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Sample records for caged vanilloid ligands

  1. Cage Opening of a Carborane Ligand by Metal Cluster Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard D; Kiprotich, Joseph; Peryshkov, Dmitry V; Wong, Yuen Onn

    2016-05-01

    The reaction of Os3 (CO)10 (NCMe)2 with closo-o-C2 B10 H10 has yielded two interconvertible isomers Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -4,5,9-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 a) and Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -3,4,8-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 b) formed by the loss of the two NCMe ligands and one CO ligand from the Os3 cluster. Two BH bonds of the o-C2 B10 H10 were activated in its addition to the osmium cluster. A second triosmium cluster was added to the 1 a/1 b mixture to yield the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)2 (μ3 -4,5,9-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H7 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)3 (2) that contains two triosmium triangles attached to the same carborane cage. When heated, 2 was transformed to the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)(μ3 -3,4,8-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H8 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H) (3) by a novel opening of the carborane cage with loss of H2 . PMID:26971388

  2. Narcissistic self-sorting in self-assembled cages of rare Earth metals and rigid ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amber M; Wiley, Calvin A; Young, Michael C; Zhang, Xing; Lyon, Yana; Julian, Ryan R; Hooley, Richard J

    2015-05-01

    Highly selective, narcissistic self-sorting can be achieved in the formation of self-assembled cages of rare earth metals with multianionic salicylhydrazone ligands. The assembly process is highly sensitive to the length of the ligand and the coordination geometry. Most surprisingly, high-fidelity sorting is possible between ligands of identical coordination angle and geometry, differing only in a single functional group on the ligand core, which is not involved in the coordination. Supramolecular effects allow discrimination between pendant functions as similar as carbonyl or methylene groups in a complex assembly process. PMID:25784462

  3. A Self-Assembled Electro-Active M8L4 Cage Based on Tetrathiafulvalene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Goeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two self-assembled redox-active cages are presented. They are obtained by coordination-driven self-assembly of a tetra-pyridile tetrathiafulvalene ligand with cis-M(dppf(OTf2 (M = Pd or Pt; dppf = 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphinoferrocene; OTf = trifluoromethane-sulfonate complexes. Both species are fully characterized and are constituted of 12 electro-active subunits that can be reversibly oxidized.

  4. Chemical modification of multiwalled carbon nanotube with a bifunctional caged ligand for radioactive labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The findings of this work describe a new method that can be utilised to radioactively label multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powders with the use of a bi-functional cage ligand. -- Abstract: Carboxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been successfully radiolabelled with cobalt-57 (57Co) (T1/2 = 270 days) via the attachment of the bifunctional caged ligand MeAMN3S3sar. In this study MeAMN3S3sar has been synthesized and coupled to MWCNTs to form the conjugate MWCNT–MeAMN3S3sar. Synthesis was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the conjugation. Non-radioactive labelling of this conjugate was completed with Cu(II) ions to confirm the stability of the MeAMN3S3sar after coupling with the MWCNTs. The complexation of the Cu(II) was also confirmed with XPS. Transmission electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that the coupling reaction had a negligible effect on the size and shape of the MWCNTs. Radiolabelling of the MWCNT–MeAMN3S3sar conjugate and pristine (untreated) MWCNTs (non-specific) with the gamma-emitting radioactive isotope 57Co were compared. The radiolabelling efficiency of the MWCNT–MeAMN3S3sar conjugate was significantly higher (95% vs. 0.1%) (P ⩽ 0.001) than for the unconjugated pristine MWCNTs. This will allow for the potential tracking of nanoparticle movement in vitro and in vivo

  5. The vanilloid receptor and hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donna H WANG

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels consist of six related protein sub-families that are involved in a variety of pathophysiological function, and disease development. The TRPV1 channel, a member of the TRPV sub-family, is identified by expression cloning using the "hot" pepper-derived vanilloid compound capsaicin as a ligand. Therefore, TRPV1 is also referred as the vanilloid receptor (VR1) or the capsaicin receptor. VR1 is mainly expressed in a subpopulation of primary afferent neurons that project to cardiovascular and renal tissues.These capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons are not only involved in the perception of somatic and visceral pain, but also have a "sensory-effector" function.Regarding the latter, these neurons release stored neuropeptides through a calcium-dependent mechanism via the binding of capsaicin to VR1. The most studied sensory neuropeptides are calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), which are potent vasodilators and natriuretic/diuretic factors. Recent evidence using the model of neonatal degeneration of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves revealed novel mechanisms that underlie increased salt sensitivity and several experimental models of hypertension. These mechanisms include insufficient suppression of plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels subsequent to salt loading, enhancement of sympathoexcitatory response in the face of a salt challenge, activation of the endothelin- 1 receptor, and impaired natriuretic response to salt loading in capsaicin-pretreated rats. These data indicate that sensory nerves counterbalance the prohypertensive effects of several neurohormonal systems to maintain normal blood pressure when challenged with salt loading. The therapeutic utilities of vanilloid compounds, endogenous agonists,and sensory neuropeptides are also discussed.

  6. New Family of Octagonal-Prismatic Lanthanide Coordination Cages Assembled from Unique Ln17 Clusters and Simple Cliplike Dicarboxylate Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Geng, Bing; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Guan, Qun; Lu, Jun-Ling; Bo, Qi-Bing

    2016-03-01

    Novel high-nuclearity lanthanide clusters (Ln17) are generated in situ in the coordination-driven self-assembly. A metal-cluster-directed symmetry strategy for building metal coordination cages is successfully applied to a lanthanide system for the first time. A new family of octagonal-prismatic lanthanide coordination cages UJN-Ln, formulated as [Ln(μ3-OH)8][Ln16(μ4-O)(μ4-OH)(μ3-OH)8(H2O)8(μ4-dcd)8][(μ3-dcd)8]·22H2O (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er; dcd = 3,3-dimethylcyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylate dianion), have been assembled from the unique Ln17 clusters and simple cliplike ligand H2dcd. Apart from featuring aesthetically charming structures, all of the compounds present predominantly antiferromagnetic coupling between the corresponding lanthanide ions. Additionally, the intense-green photoluminescence for UJN-Tb and magnetic relaxation behavior for UJN-Dy have been observed. Remarkably, UJN-Gd shows a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) with an impressive entropy change value of 42.3 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ΔH = 7.0 T at 2.0 K due to the high-nuclearity cluster and the lightweight ligand. The studies highlight the structural diversity of multigonal-prismatic metal coordination cages and provide a new direction in the design of cagelike multifunctional materials by the introduction of lanthanide clusters and other suitable cliplike ligands. PMID:26894272

  7. Polyhedral C2@Agn cages distorted by ancillary pyridine N-oxide ligands in silver-acetylenediide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Lin-Ping; Mak, Thomas C W

    2006-07-01

    Reactions of the pyridine N-oxide ligands L, L2 and L3 with the silver acetylenediide-containing system under hydrothermal conditions gave rise to four silver-acetylenediide complexes bearing interesting C2@Agn motifs: (Ag2C2)2(AgCF3CO2)8(L1)3.5 (1), (Ag2C2)2(AgCF3CO2)8(L2)2 (2), (Ag2C2)(AgCF3CO2)4(L3) (3) and [(Ag7(C2)(CF3SO3)3(L3)2(H2O)2] x 2CF3SO3 (4) (L = nicotinic acid N-oxide, L(1) = pyridine N-oxide, L2 = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane N,N'-dioxide, L3 = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane N,N'-dioxide), which exhibit new distorted polyhedral C2@Agn cage motifs. Complex 1 has a pair of acetylenediide dianions encapsulated in a Ag(14) aggregate composed of three polyhedral parts, whereas 2 contains an irregular (C2)2@Ag13 double cage. In 3, the basic building unit is a centrosymmetric (C2)2@Ag12 double cage with each component single cage taking the shape of a highly distorted triangulated dodecahedron with one missing vertex. As to complex 4, the core is a C2@Ag7 single cage in the form of a slightly distorted monocapped trigonal prism with four cleaved edges that include all three vertical sides. Furthermore, in the silver-rich environment, the pyO-type ligands are induced to exhibit unprecedented coordination modes, such as the mu(5)-O,O,O,O',O' ligation mode of L2 in 2 and the mu4-O,O,O',O' mode of L3 in 3 and 4.

  8. A Mixed-Ligand Approach for a Gigantic and Hollow Heterometallic Cage {Ni64 RE96 } for Gas Separation and Magnetic Cooling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Peng; Liao, Pei-Qin; Yu, Youzhu; Zheng, Zhiping; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Nanosized aggregations of metal ions shielded by organic ligands possessing both exquisite structural aesthetics and intriguing properties are fundamentally interesting. Three isostructural gigantic transition-metal-rare-earth heterometallic coordination cages are reported, abbreviated as {Ni64 RE96 } (RE=Gd, Dy, and Y) and obtained by a mixed-ligand approach, each possessing a cuboidal framework made of 160 metal ions and a nanosized spherical cavity in the center. Along with the structural novelty, these hollow cages show highly selective adsorptions for CO2 over CH4 or N2 at ambient temperatures. Moreover, the gadolinium analogue exhibits large magnetocaloric effect at ultralow temperatures.

  9. Human keratinocytes are vanilloid resistant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Pecze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of capsaicin or resiniferatoxin (RTX as analgesics is an attractive therapeutic option. RTX opens the cation channel inflammatory pain/vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1 permanently and selectively removes nociceptive neurons by Ca(2+-cytotoxicity. Paradoxically, not only nociceptors, but non-neuronal cells, including keratinocytes express full length TRPV1 mRNA, while patient dogs and experimental animals that underwent topical treatment or anatomically targeted molecular surgery have shown neither obvious behavioral, nor pathological side effects. METHODS: To address this paradox, we assessed the vanilloid sensitivity of the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line and primary keratinocytes from skin biopsies. RESULTS: Although both cell types express TRPV1 mRNA, neither responded to vanilloids with Ca(2+-cytotoxicity. Only ectopic overproduction of TRPV1 rendered HaCaT cells sensitive to low doses (1-50 nM of vanilloids. The TRPV1-mediated and non-receptor specific Ca(2+-cytotoxicity ([RTX]>15 microM could clearly be distinguished, thus keratinocytes were indeed resistant to vanilloid-induced, TRPV1-mediated Ca(2+-entry. Having a wider therapeutic window than capsaicin, RTX was effective in subnanomolar range, but even micromolar concentrations could not kill human keratinocytes. Keratinocytes showed orders of magnitudes lower TRPV1 mRNA level than sensory ganglions, the bona fide therapeutic targets in human pain management. In addition to TRPV1, TRPV1b, a dominant negative splice variant was also noted in keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: TRPV1B expression, together with low TRPV1 expression, may explain the vanilloid paradox: even genuinely TRPV1 mRNA positive cells can be spared with therapeutic (up to micromolar doses of RTX. This additional safety information might be useful for planning future human clinical trials.

  10. Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Hanson, Sonya M; Jara-Oseguera, Andres; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Bae, Chanhyung; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The TRPV1 channel is a detector of noxious stimuli, including heat, acidosis, vanilloid compounds and lipids. The gating mechanisms of the related TRPV2 channel are poorly understood because selective high affinity ligands are not available, and the threshold for heat activation is extremely high (>50°C). Cryo-EM structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2 reveal that they adopt similar structures, and identify a putative vanilloid binding pocket near the internal side of TRPV1. Here we use biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to investigate the resiniferatoxin(RTx) binding site in TRPV1 and to explore the functional relationships between TRPV1 and TRPV2. Collectively, our results support the interaction of vanilloids with the proposed RTx binding pocket, and demonstrate an allosteric influence of a tarantula toxin on vanilloid binding. Moreover, we show that sensitivity to RTx can be engineered into TRPV2, demonstrating that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are similar to TRPV1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16409.001 PMID:27177419

  11. Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Hanson, Sonya M; Jara-Oseguera, Andres; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Bae, Chanhyung; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The TRPV1 channel is a detector of noxious stimuli, including heat, acidosis, vanilloid compounds and lipids. The gating mechanisms of the related TRPV2 channel are poorly understood because selective high affinity ligands are not available, and the threshold for heat activation is extremely high (>50°C). Cryo-EM structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2 reveal that they adopt similar structures, and identify a putative vanilloid binding pocket near the internal side of TRPV1. Here we use biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to investigate the resiniferatoxin(RTx) binding site in TRPV1 and to explore the functional relationships between TRPV1 and TRPV2. Collectively, our results support the interaction of vanilloids with the proposed RTx binding pocket, and demonstrate an allosteric influence of a tarantula toxin on vanilloid binding. Moreover, we show that sensitivity to RTx can be engineered into TRPV2, demonstrating that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are similar to TRPV1. PMID:27177419

  12. Face-driven corner-linked octahedral nanocages: M6L8 cages formed by C3-symmetric triangular facial ligands linked via C4-symmetric square tetratopic Pd(II) ions at truncated octahedron corners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dohyun; Kang, Sangmi; Park, Jaejoon; Lee, Kyungjae; John, Rohith P; Won, Hosik; Seong, Gi Hun; Kim, Yang Sun; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Rhee, Hakjune; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2006-03-22

    The face-driven corner-linked truncated octahedral nanocages, [Pd6L8]12+ (1, L1 = N,N',N' '-tris(3-pyridinyl)-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide; 2, L2 = N,N',N' '-tris(4-pyridinylmethyl)-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide), were prepared with eight C3-symmetric tridentate ligands and six square planar tetratopic palladium(II) ions. The combination of the nitrogen donor atom at a approximately 120 degrees kink position of the carboxamido pyridinyl group and the tilted pyridyl versus the facial plane of the ligands can provide the needed curvature for the formation of octahedral cages. The nitrogen atoms can coordinate to the square planar palladium(II) ions to form kinks with approximately 120 degrees angles at the C4-symmetric square planar corners of the truncated octahedron. Depending on the conformation of the ligand, L1, two different truncated octahedral cages of around 2.4 nm in diameters were formed. The major form of 1 with syn-conformational ligands has a cavity volume of approximately 1600 A3. The cage has 12 ports (3.4 x 3.5 A2) at all edges of the octahedron. The minor form of cage 1 with anti-conformational ligands has a slightly increased cavity volume ( approximately 1900 A3) and port size (3.3 x 8.0 A2). The insertion of a methylene group in L2 has not only increased the cavity volume of 2 to approximately 2200 A3 but also enlarged the port size to 4.1 x 8.0 A2. However, an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of cage 2 showed that the cages had a height of 1.8 +/- 0.1 nm. This value is about 30% smaller than the calculated size of 2.6 nm from the crystal structure. This tip-induced decrease in height in cage 2 suggests the nonrigidity of cage 2. PMID:16536521

  13. Hetero-metallic trigonal cage-shaped dimeric Ni3K core complex of L-proline ligand: Synthesis, structural, electrochemical and DNA binding and cleavage activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Nagasubramanian; A Jayamani; V Thamilarasan; G Aravindan; V Ganesan; N Sengottuvelan

    2014-05-01

    Hetero-metallic trigonal cage-shaped dimeric Ni3K core complex of L-proline ligand has been synthesized and characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the hetero-metallic Ni(II)-K(I) complex has a dimeric structure with nine coordinated potassium atoms and six coordinated nickel atoms. The cyclic voltammograms of the complex exhibited two successive quasireversible reduction waves at ($E^{1}_{pc} = −1.02$ V and $E^{2}_{pc} = −1.33$ V) and two successive irreversible oxidation waves ($E^{1}_{pa} = 0.95$ V and $E^{2}_{pa} = 1.45$ V) versus Ag/AgCl in DMF solution. Interaction of the complex with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has been studied using spectroscopic techniques. The complex is an avid DNA binder with a binding constant of 3.6 × 108 M-1. The complex showed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled pBR322 DNA in the presence of the reducing agent hydrogen peroxide involving hydroxyl radical (°OH) species. As evidenced from the control experiment, DNA cleavage in the presence of °OH radical was inhibited by quenchers, viz. DMSO and KI. The complex showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against four bacteria and two fungi and the activity is greater than that of the free ligand.

  14. Rational design and validation of a vanilloid-sensitive TRPV2 ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Vu, Simon; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2016-06-28

    Vanilloids activation of TRPV1 represents an excellent model system of ligand-gated ion channels. Recent studies using cryo-electron microcopy (cryo-EM), computational analysis, and functional quantification revealed the location of capsaicin-binding site and critical residues mediating ligand-binding and channel activation. Based on these new findings, here we have successfully introduced high-affinity binding of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin to the vanilloid-insensitive TRPV2 channel, using a rationally designed minimal set of four point mutations (F467S-S498F-L505T-Q525E, termed TRPV2_Quad). We found that binding of resiniferatoxin activates TRPV2_Quad but the ligand-induced open state is relatively unstable, whereas binding of capsaicin to TRPV2_Quad antagonizes resiniferatoxin-induced activation likely through competition for the same binding sites. Using Rosetta-based molecular docking, we observed a common structural mechanism underlying vanilloids activation of TRPV1 and TRPV2_Quad, where the ligand serves as molecular "glue" that bridges the S4-S5 linker to the S1-S4 domain to open these channels. Our analysis revealed that capsaicin failed to activate TRPV2_Quad likely due to structural constraints preventing such bridge formation. These results not only validate our current working model for capsaicin activation of TRPV1 but also should help guide the design of drug candidate compounds for this important pain sensor. PMID:27298359

  15. Rational design and validation of a vanilloid-sensitive TRPV2 ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Vu, Simon; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2016-06-28

    Vanilloids activation of TRPV1 represents an excellent model system of ligand-gated ion channels. Recent studies using cryo-electron microcopy (cryo-EM), computational analysis, and functional quantification revealed the location of capsaicin-binding site and critical residues mediating ligand-binding and channel activation. Based on these new findings, here we have successfully introduced high-affinity binding of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin to the vanilloid-insensitive TRPV2 channel, using a rationally designed minimal set of four point mutations (F467S-S498F-L505T-Q525E, termed TRPV2_Quad). We found that binding of resiniferatoxin activates TRPV2_Quad but the ligand-induced open state is relatively unstable, whereas binding of capsaicin to TRPV2_Quad antagonizes resiniferatoxin-induced activation likely through competition for the same binding sites. Using Rosetta-based molecular docking, we observed a common structural mechanism underlying vanilloids activation of TRPV1 and TRPV2_Quad, where the ligand serves as molecular "glue" that bridges the S4-S5 linker to the S1-S4 domain to open these channels. Our analysis revealed that capsaicin failed to activate TRPV2_Quad likely due to structural constraints preventing such bridge formation. These results not only validate our current working model for capsaicin activation of TRPV1 but also should help guide the design of drug candidate compounds for this important pain sensor.

  16. Interpenetrated Cage Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Marina; Johnstone, Mark D; Clever, Guido H

    2016-09-26

    This Review covers design strategies, synthetic challenges, host-guest chemistry, and functional properties of interlocked supramolecular cages. Some dynamic covalent organic structures are discussed, as are selected examples of interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks, but the main focus is on discrete coordination architectures, that is, metal-mediated dimers. Factors leading to interpenetration, such as geometry, flexibility and chemical makeup of the ligands, coordination environment, solvent effects, and selection of suitable counter anions and guest molecules, are discussed. In particular, banana-shaped bis-pyridyl ligands together with square-planar metal cations have proven to be suitable building blocks for the construction of interpenetrated double-cages obeying the formula [M4 L8 ]. The peculiar topology of these double-cages results in a linear arrangement of three mechanically coupled pockets. This allows for the implementation of interesting guest encapsulation effects such as allosteric binding and template-controlled selectivity. In stimuli-responsive systems, anionic triggers can toggle the binding of neutral guests or even induce complete structural conversions. The increasing structural and functional complexity in this class of self-assembled hosts promises the construction of intelligent receptors, novel catalytic systems, and functional materials. PMID:27417259

  17. Molecular target size of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor in pig dorsal root ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szallasi, A.; Blumberg, P.M. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The size of the vanilloid receptor was examined by high-energy radiation inactivation analysis of the binding of ({sup 3}H)resiniferatoxin to pig dorsal root ganglion membranes; it was found to be 270 {plus minus} 25 kDa. This value most likely represents the size of a receptor complex rather than of an individual subunit. Other ligand-gated cation channel complexes have reported molecular weights in this range, e.g. 300 kDa for the acetylcholine receptor.

  18. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 Nocisensor: Structure, Modulators, and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Minghua; Gosu, Vijayakumar; Basith, Shaherin; Hong, Sunhye; Choi, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels belong to a superfamily of sensory-related ion channels responding to a wide variety of thermal, mechanical, or chemical stimuli. In an attempt to comprehend the piquancy and pain mechanism of the archetypal vanilloids, transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 was discovered. TRPV1, a well-established member of the TRP family, is implicated in a range of functions including inflammation, painful stimuli sensation, and mechanotransduction. TRPV1 channels are nonselective cation receptors that are gated by a broad array of noxious ligands. Such polymodal-sensor aspect makes the TRPV1 channel extremely versatile and important for its role in sensing burning pain. Besides ligands, TRPV1 signaling can also be modulated by lipids, secondary messengers, protein kinases, cytoskeleton, and several other proteins. Due to its central role in hyperalgesia transduction and inflammatory processes, it is considered as the primary pharmacological pain target. Moreover, understanding the structural and functional intricacies of the channel is indispensable for the therapeutic intervention of TRPV1 in pain and other pathological disorders. In this chapter, we seek to give a mechanistic outlook on the TRPV1 channel. Specifically, we will explore the TRPV1 structure, activation, modulation, ligands, and its therapeutic targeting. However, the major objective of this review is to highlight the fact that TRPV1 channel can be treated as an effective therapeutic target for treating several pain- and nonpain-related physiological and pathological states. PMID:27038373

  19. Structure-Driven Pharmacology of Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Caceres-Molina, Javier; Sepulveda, Romina V; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramon

    2016-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal receptor that mediates the flux of cations across the membrane in response to several stimuli, including heat, voltage, and ligands. The best known agonist of TRPV1 channels is capsaicin, the pungent component of "hot" chili peppers. In addition, peptides found in the venom of poisonous animals, along with the lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate, lysophosphatidic acid, and cholesterol, bind to TRPV1 with high affinity to modulate channel gating. Here, we discuss the functional evidence regarding ligand-dependent activation of TRPV1 channels in light of structural data recently obtained by cryoelectron microscopy. This review focuses on the mechanistic insights into ligand binding and allosteric gating of TRPV1 channels and the relevance of accurate polymodal receptor biophysical characterization for drug design in novel pain therapies. PMID:27335334

  20. Structure-Driven Pharmacology of Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Caceres-Molina, Javier; Sepulveda, Romina V; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramon

    2016-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal receptor that mediates the flux of cations across the membrane in response to several stimuli, including heat, voltage, and ligands. The best known agonist of TRPV1 channels is capsaicin, the pungent component of "hot" chili peppers. In addition, peptides found in the venom of poisonous animals, along with the lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate, lysophosphatidic acid, and cholesterol, bind to TRPV1 with high affinity to modulate channel gating. Here, we discuss the functional evidence regarding ligand-dependent activation of TRPV1 channels in light of structural data recently obtained by cryoelectron microscopy. This review focuses on the mechanistic insights into ligand binding and allosteric gating of TRPV1 channels and the relevance of accurate polymodal receptor biophysical characterization for drug design in novel pain therapies.

  1. Modulation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel TRPV4 by 4alpha-phorbol esters: a structure-activity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Pagani, Alberto; Minassi, Alberto;

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel by 4alpha-phorbol esters was investigated by combining information from chemical modification of 4alpha-phorbol-didecanoate (4alpha-PDD, 2a), site-directed mutagenesis, Ca(2+) imaging, and electrophysiolog...... of TRPV4 activation by small molecules and obtain information for the rational design of structurally simpler ligands for this ion channel....

  2. Pharmacological differences between the human and rat vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1)

    OpenAIRE

    Mcintyre, Peter; McLatchie, Linda M.; Chambers, Anne; Phillips, Elsa; Clarke, Melanie; Savidge, Jonathan; Toms, Christy; Peacock, Marcus; Shah, Kirti; Winter, Janet; Weerasakera, Natasha; Webb, Mike; Rang, Humphrey P; Bevan, Stuart; James, Iain F

    2001-01-01

    Vanilloid receptors (VR1) were cloned from human and rat dorsal root ganglion libraries and expressed in Xenopus oocytes or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells.Both rat and human VR1 formed ligand gated channels that were activated by capsaicin with similar EC50 values. Capsaicin had a lower potency on both channels, when measured electrophysiologically in oocytes compared to CHO cells (oocytes: rat=1.90±0.20 μM; human=1.90±0.30 μM: CHO cells: rat=0.20±0.06 μM; human=0.19±0.08 μM).In CHO cell l...

  3. Self-Assembled Pyridine-Dipyrrolate Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huacheng; Lee, Juhoon; Lammer, Aaron D; Chi, Xiaodong; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhan; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    An inherently nonlinear pyridine dipyrrolate ligand, namely 2,6-bis(3,4-diethyl-5-carboxy-1H-pyrrol-2yl)pyridine (compound 1), is able to distinguish between different zinc(II) cation sources, namely Zn(acac)2 and Zn(OAc)2, respectively. This differentiation is manifest both in terms of the observed fluorescent behavior in mixed organic media and the reaction chemistry. Treatment of 1 with Zn(acac)2 gives rise to a cage dimer, cage-1, wherein two molecules of compound 1 act as double bridging units to connect two individual cage subunits. As inferred from X-ray crystallographic studies, this cage system consists of discrete zinc dimers with hydroxide bridges that, with the assistance of bound DMF solvent molecules, serve to fix the geometry and orientation of the pyridine dipyrrolate building blocks. When a different zinc source, Zn(OAc)2, is used to carry out an ostensibly similar complexation reaction with compound 1, an acetate-bridged 1D abacus-like cage polymer is obtained as inferred from X-ray diffraction analysis. This extended solid state structure, cage-2, contains individual zinc dimer cage submits and appears stabilized by solvent molecules (DMF) and the counteranion (acetate). Rod-like assemblies are also observed by DLS and SEM. This construct, in contrast to cage-1, proved fluorescent in mixed organic media. The structure of the ligand itself (i.e., in the absence of Zn(II)) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and was found to assemble into a supramolecular polymer. Conversion to a dimer form was seen upon the addition of TBAOAc. On the basis of the metric parameters, the structures seen in the solid state are stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions involving solvent molecules.

  4. Phosphonate Based High Nuclearity Magnetic Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Clearfield, Abraham; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-06-21

    Transition metal based high nuclearity molecular magnetic cages are a very important class of compounds owing to their potential applications in fabricating new generation molecular magnets such as single molecular magnets, magnetic refrigerants, etc. Most of the reported polynuclear cages contain carboxylates or alkoxides as ligands. However, the binding ability of phosphonates with transition metal ions is stronger than the carboxylates or alkoxides. The presence of three oxygen donor sites enables phosphonates to bridge up to nine metal centers simultaneously. But very few phosphonate based transition metal cages were reported in the literature until recently, mainly because of synthetic difficulties, propensity to result in layered compounds, and also their poor crystalline properties. Accordingly, various synthetic strategies have been followed by several groups in order to overcome such synthetic difficulties. These strategies mainly include use of small preformed metal precursors, proper choice of coligands along with the phosphonate ligands, and use of sterically hindered bulky phosphonate ligands. Currently, the phosphonate system offers a library of high nuclearity transition metal and mixed metal (3d-4f) cages with aesthetically pleasing structures and interesting magnetic properties. This Account is in the form of a research landscape on our efforts to synthesize and characterize new types of phosphonate based high nuclearity paramagnetic transition metal cages. We quite often experienced synthetic difficulties with such versatile systems in assembling high nuclearity metal cages. Few methods have been emphasized for the self-assembly of phosphonate systems with suitable transition metal ions in achieving high nuclearity. We highlighted our journey from 2005 until today for phosphonate based high nuclearity transition metal cages with V(IV/V), Mn(II/III), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) metal ions and their magnetic properties. We observed that

  5. Endohedral dynamics of push-pull rotor-functionalized cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Marcel; Holstein, Julian; Würtele, Christian; Clever, Guido H

    2016-08-16

    A series of [Pd2L4] coordination cages featuring endohedral functionalities in central backbone positions was synthesized. Although attached via C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds, the substituents behave as molecular rotors. This is explained by their pronounced donor-acceptor character which lowers rotational barriers and allows for electronic control over the spinning rates inside the cage. The dynamic behaviour of the free ligands, assembled cages and host-guest complexes is compared with the aid of NMR experiments, X-ray structure analysis and molecular modelling. PMID:27484435

  6. A fermionic spacetime cage

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, De-Hone

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of a spacetime structure to a three-dimensional quantum system. There are three components. First, the main part of this paper presents the constraint conditions which build the relation of a spacetime structure and a form invariance solution to the covariant Dirac equation. The second is to devise a spacetime cage for fermions with chosen constraints. The third part discusses the feasibility of the cage with an experiment.

  7. A Post-Functionalizable Iso-Polyoxotitanate Cage Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Hu, Junyi; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Guanyun; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-07-18

    During solvothermal alcoholysis of a mixture of TiI4 and Ti(O(i)Pr)4, a {I@Ti22} cage cluster encapsulating an OH and iodide guests is crystallized. The {I@Ti22} host-guest cluster surface is postfunctionalizable with catecholate and carboxylate ligands. The synthetic details, structural characterization, spectroscopic properties of the obtained cages clusters are provided. The present study provides candidates for modeling ligand exchange and electron-hole transfer at the titanate nanoparticle surface, and meanwhile offers new opportunities for understanding the TiO2 nanocrystalline formation in solvothermal processes. PMID:27351728

  8. Doped golden fullerene cages

    OpenAIRE

    Baletto, Francesca; Ferrando, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles investigation of the effect of the doping of golden cages of 32 atoms is proposed. It is shown that Ag and Cu doping affects the geometrical stability of the icosahedral fullerene Au-32 cage, where Ag-doping leads to a new, low symmetric, and prolate motif while Cu-doping leads to a lump, incomplete decahedral shape. Most significantly, the HOMO-LUMO gap depends strongly on the cluster geometry while its dependence on the cluster chemical composition seems to be weaker.

  9. Expression-dependent pharmacology of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Schwarz, Stephan K W;

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 channels are polymodal sensors of noxious stimuli and integral players in thermosensation, inflammation and pain signaling. It has been shown previously that under prolonged stimulation, these channels show dynamic pore dilation, providing...

  10. Increased expression of bronchial epithelial transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels in severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    McGarvey, Lorcan P.; Butler, Claire A; Stokesberry, Susan; Polley, Liam; McQuaid, Stephen; Abdullah, Hani'ah; Ashraf, Sadaf; McGahon, Mary K; Curtis, Tim M; Arron, Joe; Choy, David; Warke, Tim J.; Bradding, Peter; Ennis, Madeleine; Zholos, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airway epithelium is exposed to a range of physical and chemical irritants in the environment that are known to trigger asthma. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels play a central role in sensory responses to noxious physical and chemical stimuli. Recent genetic evidence suggests an involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), one member of the vanilloid subfamily of TRP channels, in the pathophysiology of asthma. The functional expression of ...

  11. John Cage Discusses Fluxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ellsworth

    1992-01-01

    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  12. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration. PMID:27457427

  13. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), TRPV4, and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassmann, M.; Harteneck, C.; Zhu, Z.;

    2013-01-01

    Recent preclinical data indicate that activators of transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) may improve the outcome of ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI). The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but may involve TRPV1 channels in dorsal root ganglion...... channel agonists such as 20-HETE, phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3 kinase). We review important roles of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in kidney physiology and renal ischaemia reperfusion injury; further studies are warranted to address renoprotective mechanism of vanilloid receptors in ischaemic...... pharmacological TRPV modulators may be a successful strategy for better treatment of acute or chronic kidney failure....

  14. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  15. Resiniferatoxin and its analogs provide novel insights into the pharmacology of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szallasi, A.; Blumberg, P.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent constituent of chili peppers, represents the paradigm for the capsaicinoids or vanilloids, a family of compounds shown to stimulate and then desensitize specific subpopulations of sensory receptors, including C-polymodal nociceptors, A-delta mechanoheat nociceptors and warm receptors of the skin, as well as enteroceptors of thin afferent fibers. An exciting recent advance in the field has been the finding that resiniferatoxin (RTX), a naturally occurring diterpene containing a homovanillic acid ester, a key structural motif of capsaicin, functions as an ultrapotent capsaicin analog. For most of the responses characteristic of capsaicin, RTX is 100-10,000 fold more potent. Structure/activity analysis indicates, however, that RTX and related homovanillyl-diterpene esters display distinct spectra of activity. Specific ({sup 3}H)RTX binding provides the first direct proof for the existence of vanilloid receptors. We expect that the RTX class of vanilloids will promote rapid progress in understanding of vanilloid structure/activity requirements and mechanism.

  16. Unique properties of C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanions. Synthesis, structure and bonding of ruthenium monocarbollide via unprecedented cage carbon extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Da; Zhang, Jiji; Lin, Zhenyang; Xie, Zuowei

    2016-08-21

    Four reaction pathways have been found in the reaction of a C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanionic salt with [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2, leading to the isolation and structural characterization of redox, triple cage B-H oxidative addition, cage expansion and cage carbon extrusion products. Among these, the unprecedented cage carbon extrusion results in the formation of a new 6π-electron carboranyl ligand [C2B10H10](2-). The bonding interactions between this ligand and the Ru(ii) center have also been discussed on the basis of DFT calculations. PMID:27405999

  17. Unique properties of C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanions. Synthesis, structure and bonding of ruthenium monocarbollide via unprecedented cage carbon extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Da; Zhang, Jiji; Lin, Zhenyang; Xie, Zuowei

    2016-08-21

    Four reaction pathways have been found in the reaction of a C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanionic salt with [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2, leading to the isolation and structural characterization of redox, triple cage B-H oxidative addition, cage expansion and cage carbon extrusion products. Among these, the unprecedented cage carbon extrusion results in the formation of a new 6π-electron carboranyl ligand [C2B10H10](2-). The bonding interactions between this ligand and the Ru(ii) center have also been discussed on the basis of DFT calculations.

  18. Controlled Formation of Heteroleptic [Pd2(La)2(Lb)2](4+) Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Dan; Barnsley, Jonathan E; Gordon, Keith C; Crowley, James D

    2016-08-24

    Metallosupramolecular architectures are beginning to be exploited for a range of applications including drug delivery, catalysis, molecular recognition, and sensing. For the most part these achievements have been made with high-symmetry metallosupramolecular architectures composed of just one type of ligand and metal ion. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to generate metallosupramolecular architectures that are made up of multiple different ligands and/or metals ions in order to obtain more complex systems with new properties. Herein we show that the addition of an electron-rich 2-amino-substituted tripyridyl ligand, 2,6-bis(pyridin-3-ylethynyl)pyridine (2A-tripy), to a solution of the [Pd2(tripy)4](4+) cage resulted in the clean generation of a heteroleptic [Pd2(tripy)2(2A-tripy)2](4+) architecture. The formation of the mixed-ligand cage [Pd2(tripy)2(2A-tripy)2](4+) was confirmed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, and rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Density functional theory calculations suggested the cis isomer was more stable that the trans isomer. Additionally, the calculations indicated that the heteroleptic palladium(II) cages are kinetically metastable intermediates rather than the thermodynamic product of the reaction. Competition experiments supported that finding and showed the cages are long-lived in solution at room temperature. Finally, it was shown that the addition of 2A-tripy to a range of preformed [Pd2(Ltripy)4](4+) cages cleanly generated the mixed-ligand systems. Three other systems displaying different exo and endo functionalities within the cage assembly were generated, suggesting that this method could be applied to synthesize a range of highly functionalized heteroleptic cis-[Pd2(La)2(Lb)2](4+) cages. PMID:27463413

  19. Protein Cages as Containers for Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aijie; Verwegen, Martijn; de Ruiter, Mark V; Maassen, Stan J; Traulsen, Christoph H-H; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2016-07-01

    Abundant and highly diverse, viruses offer new scaffolds in nanotechnology for the encapsulation, organization, or even synthesis of novel materials. In this work the coat protein of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles with different sizes and stabilizing ligands yielding stable particles in buffered solutions at neutral pH. The sizes of the virus-like particles correspond to T = 1, 2, and 3 Caspar-Klug icosahedral triangulation numbers. We developed a simple one-step process enabling the encapsulation of commercially available gold nanoparticles without prior modification with up to 97% efficiency. The encapsulation efficiency is further increased using bis-p-(sufonatophenyl)phenyl phosphine surfactants up to 99%. Our work provides a simplified procedure for the preparation of metallic particles stabilized in CCMV protein cages. The presented results are expected to enable the preparation of a variety of similar virus-based colloids for current focus areas. PMID:27135176

  20. Extracellular quaternary ammonium blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Schwarz, Stephan K W;

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) channels are essential nociceptive integrators in primary afferent neurons. These nonselective cation channels are inhibited by local anesthetic compounds through an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that lidocaine inhibits TRPV1 channels ...

