Program PRESENCE to determine detection probability and site occupancy estimates. Overall, the grid produced the highest detection probabilities for most species because it contained the most detectors and intercepted the greatest spatial area. However, big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and species not impacted by WNS were detected easily regardless of sampling array. Endangered Indiana (Myotis sodalis) and little brown (Myotis lucifugus) and tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) showed declines in detection probabilities over our study, potentially indicative of continued WNS-associated declines. Identification of species presence through efficient methodologies is vital for future conservation efforts as bat populations decline further due to WNS and other factors.   

  12. Species Delimitation in the Genus Moschus (Ruminantia: Moschidae and Its High-Plateau Origin.

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    Tao Pan

    Full Text Available The authenticity of controversial species is a significant challenge for systematic biologists. Moschidae is a small family of musk deer in the Artiodactyla, composing only one genus, Moschus. Historically, the number of species in the Moschidae family has been debated. Presently, most musk deer species were restricted in the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding/adjacent areas, which implied that the evolution of Moschus might have been punctuated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we aimed to determine the evolutionary history and delimit the species in Moschus by exploring the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA and other mitochondrial gene. Our study demonstrated that six species, M. leucogaster, M. fuscus, M. moschiferus, M. berezovskii, M. chrysogaster and M. anhuiensis, were authentic species in the genus Moschus. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular dating showed that the ancestor of the present Moschidae originates from Tibetan Plateau which suggested that the evolution of Moschus was prompted by the most intense orogenic movement of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene age, and alternating glacial-interglacial geological eras.

  13. Species Delimitation in the Genus Moschus (Ruminantia: Moschidae) and Its High-Plateau Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wang, Hui; Hu, Chaochao; Sun, Zhonglou; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Meng, Tao; Meng, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    The authenticity of controversial species is a significant challenge for systematic biologists. Moschidae is a small family of musk deer in the Artiodactyla, composing only one genus, Moschus. Historically, the number of species in the Moschidae family has been debated. Presently, most musk deer species were restricted in the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding/adjacent areas, which implied that the evolution of Moschus might have been punctuated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we aimed to determine the evolutionary history and delimit the species in Moschus by exploring the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and other mitochondrial gene. Our study demonstrated that six species, M. leucogaster, M. fuscus, M. moschiferus, M. berezovskii, M. chrysogaster and M. anhuiensis, were authentic species in the genus Moschus. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular dating showed that the ancestor of the present Moschidae originates from Tibetan Plateau which suggested that the evolution of Moschus was prompted by the most intense orogenic movement of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene age, and alternating glacial-interglacial geological eras.

  14. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  15. From crypsis to mimicry: changes in colour and the configuration of the visual system during ontogenetic habitat transitions in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb, Sara M; Hart, Nathan S; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Cheney, Karen L; Salzburger, Walter; Marshall, N Justin

    2016-08-15

    Animals often change their habitat throughout ontogeny; yet, the triggers for habitat transitions and how these correlate with developmental changes - e.g. physiological, morphological and behavioural - remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated how ontogenetic changes in body coloration and of the visual system relate to habitat transitions in a coral reef fish. Adult dusky dottybacks, Pseudochromis fuscus, are aggressive mimics that change colour to imitate various fishes in their surroundings; however, little is known about the early life stages of this fish. Using a developmental time series in combination with the examination of wild-caught specimens, we revealed that dottybacks change colour twice during development: (i) nearly translucent cryptic pelagic larvae change to a grey camouflage coloration when settling on coral reefs; and (ii) juveniles change to mimic yellow- or brown-coloured fishes when reaching a size capable of consuming juvenile fish prey. Moreover, microspectrophotometric (MSP) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments show developmental changes of the dottyback visual system, including the use of a novel adult-specific visual gene (RH2 opsin). This gene is likely to be co-expressed with other visual pigments to form broad spectral sensitivities that cover the medium-wavelength part of the visible spectrum. Surprisingly, the visual modifications precede changes in habitat and colour, possibly because dottybacks need to first acquire the appropriate visual performance before transitioning into novel life stages. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Well-informed foraging: damage-released chemical cues of injured prey signal quality and size to predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P

    2012-03-01

    Predators use a variety of information sources to locate potential prey, and likewise prey animals use numerous sources of information to detect and avoid becoming the meal of a potential predator. In freshwater environments, chemosensory cues often play a crucial role in such predator/prey interactions. The importance of chemosensory information to teleost fish in marine environments is not well understood. Here, we tested whether coral reef fish predators are attracted to damage-released chemical cues from already wounded prey in order to find patches of prey and minimize their own costs of obtaining food. Furthermore, we tested if these chemical cues would convey information about status of the prey. Using y-maze experiments, we found that predatory dottybacks, Pseudochromis fuscus, were more attracted to skin extracts of damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, prey that were in good condition compared to prey in poor body condition. Moreover, in both the laboratory and field, we found that predators could differentiate between skin extracts from prey based on prey size, showing a greater attraction to extracts made from prey that were the appropriate size to consume. This suggests that predators are not attracted to any general substance released from an injured prey fish instead being capable of detecting and distinguishing relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the skin of their prey. These results have implications for understanding predator foraging strategies and highlights that chemical cues play a complex role in predator-prey interactions in marine fish.

  17. Novos táxons e novo registro em Hemilophini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae New taxa and new record of Hemilophini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas e ilustradas: Adesmus nigrolineatus sp. nov. do México (Oaxaca. Da Costa Rica: A. moruna sp. nov. (Heredia; Corcovado bezarki sp. nov. (Guanacaste; Alampyris fuscus sp. nov. (Guanacaste, Cariua gen. nov. espécie-tipo C. sulphurea sp. nov., (Guanacaste. Da Bolívia: Phoebemima albomaculata sp. nov. (Cochabamba; Ipepo gen. nov. espécie-tipo I. dilatatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz. Do Brasil: Adesmus facetus sp. nov. e Canarana arguta sp. nov. (Rondônia. É acrescentado novo registro na Costa Rica para Piruanycha pitilla Galileo & Martins, 2005. As três espécies novas de Adesmus distinguem-se: A. nigrolineatus sp. nov. pelas faixas longitudinais de tegumento preto nos élitros; A. moruna sp. nov. pelos élitros inteiramente pretos; A. facetus pelas faixas oblíquas de pubescência branca após o meio dos élitros além das manchas do quarto apical e das epipleuras. Phoebemima albomaculata sp. nov. caracteriza-se pela mancha basal de pubescência branca dos élitros estendendo-se sobre a sutura. Corcovado bezarki sp. nov. distingue-se pelo escapo preto e antenômeros esbranquiçados. Canarana arguta sp. nov. tem o protórax e os urosternitos I a IV cobertos por densa pubescência amarelada. Alampyris fusca sp. nov. difere de A. cretaria principalmente pelo antenômero III mais longo que o escapo. Cariua sulphurea sp. nov. separa-se pela presença de urosternitos revestidos por pubescência branca compacta e Ipepo dilatatus sp. nov. caracteriza-se pelos élitros tri-carenados.New species described and illustrated: Adesmus nigrolineatus sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca. From Costa Rica: A. moruna sp. nov. (Heredia; Corcovado bezarki sp. nov. (Guanacaste; Alampyris fuscus sp. nov. (Guanacaste, Cariua gen. nov. type species C. sulphurea sp. nov. (Guanacaste. From Bolivia: Phoebemima albomaculata sp. nov. (Cochabamba; Ipepo gen. nov. type species I. dilatatus sp. nov. (Santa Cruz. From Brazil: Adesmus facetus sp. nov. and Canarana

  18. Riqueza, relevância e estratégias para a conservação de fisionomias campestres do Cerrado no Horto Florestal de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Richness, relevance and conservation strategies for savanna grasslands in the Horto Florestal of Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

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    Natashi Aparecida Lima PILON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As fitofisionomias campestres e as plantas do estrato herbáceo-arbustivo têm sido pouco estudadas em todo o mundo e, pelo seu desconhecimento, poucos esforços têm sido empreendidos em sua conservação. Visando contribuir para preencher esta lacuna, efetuamos a caracterização florística e do espectro biológico das fisionomias campo sujo e campo limpo úmido em um remanescente de vegetação de Cerrado no Horto Florestal de Botucatu, SP. Registramos, no total, 210 espécies, sendo a maioria ervas (61%, seguidas de arbustos (17% e subarbustos (17%. Espécies arbóreas representam apenas 6% da riqueza da flora local. Apenas 12 espécies foram comuns às duas fisionomias, indicando alta especificidade de habitat (alta diversidade beta. O campo sujo apresentou maior riqueza de espécies e diversidade de formas de vida, mas o número de famílias foi maior no campo úmido. Entre as espécies observadas, seis estão ameaçadas de extinção no estado de SP e no Brasil: Evolvulus fuscus Meisn., Curtia tenuifolia (Aubl. Knobl., Camarea hirsuta A.St-Hil., Andropogon hypogynus Hack., Richardia stellaris (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. e Xyris brevifolia Michx. Embora a área estudada seja pequena, com 33,88 ha de extensão, sujeita a impactos diversos devido à sua localização na zona urbana do município, a elevada biodiversidade ainda existente nesta rara amostra remanescente das fisionomias campestres de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo fortalece sua relevância para a conservação do bioma e a recomendação de que seja categorizada como Estação Ecológica.Tropical grassy biomes and the small plants forming the ground layer have been rarely assessed in the entire world. Unknown, they have been globally neglected by science and conservation policies. Aiming at filling this gap, we assessed the plant species composition and the biological spectrum of dry and wet grasslands within a small remnant of Cerrado vegetation, in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. We

  19. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil

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    Denise D.M. Leal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads. The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20% were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common.Os animais silvestres estão expostos a inúmeros patógenos,dentre eles estão os hemoparasitas. Podem-se destacar espécies do gênero Trypanosoma e do grupo das hemogregarinas,que ocorrem com freqüência parasitando anuros (rãs, pererecas e sapos. Normalmente, a descrição destes hemoparasitas é feita através da morfologia dos estágios observados nosangue periférico do hospedeiro e as pesquisas sobre o ciclobiológico desses hemoparasitas são escassas. Os objetivos dopresente estudo foram avaliar a presença de hemogregarinas eTrypanosoma spp. em anuros capturados nos Estados de São Paulo e

  20. Thermal limitation of performance and biogeography in a free-ranging ectotherm: insights from accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Ruan; Taylor, Matthew D; Suthers, Iain M; Gray, Charles A; van der Meulen, Dylan E; Smith, James A; Payne, Nicholas L