  1. The quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, exerts biphasic effects on transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) channels are important integrators of noxious stimuli with pronounced expression in nociceptive neurons. The experimental local anesthetic, QX-314, a quaternary (i.e., permanently charged) lidocaine derivative, recently...

  2. Berberine via suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channel improves vascular stiffness in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jie WANG; Guo, Tao; Peng, Qi-Sheng; Yue, Shou-Wei; Wang, Shuang-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, as an alkaloid found in many Chinese herbs, improves vascular functions in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We determined the effects of berberine in hypertension and vascular ageing, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In isolated aortas, berberine dose-dependently elicited aortic relaxation. In cultured cells, berberine induced the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel by genetic ...

  3. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4: The Sixth Sense of the Musculoskeletal System?

    OpenAIRE

    Guilak, Farshid; Leddy, Holly A; Liedtke, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The critical discovery in the past two decades of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) superfamily of ion channels has revealed the potential mechanisms by which cells sense diverse stimuli beyond the prototypical “five senses”, identifying ion channels that are gated by heat, cold, mechanical loading, osmolarity, and other physical and chemical stimuli. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel that appears to play a mechano- or osmos...

  4. An evaluation of intra-cage ventilation in three animal caging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L S; White, W J; Snider, M T; Lang, C M

    1989-05-01

    Although temperature and relative humidity have been quantitated and their effects on research data studied, few studies have measured the air turnover rates at cage level. We evaluated the air distribution and air turnover rates in unoccupied shoe-box mouse cages, filter-top covered cages and shoe-box mouse cages housed in a flexible film isolator by using discontinuous gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and smoke. Results showed that air turnover was most rapid in the unoccupied shoe-box mouse cage and slowest in the filter-top covered cage. Placing mice in the filter-top covered cage did not significantly improve the air turnover rate. Although filter-top covered cages reduce cage-to-cage transmission of disease, the poor airflow observed within these cages could lead to a buildup of gaseous pollutants that may adversely affect the animal's health. PMID:2724925

  5. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  6. DNA Cages with Icosahedral Symmetry in Bionanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonoska, Nataša; Taormina, Anne; Twarock, Reidun

    Blueprints for polyhedral cages with icosahedral symmetry made of circular DNA molecules are provided. The basic rule is that every edge of the cage is met twice in opposite directions by the DNA strand(s), and vertex junctions are realized by a set of admissible junction types. As nanocontainers for cargo storage and delivery, the icosidodecahedral cages are of special interest because they have the largest volume per surface ratio of all cages discussed here.

  7. Controlled Assembly of Endohedrally-Functionalized Metal-Ligand Supramolecular Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Amber

    2014-01-01

    An area of supramolecular chemistry that has recently been growing in popularity is the synthesis of metal-ligand cages. These are most commonly comprised of organic ligands and transition metal ions. Cage complexes often take the form of geometric polyhedra such as tetrahedra and octahedra, where the ligands act as the edges or faces and the metals serve as the vertices. Because these complexes have a polyhedral design, there is a central cavity in the cage, and this has been exploited for g...

  8. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of POSS ligand dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalarvo, Niina H [ORNL; Tyagi, Madhusudan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Crawford, Michael [DuPont Experimental Station

    2015-01-01

    Polyoligosilsesquioxanes are molecules having cage-like structures composed of silicon and oxygen. These molecules can have a wide variety of functional ligands attached to them. Depending on the nature of the ligand, interesting properties and applications are found. In this work we present results from quasielastic neutron scattering measurements of four different POSS molecules that illustrate the presence of strong coupling between the ligand dynamics and the POSS crystal structures.

  9. M8L12 cubic cages with all facial Δ or facial Λ configuration: effects of surface anions on the occupancy of the cage and anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Chang, Xiao-Yong; Sham, Kiu-Chor; Yiu, Shek-Man; Kwong, Hoi-Lun; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-05-21

    M8L12 cubic cages (M = Mn(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II)), with all eight metal ions having all facial Δ or facial Λ configurations and having an encapsulated anion, were prepared by the self-assembly of m-xylene-bridged imidazolyl-imine ligands and MX2 (X = PF6(-), SbF6(-), TfO(-)) salts; the encapsulated anion exchange with different anions (SbF6(-), Tf2N(-), NO3(-), TsO(-)) was studied and the results with NO3(-) and TsO(-) indicate that anions on the cage surfaces affect the encapsulated anion exchange and the occupancy of the cage. PMID:27064122

  10. The caged state of some small molecules in the C60 cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The potential energy curves of some small molecules, H2, N2, O2, F2, HF, CO and NO, in the caged state within C60 cage and in the free state have been calculated by the quantum-chemical method AM1. In this study, the focus is on the cage effect of C60, and the concept of caged state is put forward. The results show that the bond lengths in the caged states are not much different from those in their corresponding free states, but the bond intensities in the caged states are much greater than those in their corresponding free states.

  11. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  12. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  13. Listening to Cage: Nonintentional philosophy and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fleming

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening to Cage: Nonintentional Philosophy and Music threads together the writings of ordinary language philosophy and the music of John Cage, responding specifically to requests made by Cage and Stanley Cavell. While many texts downplay or ignore the philosophical demands in Cage’s music and other texts find grandiose spiritual and philosophical material tied to his work, this text rejects both efforts. It challenges the basic directions of the growing secondary source material on Cage, finding it largely contrary to what Cage himself and his music teaches. That secondary material constantly offers an intentional approach to the music which is to make Cage understandable or easier to understand. The present text makes him appropriately difficult and basically unapproachable, asking the reader for serious acknowledgment of what Cage says he does, namely, “I have nothing to say and I am saying it.” While there is little hope of stopping the Cage industry that academia and publishers have grown, this text wishes at least to try to slow it down. The footnotes of this text include direct conversation material with Cage from the 1980s and 1990s regarding many subjects—his own compositions, our life struggles, remarks on Wittgenstein, Thoreau, philosophy, and music—all with a new context for their hearing.

  14. Humidity and Cage and Bedding Temperatures in Unoccupied Static Mouse Caging after Steam Sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Gina M; Cole, Kelly; Faerber, Jennifer; Hankenson, F Claire

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary rodent caging and equipment often are sterilized by steam autoclaves prior to use in facilities. This work assessed the microenvironment of unoccupied static mouse cages after steam sterilization to determine when internal temperatures had cooled to levels appropriate for rodent housing. Polycarbonate static cages containing food and corncob bedding were stacked (10 rows × 7 columns) in duplicate (front and back; n = 140 cages) on a storage truck and autoclaved to 249 °F (121 °C)...

  15. Three-Dimensional Porous Metal-Metalloporphyrin Framework Consisting of Nanoscopic Polyhedral Cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Meng, Le; Cheng, Qigan; Kim, Chungsik; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhang, X Peter; Ma, Shengqian [USF; (UC)

    2012-02-07

    An unprecedented nanoscopic polyhedral cage-containing metal-metalloporphyrin framework, MMPF-1, has been constructed from a custom-designed porphyrin ligand, 5,15-bis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)porphine, that links Cu2(carboxylate)4 moieties. A high density of 16 open copper sites confined within a nanoscopic polyhedral cage has been achieved, and the packing of the porphyrin cages via an 'ABAB' pattern affords MMPF-1 ultramicropores which render it selective toward adsorption of H2 and O2 over N2, and CO2 over CH4.

  16. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun;

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect......-activated receptor-gamma, and expression of fatty acid synthase. Long-term feeding experiments were undertaken in wild-type mice and TRPV1 knockout mice. We detected TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans. In vitro, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin dose-dependently induced...... in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels...

  17. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand L

  18. Role of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in inflammation and sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesa I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Isabel Devesa1, Rosa Planells-Cases2, Gregorio Fernández-Ballester1, José Manuel González-Ros1, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel1, Asia Fernández-Carvajal11Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante; 2Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, Valencia, SpainAbstract: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 is a thermoreceptor that responds to noxious temperatures, as well as to chemical agonists, such as vanilloids and protons. In addition, its channel activity is notably potentiated by proinflammatory mediators released upon tissue damage. The TRPV1 contribution to sensory neuron sensitization by proalgesic agents has signaled this receptor as a prime target for analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug intervention. However, TRPV1 antagonists have notably failed in clinical and preclinical studies because of their unwanted side effects. Recent reports have unveiled previously unrecognized anti-inflammatory and protective functions of TRPV1 in several diseases. For instance, this channel has been suggested to play an anti-inflammatory role in sepsis. Therefore, the use of potent TRPV1 antagonists as a general strategy to treat inflammation must be cautiously considered, given the deleterious effects that may arise from inhibiting the population of channels that have a protective function. The use of TRPV1 antagonists may be limited to treating those pathologies where enhanced receptor activity contributes to the inflamed state. Alternatively, therapeutic paradigms, such as reduction of inflammatory-mediated increase of receptor expression in the cell surface, may be a better strategy to prevent abrogation of the TRPV1 subpopulation involved in anti-inflammatory and protective processes.Keywords: transient receptor potential, nociceptor, capsaicin, pain, ion channel, analgesia

  19. A luminescent metal-organic framework with an open cubic cage and eight-coordinate cadmium nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembly of cadmium ions and the rigid bridging ligand 4,4′-methylenebis(3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid) (pamoic acid, H4PA) leads to a one-dimensional metal-organic framework with open cube-like M2(H2PA)2 cages within its backbone, and exhibiting interesting yellow fluorescence.

  20. Synthesis, Chemistry, and Applications of Heterocyclic Cage Compounds (V)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hsien-Jen; LIN HuiChang; WANG ZhongYi; WU ChungYi

    2001-01-01

    @@ The synthesis and chemistry of polycyclic of cage compounds have attracted considerable attention in recent years. The vast majority of the work reported in this area has dealt with carbocylic cage compounds. On the other hand, the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds have received less attention. Recently, we envisioned that studies on the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds can greatly expand the scopes and utilities of cage compounds.1 As part of a program that involves the synthesis, chemistry, and application of heterocyclic cage compounds, we report here the synthesis of new thia-oxa-cage compounds and the chemical nature of these thia-cages.

  1. Active cage model of glassy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Étienne; Hayakawa, Hisao; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    We build up a phenomenological picture in terms of the effective dynamics of a tracer confined in a cage experiencing random hops to capture some characteristics of glassy systems. This minimal description exhibits scale invariance properties for the small-displacement distribution that echo experimental observations. We predict the existence of exponential tails as a crossover between two Gaussian regimes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the onset of glassy behavior is controlled only by two dimensionless numbers: the number of hops occurring during the relaxation of the particle within a local cage and the ratio of the hopping length to the cage size. PMID:27575182

  2. Active cage model of glassy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Étienne; Hayakawa, Hisao; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    We build up a phenomenological picture in terms of the effective dynamics of a tracer confined in a cage experiencing random hops to capture some characteristics of glassy systems. This minimal description exhibits scale invariance properties for the small-displacement distribution that echo experimental observations. We predict the existence of exponential tails as a crossover between two Gaussian regimes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the onset of glassy behavior is controlled only by two dimensionless numbers: the number of hops occurring during the relaxation of the particle within a local cage and the ratio of the hopping length to the cage size.

  3. Protection of rutaecarpine against myocardial ischemia—reperfusion injury in rats:possible involvement of vanilloid receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuCP; LiNS

    2002-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that calcitonin gen-related peptide(CGRP) protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and that rutaecarpine activates vanilloid receptors to evoke CGRP release.In the present study,SD rats were pretreated with rutaecarpine 10min before the experiment,and then the left main coronary artery was subjected to 60min occlusion followed by 3h reperfusion.Pretreatment with rutaecarpine(100 or 300μg·kg-1,iv) significantly reduced infarce size and creatine kinase release concomitantly with a significant increase in plasma concentrations of CGPR.These effects of rutaecarpine were completely abolished by pretreatment with capsazepine(38mg·kg-1,ic),a competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist or capsaicin (50mg·kg-1,sc),which selectively depletes transmitters in capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves.These results suggest that the kprotection of rutaecarpine against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is due to stimulation of endogenous CGRP release via activating vanilloid receptors in rats.

  4. Working papers cage Mod 2A definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, L.D.

    1969-01-30

    This report presents working papers for the Cage Mod 2A program. Cost data are presented for manpower, irradiation, nuclear fuels and targets, security, transportation, reactor start-up and reactor shutdown.

  5. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  6. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-05-28

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  7. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-11-11

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  8. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A.

    2015-09-15

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  9. Synthesis of caged Garcinia xanthone analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Woo Cheal

    2009-01-01

    A new synthetic strategy is developed toward the synthesis of the caged Garcinia xanthone analogues. The key to the strategy is a Pd-catalyzed reverse prenylation reaction. This new synthetic approach provides a rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues, including cluvenone which is known to induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. Evaluation of their growth inhibitory activities also leads to identification of the pharmacophoric motif of...

  10. Welfare assessment of laying hens in furnished cages and non-cage systems: an on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.; Reu, de K.; Herman, L.; Zoons, J.; Sonck, B.

    2008-01-01

    From 2012 onwards, all laying hens in Europe will need to be housed either in furnished cages or non-cage systems (aviaries or floor-housing systems). In terms of animal welfare, furnished cages and non-cage systems both have advantages and disadvantages. Data on direct comparisons between the two,

  11. Specific Internalisation of Gold Nanoparticles into Engineered Porous Protein Cages via Affinity Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Free, Paul; Fernig, David G.; Lim, Sierin; Tomczak, Nikodem

    2016-01-01

    Porous protein cages are supramolecular protein self-assemblies presenting pores that allow the access of surrounding molecules and ions into their core in order to store and transport them in biological environments. Protein cages’ pores are attractive channels for the internalisation of inorganic nanoparticles and an alternative for the preparation of hybrid bioinspired nanoparticles. However, strategies based on nanoparticle transport through the pores are largely unexplored, due to the difficulty of tailoring nanoparticles that have diameters commensurate with the pores size and simultaneously displaying specific affinity to the cages’ core and low non-specific binding to the cages’ outer surface. We evaluated the specific internalisation of single small gold nanoparticles, 3.9 nm in diameter, into porous protein cages via affinity binding. The E2 protein cage derived from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus presents 12 pores, 6 nm in diameter, and an empty core of 13 nm in diameter. We engineered the E2 protein by site-directed mutagenesis with oligohistidine sequences exposing them into the cage’s core. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy analysis show that the structures of E2 protein cages mutated with bis- or penta-histidine sequences are well conserved. The surface of the gold nanoparticles was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer made of a mixture of short peptidols and thiolated alkane ethylene glycol ligands. Such monolayers are found to provide thin coatings preventing non-specific binding to proteins. Further functionalisation of the peptide coated gold nanoparticles with Ni2+ nitrilotriacetic moieties enabled the specific binding to oligohistidine tagged cages. The internalisation via affinity binding was evaluated by electron microscopy analysis. From the various mutations tested, only the penta-histidine mutated E2 protein cage showed repeatable and stable internalisation. The present work overcomes the limitations of

  12. Therapeutic potential of vanilloid receptor TRPV1 agonists and antagonists as analgesics: Recent advances and setbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gilbert Y; Gavva, Narender R

    2009-04-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is a homotetrameric, non-selective cation channel abundantly expressed in the nociceptors (c-fibers). TRPV1 is considered as a highly validated pain target because, i) its agonists such as capsaicin cause desensitization of TRPV1 channels that relieves pain behaviors in preclinical species, and ii) its antagonists relieve pain behaviors in rodent models of inflammation, osteoarthritis, and cancer. Hence, both agonists and antagonists of TRPV1 are being evaluated as potential analgesics in clinical trials. Clinical trial results of TRPV1 agonists such as resiniferatoxin in interstitial cystitis, NGX 4010 in post-herpetic neuralgia, and 4975 (Adlea) in osteoarthritis, bunionectomy, and Morton's neuroma have been reported. Similarly, clinical trial results of TRPV1 antagonists such as SB-705498 and AMG 517 have also been published recently. Overall, some molecules (e.g., capsaicin) demonstrated potential analgesia in certain conditions (postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, pain in diabetic neuropathy, osteoarthritis, bunionectomy, and Morton's neuroma), whereas others fell out of the clinic due to on-target liabilities or failed to demonstrate efficacy. This review summarizes recent advances and setbacks of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists in the clinic and predicts future directions. PMID:19150372

  13. Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV Channels in Different Passages of Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barrett-Jolley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels play important roles in chondrocyte mechanotransduction. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV subfamily of ion channels consists of six members. TRPV1-4 are temperature sensitive calcium-permeable, relatively non-selective cation channels whereas TRPV5 and TRPV6 show high selectivity for calcium over other cations. In this study we investigated the effect of time in culture and passage number on the expression of TRPV4, TRPV5 and TRPV6 in articular chondrocytes isolated from equine metacarpophalangeal joints. Polyclonal antibodies raised against TRPV4, TRPV5 and TRPV6 were used to compare the expression of these channels in lysates from first expansion chondrocytes (P0 and cells from passages 1–3 (P1, P2 and P3 by western blotting. TRPV4, TRPV5 and TRPV6 were expressed in all passages examined. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of these channels in sections of formalin fixed articular cartilage and monolayer cultures of methanol fixed P2 chondrocytes. TRPV5 and TRPV6 were upregulated with time and passage in culture suggesting that a shift in the phenotype of the cells in monolayer culture alters the expression of these channels. In conclusion, several TRPV channels are likely to be involved in calcium signaling and homeostasis in chondrocytes.

  14. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 mediates pain in mice with severe sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillery, Cheryl A; Kerstein, Patrick C; Vilceanu, Daniel; Barabas, Marie E; Retherford, Dawn; Brandow, Amanda M; Wandersee, Nancy J; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2011-09-22

    Pain is the leading cause of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and daily suffering in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). The pathologic mechanisms leading to the perception of pain during acute RBC sickling episodes and development of chronic pain remain poorly understood and ineffectively treated. We provide the first study that explores nociceptor sensitization mechanisms that contribute to pain behavior in mice with severe SCD. Sickle mice exhibit robust behavioral hypersensitivity to mechanical, cold, and heat stimuli. Mechanical hypersensitivity is further exacerbated when hypoxia is used to induce acute sickling. Behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity is mediated in part by enhanced excitability to mechanical stimuli at both primary afferent peripheral terminal and sensory membrane levels. In the present study, inhibition of the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) with the selective antagonist A-425619 reversed the mechanical sensitization at both primary afferent terminals and isolated somata, and markedly attenuated mechanical behavioral hypersensitivity. In contrast, inhibition of TRPA1 with HC-030031 had no effect on mechanical sensitivity. These results suggest that the TRPV1 receptor contributes to primary afferent mechanical sensitization and a substantial portion of behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity in SCD mice. Therefore, TRPV1-targeted compounds that lack thermoregulatory side effects may provide relief from pain in patients with SCD. PMID:21708890

  15. Triazine-based vanilloid 1 receptor open channel blockers: design, synthesis, evaluation, and SAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Mosquera, Miquel; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; Moure, Alejandra; Valente, Pierluigi; Planells-Cases, Rosa; González-Ros, José M; Bujons, Jordi; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Messeguer, Angel

    2011-11-10

    The thermosensory transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor activated by physical and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 activity is drastically potentiated by proinflammatory agents released upon tissue damage. Given the pivotal role of TRPV1 in human pain, there is pressing need for improved TRPV1 antagonists, the development of which will require identification of new pharmacophore scaffolds. Uncompetitive antagonists acting as open-channel blockers might serve as activity-dependent blockers that preferentially modulate the activity of overactive channels, thus displaying fewer side effects than their competitive counterparts. Herein we report the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and SAR analysis of a family of triazine-based compounds acting as TRPV1 uncompetitive antagonists. We identified the triazine 8aA as a potent, pure antagonist that inhibits TRPV1 channel activity with nanomolar efficacy and strong voltage dependency. It represents a new class of activity-dependent TRPV1 antagonists and may serve as the basis for lead optimization in the development of new analgesics. PMID:21950613

  16. Comparison of the effects of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin on human vanilloid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas; Roufogalis, Basil; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-07-01

    Pelargonic acid vanillylamide is like capsaicin a natural capsaicinoid from chili peppers and commonly used in food additives to create a hot sensation, even in self-defense pepper sprays and as an alternative to capsaicin in medical products for topical treatment of pain. Although the chemical structures of both compounds are similar, preclinical data suggest that capsaicin is the more potent compound. We therefore performed voltage-clamp recordings using cells transfected with the human vanilloid receptor TRPV1 in order to assess the responses of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin at the receptor level. We provide evidence that at the molecular target TRPV1, the concentration-response curves, kinetics of current activation, as well as inhibition by the competitive antagonist capsazepine were not significantly different between the two capsaicinoids. We suggest that the different effects of the two capsaicinoids observed in previous studies may rather be due to different physicochemical or pharmacokinetic properties than to different pharmacological profiles at the receptor level. PMID:22961689

  17. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghui eJie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein in hippocampus of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1 and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  18. Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in Myoblast Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Ogura, Yuji; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the complex process of muscle regeneration after injury remain unknown. Transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is expressed in several cell types, including skeletal muscle, and is activated by high temperature and by certain molecules secreted during tissue inflammation. Severe inflammation and local temperature perturbations are induced during muscle regeneration, which suggests that TRPV1 might be activated and involved in the process. The aim of this study, was to clarify the role of TRPV1 in the myogenic potential of satellite cells responsible for muscle regeneration. We found that mRNA and protein levels of TRPV1 increased during regeneration after cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury in mice. Using isolated mouse satellite cells (i.e., myoblasts), we observed that activation of TRPV1 by its agonist capsaicin (CAP) augmented myogenin protein levels. Whereas CAP did not alter myoblast proliferation, it facilitated myoblast fusion (evaluated using myonucleii number per myotube and fusion index). In contrast, suppression of TRPV1 by siRNA impaired myoblast fusion. Using mice, we also demonstrated that intramuscular injection of CAP facilitated muscle repair after CTX-induced muscle injury. Moreover, we showed that these roles of TRPV1 might be mediated by interleukin-4 and calcium signaling during myoblast fusion. Collectively, these results suggest that TRPV1 underlies normal myogenesis through promotion of myoblast fusion. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2275-2285, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26892397

  19. Construction and Ion Exchange Properties of Supramolecular Complexes with Organic Ligands and Metal Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; WeiYin

    2001-01-01

    Supramolecular architectures with specific topologies such as closed threedimensional molecular cages present a large range of applications in material science, medicine and chemical technology.1,2 In the past decades, a number of such frameworks, e.g. M6L4, M12L8 and M18L6, have been synthesized by assembly of organic ligands with transitional metal salts.3-5 However, the M3L2 type cage-like complexes are not well known up to now.6,7 We report herein the generation of M3L2 type cages by tripodal ligands and various metal salts, and the anion exchange, molecular recognition properties of these metallosupramolecular cages.  ……

  20. Construction and Ion Exchange Properties of Supramolecular Complexes with Organic Ligands and Metal Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN WeiYin; FAN Jian

    2001-01-01

    @@ Supramolecular architectures with specific topologies such as closed threedimensional molecular cages present a large range of applications in material science, medicine and chemical technology.1,2 In the past decades, a number of such frameworks, e.g. M6L4, M12L8 and M18L6, have been synthesized by assembly of organic ligands with transitional metal salts.3-5 However, the M3L2 type cage-like complexes are not well known up to now.6,7 We report herein the generation of M3L2 type cages by tripodal ligands and various metal salts, and the anion exchange, molecular recognition properties of these metallosupramolecular cages.

  1. Usefulness of the "CAGE" in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, S K

    1995-04-01

    This study examines the usefulness of the "CAGE", (which is an acronym for "cut down", "annoyed", "guilty" and "eye-opener"), a 4-question screening test to identify excessive drinkers among Malaysian inpatients. The CAGE questionnaire after translation and back translation was administered to all inpatients in the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The author interviewed 'blindly' all who score positive on the CAGE score and 10% of all negatives using the DSM III interview schedule for alcohol abuse dependence. The results show that the CAGE performs best at a cut-off point of 2 and above, with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 62%, positive predictive values of 38% and Kappa (K) of 0.37 with a DSM III R diagnosis for alcohol abuse/dependence. The poor agreement with a DSM III diagnosis indicates that the CAGE is not useful in the Malaysian population. Reasons suggested for this are: cultural factors in the Malaysian population resulting in the overrating of the question of 'guilt' by Muslims and translations into the local languages which are only the closest approximations.

  2. Ylide Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban P. Urriolabeitia

    2010-01-01

    The use of ylides of P, N, As, or S as ligands toward transition metals is still a very active research area in organometallic chemistry. This fact is mainly due to the nucleophilic character of the ylides and to their particular bonding properties and coordination modes. They can behave as monodentate or bidentate chelate or bridging species, they can be used as chiral auxiliary reagents, and they are interesting reaction intermediates or useful starting materials in a wide ...

  3. Nerve growth factor contribution via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to ectopic orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Asano, Masatake; Omagari, Daisuke; Honda, Kuniya; Hitomi, Suzuro; Katagiri, Ayano; Iwata, Koichi

    2011-05-11

    It is well known that oral inflammation causes tenderness in temporomandibular joints or masseter muscles. The exact mechanism of such an orofacial ectopic hyperalgesia remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functional significance of interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in relation to heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into the lower lip. CFA injection induced heat hyperalgesia of the ipsilateral whisker pad skin. Moreover, it leads to enhancement of spontaneous activity and heat responses in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons that was elicited by heat stimulation of the whisker pad skin. The heat hyperalgesia was dose-dependently reversed by intraperitoneal TRPV1 antagonist administration, also diminished by neutralizing anti-NGF antibody administration into the lower lip and intraganglionic administration of K252a, a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor. Nerve fibers in bundle of mandibular nerve and TG neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip both expressed labeled NGF, which was administrated into the lower lip. Moreover, the NGF concentrations in ophthalmic-maxillary and mandibular divisions of the TG increased after CFA injection into the lower lip. The number of TRPV1-positive neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip was increased after CFA injection into the lower lip, and this increase was annulled by anti-NGF administration. The present findings suggest that inflammation in the lower lip induces release of NGF that regulates TRPV1 expression in TG neurons. This TRPV1 overexpression may underlie ectopic heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin.

  4. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  5. High-throughput Transcriptome analysis, CAGE and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2008-11-25

    1. Current research - PhD work on discovery of new allergens - Postdoctoral work on Transcriptional Start Sites a) Tag based technologies allow higher throughput b) CAGE technology to define promoters c) CAGE data analysis to understand Transcription - Wo

  6. Cage RACK ventilation options for laboratory animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakutis, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Individually ventilated cage systems have become the method of choice for housing rodents. The author describes the various options for cage ventilation, from using supply and exhaust fans to directly connecting the racks to the building ventilation system. PMID:12966448

  7. Synthesis, Chemistry, and Applications of Heterocyclic Cage Compounds (V)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Hsien-Jen

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis and chemistry of polycyclic of cage compounds have attracted considerable attention in recent years. The vast majority of the work reported in this area has dealt with carbocylic cage compounds. On the other hand, the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds have received less attention. Recently, we envisioned that studies on the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds can greatly expand the scopes and utilities of cage compounds.1 As part of a program that involves the synthesis, chemistry, and application of heterocyclic cage compounds, we report here the synthesis of new thia-oxa-cage compounds and the chemical nature of these thia-cages.  ……

  8. Chemical contamination of animal feeding systems: evaluation of two caging systems and standard cage-washing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Helfrich-Smith, M E

    1980-12-01

    Sodium fluorescein was added as a tracer to an ager gel diet which was fed for 5 day to 90 of 180 rats housed in two different polycarbonate caging systems, shoe-box cages and suspension solid-bottom cages. Cage racks, supplementary equipment, and case washer surfaces were analysed for fluorescein both before and after a complete wash and rinse cycle. Efficacy of washing was greater than 99% for both the inside and outside of the suspended cages and greater than 99% for the inside, but only 93% for the outside, of the shoe-box cages. The shoe-box cages, which were larger than the suspended cages, were spaced closer together on the washer rack, which may account for this variation in cleaning effectiveness. The cage washer surfaces and the water, which was recirculated during each cycle, also became contaminated with fluorescein. Strict adherence to proper cage-washing procedures and careful selection of cage design are important factors in controlling the potential for residual contamination of caging and cage-washing equipment. PMID:7464031

  9. Resonance spectra of caged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that confined scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region x{sub m} ≡ (r{sub m} - r{sub +})/r{sub +} << τ ≡ (r{sub +} - r{sub -})/r{sub +} (here r{sub m} is the radius of the confining mirror and r{sub ±} are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled blackhole- field-cage system: ω{sub n} = -2πT{sub BH}.n [1 + O(x{sub m}{sup n}/τ{sup n})], where T{sub BH} is the temperature of the caged black hole and n = 1, 2, 3,.. is the resonance parameter. (orig.)

  10. A caged substrate peptide for matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaneto, Elena; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Heise, Inge; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Viappiani, Cristiano; Knipp, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Based on the widely applied fluorogenic peptide FS-6 (Mca-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2; Mca = methoxycoumarin-4-acetyl; Dpa = N-3-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)l-α,β-diaminopropionyl) a caged substrate peptide Ac-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Lys*-Lys-Ala-Arg-NH2 (*, position of the cage group) for matrix metalloproteinases was synthesized and characterized. The synthesis implies the modification of a carbamidated lysine side-chain amine with a photocleavable 2-nitrobenzyl group. Mass spectrometry upon UV irradiation demonstrated the complete photolytic cleavage of the protecting group. Time-resolved laser-flash photolysis at 355 nm in combination with transient absorption spectroscopy determined the biphasic decomposition with τa = 171 ± 3 ms (79%) and τb = 2.9 ± 0.2 ms (21%) at pH 6.0 of the photo induced release of the 2-nitrobenzyl group. The recombinantly expressed catalytic domain of human membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) was used to determine the hydrolysis efficiency of the caged peptide before and after photolysis. It turned out that the cage group sufficiently shields the peptide from peptidase activity, which can be thus controlled by UV light.

  11. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  12. Optopharmacological control of TRPC channels by coumarin-caged lipids is associated with a phototoxic membrane effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiapko, Oleksandra; Bacsa, Bernadett; de la Cruz, Gema Guedes; Glasnov, Toma; Groschner, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Photouncaging of second messengers has been successfully employed to gain mechanistic insight of cellular signaling pathways. One of the most enigmatic processes of ion channel regulation is lipid recognition and lipid-gating of TRPC channels, which represents pivotal mechanisms of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Recently, optopharmacological tools including caged lipid mediators became available, enabling an unprecedented level of temporal and spatial control of the activating lipid species within a cellular environment. Here we tested a commonly used caged ligand approach for suitability to investigate TRPC signaling at the level of membrane conductance and cellular Ca(2+) handling. We report a specific photouncaging artifact that is triggered by the cage structure coumarin at UV illumination. Electrophysiological characterization identified a light-dependent membrane effect of coumarin. UV light (340 nm) as used for photouncaging, initiated a membrane conductance specifically in the presence of coumarin as low as 30 μmol L(-1) concentrations. This conductance masked the TRPC3 conductance evoked by photouncaging, while TRPC-mediated cellular Ca(2+) responses were largely preserved. The observed light-induced membrane effects of the released caging moiety may well interfere with certain cellular functions, and prompt caution in using coumarin-caged second messengers in cellular studies.

  13. Capsaicinoids cause inflammation and epithelial cell death through activation of vanilloid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Christopher A; Taylor, Jack L; Lanza, Diane L; Carr, Brian A; Crouch, Dennis J; Yost, Garold S

    2003-05-01

    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammation and damage to nasal, tracheal, bronchiolar, and alveolar cells in a dose-related manner. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that cultured human lung cells (BEAS-2B and A549) were more susceptible to necrotic cell death than liver (HepG2) cells. Transcription of the human vanilloid receptor type-1, VR1 or TRPV1, was demonstrated by RT-PCR in all of these cells, and the relative transcript levels were correlated to cellular susceptibility. TRPV1 receptor activation was presumably responsible for cellular cytotoxicity, but prototypical functional antagonists of this receptor were cytotoxic themselves, and did not ameliorate capsaicinoid-induced damage. Conversely, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, as well as calcium chelation by EGTA ablated cytokine (IL-6) production after capsaicin exposure. To address these seemingly contradictory results, recombinant human TRPV1 was cloned and overexpressed in BEAS-2B cells. These cells exhibited dramatically increased cellular susceptibility to capsaicinoids, measured using IL-6 production and cytotoxicity, and an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic effects of capsaicin in TRPV1 overexpressing cells were also not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists or by treatments that modified extracellular calcium. Thus, capsaicin interacted with TRPV1 expressed by BEAS-2B and other airway epithelial cells to cause the calcium-dependent production of cytokines and, conversely, calcium-independent cell death. These results

  14. Recent advances in the synthesis of endocannabinoid related ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, R K; Mahadevan, A

    2002-12-31

    The chemical strategies used for the synthesis of various ligands related to the endocannabinoid system namely anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-Ara-Gl), CB1/(vanilloid receptors) VR1, anandamide membrane transporter (AMT) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are described in this review. In general, the chemical synthesis of analogs with changes in the head group of AEA was quite straightforward involving the conversion of an acid to an amide or an ester. Analogs which had modifications in the end pentyl chain were more difficult to synthesize and required multistep synthetic sequences to prepare the target compounds. A facile total synthesis of 2-Ara-Gl was reported and an HPLC procedure for its identification and quantification was developed, but because of the instability of 2-Ara-Gl another synthesis was developed so that it can be stored as the more stable phenylboronate ester. Similarly the chemical synthesis of various ligands in the remaining areas of CB1/VR1, AMT and FAAH are described. A summary of the present state of knowledge about the SAR in each area is presented to help in the design and synthesis of novel ligands for the future. PMID:12505687

  15. Multielectrode machine for making the cages of bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, F.I.; Arkov, V.G.; Boldyrev, A.F.; Sharenko, D.G.; Zhidkov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic multielectrode machine for making wire cages with an internal spiral. The machine automatically produces an endless cage from wire, joins the wires by multiple spot contact welding, and cuts it into pieces of desired length. The machine is illustrated and the method of making wire cages is demonstrated. The cages are used in bag filters of gas-cleaning systems. The machine can be used to form cages of 130-mm diameter from wires of 3-mm diameter. It is easy to operate and has a high output rate of 90m/h.

  16. Co-administration of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and TRPV1 antagonists potentiate the effect of each drug in a rat model of cystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrua, A.; Cruz, C.D.; Jansen, D.; Rozenberg, B.; Heesakkers, J.P.; Cruz, F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) expression in bladder afferents and study the effect of TRPV4 and TRPV1 antagonists, alone and in combination, in bladder hyperactivity and pain induced by cystitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: TRPV4 expression in bladder afferents

  17. Titanium mesh cages (TMC) in spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, Dieter; Daehn, Sylvia; Mannion, Anne F.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of the titanium mesh cage (TMC) in spinal surgery has opened up a variety of applications that are realizable as a result of the versatility of the implant. Differing applications of TMCs in the whole spine are described in a series of 150 patients. Replacement and reinforcement of the anterior column represent the classic use of cylindrical TMCs. The TMC as a multisegmental concave support in kyphotic deformities and as a posterior interlaminar spacer or lamina replacement a...

  18. On metallic clusters squeezed in atomic cages

    CERN Document Server

    Apostol, M

    1996-01-01

    The stability of metallic clusters of sodium (Na) in the octahedral cages of Na-doped fullerites Na6C60 and Na11C60 is discussed within a Thomas-Fermi model. It is shown that the tetrahedral Na4-cluster in Na6C60 has an electric charge of cca. +2.7 (in electron charge units), while the body-centered cubic Na9-cluster in Na11C60 is almost electrically neutral.

  19. Trace element kinetics in caged Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Lepoint, Gilles; Donnay, Annick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) remain contaminants of concern because of their persistence, ability to concentrate in organisms and toxicity. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 is a relevant bioindicator of TE coastal contamination. However, little research has studied the combined influence of environmental condition changes and physiological processes on their kinetics in that species. Caged M. galloprovincialis were thus immerged in 2 contrasted pristine Corsican (Franc...

  20. Design and synthesis of carborane-containing estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ)-selective ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kiminori; Ogawa, Takumi; Oda, Akifumi; Kaise, Asako; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Candidates for highly selective estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) ligands (6a-c, 7a-c, 8a and 8b) were designed and synthesized based on carborane-containing ER ligands 1 and 2 as lead compounds. Among them, p-carboranylcyclohexanol derivatives 8a and 8b exhibited high ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay: for example, 8a showed 56-fold selectivity for ERβ over ERα. Docking studies of 8a and 8b with the ERα and ERβ ligand-binding domains (LBDs) suggested that the p-carborane cage of the ligands is located close to key amino acid residues that influence ER-subtype selectivity, that is, Leu384 in the ERα LBD and Met336 in the ERβ LBD. The p-carborane cage in 8a and 8b appears to play a crucial role in the increased ERβ selectivity. PMID:26298498

  1. The effect of intra-articular vanilloid receptor agonists on pain behavior measures in a murine model of acute monoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mishal; Mahowald, Maren L; Frizelle, Sandra P; Dorman, Christopher W; Funkenbusch, Sonia C; Krug, Hollis E

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the US, and the primary manifestation of arthritis is joint pain that leads to progressive physical limitation, disability, morbidity, and increased health care utilization. Capsaicin (CAP) is a vanilloid agonist that causes substance P depletion by interacting with vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential V1 on small unmyelinated C fibers. It has been used topically for analgesia in osteoarthritis with variable success. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an ultra potent CAP analog. The aim of this study was to measure the analgesic effects of intra-articular (IA) administration of CAP and RTX in experimental acute inflammatory arthritis in mice. Evoked pain score (EPS) and a dynamic weight bearing (DWB) device were used to measure nociceptive behaviors in a murine model of acute inflammatory monoarthritis. A total of 56 C57B16 male mice underwent EPS and DWB testing – 24 nonarthritic controls and 32 mice with carrageenan-induced arthritis. The effects of pretreatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX were measured. Nociception was reproducibly demonstrated by increased EPS and reduced DWB measures in the affected limb of arthritic mice. Pretreatment with 0.001% RTX resulted in statistically significant improvement in EPS and DWB measures when compared with those observed in carrageenan-induced arthritis animals. Pretreatment with IA 0.0003% RTX and IA 0.01% CAP resulted in improvement in some but not all of these measures. The remaining 24 mice underwent evaluation following treatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX, and the results obtained were similar to that of naïve, nonarthritic mice. PMID:27574462

  2. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Inhibits γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Liu, Wentao; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is crucial for the modulation of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to enhance the response of hippocampal glutamate receptors, but whether the inhibitory neurotransmitter system can be regulated by TRPV4 remains unknown. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Here, we show that application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) synthetic (GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD) or endogenous agonist (5,6-EET) inhibited GABA-activated current (IGABA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 and of GABAA receptors. GSK1016790A increased the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and decreased the phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein levels, which was attenuated by removing extracellular calcium or by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β antagonist. GSK1016790A-induced decrease of p-Akt protein level was sensitive to an AMPK antagonist. GSK1016790A-inhibited IGABA was blocked by an AMPK antagonist or a phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) agonist. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of IGABA was also significantly attenuated by a protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist but was unaffected by protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits GABAA receptor, which may be mediated by activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling and activation of PKC signaling. Inhibition of GABAA receptors may account for the neuronal hyperexcitability caused by TRPV4 activation.

  3. Iron overload causes osteoporosis in thalassemia major patients through interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Perrotta, Silverio; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Tortora, Chiara; Siniscalco, Dario; Francese, Matteo; Torella, Marco; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Maione, Sabatino

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone resorption in β-thalassemia major is multifactorial and our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains incomplete. Considering the emerging importance of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone metabolism, it may be instructive to examine a potential role for this system in the development of osteoporosis in patients with β-thalassemia major and its relationship with iron overload and iron chelation therapy. This study demonstrates that, in thalassemic-derived osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression inversely correlates with femoral and lumbar bone mineral density, and directly correlates with ferritin levels and liver iron concentration. The vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin dramatically reduces cathepsin K levels and osteoclast numbers in vitro, without affecting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. The iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox decrease both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K expression, as well as osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data show that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 activation/desensitization influences tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression and activity, and this effect is dependent on iron, suggesting a pivotal role for iron overload in the dysregulation of bone metabolism in patients with thalassemia major. Our applied pharmacology provides evidence for the potential of iron chelators to abrogate these effects by reducing osteoclast activity. Whether iron chelation therapy is capable of restoring bone health in humans requires further study, but the potential to provide dual benefits for patients with β-thalassemia major –preventing iron-overload and alleviating associated osteoporotic changes – is exciting. PMID:25216685

  4. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication. PMID:17067048

  5. Arene Ruthenium Cages: Boxes Full of Surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Therrien, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembly of polypyridyl ligands with dinuclear arene ruthenium building blocks bridged by chlorido, oxalato or benzoquinonato ligands has allowed the construction of a wide range of cationic metalla complexes possessing different architectures and functionalities: (i) metalla-rectangles showing host-guest possibilities and allowing intramolecular template-controlled photochemical [2 + 2] dimerisation reactions; (ii) metalla-prisms allowing encapsulation of molecules and giving rise to po...

  6. Multi-responsive metal-organic lantern cages in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brega, Valentina; Zeller, Matthias; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter; Klosterman, Jeremy K

    2015-03-25

    Soluble copper-based M4L4 lantern-type metal-organic cages bearing internal amines were synthesized. The solution state integrity of the paramagnetic metal-organic cages was demonstrated using NMR, DLS, MS, and AFM spectroscopy. 1D supramolecular pillars of pre-formed cages or covalent host-guest complexes selectively formed upon treatment with 4,4'-bipyridine and acetic anhydride, respectively.

  7. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Merica Slišković; Gorana Jelić

    2002-01-01

    Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems nece...

  8. A secure and economical system for caging venomous snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive and secure cage system for housing venomous snakes. The cages are easily constructed from commercially available plastic containers and are lightweight and can be stacked, minimizing the area needed to house numerous animals. They allow easy access to the animal and can be adequately disinfected. These cages can be individually locked and also allow for full viewing of the animal.

  9. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  10. The 13-atom encapsulated gold cage clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chuan-Hui; Cui Hang; Shen Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The structure and the magnetic moment of transition metal encapsulated in a Au12 cage cluster have been studied by using the density functional theory.The results show that all of the transition metal atoms (TMA) can embed into the Au12 cage and increase the stability of the clusters except Mn.Half of them have the Ih or Oh symmetry.The curves of binding energy have oscillation characteristics when the extra-nuclear electrons increase; the reason for this may be the interaction between parity changes of extra-nuclear electrons and Au atoms.The curves of highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap also have oscillation characteristics when the extra-nuclear electrons increase.The binding energies of many M@Au12 clusters are much larger than that of the pure Aut3 cluster,while the gaps of some of them are less than that of Au13,so maybe Cr@Au12,Nb@Au12,and W@Au12 clusters are most stable in fact.For magnetic calculations,some clusters are quenched totally,but the Au13 cluster has the largest magnetic moment of 5 μB.When the number of extra-nuclear electrons of the encapsulated TMA is even,the magnetic moment of relevant M@Au12 cluster is even,and so are the odd ones.

  11. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  12. Interaction between paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation during the stimulation of the cannabinoid and vanilloid systems in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Lida; Komaki, Alireza; Karamian, Ruhollah; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Komaki, Hamidreza

    2016-07-15

    Synaptic plasticity includes short-term and long-term changes in synaptic strength. Short-term plasticity can be used to assess the site mediating the long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP). The endogenous endocannabinoid systems can modulate LTP, and similarly, the activation of the vanilloid system has been shown to mediate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. In this study, we examined the interaction between short-term and long-term plasticity during the stimulation of the cannabinoid and vanilloid systems in the hippocampus of rats in vivo. Forty male Wistar rats, divided into four groups, were treated with the following compounds: control (saline+dimethyl sulfoxide), WIN55,212-2, capsaicin, and WIN55,212-2+capsaicin. The animals were anesthetized with urethane and then recording and stimulating electrodes were positioned at the dentate gyrus(DG) and perforant pathway(PP), respectively. Population spike (PS) amplitudes were measured before and after the induction of LTP, which was induced with high-frequency stimulation (HFS). The paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was measured before and after the induction of LTP in all groups. We showed that WIN55,212-2 reduced the PS amplitude after HFS, whereas the vanilloid agonist increased the induction of LTP compared with the control treatment. In the present study, we found that in the presence of WIN55,212-2 and capsaicin, the induction of LTP changed the PPR. Additionally, we showed that the co-administration of cannabinoid and vanilloid agonists modulate the PPR. These findings suggest the presynaptic expression of this LTP form, and therefore, this form of LTP is caused by the increase of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27130895

  13. Radiosynthesis of [11C]SB-705498, a selective transient receptor potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor, previously known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), is a non-selective cation channel activated by a range of noxious stimuli and highly expressed in nociceptive fibres. TRPV1 receptor is involved in pain and sensitisation associated with tissue injury and inflammation and therefore represents a pharmacological target of choice for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain, migraine and gastrointestinal disorders. Among a novel series of pyrrolidinyl ureas recently discovered by GSK, SB-705498 (1, namely 1-(2-bromophenyl)-3-[(R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]urea) has been identified as a potent, selective and orally bioavailable TRPV1 antagonist and considered for positron emission tomography studies. SB-705498 (1) has therefore been isotopically labelled with the short-lived positron-emitter carbon-11 (t1/2: 20.38 min) at its urea site using [11C]phosgene in a one-pot two-step process, via the intermediate preparation of 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate. Methods: Carbon-11-labeling of SB-705498 comprises: (A) Trapping of [11C]phosgene (radio-synthesized from cyclotron-produced [11C]methane via [11C]carbon tetrachloride using minor modifications of published processes) at room temperature for 1 to 2 minutes in 250 μL of acetonitrile containing 0.6 μmole of 2-bromoaniline (2) giving 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate ([11C]-3), followed by (B) addition of an excess of chiral (R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-ylamine (4, 40 μmoles in 500 μL of acetonitrile) as the second amine and reaction at room temperature for an additional one minute giving the desired urea derivative ([11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1)), (C) dilution of the crude reaction mixture with water (500 μL) containing 4% (v:v) of DEA, injection and purification on a semi-preparative Waters SymmetryR C18 HPLC column (eluent: H2O / CH

  14. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A.

    2012-06-05

    Polymers comprising residues of borane and/or carborane cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Methods of making and applications for using such polymers are also disclosed.

  15. Teaching in the Institutional Cage: Metaphor and Collateral Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël Smith, Becky L.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a philosophical exploration of Marilyn Frye's metaphor of the cage and Patricia Hill Collins' theory of intersecting oppressions. It argues that social structures and forms of oppressive knowledge make up the individual wires on each person's cage and that these work to confine individuals, particularly those in the…

  16. Design of the UHVDC Corona Cage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian; LU Jiayu; ZHANG Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of testing and analysing the corona characteristics of UHVDC bundle conductors,UHVDC corona cage would be built in China.Corona cage is one of the indispensable equipments for conductor corona performance researches.Tests of conductor cotona characteristics in corona cages can overcome the shortages of those with test lines.The dimensions of several corona cages constructed overseas were introduced in this paper.Based on foreign experiences and the requirement of State Grid Corporation of China,the UHVDC corona cage was designed as double-cage,double-layer,three-seetions,and catenary shape with the size of 70 m×22 m× 13 m.The corona loss measurement system,radio interference measuring system,and the audible noise measuring system are also detailed,including the measurement theory,connection with the cage,the parameters and the designing basis.The UHVDC corona cage has been put into service.It now undergoes a large amount of audible noise and radio frequency interference tests.

  17. Caging Mechanism for a drag-free satellite position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, R.; Mathiesen, J.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A disturbance compensation system for satellites based on the drag-free concept was mechanized and flown, using a spherical proof mass and a cam-guided caging mechanism. The caging mechanism controls the location of the proof mass for testing and constrains it during launch. Design requirements, design details, and hardware are described.

  18. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  19. Ammonia Levels and Urine-Spot Characteristics as Cage-Change Indicators for High-Density Individually Ventilated Mouse Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Ida M; Payton, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mouse cage and bedding changes are potentially stressful to mice and are also labor- and resource-intensive. These changes are often performed on a calendar-based schedule to maintain a clean microenvironment and limit the concentrations of ammonia to which mice and workers are exposed. The current study sought to establish a performance-based approach to mouse cage-changing that uses urine spot characteristics as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels. Colorimetric ammonia indicators were used to measure ammonia levels in individually-ventilated cages (IVC) housing male or female mice (n =5 per cage) of various strains at 1 to 16 d after cage change. Urine spot characteristics were correlated with ammonia levels to create a visual indicator of the cage-change criterion of 25 ppm ammonia. Results demonstrated a consistent increase in ammonia levels with days since cage change, with cages reaching the cage-change criterion at approximately 10 d for IVC containing male mice and 16 d for those with female mice. Ammonia levels were higher for male than female mice but were not correlated with mouse age. However, urine spot diameter, color, and edge characteristics were strongly correlated with ammonia levels. Husbandry practices based on using urine spot characteristics as indicators of ammonia levels led to fewer weekly cage changes and concomitant savings in labor and resources. Therefore, urine spot characteristics can be used as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels for use of a performance (urine spot)-based approach to cage-changing frequency that maintains animal health and wellbeing. PMID:27177558

  20. Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hung-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Methods Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The specimens were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 received unilateral procedures while group 2 received bilateral procedures. Laminectomy, facectomy, discectomy, cage insertion and transpedicle screw insertion were performed sequentially after testing the intact status. Changes in range of motion (ROM and neutral zone (NZ were compared between unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Results Both ROM and NZ, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF, transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not revealed a significant difference between flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation direction except the ROM in the axial rotation. The bilateral group's ROM (-1.7 ± 0. 8 of axial rotation was decreased significantly after transpedicle screw insertion procedure in comparison with the unilateral group (-0.2 ± 0.1. In the unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF group, the transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not demonstrate a significant difference between right and left side in the lateral bending and axial rotation direction. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF have similar stability after transpedicle screw fixation in the sheep spine model. The unilateral approach can substantially reduce exposure requirements. It also offers the biomechanics advantage of construction using anterior column support combined with pedicle

  1. Electrofriction method of manufacturing squirrel cage rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a squirrel cage rotor of copper material for use in AC or DC motors, includes forming a core with longitudinal slots, inserting bars of conductive material in the slots, with ends extending out of opposite ends of the core, and joining the end rings to the bars, wherein the conductive material of either the end rings or the bars is copper. Various methods of joining the end rings to the bars are disclosed including electrofriction welding, current pulse welding and brazing, transient liquid phase joining and casting. Pressure is also applied to the end rings to improve contact and reduce areas of small or uneven contact between the bar ends and the end rings. Rotors made with such methods are also disclosed.

  2. Transcription regulatory networks analysis using CAGE

    KAUST Repository

    Tegnér, Jesper N.

    2009-10-01

    Mapping out cellular networks in general and transcriptional networks in particular has proved to be a bottle-neck hampering our understanding of biological processes. Integrative approaches fusing computational and experimental technologies for decoding transcriptional networks at a high level of resolution is therefore of uttermost importance. Yet, this is challenging since the control of gene expression in eukaryotes is a complex multi-level process influenced by several epigenetic factors and the fine interplay between regulatory proteins and the promoter structure governing the combinatorial regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we review how the CAGE data can be integrated with other measurements such as expression, physical interactions and computational prediction of regulatory motifs, which together can provide a genome-wide picture of eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks at a new level of resolution. © 2010 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  4. In-situ bioassays using caged bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    It is important to make the distinction between chemical measurements to assess bioaccumulation potential versus biological measurements to assess potential bioeffects because bioaccumulation is not a bioeffect. Caging provides a unique opportunity to make synoptic measurements of each and facilitates making these measurements over space and time. Measuring bioaccumulation in resident and transplanted bivalves has probably been the most frequently used form of an in-situ bioassay because bivalves concentrate chemicals in their tissues. They are also easy to collect, cage, and measure. The authors have refined bivalve bioassay methods by minimizing the size range of test animals, making repetitive measurements of the same individuals, and standardizing test protocols for a variety of applications. They are now attempting to standardize criteria for accepting and interpreting data in the same way that laboratory bioassays have been standardized. Growth measurements can serve two purposes in this assessment strategy: (1) An integrated biological response endpoint that is easily quantifiable and with significance to the population, and (2) A means of calibrating bioaccumulation by assessing the relative health and physiological state of tissues that have accumulated the chemicals. In general, the authors have found the highest bioconcentration factors associated with the highest growth rates, the highest concentrations ({micro}g/g) of chemicals in juvenile mussels, and the highest chemical content ({micro}g/animal) in adult mussels. Without accounting for possible dilution of chemical concentrations by tissue growth or magnification through degrowth, contaminant concentrations can be misleading. Examples are provided for the Sudbury River in Massachusetts (Elliptio complanata), San Diego Bay (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and the Harbor Island Superfund Site in Puget Sound (Mytilus trossulus).

  5. Low-Cytotoxic Synthetic Bromorutaecarpine Exhibits Anti-Inflammation and Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutaecarpine (RUT, the major bioactive ingredient isolated from the Chinese herb Evodia rutaecarpa, possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammation and preventing cardiovascular diseases. However, its high cytotoxicity hampers pharmaceutical development. We designed and synthesized a derivative of RUT, bromo-dimethoxyrutaecarpine (Br-RUT, which showed no cytotoxicity at 20 μM. Br-RUT suppressed nitric oxide (NO production and tumor necrosis factor-α release in concentration-dependent (0~20 μM manners in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages; protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 induced by LPS were downregulated. Br-RUT inhibited cell migration and invasion of ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells with 0~48 h of treatment. Furthermore, Br-RUT enhanced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and activated endothelial NOS in human aortic endothelial cells. These results suggest that the synthetic Br-RUT possesses very low cytotoxicity but retains its activities against inflammation and vasodilation that could be beneficial for cardiovascular disease therapeutics.

  6. Expression and cellular distribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in cortical tubers of the tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Yang, Meihua; Sun, Feiji; Liang, Chao; Wei, Yujia; Wang, Lukang; Yue, Jiong; Chen, Bing; Li, Song; Liu, Shiyong; Yang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are highly associated with intractable epilepsy. Recent evidence has shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has direct effects on both neurons and glial cells. To understand the role of TRPV4 in pathogenesis of cortical tubers, we investigated the expression patterns of TRPV4 in cortical tubers of TSC compared with normal control cortex (CTX). We found that TRPV4 was clearly up-regulated in cortical tubers at the protein levels. Immunostaining indicated that TRPV4 was specially distributed in abnormal cells, including dysplastic neurons (DNs) and giant cells (GCs). In addition, double immunofluorescent staining revealed that TRPV4 was localized on neurofilament proteins (NF200) positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic portein (GFAP) positive reactive astrocytes. Moreover, TRPV4 co-localized with both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Furthermore, protein levels of protein kinase C (PKC), but not protein kinase A (PKA), the important upstream factors of the TRPV4, were significantly increased in cortical tubers. Taken together, the overexpression and distribution patterns of TRPV4 may be linked with the intractable epilepsy caused by TSC. PMID:26874068

  7. Performance and welfare of rabbit does in various caging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, A; Matics, Zs; Gerencsér, Zs; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Nagy, I; Szendrő, K; Szendrő, Zs

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare production and welfare of rabbit does and their kits housed in various types of cages. Female rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups with the following cage types: CN: common wire-mesh flat-deck cage, without footrest; CF: cage similar to the CN but with plastic footrest; ECWP: enlarged cage with wire-mesh platform; and ECPP: extra enlarged cage with plastic-mesh platform. All does were inseminated on the same day, 11 days after kindlings. Reproductive performance was evaluated during the first five consecutive kindlings. Severity of sore hocks was scored at each insemination. Location preference of the does and the platform usage of their kits were evaluated. Kindling rate, litter size (total born, born alive, alive at 21 and 35 days) and kit mortality were not significantly influenced by the cage types. The litter weight at 21 days was higher in ECWP and ECPP cages than in the CF group (3516, 3576 and 3291 g, respectively; P2.5 cm) and 3 to 4 (3=callus opened, cracks present; 4=wounds) were 58%, 60%, 78% and 48%, and 0%, 5%, 0% and 48% in groups ECPP, ECWP, CF and CN, respectively. Higher number of daily nest visits was observed for CF does than for ECWP does (12.5 v. 5.9; P2/day) was higher in the CF group than in the ECWP group (12.1 v. 3.2%; Pplastic footrests and plastic-mesh platforms in conventional and/or large cages reduced sore hocks' problems, plastic-mesh platforms were more used by both does and kits compared with the wire-mesh platforms. PMID:26263030

  8. ROLL CAGE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR FORMULA STUDENT RACE CAR

    OpenAIRE

    Shubham Kolhe *, Vrushabh U. Joijode

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the Design and Analysis of Roll Cage for the Formula Student Car. In a Formula Student Car the roll cage is one of the main components. It form the structure or the main frame of the vehicle on which other parts like Engine, Steering, and Transmission are mounted. Roll Cage comes under the sprung mass of the Vehicle. There are a lot of forces acting on vehicle in the running condition. These forces are responsible for causing crack initiation and deformation in the vehic...

  9. The planimetric unfold method of fullerene cage structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of planimetric diagrams, which consist of the boat form F6 and F5, the storm petrel form F6 and F5, respectively, were proposed to express the geometric structure of fullerene cage in this study. There are two chief advantages using the diagrams: (ⅰ) the spatial symmetrical characteristic of fullerene cage is not destroyed; (ⅱ) the coordination forms of F5 and F6 in the structure can be clearly expressed. This work has laid the foundation for studying the structural geometry of fullerene cage and its quantum chemistry and property.

  10. Encapsulation of metal cations by the PhePhe ligand: a cation-pi ion cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Dunbar; J.D. Steill; J. Oomens

    2011-01-01

    Structures and binding thermochemistry are investigated for protonated PhePhe and for complexes of PhePhe with the alkaline-earth ions Ba2+ and Ca2+, the alkali-metal ions Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+, and the transition-metal ion Ag+. The two neighboring aromatic side chains open the possibility of a nove

  11. Encapsulation of Metal Cations by the PhePhe Ligand: A Cation-pi Ion Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.

    2011-01-01

    Structures and binding thermochemistry are investigated for protonated PhePhe and for complexes of PhePhe with the alkaline-earth ions Ba2+ and Ca2+, the alkali-metal ions Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+, and the transition-metal ion Ag+. The two neighboring aromatic side chains open the possibility of a nove

  12. Anterior cervical corpectomy: review and comparison of results using titanium mesh cages and carbon fibre reinforced polymer cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Syed M R; Alabi, J; Rezajooi, Kia; Casey, Adrian T H

    2010-10-01

    Different types of cages have recently become available for reconstruction following anterior cervical corpectomy. We review the results using titanium mesh cages (TMC) and stackable CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) cages. Forty-two patients who underwent anterior cervical corpectomy between November 2001 and September 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Pathologies included cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), cervical radiculopathy, OPLL (ossified posterior longitudinal ligament), metastasis/primary bone tumour, rheumatoid arthritis and deformity correction. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Outcome was assessed on the basis of the Odom's criteria, neck disability index (NDI) and myelopathy disability index (MDI). Mean age was 60 years and mean follow-up was 1½ years. Majority of the patients had single-level corpectomy. Twenty-three patients had TMC cages while 19 patients had CFRP cages. The mean subsidence noted with TMC cage was 1.91 mm, while with the stackable CFRP cage it was 0.5 mm. This difference was statistically significant (p 0.05) or between subsidence and post-operative sagittal alignment (p > 0.05) in either of the groups. Three patients had significant subsidence (> 3 mm), one of whom was symptomatic. There were no hardware-related complications. On the basis of the Odom's criterion, 9 patients (21.4%) had an excellent outcome, 14 patients (33.3%) had a good outcome, 9 patients (21.4%) had a fair outcome and 5 patients (11.9%) had a poor outcome, i.e. symptoms and signs unchanged or exacerbated. Mean post-operative NDI was 26.27% and mean post-operative MDI was 19.31%. Fusion was noted in all 42 cases. Both TMC and stackable CFRP cages provide solid anterior column reconstruction with good outcome following anterior cervical corpectomy. However, more subsidence is noted with TMC cages though this might not significantly alter the clinical outcome unless the subsidence is significant (>3 mm).

  13. Metal-ligand cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, Julia R; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) has become an important concept in catalysis by transition metal complexes both in synthetic and biological systems. MLC implies that both the metal and the ligand are directly involved in bond activation processes, by contrast to "classical" transition metal catalysis where the ligand (e.g. phosphine) acts as a spectator, while all key transformations occur at the metal center. In this Review, we will discuss examples of MLC in which 1) both the metal and the ligand are chemically modified during bond activation and 2) bond activation results in immediate changes in the 1st coordination sphere involving the cooperating ligand, even if the reactive center at the ligand is not directly bound to the metal (e.g. via tautomerization). The role of MLC in enabling effective catalysis as well as in catalyst deactivation reactions will be discussed. PMID:26436516

  14. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817

  15. Porous organic cages: soluble, modular and molecular pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasell, Tom; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Porosity is a rare property for molecular materials but, surprisingly, porous solids built from discrete organic cage molecules have emerged as a versatile functional-materials platform. From modest beginnings less than a decade ago, there are now organic cage solids with surface areas that can rival extended metal–organic frameworks. In contrast to network polymers and frameworks, these organic cages are synthesized first and then assembled in the solid state in a separate step. This offers solution-processing options that are not available for insoluble organic and inorganic frameworks. In this Review, we highlight examples of porous organic cages and focus on the unique features that set them apart, such as their molecular solubility, their increased tendency to exhibit polymorphism and the scope for modular co-crystallization.

  16. Metal dimer and trimer within spherical carbon cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuhisa

    2007-07-01

    C 80 fulleren cage can be used to realize confinement with the highest possible icosahedral ( Ih) symmetry. As examples, La 2@C 80 and Sc 3C 2@C 80 are molecules in which metal dimer and trimer are encapsulated within the C 80 cage. They are recently purified in the substantial amount by using a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and studied by spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The confinement of the metal cluster with the high symmetry ( Ih) cage is reflected in their specific potential of the intra-molecular rotation for the cluster. The result of electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements indicates that the intra-molecular potential is modified by the chemical modification of the C 80 cage as well as by the injection of an excess electron.

  17. La cage qui cache : La Cage Dorée de Ruben Alves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marinho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Comedy La Cage Dorée (produced by the luso descendant Ruben Alves, 2013 success seems to be mainly due to its clichés of Portuguese epics in Paris, and its miseries may not have been underlined enough. Thus, under this apparently naif portrait an intriguing painting of Portuguese immigrants’ French dis-integration may really be hiding, which is the aim of this essay, on one hand, to bring out and, on the other one, to clarify, by questioning comparative critical common denominators of the two countries.

  18. Cage experiments in an East African mangrove forest: a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijvers, J.; Vincx, M.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of epibenthos on endobenthos has frequently been investigated for temperate saltmarsh regions by using cage exclusion experiments. Although the insight into the function of the endobenthos of mangrove forests is crucial for their management, very few cage experiments have so far been carried out in such areas. The present paper summarises the result of such experiments in a typical East African mangrove forest at Gazi Bay about 60 km south of Mombasa, Kenya. Epibenthic animals were...

  19. Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones†

    OpenAIRE

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Cho, Woo Cheal; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Moore, Curtis; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of unique structure and potent bioactivity exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method for the reverse prenylation of catechols that, together with a Claisen/Diels–Alder reaction cascade, provides rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues. Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity of these compounds leads to the conclusion that the intact ABC ring system c...

  20. Experimental setup for the measurement of induction motor cage currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental setup for measurement of the currents flowing in the rotor bars of induction motors during synchronous no-load tests is described in the paper. The experimental verification of the high-frequency phenomena in the rotor cage is fundamental for a deep insight of the additional loss estimation by numerical methods. The attention is mainly focused on the analysis and design of the transducers developed for the cage current measurement

  1. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  2. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is a mediator of lung toxicity for coal fly ash particulate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Johansen, Mark E; Roberts, Jessica K; Thomas, Karen C; Romero, Erin G; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2012-03-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4α (C4α), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue.

  3. Drug-induced mild therapeutic hypothermia obtained by administration of a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 agonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mechanical/physical devices for applying mild therapeutic hypothermia is the only proven neuroprotective treatment for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest. However, this type of therapy is cumbersome and associated with several side-effects. We investigated the feasibility of using a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 agonist for obtaining drug-induced sustainable mild hypothermia. Methods First, we screened a heterogeneous group of TRPV1 agonists and secondly we tested the hypothermic properties of a selected candidate by dose-response studies. Finally we tested the hypothermic properties in a large animal. The screening was in conscious rats, the dose-response experiments in conscious rats and in cynomologus monkeys, and the finally we tested the hypothermic properties in conscious young cattle (calves with a body weight as an adult human. The investigated TRPV1 agonists were administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Results Screening: Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC, a component of chili pepper, displayed a desirable hypothermic profile with regards to the duration, depth and control in conscious rats. Dose-response experiments: In both rats and cynomologus monkeys DHC caused a dose-dependent and immediate decrease in body temperature. Thus in rats, infusion of DHC at doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/kg/h caused a maximal ΔT (°C as compared to vehicle control of -0.9, -1.5, -2.0, and -4.2 within approximately 1 hour until the 6 hour infusion was stopped. Finally, in calves the intravenous infusion of DHC was able to maintain mild hypothermia with ΔT > -3°C for more than 12 hours. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis that infusion of dihydrocapsaicin is a candidate for testing as a primary or adjunct method of inducing and maintaining therapeutic hypothermia.

  4. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called ‘Faraday cage effect’). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells. PMID:27279775

  5. Increased gene and protein expressions of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 following sustained pure mechanical pressure on rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Juan Huai; Yonghui Wang; Yanqin Wang; Shouwei Yue

    2011-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from newborn Wistar rats cultured in vitro were pressurized with 20, 40, 80 or 120 mm Hg compressive loadings (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) for 12, 24, 48 or 72 hours, respectively. The 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test showed that pressures less than 80 mm Hg had no obvious impact on the activity of DRG neurons. The protein expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4), transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel of melastatin type 8, and transient receptor potential subtype ankyrin 1 were assessed by western blot analysis. The mRNA expression of TRPV4 was assessed by real-time PCR. The results showed that sustained mechanical compression up-regulated TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression in the rat DRG neurons, in a time-dependent fashion. Similar changes were not found in the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel of melastatin type 8, and transient receptor potential subtype ankyrin 1. Images of cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope showed that the sustained mechanical pressure increased the number of responsive DRG neurons and was synergistic on the enhanced Ca2+ responses to the TRPV4 phorbol ester agonist 4a-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate and hypotonic solutions. These findings demonstrate that sustained mechanical compressive loading in vitro increases the expression of TRPV4 mRNA and protein in DRG neurons and sensitizes TRPV4 Ca2+ signals. Mechanical compression does not impact other ion channels in thetransient receptor potential family.

  6. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Comparison of titanium and polyetheretherketone cages

    OpenAIRE

    Cabraja Mario; Oezdemir Soner; Koeppen Daniel; Kroppenstedt Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Titanium (TTN) cages have a higher modulus of elasticity when compared with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. This suggests that TTN-cages could show more frequent cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and therefore might lead to a higher loss of correction. We compared the long term results of stand-alone PEEK- and TTN-cages in a comparable patient collective that was operated under identical operative settings. Methods From 2002 to 2007 15...

  7. Evaluation of individually ventilated cage systems for laboratory rodents: cage environment and animal health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, A U; Renström, A

    2001-01-01

    The use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become an attractive housing regime of laboratory rodents. The benefits of IVC systems are, reportedly, a high degree of containment combined with relative ease of handling, and a high degree of protection from allergenes. In the present study we tested whether two IVC systems (BioZone VentiRack, IVC1 and Techniplast SealSafe, IVC2S), in which we held mature male NMRI mice, were constructed to maintain a constant differential pressure, positive or negative, during a prolonged period of time. We also measured ammonia (NH3) concentrations after about 2 weeks of use, and CO2 build-up during a 60 min simulated power failure situation. In addition, animal weight development and bite-wound frequency were recorded (Renström et al. 2000). From the present study it is concluded that the IVC1 air handling system provides a more uniform and balanced differential pressure than the IVC2S. Both systems effectively scavenge NH3 when bedding material is not soaked by urine. Although the IVCs are dependent on the continual function of the fans to work properly, it seems unlikely that CO2 concentrations increase to hazardous levels, as a result of a one hour power failure, with the type of cages used in this study. Differences in weight development and bite-wound occurrence were noted between the two IVC systems. Causes for these differences could not be established and need more investigation. PMID:11201288

  8. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  9. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  10. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Kähler, P.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-07-01

    The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater (DIC) is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, which is the time elapsed since a body of water has been in contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with ageing, i.e. the time component of circulation, and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". The latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere-ocean equilibration of 14C particularly in high latitudes where many water masses form. In the ocean's interior, preformed 14C-age behaves like a passive tracer. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. Here, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age. Between models, the variability of preformed 14C-age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combination of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics or gas exchange. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation, the choice of the gas-exchange constant from within the currently accepted range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age, it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a model's circulation on global and regional

  11. Stepwise assembly of mixed-metal coordination cages containing both kinetically inert and kinetically labile metal ions: introduction of metal-centred redox and photophysical activity at specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Ashley B; Metherell, Alexander J; Cullen, William; Ward, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    Stepwise preparation of the heterometallic octanuclear coordination cages [(M(a))4(M(b))4L12](16+) is reported, in which M(a) = Ru or Os and M(b) = Cd or Co (all in their +2 oxidation state). This requires initial preparation of the kinetically inert mononuclear complexes [(M(a))L3](2+) in which L is a ditopic ligand with two bidentate chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine units: in the complexes [(M(a))L3](2+) one terminus of each ligand is bound to the metal ion, such that the complex has three pendant bidentate sites at which cage assembly can propagate by coordination to additional labile ions M(b) in a separate step. Thus, combination of four [(M(a))L3](2+) units and four [M(b)](2+) ions results in assembly of the complete cages [(M(a))4(M(b))4L12](16+) in which a metal ion lies at each of the eight vertices, and a bridging ligand spans each of the twelve edges, of a cube. The different types of metal ion necessarily alternate around the periphery with each bridging ligand bound to one metal ion of each type. All four cages have been structurally characterised: in the Ru(ii)/Cd(ii) cage (reported in a recent communication) the Ru(ii) and Cd(ii) ions are crystallographically distinct; in the other three cages [Ru(ii)/Co(ii), Os(ii)/Cd(ii) and Os(ii)/Co(ii), reported here] the ions are disordered around the periphery such that every metal site refines as a 50 : 50 mixture of the two metal atom types. The incorporation of Os(ii) units into the cages results in both redox activity [a reversible Os(ii)/Os(iii) couple for all four metal ions simultaneously, at a modest potential] and luminescence [the Os(ii) units have luminescent (3)MLCT excited states which will be good photo-electron donors] being incorporated into the cage superstructure.