    2014-09-01

    Theoretical and laboratory studies generally show that ectotherm performance increases with temperature to an optimum, and subsequently declines. Several physiological mechanisms probably shape thermal performance curves, but responses of free-ranging animals to temperature variation will represent a compromise between these mechanisms and ecological constraints. Thermal performance data from wild animals balancing physiology and ecology are rare, and this represents a hindrance for predicting population impacts of future temperature change. We used internally implanted accelerometers near the middle of a species' geographical distribution and gill-net catch data near the species' latitudinal extremes to quantify temperature-related activity levels of a wild predatory fish (Platycephalus fuscus). We examined our data in the context of established models of thermal performance, and the relationship between thermal performance thresholds and biogeography. Acceleration data approximated a thermal performance curve, with activity peaking at 23°C but declining rapidly at higher temperatures. Gill-net catch data displayed a similar trend, with a temperature-associated increase and decrease in catch rates in temperate and tropical regions, respectively. Extrapolated estimates of zero activity (CTmin and CTmax) from the accelerometers were similar to the minimum and maximum mean monthly water temperatures experienced at the southern and northern (respectively) limits of the species distribution, consistent with performance-limited biogeography in this species. These data highlight the fundamental influence of temperature on ectotherm performance, and how thermal performance limits may shape biogeography. Biologging approaches are rarely used to examine thermal performance curves in free-ranging animals, but these may be central to understanding the trade-offs between physiology and ecology that constrain species' biogeographies and determine the susceptibility of

  1. The Cardiovascular and Neurotoxic Effects of the  Venoms of Six Bony and Cartilaginous Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Baumann, Kate; Casewell, Nicholas R; Ali, Syed A; Dobson, James; Koludarov, Ivan; Debono, Jordan; Cutmore, Scott C; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Jackson, Timothy N W; Jones, Rob; Hodgson, Wayne C; Fry, Bryan G; Kuruppu, Sanjaya

    2017-02-16

    Fish venoms are often poorly studied, in part due to the difficulty in obtaining, extracting, and storing them. In this study, we characterize the cardiovascular and neurotoxic effects of the venoms from the following six species of fish: the cartilaginous stingrays Neotrygon kuhlii and Himantura toshi, and the bony fish Platycephalus fucus, Girella tricuspidata, Mugil cephalus, and Dentex tumifrons. All venoms (10-100 μg/kg, i.v.), except G. tricuspidata and P. fuscus, induced a biphasic response on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the anesthetised rat. P. fucus venom exhibited a hypotensive response, while venom from G. tricuspidata displayed a single depressor response. All venoms induced cardiovascular collapse at 200 μg/kg, i.v. The in vitro neurotoxic effects of venom were examined using the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle (CBCNM) preparation. N. kuhlii, H. toshi, and P. fucus venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches in the CBCNM preparation. These three venoms also inhibited responses to exogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol (CCh), but not potassium chloride (KCl), indicating a post-synaptic mode of action. Venom from G. tricuspidata, M. cephalus, and D. tumifrons had no significant effect on indirect twitches or agonist responses in the CBCNM. Our results demonstrate that envenoming by these species of fish may result in moderate cardiovascular and/or neurotoxic effects. Future studies aimed at identifying the molecules responsible for these effects could uncover potentially novel lead compounds for future pharmaceuticals, in addition to generating new knowledge about the evolutionary relationships between venomous animals.

  2. Rabbit biocontrol and landscape-scale recovery of threatened desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Brandle, Robert; Read, John L; Southgate, Richard; Bird, Peter; Moseby, Katherine E

    2016-08-01

    Funding for species conservation is insufficient to meet the current challenges facing global biodiversity, yet many programs use expensive single-species recovery actions and neglect broader management that addresses threatening processes. Arid Australia has the world's worst modern mammalian extinction record, largely attributable to competition from introduced herbivores, particularly European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and predation by feral cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The biological control agent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was introduced to Australia in 1995 and resulted in dramatic, widespread rabbit suppression. We compared the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of 4 extant species of small mammals before and after RHDV outbreak, relative to rainfall, sampling effort, and rabbit and predator populations. Despite low rainfall during the first 14 years after RHDV, 2 native rodents listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the dusky hopping-mouse (Notomys fuscus) and plains mouse (Pseudomys australis), increased their extent of occurrence by 241-365%. A threatened marsupial micropredator, the crest-tailed mulgara (Dasycercus cristicauda), underwent a 70-fold increase in extent of occurrence and a 20-fold increase in area of occupancy. Both bottom-up and top-down trophic effects were attributed to RHDV, namely decreased competition for food resources and declines in rabbit-dependent predators. Based on these sustained increases, these 3 previously threatened species now qualify for threat-category downgrading on the IUCN Red List. These recoveries are on a scale rarely documented in mammals and give impetus to programs aimed at targeted use of RHDV in Australia, rather than simply employing top-down threat-based management of arid ecosystems. Conservation programs that take big-picture approaches to addressing threatening processes over large spatial scales should be prioritized to maximize

  3. Environmental effects are stronger than human effects on mammalian predator-prey relationships in arid Australian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L; Fawcett, Alana; Anker, Alison; Engeman, Richard M; Lisle, Allan; Leung, Luke K-P

    2018-01-01

    Climate (drought, rainfall), geology (habitat availability), land use change (provision of artificial waterpoints, introduction of livestock), invasive species (competition, predation), and direct human intervention (lethal control of top-predators) have each been identified as processes driving the sustainability of threatened fauna populations. We used a systematic combination of empirical observational studies and experimental manipulations to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these process on a model endangered rodent, dusky hopping-mice (Notomys fuscus). We established a large manipulative experiment in arid Australia, and collected information from relative abundance indices, camera traps, GPS-collared dingoes (Canis familiaris) and dingo scats, along with a range of related environmental data (e.g. rainfall, habitat type, distance to artificial water etc.). We show that hopping-mice populations were most strongly influenced by geological and climatic effects of resource availability and rainfall, and not land use, invasive species, or human effects of livestock grazing, waterpoint provision, or the lethal control of dingoes. Hopping-mice distribution declined along a geological gradient of more to less available hopping-mice habitat (sand dunes), and their abundance was driven by rainfall. Hopping-mice populations fluctuated independent of livestock presence, artificial waterpoint availability or repeated lethal dingo control. Hopping-mice populations appear to be limited first by habitat availability, then by food availability, then by predation. Contemporary top-predator control practices (for protection of livestock) have little influence on hopping-mice behaviour or population dynamics. Given our inability to constrain the effects of predation across broad scales, management actions focusing on increasing available food and habitat (e.g. alteration of fire and herbivory) may have a greater chance of improving the conservation status of hopping

  4. Investigation of Amphibian Mortality Events in Wildlife Reveals an On-Going Ranavirus Epidemic in the North of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jolianne M; Saucedo, Bernardo; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Wilkie, Gavin S; van Asten, Alphons J A M; van den Broek, Jan; Boonyarittichaikij, Roschong; Stege, Marisca; van der Sterren, Fleur; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Hughes, Joseph; Gröne, Andrea; van Beurden, Steven J; Kik, Marja J L

    2016-01-01

    In the four years following the first detection of ranavirus (genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae) infection in Dutch wildlife in 2010, amphibian mortality events were investigated nationwide to detect, characterize and map ranaviruses in amphibians over time, and to establish the affected host species and the clinico-pathological presentation of the disease in these hosts. The ultimate goal was to obtain more insight into ranavirus disease emergence and ecological risk. In total 155 dead amphibians from 52 sites were submitted between 2011 and 2014, and examined using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation and molecular genetic characterization. Ranavirus-associated amphibian mortality events occurred at 18 sites (35%), initially only in proximity of the 2010 index site. Specimens belonging to approximately half of the native amphibian species were infected, including the threatened Pelobates fuscus (spadefoot toad). Clustered massive outbreaks involving dead adult specimens and ranavirus genomic identity indicated that one common midwife toad virus (CMTV)-like ranavirus strain is emerging in provinces in the north of the Netherlands. Modelling based on the spatiotemporal pattern of spread showed a high probability that this emerging virus will continue to be detected at new sites (the discrete reproductive power of this outbreak is 0.35). Phylogenetically distinct CMTV-like ranaviruses were found in the south of the Netherlands more recently. In addition to showing that CMTV-like ranaviruses threaten wild amphibian populations not only in Spain but also in the Netherlands, the current spread and risk of establishment reiterate that understanding the underlying causes of CMTV-like ranavirus emergence requires international attention.

  5. Investigation of Amphibian Mortality Events in Wildlife Reveals an On-Going Ranavirus Epidemic in the North of the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolianne M Rijks

    Full Text Available In the four years following the first detection of ranavirus (genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae infection in Dutch wildlife in 2010, amphibian mortality events were investigated nationwide to detect, characterize and map ranaviruses in amphibians over time, and to establish the affected host species and the clinico-pathological presentation of the disease in these hosts. The ultimate goal was to obtain more insight into ranavirus disease emergence and ecological risk. In total 155 dead amphibians from 52 sites were submitted between 2011 and 2014, and examined using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation and molecular genetic characterization. Ranavirus-associated amphibian mortality events occurred at 18 sites (35%, initially only in proximity of the 2010 index site. Specimens belonging to approximately half of the native amphibian species were infected, including the threatened Pelobates fuscus (spadefoot toad. Clustered massive outbreaks involving dead adult specimens and ranavirus genomic identity indicated that one common midwife toad virus (CMTV-like ranavirus strain is emerging in provinces in the north of the Netherlands. Modelling based on the spatiotemporal pattern of spread showed a high probability that this emerging virus will continue to be detected at new sites (the discrete reproductive power of this outbreak is 0.35. Phylogenetically distinct CMTV-like ranaviruses were found in the south of the Netherlands more recently. In addition to showing that CMTV-like ranaviruses threaten wild amphibian populations not only in Spain but also in the Netherlands, the current spread and risk of establishment reiterate that understanding the underlying causes of CMTV-like ranavirus emergence requires international attention.