  12. Cellular delivery of pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes by a water-soluble arene ruthenium metalla-cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Mona Anca; Schmitt, Frédéric; Wiederkehr, Michaël; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Therrien, Bruno

    2012-06-28

    Three pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes (M(1)-M(3)) of the general formula [Ru(η(6)-arene-pyrenyl)Cl(2)(pta)] (pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) have been synthesised and characterised. Prior to the coordination to ruthenium, pyrene was connected to the arene ligand via an alkane chain containing different functional groups: ester (L(1)), ether (L(2)) and amide (L(3)), respectively. Furthermore, the pyrenyl moieties of the M(n) complexes were encapsulated within the hydrophobic cavity of the water soluble metalla-cage, [Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) (tpt = 2,4,6-tri-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine; donq = 5,8-dioxydo-1,4-naphthoquinonato), while the arene ruthenium end was pointing out of the cage, thus giving rise to the corresponding host-guest systems [M(n)⊂Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) ([M(n)⊂cage](6+)). The antitumor activity of the pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes (M(n)) and the corresponding host-guest systems [M(n)⊂cage][CF(3)SO(3)](6) were evaluated in vitro in different types of human cancer cell lines (A549, A2780, A2780cisR, Me300 and HeLa). Complex M(2), which contains an ether group within the alkane chain, demonstrated at least a 10 times higher cytotoxicity than the reference compound [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl(2)(pta)] (RAPTA-C). All host-guest systems [M(n)⊂cage](6+) showed good anticancer activity with IC(50) values ranging from 2 to 8 μM after 72 h exposure. The fluorescence of the pyrenyl moiety allowed the monitoring of the cellular uptake and revealed an increase of uptake by a factor two of the M(2) complex when encapsulated in the metalla-cage [Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+). PMID:22506276

  13. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  14. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used in the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. Organic ligands with metal ion specificity are critical components in the development of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes that are highly selective for targeted radionuclides. The traditional approach to the development of such ligands involves lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing, which in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, results in wasted research effort. The author`s approach breaks down and simplifies this costly process with the aid of computer-based molecular modeling techniques. Commercial software for organic molecular modeling is being configured to examine the interactions between organic ligands and metal ions, yielding an inexpensive, commercially or readily available computational tool that can be used to predict the structures and energies of ligand-metal complexes. Users will be able to correlate the large body of existing experimental data on structure, solution binding affinity, and metal ion selectivity to develop structural design criteria. These criteria will provide a basis for selecting ligands that can be implemented in separations technologies through collaboration with other DOE national laboratories and private industry. The initial focus will be to select ether-based ligands that can be applied to the recovery and concentration of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions including cesium, strontium, and radium.

  15. Capsaicin and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) decrease tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Xóchitl; Ortiz-Mesina, Mónica; Uribe, Tannia; Castro, Elena; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Urzúa, Zorayda; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Huerta, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vanilloid receptor (VR1) mRNA is expressed in muscle fibers. In this study, we evaluated the functional effects of VR1 activation. We measured caffeine-induced contractions in bundles of the extensor digitorum longus muscle of Rana pipiens. Isometric tension measurements showed that two VR1 agonists, capsaicin (CAP) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA), reduced muscle peak tension to 57 ± 4 % and 71 ± 3% of control, respectively. The effect of CAP was partially blocked by a VR1 blocker, capsazepine (CPZ), but the effect of NADA was not changed by CPZ. Because NADA is able to act on cannabinoid receptors, which are also present in muscle fibers, we tested the cannabinoid antagonist AM281. We found that AM281 antagonized both CAP and NADA effects. AM281 alone reduced peak tension to 80 ± 6 % of control. With both antagonists, the CAP effect was completely blocked, and the NADA effect was partially blocked. These results provide pharmacological evidence of the functional presence of the VR1 receptor in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog and suggest that capsaicin and NADA reduce tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors.

  16. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merica Slišković

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

  17. The stress protein heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibits the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftinca, Mircea; Flynn, Robyn; Basso, Lilian; Melo, Helvira; Aboushousha, Reem; Taylor, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background Specialized cellular defense mechanisms prevent damage from chemical, biological, and physical hazards. The heat shock proteins have been recognized as key chaperones that maintain cell survival against a variety of exogenous and endogenous stress signals including noxious temperature. However, the role of heat shock proteins in nociception remains poorly understood. We carried out an expression analysis of the constitutively expressed 70 kDa heat-shock cognate protein, a member of the stress-induced HSP70 family in lumbar dorsal root ganglia from a mouse model of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain. We used immunolabeling of dorsal root ganglion neurons, behavioral analysis and patch clamp electrophysiology in both dorsal root ganglion neurons and HEK cells transfected with Hsc70 and Transient Receptor Potential Channels to examine their functional interaction in heat shock stress condition. Results We report an increase in protein levels of Hsc70 in mouse dorsal root ganglia, 3 days post Complete Freund’s Adjuvant injection in the hind paw. Immunostaining of Hsc70 was observed in most of the dorsal root ganglion neurons, including the small size nociceptors immunoreactive to the TRPV1 channel. Standard whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 current after exposure to heat shock. We found that capsaicin-evoked currents are inhibited by heat shock in dorsal root ganglion neurons and transfected HEK cells expressing Hsc70 and TRPV1. Blocking Hsc70 with matrine or spergualin compounds prevented heat shock-induced inhibition of the channel. We also found that, in contrast to TRPV1, both the cold sensor channels TRPA1 and TRPM8 were unresponsive to heat shock stress. Finally, we show that inhibition of TRPV1 depends on the ATPase activity of Hsc70 and involves the rho-associated protein kinase. Conclusions Our work identified Hsc70 and its ATPase activity as a central

  18. Cannabinoid 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors discretely modulate evoked glutamate separately from spontaneous glutamate transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawley, Jessica A; Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Andresen, Michael C

    2014-06-11

    Action potentials trigger synaptic terminals to synchronously release vesicles, but some vesicles release spontaneously. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can modulate both of these processes. At cranial primary afferent terminals, the GPCR cannabinoid 1 (CB1) is often coexpressed with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel present on most afferents. Here we tested whether CB1 activation modulates synchronous, action potential-evoked (eEPSCs) and/or spontaneous (sEPSCs) EPSCs at solitary tract nucleus neurons. In rat horizontal brainstem slices, activation of solitary tract (ST) primary afferents generated ST-eEPSCs that were rapidly and reversibly inhibited from most afferents by activation of CB1 with arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) or WIN 55,212-2 [R-(+)-(2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)(1-naphthalenyl) methanone monomethanesulfonate]. The CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide] blocked these responses. Despite profound depression of ST-eEPSCs during CB1 activation, sEPSCs in these same neurons were unaltered. Changes in temperature changed sEPSC frequency only from TRPV1(+) afferents (i.e., thermal sEPSC responses only occurred in TRPV1(+) afferents). CB1 activation failed to alter these thermal sEPSC responses. However, the endogenous arachidonate metabolite N-arachidonyldopamine (NADA) promiscuously activated both CB1 and TRPV1 receptors. NADA inhibited ST-eEPSCs while simultaneously increasing sEPSC frequency, and thermally triggered sEPSC increases in neurons with TRPV1(+) afferents. We found no evidence for CB1/TRPV1 interactions suggesting independent regulation of two separate vesicle pools. Together, these data demonstrate that action potential-evoked synchronous glutamate release is modulated separately from TRPV1-mediated glutamate release despite coexistence

  19. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIANG; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and fi...

  20. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  1. Hexaphosphapentaprismane: a new gateway to organophosphorus cage compound chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Ktaifani, Mahmoud M; Bauer, Walter; Bergsträsser, Uwe; Breit, Bernhard; Francis, Matthew D; Heinemann, Frank W; Hitchcock, Peter B; Mack, Andreas; Nixon, John F; Pritzkow, Hans; Regitz, Manfred; Zeller, Matthias; Zenneck, Ulrich

    2002-06-01

    Several independent synthetic routes are described leading to the formation of a novel unsaturated tetracyclic phosphorus carbon cage compound tBu4C4P6 (1), which undergoes a light-induced valence isomerization to produce the first hexaphosphapentaprismane cage tBu4C4P6 (2). A second unsaturated isomer tBu4C4P6 (9) of 1 and the bis-[W(CO)5] complex 13 of 1 are stable towards similar isomerization reactions. Another starting material for the synthesis of the hexaphosphapentaprismane cage tBu4C4P6 (2) is the trimeric mercury complex [(tBu4C4P6)Hg]3 (11), which undergoes elimination of mercury to afford the title compound 2. Single-crystal X-ray structural determinations have been carried out on compounds 1, 2, 9, 11, and 13. PMID:12180342

  2. Biologically tunable reactivity of energetic nanomaterials using protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocik, Joseph M; Crouse, Christopher A; Spowart, Jonathan E; Naik, Rajesh R

    2013-06-12

    The performance of aluminum nanomaterial based energetic formulations is dependent on the mass transport, diffusion distance, and stability of reactive components. Here we use a biologically inspired approach to direct the assembly of oxidizer loaded protein cages onto the surface of aluminum nanoparticles to improve reaction kinetics by reducing the diffusion distance between the reactants. Ferritin protein cages were loaded with ammonium perchlorate (AP) or iron oxide and assembled with nAl to create an oxidation-reduction based energetic reaction and the first demonstration of a nanoscale biobased thermite material. Both materials showed enhanced exothermic behavior in comparison to nanothermite mixtures of bulk free AP or synthesized iron oxide nanopowders prepared without the use of ferritin. In addition, by utilizing a layer-by-layer (LbL) process to build multiple layers of protein cages containing iron oxide and iron oxide/AP on nAl, stoichiometric conditions and energetic performance can be optimized. PMID:23713514

  3. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used tin applications for the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Gravity Cage in Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Yu-cheng; DONG Guo-hai; GUI Fu-kun

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at investigation of the dynamic properties of gravity cage exposed to waves by use of a numerical model. The numerical model is developed, based on lumped mass method to set up the equations of motion of the whole cage; meanwhile the solutions of equations are solved by the Runge-Kutta-Verner fifth-order and sixth-order method. Physical model tests have been carried out to examine the validity of the numerical model. The results by the numerical simulation agree well with the experimental data.

  5. Laboratory animal welfare: cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, David P; Litvin, Oxana; Morf, Samuel; Nitsch, Roger M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Würbel, Hanno

    2004-12-16

    Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show that environmental enrichment increases neither individual variability in behavioural tests nor the risk of obtaining conflicting data in replicate studies. Our findings indicate that the housing conditions of laboratory mice can be markedly improved without affecting the standardization of results. PMID:15602544

  6. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Koeve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2, related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose

  7. Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.

  8. Caged DNA does not aggregate in high ionic strength solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Loomis, A; Slattum, P M; Hagstrom, J E; Budker, V G; Wolff, J A

    1999-01-01

    The assembly of DNA into compact particles that do not aggregate in physiologic salt solution occurs naturally in chromatin and viral particles but has been challenging to duplicate using artificial constructs. Cross-linking amino-containing polycations in the presence of DNA with bisimidoester cross-linker leads to the formation of caged DNA particles that are stable in salt solutions. This first demonstration of caged DNA provides insight into how natural condensation processes avoid aggregation and a promising avenue for developing nonviral gene therapy vectors.

  9. Reproductive performance of mice in disposable and standard individually ventilated cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages. PMID:23849403

  10. Assembly of new polyoxometalate–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four new polyoxometalate(POM)–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands, namely, [Cu6(bip)12(PMoVI12O40)2(PMoVMoVI11O40O2)]·8H2O(1), [CuI3CuII3(bip)12(PMoVI12O40)2(PMoV12O34)]·8H2O(2), [Ni6(bip)12(PMoVI12O40)(PMoVI11MoVO40)2]Cl·6H2O(3), [CoII3CoIII2(H2bib)2(Hbib)2(PW9O34)2(H2O)6]·6H2O(4) (bip=1,3-bis(imidazolyl)propane, bib=1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane) have been obtained under hydrothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. The studies of single crystal X-ray indicate that compounds 1–3 crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3, and compound 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1. Compounds 1 and 3 represent 3D frameworks, and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals, while compounds 2 and 4 show 3D frameworks by hydrogen bonds. This compounds provide new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands. In addition, the electrochemical property and the catalytic property of compound 1 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four inorganic–organic hybrid compounds based polyoxometalates (POMs) and flexible ligands, namely, have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1–3 are new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals. - Highlights: • Polyoxometalate–templated metal–organic frameworks have been prepared. • POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages. • The cages are flexibility based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands

  11. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coe JD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Coe,1 James F Zucherman,2 Donald W Kucharzyk,3 Kornelis A Poelstra,4 Larry E Miller,5 Sandeep Kunwar,6 1Silicon Valley Spine Institute, Campbell, 2San Francisco Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, CA, 3Orthopaedic Pediatric and Spine, Crown Point, IN, 4Department of Surgery, Sacred Heart Hospital on the Emerald Coast, Miramar Beach, FL, 5Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 6Bell Neuroscience Institute, Washington Hospital Healthcare System, Fremont, CA, USA Abstract: The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. Keywords: degenerative disc disease, expandable, low back pain, Luna

  12. Massive acetabular bone loss: Limits of trabecular metal cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva-Martínez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive acetabular bone loss (more than 50% of the acetabular area can result in insufficient native bone for stable fixation and long-term bone ingrowth of conventional porous cups. The development of trabecular metal cages with osteoconductive properties may allow a more biological and versatile approach that will help restore bone loss, thus reducing the frequency of implant failure in the short-to-medium term. We report a case of massive bone loss affecting the dome of the acetabulum and the ilium, which was treated with a trabecular metal cage and particulate allograft. Although the trabecular metal components had no intrinsic stability, they did enhance osseointegration and incorporation of a non-impacted particulate graft, thus preventing failure of the reconstruction. The minimum 50% contact area between the native bone and the cup required for osseointegration with the use of porous cups may not hold for new trabecular metal cups, thus reducing the need for antiprotrusio cages. The osteoconductive properties of trabecular metal enhanced allograft incorportation and iliac bone rebuilding without the need to fill the defect with multiple wedges nor protect the reconstruction with an antiprotrusio cage.

  13. Dynamics of caged ions in glassy ionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habasaki, J; Ngai, K L; Hiwatari, Y

    2004-05-01

    At sufficiently high frequency and low temperature, the dielectric responses of glassy, crystalline, and molten ionic conductors all invariably exhibit nearly constant loss. This ubiquitous characteristic occurs in the short-time regime when the ions are still caged, indicating that it could be a determining factor of the mobility of the ions in conduction at longer times. An improved understanding of its origin should benefit the research of ion conducting materials for portable energy source as well as the resolution of the fundamental problem of the dynamics of ions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of glassy lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and find that the length scales of the caged Li+ ions motions are distributed according to a Levy distribution that has a long tail. These results suggest that the nearly constant loss originates from "dynamic anharmonicity" experienced by the moving but caged Li+ ions and provided by the surrounding matrix atoms executing correlated movements. The results pave the way for rigorous treatments of caged ion dynamics by nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics.

  14. Pathogen Prevalence From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview: A study was conducted to determine if differences in pathogen prevalence occurred between a sister flock of conventional cage and free range laying hens. Both environmental and egg microbiology was monitored throughout 20 – 79 weeks of age. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria preval...

  15. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10-3 S cm-1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores.

  16. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.;

    2011-01-01

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  17. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  18. Environmental Impact of Cage Culture on Poondi Reservoir, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusuya Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Poondi reservoir, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 8 months from September, 2014 to April, 2015 where the cage culture has been already initiated by the state fisheries department. The water and sediment samples were collected from the reservoir at point and non- point sources of the cage culture units and were analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total microbial load, E. coli and feacal streptococci population were also assessed from the reservoir. During the study period, pH, sulphate, nitrate and BOD values were found within the permissible range for drinking water quality. The alkalinity values were found optimum in the reservoir water. The sediment characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and available phosphorus values were also found to be within the standard limit. The optimum water and sediment quality characteristics and the absence of E. coli and feacal streptococci observed in the cage culture unit clearly showed that the small cage farming in the reservoir does not have major environmental impacts on the water and sediment quality.

  19. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  20. Caged polyprenylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; He, Shiwen; Tang, Chu; Li, Jun; Yang, Guangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Five new caged polyprenylated xanthones (1a, 2a, 3, 10a and 10b), and 12 known related compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro. Most of xanthones showed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. PMID:26688377

  1. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10−3 S cm−1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  2. Porous Triphenylbenzene-Based Bicyclooxacalixarene Cage for Selective Adsorption of CO2/N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Luo, Yi; Zhai, Tian-Long; Ma, Hui; Chen, Jing-Jing; Shu, Yuanjie; Zhang, Chun

    2016-09-16

    A bicyclooxacalixarene cage with triangular prism structure was synthesized by a one-pot SNAr reaction. The structure of the oxacalixarene cage 1 was characterized by NMR, MS spectra, and X-ray crystal structure analyses. In the solid state, the molecular cage was assembled into an interlaced porous network structure. Gas adsorption studies indicated that cage 1 exhibited high CO2/N2 selectivity of 106. PMID:27585239

  3. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported ...

  4. Photoregulation of protein plasmid expression in vitro and in vivo using BHQ caging group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Ping Zhang; Yi Ming Li; Xiao Yun Chen; Qing Xiang Guo

    2011-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid was caged by 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinolinyl chromophore (BHQ) for controlling its expression with exact spatiotemporal resolution. In vitro and in vivo experiments clearly verified that, comparing with Bhc caging, the expression level of caged GFP plasmid was dramatically decreased and then efficiently restored after subsequent photolysis.

  5. Social communication in mice--are there optimal cage conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain-Thibeault Ferhat

    Full Text Available Social communication is heavily affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, mouse models designed to study the mechanisms leading to these disorders are tested for this phenotypic trait. Test conditions vary between different models, and the effect of these test conditions on the quantity and quality of social interactions and ultrasonic communication is unknown. The present study examines to which extent the habituation time to the test cage as well as the shape/size of the cage influence social communication in freely interacting mice. We tested 8 pairs of male mice in free dyadic social interactions, with two habituation times (20 min and 30 min and three cage formats (rectangle, round, square. We tested the effect of these conditions on the different types of social contacts, approach-escape sequences, follow behavior, and the time each animal spent in the vision field of the other one, as well as on the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations and their contexts of emission. We provide for the first time an integrated analysis of the social interaction behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations. Surprisingly, we did not highlight any significant effect of habituation time and cage shape/size on the behavioral events examined. There was only a slight increase of social interactions with the longer habituation time in the round cage. Remarkably, we also showed that vocalizations were emitted during specific behavioral sequences especially during close contact or approach behaviors. The present study provides a protocol reliably eliciting social contacts and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice. This protocol is therefore well adapted for standardized investigation of social interactions in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Application of Taguchi method in optimization of cervical ring cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Teo, Ee-Chon; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    The Taguchi method is a statistical approach to overcome the limitation of the factorial and fractional factorial experiments by simplifying and standardizing the fractional factorial design. The objective of the current study is to illustrate the procedures and strengths of the Taguchi method in biomechanical analysis by using a case study of a cervical ring cage optimization. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of C(5)-C(6) with a generic cervical ring cage inserted was modelled. Taguchi method was applied in the optimization of the cervical ring cage in material property and dimensions for producing the lowest stress on the endplate to reduce the risk of cage subsidence, as in the following steps: (1) establishment of objective function; (2) determination of controllable factors and their levels; (3) identification of uncontrollable factors and test conditions; (4) design of Taguchi crossed array layout; (5) execution of experiments according to trial conditions; (6) analysis of results; (7) determination of optimal run; (8) confirmation of optimum run. The results showed that a cage with larger width, depth and wall thickness can produce the lower von Mises stress under various conditions. The contribution of implant materials is found trivial. The current case study illustrates that the strengths of the Taguchi method lie in (1) consistency in experimental design and analysis; (2) reduction of time and cost of experiments; (3) robustness of performance with removing the noise factors. The Taguchi method will have a great potential application in biomechanical field when factors of the issues are at discrete level. PMID:17822708

  7. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  8. Multiplexed Analysis of Cage and Cage Free Chicken Egg Fatty Acids Using Stable Isotope Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Torde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binary stable isotope labeling couple with LC-ESI-MS has been used as a powerful non-targeted approach for the relative quantification of lipids, amino acids, and many other important metabolite classes. A multiplexed approach using three or more isotopic labeling reagents greatly reduces analytical run-time while maintaining excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. Three isotopic cholamine labeling reagents have been developed to take advantage of the pre-ionized character of cholamine, for ESI, and the ease by which stable isotopes can be incorporated into the cholamine structure. These three cholamine labeling reagents have been used to relatively quantify three fatty acid samples simultaneously. The quantification resulted in the observation of 12 fatty acids that had an average absolute error of 0.9% and an average coefficient of variation of 6.1%. Caged versus cage-free isotope labeling experiments showed that cage-free eggs have an increased level of omega-3 fatty acids as compared to caged eggs. This multiplexed fatty acid analysis provides an inexpensive and expedited tool for broad-based lipid profiling that will further aid discoveries in the mechanisms of fatty acid action in cells.

  9. Impaired fear extinction as displayed by serotonin transporter knockout rats housed in open cages is disrupted by IVC cage housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shan

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. A well-known example for gene x environment interactions in psychiatry is the low activity (s allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR that in the context of stress increases risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Previously, we observed robust anxiety-related phenotypes, such as an impairment in fear extinction, in 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT-/- versus wild-type (5-HTT+/+ rats housed in open cages. Recently, housing conditions were changed from open cages to individually ventilated cages (IVC, which are associated with a high ventilation fold and noise. This switch in housing conditions prompted an unplanned 5-HTT gene x environment interaction study in our rats. The current study shows that lifetime stress by means of IVC cage housing abolished genotype differences in fear extinction between 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Although this effect was not attributed specifically to either the 5-HTT+/+ or the 5-HTT-/- genotype, the findings are in agreement with the modulatory role of serotonin in the processing of environmental stimuli. Our findings also underline the possibility that housing conditions confound the interpretation of anxiety-related behaviours in rodents.

  10. Intra-cage dynamics of molecular hydrogen confined in cages of two different dimensions of clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russina, Margarita; Kemner, Ewout; Mezei, Ferenc

    2016-06-01

    In porous materials the molecular confinement is often realized by means of weak Van der Waals interactions between the molecule and the pore surface. The understanding of the mechanism of such interactions is important for a number of applications. In order to establish the role of the confinement size we have studied the microscopic dynamics of molecular hydrogen stored in the nanocages of clathrate hydrates of two different dimensions. We have found that by varying the size of the pore the diffusive mobility of confined hydrogen can be modified in both directions, i.e. reduced or enhanced compared to that in the bulk solid at the same temperatures. In the small cages with a mean crystallographic radius of 3.95 Å the confinement reduces diffusive mobility by orders of magnitude. In contrast, in large cages with a mean radius of 4.75 Å hydrogen molecules displays diffusive jump motion between different equilibrium sites inside the cages, visible at temperatures where bulk H2 is solid. The localization of H2 molecules observed in small cages can promote improved functional properties valuable for hydrogen storage applications.

  11. Conserved residues within the putative S4-S5 region serve distinct functions among thermosensitive vanilloid transient receptor potential (TRPV) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukalova, Stepana; Marsakova, Lenka; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2010-12-31

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is a tetrameric six-transmembrane segment (S1-S6) channel that can be synergistically activated by various proalgesic agents such as capsaicin, protons, heat, or highly depolarizing voltages, and also by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common activator of the related thermally gated vanilloid TRP channels TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3. In these channels, the conserved charged residues in the intracellular S4-S5 region have been proposed to constitute part of a voltage sensor that acts in concert with other stimuli to regulate channel activation. The molecular basis of this gating event is poorly understood. We mutated charged residues all along the S4 and the S4-S5 linker of TRPV1 and identified four potential voltage-sensing residues (Arg(557), Glu(570), Asp(576), and Arg(579)) that, when specifically mutated, altered the functionality of the channel with respect to voltage, capsaicin, heat, 2-APB, and/or their interactions in different ways. The nonfunctional charge-reversing mutations R557E and R579E were partially rescued by the charge-swapping mutations R557E/E570R and D576R/R579E, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute to allosteric coupling between the voltage-, temperature- and capsaicin-dependent activation mechanisms. The mutant K571E was normal in all aspects of TRPV1 activation except for 2-APB, revealing the specific role of Lys(571) in chemical sensitivity. Surprisingly, substitutions at homologous residues in TRPV2 or TRPV3 had no effect on temperature- and 2-APB-induced activity. Thus, the charged residues in S4 and the S4-S5 linker contribute to voltage sensing in TRPV1 and, despite their highly conserved nature, regulate the temperature and chemical gating in the various TRPV channels in different ways.

  12. Effects of Cage Density, Sanitation Frequency, and Bedding Type on Animal Wellbeing and Health and Cage Environment in Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V.; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disapp...

  13. Effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal wellbeing and health and cage environment in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disappearance, cage ammonia, ATP concentrations, behavior, morbidity, and mortality were assessed weekly; fecal corticosterone, microbiology, and lung histopathology (rats only) were evaluated at the culmination of the trial. In both rats and mice, parameters indicative of animal health and welfare were not significantly affected by cage density and sanitation frequency or bedding type. Occasional effects of feed disappearance and cage ammonia concentrations due to density and sanitation guidelines were noted in rat cages, and bedding type affected cage ammonia and ATP concentrations. Periodic spikes of cage ammonia and ATP concentrations were recorded in mouse cages maintained according to inhouse compared with Guide standards and in cages containing aspen compared with cellulose or aspen-cellulose mixed bedding. Ongoing studies and historical data support the finding that deviations or exceptions from the cage density and sanitation frequency standards set forth in the Guide do not negatively affect animal health, welfare, or production parameters at our institution. These parameters appear to be credible measures of animal health and wellbeing and may be useful for evaluating performance standards for animal husbandry. PMID:23294884

  14. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2013-03-01

    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2-15 years old) that had been housed in a group for at least 7 months were moved to three kinds of single cages (small, medium and large) by rotation on a Latin square design. They experienced each cage size for 6 days. Cats could use vertical dimensions when housed in a group room and the large cage. Behavioral observation was conducted for 3 h in the evening, and stress levels were assessed by urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios. The amounts (estimated proportions) of time spent in locomotion and social/solitary play were lower even in large cages than in group housing (both P < 0.05). Conversely, the amount of time spent resting tended to increase when housed singly (P = 0.104). The urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios of singly housed cats tended to be higher than that of group-housed cats (P = 0.086). The results indicate that cats become less active when they are housed singly in cages regardless of the cage size. Cats seem to feel no undue stress even in small cages if the stay is short. PMID:23480709

  15. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    polyamines are known to modulate the function of these receptors in vivo. In this study, recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of polyamine-based ligands are given, particularly focusing on the use of solid-phase synthesis (SPS) as a tool for the facile generation of libraries of polyamine toxin...

  16. Mutual Inductance in the Bird-Cage Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp

    1997-05-01

    Formulas are derived to account for the effect of the mutual inductances, between all meshes, upon the electrical resonance spectra bird-cage resonators, and similar structures such as the TEM resonator of P. K. H. Roschmann (United States Patent 4,746,866) and J. T. Vaughan et al. (Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 206, 1994). The equations are parameterized in terms of isolated mesh frequencies and coupling coefficients, and ought therefore apply not only to simple magnetic couplings used in the derivation, but to electromagnetic couplings as well. A method for measuring the coupling coefficients-applicable to shielded as well as unshielded resonators-is described, based upon the splitting of frequencies in pairs of coupled resonators; and detailed comparisons are given between calculated and measured resonance spectra: for bird-cage resonators, with and without shields, and for the TEM resonator.

  17. Cages and anomalous diffusion in vibrated dense granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalliet, Camille; Gnoli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2015-05-15

    A vertically shaken granular medium hosts a blade rotating around a fixed vertical axis, which acts as a mesorheological probe. At high densities, independently of the shaking intensity, the blade's dynamics shows strong caging effects, marked by transient subdiffusion and a maximum in the velocity power density spectrum, at a resonant frequency ~10 Hz. Interpreting the data through a diffusing harmonic cage model allows us to retrieve the elastic constant of the granular medium and its collective diffusion coefficient. For high frequencies f, a tail ~1/f in the velocity power density spectrum reveals nontrivial correlations in the intracage microdynamics. At very long times (larger than 10 s), a superdiffusive behavior emerges, ballistic in the most extreme cases. Consistently, the distribution of slow velocity inversion times τ displays a power-law decay, likely due to persistent collective fluctuations of the host medium. PMID:26024199

  18. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J. [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Otter, Wouter K. den, E-mail: w.k.denotter@utwente.nl [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Multi Scale Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  19. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-13

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  20. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-01

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  1. Inherent helicity in an extended tris-bipyridyl molecular cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, D.; Lindoy, L.; Meehan, G.; Turner, P. (University of Sydney)

    2010-11-16

    A new molecular cage incorporating three bipyridyl units has been synthesised by a conventional multi-step procedure as well as, much more efficiently, by a Ni(II) template procedure; an X-ray structure of the nickel complex shows that it adopts an exo configuration of each of the bridgehead nitrogen lone pairs, the central metal ion acts to promote a triple helical twist that extends {approx}22 {angstrom} along the axial length of the molecule.

  2. Chemical control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum on caged layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levot, G W

    1992-04-01

    Manual application of aqueous solutions of malathion, carbaryl and permethrin controlled northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum Canestrini and Fanzago, on caged layer hens for at least 118 days. Azamethiphos sprayed manually provided acceptable control for a shorter period. Machine application, particularly of azamethiphos, but also malathion, provided lesser control. The addition of surfactant increased the wetting ability of the sprays but interfered with the efficacy of azamethiphos. PMID:1421482

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Feddes; Robert Lagacé; Stéphane Godbout; Sébastien Fournel; Frédéric Pelletier

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were measured from three different cage layer housing systems. A comparative study was conducted to identify the housing system with the least impact on the environment. The results showed that liquid manure from deep-pit housing systems produces greater emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) than natural and forced dried manure from belt housing systems. The influencing factors appeared to be the manure removal f...

  4. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  5. Energy saving work of frequency controlled induction cage machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy saving work, understood as lowering the supply voltage when load torque is much less than rated, is one way of reducing power losses in an induction cage machine working with a variable load. Reduction in power losses also affects the thermal properties of an induction machine because the energy saving work allows the temperature rise of the windings to decrease. Thanks to a lower temperature of the windings, the same load torque can be carried by a machine of less rated power. The ability of energy saving work to reduce the temperature of windings depends on the thermal properties of an induction machine, which are different in the case of a machine with foreign ventilation and its own ventilation. This paper deals with the thermal effect of energy saving work on a frequency controlled induction cage machine. A comparison of the properties of a machine with its own and outside ventilation is presented. The results of the investigations are shown for a 3 kW induction cage machine with the two previously mentioned ways of ventilation: one provided with a fan placed on a shaft and the other provided with a fan driven by an auxiliary motor

  6. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin;

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnorma......The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs...... of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites...... in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia) and the fur...

  7. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dreele, Robert B.

    2008-12-23

    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  8. Effect of Cage-Wash Temperature on the Removal of Infectious Agents from Caging and the Detection of Infectious Agents on the Filters of Animal Bedding-Disposal Cabinets by PCR Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Susan R; Macy, James D

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconvert...

  9. Ligand-Receptor Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bongrand, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The formation and dissociation of specific noncovalent interactions between a variety of macromolecules play a crucial role in the function of biological systems. During the last few years, three main lines of research led to a dramatic improvement of our understanding of these important phenomena. First, combination of genetic engineering and X ray cristallography made available a simultaneous knowledg of the precise structure and affinity of series or related ligand-receptor systems differing by a few well-defined atoms. Second, improvement of computer power and simulation techniques allowed extended exploration of the interaction of realistic macromolecules. Third, simultaneous development of a variety of techniques based on atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic flow, biomembrane probes, optical tweezers, magnetic fields or flexible transducers yielded direct experimental information of the behavior of single ligand receptor bonds. At the same time, investigation of well defined cellular models raised the ...

  10. Ligand exclusion on acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, H A; Leonard, K

    1990-11-27

    This paper examines covalent reactivity of AchE with respect to cationic and uncharged methylphosphonates and substrates in the absence and presence of cationic ligands selective for the active center and the peripheral anionic site. The organophosphorus inhibitors are enantiomeric alkyl methylphosphonothioates (1-5) containing cycloheptyl and isopropyl phosphono ester groups and S-methyl, S-n-pentyl, and S-[beta-(trimethylammonio)ethyl] leaving groups; these agents differ in their configuration about phosphorus and their steric, hydrophobic, and electrostatic characteristics. The synthetic substrates examined are acetylthiocholine, p-nitrophenyl acetate, and 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (7AMC). Antagonism of the methylphosphonothioate reaction by cationic ligands is strongly dependent on the nature of both the cation and the methylphosphonate but independent of the configuration about phosphorus. While all cations cause linear mixed inhibition of acetylthiocholine hydrolysis, there are observed a variety of inhibition patterns of 7AMC and p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis that are distinctly nonlinear, as well as patterns in which the reciprocal plots intersect in the upper right quadrant. Strong antagonism of cationic (methylphosphonyl)thiocholines correlates very well with linear inhibition of acetylthiocholine. Ligands that cause only negligible antagonism of the uncharged methylphosphonates display nonlinear inhibition of uncharged substrates. These relationships, since they are most pronounced for peripheral site ligands and are strongly dependent on the charge carried by the reactant, suggest that the peripheral anionic site alters enzyme reactivity through an electrostatic interaction with the net negative active center. Such behavior indicates a potential role for the peripheral anionic site in conserving AchE catalytic efficiency within a narrow range of values. PMID:2271673

  11. Flow Field Characteristics of the Rotor Cage in Turbo Air Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lijie; LIU Jiaxiang; LIU Shengzhao

    2009-01-01

    The turbo air classifier is widely used powder classification equipment in a variety of fields. The flow field characteristics of the turbo air classifier are important basis for the improvement of the turbo air classifier's structural design. The flow field characteristics of the rotor cage in turbo air classifiers were investigated under different operating conditions by laser Doppler velocimeter(LDV), and a measure diminishing the axial velocity is proposed. The investigation results show that the tangential velocity of the air flow inside the rotor cage is different from the rotary speed of the rotor cage on the same measurement point due to the influences of both the negative pressure at the exit and the rotation of the rotor cage. The tangential velocity of the air flow likewise decreases as the radius decreases in the case of the rotor cage's low rotary speed. In contrast, the tangential velocity of the air flow increases as the radius decreases in the case of the rotor cage's high rotary speed. Meanwhile, the vortex inside the rotor cage is found to occur near the pressure side of the blade when the rotor cage's rotary speed is less than the tangential velocity of air flow. On the contrary, the vortex is found to occur near the blade suction side once the rotor cage's rotary speed is higher than the tangential velocity of air flow. Inside the rotor cage, the axial velocity could not be disregarded and is largely determined by the distances between the measurement point and the exit.

  12. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (pcages (phens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (phens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (pcage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  13. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  14. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a novel activator of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hairuo; Östman, Johan; Bubb, Kristen J; Panayiotou, Catherine; Priestley, John V; Baker, Mark D; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2012-04-20

    TRPV1 is a member of the transient receptor potential ion channel family and is gated by capsaicin, the pungent component of chili pepper. It is expressed predominantly in small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and is activated by noxious temperatures >42 °C. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P-450 4A/4F-derived metabolite of the membrane phospholipid arachidonic acid. It is a powerful vasoconstrictor and has structural similarities with other TRPV1 agonists, e.g. the hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid 12-HPETE, and we hypothesized that it may be an endogenous ligand for TRPV1 in sensory neurons innervating the vasculature. Here, we demonstrate that 20-HETE both activates and sensitizes mouse and human TRPV1, in a kinase-dependent manner, involving the residue Ser(502) in heterologously expressed hTRPV1, at physiologically relevant concentrations. PMID:22389490

  15. An examination of the utility of heterophil-lymphocyte ratios in assessing stress of caged hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul F

    2015-03-01

    To measure stress in caged hens, differential counts of their wing vein blood were used to determine heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and total white blood cell counts (TWBC). The H/L values of 18-wk samples from conventionally caged hens (CC) were not statistically different from hens raised in aviaries (AV) when calculated by either of 2 methods (H/L 1 and H/L 2). However, there was a high degree of variation among samples within each cage type. The TWBC data and hematology indicated leukocytosis, leukemoid reactions, and a high frequency of atypia. Reactive lymphocytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes, cyanophils, coccinocytes, and atypical heterophils were common. Analysis of 77-wk data indicated significant differences among 3 cage types. The H/L 1 of enriched caged (EN) hens was twice (0.91) that of either AV (0.33) or CC (0.44) hens (Phens caged in modern systems. PMID:25480738

  16. Synthesis and photochemical properties of PEGylated coumarin-caged ceramides for cell studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ah; Day, Jenna; Lirette, Carol Ann; Costain, Willard J; Johnston, Linda J; Bittman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Caged ceramide analogues (C6-, C16-, C18-, C22- and C24-Cer) have been prepared by introducing a hydrophilic coumarin-based cage bearing a short polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain. (6-Bromo-7-mTEGylated-coumarin-4-yl)methyl (Btc) caged ceramide showed efficient photo-uncaging to release the parent ceramide upon direct exposure to 350 nm UV light; in contrast (7-mTEGylated-coumarin-4-yl)methyl (Tc) caged ceramide was photolysed more slowly. In preliminary experiments, Btc-caged ceramides were taken up by cells and their photolysis led to decreases in cell viability, but not to activation of caspase enzymes, suggesting that either reactive oxygen species or an alternate caspase-independent pathway may be responsible for the decreases in cell viability caused by photolysis of caged ceramides.

  17. Bexarotene ligand pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, R E

    2000-12-01

    Bexarotene (LGD-1069), from Ligand, was the first retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective, antitumor retinoid to enter clinical trials. The company launched the drug for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as Targretin capsules, in the US in January 2000 [359023]. The company filed an NDA for Targretin capsules in June 1999, and for topical gel in December 1999 [329011], [349982] specifically for once-daily oral administration for the treatment of patients with early-stage CTCL who have not tolerated other therapies, patients with refractory or persistent early stage CTCL and patients with refractory advanced stage CTCL. The FDA approved Targretin capsules at the end of December 1999 for once-daily oral treatment of all stages of CTCL in patients refractory to at least one prior systemic therapy, at an initial dose of 300 mg/m2/day. After an NDA was submitted in December 1999 for Targretin gel, the drug received Priority Review status for use as a treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with stage IA, IB or IIA CTCL [354836]. The FDA issued an approvable letter in June 2000, and granted marketing clearance for CTCL in the same month [370687], [372768], [372769], [373279]. Ligand had received Orphan Drug designation for this indication [329011]. At the request of the FDA, Ligand agreed to carry out certain post-approval phase IV and pharmacokinetic studies [351604]. The company filed an MAA with the EMEA for Targretin Capsules to treat lymphoma in November 1999 [348944]. The NDA for Targretin gel is based on a multicenter phase III trial that was conducted in the US, Canada, Europe and Australia involving 50 patients and a multicenter phase I/II clinical program involving 67 patients. Targretin gel was evaluated for the treatment of patients with early stage CTCL (IA-IIA) who were refractory to, intolerant to, or reached a response plateau for at least 6 months on at least two prior therapies. Efficacy results exceeded the protocol-defined response

  18. Are assemblages of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata enhanced in sediments beneath offshore fish cages?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Riera; Oscar Prez; Myriam Rodrguez; Eva Ramos; scar Monterroso

    2014-01-01

    Abundances of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata were counted through a monitoring assessment study of fish cages in Barranco Hondo (NE Tenerife). Seven campaigns were conducted from November 2007 to June 2010 and temporal variations were found, as well as differences among sampling stations. The poly-chaete H. carunculata obtained its highest abundance in sediments beneath fish cages throughout the study period. Thus, the assemblages of this omnivorous species were favoured by the presence of fish cages.

  19. Reproductive Performance of Mice in Disposable and Standard Individually Ventilated Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintain...

  20. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Skye; Miller, Melinda M.; Filipski, Sarah B.; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables and husbandry practices can influence physiology and alter behavior in mice. Our study evaluated the effects of cage change on serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL/6 male mice. We examined the effects of 3 different methods of performing cage transfer and of transferring mice to a clean or a dirty familiar cage microenvironment. The 3 different handling methods were forceps transfer, gentle transfer with gloved hands, and a passive transfer t...

  1. Progesterone After Estradiol Modulates Shuttle-Cage Escape by Facilitating Volition

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeaux, Darryl J.; Tandle, Sarah M.; Cilano, Sean M.; Fitzharris, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In animal models of depression, depression is defined as performance on a learning task. That task is typically escaping a mild electric shock in a shuttle cage by moving from one side of the cage to the other. Ovarian hormones influence learning in other kinds of tasks, and these hormones are associated with depressive symptoms in humans. The role of these hormones in shuttle-cage escape learning, however, is less clear. This study manipulated estradiol and progesterone in ovariectomized fem...

  2. Healing properties of allograft from alendronate-treated animal in lumbar spine interbody cage fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Qingyun; Li, Haisheng; Zou, Xuenong; Bünger, Mathias; Egund, Niels; Lind, Martin; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Bünger, Cody

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the healing potential of allograft from bisphosphonate-treated animals in anterior lumbar spine interbody fusion. Three levels of anterior lumbar interbody fusion with Brantigan cages were performed in two groups of five landrace pigs. Empty Brantigan cages or cages filled with either autograft or allograft were located randomly at different levels. The allograft materials for the treatment group were taken from the pigs that had been fed with alendronate, 10 mg daily ...

  3. Individually Ventilated Cages Impose Cold Stress on Laboratory Mice: A Source of Systemic Experimental Variability

    OpenAIRE

    David, John M.; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M.; Stout, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermor...

  4. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Hrabčáková; Eva Voslářová; Iveta Bedáňová; Vladimíra Pištěková; Jan Chloupek; Vladimír Večerek

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P ...

  5. Shape assisted fabrication of fluorescent cages of squarate based metal-organic coordination frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Krishna, Katla Sai; George, Subi J; Eswaramoorthy, Muthuswamy; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2013-05-11

    Micronic cage structures of squarate based metal-organic coordination frameworks (MOCFs) have been fabricated for the first time by specific anion selective etching of metal squarate cubes. Time and stoichiometry dependent synthesis and the corresponding microscopic studies have provided mechanistic insight into the cage formation. Furthermore, a non-covalent post-synthetic strategy has been adopted to functionalize the micronic cubes or cages with chromophores rendering the resulting hybrids green fluorescent.

  6. Hollow Gold Cages and Their Topological Relationship to Dual Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombach, Lukas; Rampino, Sergio; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2016-06-20

    Golden fullerenes have recently been identified by photoelectron spectra by Bulusu et al. [S. Bulusu, X. Li, L.-S. Wang, X. C. Zeng, PNAS 2006, 103, 8326-8330]. These unique triangulations of a sphere are related to fullerene duals having exactly 12 vertices of degree five, and the icosahedral hollow gold cages previously postulated are related to the Goldberg-Coxeter transforms of C20 starting from a triangulated surface (hexagonal lattice, dual of a graphene sheet). This also relates topologically the (chiral) gold nanowires observed to the (chiral) carbon nanotubes. In fact, the Mackay icosahedra well known in gold cluster chemistry are related topologically to the dual halma transforms of the smallest possible fullerene C20 . The basic building block here is the (111) fcc sheet of bulk gold which is dual to graphene. Because of this interesting one-to-one relationship through Euler's polyhedral formula, there are as many golden fullerene isomers as there are fullerene isomers, with the number of isomers Niso increasing polynomially as O(Niso9 ). For the recently observed Au16- , Au17- , and Au18- we present simulated photoelectron spectra including all isomers. We also predict the photoelectron spectrum of Au32- . The stability of the golden fullerenes is discussed in relation with the more compact structures for the neutral and negatively charged Au12 to Au20 and Au32 clusters. As for the compact gold clusters we observe a clear trend in stability of the hollow gold cages towards the (111) fcc sheet. The high stability of the (111) fcc sheet of gold compared to the bulk 3D structure explains the unusual stability of these hollow gold cages. PMID:27244703

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Feddes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age. The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively, CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1. The shift to manure belt systems needs to be encouraged since this housing system significantly decreases the production of GHG.

  8. Molecular path for ligand search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Lu; Yuan Yuan Qiao; Pan Wen Shen

    2011-01-01

    A ligand is a small molecule bind to several residues of a receptor. We adapt the concept of molecular path for effective ligand search with its contacting residues. Additionally, we allow wild type definitions on atoms and bonds of molecular paths for fuzzy algorithms on structural match. We choose hydrogen bond interactions to characterize the binding mode of a ligand by several proper molecular paths and use them to query the deposited ligands in PDBe that interact with their residues in the same way. Expression of molecular path and format of database entries are described with examples. Our molecular path provides a new approach to explore the ligand-receptor interactions and to provide structural framework reference on new ligand design.

  9. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Esakkidurai; M Kumarraja; K Pitchumani

    2003-04-01

    Phenol is nitrated regioselectively by fuming nitric acid inside the cages of faujasite zeolites (dependent on the loading level) and a remarkable orthoselectivity is observed in solid state nitration. Toluene and chlorobenzene also containing ortho-/para-orienting substituents, undergo faster nitration, though the regioselectivity is less significant in zeolite media. The results are explained on the basis of diffusion and binding of phenol inside zeolite, which facilitate regioselectivity (and which is absent in toluene and chlorobenzene). Other advantages of employing zeolites as media for mild and selective nitration are also highlighted.

  10. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  11. Experimental Determination of Stray Load Losses in Cage Induction Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Aoulkadi, M´hamed

    2011-01-01

    With different purposeful measurements like for the stray load losses and the flux densities, on two low-voltage squirrel-cage rotor asynchronous generators for 1.5 MW wind turbines with different types of the stator winding (litz and round wire), the sources of the losses and the causes for the winding overheating are localized and defined. Different measures to reduce the stray load losses due the skin effect in the stator of the round wire winding generator are successfully tested and impl...

  12. Effects of Nominal Differences in Cage Height and Floor Space on the Wellbeing of Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kay L; Suckow, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits. Groups of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were housed in cages that provided either 15 in. of interior cage height (720 in(2) of floor space) or 18 in. of interior height (784 in(2) of floor space). The rabbits were observed during 25 periods (1 h each) over 7 wk, and various behavioral parameters were scored. In addition, rabbits were weighed weekly, and general clinical health was assessed. After 4 wk, the groups were switched to the alternate housing. No significant differences in body weight gain or behavioral parameters were detected between groups housed in cages with different heights and amounts of floor space, nor were significant behavioral differences noted in individual rabbits when moved from one cage type to the other. In addition, all rabbits remained clinically healthy throughout the study. These results demonstrate that these differences in interior cage height neither benefit nor harm rabbits. PMID:27025808

  13. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n......=46) or standard cages (2.550 cm², n=44). Behavioural observations were made four weeks before birth until kits were nine weeks old with one-zero sampling during two hours before feeding. During week 1-4 after females had given birth they were mostly recorded in the nest box and there were no...... differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...

  14. Size effect of fullerene cages and encaged clusters in M3N@C2n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN LiHua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the calculated findings that the sizes of encaged clusters determine the structures and the stability of C80-based trimetallic nitride fullerenes (TNFs), more extensive density functional theory calculations were performed on M3N@C68, M3N@C78 and M3N@C80 (M=Sc, Y and La). The calculated results demonstrated that the structures and stability undergo a transition with the increasing of the sizes of the cages and clusters. Sc3N is planar inside the three considered cages, Y3N is slightly pyramidal inside C68-6140 and C78-5 and planar inside Ih C80-7, however, La3N is pyramidal inside all the three cages. Those cages with pyramidal clusters inside deformed considerably, compared with their parent cages. In these cases, the bonding of metallic atoms toward the cages does not play an impor-tant role, and the encaged cluster tends to be located inside the cages with the largest M-M and M-C distances so that the strain energy can be released mostly. These calculations revealed the size effect of fullerene cages and encaged clusters, and can explain the position priority of M3N inside fullerene cages and the differences in yield of M3N@C2n.

  15. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Chen, H; Yu, T; Li, B

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage. PMID:27587158

  16. Evaluation of cage micro-environment of mice housed on various types of bedding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schweitzer, I.; Langley, S.H.; Smith, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of environmental factors can affect the outcomes of studies using laboratory rodents. One such factor is bedding. Several new bedding materials and processing methods have been introduced to the market in recent years, but there are few reports of their performance. In the studies reported here, we have assessed the cage micro-environment (in-cage ammonia levels, temperature, and humidity) of mice housed on various kinds of bedding and their combinations. We also compared results for bedding supplied as Nestpaks versus loose bedding. We studied C57BL/6J mice (commonly used) and NOD/LtJ mice (heavy soilers) that were maintained, except in one study, in static duplex cages. In general, we observed little effect of bedding type on in-cage temperature or humidity; however, there was considerable variation in ammonia concentrations. The lowest ammonia concentrations occurred in cages housing mice on hardwood bedding or a mixture of corncob and alpha cellulose. In one experiment comparing the micro-environments of NOD/LtJ male mice housed on woodpulp fiber bedding in static versus ventilated caging, we showed a statistically significant decrease in ammonia concentrations in ventilated cages. Therefore, our data show that bedding type affects the micro-environment in static cages and that effects may differ for ventilated cages, which are being used in vivaria with increasing frequency.

  17. Temporal variation of the static electric field inside an animal cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, T; Tsuchida, Y; Nishiyama, F; Matsumoto, G; Nakamura, H; Shimizu, K

    1981-01-01

    The temporal variation of a static electric field inside an animal cage was investigated with a newly developed small, simple field meter. The field inside the cage was found to be highly dependent on the surface conductivity of the dielectric material. As the surface of the cage became dirty because of animal occupancy, the static electric field inside it became considerably smaller from the moment the field was turned on. Clean cages also modified the static electric field inside them, the field decaying from an initial to a much lower value over several hours. The mechanism of field attenuation for both cases is surface leakage. Surface leakage for a clean cage takes place much more slowly than for a dirty cage. This was confirmed by measuring DC insulation resistance. To examine this phenomenon further, the field in a metal cage width high electrical conductivity was measured. The static electric field inside the metal cage was also found to be reduced. An improved cage design that avoids these problems, is suggested for the study of the biologic effects of static electric fields. PMID:7326060

  18. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  19. Size effect of fullerene cages and encaged clusters in M3N@C2n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the calculated findings that the sizes of encaged clusters determine the structures and the stability of C80-based trimetallic nitride fullerenes (TNFs), more extensive density functional theory calculations were performed on M3N@C68, M3N@C78 and M3N@C80 (M=Sc, Y and La). The calculated results demonstrated that the structures and stability undergo a transition with the increasing of the sizes of the cages and clusters. Sc3N is planar inside the three considered cages, Y3N is slightly pyramidal inside C68-6140 and C78-5 and planar inside I h C80-7, however, La3N is pyramidal inside all the three cages. Those cages with pyramidal clusters inside deformed considerably, compared with their parent cages. In these cases, the bonding of metallic atoms toward the cages does not play an impor-tant role, and the encaged cluster tends to be located inside the cages with the largest M-M and M-C distances so that the strain energy can be released mostly. These calculations revealed the size effect of fullerene cages and encaged clusters, and can explain the position priority of M3N inside fullerene cages and the differences in yield of M3N@C2n.

  20. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  1. Effects of Cage Density on the Performance of Laying Hens During High Summer Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Altan, Ali; ALTAN, Özge; ÖZKAN, Sezen; Özkan, Kahraman; AKBAŞ, Yavuz; Ayhan, Veysel

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different cage densities on laying performance of white and brown hybrid layers during high summer temperatures. White layers, 68 weeks of age, were housed at a density of 3, 4 or 5 hens/cage (respectively 640, 480 and 384 cm2/hen); brown layers were housed at 3 or 4 hens/cage (respectively 640 and 480 cm2/hen). The results indicated that housing at 3 or 4 hens/cage did not affect egg production or egg quality significantly. Increasing t...

  2. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production. PMID:27478744

  3. NOX3 NADPH oxidase couples transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-mediated inflammation and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2011-03-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24 h, which recovered by 72 h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss. PMID:20712533

  4. Comparison of shell bacteria from unwashed and washed table eggs harvested from caged laying hens and cage-free floor-housed laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, J F; Wilson, J L; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V; Musgrove, M T; Richardson, L J; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2011-07-01

    These studies evaluated the bacterial level of unwashed and washed shell eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens. Hy-Line W-36 White and Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed on all wire slats or all shavings floor systems. On the sampling days for experiments 1, 2, and 3, 20 eggs were collected from each pen for bacterial analyses. Ten of the eggs collected from each pen were washed for 1 min with a commercial egg-washing solution, whereas the remaining 10 eggs were unwashed before sampling the eggshell and shell membranes for aerobic bacteria and coliforms (experiment 1 only). In experiment 1, the aerobic plate counts (APC) of unwashed eggs produced in the shavings, slats, and caged-housing systems were 4.0, 3.6, and 3.1 log(10) cfu/mL of rinsate, respectively. Washing eggs significantly (P hens in triple-deck cages from 57 to 62 wk (previously housed on shavings, slats, and cages) did not differ, with APC ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 log(10) cfu/mL. Washing eggs continued to significantly reduce APC to below 0.2 log(10) cfu/mL. In experiment 3, the APC for unwashed eggs were within 0.4 log below the APC attained for unwashed eggs in experiment 1, although hen density was 28% of that used in experiment 1. Washing eggs further lowered the APC to 0.4 to 0.7 log(10) cfu/mL, a 2.7-log reduction. These results indicate that shell bacterial levels are similar after washing for eggs from hens housed in these caged and cage-free environments. However, housing hens in cages with manure removal belts resulted in lower APC for both unwashed and washed eggs (compared with eggs from hens housed in a room with shavings, slats, and cages). PMID:21673176

  5. Macrocyclic G-quadruplex ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M C; Ulven, Trond

    2010-01-01

    G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds have recently received increased interest due to their potential application as anticancer therapeutics. A significant number of structurally diverse G-quadruplex ligands have been developed. Some of the most potent and selective ligands currently known are...... macrocyclic structures which have been modeled after the natural product telomestatin or from porphyrin-based ligands discovered in the late 1990s. These two structural classes of G-quadruplex ligands are reviewed here with special attention to selectivity and structure-activity relationships, and with focus...

  6. Optical triggered seizures using a caged 4-Aminopyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui eZhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of epilepsy are critical not only for understanding the fundamental mechanism of epilepsy but also for testing the efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs and novel therapeutic interventions. Photorelease of caged molecules is widely used in biological research to control pharmacologic events with high spatio-temporal resolution. We developed a technique for in vivo optical triggering of neocortical seizures using a novel caged compound based on ruthenium photochemistry (RuBi-4AP. Epileptiform events were induced with blue light illumination. Multi-electrode array recording and optical techniques were used to characterize the propagation of these epileptic events. Epileptiform events including interictal spikes, polyspikes, and ictal discharges were induced with blue light illumination. This model can be induced in vivo with both whole brain and focal illumination to provide high spatio-temporal control of the site of ictal onset. These results demonstrate a novel optically-triggered seizure model that may have widespread application in the investigation of ictal onset, propagation and in novel light-based therapeutic interventions.

  7. Large-scale clustering of CAGE tag expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Jun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses have suggested that many genes possess multiple transcription start sites (TSSs that are differentially utilized in different tissues and cell lines. We have identified a huge number of TSSs mapped onto the mouse genome using the cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE method. The standard hierarchical clustering algorithm, which gives us easily understandable graphical tree images, has difficulties in processing such huge amounts of TSS data and a better method to calculate and display the results is needed. Results We use a combination of hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering to cluster expression profiles of TSSs based on a large amount of CAGE data to profit from the best of both methods. We processed the genome-wide expression data, including 159,075 TSSs derived from 127 RNA samples of various organs of mouse, and succeeded in categorizing them into 70–100 clusters. The clusters exhibited intriguing biological features: a cluster supergroup with a ubiquitous expression profile, tissue-specific patterns, a distinct distribution of non-coding RNA and functional TSS groups. Conclusion Our approach succeeded in greatly reducing the calculation cost, and is an appropriate solution for analyzing large-scale TSS usage data.

  8. Animal welfare beyond the cage...and beyond the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    In "Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage," Balcombe (2010/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and more enriched spaces reduce aggression and mortality and improve the health and friendliness of rodents in the laboratory. Remarkably, many of the studies cited as supporting these assertions fail to provide data bearing on the issues involved or may even report findings opposite to those described by Balcombe, whereas many studies that are highly relevant to these issues are not cited or described. Moreover, although the "evolved needs" of rats and mice are presented as the basis for an analysis of rodent welfare, the important and well-documented changes in needs- or motivation-related behaviors of a rodent in the laboratory (due to human selection over hundreds of generations) is ignored. This pattern of disconnections between data and conclusions is so pervasive as to demolish the scientific value of the exposition. PMID:20017049

  9. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  10. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Comparison of titanium and polyetheretherketone cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabraja Mario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Titanium (TTN cages have a higher modulus of elasticity when compared with polyetheretherketone (PEEK cages. This suggests that TTN-cages could show more frequent cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF and therefore might lead to a higher loss of correction. We compared the long term results of stand-alone PEEK- and TTN-cages in a comparable patient collective that was operated under identical operative settings. Methods From 2002 to 2007 154 patients underwent single-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease (DDD. Clinical and radiological outcome were assessed in 86 eligible patients after a mean of 28.4 months. 44 patients received a TTN- and 42 patients a PEEK-cage. Results Solid arthrodesis was found in 93.2% of the TTN-group and 88.1% of the PEEK-group. Cage subsidence was observed in 20.5% of the TTN- and 14.3% of the PEEK-group. A significant segmental lordotic correction was achieved by both cage-types. Even though a loss of correction was found at the last follow-up in both groups, it did not reach the level of statistical significance. Statistical analysis of these results revealed no differences between the TTN- and PEEK-group. When assessed with the neck disability index (NDI, the visual analogue scale (VAS of neck and arm pain and Odom’s criteria the clinical data showed no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of ACDF with TTN- or PEEK-cages do not appear to be influenced by the chosen synthetic graft. The modulus of elasticity represents only one of many physical properties of a cage. Design, shape, size, surface architecture of a cage as well as bone density, endplate preparation and applied distraction during surgery need to be considered as further important factors.

  11. A generic strategy for pharmacological caging of growth factors for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria; Lienemann, Philipp S; Sprossmann, Natallia; Heilmann, Katharina; Brummer, Tilman; Lutolf, Matthias P; Ehrbar, Martin; Weber, Wilfried

    2013-07-01

    The caging of small molecules has revolutionized biological research by providing a means to regulate a wide range of processes. Here we report on a generic pharmacological method to cage proteins in a similar fashion. The present approach is of value in both fundamental and applied research, e.g. in tissue engineering.

  12. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  13. Modulation of aggression in male mice : influence of group size and cage size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Mol, JA; Koolhaas, JM; Van Zutphen, BFM; Baumans, [No Value; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Zutphen, Bert F.M. van; Baumans, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Aggression in group-housed male mice is known to be influenced by both cage size and group size. However, the interdependency of these two parameters has not been studied yet. In this study, the level of aggression in groups of three, five, or eight male BALB/c mice housed in cages with a floor size

  14. A pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene cage: Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent A.; Jeppesen, Jan O.; Levillain, Eric;

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of tetrathiafulvalene-cage 4 containing three monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene units has been prepared employing a general and efficient synthetic approach. X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that the cage is able to accommodate solvent molecules within a cavity in the solid state....

  15. Self-Assembly, Guest Capture, and NMR Spectroscopy of a Metal-Organic Cage in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Eun Bin; Srisuknimit, Veerasak; Cheng, Stephanie L.; Vosburg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A green organic-inorganic laboratory experiment has been developed in which students prepare a self-assembling iron cage in D[subscript 2]O at room temperature. The tetrahedral cage captures a small, neutral molecule such as cyclohexane or tetrahydrofuran. [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis distinguishes captured and free guests through diagnostic…

  16. Alterations of diaphragm and rib cage morphometry in severe COPD patients by CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salito, C; Luoni, E; Aliverti, A

    2015-08-01

    Although it is known that in patients with COPD acute hyperinflation determines shortening of the inspiratory muscles, its effects on both diaphragm and rib cage morphology are still to be investigated. In this preliminary study the relationships between hyperinflation, emphysema, diaphragm and rib cage geometry were studied in 5 severe COPD patients and 5 healthy subjects. An automatic software was developed to obtain the 3-D reconstruction of diaphragm and rib cage from CT scans taken at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV). Dome surface area (Ado), radius of curvature, length (Ld) and position (referred to xiphoid level) of the diaphragm and antero-posterior (A-P) and transverse (T) diameters of rib cage were calculated at both volumes. Ado and Ld were similar in COPD and controls when compared at similar absolute lung volumes. Radius of curvature was significantly higher in COPD than in controls only at TLC. In COPD, the range of diaphragm position was invariantly below the xiphoid level, while in controls the top of diaphragm dome was always above it. Rib cage diameters were not different at TLC. A-P diameter was greater in COPD than in controls at RV, while T diameters were similar. In conclusion, in severe COPD diaphragm and rib cage geometry is altered at RV. The lower position of diaphragm is associated to smaller A-P but not transversal rib cage diameters, such that rib cage adopts a more circular shape. PMID:26737755

  17. Biomechanische Untersuchung eines biodegradierbaren Cages zur interkorporellen Spondylodese der Halswirbelsäule.

    OpenAIRE

    Gumnior, Sarah Nicole Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical evaluation of a biodegradable cage for interbody fusion at the cervical spine Biomechanical evaluation of a biodegradable cage for interbody fusion in the cervical spine. A in vivo animal study in a sheep model.   Abstract Background Anterior interbody fusion using an intervertebral spacer is a widely accepted surgical treatment for patients with degenerative and traumatic cervical spinal-c...

  18. Healing properties of allograft from alendronate-treated animal in lumbar spine interbody cage fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qingyun; Li, Haisheng; Zou, Xuenong; Bünger, Mathias; Egund, Niels; Lind, Martin; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Bünger, Cody

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the healing potential of allograft from bisphosphonate-treated animals in anterior lumbar spine interbody fusion. Three levels of anterior lumbar interbody fusion with Brantigan cages were performed in two groups of five landrace pigs. Empty Brantigan cages or cages filled with either autograft or allograft were located randomly at different levels. The allograft materials for the treatment group were taken from the pigs that had been fed with alendronate, 10 mg daily for 3 months. The histological fusion rate was 2/5 in alendronate-treated allograft and 3/5 in non-treated allograft. The mean bone volume was 39% and 37.2% in alendronate-treated or non-treated allograft (NS), respectively. No statistical difference was found between the same grafted cage comparing two groups. The histological fusion rate was 7/10 in all autograft cage levels and 5/10 in combined allograft cage levels. No fusion was found at all in empty cage levels. With the numbers available, no statistically significant difference was found in histological fusion between autograft and allograft applications. There was a significant difference of mean bone volume between autograft (49.2%) and empty cage (27.5%) (P<0.01). In conclusion, this study did not demonstrate different healing properties of alendronate-treated and non-treated allograft for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in pigs. PMID:15248057

  19. Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.R.; Alaux, C.; Costa, C.; Csaki, C.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may c

  20. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness Following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe eBrantsæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 and 21 (N = 48 weeks of age selected from 50 and 48 independent cages. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages.

  1. Metal based synthetic routes to heavy alkaline earth aryloxo complexes involving ligands of moderate steric bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Guino-o, Marites; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2009-07-01

    Treatment of an alkaline earth metal (Ca, Sr, Ba) with 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (HOmes) at elevated temperatures in the presence of mercury under solvent-free conditions, followed by extraction of the reaction mixture with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (dme), afforded dinuclear alkaline earth aryloxo complexes [Ae2(Omes)4(dme)4] (Ae = Ca 1, Sr 3, Ba 6). Extraction of the Ca metal and HOmes reaction mixture with thf afforded [Ca3(Omes)6(thf)] 2. In contrast, redox transmetallation ligand exchange reactions between an alkaline earth metal, diphenylmercury and HOmes in dme yielded solely 1 for Ca metal, a mixture of 3 and the methoxide bridged cage [Sr5(Omes)5(OMe)5(dme)4] x 2dme 4 for Sr metal, and solely [Ba5(Omes)5(OMe)5(dme)4] x dme 7 for Ba metal. The methoxide ligands originate from the C-O activation of the dme solvent. Treatment of liquid ammonia activated Sr or Ba metal with HOmes in thf afforded the linear species [Ae3(Omes)6(thf)6] (Ae = Sr 5, Ba 8), and 8 was also obtained from barium metal and HOmes in refluxing thf. The structures of 1 and 3, determined by X-ray crystallography, consist of two six coordinate Ae metal atoms, to each of which is bound a terminal aryloxide ligand, two bridging aryloxide ligands, and chelating and unidentate dme ligands. The structures of 4 and 7 contain five Ae metal atoms arranged on the vertices of a distorted square based pyramid. The Ae atoms are linked by four mu3-OMe ligands and a mu4-OMe ligand. Four bridging aryloxide ligands and four chelating dme ligands complete the coordination spheres of the four seven coordinate Ae atoms at the base of the pyramid, and a terminal aryloxide ligand is bound to the five coordinate apical Ae atom. The structures of 5 and 8 consist of a trinuclear linear array of Ae metal atoms, and contain solely bridging aryloxide ligands. Three thf ligands are bound to each terminal Ae atom, giving all Ae atoms a coordination number of six. PMID:19662279

  2. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  3. Outcome of instrumented lumbar fusion for low grade spondylolisthesis; Evaluation of interbody fusion with & without cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, Mostafa; Fahmy, Mohamed; Fakhri, Mazen; Aref, Khaled; Abdin, Khaled; Zidan, Ihab

    2010-01-01

    Object: The aim is to evalute the outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with autologous bone graft versus titanium Cages, BAK system (Bagby – Kuslich, Spine Tech, Inc. Minneapolis, MN) for low grade spondyloisthesis (Grade1,11). Interbody cages have been developed to replace tricortical Interbody grafts in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedures. The cages provide immediate post operative stability and facilitate bony union with cancellous bone packed in the cage itself. METHOD: We Evaluated 50 consecutive patients in whom surgery was performed between June 2000 to June 2003 in the Main Alexandria University Hospital at EGYPT. Twenty five patients were operated using autologous bone graft and 25 patients using the BAK cages. The neuro–radiologic al work up consisted of; plain X – ray lumbosacral spine including dynamic films preoperative and postoperative follow up; C.T lumbosacral spine and MRI lumbosacral spine. The surgery was performed at L4-5 level in 34 cases and at L5-S1 level in 16 cases. The median follow up was 15 months. RESULTS: Satisfactory fusion was obtained at all levels at a minimum one year follow – up. The fusion rate was 96% (24 patients) for the cage group and 80% (20 patients) for bone graft group however clinical improvement was 64% (16 patients) for those with bone graft group. CONCLUSION: A higher fusion rates and a better clinical outcome have been obtained by Instrumented PLIF with titanium cages that with bone graft. Inderbody fusion cages help to stabilize spainal segment primarily by distracting them as well as by allowing bone ingrowth and fusion. The procedure is safe and effective with 96% fusion rate and 76% overall Satisfactory rate. The use of cages help to distract the space between the vertebral bodies making the correction of the degree of spondylolisthesis easier. Long term follow up revealed better fusion rate and better realignment and less resorption with cages than with bone grafts. PMID

  4. Quantitative determination of capsaicin, a transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1 agonist, by liquid chromatography quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry: evaluation of in vitro metabolic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2009-02-01

    Capsaicin is the most abundant pungent molecule present in red peppers and it is widely used for food flavoring, in pepper spray in self-defense devices and more recently in ointments for the relief of neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is a selective agonist of transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1. A selective and sensitive quantitative method for the determination of capsaicin by LC-ESI/MS/MS was developed. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a 100 x 2 mm C(18) Waters Symmetry column combined with a gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution at a flow rate of 220 microL/min. The mass spectrometer was operating in full-scan MS/MS mode using two-segment analysis. An analytical range of 10-5000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve constructed in rat plasma. The interbatch precision and accuracy observed were 6.5, 6.7, 5.3 and 101.2, 102.7, 103.5% at 50, 500 and 5000 ng/mL, respectively. An in vitro metabolic stability study was performed in rat, dog and mouse liver microsomes and the novel analytical method was adapted and used to determine intrinsic clearance of capsaicin. Results suggest very rapid degradation with T(1/2) ranging from 2.3 to 4.1 min and high clearance values suggesting that drug bioavailability will be considerably reduced, consequently affecting drug response and efficacy. PMID:18816461

  5. Protective effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) modulator, against behavioral, biochemical and structural damage in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayant, Shalini; Sharma, B M; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-07-01

    Alzheime's disease (AD) is an overwhelming neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by synaptic dysfunction, memory loss, neuro-inflammation and neural cell death. Very few treatments are in hand for the management of AD and they are only concentrating on peculiar aspects. Hence, an immense thrust is required to find utmost therapeutic targets to conquer this condition. This study investigates a potential role of vanillin, a selective agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in the experimental models of AD viz. intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose induced AD in mice. The i.c.v. administration of STZ and intraperitoneally administration of AlCl3+d-galactose have significantly impaired learning-memory (Morris water maze and attentional set-shifting test), brain structure (hematoxylin, eosin and Congo red staining), enhanced brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance - TBARS and glutathione - GSH), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), inflammation (MPO), and calcium levels (Ca(++)). Treatment with vanillin in different doses and donepezil have significantly ameliorated i.c.v. STZ and AlCl3+d-galactose induced reduction in executive function, impaired reversal learning, cognition, memory and brain damage. Treatment with these drugs has also reduced the brain oxidative stress (TBARS and GSH), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), and AChE, MPO, and Ca(++) levels. These results indicate that vanillin, a selective agonist of TRPV1 and donepezil, a potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor have attenuated i.c.v. STZ and AlCl3+d-galactose induced experimental AD. Hence, pharmacological positive modulation of TRPV1 channels may be a potential research target for mitigation of AD. PMID:27084583

  6. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) in the ventral tegmental area of rat: Role in modulation of the mesolimbic-dopamine reward pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uday; Kumar, Santosh; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Yadav, Manoj; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Goswami, Chandan; Lechan, Ronald M; Singru, Praful S

    2016-11-01

    While dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) drive the mesolimbic-reward pathway, confluent lines of evidence underscore the importance of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels as novel regulators of these neurons. Among the TRPV-subfamily, TRPV3 is of particular interest in reward, since active ingredients of flavour-enhancing spices in food serve as TRPV3 agonists and modulate DAergic neurotransmission. The nature of TRPV3 elements in the VTA and their role in driving the mesolimbic-DA-reward pathway has however, remained unexplored. We observed TRPV3 mRNA as well as TRPV3-immunoreactive neurons in the VTA of Wistar rats. We therefore explored whether these ion channels participate in modulating mesolimbic-DA reward pathway. In the posterior VTA (pVTA), 82 ± 2.6% of the TRPV3 neurons co-express tyrosine hydroxylase and 68 ± 5.5% of these neurons project to the nucleus accumbens shell (Acb shell). While ex vivo treatment of midbrain slices with TRPV3-agonist, thymol increased [Ca(2+)]i-activity in pVTA neurons, intra-pVTA injections of thymol in freely-moving, satiated rats enhanced positive reinforcement for active lever pressings in an operant chamber to self-administer sweet pellets. This behavior was attenuated by prior treatment with intra-Acb shell DA D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists. These results demonstrate a role for TRPV3 in driving mesolimbic-DA food-reward pathway, and underscores the importance of these channels in the VTA as key components processing reward.

  7. Depression of presynaptic excitation by the activation of vanilloid receptor 1 in the rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we show that capsaicin (CAP depresses primary afferent fiber terminal excitability by acting on vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 channels of primary afferent fibers in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP- and temperature-dependent manner using two optical imaging methods. First, transverse slices of spinal cord were stained with a voltage-sensitive dye and the net excitation in the spinal dorsal horn was recorded. Prolonged treatment (>20 min with the TRPV1 channel agonist, CAP, resulted in a long-lasting inhibition of the net excitation evoked by single-pulse stimulation of C fiber-activating strength. A shorter application of CAP inhibited the excitation in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition was reversed within several minutes. This inhibition was Ca++-dependent, was antagonized by the TRPV1 channel antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ, and the P2X and P2Y antagonist, suramin, and was facilitated by the P2Y agonist, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP. The inhibition of excitation was unaffected by bicuculline and strychnine, antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors, respectively. Raising the perfusate temperature to 39°C from 27°C inhibited the excitation (-3%/°C. This depressant effect was antagonized by CPZ and suramin, but not by the P2X antagonist, 2', 3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP. Second, in order to record the presynaptic excitation exclusively, we stained the primary afferent fibers anterogradely from the dorsal root. CAP application and a temperature increase from 27°C to 33°C depressed the presynaptic excitation, and CPZ antagonized these effects. Thus, this study showed that presynaptic excitability is modulated by CAP, temperature, and ATP under physiological conditions, and explains the reported central actions of CAP. These results may have clinical importance, especially for the control of pain.