  6. Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb, Sara M.; Hart, Nathan S.; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Malmstrøm, Martin; Tørresen, Ole K.; Jentoft, Sissel; Cheney, Karen L.; Marshall, N. Justin; Carleton, Karen L.; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Single-gene and whole-genome duplications are important evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to biological diversification by launching new genetic raw material. For example, the evolution of animal vision is tightly linked to the expansion of the opsin gene family encoding light-absorbing visual pigments. In teleost fishes, the most species-rich vertebrate group, opsins are particularly diverse and key to the successful colonization of habitats ranging from the bioluminescence-biased but basically dark deep sea to clear mountain streams. In this study, we report a previously unnoticed duplication of the violet-blue short wavelength-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin, which coincides with the radiation of highly diverse percomorph fishes, permitting us to reinterpret the evolution of this gene family. The inspection of close to 100 fish genomes revealed that, triggered by frequent gene conversion between duplicates, the evolutionary history of SWS2 is rather complex and difficult to predict. Coincidentally, we also report potential cases of gene resurrection in vertebrate opsins, whereby pseudogenized genes were found to convert with their functional paralogs. We then identify multiple novel amino acid substitutions that are likely to have contributed to the adaptive differentiation between SWS2 copies. Finally, using the dusky dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, we show that the newly discovered SWS2A duplicates can contribute to visual adaptation in two ways: by gaining sensitivities to different wavelengths of light and by being differentially expressed between ontogenetic stages. Thus, our study highlights the importance of comparative approaches in gaining a comprehensive view of the dynamics underlying gene family evolution and ultimately, animal diversification. PMID:25548152

  7. Predators Exacerbate Competitive Interactions and Dominance Hierarchies between Two Coral Reef Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Hall

    Full Text Available Predation and competition are critical processes influencing the ecology of organisms, and can play an integral role in shaping coral reef fish communities. This study compared the relative and interacting effects of competition and predation on two competing species of coral reef fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis and P. moluccensis (Pomacentridae, using a multifactorial experiment. Fish were subjected to the sight and smell of a known predator (Pseudochromis fuscus, the presence of the heterospecific competitor (i.e., P. amboinensis vs. P. moluccensis, or a combination of the two for a period of 19 days. The sub-lethal effects of predator/competitor treatments were compared with controls; a combination of otolith microstructure analysis and observations were used to determine otolith growth patterns and behaviour. We predicted that the stress of competition and/or predation would result in strong sub-lethal impacts, and act synergistically on growth and behavioural patterns. We found strong evidence to support this prediction, but only for P. amboinensis, which suffered reductions in growth in both predator and competitor treatments, with the largest reductions occurring when subjected to both predation and competition concurrently. There was strong evidence of asymmetrical competition between the two damselfish species, with P. moluccensis as the dominant competitor, displaying strong aggressive behaviour towards P. amboinensis. Growth reductions for P. amboinensis in predator/competitor treatments appeared to come about primarily due to increases in shelter seeking behaviour, which significantly reduced the foraging rates of individuals compared with controls. These data highlight the importance of predator/competitor synergisms in influencing key behaviours and demographic parameters for juvenile coral reef fishes.

  8. Effects of ocean acidification on learning in coral reef fishes.

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    Maud C O Ferrari

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has the potential to cause dramatic changes in marine ecosystems. Larval damselfish exposed to concentrations of CO(2 predicted to occur in the mid- to late-century show maladaptive responses to predator cues. However, there is considerable variation both within and between species in CO(2 effects, whereby some individuals are unaffected at particular CO(2 concentrations while others show maladaptive responses to predator odour. Our goal was to test whether learning via chemical or visual information would be impaired by ocean acidification and ultimately, whether learning can mitigate the effects of ocean acidification by restoring the appropriate responses of prey to predators. Using two highly efficient and widespread mechanisms for predator learning, we compared the behaviour of pre-settlement damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis that were exposed to 440 µatm CO(2 (current day levels or 850 µatm CO(2, a concentration predicted to occur in the ocean before the end of this century. We found that, regardless of the method of learning, damselfish exposed to elevated CO(2 failed to learn to respond appropriately to a common predator, the dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus. To determine whether the lack of response was due to a failure in learning or rather a short-term shift in trade-offs preventing the fish from displaying overt antipredator responses, we conditioned 440 or 700 µatm-CO(2 fish to learn to recognize a dottyback as a predator using injured conspecific cues, as in Experiment 1. When tested one day post-conditioning, CO(2 exposed fish failed to respond to predator odour. When tested 5 days post-conditioning, CO(2 exposed fish still failed to show an antipredator response to the dottyback odour, despite the fact that both control and CO(2-treated fish responded to a general risk cue (injured conspecific cues. These results indicate that exposure to CO(2 may alter the cognitive ability of juvenile fish and render

  9. Ocean acidification affects prey detection by a predatory reef fish.

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    Ingrid L Cripps

    Full Text Available Changes in olfactory-mediated behaviour caused by elevated CO(2 levels in the ocean could affect recruitment to reef fish populations because larval fish become more vulnerable to predation. However, it is currently unclear how elevated CO(2 will impact the other key part of the predator-prey interaction--the predators. We investigated the effects of elevated CO(2 and reduced pH on olfactory preferences, activity levels and feeding behaviour of a common coral reef meso-predator, the brown dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus. Predators were exposed to either current-day CO(2 levels or one of two elevated CO(2 levels (∼600 µatm or ∼950 µatm that may occur by 2100 according to climate change predictions. Exposure to elevated CO(2 and reduced pH caused a shift from preference to avoidance of the smell of injured prey, with CO(2 treated predators spending approximately 20% less time in a water stream containing prey odour compared with controls. Furthermore, activity levels of fish was higher in the high CO(2 treatment and feeding activity was lower for fish in the mid CO(2 treatment; indicating that future conditions may potentially reduce the ability of the fish to respond rapidly to fluctuations in food availability. Elevated activity levels of predators in the high CO(2 treatment, however, may compensate for reduced olfactory ability, as greater movement facilitated visual detection of food. Our findings show that, at least for the species tested to date, both parties in the predator-prey relationship may be affected by ocean acidification. Although impairment of olfactory-mediated behaviour of predators might reduce the risk of predation for larval fishes, the magnitude of the observed effects of elevated CO(2 acidification appear to be more dramatic for prey compared to predators. Thus, it is unlikely that the altered behaviour of predators is sufficient to fully compensate for the effects of ocean acidification on prey mortality.

  10. The snake community of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: composition, abundance, richness and diversity in areas with different conservation degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, J A L; Pontes, R C; Rocha, C F D

    2009-08-01

    We studied and compared parameters of the snake community of the Serra do Mendanha, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (22 degrees 48'-22 degrees 51' S and 43 degrees 31'-43 degrees 28' W), such as: abundance distribution, richness, species diversity and biomass, between forested areas, areas under regeneration and agriculture areas (banana plantations); to obtain information about the natural history and facilitate the development of future research. For capturing the snakes we used: pitfall traps, drift-fences and visual search (diurnal and nocturnal) along four transects for each habitat. The captured snakes were measured with a tape and caliper, weighed with dynamometers and sexed with the use of a catheter. The animals marked (with ventral scales cut) were released for posterior recapture. One individual per species was fixed and deposited at the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. We undertook an effort of 840 man/hour, and captured a total of 207 snakes belonging to 25 species (Colubridae 80.2%, Elapidae 12.6%, Viperidae 6.3% and Boidae 0.9%). The most abundant were: Liophis miliaris (n = 33), Micrurus corallinus and Chironius fuscus (both with n = 26); the least abundant: Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus and Tropidodryas serra (all with n = 1). The species that contributed the greatest biomass were Spilotes pullatus (7,925 g), Chironius laevicollis (4,694 g), Liophis miliaris (3,675 g) and Pseustes sulphureus (3,050 g); those that contributed the lowest biomass were: Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (both with 4 g) and Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g). We found significant differences between the sampled habitats at the Serra do Mendanha (undisturbed forest, secondary forest and banana plantations). The results showed that a great reduction in the abundance, richness, diversity and biomass of the snakes occurs when the native forest is replaced by banana plantations.

  11. Ancestral duplications and highly dynamic opsin gene evolution in percomorph fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Fabio; Musilová, Zuzana; Stieb, Sara M; Hart, Nathan S; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Malmstrøm, Martin; Tørresen, Ole K; Jentoft, Sissel; Cheney, Karen L; Marshall, N Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-03

    Single-gene and whole-genome duplications are important evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to biological diversification by launching new genetic raw material. For example, the evolution of animal vision is tightly linked to the expansion of the opsin gene family encoding light-absorbing visual pigments. In teleost fishes, the most species-rich vertebrate group, opsins are particularly diverse and key to the successful colonization of habitats ranging from the bioluminescence-biased but basically dark deep sea to clear mountain streams. In this study, we report a previously unnoticed duplication of the violet-blue short wavelength-sensitive 2 (SWS2) opsin, which coincides with the radiation of highly diverse percomorph fishes, permitting us to reinterpret the evolution of this gene family. The inspection of close to 100 fish genomes revealed that, triggered by frequent gene conversion between duplicates, the evolutionary history of SWS2 is rather complex and difficult to predict. Coincidentally, we also report potential cases of gene resurrection in vertebrate opsins, whereby pseudogenized genes were found to convert with their functional paralogs. We then identify multiple novel amino acid substitutions that are likely to have contributed to the adaptive differentiation between SWS2 copies. Finally, using the dusky dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, we show that the newly discovered SWS2A duplicates can contribute to visual adaptation in two ways: by gaining sensitivities to different wavelengths of light and by being differentially expressed between ontogenetic stages. Thus, our study highlights the importance of comparative approaches in gaining a comprehensive view of the dynamics underlying gene family evolution and ultimately, animal diversification.

  12. Attendance of scavenging seabirds at trawler discards off Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of scavenger seabirds at fishing trawlers was studied off Galicia, Spain. A total of 9,368 seabirds of 23 species were recorded during 92 fishing operations in 1998 and 1999. The most common species were the yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gull (Larus cachinnans and L. fuscus, Sabine´s gull (L. sabini, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the great shearwater (Puffinus gravis, sooty shearwater (P. griseus, the Manx and Balearic shearwater (P. puffinus and P. mauretanicus, the great skua (Catharacta skua and terns (mainly Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea. Other species occurred in small numbers: Leach´s petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus, the little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis, Cory´s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, the parasitic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus, the pomarine skua (S. pomarinus, the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus, the glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus, the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, the sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis, the black tern (Chlidonias niger, the guillemot (Uria aalge and the little auk (Alle alle. The maximum number of seabirds recorded at a haul was 320. The maximum number of a particular species ranged from 120 great shearwaters to 250 yellow-legged/lesser black-backed gulls during a single haul. The differences in ship-follower species abundance are related to migratory movements but fisheries could also have a strong influence at a smaller scale on the distribution of seabirds off Galicia. The degree to which seabirds rely on fishery discards as food was not quantified, but may be important for several species.