  8. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2016-07-27

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  9. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya' akobovitz, A. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Bedewy, M. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. J. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices.

  10. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices

  11. CAGE Analysis of China’s Trade Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun STOBER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gravity model of international trade states that trade interaction between two countries is in direct proportion to their size measured by Gross Domestic Product and in inverse proportion to the geographic distance. Conley and Ligon (2001 argued that the relevant economic distance between countries is often not the geographic distance. Thus, this study uses original datasets on economic distance to structure observed variations, to decompose the multidimensional CAGE distance framework of globalization derived from the Newton’s Law of gravitation as it applies to China’s international interaction, to evaluate bilateral trade patterns in identifying and prioritizing the importance of cross-border flows and differences that accounted for the development of China’s global strategies. This study confirms that distance must be accounted for in the decision making of any country’s globalization process or any firm’s global expansion as the effects on cross-border economic activities are enormous.

  12. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns. PMID:26237714

  13. Role of cage material, working style and hearing sensitivity in perception of animal care noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, H-M; Nevalainen, T; Halonen, P; Hakumäki, M; Björk, E

    2006-10-01

    During daily care, laboratory animals are exposed to a variety of sounds which may have effects on welfare and also cause physiological and behavioural changes. So far, almost no attention has been paid to individual sounds or the sound level caused by animal care or the sound level inside the animal cage. In this study, sounds from selected rat care procedures were recorded: pulling cage out of the rack, placing it onto a table and replacing the cage back into the rack; with measurements made inside the rat cage and in the adjacent cage. Diet was poured into the food hopper and sounds were recorded inside the cage and also the adjacent cage. The work was repeated in a calm and also in a hurried style, using stainless steel and polycarbonate cages. Finally, the sounds produced by running tap water were recorded. Differences between rat and human hearing were compared using novel species-specific sound level weightings: R-weighting for rats dB(R) and H-weighting for human dB(H). Hurried work with steel caused sound exposure levels exceeding 90 dB(R) when the cages were placed into the rack and about 80 dB(R) when pulling them out of the rack or placing onto a table. With polycarbonate, the levels were 10-15 dB(R) lower. Unhurried calm working produced lower sound exposure levels than hurried working in many procedures. When the procedures were repeated with measurements in the adjacent cage, the sound exposure levels were lower, but the results were similar. Pouring food pellets into a hopper above the rat's head caused 15 dB(R) higher sound exposure levels than pouring food to an adjacent cage. In general, humans hear these sounds about 10-15 dB louder than rats. In conclusion, cage material, working style and hearing sensitivity all have an impact on the sound exposure level in the rodent cage. With correct working methods, high sound levels can be efficiently avoided in most cases. PMID:17018211

  14. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; Kelly, Richard; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system. PMID:26817976

  15. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; Kelly, Richard; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system.

  16. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; III, Richard Kelly; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague–Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system. PMID:26817976

  17. Cage-induced stereotypies, perseveration and the effects of environmental enrichment in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alexandra N; Richter, S Helene; Engel, A Katarina J; Würbel, Hanno

    2012-09-01

    When kept in barren and restrictive cages, animals frequently develop stereotypic behaviour patterns that are characterized by high repetition rates, conspicuous invariance and an apparent lack of function. Although millions of animals are affected, the underlying causes and mechanisms are still unclear. Growing evidence suggests that cage-induced stereotypies may reflect pathological dysfunction within basal ganglia circuitry expressed by perseverative behaviour. In order to assess whether variation in stereotypy performance and variation in perseverative behaviour may have a common cause in ICR CD-1 mice, we assessed the effects of environmental enrichment on both phenomena. We raised 48 female ICR CD-1 mice in standard or enriched cages from three weeks to either 6 or 11 months of age and measured stereotypy level in the home cage and perseveration on an extinction task. We further examined whether enriched rearing conditions (early enrichment) protect mice from the developing stereotypies later in life and whether stereotypies developed in barren cages would persist in an enriched environment (late enrichment) by transferring standard mice to enriched cages and vice versa for 14 weeks after completion of the extinction task. We found no evidence for a causal relation between stereotypy and perseveration in mice. However, transfer to enriched cages reduced stereotypy levels significantly both at 6 and 11 months of age indicating that stereotypies had not become established yet. Finally, we found that removing enrichments at both ages did not induce higher stereotypy levels, thereby confirming earlier reports of a neuroprotective effect of early enrichment. PMID:22721674

  18. Evaluation of the 96/4 PLDLLA polymer resorbable lumbar interbody cage in a long term animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Jean Y; Madi, Abdallah; Rousseau, Marc A; Roger, Bernard; Saillant, Gérard

    2006-10-01

    Arthrodesis using interbody cages has demonstrated high fusion rates. However, permanent cages are exposed to stress-shielding, corrosion, and may require explanation when necessary. Polylactic acid (PLA) bioresorbable cages are developed for avoiding these problems, but significant tissue reaction has been reported with 70/30 PLDLLA in some preclinical animal studies. The objective was to evaluate 96/4 PLDLLA cages in a sheep model over 3 years. Sixteen sheeps underwent one level anterior lumbar interbody fusion using 96/4 PLDLLA cages, filled and surrounded with cancellous bone graft from the iliac crest. Six groups of three animals were killed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months. Harvested lumbar spine had radiographic, MRI, and CT evaluation and histological analysis. Histological results: cage swelling and slight signs of fragmentation associated to fibrocartilaginous tissue apposition at 3 months; bone remodeling around the cage with direct apposition of the mineralization front at 6 months; active cage degradation and complete fusion around the cage at 9 months; cage fragmentation and partial replacement by bone tissue at 12 months; bone bridges in and around the cage at 24 months; full resorption and intervertebral fusion at 36 months. Radiological results: partial arthrodesis at 3 months; definite peripheral arthrodesis at 6 months; similar aspect at 9 months; significant cage resorption at 12 months; definite inner and outer fusion at 24 months; complete cage resorption and calcification at the location of the cage at 36 months confirmed histological observations. Radiographic, CT scan, MRI, and histological data were consistent for showing progressive resorption of 96/4 PLDLLA, interbody fusion, and bone remodeling, with no significant signs of local intolerance reaction. These results are promising and suggest further development of 96/4 PLDLLA cages. PMID:16736199

  19. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  20. Assembly of new polyoxometalate–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Lv, Lei; Huang, Rudan, E-mail: huangrd@bit.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Four new polyoxometalate(POM)–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands, namely, [Cu{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}Mo{sup VI}{sub 11}O{sub 40}O{sub 2})]·8H{sub 2}O(1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 3}Cu{sup II}{sub 3}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}{sub 12}O{sub 34})]·8H{sub 2}O(2), [Ni{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40})(PMo{sup VI}{sub 11}Mo{sup V}O{sub 40}){sub 2}]Cl·6H{sub 2}O(3), [Co{sup II}{sub 3}Co{sup III}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}bib){sub 2}(Hbib){sub 2}(PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·6H{sub 2}O(4) (bip=1,3-bis(imidazolyl)propane, bib=1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane) have been obtained under hydrothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. The studies of single crystal X-ray indicate that compounds 1–3 crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3, and compound 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1. Compounds 1 and 3 represent 3D frameworks, and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals, while compounds 2 and 4 show 3D frameworks by hydrogen bonds. This compounds provide new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands. In addition, the electrochemical property and the catalytic property of compound 1 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four inorganic–organic hybrid compounds based polyoxometalates (POMs) and flexible ligands, namely, have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1–3 are new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals. - Highlights: • Polyoxometalate

  1. Spiro annulation of cage polycycles via Grignard reaction and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic strategy to C2-symmetric bis-spiro-pyrano cage compound 7 involving ring-closing metathesis is reported. The hexacyclic dione 10 was prepared from simple and readily available starting materials such as 1,4-naphthoquinone and cyclopentadiene. The synthesis of an unprecedented octacyclic cage compound through intramolecular Diels–Alder (DA reaction as a key step is described. The structures of three new cage compounds 7, 12 and 18 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  2. Pet Birds. Cages and Practices of Domestication in Eighteenth-Century Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Breittruck, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the genesis of the »pet making« of birds in eighteenth-century Paris. It examines the ways in which particular cages, and the corresponding imagination and practice of caretaking and domestication, construed birds as »pets.« The status of these animals in either their difference or similarity to »the human« is analyzed by looking at different kinds of bird-caging instructions. First, I found that bird caging developed as a cultural technique of domestication since it org...

  3. Apoptotic activity of caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chariya; Hahnvajanawong; Wongwarut; Boonyanugomol; Tapanawan; Nasomyon; Watcharin; Loilome; Nisana; Namwat; Natthinee; Anantachoke; Wichittra; Tassaneeyakul; Banchob; Sripa; Wises; Namwat; Vichai; Reutrakul

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the growth inhibitory mechanism of four caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma(CCA) KKU-100 and KKU-M156 cells.METHODS:Four caged xanthones,selected on the basis of their anticancer potency and chemical structure diversities(i.e.isomorellin,isomorellinol,forbesione and gambogic acid) were used in this study.Growth inhibition of these caged xanthones was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay.Induction of apoptosis was assessed by observing cell morphology,ethidi...

  4. Tuning the Topology and Functionality of Metal–Organic Frameworks by Ligand Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Timmons, Daren J; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2011-02-15

    collapsing, giving rise to the first case of mesoporous MOF that demonstrates the type IV isotherm. We use dendritic hexacarboxylate ligands to synthesize an isoreticular series of MOFs with (3,24)-connected network topology. The cuboctahedral cages serve as building blocks that narrow the opening of the mesocavities into microwindows and stabilize these MOFs. The resulting materials have exceptionally high surface areas and hydrogen uptake capacities. Despite the many achievements in MOF development, there is still ample opportunity for further exploration. We will be continuing our efforts and look forward to contributing to this blossoming field in the next decade.

  5. The effect of cage and house design on egg production and egg weight of White Leghorn hens: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P; Kiess, A S; Mench, J A; Newberry, R C; Hester, P Y

    2012-07-01

    Hen performance can be affected by many interacting variables related to cage design, such as floor area, height, tier arrangement, and feeder and drinker type and placement within the cage. Likewise, features of house design such as waste management and lighting can also affect hen productivity. The influence of these design aspects on hen performance has not been fully assessed. Determining the effects of numerous, interacting variables is impractical in a traditional experiment; therefore, an epidemiological approach, using variability in cage and house design among and within commercial producers, was employed to identify features that affect egg production and egg weight. A universal cage measurement system was created to calculate cage design variables. A database for recording information on cage design, resource location, waste management, environmental conditions, and hen productivity was developed. Production outcomes were assessed from placement to 60 wk of age in White Leghorns (n = 165-168 houses). Using GLM, a statistical model was identified that best described the variance in egg traits. Eggs/hen-housed increased with greater feeder space allocation (P = 0.031); taller cages (P = 0.029); rear (vs. front) drinker location in vertical cages (P = 0.026); and regular removal of manure from the house (P = 0.005). Case weight of eggs was greater in A-frame houses where manure was removed regularly instead of being left in the house (P cage floor slope (P = 0.001); in cages where drinkers were placed more toward the front or back of the cage as compared with the middle of the cage (P hen (P = 0.024); and with higher caloric intake (P cage heights (P cage height, drinker position, and waste management on hen productivity. PMID:22700495

  6. Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann eGo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons receive thousands of synaptic inputs that are distributed in space and time. The systematic study of how neurons process these inputs requires a technique to stimulate multiple yet highly targeted points of interest along the neuron's dendritic tree. Three-dimensional multi-focal patterns produced via holographic projection combined with two-photon photolysis of caged compounds can provide for highly localized release of neurotransmitters within each diffraction-limited focus, and in this way emulate simultaneous synaptic inputs to the neuron. However, this technique so far cannot achieve time-dependent stimulation patterns due to fundamental limitations of the hologram-encoding device and other factors that affect the consistency of controlled synaptic stimulation. Here, we report an advanced technique that enables the design and application of arbitrary spatio-temporal photostimulation patterns that resemble physiological synaptic inputs. By combining holographic projection with a programmable high-speed light-switching array, we have overcome temporal limitations with holographic projection, allowing us to mimic distributed activation of synaptic inputs leading to action potential generation. Our experiments uniquely demonstrate multi-site two-photon glutamate uncaging in three dimensions with submillisecond temporal resolution. Implementing this approach opens up new prospects for studying neuronal synaptic integration in four dimensions.

  7. Bioresorbable polymers: heading for a new generation of spinal cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuisman, P I J M; Smit, T H

    2006-02-01

    The use of polymer-based bioresorbable materials is now expanding to the realm of spinal interbody fusion. Bioresorbable polymers have important advantages over metals, because they are temporary, much less stiff, and radiolucent. Most promising is a group of alpha-polyesters, in particular polylactide acids (PLAs). Their biocompatibility is excellent, and they have sufficient stiffness and strength to provide initial and intermediate-term stability required for bone healing. However, polylactides have characteristics that make them vulnerable to complications if not properly controlled. Degradation rate strongly depends on polymer type, impurities, manufacturing process, sterilization, device size, and the local environment. The fact that larger implants degrade faster is contra-intuitive, and should be considered in the design process. Also optimal surgical techniques, such as careful bone bed preparation, are required for a successful application of these materials. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the specific properties of these bioresorbable polymers and to discuss their potential and limitations. This is illustrated with early preclinical and clinical data.Bioresorbable cage technology is just emerging: their time-engineered degradation characteristics allow controlled dynamization in interbody applications, facilitating spinal fusion. Their radiolucency improves image assessment of fusion healing. Acceptance and use of bioresorbable implants may increase as further research and clinical studies report on their safety, efficacy, and proper usage. PMID:16292588

  8. B28: the smallest all-boron cage from an ab initio global search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Huang, Xiaoming; Shi, Ruili; Liu, Hongsheng; Su, Yan; King, R. Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures.Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Planar isomer structures of B28 and spatial distributions of front molecular orbitals. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04034e

  9. Bedding disposal cabinet for containment of aerosols generated by animal cage cleaning procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, C L; Sabel, F L; Henke, C B

    1976-02-01

    Laboratory tests with aerosolized spores and animal room tests with uranine dye indicate the effectiveness of a prototype bedding disposal cabinet in reducing airborne contamination generated by cage cleaning procedures. PMID:826219

  10. Cooperative Veratryle and Nitroindoline Cages for Two-Photon Uncaging in the NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto Diaz, Eduardo; Picard, Sébastien; Klausen, Maxime; Hugues, Vincent; Pagano, Paolo; Genin, Emilie; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2016-07-25

    Tandem uncaging systems in which a two-photon absorbing module and a cage moiety, linked via a phosphorous clip, that act together by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been developed. A library of these compounds, using different linkers and cages (7-nitroindolinyl or nitroveratryl) has been synthesized. The investigation of their uncaging and two-photon absorption properties demonstrates the scope and versatility of the engineering strategy towards efficient two-photon cages and reveals surprising cooperative and topological effects. The interactions between the 2PA module and the caging moiety are found to promote cooperative effects on the 2PA response while additional processes that enhance the uncaging efficiency are operative in well-oriented nitroindoline-derived dyads. These synergic effects combine to lead to record two-photon uncaging cross-section values (i.e., up to 20 GM) for uncaging of carboxylic acids. PMID:27346866

  11. The design of a cervical vertebra titanium plate-interbody fusion cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the biomechanical feature of a newly designed cervical vertebra internal fixation device and its clinical applications Methods: Some functional spinal units were fixed respectively with titanium plate, fusion cage and new device designed by ourselves, then a controlled biomechanical study including flexion, extension, torsion and lateral bending was performed and the results were analyzed. Results: As to the mechanical performance, fusion cage showed poor performance in extension test and so did the titanium plate in the distortion test. However, the new device showed good performance in every test. Conclusion: Both simple titanium plate fixation and simple fusion cage fixation have biomechanical defaults, but they are complementary. The titanium plate-interbody fusion cage avoids the defaults and has specific advantages.

  12. Visualization of Metal-to-Ligand and Ligand-to-Ligand Charge Transfer in Metal-Ligand Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ding; Jian-xiu Guo; Xiang-si Wang; Sha-sha Liu; Feng-cai Ma

    2009-01-01

    Three methods including the atomic resolved density of state, charge difference density, and the transition density matrix are used to visualize metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) in ruthenium(Ⅱ) ammine complex. The atomic resolved density of state shows that there is density of Ru on the HOMOs. All the density is localized on the ammine, which reveals that the excited electrons in the Ru complex are delocalized over the ammine ligand. The charge difference density shows that all the holes are localized on the Ru and the electrons on the ammine. The localization explains the MLCT on excitation. The transition density matrix shows that there is electron-hole coherence between Ru and ammine. These methods are also used to examine the MLCT in Os(bpy)(p0p)Cl ("Osp0p"; bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl; p0p=4,4'-bipyridyl) and the ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT) in Alq3. The calculated results show that these methods are powerful to examine MLCT and LLCT in the metal-ligand system.

  13. Diaphragm muscle shortening modulates kinematics of lower rib cage in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Iris; Fernandez, Cristina; Rodowicz, Kathleen Allen; Lopez, Michael A.; Lu, Raymond; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm muscle shortening modulates volume displacement and kinematics of the lower rib cage in dogs and that posture and mode of ventilation affect such modulation. Radiopaque markers were surgically attached to the lower three ribs of the rib cage and to the midcostal region of the diaphragm in six dogs of ∼8 kg body masses, and the locations of these markers were determined by a biplane fluoroscopy system. Three-dimensional software modeling techniques were ...

  14. A practical guide to the synthesis of dinitroindolinyl-caged neurotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Davies, Graham C. R.

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for efficient chemical synthesis of dinitroindolinyl derivatives of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid. these caged neurotransmitters are currently the most chemically and photochemically efficient probes for two-photon photolysis in living brain slices. the protocol only requires basic organic synthesis equipment, and no silica gel column chromatography or NMR spectroscopy is needed at any stage. Hplc is used to purify the caged transmitters at the end of ...

  15. Control System for Producing Electricity with Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Nicolae Tutelea; Sorin Ioan Deaconu; Gabriel Nicolae Popa

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present the key design equations and control design model of the Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator (DSWIG) to achieve wide-speed-range operation with reduced capacity of the static power controller for low power wind or hydro applications. The proposed induction generator consists of a standard squirrel-cage rotor and a stator with two separate windings wound for a similar number of poles. Moreover, the system control strategy using the stato...

  16. Photorelease of GABA with Visible Light Using an Inorganic Caging Group

    OpenAIRE

    Rial Verde, Emiliano M.; Zayat, Leonardo; Etchenique, Roberto; Yuste, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    We describe the selective photorelease of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) with a novel caged-GABA compound that uses a ruthenium complex as photosensor. This compound (“RuBi-GABA”) can be excited with visible wavelengths, providing greater tissue penetration, less photo-toxicity, and faster photorelease kinetics than currently used UV light-sensitive caged compounds. Using pyramidal neurons from neocortical brain slices, we show that RuBi-GABA uncaging induces GABA-A receptor-mediated responses, ...

  17. Synthesis of Silsesquioxane Cages from Phenyl-cis-tetrol,1,3-Divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and Cyclopentyl Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-hua; Alan R. Bassindale; Peter G. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of Ts, T10 and T12 silsesquioxane cages from a range of starting materials: phenyl-cistetrol, 1,3-divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and cyclopentyl T resins by using tetra n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) as the catalyst is described in this paper. The reaction yields obtained via the current route are better compared to those via the literature routes. Some of the cage compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Titanium Alloy Cage Implantation for the Treatment of Ischemic Necrosis of Femoral Head in Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiying WANG; Yan GAO; Shuhua YANG; Cao YANG

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of titanium alloy cage on the treatment of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head in dog, the model of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head was made with the liquid nitrogon in 15 hybrid adult dogs. The titanium alloy cage made of a hollow cylinder was driven into the subchondral bone of necrotic femoral head via central channel. The dogs were divided into 3 groups, each group was sacrificed 3, 6, 12 weeks after the operation respectively. No collapse of femoral head was observed after the operation. The position of the cages was good on radiograph. Microscopically, the cancellous bone of necrotic femoral head rebuilt gradually and grew into cage. After 12 weeks of creeping substitution, the cancellous bone filled up the hollow cavity and holes of the cages. It is concluded that the titanium alloy cage can provide structural support for the subchondral bone and prevent collapse and can be used for the treatment of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head.

  19. DFT-based inhibitor and promoter selection criteria for pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snehanshu Pal; T K Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations have been performed to provide electronic structure property correlation based reasoning for conceptualizing the effect of encapsulated methane molecule on the formation of methane hydrate cages, the role of methanol and ethylene glycol as inhibitor and the role of tetra-hydro-furan (THF) and cyclopentane as promoter of methane hydrate. Geometry optimization of 512 cage, 51262 cage and 51264 cage with and without encapsulated methane and the cluster of 512 cage with ethylene glycol, methanol, cyclopentane have been performed by density functional theory using B97X-D/6-31++G(d,p) method. Methane hydrate formation inhibition by methanol and ethylene glycol as well as methane hydrate stabilization by cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran are critically analysed based on the interaction energy, free energy change, dipole moment and infrared frequency calculation. Calculation of free energy change for formation of methane hydrate with/without reagents at various temperature and pressure using optimized structure is reported here. It is observed that hydrogen bond between water molecules of clathrate 512 cages become stronger in the presence of cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran but weaker/broken in the presence of ethylene glycol and methanol. Simulated results correspond well with experimental findings and can be useful for designing new inhibitor and promoter molecules for gas hydrate formation.

  20. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being. PMID:27057787

  1. Provision Of Carbon Nanotube Bucky Paper Cages For Immune Shielding Of Cells, Tissues, and Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, David J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method for enclosing cells and/or tissue, for purposes of growth, cell differentiation, suppression of cell differentiation, biological processing and/or transplantation of cells and tissues (biological inserts), and for secretion, sensing and monitoring of selected chemical substances and activation of gene expression of biological inserts implanted into a human body. Selected cells and/or tissue are enveloped in a "cage" that is primarily carbon nanotube Bucky paper, with a selected thickness and porosity. Optionally, selected functional groups, proteins and/or peptides are attached to the carbon nanotube cage, or included within the cage, to enhance the growth and/or differentiation of the cells and/or tissue, to select for certain cellular sub-populations, to optimize certain functions of the cells and/or tissue and/or to optimize the passage of chemicals across the cage surface(s). A cage system is also used as an immuns shield and to control operation of a nano-device or macroscopic device, located within the cage, to provide or transform a selected chemical and/or a selected signal.

  2. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being.

  3. Effect of cage density on the performance of 25- to 84-week-old laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Rios

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carrie out to evaluate the influence of cage density on the performance of 25- to 84-week-old laying hens. Forty hundred Lohmann-LSL layers were distributed in cages (100x40x 45x50cm according to a completely randomized experimental design with split plot in time.Three treatments (10, 12, or 14 hens per cage, corresponding, to 450, 375, and 321cm²/bird, respectively, with 15 assessment periods (four weeks each, and eight replicates per treatment were applied. Considering that layer's production cycle is affected by age, three experimental trials (25 to 44; 45 to 64 and 65 to 84 weeks of age were carried out, and the data collected in each trial was individually analyzed. Increasing cage density significantly reduced feed intake in all phases studied. Increasing birds/cm² significantly decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion at all stages of study, and egg production was only affected in 45-week-old birds. The number of birds per cage should be reduced as birds age in order not to affect their performance. Birds with more cage space in the presented higher feed intake; however, this did not result in higher egg production or lower mortality. These results suggest that up to 45 weeks of age, 375 cm² per layer results in the best performance, and from then on, 450 cm² per bird is required to maintain egg production and to reduce hen mortality.

  4. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  5. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  6. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Munić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  7. Impact of sea waves on underwater fish-breeding cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of sea objects is of great importance while solving the problems of providing the constantly growing requirements of the national economy with sea products. Cultivation of sea objects uses special hydrobiotechnical constructions. As the practice showed, cultivation of seafood is commercially impossible without solving the questions of calculating and designing such constructions. In special literature these questions are poorly covered or not considered at all. In the article the results of theoretical and pilot studies of waves influence on hydrobiotechnical constructions is provided, in particular on underwater fish-breeding cages.This article offers the theoretical solution to the problem of determining the efforts of the ropes holding the fish tank under wave influences. In order to solve this problem, the equations of hard drives movements were set up and the differential equations of free oscillations of buzz were obtained.When determining the horizontal movements, the four different configurations of connections and the system motion directions in general are possible in case of waveoscillations. Next step is the solution of the differential equations and determination of natural oscillation frequency in the direction of the vertical axis. Defining efforts in the ropes from their own weight (static calculation is self-explanatory, it should be noted that accounting for the weighing influence of water on such structures does not have significant influence.Further the authors defined loading and efforts from the regular waves’ impacts.Modeling of the waves influence on submersible fish tank was carried by Fraud method. The studies were conducted with two models with large and small mesh. The signals of strain gauge sensors were registered by electronic measuring equipment.When comparing the theoretical and experimental data, satisfactory results have been obtained. It was determined that in order to improve the calculation

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct. Methods Six cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7) specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N) in the following conditions: 1) intact (C3–C7), 2) LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3) removal of all rods (LMS retained) and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4) bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods), and 5) C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted. Results Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–extension (P=0.001), (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3°) in lateral bending (P=0.053), (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9°) in axial rotation (P=0.091) for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced range of motion in a multilevel construct (P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral posterior cages provide similar cervical segmental stability compared with a LMS and rod construct and may be an alternative surgical option for select patients. Furthermore, supplementation of a lateral mass construct with posterior cages increases cervical spine stability in single- and multilevel conditions. PMID

  9. Sea-cage aquaculture, sea lice, and declines of wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, L Neil

    2009-06-01

    A sea cage, sometimes referred to as a net pen, is an enclosure designed to prevent farm fish from escaping and to protect them from large predators, while allowing a free flow of water through the cage to carry away waste. Farm fish thus share water with wild fish, which enables transmission of parasites, such as sea lice, from wild to farm and farm to wild fishes. Sea lice epidemics, together with recently documented population-level declines of wild salmon in areas of sea-cage farming, are a reminder that sea-cage aquaculture is fundamentally different from terrestrial animal culture. The difference is that sea cages protect farm fish from the usual pathogen-control mechanisms of nature, such as predators, but not from the pathogens themselves. A sea cage thus becomes an unintended pathogen factory. Basic physical theory explains why sea-cage aquaculture causes sea lice on sympatric wild fish to increase and why increased lice burdens cause wild fish to decline, with extirpation as a real possibility. Theory is important to this issue because slow declines of wild fish can be difficult to detect amid large fluctuations from other causes. The important theoretical concepts are equilibrium, host-density effect, reservoir-host effect, and critical stocking level of farmed fish (stocking level at which lice proliferate on farm fish even if wild fish are not present to infect them). I explored these concepts and their implications without mathematics through examples from salmon farming. I also considered whether the lice-control techniques used by sea-cage farmers (medication and shortened grow-out times) are capable of protecting wild fish. Elementary probability showed that W ≈ W* - εF (where W is the abundance of wild fish, W* is the prefarm abundance, F is the abundance of farm fish, and ε is the ratio of lice per farm fish to lice per wild fish). Declines of wild fish can be reduced by short growing cycles for farm fish, medicating farm fish, and keeping

  10. Effect of cage type on the behaviour patterns of rabbit does at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Alfonso-Carrillo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in commercially farmed rabbit welfare has increased in recent years. As a result, new alternativehousing systems have been developed, although they require evaluation in order to demonstrate their potential for improving welfare. The aim of this trial was to study the behavioural traits of rabbit does housed in 2 different types of cage (TC: conventional vs. alternative with an elevated platform, at different physiological stages (PS; lactation and gestation. Behavioural observations were carried out on 12 rabbit commercial does using continuous 24 h video recording. Independently of PS and TC, rabbit does spent most of their time on foot mats (on av. 57.7%. However, due to the use of platforms (on av. 23.0% of time, lactating does spent 36.6% less time on foot mats (P<0.001 and gestating does spent 27.0% less time on wire mesh (P<0.001 in alternative cages than in conventional cages. Alternative cages allowed for standing posture, but this behaviour was only observed in gestating does (on av. 4.6 times a day. Frequency of drinking was higher in conventional than in alternative cages (24.6 vs. 19.1 times a day; P<0.05. Gestating does housed in conventional cages reached the highest duration and frequency of interacting with neighbours (276 s/d and 4.6 times/d; P<0.05. The frequency of interacting with kits was lower in alternative than in conventional cages (2.4 vs. 8.6 times a day; P<0.01. Doe behaviour was influenced by the time of day, with less activity during the midday hours. During dark hours, rabbit does more frequently performed restless behaviour such as hyperactivity or nursing, matching the time at which rabbit does spent more time on the platform. The platform was frequently used by rabbit does, regardless of their physiological stage, and during late lactation phase, when mothers were not receptive to nursing, does housed in alternative cages used the platform as a mean to flee from kits trying to suckle

  11. Multicomponent Self-assembly:Spontaneous Formation of a Metallomacrocycle from Two Quinoline Based Linear Ligands and Four Silver(Ⅰ) Nitrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Using metal ions to control the self-assembly of metallosupramolecules of varying architecture is one of the fascinating developments in supramolecular chemistry[1,2],particularly those concerned with the deliberate construction of molecular aggregates,like helices,rotaxanes,catenanes,knots,cages[3~6] and the crystal engineering of two or three dimensional networks with varied topology and interpenetration[7~10].Coordination bonds have proved themselves to be one of the most useful connectors in supramolecular self-assembly due to their versatile geometrical modes(e.g.linear,trigonal,square plane,tetrahedral,octahedral) in bond formations.By careful design of tailored ligands,various novel supramolecular architectures have been constructed.Recently,angular bi- or tridentate and other polydentate ligands have aroused a special interest,and a variety of molecular squares,boxes and cages[1~14] with internal cavity or void have been reported,in which many nanoscale structures are formed[6,15,16].We have been interested in the construction of metal based supramolecular structures with polydentate ligands[17~20] and herein report a new metallomacrocyclic complex assembled from two linear polydentate ligands and silver(Ⅰ) nitrate.

  12. Posterior lumbar inter-body fusion (PLIF) using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw instrumentation versus PLIF using cage with pedicle screw instrumentation in adult spondylolisthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Yusheng; Hao Dingjun; Wen Shiming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of PLIF using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw fixation (group 2) and simple cage fusion with pedicle screw fixation (group 1) in adult spondylolisthesis.Methods: 27 patients with minimum follow-up of 24 months, treated by inter-body fusion with pedicle screw fixation were prospectively studied. Disc space height, degree of slippage and fusion rate had been compared before and after operation between the two groups. Results: After minimum 24 month's follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the amount of blood loss, duration of hospital stay, back pain,radiating pain, fusion rate, or complication (P>0.05). however, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of disc space height and percentage of slippage (P<0.05). Conclusion: PLIF using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw fixation more beneifical to improve fusion rate and prevent long-term instabilities than simple cage fusion with pedicle screw fixation in adult spondylolisthesis.

  13. A race for RAGE ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Erwin D

    2010-08-01

    In experimental animals a causal involvement of the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the development of diabetic vascular complications has been demonstrated. However, the nature of RAGE ligands present in patients with diabetic nephropathy has not yet been defined; this leaves open the relevance of the RAGE system to the human disease.

  14. Polypharmacology of dopamine receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butini, S; Nikolic, K; Kassel, S; Brückmann, H; Filipic, S; Agbaba, D; Gemma, S; Brogi, S; Brindisi, M; Campiani, G; Stark, H

    2016-07-01

    Most neurological diseases have a multifactorial nature and the number of molecular mechanisms discovered as underpinning these diseases is continuously evolving. The old concept of developing selective agents for a single target does not fit with the medical need of most neurological diseases. The development of designed multiple ligands holds great promises and appears as the next step in drug development for the treatment of these multifactorial diseases. Dopamine and its five receptor subtypes are intimately involved in numerous neurological disorders. Dopamine receptor ligands display a high degree of cross interactions with many other targets including G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes and ion channels. For brain disorders like Parkinsońs disease, schizophrenia and depression the dopaminergic system, being intertwined with many other signaling systems, plays a key role in pathogenesis and therapy. The concept of designed multiple ligands and polypharmacology, which perfectly meets the therapeutic needs for these brain disorders, is herein discussed as a general ligand-based concept while focusing on dopaminergic agents and receptor subtypes in particular. PMID:27234980

  15. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  16. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori CagE genotypes, in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Haghshenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of helicobacter pylori CagE genotypes, in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinomaM.H. Shirazi, M.R. Pourmand ,M.R. Haghshenas, V.A. Rezaee, AbstractBackground and Purpose: Helicobacter pylori are a bacterial pathogen evolved to chronically colonize the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis, peptic ulcers, and even gastric malignancies in few infected humans. More recently, a pathogenicity island has been identified within the H. pylori genome that contains a cluster of genes, including cagE. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of cagE genotypes of H. pylori isolates from patients with NUD(Non Ulcer Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer and cancer.Materials and Methods: 150 Gastric biopsy specimens obtained from patients were inoculated onto a Brucella Columbia Agar containing 5% sheep for 3 to 5 days at 37°C under micro aerobic conditions (5% O2, 5% CO2, and 90% N2. After DNA extraction, genotyping of the cagE gene was performed by PCR amplification using the primers. PCR products were separated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis and examined under UV illumination.Results: Of 92 positive cultures, 34, 28, 20, and 10 isolations were obtained from patients with NUD, duodenal ulcers (DU, gastric ulcers (GU and gastric cancer (GC, respectively. The frequency of cagE gene was 88/24%, 100% , 85% , 100% and within isolates of patients with NUD, DU, GU and GC, respectively.Conclusion: The presence of cagE in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection is not a marker for predicting or diagnosing the resultant diseases.Key words: Helicobacter pylori, CagE, NUD, CancerJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(64: 37-43 (Persian

  17. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente Evaluación del tratamiento de la enfermedad degenerativa del disco cervical por la artrodesis anterior utilizando placas asociadas con jaulas o jaulas en peec, aisladamente Evaluation of cervical degenerative disc disease treatment by anterior arthrodesis using plates associated with cages or cages in peek alone

    OpenAIRE

    André Rafael Hübner; Marcelo Ribeiro Mendes; Jean Carlo Frigotto Queruz; Jean Marcel Dambrós; Álvaro Diego Heredia Suárez; Leandro de Freitas Spinelli

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo comparativo entre dois grupos de pacientes operados pela técnica de discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 70 pacientes, 35 operados com o método de fixação com placas associadas a cages - denominado Grupo...

  18. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  19. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on the behavior of caged White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, P Y; Garner, J P; Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W; Einstein, M E

    2014-10-01

    Enriched cages, compared with conventional cages, allow egg laying strains of chickens to meet some behavioral needs, including a high motivation to perch. The objective of this study was to determine if perch availability during rearing affected perch use as adults and if perch presence affected eating and drinking in caged White Leghorn hens. Chickens were assigned to 14 cages each with and without 2 round metal perches from hatch to 16.9 wk of age. At 17 wk of age, pullets were assigned to laying cages consisting of 1 of 4 treatments. Treatment 1 chickens never had access to perches (controls). Treatment 2 chickens only had access to 2 round metal perches during the laying phase (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 3 chickens only had access to 2 round perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens had access to the perches during both the pullet and laying phase. Each treatment during the adult phase consisted of 9 cages with 9 birds/cage for a total of 36 cages. Automatic infrared cameras were used to monitor behavior of hens in each cage for a 24-h period at 19, 24, 29, 34, 39, 44, 49, 54, 59, 64, and 69 wk of age. Behavior was also recorded twice weekly by an observer in the room where the hens were housed during photophase from 25 to 68 wk of age. Behavioral data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures and the MIXED model procedure. A greater proportion of hens without perches as pullets used the rear perch more during both photophase and scotophase than hens with prior pullet perching experience. Eating and drinking activities of caged adult Leghorns were not impaired by their prior experience to perches as pullets or by the presence of perches in laying cages. It is concluded that providing perches in cages to White Leghorns during pullet rearing did not facilitate use of perches as adults. PMID:25125558

  20. Effect of multilevel laboratory rat caging system on the well-being of the singly-housed Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R R; Swan, M P; Hickman, D L

    2015-01-01

    Current regulations emphasize that good husbandry practices allow animals to engage in species appropriate postural adjustments without touching the enclosure walls. This study evaluated the well-being of rats housed in a commercially available multilevel rat caging system, with or without access to the upper level of the caging. The evaluation methodologies included assessment of behavioral observations in the home cage, physiological assessment of metabolism and immune function, and determination of the affective state using a spatial cognitive bias assay. The study determined that rats that were provided access to the full multilevel cage during testing after initial restriction to the lower level of the cage demonstrated behavioral changes consistent with a positive affective state, while those with no changes to their housing situation had no significant differences in their affective states. Rats that were consistently housed with access restricted to the lower level of the cage exhibited a tendency to increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios as compared with those provided with access to all levels of the multilevel cage. There were no differences in body weight demonstrated between the experimental groups. Overall use of the cage space, as documented through analysis of behavioral observations in the home cage, demonstrated no significant differences in preferred location in the cage during the light or dark cycles, though rats with access to both levels of the cage were significantly more active during the light cycle. The results of this study suggest that the use of a multilevel caging system may improve the well-being of rats used in research. PMID:25117586

  1. Effect of multilevel laboratory rat caging system on the well-being of the singly-housed Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R R; Swan, M P; Hickman, D L

    2015-01-01

    Current regulations emphasize that good husbandry practices allow animals to engage in species appropriate postural adjustments without touching the enclosure walls. This study evaluated the well-being of rats housed in a commercially available multilevel rat caging system, with or without access to the upper level of the caging. The evaluation methodologies included assessment of behavioral observations in the home cage, physiological assessment of metabolism and immune function, and determination of the affective state using a spatial cognitive bias assay. The study determined that rats that were provided access to the full multilevel cage during testing after initial restriction to the lower level of the cage demonstrated behavioral changes consistent with a positive affective state, while those with no changes to their housing situation had no significant differences in their affective states. Rats that were consistently housed with access restricted to the lower level of the cage exhibited a tendency to increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios as compared with those provided with access to all levels of the multilevel cage. There were no differences in body weight demonstrated between the experimental groups. Overall use of the cage space, as documented through analysis of behavioral observations in the home cage, demonstrated no significant differences in preferred location in the cage during the light or dark cycles, though rats with access to both levels of the cage were significantly more active during the light cycle. The results of this study suggest that the use of a multilevel caging system may improve the well-being of rats used in research.

  2. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of immediate stability with rectangular versus cylindrical interbody cages in stabilization of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb John K

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent cadaver studies show stability against axial rotation with a cylindrical cage is marginally superior to a rectangular cage. The purpose of this biomechanical study in cadaver spine was to evaluate the stability of a new rectangular titanium cage design, which has teeth similar to the threads of cylindrical cages to engage the endplates. Methods Ten motion segments (five L2-3, five L4-5 were tested. From each cadaver spine, one motion segment was fixed with a pair of cylindrical cages (BAK, Sulzer Medica and the other with paired rectangular cages (Rotafix, Corin Spinal. Each specimen was tested in an unconstrained state, after cage introduction and after additional posterior translaminar screw fixation. The range of motion (ROM in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and rotation was tested in a materials testing machine, with +/- 5 Nm cyclical load over 10 sec per cycle; data from the third cycle was captured for analysis. Results ROM in all directions was significantly reduced (p Conclusions There was no significant difference in immediate stability in any direction between the threaded cylindrical cage and the new design of the rectangular cage with endplate teeth.

  4. Zooplankton community resilience and aquatic environmental stability on aquaculture practices: a study using net cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, J D; Simões, N R; Bonecker, C C

    2012-02-01

    Fish farming in net cages causes changes in environmental conditions. We evaluated the resilience of zooplankton concerning this activity in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples were taken near the net cages installed at distances upstream and downstream, before and after net cage installation. The resilience was estimated by the decrease in the groups' abundance after installing the net cages. The zooplankton community was represented by 106 species. The most abundant species were Synchaeta pectinata, S. oblonga, Conochilus coenobasis, Polyarthra dolichoptera and C. unicornis (Rotifera), Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Moina minuta, Bosmina hagmanni and C. silvestrii (Cladocera) and Notodiaptomus amazonicus (Copepoda). The resilience of microcrustaceans was affected in the growing points as this activity left the production environment for longer, delaying the natural ability of community responses. Microcrustaceans groups, mainly calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, had a different return rate. The net cage installation acted as a stress factor on the zooplankton community. Management strategies that cause fewer risks to the organisms and maximize energy flow may help in maintaining system stability. PMID:22437379

  5. Hydrodynamic coefficients of a simplified floating system of gravity cage in waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-wen WU; Fu-kun GUI; Yu-cheng LI; Wei-huan FANG

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental tests were carried out to examine the hydrodynamic behaviors of a double-column floating system of gravity cage under wave conditions. A floating system of gravity cage can be treated as a small-sized floating structure when compared with the wavelengths. The main problem in calculating the wave loads on the small-sized floating structure is to obtain the reasonable force coefficients, which may differ from a submerged structure. In this paper, the floating system of gravity cage is simplified to a 2D problem, where the floating system is set symmetrically under wave conditions. The motion equations were deduced under wave conditions and a specific method was proposed to resolve the problem of wave forces acting on a small-sized floating system of gravity cage at water surface. Results of the numerical method were compared with those from model tests and the hydrodynamic coefficients Cn and C?were studied. It is found that Cn ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 while C?is between 0.4 and 0.6 in this study. The results are useful for research on the hydrodynamic behavior of the deep-water gravity sea cages.

  6. RESULTS OF THE USE OF PEEK CAGES IN THE TREATMENT OF BASILAR INVAGINATION BY GOEL TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analysis of the use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cages for atlantoaxial facet realignment and distraction for treatment of basilar invagination by Goel technique. Method: Retrospective descriptive statistical analysis of the neurological status, pain, presence of subsidence and bone fusion with the use of PEEK cages in 8 atlantoaxial joints of 4 patients with basilar invagination. All patients were treated with atlantoaxial facet distraction and realignment and subsequent arthrodesis C1-C2 by the technique of Goel modified by the use of PEEK cage. Results: All patients showed improvement in Nurick neurological assessment scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain. There were no cases of subsidence, migration, or damage to the vertebral artery during the insertion of the cage. All joints evolved with bone fusion, assessed by dynamic radiographs, and computed tomography. Two patients developed neuropathic pain in dermatome of C2 and one patient had unilateral vertebral artery injury during C2 instrumentation treated with insertion of pedicle screw to control the bleeding. Conclusion: The results of the treatment of basilar invagination by the Goel technique with the use of PEEK cages shown to be effective and safe although further studies are needed to confirm this use.

  7. DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum amphipods: A tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, Emilie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Devaux, Alain [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Mons, Raphael [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Bony, Sylvie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Garric, Jeanne [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Geffard, Alain [EA 2069 URVVC-SE, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Geffard, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.geffard@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to propose a tool for freshwater environmental genotoxicity assessment using Gammarus fossarum, a high ecologically relevant species. In a first part, gammarids were caged upstream and downstream wastewater treatment plant effluent output. The sensitivity of genotoxic responses of haemocytes, oocytes and spermatozoa was compared using the Comet assay. Spermatozoa appeared to be the most sensitive, suitable and relevant cell type for genotoxicity risk assessment. In a second part, a watershed-scale study was conducted over 2 years to evaluate the applicability of our caging procedure. The genotoxic impact of a contamination was followed, taking into account seasonal variability. DNA damage in spermatozoa exhibited low basal level and low variability in control upstream sites, providing a reliable discrimination of polluted sites. Finally, DNA damage in caged G. fossarum has been proved to be a sensitive and reproducible tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: > Two different contamination contexts: WWTP effluents and polymetallic contamination. > DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum is a sensitive tool for freshwater quality assessment. > Spermatozoa is the most relevant cell type for biomonitoring freshwater genotoxicity. > Combining biomarker responses with analytical chemistry provides rich ecotoxicological information. - We propose an approach to assess freshwater genotoxicity in the field based on caged Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, amphipoda).

  8. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Two Net Cages with Grid Mooring System Under Wave Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-ping; ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Yu-cheng; DONG Guo-hai; ZHENG Yan-na

    2012-01-01

    Based on rigid kinematics theory and lumped mass method,a mathematical model of the two net cages of grid mooring system under waves is developed.In order to verify the numerical model,a series of physical model tests have been carried out.According to the comparisons between the simulated and the experimental results,it can be found that the simulated and the experimental results agree well in each wave condition.Then,the forces on the mooring lines and the floating collar movement are calculated under different wave conditions.Numerical results show that under the same condition,the forces on the bridle ropes are the largest,followed by forces on the main ropes and the grid ropes.The horizontal and the vertical float collar motion amplitudes increase with the increase of wave height,while the relationship of the horizontal motion amplitude and the wave period is indistinct.The vertical motion amplitude of the two cages is almost the same,while on the respect of horizontal motion amplitude,cage B (behind cage A,as shown in Fig.4) moves much farther than cage A under the same wave condition.The inclination angle of the floating system both in clockwise alongy axis and the counter one enlarges a little with the increase of wave height.

  9. Growth of conformal graphene cages on micrometre-sized silicon particles as stable battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhang; Yan, Kai; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructuring has been shown to be fruitful in addressing the problems of high-capacity Si anodes. However, issues with the high cost and poor Coulombic efficiencies of nanostructured Si still need to be resolved. Si microparticles are a low-cost alternative but, unlike Si nanoparticles, suffer from unavoidable particle fracture during electrochemical cycling, thus making stable cycling in a real battery impractical. Here we introduce a method to encapsulate Si microparticles (˜1-3 µm) using conformally synthesized cages of multilayered graphene. The graphene cage acts as a mechanically strong and flexible buffer during deep galvanostatic cycling, allowing the microparticles to expand and fracture within the cage while retaining electrical connectivity on both the particle and electrode level. Furthermore, the chemically inert graphene cage forms a stable solid electrolyte interface, minimizing irreversible consumption of lithium ions and rapidly increasing the Coulombic efficiency in the early cycles. We show that even in a full-cell electrochemical test, for which the requirements of stable cycling are stringent, stable cycling (100 cycles; 90% capacity retention) is achieved with the graphene-caged Si microparticles.

  10. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications. PMID:24943491

  11. Controlled-deactivation cannabinergic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Nikas, Spyros P; Paronis, Carol A; Wood, Jodianne T; Halikhedkar, Aneetha; Guo, Jason Jianxin; Thakur, Ganesh A; Kulkarni, Shashank; Benchama, Othman; Raghav, Jimit Girish; Gifford, Roger S; Järbe, Torbjörn U C; Bergman, Jack; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-12-27

    We report an approach for obtaining novel cannabinoid analogues with controllable deactivation and improved druggability. Our design involves the incorporation of a metabolically labile ester group at the 2'-position on a series of (-)-Δ(8)-THC analogues. We have sought to introduce benzylic substituents α to the ester group which affect the half-lives of deactivation through enzymatic activity while enhancing the affinities and efficacies of individual ligands for the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The 1'-(S)-methyl, 1'-gem-dimethyl, and 1'-cyclobutyl analogues exhibit remarkably high affinities for both CB receptors. The novel ligands are susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by plasma esterases in a controllable manner, while their metabolites are inactive at the CB receptors. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments key analogues were shown to be potent CB1 receptor agonists and to exhibit CB1-mediated hypothermic and analgesic effects.

  12. Privileged chiral ligands and catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This ultimate ""must have"" and long awaited reference for every chemist working in the field of asymmetric catalysis starts with the core structure of the catalysts, explaining why a certain ligand or catalyst is so successful. It describes in detail the history, the basic structural characteristics, and the applications of these ""privileged catalysts"". A novel concept that gives readers a much deeper insight into the topic.

  13. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [123I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [123I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [123I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  14. Genome-wide detection and analysis of hippocampus core promoters using DeepCAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Pascarella, Giovanni; Chalk, Alistair;

    2009-01-01

    of novel core promoters that are preferentially used in hippocampus: This is the most comprehensive promoter data set for any tissue to date. Using these data, we present evidence indicating a key role for the Arnt2 transcription factor in hippocampus gene regulation. DeepCAGE can also detect promoters......Finding and characterizing mRNAs, their transcription start sites (TSS), and their associated promoters is a major focus in post-genome biology. Mammalian cells have at least 5-10 magnitudes more TSS than previously believed, and deeper sequencing is necessary to detect all active promoters...... in a given tissue. Here, we present a new method for high-throughput sequencing of 5' cDNA tags-DeepCAGE: merging the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression method with ultra-high-throughput sequence technology. We apply DeepCAGE to characterize 1.4 million sequenced TSS from mouse hippocampus and reveal a wealth...

  15. Cage rattling does not correlate with the local geometry in molecular liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Bernini, S; Leporini, D

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a liquid of short linear molecules have been performed to investigate the correlation between the particle dynamics in the cage of the neighbors and the local geometry. The latter is characterized in terms of the size and the asphericity of the Voronoi polyhedra. The correlation is found to be poor. In particular, in spite of the different Voronoi volume around the end and the inner monomers of a molecule, all the monomers exhibit coinciding displacement distribution when they are caged (as well as at longer times during the structural relaxation). It is concluded that the fast dynamics during the cage trapping is a non-local collective process involving monomers beyond the nearest neighbours.

  16. Tilapia cage culture and the dissolved oxygen trends in Sampaloc Lake, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, A E; Arcilla, R P

    1993-02-01

    The 28-hectare tilapia cage culture that occupied the 104-hectare Sampaloc Lake, a crater lake, shifted to intensive method in 1986 when tilapia growth slowed done at the beginning of 1982. Thus, commercial feeds became the main source of allochthonous organic matter in the lake. Total feeds given annually for the 28-hectare cage culture at 3 croppings per year amounted to 5250 tons. At feed conversion ratio of 1 : 2 a significant portion of the feeds given ended as organic wastes in the lake. In 1988, tilapia cage operators began experiencing their worst occurrences of fishkill, worth millions of pesos. An assessment of the dissolved oxygen condition of Sampaloc lake in late 1989, 1990 and mid-1991 showed ominous trends which might adversely affect the use of Sampaloc lake for fishery.

  17. Mediterranean fruit fly: interference of oviposition by radiation-sterilized females in field cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments between April and September 1984, the behaviour of nonirradiated and radiation-sterilized laboratory-adapted adults of the tephritid Ceratitis capitata was observed on apples hung on guava trees in outdoor cages in Hawaii. The numbers of nonirradiated females observed resting on fruit were reduced several times by the presence of irradiated females, either alone or with irradiated males, but not by irradiated males alone. Similarly, the number of nonirradiated females observed ovipositing and the duration of oviposition was reduced by the presence of irradiated females. In control cages (all nonirradiated flies), the duration of oviposition by females averaged 255.9±15.0 s on fruit, while most of nonirradiated and irradiated females in the mixed (treatment) cage averaged 157±19.8 s and 77.5±7.5 s on fruit, resp. Irradiated females behaved skittishly on fruit and frequently engaged in physical encounters with other flies

  18. Anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion with ray titanium cage: a prospective randomized clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, J.; Kosteljanetz, M.; Bøge-Rasmussen, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective randomized clinical study. OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 surgical methods in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy caused by hard or soft disc herniation; namely, simple discectomy versus discectomy with an additional interbody fusion with a Ray titanium cage. SUMMARY...... of the nervous elements have been performed. To date, no randomized studies have compared simple discectomy with discectomy followed by an interbody fusion with a titanium cage. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with symptoms of nerve root compression at 1 level were randomly allocated to either discectomy followed...... by fusion with a Ray titanium cage (40 patients) or to discectomy alone (46 patients). Clinical and radiologic follow-up was performed 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups concerning self-reported satisfaction or severity of pain...

  19. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry study of Trp-cage's conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingxiang; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Taormina, Christopher R; Somayajula, Kasi V

    2007-02-01

    Trp-cage is a synthetic 20-residue miniprotein that uses tertiary contacts to stabilize its native conformation. NMR, circular dichroism (CD), and UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy were used to probe its energy landscape. In this quadrupole/time-of-flight study, electrospray ionization charge state distribution (CSD) and solution-phase H/D exchange are used to probe Trp-cage's tertiary structure. The CSDs of Trp-cage and its mutant provide spectra showing a pH-dependent conformation change. Solution-phase H/D exchange in 30% deuterated trifluoroethanol solution of the wild type shows increased protection of one labile hydrogen in the native state. Together, CSDs and solution-phase H/D exchange are demonstrated to constitute a simple but effective means to follow conformation changes in a small tertiary protein. PMID:17067814

  20. Design Concepts of Polycarbonate-Based Intervertebral Lumbar Cages: Finite Element Analysis and Compression Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Cavazos, J Obedt; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo; Diaz-Elizondo, José A; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Rodríguez, Ciro A; Siller, Héctor R

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the viability of 3D printed intervertebral lumbar cages based on biocompatible polycarbonate (PC-ISO® material). Several design concepts are proposed for the generation of patient-specific intervertebral lumbar cages. The 3D printed material achieved compressive yield strength of 55 MPa under a specific combination of manufacturing parameters. The literature recommends a reference load of 4,000 N for design of intervertebral lumbar cages. Under compression testing conditions, the proposed design concepts withstand between 7,500 and 10,000 N of load before showing yielding. Although some stress concentration regions were found during analysis, the overall viability of the proposed design concepts was validated. PMID:27578960

  1. Remedies for a high incidence of broken eggs in furnished cages: effectiveness of increasing nest attractiveness and lowering perch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Struelens, E; Ampe, B

    2013-01-01

    Two remedial treatments to reduce the high incidence of broken eggs in the furnished cages of our experimental layer farm were investigated: lining the nest floor with artificial turf (to increase nest acceptance) and lowering perch height (to reduce the chance of egg breakage of outside-nest eggs). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with low (7 cm) or high (24 cm) perches, and with nest floors lined with artificial turf or plastic mesh. Eight cages, each housing 8 hens initially (aged 40 to 56 wk), were used per treatment. Egg location and percentage of broken eggs were recorded. Hen position (cage floor, nest, or perch) was recorded by direct scan-sampling observations. In addition, 8 cages (4 high + 4 low) each containing 8 hens (aged 54 to 56 wk) were videorecorded to determine perch use and behavior during the light period. Data were mainly analyzed using logistic regression and mixed models with cage as the experimental unit. Nest floor material did not influence the percentage of eggs broken or laid outside the nest. The proportion of outside-nest eggs (2.6 vs. 10.6%, P = 0.004), and consequently also of total eggs (2 vs. 4.6%, P = 0.016) broken, was lower for low than high cages. Perch use increased during the observation period, more so for the high cages during the light period and the low cages during the dark period. Perch bout duration (P cages. In this study, replacing plastic mesh nest floor lining with artificial turf was not an effective remedy for the already-high rate of broken eggs, but the prevalence of broken outside-nest eggs was lower in cages with low versus high perches. However, perching behavior during the light period was more disturbed in cages with low perches. PMID:23243226

  2. Application of carbon cage (Brantigan) to lumber vertebra diseases. The examination by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Taro [Okayama National Hospital (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Recently several kinds of interlumber spacers have been used for the posterior lumber interbody fusion (PLIF). We have used Brantigan I/F cage (carbon cage) for PLIF. Here we report the results of PLIF and the postoperative MRI. We examined 10 patients (9 men and 10 women) who underwent carbon cage-used PLIF. Patients at surgery were aged from 36 to 77 years (average 61 years). The postoperative observation periods were from 6 months to 17 months (mean 8.2 months). Diseases contained 12 of lumber degenerative sliding disease, 2 of lumber-spine separate disease and 5 of lumber spine stricture complicating the unstable lumber vertebra. We observed synostosis in all cases, and we obtained the improvement rate by JOA score of 71.4%. There was no complications during surgery, except one case of transient neuroparalysis by postoperative hematoma. The carbon cage-used PLIF was effective to minimize sampling of autologous bones and to prevent the crush of bone grafts. MRI was quite effective to evaluate the position of the carbon cage and to judge synostosis. Using MRI we could judge synostosis by the contrast of grafted bones at only 3 months after surgery. The carbon cage transmits X-ray, which makes it easy to judge synostosis. It has the open window to graft autologous bones and the elasticity almost similar to the cortical bone. On the other hand it has some disadvantages; the difficulty to determine the position by the X-ray images, the biological safety, etc. (K.H.)

  3. Two-component magnetic structure of iron oxide nanoparticles mineralized in Listeria innocua protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J.; Klem, Michael T.; Russek, Stephen E.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor; Goldfarb, Ron B.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetometry was used to determine the magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles formed within Listeria innocua protein cage. The electron magnetic resonance spectrum shows the presence of at least two magnetization components. The magnetization curves are explained by a sum of two Langevin functions in which each filled protein cage contains both a large magnetic iron oxide core plus an amorphous surface consisting of small noncoupled iron oxide spin clusters. This model qualitatively explains the observed decrease in the temperature dependent saturation moment and removes an unrealistic temperature dependent increase in the particle moment often observed in nanoparticle magnetization measurements.

  4. A Lightweight Field Cage for a Large TPC Prototype for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21 % of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of Delta(E)/(E) less or equal 10^-4. Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices.

  5. Recombinant expression and purification of "virus-like" bacterial encapsulin protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, W Frederik; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Koay, Melissa S T

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules and organelles, the rate of migration can be used as a tool for purification. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of recently discovered virus-like assemblies called bacterial encapsulins from Thermotoga maritima and Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25358773

  6. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of {delta}E/E

  7. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of ΔE/E -4. Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices. (orig.)

  8. Linking promoters to functional transcripts in small samples with nanoCAGE and CAGEscan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessy, Charles; Bertin, Nicolas; Takahashi, Hazuki;

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale sequencing projects have revealed an unexpected complexity in the origins, structures and functions of mammalian transcripts. Many loci are known to produce overlapping coding and noncoding RNAs with capped 5' ends that vary in size. Methods to identify the 5' ends of transcripts...... (nanoCAGE), a method that captures the 5' ends of transcripts from as little as 10 ng of total RNA, and CAGEscan, a mate-pair adaptation of nanoCAGE that captures the transcript 5' ends linked to a downstream region. Both of these methods allow further annotation-agnostic studies of the complex human...

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Diarylation of o-Carboranes By Direct Cage B-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2016-01-22

    Palladium-catalyzed intermolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics by direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of cage B(4,5)-diarylated-o-carboranes in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. Traceless directing group -COOH plays a crucial role for site- and di-selectivity of such intermolecular coupling reaction. A Pd(II)-Pd(IV)-Pd(II) catalytic cycle is proposed to be responsible for the stepwise arylation. PMID:26463595

  10. The Design and its Verification of the Double Rotor Double Cage Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumita; Deb, Nirmal K.; Biswas, Sujit K.

    2016-06-01

    The concept of a double rotor motor presented earlier and its equivalent circuit has been developed, showing a non-linear parameter content. The two rotors (which are recommended to be double cage type for development of high starting torque) can run with equal or unequal speed independently, depending on their individual loading. This paper presents the elaborate design procedure, step-by-step, for the double rotor double cage motor and verifies the designed data with that obtained from three separate tests (compared to two for conventional motor) on a prototype, such that optimum performance can be obtained from the motor.

  11. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lanari; Edo D’Agaro

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth) in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C), cages with barriers (B), c...

  12. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P

    2010-12-01

    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community. PMID:21076093

  13. Spray washing, absorbent cornstarch powder, and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Allowing feces to dry is an effective but slow and logistically impractical means to kill Campylobacter in soiled transport cages. ...

  14. Palladium-catalyzed regioselective intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-03-18

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of o-carborane-functionalized aromatics in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, the site selectivity can also be tuned by the substituents on cage carbon atom. PMID:25747772

  15. Kinetic stabilization against the oxidation reaction induced by a silaalkane cage in a thiophene-bridged molecular gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaka, Wataru; Ohmizu, Soichiro; Kira, Mitsuo

    2014-02-01

    Macrocage molecules with a bridged rotor have been synthesized as molecular gyroscopes. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction of the thiophene-bridged molecular gyroscope, whose thiophene ring was bridged inside a silaalkane cage, was investigated. A remarkable kinetic stabilization against the oxidation of the thiophene moiety induced by the molecular cage framework was observed.

  16. Do cage effects influence tumor incidence? An examination of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies utilizing Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, J K

    1988-08-01

    Approximately 125 carcinogenicity studies in Fischer 344 rats conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) were examined to determine the frequency with which cage effects were associated with observed carcinogenic responses. All studies involving groups of 50 rats housed five per cage and showing evidence of chemically-related carcinogenicity were considered. For each of these experiments, two statistical analyses were carried out for each dosed and control group: (i) a test to determine whether or not the occurrence of tumors clustered within cages; and (ii) an evaluation to determine whether or not tumor incidences differed significantly between differing cage shelf levels. These analyses showed that the numbers of statistically significant (P less than 0.05 or P less than 0.01) effects were consistent with the number expected by chance alone. Thus, cage-related factors appeared to have little or no impact upon tumor incidence in these particular studies. Experimental design protocols now used by the NTP (which include random assignment of animals to cages; random assignment of columns of cages to dosed and control groups; and periodic rotation of cage location) further reduce the likelihood that factors associated with the housing of the animals could influence tumor incidence in current studies. PMID:3183292

  17. Palladium-catalyzed regioselective intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-03-18

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of o-carborane-functionalized aromatics in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, the site selectivity can also be tuned by the substituents on cage carbon atom.

  18. Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting differences in the saturation capacities in cage-type zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Krishna; J.M. van Baten

    2011-01-01

    For zeolites such as CHA, LTA, DDR, ERI, AFX, and TSC that consist of cages separated by narrow windows, the saturation capacities expressed as molecules per cage, Θi,sat, of linear alcohols and alkanes have integer values in a certain range of C numbers. In this range, the Θi,sat decreases in a ste

  19. Effect of Cage-Wash Temperature on the Removal of Infectious Agents from Caging and the Detection of Infectious Agents on the Filters of Animal Bedding-Disposal Cabinets by PCR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Susan R; Macy, James D

    2015-11-01

    Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconverted to both agents. Soiled cages from mice harboring MPV, Helicobacter spp., Mycoplasma pulmonis, Syphacia obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages remained pathogen-free, whereas most sentinels in unwashed cages became infected with MPV and S. obvelata. Therefore washing at 110 or 180 °F is sufficient to decontaminate caging and prevent pathogen transmission. We then assessed whether PCR analysis of debris from the bedding disposal cabinet detected pathogens at the facility level. Samples were collected from the prefilter before and after the disposal of bedding from cages housing mice infected with both MPV and MHV. All samples collected before bedding disposal were negative for parvovirus and MHV, and all samples collected afterward were positive for these agents. Furthermore, all samples obtained from the prefilter before the disposal of bedding from multiply infected mice were pathogen-negative, and all those collected afterward were positive for parvovirus, M. pulmonis, S. obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus. Therefore the debris on the prefilter of bedding-disposal cabinets is useful for pathogen screening. PMID:26632784

  20. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klei, Herbert E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Moriarty, Nigel W., E-mail: nwmoriarty@lbl.gov; Echols, Nathaniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 (United States); Baldwin, Eric T. [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Natural Discovery LLC, Princeton, NJ 08542-0096 (United States); Pokross, Matt; Posy, Shana [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1762 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR

  1. Preparation of Core-Shell Coordination Molecular Assemblies via the Enrichment of Structure-Directing "Codes" of Bridging Ligands and Metathesis of Metal Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J; Chen, YP; Perry, Z; Li, JR; Zhou, HC

    2014-12-03

    A series of molybdenum- and copper-based MOPs were synthesized through coordination-driven process of a bridging ligand (3,3'-PDBAD, L-1) and dimetal paddlewheel clusters. Three conformers of the ligand exist with an ideal bridging angle between the two carboxylate groups of 0 degrees (H-2 zeta-L(1)), 120 degrees (H-2 beta-L-1), and of 90 degrees (H-2 beta-L-1), respectively. At ambient or lower temperature, (HL1)-L-2 and Mo-2(OAc)(4) or Cu-2(OAc)(4) were crystallized into a molecular square with ?-L-1 and Mo-2/Cu-2 units. With proper temperature elevation, not only the molecular square with ?-L-1 but also a lantern-shaped cage with a-L-1 formed simultaneously. Similar to how Watson-Crick pairs stabilize the helical structure of duplex DNA, the core-shell molecular assembly possesses favorable H-bonding interaction sites. This is dictated by the ligand conformation in the shell, coding for the formation and providing stabilization of the central lantern shaped core, which was not observed without this complementary interaction. On the basis of the crystallographic implications, a heterobimetallic cage was obtained through a postsynthetic metal ion metathesis, showing different reactivity of coordination bonds in the core and shell. As an innovative synthetic strategy, the site-selective metathesis broadens the structural diversity and properties of coordination assemblies.

  2. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice : automated home cage observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-01-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129

  3. Gene expression in caged fish as indicators of contaminants exposure in tropical karstic water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Luna-Ramírez, Karen S; Soto, Mélina; Richardson, Kristine L

    2012-04-01

    Karstic areas in Yucatan are very permeable, which allows contaminants to move rapidly into the aquifer. In the present study, we evaluated gene expression of vitellogenin (VTG) and cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) in caged juvenile zebrafish deployed for 15 days in 13 different water bodies, cenotes and aguadas, throughout karstic region of the Yucatan peninsula. Gene expression was evaluated using qRT-PCR. Results indicated induction of VTG in 7 water bodies with respect to reference cage. The highest relative VTG expression, about 3000 times higher than reference cage, was found in an aguada close to a cattle farm. CYP1A induction with respect to reference cage was observed in 3 water bodies, all of them located near villages or used for tourist activities. Pollutants and biomarkers of effect should be monitored in these water bodies in order to have a better understanding of the actual levels of pollutants that are present at Yucatan's aquifer and the potential risk to human and environmental health. PMID:22014761

  4. Effect of Elastic Modulus on Biomechanical Properties of Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhu; Fusheng Li; Shujun Li; Yulin Hao; Rui Yang

    2009-01-01

    This work focuses on the influence of elastic modulus on biomechanical properties of lumbar interbody fusion cages by selecting two titanium alloys with different elastic modulus.They were made by a new β type alloy with chemical composition of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.6Sn having low Young's modulus ~50 GPa and by a conventional biomedical alloy Ti-6Al-4V having Young's modulus ~110 GPa.The results showed that the designed cages with low modulus (LMC) and high modulus (HMC) can keep identical compression load ~9.8 kN and endure fatigue cycles higher than 5× 106 without functional or mechanical failure under 2.0 kN axial compression.The anti-subsidence ability of both group cages were examined by axial compression of thoracic spine specimens (T9~T10) dissected freshly from the calf with averaged age of 6 months.The results showed that the LMC has better anti-subsidence ability than the HMC (p<0.05).The above results suggest that the cage with low elastic modulus has great potential for clinical applications.

  5. The split cube in a cage: bulk negative-index material for infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.;

    2009-01-01

    We propose the split cube in a cage (SCiC) design for application in producing a bulk metamaterial. Applying realistic material data for thin silver films, we observe an immediate convergence of the effective parameters obtained with a number of layers towards the bulk properties. Results are obt...

  6. Energy loss caused by shielding effect of steel cage outside source tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The energy loss, produced by shielding effect of steel cage outside the source tube, is quite considerable.With PENELOPE software package, MC results have been obtained based on the simulation of different source conformations. The result illustrates that the naked source tubes can improve the utilization ratio of the cobalt facilities. It demonstrates the applied value of the naked source tube in engineering.

  7. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  8. PRODUCTIVITY OF LAYERS AND EGG QUALITY IN FREE RANGE AND CAGE SYSTEM OF HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đ. Senčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with two groups of Lohmann Brown hybrid layers. Production of eggs lasted for 52 weeks. A control group of layers was kept in the conventional housing system, that is, in cages, while experimental group was kept in the free range system. Layers from the free range system, compared to those kept in cages, laid fewer eggs, (266:295, they consumed more feed on daily basis (129 g : 115 g, more feed per kilogram of egg weight (2.83 kg : 2.35 kg, they had higher mortality rate (6.80 % : 5.50 % and lower end of lay body weight (1.95 kg : 2.10 kg. Eggs from free range layers, compared to those from the cages system, had significantly (P0.05 were determined between the free range and the cages system of housing hens. Considering somewhat lower productivity and higher mortality rate of hens, higher feed consumption per kilogram of egg mass, but also better quality of eggs, profitability of egg production in the free range system will depend, to the maximum extent, on market evaluation of the production.

  9. Examination of Free Choice of Rabbits among Different Cage-floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Matics

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits were placed in a block of cages with a floor-area of 2 m2. The animals could move freely among the cages, through swing doors. All the four cages were totally equal, they only differed in the floor (planked by OSB panel, plastic-slat, plastic-mesh or wire-mesh. 24 or 32 rabbits, weaned at 21 days of age were placed into the block. During the experiment (until 10 weeks of age the free choice of rabbits among the cage-floors was studied weekly with the help of 24-hour video recordings. The soiled and wet (by urine planked-floor was chosen by fewer and fewer rearing rabbits after the first week. Placing both 24 or 32 rabbits into the block, the plastic mesh floor was preferred. With the increase of age the choice of plastic-mesh, wire-mesh and plastic-slat floor became similar. The increase of both number and weight of rabbits in 1 m2 influenced the acceptance of different floors. Rearing 32 rabbits together, the choice of the 3 preferred floor types became similar at 7.5 weeks of age, while rearing 24 rabbits in a group, it became similar only at 9.5 weeks of age.

  10. Examination of Free Choice of Rabbits among Different Cage-floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Matics

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits were placed in a block of cages with a floor-area of 2 m2. The animals could move freely among the cages, through swing doors. All the four cages were totally equal, they only differed in the floor (planked by OSB panel, plastic-slat, plastic-mesh or wire-mesh. 24 or 32 rabbits, weaned at 21 days of age were placed into the block. During the experiment (until 10 weeks of age the free choice of rabbits among the cage-floors was studied weekly with the help of 24-hour video recordings. The soiled and wet (by urine planked-floor was chosen by fewer and fewer rearing rabbits after the first week. Placing both 24 or 32 rabbits into the block, the plastic mesh floor was preferred. With the increase of age the choice ofplastic-mesh, wire-mesh and plastic-slat floor became similar. The increase of both number and weight of rabbits in 1 m2 influenced the acceptance of different floors. Rearing 32 rabbits together, the choice of the 3 preferred floor types became similar at 7.5 weeks of age, while rearing 24 rabbits in a group, it became similar only at 9.5 weeks of age.

  11. Alternatives for the battery cage system: a comparison of economic, environmental and societal performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.; Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ban on the battery cage system in the European Union after 2012, mainly due to impaired hen welfare, forces farmers to change to alternative housing systems for laying hens. Large-scale introduction of more hen-friendly systems, however, requires a comparison of these systems on their economic,

  12. Defensiveness in Female College Students and Its Impact on Their MAST and CAGE Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, John M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Jones, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    This study found a statistically significant inverse relationship between defensiveness and female college students' Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (M. L. Selzer, 1971) and CAGE (J. A. Ewing, 198 ) scores. Female college students who produce negative screening scores were more defensive than those whose alcohol use screens were positive.…

  13. Laying Performance of Wareng Chicken under Free Choice Feeding and Different Cage Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using free choice feeding technique under different cage density for unselected native chicken. Eighty hens of laying Wareng chicken were divided into two feeding systems. Half of them were fed complete commercial diet of 17% crude protein, with 2800 kcal ME/kg and the other half were subjected to free choice diet. The diets were in mash form and placed in sufficient feed troughs in front of each cage. Each cage was occupied by four or six hens. Free choice feeding hens were served with commercial concentrate (30% crude protein, ground corn and oyster shell, placed separately in feed troughs. Observation was carried out during 24 weeks laying period, starting from 20 to 44 weeks of age. The results showed that egg production (9.35% hen day, and the intake of feed (42.74 g/day, protein (7.01 g/day, energy (116.6 kcal ME/day, calcium (1.99 g/day and phosphorus (0.22 g/day were not affected (P>0.05 by feeding system nor by cage density. The results however indicated that free choice feeding technique provided sufficient nutrients in supporting maximum egg production of unselected native chicken.