  13. The Cardiovascular and Neurotoxic Effects of the  Venoms of Six Bony and Cartilaginous Fish Species

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    Han Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish venoms are often poorly studied, in part due to the difficulty in obtaining, extracting, and storing them. In this study, we characterize the cardiovascular and neurotoxic effects of the venoms from the following six species of fish: the cartilaginous stingrays Neotrygon kuhlii and Himantura toshi, and the bony fish Platycephalus fucus, Girella tricuspidata, Mugil cephalus, and Dentex tumifrons. All venoms (10–100 μg/kg, i.v., except G. tricuspidata and P. fuscus, induced a biphasic response on mean arterial pressure (MAP in the anesthetised rat. P. fucus venom exhibited a hypotensive response, while venom from G. tricuspidata displayed a single depressor response. All venoms induced cardiovascular collapse at 200 μg/kg, i.v. The in vitro neurotoxic effects of venom were examined using the chick biventer cervicis nerve‐muscle (CBCNM preparation. N. kuhlii, H. toshi, and P. fucus venoms caused concentration‐dependent inhibition of indirect twitches in the CBCNM preparation. These three venoms also inhibited responses to exogenous acetylcholine (ACh and carbachol (CCh, but not potassium chloride (KCl, indicating a post‐synaptic mode of action. Venom from G. tricuspidata, M. cephalus, and D. tumifrons had no significant effect on indirect twitches or agonist responses in the CBCNM. Our results demonstrate that envenoming by these species of fish may result in moderate cardiovascular and/or neurotoxic effects. Future studies aimed at identifying the molecules responsible for these effects could uncover potentially novel lead compounds for future pharmaceuticals, in addition to generating new knowledge about the evolutionary relationships between venomous animals.

  14. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  15. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

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    Elin Soomets

    Full Text Available Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc. and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal

  16. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  17. Multidisciplinary approach to epizootiology and pathogenesis of bat rabies viruses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, J A; Johnson, S R; Kuzmina, N; Gilbert, A; Carson, W C; VerCauteren, K C; Rupprecht, C E

    2013-02-01

    Zoonotic disease surveillance is typically initiated after an animal pathogen has caused disease in humans. Early detection of potentially high-risk pathogens within animal hosts may facilitate medical interventions to cope with an emerging disease. To effectively spillover to a novel host, a pathogen may undergo genetic changes resulting in varying transmission potential in the new host and potentially to humans. Rabies virus (RABV) is one model pathogen to consider for studying the dynamics of emerging infectious diseases under both laboratory and field conditions. The evolutionary history of RABV is characterized by regularly documented spillover infections and a series of notable host shifts. Within this context, enhanced field surveillance to improve detection of spillover infections will require validated techniques to non-invasively differentiate infected from non-infected individuals. In this study, we evaluate the use of infrared thermography to detect thermal changes associated with experimental RABV infection in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in a captive colony. Our results indicated that 62% of rabid bats had detectable facial temperature decreases (-4.6°C, SD ± 2.5) compared with pre-inoculation baseline values. These data suggest potential utility for discriminating rabid bats in natural field settings. In addition, focusing upon RABV circulating in the United States between 2008 and 2011, we confirmed spillover events of bat RABV among carnivores and identified cross-species transmission events caused by four lineages of RABV associated with insectivorous bats. Additionally, our analysis of RABV glycoprotein sequences identified substitutions in antigenic sites that may affect neutralizing activity associated with monoclonal antibodies proposed for use in human post-exposure prophylaxis. This study provides a glimpse into RABV pathobiology and spillover dynamics among and between bats and a variety of mesocarnivores. Published 2012. This

  18. Susceptibility and pathogenesis of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to heterologous and homologous rabies viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig E; Morgan, Shannon M D; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission.

  19. Phylogenomic analysis of the Chilean clade ofLiolaemuslizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) based on sequence capture data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Alejandra; Leaché, Adam D; D'Elía, Guillermo; Victoriano, Pedro F

    2017-01-01

    The genus Liolaemus is one of the most ecologically diverse and species-rich genera of lizards worldwide. It currently includes more than 250 recognized species, which have been subject to many ecological and evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, Liolaemus lizards have a complex taxonomic history, mainly due to the incongruence between morphological and genetic data, incomplete taxon sampling, incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization. In addition, as many species have restricted and remote distributions, this has hampered their examination and inclusion in molecular systematic studies. The aims of this study are to infer a robust phylogeny for a subsample of lizards representing the Chilean clade (subgenus Liolaemus sensu stricto ), and to test the monophyly of several of the major species groups. We use a phylogenomic approach, targeting 541 ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) and 44 protein-coding genes for 16 taxa. We conduct a comparison of phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and several species tree inference methods. The UCEs provide stronger support for phylogenetic relationships compared to the protein-coding genes; however, the UCEs outnumber the protein-coding genes by 10-fold. On average, the protein-coding genes contain over twice the number of informative sites. Based on our phylogenomic analyses, all the groups sampled are polyphyletic. Liolaemus tenuis tenuis is difficult to place in the phylogeny, because only a few loci (nine) were recovered for this species. Topologies or support values did not change dramatically upon exclusion of L. t. tenuis from analyses, suggesting that missing data did not had a significant impact on phylogenetic inference in this data set. The phylogenomic analyses provide strong support for sister group relationships between L. fuscus , L. monticola , L. nigroviridis and L. nitidus , and L. platei and L. velosoi . Despite our limited taxon sampling, we have provided a reliable starting hypothesis for the

  20. Находки новых, заносных и редких для Бурятии видов сосудистых растений на территории Алтачейского заказника (Мухоршибирский район

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Abramova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available На территории Алтачейского заказника отмечены два новых для Бурятии вида сосудистых растений: Hordeum macilentum и Potamogeton angustifolius. Указано пять адвентивных и натурализующихся видов, редко отмечаемых в таком качестве в республике: Avena sativa, Acer negundo, Digitaria ischaemum, Medicago varia и Triticum aestivum. Также обнаружены новые местонахождения 10 редких для республики видов: Cyperus fuscus, Epipogium aphyllum, Huperzia selago, Fimbripetalum radians, Myosotis krylovii, Persicaria minor, Potamogeton nitens, Sedum pallescens, Stellaria palustris и Viola dactyloides.

  1. The in vitro neuromuscular activity of Indo-Pacific sea-snake venoms: efficacy of two commercially available antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Navinisha; Du, Amanda; Hodgson, Wayne C; Winkel, Ken; Fry, Bryan G

    2004-08-01

    We examined the neurotoxicity of the following sea snake venoms: Enhydrina schistosa (geographical variants from Weipa and Malaysia), Lapemis curtus (Weipa and Malaysia), Laticauda colubrina, Aipysurus laevis, Aipysurus fuscus and Aipysurus foliosquamatus. Venom from a terrestrial snake, Notechis scutatus (tiger snake), was used as a reference. All venoms (1 and 3 microg/ml) abolished indirect twitches of the chick biventer cervicis muscle and significantly inhibited responses to ACh (1 mM) and CCh (20 microM), but not KCl (40 mM), indicating the presence of post-synaptic toxins. Prior administration (10 min) of CSL sea snake antivenom (1 unit/ml) attenuated the twitch blockade produced by N. scutatus venom and all sea snake venoms (1 microg/ml). Prior administration (10 min) of CSL tiger snake antivenom (1 unit/ml) attenuated the twitch blockade of all venoms except those produced by E. schistosa (Malaysia and Weipa) and A. foliosquamatus. Administration of CSL sea snake antivenom (1 unit/ml) at t90 (i.e. time at which 90% inhibition of initial twitch height occurred) reversed the inhibition of twitches (20-50%) produced by the sea snake venoms (1 microg/ml) but not by N. scutatus venom (1 microg/ml). CSL tiger snake antivenom (1 unit/ml) administered at t90 produced only minor reversal (i.e. 15-25%) of the twitch blockade caused by L. curtus (Weipa), A. foliosquamatus, L. colubrina and A. laevis venoms (1 microg/ml). Differences in the rate of reversal of the neurotoxicity produced by the two geographical variants of E. schistosa venom, after addition of CSL sea snake antivenom, indicate possible differences in venom components. This study shows that sea snake venoms contain potent post-synaptic activity that, despite the significant genetic distances between the lineages, can be neutralised with CSL sea snake antivenom. However, the effects of CSL tiger snake antivenom are more variable.

  2. Potential citric acid exposure and toxicity to Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) associated with Eleutherodactylus frog control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William C; Witmer, Gary W; Jojola, Susan M; Sin, Hans

    2014-04-01

    We examined potential exposure of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) to citric acid, a minimum risk pesticide registered for control of invasive Eleutherodactylus frog populations. Hoary bats are nocturnal insectivores that roost solitarily in foliage, federally listed as endangered, and are endemic to Hawaii. Oral ingestion during grooming of contaminated fur appears to be the principal route by which these bats might be exposed to citric acid. We made assessments of oral toxicity, citric acid consumption, retention of material on fur, and grooming using big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) as a surrogate species. We evaluated both ground application and aerial application of 16 % solutions of citric acid during frog control operations. Absorbent bat effigies exposed to ground and aerial operational spray applications retained means of 1.54 and 0.02 g, respectively, of dry citric acid, although retention by the effigies was much higher than bat carcasses drenched in citric acid solutions. A high dose delivered orally (2,811 mg/kg) was toxic to the big brown bats and emesis occurred in 1 bat dosed as low as the 759 mg/kg level. No effect was observed with the lower doses examined (≤ 542 mg/kg). Bats sprayed with 5 ml of 16 % (w/w) citric acid solution showed no evidence of intoxication. In field situations, it is unlikely that bats would be sprayed directly or ingest much citric acid retained by fur. Based on our observations, we believe Hawaiian hoary bats to be at very low risk from harmful exposure to a toxic dose of citric acid during frog control operations.

  3. Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) to Heterologous and Homologous Rabies Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig E.; Morgan, Shannon, M. D.; Rudd, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission. PMID:23741002

  4. Food resource use by two territorial damselfish (Pomacentridae: Stegastes) on South-Western Atlantic algal-dominated reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, João Lucas L.; Concentino, Adilma M.; Teixeira, Simone F.; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2012-05-01

    Damselfishes are a highly abundant group of reef fishes that are considered keystone species for structuring benthic communities on coral-dominated reefs. To assess how food is utilized by the damselfish species Stegastes fuscus and Stegastes variabilis living on algae-dominated coastal reefs, we evaluated the compositions of algal communities inside their territories and investigated their diets by analyzing their stomach contents. Jointed-calcareous algae were the most abundant morphological group inside the territories of both damselfish species (> 80%), and the biomass of these algae showed a positive linear relationship to all the other non-calcareous algae when grouped together (R² = 0.674; p algae by creating surfaces on which they can grow. Most of the diet of Stegastes spp. consisted of algal material (> 70%), but they also fed on invertebrates and detritus as accessory items (~ 15%). Algal material composed a consistent proportion of the items ingested by adults and juveniles of both damselfish species with diatoms being the most frequent item, followed by filamentous algae. A positive food selection for all macroalgae morphological groups was observed, except for jointed-calcareous algae (Ivlev's index). The most preferred macroalgae types were filamentous, with values close to + 1 for both damselfish species. Pianka's food overlap index was extremely high regardless of the damselfish species or their life phase and ANOSIM analyses also confirmed that there were essentially no differences between their diets. The present work is the first indication that damselfish may maintain territories dominated by highly unpalatable calcareous macroalgae that have herbivore-deterrent life strategies, although the complex branching structures of these macroalgae create suitable microhabitats for the growth of epiphytic species consumed by the damselfish.

  5. Predators Exacerbate Competitive Interactions and Dominance Hierarchies between Two Coral Reef Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April; Kingsford, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition are critical processes influencing the ecology of organisms, and can play an integral role in shaping coral reef fish communities. This study compared the relative and interacting effects of competition and predation on two competing species of coral reef fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis and P. moluccensis (Pomacentridae), using a multifactorial experiment. Fish were subjected to the sight and smell of a known predator (Pseudochromis fuscus), the presence of the heterospecific competitor (i.e., P. amboinensis vs. P. moluccensis), or a combination of the two for a period of 19 days. The sub-lethal effects of predator/competitor treatments were compared with controls; a combination of otolith microstructure analysis and observations were used to determine otolith growth patterns and behaviour. We predicted that the stress of competition and/or predation would result in strong sub-lethal impacts, and act synergistically on growth and behavioural patterns. We found strong evidence to support this prediction, but only for P. amboinensis, which suffered reductions in growth in both predator and competitor treatments, with the largest reductions occurring when subjected to both predation and competition concurrently. There was strong evidence of asymmetrical competition between the two damselfish species, with P. moluccensis as the dominant competitor, displaying strong aggressive behaviour towards P. amboinensis. Growth reductions for P. amboinensis in predator/competitor treatments appeared to come about primarily due to increases in shelter seeking behaviour, which significantly reduced the foraging rates of individuals compared with controls. These data highlight the importance of predator/competitor synergisms in influencing key behaviours and demographic parameters for juvenile coral reef fishes.

  6. Ecology and geographic distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica among livestock and wildlife in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shi, Guoxiang; Wang, Shukun; Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chunxiang; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Longze; Yang, Meng; Tian, Huaiyu; Wang, Jiazheng; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-07-09

    The results in this study show the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica varies in different animal species and regions of China. The highest prevalence is among pigs (12.91%), followed by dogs (9.80%), Ochotona curzoniae (plateau pica) (6.76%), chickens (4.50%), rodents (3.40%), cattle (2.78%) and sheep (0.89%). Pathogenic isolates comprised the majority of the Y. enterocolitica recovered from pigs (73.50%) and dogs (59.44%); whereas the nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica made up most of poultry and wildlife recovered strains. A correlation analysis comparing the prevalence and geographic factors showed the isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and dogs was negatively correlated with elevation (r=-0.50, Penterocolitica carried ail and ystB virulence genes, and one biotype 1A nonpathogenic strain positive with ail, ystB and ystA genes were isolated from Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) on plague foci of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The PFGE pattern K6GN11C30021 was predominant in pigs (44.25%) and patients (41.18%); K6GN11C30068 was predominant in dogs (40.16%). Animal isolates from the same region shared the same pattern (K6GN11C30021 and K6GN11C30012), indicating they may be from the same clone and arose through cross infection. Moreover, the identical PFGE pattern among local animals and diarrhea patients suggested that the animals may be the source of infections in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing predation risk to threatened fauna from their prevalence in predator scats: dingoes and rodents in arid Australia.

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    Benjamin L Allen

    Full Text Available The prevalence of threatened species in predator scats has often been used to gauge the risks that predators pose to threatened species, with the infrequent occurrence of a given species often considered indicative of negligible predation risks. In this study, data from 4087 dingo (Canis lupus dingo and hybrids scats were assessed alongside additional information on predator and prey distribution, dingo control effort and predation rates to evaluate whether or not the observed frequency of threatened species in dingo scats warrants more detailed investigation of dingo predation risks to them. Three small rodents (dusky hopping-mice Notomys fuscus; fawn hopping-mice Notomys cervinus; plains mice Pseudomys australis were the only threatened species detected in <8% of dingo scats from any given site, suggesting that dingoes might not threaten them. However, consideration of dingo control effort revealed that plains mice distribution has largely retracted to the area where dingoes have been most heavily subjected to lethal control. Assessing the hypothetical predation rates of dingoes on dusky hopping-mice revealed that dingo predation alone has the potential to depopulate local hopping-mice populations within a few months. It was concluded that the occurrence of a given prey species in predator scats may be indicative of what the predator ate under the prevailing conditions, but in isolation, such data can have a poor ability to inform predation risk assessments. Some populations of threatened fauna assumed to derive a benefit from the presence of dingoes may instead be susceptible to dingo-induced declines under certain conditions.

  8. Short telomeres in hatchling snakes: erythrocyte telomere dynamics and longevity in tropical pythons.

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    Beata Ujvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL has been found to be associated with life span in birds and humans. However, other studies have demonstrated that TL does not affect survival among old humans. Furthermore, replicative senescence has been shown to be induced by changes in the protected status of the telomeres rather than the loss of TL. In the present study we explore whether age- and sex-specific telomere dynamics affect life span in a long-lived snake, the water python (Liasis fuscus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Erythrocyte TL was measured using the Telo TAGGG TL Assay Kit (Roche. In contrast to other vertebrates, TL of hatchling pythons was significantly shorter than that of older snakes. However, during their first year of life hatchling TL increased substantially. While TL of older snakes decreased with age, we did not observe any correlation between TL and age in cross-sectional sampling. In older snakes, female TL was longer than that of males. When using recapture as a proxy for survival, our results do not support that longer telomeres resulted in an increased water python survival/longevity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In fish high telomerase activity has been observed in somatic cells exhibiting high proliferation rates. Hatchling pythons show similar high somatic cell proliferation rates. Thus, the increase in TL of this group may have been caused by increased telomerase activity. In older humans female TL is longer than that of males. This has been suggested to be caused by high estrogen levels that stimulate increased telomerase activity. Thus, high estrogen levels may also have caused the longer telomeres in female pythons. The lack of correlation between TL and age among old snakes and the fact that longer telomeres did not appear to affect python survival do not support that erythrocyte telomere dynamics has a major impact on water python longevity.

  9. Alphacoronaviruses in New World bats: prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans.

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    Christina Osborne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus, 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans, 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis, 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10% and known to have direct contact with people (19%, suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  10. Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Montgomery, Joel Mark

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  11. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  12. Old pythons stay fit; effects of haematozoan infections on life history traits of a large tropical predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Thomas; Ujvari, Beata; Olsson, Mats

    2005-01-01

    We document the impact of blood parasite infections caused by Hepatozoon sp. on water python (Liasis fuscus) life history traits such as growth rates, condition, reproductive output and survival. Individual snakes maintained similar among-year parasite loads. Hepatozoon infections affected python growth rate, i.e. snakes suffering from high infection levels exhibited significantly slower growth compared to individuals with low parasite loads. Our results suggest that the parasites also affected the pythons' nutritional status (condition), as snakes with low condition scores suffered from higher parasite infection levels than snakes with high scores. Furthermore, our data suggest that parasitaemia may affect female reproductive output, as reproductive female pythons harboured lower parasite loads compared to non-reproductive adult females. High levels of parasite infections also affected juvenile python survival, as recaptured snakes harboured significantly lower parasite loads compared to non-recaptured yearling pythons. In our study area, water python have very few natural predators and, hence, experience low mortality rates and commonly reach an age of >15 years. In contrast to results obtained in other studies, parasite loads in larger/older pythons were lower compared to younger snakes, suggesting that only snakes harbouring lower levels of parasitaemia were able to survive to old age. We suggest that a possible cause for the opposing results regarding parasite prevalence and host age may be due to different levels of extrinsic mortality rates and longevity. Long-lived organisms, such as water pythons, may invest relatively more into crucial self-maintenance functions such as parasite defence, compared to short-lived organisms.

  13. Bat ecology and public health surveillance for rabies in an urbanizing region of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Cryan, P.M.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Pape, W.J.; Bowen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe use of Fort Collins, Colorado, and nearby areas by bats in 2001-2005, and link patterns in bat ecology with concurrent public health surveillance for rabies. Our analyses are based on evaluation of summary statistics, and information-theoretic support for results of simple logistic regression. Based on captures in mist nets, the city bat fauna differed from that of the adjacent mountains, and was dominated by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Species, age, and sex composition of bats submitted for rabies testing locally and along the urbanizing Front Range Corridor were similar to those of the mist-net captures and reflected the annual cycle of reproduction and activity of big brown bats. Few submissions occurred November- March, when these bats hibernated elsewhere. In summer females roosted in buildings in colonies and dominated health samples; fledging of young corresponded to a summer peak in health submissions with no increase in rabies prevalence. Roosting ecology of big brown bats in buildings was similar to that reported for natural sites, including colony size, roost-switching behavior, fidelity to roosts in a small area, and attributes important for roost selection. Attrition in roosts occurred from structural modifications of buildings to exclude colonies by citizens, but without major effects on long-term bat reproduction or survival. Bats foraged in areas set aside for nature conservation. A pattern of lower diversity in urban bat communities with dominance by big brown bats may occur widely in the USA, and is consistent with national public health records for rabies surveillance. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  14. [Analysis on the results of etiology and serology of plague in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonghai; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Aiping; Wei, Rongjie; Wei, Baiqing; Wang, Zuyun

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the results of etiology and serology of plague among human and infected animals in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010. Thirty-seven cases of human infected with plague, 53 541 different animal samples, 5 685 sets of vector insects flea and 49 039 different animal serum samples were obtained between 2001 and 2010. A total of 7 811 samples of serum from healthy farmers and herdsmen in 14 counties in Qinghai from 2005 to 2007 were collected. Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) were detected in visceral and secretions from human, infected animals and vector insects, respectively. Plague antigen was detected by reverse indirect hemagglutination assay (RIHA) in those samples. Indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) was used to test plague FI antibody in serum of human and infected animals. 37 human plague cases were confirmed, 21 strains of plague Y. pestis were isolated from human cases and 14 positive were detected out. 133 of 7 811 samples of human serum were IHA positive, with the positive rate at 1.7%. A total of 146 strains of plague were isolated from infected animals and vector insects, 99 out of which were from infected animals, with a ratio of Marmota himalayan at 72.7% (72/99) and the other 47 were from vector insects, with a ratio of callopsylla solaris at 68.1% (32/47). The number of IHA and PIHA positive were 300 and 10, respectively. A total of 3 animals and 3 insects species were identified as new epidemic hosts for plague. The natural plague focus of Microtus fuscus was discovered and confirmed and coexisted with natural focus of Marmota himalayan in Chengduo county, Yushu prefecture. The epidemic situation of plague is distributed mainly in Haixi, Yushu and Hainan prefectures. From 2001 to 2010, animal infected with plague was detected in successive years and human plague was very common in Qinghai. New infected animals and vector insects species and new epidemic areas were confirmed, hence the trend of plague prevalence for humans and animals is very

  15. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Hundreds of different cheeses are produced in France, where 23.9kg of cheese were consumed per inhabitant in 2009, when it was ranked the second cheese-consuming nation. To meet this considerable demand, a large number of cheese factories exist where many workers, especially cheese washers, may be exposed to fungal bioaerosols that can lead to adverse toxinic and allergic effects. Airborne bacteria, fragments, or microbial by-products (endotoxins) are also found and contribute to total worker exposure. However, there is almost no published data concerning worker exposure or characteristics of bioaerosols emitted during these activities. Here, we measured the parameters (concentrations, species present, and size distribution) of the culturable fungal bioaerosol emitted in a French natural-rind cheese-maturing cellar. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and endotoxins were also measured. The main tasks were investigated using stationary or personal sampling over three consecutive days. Depending on the work area, high concentrations of culturable mesophilic microorganisms were measured (using closed-face cassettes): from 10(4) to 2×10(8) CFU m(-3) for fungi and from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU m(-3) for bacteria. These concentrations are 10- to 100000-fold higher than those measured at two reference points (indoor and outdoor) that are assumed not to be contaminated by the plant's activities. Endotoxin concentrations were between 10 and 300 EU m(-3) in the plant. Exposure was further assessed by identifying the predominant culturable fungi (allergenic Mucor fuscus and Penicillium sp.) and by measuring particle size distributions (cascade impactor). Airborne fungal entities (spores, mycelium strands and fragments, agglomerates, etc.) were found with aerodynamic diameters from 3 to over 20 µm. A metrological approach was used to fully characterize the culturable fungal aerosols generated during cheese maturing in this plant. The results show that workers are exposed to

  16. Diapause in copepods (Crustacea) from ephemeral habitats with different hydroperiods in Everglades National Park (Florida, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Reid, J.W.; Perry, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water management practices in the Everglades have severely stressed the natural system, particularly by reducing the hydroperiods of much of the region. During the dry season of 1999, we investigated the influence of hydroperiod on the species composition and dormancy patterns of freshwater copepod communities in seasonal wetlands of Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A. The habitats were characterized by an annual dry season, from December through June. We sampled at two locations: the Long Pine Key area of the Rocky Glades region (short hydroperiod, ca. 4-5 months), and western Taylor Slough (intermediate hydroperiod, ca. 8-10 months). Both areas have experienced a reduction in natural hydroperiods and an increase in the frequency of dry-down. We collected weekly plankton samples from Rocky Glades solution holes to assess the potential species pool of copepods. To document the taxa capable of surviving dry-down by resting, we performed three immersion trials in which we rehydrated, in laboratory aquaria, sediment patches from solution holes and surface soils from all stations. Only a subset of the planktonic species collected emerged from the dried sediments. The cyclopoids Microcyclops rubellus and Paracyclops poppei were dominant. This is the first record of diapause for P. poppei. Species distributions from the different hydroperiod soil patches indicated that more diapausing species occurred at the sites that dried for shorter periods. Emerging individuals of M. rubellus and P. poppei were mainly ovigerous females, demonstrating a resting strategy seldom before recorded. The cyclopoid Diacyclops nearcticus had not been previously reported to diapause, but they emerged from the dried sediments in our trials. Our collections included six new records for Florida: Diacyclops nearcticus, Megacyclops latipes, Orthocyclops modestus, Elaphoidella marjoryae, Bryocamptus sp. and Bryocamptus cf. newyorkensis. Paracyclops poppei, Macrocyclops fuscus and

  17. The flat bark beetles (Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Cucujidae, Laemophloeidae of Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the present investigations 18 species of flat bark beetles are known to occur in Atlantic Canada, 10 in New Brunswick, 17 in Nova Scotia, four on Prince Edward Island, six on insular Newfoundland, and one in Labrador. Twenty-three new provincial records are reported and nine species, Uleiota debilis (LeConte, Uleiota dubius (Fabricius, Nausibius clavicornis (Kugelann, Ahasverus advena (Waltl, Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr, Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle, Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte, Charaphloeus species nr. adustus, and Placonotus zimmermanni (LeConte are newly recorded in the region, one of which C. sp. nr. adustus, is newly recorded in Canada as a whole. Eight species are cosmopolitan species introduced to the region and North America, nine are native Nearctic species, and one, Pediacus fuscus Erichson, is Holarctic in distribution. All the introduced species except for one (Silvanus bidentatus (Fabricius, a saproxylic species are found on various stored products, whereas all the native species are saproxylic. Ahasverus longulus (Blatchley, is removed from the species list of New Brunswick and Charophloeus adustus (LeConte is removed from the species list of Nova Scotia. One tropical Asian species, Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Guérin-Méneville, has been intercepted in the region in imported produce, but is not established. The substantial proportion (44% of the fauna that is comprised of introduced species is highlighted, almost all of which are synanthropic species associated with various dried stored products. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are diminished in comparison to the mainland fauna, that of Prince Edward Island being exceptionally so in comparison to other saproxylic groups found there. Of the ten native species, four can be categorized as 'apparently rare' (i.e., comprising ≤ 0.005% of specimens examined from the region. It is possibly that the

  18. Dynamic stability of communities of amphibians in short-term-flooded forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of stability of amphibian populations on the basis of data of population dynamics is given. The paper shows an attempt to estimate the direction of dynamic changes of amphibian populations, and defines the rate of the system deviation from the stationary state due to possible influence of the environmental factors by using concepts such as reactivity, degree of reactivity and flexibility of the system when using their indexes. It is found that populations of amphibians are quite stable with regard to quantifying these species. Characteristic feature is the elasticity of the system. It is confirmed by the elasticity of the system species Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758. TypePelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768 is defined as a factor of stability of the system in quantitative terms. Dependenceof dynamics of the population on its size is established using the regression equation. Dynamics of groups depends on the action of possible predictors in response to which the population of B. bufo is not changed. The ecosystem is characterized as a place of interaction between biotic factors and factors of abiotic origin, which are due to the external action. Internal factor of the ecosystem stability is the influence of some amphibian populations on the other ones. The system features sustainable and relatively stable number of B. bufo, which does not affect the level of its stability. Stationary state of the grouping is unstable due to dynamic matrix, which describes the behavior of the group in the vicinity of the first stationary state. The second steady state is stableone, and the system returns to the stationary state with the help of wave-like dynamics. On the basis of our study it is established that the number of groups of amphibians remains stable, the systems behave differently, and dynamics of their return to the stationary state is elastic or reactive one. Еcosystems within lime-ash oak forests in the Central floodplain of the Samarariver

  19. Capture and reproductive trends in summer bat communities in West Virginia: Assessing the impact of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francl, Karen E.; Ford, W. Mark; Sparks, Dale W.; Brack, Virgil

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been widely documented that populations of cave-roosting bats rapidly decline following the arrival of white-nose syndrome (WNS), longer term reproductive effects are less well-known and essentially unexplored at the community scale. In West Virginia, WNS was first detected in the eastern portion of the state in 2009 and winter mortality was documented in 2009 and 2010. However, quantitative impacts on summer bat communities remained unknown. We compared “historical” (pre-WNS) capture records and reproductive rates from 11,734 bats captured during summer (15 May to 15 August) of 1997–2008 and 1,304 captures during 2010. We predicted that capture rates (number of individuals captured/net-night) would decrease in 2010. We also expected the energetic strain of WNS would cause delayed or reduced reproduction, as denoted by a greater proportion of pregnant or lactating females later in the summer and a lower relative proportion of juvenile captures in the mid–late summer. We found a dramatic decline in capture rates of little brown Myotis lucifugus, northern long-eared M. septentrionalis, small-footed M. leibii, Indiana M. sodalis, tri-colored Perimyotis subflavus, and hoary Lasiurus cinereus bats after detection of WNS in 2009. For these six species, 2010 capture rates were 10–37% of pre-WNS rates. Conversely, capture rates of big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus increased by 17% in 2010, whereas capture rates of eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis did not change. Together, big brown and eastern red bats were 58% of all 2010 captures but only 11% of pre-WNS captures. Reproductive data from 12,314 bats showed shifts in pregnancy and lactation dates, and an overall narrowing in the windows of time of each reproductive event, for northern-long-eared and little brown bats. Additionally, the proportion of juvenile captures declined in 2010 for these species. In contrast, lactation and pregnancy rates of big brown and eastern red bats, and the

  20. Variations in biological characteristics of temperate gonochoristic species of Platycephalidae and their implications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Peter G.; Hall, Norman G.; Potter, Ian C.

    2017-05-01

    This review provides a composite account of the biological characteristics of the temperate gonochoristic species of the Platycephalidae. Initially, data were obtained for the five abundant platycephalid species in south-western Australia, which each came from either over bare substrata or seagrass and from either estuaries, marine coastal waters or marine embayments. The von Bertalanffy growth curves for females and males of each species differed significantly, with females having a greater TL∞ and lower growth coefficient k. From tests using their upper deciles, the total length (TL) attained by the largest females of each species was significantly greater than that of their males, whereas such a trend did not occur with age. The ratio of females to males in each abundant age class, and overall, exceeded parity for four of the five species (typically P Mortality estimates, which were similar for each sex of each species, suggest that Platycephalus speculator has been substantially exploited in a seasonally-closed estuary in which it completes its whole life cycle. The above and other biological data for the five species were collated with those published previously for two of those species and five other platycephalid species in south-eastern Australia and one in Japan and another in the Suez Canal, yielding the following conclusions for gonochoristic species of the Platycephalidae. Females attain a larger size than males, the extent varying markedly among species, whereas the longevities of the two sexes of each platycephalid species are similar. The maximum TLs and ages of the various species range widely, with values for females, for example, extending from 221 mm for Ambiserrula jugosa to 985 mm for Platycephalus fuscus and from four years for A. jugosa to 26 years for Platycephalus conatus. The overall ratio of females to males is positively related to the extent to which both the maximum TLs and TL∞s of the females exceed those of males. The above

  1. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em aves silvestres de três Unidades de Conservação Federais da Paraíba e da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina H.M. Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A vigilância e monitoramento de doenças em animais silvestres são imprescindíveis no contexto ambiental e de saúde pública, pois estes animais agem como sentinelas, refletindo alterações ambientais precocemente, o que proporciona maior eficácia no monitoramento ambiental e permite o acesso rápido a informações sobre as condições da área. Neste contexto, as aves são importantes no ciclo biológico do Toxoplasma gondii e na epidemiologia da toxoplasmose, principalmente porque seus tecidos representam importantes fontes de proteína na alimentação de felídeos e humanos. Objetivou-se detectar anticorpos anti-T. gondii, por meio do teste de aglutinação modificada em aves silvestres de três Unidades de Conservação (UC Federais dos Estados da Paraíba e Bahia. No período de dezembro de 2011 a outubro de 2013 foram capturadas com redes de neblina 222 aves silvestres pertencentes a 67 espécies, 27 famílias e 12 ordens. Após a captura, foi colhido sangue de cada animal e separado o soro, que foi submetido ao Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT≥1:25 utilizando taquizoítos inativados na formalina e 2-mercaptoetanol. Dentre as 222 amostras analisadas, três (1,3% foram sororreagentes: 1 de 16 (6,2% pipira-preta Tachyphonus rufus (título 50, 1 de 5 (20% juriti-gemedeira Leptotila rufaxilla (título 50 e 1 de 1 (100% caneleiro-enxofre Casiornis fuscus (título 25. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii nas referidas espécies de aves silvestres de vida livre nas duas UC Federais estudadas.

  2. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  3. Echolocating bats use a nearly time-optimal strategy to intercept prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Ghose

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of food in many animal species depends on the pursuit and capture of moving prey. Among modern humans, the pursuit and interception of moving targets plays a central role in a variety of sports, such as tennis, football, Frisbee, and baseball. Studies of target pursuit in animals, ranging from dragonflies to fish and dogs to humans, have suggested that they all use a constant bearing (CB strategy to pursue prey or other moving targets. CB is best known as the interception strategy employed by baseball outfielders to catch ballistic fly balls. CB is a time-optimal solution to catch targets moving along a straight line, or in a predictable fashion--such as a ballistic baseball, or a piece of food sinking in water. Many animals, however, have to capture prey that may make evasive and unpredictable maneuvers. Is CB an optimum solution to pursuing erratically moving targets? Do animals faced with such erratic prey also use CB? In this paper, we address these questions by studying prey capture in an insectivorous echolocating bat. Echolocating bats rely on sonar to pursue and capture flying insects. The bat's prey may emerge from foliage for a brief time, fly in erratic three-dimensional paths before returning to cover. Bats typically take less than one second to detect, localize and capture such insects. We used high speed stereo infra-red videography to study the three dimensional flight paths of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it chased erratically moving insects in a dark laboratory flight room. We quantified the bat's complex pursuit trajectories using a simple delay differential equation. Our analysis of the pursuit trajectories suggests that bats use a constant absolute target direction strategy during pursuit. We show mathematically that, unlike CB, this approach minimizes the time it takes for a pursuer to intercept an unpredictably moving target. Interestingly, the bat's behavior is similar to the interception strategy

  4. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities

  5. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Robert B; Clery, Molly J; Carter, Jodie C; Wenczek, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of

  6. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae (Coleoptera

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    Robert Angus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera. Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂ or XX (♀. These species are A. serricornis (Paykull, 1799, A. labiatus (Brahm, 1791, A. congener (Thunberg, 1794, A. lapponicus (Thomson, 1867, A. thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871, A. confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767, A. nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, A. wollastoni Sharp, 1882, A. melanarius Aubé, 1837, A. biguttatus (Olivier, 1795, A. binotatus Aubé, 1837, A. affinis (Paykull, 1798, A. unguicularis (Thomson, 1867, A. ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, A. conspersus (Marsham, 1802 and A. nebulosus (Forster, 1771. However two species, A. infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and A. adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂. No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical A. bipustulatus and A. bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the A. bipustulatus complex (A. bipustulatus, A. nevadensis and A. wollastoni. The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, C. fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758, C. paykulli Erichson, 1837, C. piceus Klug, 1834 and C. striatus (Linnaeus, 1758 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂, XX (♀. Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, R. exsoletus (Forster, 1771 and R. suturellus (Harris, 1828 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, R. grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808, R. frontalis (Marsham, 1802 and R. suturalis (Macleay, 1825 have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but

  7. Terrestrial and Marine Foraging Strategies of an Opportunistic Seabird Species Breeding in the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Paiva, Vitor H.; Corman, Anna-Marie; Fock, Heino O.; Voigt, Christian C.; Adler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus are considered to be mainly pelagic. We assessed the importance of different landscape elements (open sea, tidal flats and inland) by comparing marine and terrestrial foraging behaviours in lesser black-backed gulls breeding along the coast of the southern North Sea. We attached GPS data loggers to eight incubating birds and collected information on diet and habitat use. The loggers recorded data for 10–19 days to allow flight-path reconstruction. Lesser black-backed gulls foraged in both offshore and inland areas, but rarely on tidal flats. Targets and directions were similar among all eight individuals. Foraging trips (n = 108) lasted 0.5–26.4 h (mean 8.7 h), and ranges varied from 3.0–79.9 km (mean 30.9 km). The total distance travelled per foraging trip ranged from 7.5–333.6 km (mean 97.9 km). Trips out to sea were significantly more variable in all parameters than inland trips. Presence in inland areas was closely associated with daylight, whereas trips to sea occurred at day and night, but mostly at night. The most common items in pellets were grass (48%), insects (38%), fish (28%), litter (26%) and earthworms (20%). There was a significant relationship between the carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in blood and the proportional time each individual spent foraging at sea/land. On land, gulls preferentially foraged on bare ground, with significantly higher use of potato fields and significantly less use of grassland. The flight patterns of lesser black-backed gulls at sea overlapped with fishing-vessel distribution, including small beam trawlers fishing for shrimps in coastal waters close to the colony and large beam-trawlers fishing for flatfish at greater distances. Our data show that individuals made intensive use of the anthropogenic landscape and seascape, indicating that lesser black-backed gulls are not a predominantly marine species during the incubation period. PMID:27525661

  8. Rezultati januarskega štetja vodnih ptic leta 2015 v Sloveniji/ Results of the January 2015 waterbird census in Slovenia

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    Božič Luka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the International Waterbird Census (IWC was carried out in Slovenia on 17 and 18 Jan. Waterbirds were counted on all larger rivers, along the entire Slovenian Coastland and on most of the major standing waters in the country. During the census, in which 276 observers took part, 409 sections of the rivers and coastal sea with a total length of 1385.8 km and 224 other localities (172 standing waters and 52 streams were surveyed. Altogether, 46,425 waterbirds of 57 species were counted. This is one of the lowest numbers of waterbirds recorded during the 19 years of IWC in Slovenia. The highest numbers of waterbirds were counted in the Drava count area, i.e. 17,014 individuals (36.7% of all waterbirds in Slovenia. By far the most numerous species was Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (45.9% of all waterbirds, followed by Coot Fulica atra (8.4% of all waterbirds, Blackheaded Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (7.5% of all waterbirds, Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (5.7% of all waterbirds and Mute Swan Cygnus olor (4.6% of all waterbirds. The number of 1000 counted individuals was also surpassed by Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula, Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and Teal An. crecca. Among the rarer recorded species, the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis (registered only for the third time during the IWC and Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus (registered only for the fourth time during the IWC deserve special mention. Also, Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea was recorded for the fourth time during the IWC, but the individual observed was classified to category E (introduced species without self-sustaining populations, escapees from captivity. Numbers of the following species were the highest so far recorded during the IWC: Greylag Goose Anser anser, Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata, Shoveler An. clypeata, Goosander Mergus merganser and Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos. The number of Redbreasted Mergansers M. serrator was the lowest so far recorded during the

  9. Terrestrial and Marine Foraging Strategies of an Opportunistic Seabird Species Breeding in the Wadden Sea.

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    Stefan Garthe

    Full Text Available Lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus are considered to be mainly pelagic. We assessed the importance of different landscape elements (open sea, tidal flats and inland by comparing marine and terrestrial foraging behaviours in lesser black-backed gulls breeding along the coast of the southern North Sea. We attached GPS data loggers to eight incubating birds and collected information on diet and habitat use. The loggers recorded data for 10-19 days to allow flight-path reconstruction. Lesser black-backed gulls foraged in both offshore and inland areas, but rarely on tidal flats. Targets and directions were similar among all eight individuals. Foraging trips (n = 108 lasted 0.5-26.4 h (mean 8.7 h, and ranges varied from 3.0-79.9 km (mean 30.9 km. The total distance travelled per foraging trip ranged from 7.5-333.6 km (mean 97.9 km. Trips out to sea were significantly more variable in all parameters than inland trips. Presence in inland areas was closely associated with daylight, whereas trips to sea occurred at day and night, but mostly at night. The most common items in pellets were grass (48%, insects (38%, fish (28%, litter (26% and earthworms (20%. There was a significant relationship between the carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in blood and the proportional time each individual spent foraging at sea/land. On land, gulls preferentially foraged on bare ground, with significantly higher use of potato fields and significantly less use of grassland. The flight patterns of lesser black-backed gulls at sea overlapped with fishing-vessel distribution, including small beam trawlers fishing for shrimps in coastal waters close to the colony and large beam-trawlers fishing for flatfish at greater distances. Our data show that individuals made intensive use of the anthropogenic landscape and seascape, indicating that lesser black-backed gulls are not a predominantly marine species during the incubation period.

  10. Mineralogía y cambios composicionales en fragmentos óseos atribuidos a un dinosaurio ornitópodo del yacimiento barremiense de Buenache de la Sierra (Formación Calizas de La Huérguina, Cuenca, España

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    Merino, L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available X-ray diffraction, optical polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobeto, have been used to analyse the diagenetic processes of isolated dinosaur bones and ribs attributed to an ornithopod dinosaur from Buenache de la Sierra (Upper Barremian, La Huérguina Formation. We also examine the geochemical and mineralogical bone mineralization of extant archosaurs (caiman and bird for comparison. Diagenetic processes have modified the original chemical composition of the studied fragments of bones, as well as its crystallinity, which increases in the fossil samples. In recent bones, hydroxyapatite results the main mineral constituent, while in fossils is fluorapatite. We found two types of mineralogical arrangements: one group exhibiting the spongy structure completely collapsed forming breccias of bone fragments, and a second group with well preserved spongy structure but substituted by calcium carbonate. Calcite is the most abundant authigenic mineral infilling pores and fissures of the fossilized remains. The presence of pyrite in bone cavities suggests an early burial stage under euxinic conditions of a reductor environment. The biostratinomic and fossildiagenetic alterations allow us to conclude that the remains have two distinct taphonomic histories, and that the association undergone taphonomical resedimentation.Las diferentes técnicas utilizadas (difracción de rayos X, microscopio petrográfico, microscopio electrónico de barrido y microsonda electrónica en el estudio de los restos óseos atribuidos a un ornitópodo del yacimiento Buenache de la Sierra (Baremiense superior, Formación La Huérguina han permitido caracterizar los procesos diagenéticos. Se han analizado huesos de arcosaurios vivos (caimán y ave, para comparar la mineralogía y la geoquímica del material óseo. Los procesos diagenéticos han modificado la composición química original de los fragmentos de huesos estudiados, así como su

  11. Vers la structuration d’une filière aurifère « durable » ? Etude du cas de la Guyane française

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    Jessica Oder

    2011-09-01

    sector an example as regards “sustainability”, as clearly expressed in the aftermath of the « Grenelle of the Environment ». Mainly based on semi-directing talks and archives, the article sought to analyze the key elements of this structuring: the project of Departmental Mining Master Plan (SDOM and several initiatives dedicated to improve the mining operators’ practices. However, this evolution of which pace is variously appreciated, is not done without disagreements, insofar as it puts in relief antagonisms between the stakeholders (mainly territorial collectivities and the central level, operators mining and environmentalists. Indeed, these antagonisms were revealed, on the one hand, during the Camp Caiman case (which involved Iamgold, and on the other hand during the development process of the SDOM itself. Related problems such as local claims of mining governance and the illegal artisanal and small scale gold mining draw up future prospects rather mitigated for the sector.

  12. Calcium isotopes in fossil bones and teeth — Diagenetic versus biogenic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Alexander; Tütken, Thomas; Gussone, Nikolaus; Galer, Stephen J. G.

    2011-06-01

    We present the first systematic study of Ca isotopes ( δ44/40Ca) in Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous dinosaur bones and teeth (enamel and dentin) from sympatric herbivorous and carnivorous dinosaurs. The samples derive from five different localities, and data from embedding sediments are also presented. Additional δ44/40Ca in skeletal tissues from modern reptiles and birds (avian dinosaurs) were measured for comparison in order to examine whether the original Ca isotopic composition in dinosaur skeletal apatite was preserved or might have changed during the diagenesis and fossilization process. δ44/40Ca of fossil skeletal tissues range from -1.62‰ ( Tyrannosaurus rex enamel) to +1.08‰ ( Brachiosaurus brancai bone), while values in modern archosaur bones and teeth range from -1.63‰ (caiman enamel) to -0.37‰ (ostrich bone). The average δ44/40Ca of the three types of fossil skeletal tissue analyzed - bone, dentin and enamel - show some systematic differences: while δ44/40Ca in bone exhibits the highest values, while δ44/40Ca in enamel has the lowest values, and dentin δ44/40Ca falls in between. Values of δ44/40Ca in the remains of herbivorous dinosaurs (0.1-1.1‰) are generally higher than those of bones of modern mammalian herbivores (-2.6‰ to -0.8‰) and from modern herbivorous archosaurs, which exhibit intermediate δ44/40Ca (-0.8‰ to -0.4‰). These systematic isotopic shifts may reflect physiological differences between dinosaurs, mammals and reptiles representing different taxonomic groups of vertebrates. Systematic offsets in skeletal apatite δ44/40Ca between herbivorous and carnivorous dinosaurs are not obvious, indicating a lack of a clear-cut Trophic Level Effect (TLE) shift between herbivores and carnivores in dinosaurs. This observation can be explained if the carnivorous dinosaurs in this study fed mainly on soft tissues from their prey and did not ingest hard (calcified) tissue to much extent. The most striking indication that the

  13. The snake community of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil: composition, abundance, richness and diversity in areas with different conservation degrees A comunidade de serpentes da Serra do Mendanha, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil: composição, abundância, riqueza e diversidade em áreas com diferentes graus de conservação

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    JAL. Pontes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied and compared parameters of the snake community of the Serra do Mendanha, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (22º 48'-22º 51' S and 43º 31'-43º 28' W, such as: abundance distribution, richness, species diversity and biomass, between forested areas, areas under regeneration and agriculture areas (banana plantations; to obtain information about the natural history and facilitate the development of future research. For capturing the snakes we used: pitfall traps, drift-fences and visual search (diurnal and nocturnal along four transects for each habitat. The captured snakes were measured with a tape and caliper, weighed with dynamometers and sexed with the use of a catheter. The animals marked (with ventral scales cut were released for posterior recapture. One individual per species was fixed and deposited at the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. We undertook an effort of 840 man/hour, and captured a total of 207 snakes belonging to 25 species (Colubridae 80.2%, Elapidae 12.6%, Viperidae 6.3% and Boidae 0.9%. The most abundant were: Liophis miliaris (n = 33, Micrurus corallinus and Chironius fuscus (both with n = 26; the least abundant: Elapomorphus quinquelineatus, Siphlophis compressus and Tropidodryas serra (all with n = 1. The species that contributed the greatest biomass were Spilotes pullatus (7,925 g, Chironius laevicollis (4,694 g, Liophis miliaris (3,675 g and Pseustes sulphureus (3,050 g; those that contributed the lowest biomass were: Siphlophis compressus, Tropidodryas serra (both with 4 g and Elapomorphus quinquelineatus (3 g. We found significant differences between the sampled habitats at the Serra do Mendanha (undisturbed forest, secondary forest and banana plantations. The results showed that a great reduction in the abundance, richness, diversity and biomass of the snakes occurs when the native forest is replaced by banana plantations.Estudamos e comparamos parâmetros da comunidade de serpentes da Serra do

  14. Spoločenstvá suchozemských mäkkýšov severnej časti Devínskej Kobyly (Malé Karpaty

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    Jozef Šteffek

    2005-11-01

    species in north part, 44 species in south part, 37 species in the Devín Castle hill were found in whole area until nowadays. 10 mollusc species were found only in the southern part of the Devínska Kobyla massive (Bythinella austriaca, Chondrula tridens, Zebrina detrita, Vitrea subrimata, Nesovitrea hammonis, Limax cinereoniger, Limax maximus, Arion fuscus, Pisidium casertanum a P. personatum, 5 species were found only in northern part of the Massive (Platyla polita, Pyramidula pusilla, Vertigo pusilla, Vitrea crystallina, Monachoides vicinus and 4 species were only found in the Devínske Hradné Bralo hill (Pupilla sterri, Balea perversa, Trichia striolata danubialis, Fruticicola fruticum. During our research 3 species new not published from this area were found (Platyla polita, Nesovitrea hammonis and Limax maximus.

  15. El Hospital de San Juan de Dios de Bogotá.

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    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    1999-04-01

    pierna, y sobrepujó a la maldad de la ponzoña de la hierba y la hechó fuera; por todo el cuerpo le penetró el fuego en tanto grado, que fue necesario gastar una pipa de vinagre, mojando sábanas y empapando todo el cuerpo. Todo esto sufrió Ojeda voluntariamente sin que lo atasen ni lo tuviesen; argumento de su gran ánimo y señalado esfuerzo. Sanó desta manera, consumiendo la ponzoña fría de la hierba con el vivo fuego”.

    El Hospital contó transitoriamente, en 1514, con los servicios del sevillano Pedro Alvarez Chanca, quien había acompañado a Colón en su segundo viaje y a quien se considera como el primer médico que pisó territorio americano.

    Aunque el Rey don Fernando había establecido las rentas para el adecuado funcionamiento de los hospitales que se fueran fundando en los territorios conquistados, las situaciones socio – económicas de esas regiones eran en extremo precarias. El clima tropical, ardiente, húmedo y tremendamente insalubre, las enfermedades trasmitidas por insectos y desconocidas por los españoles, las mordeduras de serpientes y arácnidos, los ataques a los soldados por animales feroces como tigres y jaguares, y especialmente por caimanes que sorprendían a los conquistadores al vadear los caños vecinos de los ríos, y el hostigamiento de los naturales, conocidos por su belicosidad y antropofagia, y cuyas flechas envenenadas causaron múltiples bajas en las filas de los invasores, además del hambre derivada de la destrucción de las parcelas que cultivaban los indígenas en busqueda del oro esquivo que nunca aparecía, fueron los elementos que llevaron a Pedrarias Dávila en 1524, después de decapitar a su suegro Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a abandonar la ciudad y dirigirse a Panamá, en donde fundó la población de Nombre de Dios. Santa María la Antigua del Darien, de una vida más que efímera de apenas once años, y su Hospital de Santiago, quedaron a merced de la selva; los escasos habitantes que permanecieron en

  16. Phantom spiders 2: More notes on dubious spider species from Europe

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    Breitling, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A surprisingly large number of European spider species have never been reliably rediscovered since their first description many decades ago. Most of these are probably synonymous with other species or unidentifiable, due to insufficient descriptions or missing type material. In this second part of a series on this topic, we discuss about 100 of these cases, focusing mainly on species described in the early 20th century by Pelegrín Franganillo Balboa and Gabor von Kolosváry, as well as a number of jumping spiders and various miscellaneous species. In most cases, the species turned out to be unidentifiable nomina dubia, but for some of them new synonymies could be established as follows: Alopecosa accentuata auct., nec (Latreille, 1817 = Alopecosa farinosa (Herman, 1879 syn. nov., comb. nov.; Alopecosa barbipes oreophila Simon, 1937 = Alopecosa farinosa (Herman, 1879 syn. nov., comb. nov.; Alopecosa mariae orientalis (Kolosváry, 1934 = Alopecosa mariae (Dahl, 1908 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus afolius (Franganillo, 1909 and Araneus angulatus atricolor Simon, 1929 = Araneus angulatus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus castaneus (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus levifolius (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus niger (Franganillo, 1918 and Araneus angulatus nitidifolius (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus angulatus Clerck 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus angulatus pallidus (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus crucinceptus (Franganillo, 1909, Araneus angulatus fuscus (Franganillo, 1909 and Araneus angulatus iberoi (Franganillo, 1909 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus circe strandi (Kolosváry, 1935 = Araneus circe (Audouin, 1826 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus nemorosus Simon, 1929 and Araneus diadematus soror (Simon, 1874 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus pyrenaeus (Simon, 1874 = Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789 syn. nov.; Araneus sericinus (Roewer, 1942 = Aculepeira armida

  17. Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae nas regiões neotropical e neártica Taxonomy of the subfamily Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae in neotropical and neartic regions

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    Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo

    2000-11-01

    and Hypsinotus gracilipes Keyserling with Creugas gulosus Thorell; Chemmis frederici Simon, Delozeugma formidabile O. Pickard-Cambridge, D. mordicans O. Pickard-Cambridge, Megalostrata sperata Kraus and M. venifica KARSCH with Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch; Megalostrata lohmanderi Caporiacco with Erendira atrox (Caporiacco; Corinna tenubra Chickering with Parachemmis fuscus Chickering. One new name, Creugas berlandi, is erected for Corinna bellatrix Schmidt. Males of Creugas cinnamius, Corinna kochi, Methesis semirufa Simon, Paradiestus aurantiacus, Septentrinna steckleri and Xeropigo smedigari, the females of Paradiestus giganteus, Septentrinna bicalcarata and the adult female of S. steckleri are described for the first time.