  14. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Oliveira, R.; McDonough, S.; Matser, A.; Khatikarn, J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Domingues, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxy

  15. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

  16. Protein Nanocontainers from Nonviral Origin: Testing the Mechanics of Artificial and Natural Protein Cages by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, K; Sasaki, E; King, N P; Baker, D; Hilvert, D; Wuite, G J L; Roos, W H

    2016-07-01

    Self-assembling protein nanocontainers are promising candidates for an increasingly wide scope of purposes. Their applications range from drug delivery vehicles and imaging agents to nanocompartments for controlled enzymatic activity. In order to exploit their full potential in these different fields, characterization of their properties is vital. For example, their mechanical properties give insight into the stability of a particle as a function of their internal content. The mechanics can be probed by atomic force microscopy nanoindentation, and while this single particle method is increasingly used to probe material properties of viral nanocages, it has hardly been used to characterize nonviral nanocages. Here we report nanoindentation studies on two types of nonviral nanocontainers: (i) lumazine synthase from Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS), which naturally self-assembles into icosahedral cages, and (ii) the artificial protein cage O3-33 originating from a computational design approach. In addition, we tested particles that had been engineered toward improved cargo loading capacity and compared these nanocages in empty and loaded states. We found that the thermostable AaLS cages are stiffer and resist higher forces before breaking than the O3-33 particles, but that mutations affecting the size of AaLS particles have a dramatic effect on their structural stability. Furthermore, we show that cargo packaging can occur while maintaining the cage's mechanical properties. PMID:27187612

  17. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shaona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyroscope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  18. Maternal Obesity, Cage Density, and Age Contribute to Prostate Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Emily C; Gill, Jeff; Lamb, Laura E; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors is gravely needed to prevent adverse prostate health outcomes. We previously developed a murine precancer model in which exposure to maternal obesity stimulated prostate hyperplasia in offspring. Here, we used generalized linear modeling to evaluate the influence of additional environmental covariates on prostate hyperplasia. As expected from our previous work, the model revealed that aging and maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) each correlated with prostate hyperplasia. However, prostate hyperplasia was not correlated with the length of maternal DIO. Cage density positively associated with both prostate hyperplasia and offspring body weight. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in prostates also positively correlated with cage density and negatively correlated with age of the animal. Together, these findings suggest that prostate tissue was adversely patterned during early life by maternal overnutrition and was susceptible to alteration by environmental factors such as cage density. Additionally, prostate hyperplasia may be acutely influenced by exposure to DIO, rather than occurring as a response to worsening obesity and comorbidities experienced by the mother. Finally, cage density correlated with both corticosteroid receptor abundance and prostate hyperplasia, suggesting that overcrowding influenced offspring prostate hyperplasia. These results emphasize the need for multivariate regression models to evaluate the influence of coordinated variables in complicated animal systems. PMID:26243546

  19. Synthesis of photoactivatable azido-acyl caged oxazine fluorophores for live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Andrew V; Chen, Zhixing; Cornish, Virginia W

    2016-07-19

    We report the design and synthesis of a photoactivatable azido-acyl oxazine fluorophore. Photoactivation is achieved cleanly and rapidly with UV light, producing a single fluorescent oxazine photoproduct. We demonstrate the utility of azido-acyl caged oxazines for protein specific labeling in living mammalian cells using the TMP-tag technology. PMID:27377037

  20. Stereoselective recognition of the Ac-Glu-Tyr-OH dipeptide by pseudopeptidic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, Enrico; Vicent, Cristian; Luis, Santiago V; Alfonso, Ignacio

    2015-12-28

    Pseudopeptidic molecular cages are appealing receptors since they can display different polar and non-polar interaction sites in a modular framework and a controlled disposition. Inspired by previous host-guest knowledge, two pseudopeptidic molecular cages based on serine and threonine (CySer and CyThr, respectively) were designed and synthesized as hosts for the binding of the four possible stereoisomers of the Ac-Glu-Tyr-OH dipeptide, a target sequence of tyrosine kinases. The careful NMR titration experiments in aqueous acetonitrile allowed the determination of the binding constants and reflected a difference in the stability of the corresponding diastereomeric host-guest complexes. The CySer cage proved to be slightly more efficient than the CyThr counterpart, although both showed similar stereoselectivity trends: LL > DD ≥ LD > DL. This stereoselective binding was retained in the gas phase, as shown by ESI-MS competition experiments using the enantiomer-labelled method (EL), as well as CID experiments. Thus, the MS-determined discriminations follow the same trends observed by NMR, suggesting that the stereoselectivity observed for these systems must be mainly dictated by the polar host-guest interactions. Despite the stereoselective binding of short peptide sequences in competitive media being a challenging issue in supramolecular chemistry, our results demonstrate the power of pseudopeptidic cages in molecular recognition with foreseen implications in chemical biology. PMID:26481115

  1. Photoactivatable Drug-Caged Fluorophore Conjugate Allows Direct Quantification of Intracellular Drug Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Agasti, Sarit S.; Laughney, Ashley M.; Kohler, Rainer H.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We report here a method that utilizes photoactivatable drug-caged fluorophore conjugate to quantify intracellular drug trafficking processes at single cell resolution. Photoactivation is performed in labeled cellular compartments to visualize intracellular drug exchange at physiologic conditions, without the need for washing, facilitating its translation to in vivo cancer models.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Hydrodynamic Behavior of A Flatfish Cage System Under Wave Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; 关长涛; 万荣; 黄滨; 李娇

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model based on the finite element method. The method is used to analyze the motion response and mooring line tension of the flatfish cage system in waves. The cage system consists of top frames, netting, mooring lines, bottom frames, and floats. A series of scaled physical model tests in regular waves are conducted to verify the numerical model. The comparison results show that the simulated and the experimental results agree well under the wave conditions, and the maximum pitch of the bottom frame with two orientations is about 12º. The motion process of the whole cage system in the wave can be described with the computer visualized technology. Then, the mooring line tensions and the motion of the bottom frame with three kinds of weight are calculated under different wave conditions. According to the numerical results, the differences in mooring line tensions of flatfish cages with three weight modes are indistinct. The maximum pitch of the bottom frame decreases with the increase of the bottom weight.

  3. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Shaona; Chen Xiaoyang; Gu Jiaming; Shen Xuejin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyro-scope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  4. That Entertainment Called a Discussion: The Critical Arts Pedagogy of John Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Just as John Cage used chance techniques to relinquish control in his practice as a composer, he used pedagogical techniques that facilitated shared learning and experimentation. The tenets of Critical Pedagogy, as laid out by Paulo Freire in "The Pedagogy of the Oppressed," offer insights into the structures and strategies implicit in…

  5. A new cytotoxic caged polyprenylated xanthone from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li Wang; Zhan Lin Li; Yong Peng Xu; Xiao Qiu Liu; Yue Hu Pei; Yong Kui Jing; Hui Ming Hua

    2008-01-01

    A new caged polyprenylated xanthone,gambogic aldehyde(1),was isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR data.In addition.the antiproliferative ability of compound 1 was determined in mouse leukemia P388 and P388/ADR ceils.

  6. Nicolas Cage otsib kadunud tütart naistesaarelt / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Õudusfilm "Ohvripidu" : režissöör Neil LaBute : peaosas Nicholas Cage : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Film on uusversioon briti 1973.a. filmist, mille režissöör oli Robin Hardy ja ühes peaosadest Christopher Lee

  7. Parameters identification of the compound cage rotor induction machine based on linearized Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁成; 李伟力; 孙建伟

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model has been built up for compound cage rotor induction machine with the rotor re-sistance and leakage inductance in the model identified through Kalman filtering method. Using the identifiedparameters, simulation studies are performed, and simulation results are compared with testing results.

  8. Molecular structures of two tetrodotoxin analogs containing a monooxa-hydrocarbon cage: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Using quantum chemical calculations we investigate the molecular structures of two tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs recently isolated from the Japanese toxic newt Cynops ensicauda popei. These novel analogs are characterized by a monooxa-hydrocarbon cage with a direct C5-C10 bond that replaces one of the ether bridges in the canonical dioxa-adamantane cage of TTX. The computed change in the 13C NMR chemical shifts is in good agreement with the change in the corresponding experimental values that results from the above chemical modification. This confirms the chemical structure assigned to the TTX analogs. A topological analysis of the theoretical electronic charge density indicates that the removal of the oxygen bridge in TTX increases the magnitude of the charge density at the cage critical point. A database search indicates that the monooxa-hydrocarbon cage is also present in other natural products such as cinnzeylanine and platensimycin whose molecular structures have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses.

  9. Vergleich klinischer und radiologischer Parameter nach anteriorer Diskektomie und Fusion der Halswirbelsäule mit Polyetheretherketon- und Titan-Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Soner

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compared with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) titanium (TTN) cages have a higher modulus of elasticity and are reported to show a higher loss of correction and more frequent cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Direct comparison of both cage types appears to favour PEEK cages to maintain cervical interspace height and achieve better fusion in patients with a degenerative disc disease (DDD), but clinical studies on this subject are very rare. Metho...

  10. Disparities in Ammonia, Temperature, Humidity, and Airborne Particulate Matter between the Micro-and Macroenvironments of Mice in Individually Ventilated Caging

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Matthew D.; VandeWoude, Susan; Volckens, John; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Animal room environmental parameters typically are monitored with the assumption that the environment within the cage closely mirrors the room environment. This study evaluated that premise by examining macro- (room) and microenvironmental (cage) parameters in individually ventilated cages housing mice with variable amounts of bedding over a period of 17 d without cage changes. Intracage ammonia levels remained within recommended human guidelines but were higher than room levels, confirming t...

  11. Ligand photo-isomerization triggers conformational changes in iGluR2 ligand binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Wolter

    Full Text Available Neurological glutamate receptors bind a variety of artificial ligands, both agonistic and antagonistic, in addition to glutamate. Studying their small molecule binding properties increases our understanding of the central nervous system and a variety of associated pathologies. The large, oligomeric multidomain membrane protein contains a large and flexible ligand binding domains which undergoes large conformational changes upon binding different ligands. A recent application of glutamate receptors is their activation or inhibition via photo-switchable ligands, making them key systems in the emerging field of optochemical genetics. In this work, we present a theoretical study on the binding mode and complex stability of a novel photo-switchable ligand, ATA-3, which reversibly binds to glutamate receptors ligand binding domains (LBDs. We propose two possible binding modes for this ligand based on flexible ligand docking calculations and show one of them to be analogues to the binding mode of a similar ligand, 2-BnTetAMPA. In long MD simulations, it was observed that transitions between both binding poses involve breaking and reforming the T686-E402 protein hydrogen bond. Simulating the ligand photo-isomerization process shows that the two possible configurations of the ligand azo-group have markedly different complex stabilities and equilibrium binding modes. A strong but slow protein response is observed after ligand configuration changes. This provides a microscopic foundation for the observed difference in ligand activity upon light-switching.

  12. Ruthenium Cumulenylidene Complexes Bearing Heteroscorpionate Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Strinitz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In previous work of the BURZLAFF group, the design of suitable N,N,O ligands for a wide variety of applications ranging from catalysis to bioinorganic model compounds has been extensively investigated. Especially the methyl substituted bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl) acetate (bdmpza) ligand has shown manifold chemistry, comparable to the anionic cyclopentadienyl (Cp) and hydridotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borato (Tp) ligand. In the first part of this thesis the new tricarbonylmanganese(I) complexes be...

  13. Forms and Balance of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Cage Culture Waters in Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to approach the characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution caused by cage culture and the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus during the process of cage culture, a monitoring was conducted in Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, China from April 2002 to Jane 2003. The results show that the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in the waters at the sites with five and ten years of cage culture history are 1.8 and 2.3 times of that at control site respectively. Ammonium (NH3-N) is the main form of nitrogen in spring while nitrate (NO3-) in winter. The concentrations of TN, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) are highest in autumn. The concentration of phosphorus increases with the increasing of the culturing time, among which phosphate (PO34-) increases most obviously.The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) are highest in autumn. The nitrogen and phosphorus are accumulated significantly in the sediment of cage culture area. The model of N balance in the cage culture area: bait (70.62%) + fry (0.28%) + input by tide (14.8%) + release from sediment (14.3%) = harvest of adult fish (12.07%) + deposition into sediment (28.75%) + output by tide (56.18%) + others (3.00%). The model of P balance: bait (83.11%) + fry (0.17%) + input by tide (12.23%) + release from sediment (4.49%) = harvest of adult fish (8.43%) + deposition into sediment (48.59%) + output by tide (41.94%) + others (1.04%). In one fish growth year, the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in harvest of adult fish are only 17.0% and 10.1% of the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in fish bait and fry, wherein 83% of nitrogen and more than 89% of phosphorus in fish bait became marine pollutants.

  14. A systematic review of the use of expandable cages in the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin D; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Goodwin, C Rory; Lina, Ioan A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Expandable vertebral body replacement cages (VBRs) have been widely used for reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy. However, their use in the cervical spine is less common, and currently, no expandable cages on the market are cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of expandable cages in the treatment of cervical spine pathology with a focus on fusion rates, deformity correction, complications, and indications. A comprehensive Medline search was performed, and 24 applicable articles were identified and included in this review. The advantages of expandable cages include greater ease of implantation with less risk of damage to the end plate, less intraoperative manipulation of the device, and potentially greater control over lordosis. They may be particularly advantageous in cases with poor bone quality, such as patients with osteoporosis or metastatic tumors that have been radiated. However, there is a potential risk of overdistraction, which is increased in the cervical spine, their minimum height limits their use in cases with collapsed vertebra, and the amount of hardware in the expansion mechanism may limit the surface area available for fusion. The use of expandable VBRs are a valuable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of the anterior column of the cervical spine with an acceptable safety profile. Although expandable cervical cages are clearly beneficial in certain clinical situations, widespread use following all corpectomies is not justified due to their significantly greater cost compared to structural bone grafts or non-expandable VBRs, which can be utilized to achieve similar clinical outcomes. PMID:26212700

  15. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENR), were monitored in river water and sediment samples. Moreover, we assessed the toxicity of OTC and ENR on tropical freshwater invertebrates and performed a risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems. All interviewed tilapia farmers reported to routinely use antibiotics. Peak water concentrations for OTC and ENR were 49 and 1.6 μg/L, respectively. Antibiotics were most frequently detected in sediments with concentrations up to 6908 μg/kg d.w. for OTC, and 2339 μg/kg d.w. for ENR. The results of this study indicate insignificant short-term risks for primary producers and invertebrates, but suggest that the studied aquaculture farms constitute an important source of antibiotic pollution. - Highlights: • First study assessing the risks of antibiotics applied in freshwater tilapia cages. • Ten antibiotics were reported to be used by tilapia cage farmers in two Thai rivers. • Peak oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin concentrations were in the order of μg/L. • Antibiotic concentrations in river sediments next to cages were up to several mg/kg. • Antibiotics are not posing a short-term risk for pelagic aquatic organisms. - Antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems and constitute an important source of environmental pollution

  16. Clinical Use of PPARγ Ligands in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hatton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation has fueled intense interest in the function of this steroid nuclear receptor for regulation of malignant cell growth and differentiation. Given the antiproliferative and differentiating effects of PPARγ ligands on liposarcoma cells, investigation of PPARγ expression and ligand activation in other solid tumors such as breast, colon, and prostate cancers ensued. The anticancer effects of PPARγ ligands in cell culture and rodent models of a multitude of tumor types suggest broad applicability of these agents to cancer therapy. This review focuses on the clinical use of PPARγ ligands, specifically the thiazolidinediones, for the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  17. A polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold as an autograft-free spinal fusion cage in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Zhi-gang; Li, Xiao-kang; Guo, Zheng; Wu, Su-hua; Zhang, Yong-quan; Shi, Lei; Teoh, Swee-hin; Liu, Yu-chun; Zhang, Zhi-yong

    2014-07-01

    Titanium (Ti) based spinal fusion cages are frequently used in the clinics for the treatment of spinal degeneration and related diseases, however, their further clinical application is generally harassed by several drawbacks such as stress shielding, non-biodegradability and additional bone grafting procedure. Our earlier work has demonstrated the efficacy of a biodegradable macro-porous polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) composite scaffold in promoting bony tissue ingrowth as well as its ability to sustain mechanical loads upon implantation into an orthotopic defect site. In this study, we investigated the use of PCL-TCP scaffold as an autograft-free spinal fusion cage in a preclinical sheep model over 12 months, and compared the fusion efficacy against Ti cages incorporated with autografts. Results showed that despite PCL-TCP scaffold as an autograft-free cage attaining a slower fusion rate at early stage (6 month), it achieved similar degree of spinal fusion efficacy as Ti cages aided with autograft at 12 month post-operation as evidenced by the radiographic and histological evaluation. PCL-TCP cages alone demonstrated better bone ingrowth with 2.6 fold higher bone/interspace ratio (B/I) and more homogeneous bone tissue distribution compared with that of the Ti cages (88.10  ±  3.63% vs. 33.74  ±  2.78%, p CT analysis. Moreover, besides the bone tissue ingrowth, a quantitative approach was illustrated to accurately evaluate the osteointegration of fusion cage with surrounding bone tissue, and showed a 1.36 fold higher degree of osteointegration occurred in PCL-TCP cage group than Ti cage group (CS/PC: 79.31  ±  3.15% vs 58.44  ±  2.43%, p  0.05). The degradation profile of the PCL-TCP cages was noted to increase in tandem with new bone ingrowth into the pores, while maintaining good structural integrity necessary for supporting the spinal interbody segments. Therefore, with the better osteointegration, more bone tissue

  18. Synergy of Two Assembly Languages in DNA Nanostructures: Self-Assembly of Sequence-Defined Polymers on DNA Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidchob, Pongphak; Edwardson, Thomas G W; Serpell, Christopher J; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2016-04-01

    DNA base-pairing is the central interaction in DNA assembly. However, this simple four-letter (A-T and G-C) language makes it difficult to create complex structures without using a large number of DNA strands of different sequences. Inspired by protein folding, we introduce hydrophobic interactions to expand the assembly language of DNA nanotechnology. To achieve this, DNA cages of different geometries are combined with sequence-defined polymers containing long alkyl and oligoethylene glycol repeat units. Anisotropic decoration of hydrophobic polymers on one face of the cage leads to hydrophobically driven formation of quantized aggregates of DNA cages, where polymer length determines the cage aggregation number. Hydrophobic chains decorated on both faces of the cage can undergo an intrascaffold "handshake" to generate DNA-micelle cages, which have increased structural stability and assembly cooperativity, and can encapsulate small molecules. The polymer sequence order can control the interaction between hydrophobic blocks, leading to unprecedented "doughnut-shaped" DNA cage-ring structures. We thus demonstrate that new structural and functional modes in DNA nanostructures can emerge from the synergy of two interactions, providing an attractive approach to develop protein-inspired assembly modules in DNA nanotechnology. PMID:26998893

  19. Host-Guest Chemistry in the Hexanuclear (Arene)ruthenium Metalla-Prismatic Cage [Ru6(p-cymene)6(tpt)2(dhnq)3]6+

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Nicolas P. E.; Therrien, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    A large cationic triangular metalla-prism, [Ru6(p-cymene)6(tpt)2(dhnq)3]6+ ([1]6+), incorporating (p-cymene)ruthenium building blocks, bridged by 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinonato (dhnq) ligands, and connected by two 2,4,6-tri(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (tpt) subunits, allows encapsulation of various guest molecules. This cationic cage, isolated as its triflate salt, possesses a portal size smaller than its cavity, thus allowing both, permanent and temporary encapsulation of guest molecule...

  20. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using one diagonal fusion cage with transpedicular screw/rod fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Hou, Tiesheng; Wang, Xinwei; Ma, Shengzhong

    2003-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using threaded cages has gained wide popularity for lumbosacral spinal disease. Our biomechanical tests showed that PLIF using a single diagonal cage with unilateral facetectomy does add a little to spinal stability and provides equal or even higher postoperative stability than PLIF using two posterior cages with bilateral facetectomy. Studies also demonstrated that cages placed using a posterior approach did not cause the same increase in spinal stiffness seen with pedicle screw instrumentation, and we concluded that cages should not be used posteriorly without other forms of fixation. On the other hand, placement of two cages using a posterior approach does have the disadvantage of risk to the bilateral nerve roots. We therefore performed a prospective study to determine whether PLIF can be accomplished by utilizing a single diagonal fusion cage with the application of supplemental transpedicular screw/rod instrumentation. Twenty-seven patients underwent a PLIF using one single fusion cage (BAK, Sulzer Spine-Tech, Minneapolis, MN, USA) inserted posterolaterally and oriented anteromedially on the symptomatic side with unilateral facetectomy and at the same level supplemental fixation with a transpedicular screw/rod system. The internal fixation systems included 12 SOCON spinal systems (Aesculap AG, Germany) and 15 TSRH spinal systems (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, USA). The inclusion criteria were grade 1 to 2 lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis, lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, and recurrent lumbar disc herniations with instability. Patients had at least 1 year of low back pain and/or unilateral sciatica and a severely restricted functional ability in individuals aged 28-55 years. Patients with more than grade 2 spondylolisthesis or adjacent-level degeneration were excluded from the study. Patients were clinically assessed prior to surgery by an independent assessor; they were then reassessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24

  1. Population size, cage area, and dominance rank effects on productivity and well-being of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D L; van Tienhoven, A; Gvaryahu, G

    1988-03-01

    The effect of two cage population sizes (four vs. six/cage) and two cage area treatments (316 cm2 vs. 406 cm2/bird) were compared in a nonconfounded design while maintaining feeder space constant (8.9 cm/bird) for egg production performances and behavioral and physiological indicators of well-being of laying hens. Egg production rates were determined for all members of each cage group (palpations at 48 to 50 wk) and on a cage group basis (20 to 60 wk). Heart weights, plasma corticosterone levels, durations of tonic immobility (TI), and plumage conditions were compared for top and bottom birds in the dominance ranks. Significant reductions in egg production were observed for low ranking hens in the high density (4 and 6/316-cm2) treatments. In addition, high ranking hens of the 6/316-cm2 treatment produced fewer eggs than high ranking hens in the 4/316-cm2 treatment. When high and low ranking individuals were housed in single-hen cages, egg production was improved relative to performances in the social environments. Heart weights of hens, as a percentage of body weight, were increased in the low ranking hens and for hens in the smaller cage size. Plasma corticosterone did not prove to be a useful indicator of well-being. Low ranking individuals had greater durations of TI but differences in feather condition were not detected. The results support the contention that appropriate population sizes and cage space allocations can be determined that will optimize the performance and welfare of layers in cage environments. PMID:3405919

  2. Macrocyclic ligands for uranium complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly preorganized 24-macrocycle containing biuret, thiobiuret and pyridine subunits has been prepared by high dilution ring-closure procedures. Intermediate products to this macrocycle have been utilized to extend this synthetic route to include further representatives where solubility and stability will be influenced by substituent variation. A 1:1 complex has been formed from uranyl acetate and a quinquepyridine derivative, this representing a new type of ligand for the uranyl ion. A very convenient synthetic procedure that will allow the incorporation of these macrocycles into polymeric systems has been developed for the introduction of a vinyl substituent into the 4-position of the pyridine ring. Using triflate, vinyltributyltin and Pd0 chemistry, this procedure should make a variety of substituted 4-vinylpyridines available for the first time. 3 refs

  3. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Zekiye Pelin; Guven, Zekiye Pelin; Üstbaş, Burçin; Ustbas, Burcin; Harkness, Kellen M.; Coşkun, Hikmet; Coskun, Hikmet; Joshi, Chakra P.; Besong, Tabot M. D.; Stellacci, Francesco; Bakr, Osman M.; Akbulut, Özge; Akbulut, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. The ratio of the ligands was changed to track the formation of these clusters. While the chiral ligand lead to nanoparticles, Presence of the achiral ligand induced the formation of nanoclusters with chiral properties.

  4. Rhodium olefin complexes of diiminate type ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Sander Theodorus Hermanus

    2003-01-01

    The mono-anionic beta-diiminate ligand (ArNC(CH3)CHC(CH3)NAr) on several previous occasions proved useful in stabilising low coordination numbers for both early and late transition metals. In this thesis the reactivity of the rhodium olefin complexes of one of these beta-diiminate ligands (Ar = 2,6-

  5. Flexible Ligand Docking Using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, René

    2003-01-01

    the most favorable energetic conformation among the large space of possible protein-ligand complexes. Stochastic search methods, such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), can be used to sample large search spaces effectively and is one of the preferred methods for flexible ligand docking. The differential...

  6. Detection of early behavioral markers of Huntington's disease in R6/2 mice employing an automated social home cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudenko, Olga; Tkach, Vadim; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2009-01-01

    developed behavior screening system, the IntelliCage, allows automated testing of mouse behavior in the home cage employing individual recognition of animals living in social groups. The present study validates the ability of the IntelliCage system to detect behavioral and cognitive dysfunction in R6/2 mice......Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, for which no known cure or effective treatment exists. To facilitate the search for new potential treatments of HD, an automated system for analyzing the behavior of transgenic HD mice is urgently needed. A recently...

  7. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  8. Maternal antibody transfer to broiler progeny varies among strains and is affected by grain source and cage density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, N M; Ali, R; Koci, M; Moraes, V; Eusebio-Balcazar, P E; Jornigan, J; Malheiros, R D; Wineland, M J; Brake, J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O

    2011-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of broiler breeder dietary grain source and cage density on maternal antibody (MatAb) transfer to progeny in 2 genetic strains (A and B). Broiler breeders were assigned to 16 litter floor pens and fed either corn- or wheat-based diets. Breeders were administered 4 live vaccines against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). At 23 wk of age, pullets and cocks, which reflected the full BW distribution from each treatment, were moved to a cage breeder house and placed at 1 or 2 hens/cage. Breeders were artificially inseminated at 44 wk (experiment 1) and 52 wk of age (experiment 2). Eggs were collected for 8 d, incubated, and placed in individual pedigree bags at d 19 of incubation. Blood samples from 5 chicks per treatment combination were collected at hatch in both experiments. Spleen and bursa were collected from the same chicks for histomorphometry analyses in experiment 2. In the second experiment, 12 chicks per treatment were placed in cages. Progeny were provided diets based on the same grain (corn or wheat) as their parents. Serum samples were collected at 5, 9, and 13 d of age and analyzed for anti-NDV MatAb. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design considering strain, dietary grain source, and cage density as main factors. Interaction effects were observed in breeders and progeny. Experiment 1 showed that strain A chicks had lower levels of MatAb when hens were housed at 2 hens/cage rather than 1 hen/cage. The MatAb levels of strain B chickens were not affected by cage density in either experiment. Experiment 2 demonstrated similar effects of cage density on MatAb levels and the area of bursa follicles for both strains. Progeny of breeders fed corn-based diets had smaller spleen white pulp only when hens were housed at 2 hens/cage compared with 1 hen/cage. The results of these experiments suggest that breeder strain and cage-density conditions affected MatAb transfer to progeny and embryo development

  9. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 {mu}g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 {mu}g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 {mu}g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 {mu}g/g THg and 0.13 {mu}g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 {mu}g/g THg and 0.01 {mu}g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope {delta}{sup 15}N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that {delta}{sup 15}N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  10. Production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of two strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbaşılar, E E; Ünal, N; Erdem, E; Kocakaya, A; Yaranoğlu, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of 2 strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages. Lohmann Brown Classic (LB, n=532) and Lohmann LSL Classic (LW, n=532) hens were housed from 16 to 73 wk in either conventional cages or enriched cages. Enriched cages had a nesting area, scratch pad, perch, and nail shortener. Body weight (BW), hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cracked and dirty eggs, use of nest box for lay, and external appearance were determined. Laying period influenced the hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Cage type affected the hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, while strain affected the egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Laying period×cage type and laying period×strain interactions affected egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. Both strains preferred to lay in the nest box. Percentages of cracked and dirty eggs of LW hens in enriched cages were higher than that in conventional cages. Most of the dirty eggs laid by both strains were found outside of the nest box. The LW hens laid more dirty eggs than the LB hens. Cage type and cage type×strain interaction were important for total feather score. Final claw length was affected by cage type, strain, and cage type×strain interaction. This study suggests that cage type, strain, and also cage type×strain and period×strain interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are used. PMID:25667426

  11. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere

    2009-05-01

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  12. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. Mark; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-01

    The separation of molecules with similar size and shape is an important technological challenge. For example, rare gases can pose either an economic opportunity or an environmental hazard and there is a need to separate these spherical molecules selectively at low concentrations in air. Likewise, chiral molecules are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, but chiral enantiomers, by definition, have identical size and shape, and their separation can be challenging. Here we show that a porous organic cage molecule has unprecedented performance in the solid state for the separation of rare gases, such as krypton and xenon. The selectivity arises from a precise size match between the rare gas and the organic cage cavity, as predicted by molecular simulations. Breakthrough experiments demonstrate real practical potential for the separation of krypton, xenon and radon from air at concentrations of only a few parts per million. We also demonstrate selective binding of chiral organic molecules such as 1-phenylethanol, suggesting applications in enantioselective separation.

  13. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol system—An ab initio study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snehanshu Pal; T K Kundu

    2013-03-01

    Density functional theory based studies have been performed to elucidate the role of methanol as an methane hydrate inhibitor. A methane hydrate pentagonal dodecahedron cage’s geometry optimization, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, Mullikan charge determination, electrostatic potential evaluation and vibrational frequency calculation with and without the presence of methanol using WB97XD/6-31++G(d,p) have been carried out. Calculated geometrical parameters and interaction energies indicate that methanol destabilizes pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage (1CH4@512) with and without the presence of sodium ion. NBO analysis and red shift of vibrational frequency reveal that hydrogen bond formation between methanol and water molecules of 1CH4@512 cage is favourable subsequently after breaking its original hydrogen bonded network.

  14. Trapping of atomic hydrogen in octasilsesquioxane cages by glow discharge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen atoms are trapped in octasilsesquioxane ((RSiO3/2)8, R = H, CH3, i-butyl, etc.) cages by electric discharge treatment. The yield of the trapped hydrogen was evaluated to be 1.3 x 10-4 of cage unit by using ESR spectroscopy for (CH3SiO3/2)8 discharged for 4 minutes at room temperature. To obtain a comparable yield of the trapped hydrogen by γ-rays (60Co) irradiation, an absorbed dose of ca. 300 kGy is required, taking two days or more in general. The discharge technique is simple and extremely efficient compared to the conventional method of γ-ray radiolysis. (author)

  15. Fabrication of CuO nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian HuYong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHere we report a very simple method to convert conventional CuO powders to nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method. CuO is dissolved into aqueous ammonia, and the solution is diluted by alcohol and dip coating onto a glass substrate. Drying at 80 °C, the nanostructures with bunchy nanoparticles of Cu(OH2can be formed. After the substrate immerges into the solution and we vaporize the solution, hollow microspheres can be formed onto the substrate. There are three phases in the as-prepared samples, monoclinic tenorite CuO, orthorhombic Cu(OH2, and monoclinic carbonatodiamminecopper(II (Cu(NH32CO3. After annealing at 150 °C, the products convert to CuO completely. At annealing temperature above 350 °C, the hollow microspheres became nanoparticle interlinked cages.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Response of A Net Cage for Flatfish in Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂福坤; 赵云鹏; 许条建; 关长涛

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model of flatfish cage is built based on the lumped mass method and the principle of rigid body kinematics. To validate the numerical model, a series of physical model tests are conducted in the wave flume. The numerical results correspond well with the data sets from physical model test. The effect of weight of bottom frame, height of fish net and net shape on motion responses of fish cage and tension force on mooring lines is then analyzed. The results indicate that the vertical displacements of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increase in the weight of bottom frame; the maximum tension force on mooring lines increases with the increasing weight of bottom frame. The inclination angles of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increasing net height; the maximum tension force increases obviously with the increase of net height.

  17. Control System for Producing Electricity with Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Nicolae Tutelea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present the key design equations and control design model of the Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator (DSWIG to achieve wide-speed-range operation with reduced capacity of the static power controller for low power wind or hydro applications. The proposed induction generator consists of a standard squirrel-cage rotor and a stator with two separate windings wound for a similar number of poles. Moreover, the system control strategy using the stator flux orientation is consequently proposed. The aim of the paper is to emphasize that the low speed induction generators with power electronic converters represent a realistic and useful solution for direct drive power applications.

  18. STUDIES ON THE SYNTHESES AND PROPERTIES OF SNAKE—CAGE TYPE CHELATE RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QURongjun; WANGShen; 等

    1999-01-01

    Using carboxymethyl chitosan(CM-CTS) as snake resin,B-62 resin crosslinked by triethylentetraamine(TETA)as cage resin,a series of novel snake-cage type resin were synthesized.Such factors as the best synthetic conditions,the swelling and regeneration properties.and the sorption capactities of the above mentioned resins for metal ions were investigated.The experimental results show these resins have good swelling properties and mechanical stability,and do not run off in organic and inorganic solvents.The sorption capactities of them for Cu2+,Ni2+,Zn2+,and Pb2+ were 0.89,0.54,0.32,and 0.22mmol/g,rspectively.

  19. Cyclic Water Clusters in Tape-Like and Cage-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhou Lei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the ratio of 2,2′-bpy to benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid produces two interesting complexes, namely [Co(2,2′-bpy3] (SO4 8.5H2O (1 and [Cu2(BTCA (2,2′-bpy4] (OH (2,2′-bpy0.5·14H2O (2 (H3BTCA = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine. We report the structural evidence in the solid state of discrete lamellar water cluster conformations. These units are found to act as supramolecular glue in the aggregation of cobalt (II or copper (II complexes to give three dimensional cage-like networks through hydrogen-bonding. It is interesting that the structure of complex 1 contains a 3D negatively charged cage.

  20. Parasitic diseases in marine cage culture--an example of experimental evolution of parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Barbara F

    2007-05-01

    Rapid development of fish culture in marine cages has been associated with an emergence of parasitic diseases. There is a general trend to an increase in infections with ectoparasites with direct life cycles and a reduced diversity of parasites in aquaculture. Some mariculture creates conditions that are similar to serial passage experiments, which are used to study adaptation during experimental evolution of pathogens. In particular, increased density of fish, repeated introduction of naive hosts, homogenous host populations, fast growth and a potential decrease in genetic diversity are attributes of both aquaculture and serial passage experiments. Some free-living organisms, for example Neoparamoeba spp. and Uronema spp. parasitise fish in culture, but have not been reported from wild populations. Farming fish in marine cages can increase the risk of outbreaks of parasitic diseases, including those caused by opportunistic parasites. However, aquaculture has the potential to control parasitic diseases through selective breeding, vaccination and general fish health management. PMID:17316650

  1. Effect of Caging and Swimmer Bars on Flexural Response of RC Deep Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathy S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beams with shear span to depth ratio (a/d less than or equal to 2 are considered as deep beams. They have wide applications in pile caps, water tanks, shear walls, corbels etc. Their strength is controlled by shear. Swimmer bars are small inclined bars, whose both ends are bent horizontally and welded to both top and bottom flexural reinforcement. Swimmer bars forming a plane crack interceptor system is effective in carrying shear. Also, a reinforcement caging provided at the centre of a simply supported beam is supposed to enhance its flexural capacity. In this study, an experimental investigation on the flexural response of deep beams reinforced with caging and swimmer bars is done. Various parameters like ultimate load, deflection and failure modes of different reinforcement patterns are studied.

  2. Theoretical study of methanol as inhibitor and cyclopentane as stabilizer of dodecahedron methane hydrate cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Snehanshu; Kundu, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based simulations have been performed to explain the role of methanol as an inhibitor and the role of cyclopentane as a promoter for methane hydrate. Interaction energy, Mullikan charges and electrostatic potential parameters for combined system of methanol and dodecahedron methane hydrate as well as cyclopentane and dodecahedron (512) methane hydrate cage are calculated using B3LYP functional (with and without dispersion function) and 6-31G(d) basis set. Methane hydrate formation inhibition by methanol and methane hydrate stabilization by cyclopentane is critically analyzed based on electrostatic potential and Mullikan charge. It is observed that hydrogen bond between water molecules of clathrate 512 cages become stronger in presence of cyclopentane and weaker in presence of methanol. It is also found that methanol breaks some hydrogen bonds of water molecules.

  3. Flash and smash: rapid freezing of muscle fibers activated by photolysis of caged ATP.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, K.; Lenart, T D; Murray, J.M.; Franzini-Armstrong, C; Goldman, Y E

    1993-01-01

    A new approach was used to study transient structural states of cross-bridges during activation of muscle fibers. Rabbit skinned muscle fibers were rapidly and synchronously activated from the rigor state by photolysis of caged ATP in the presence of Ca2+. At several different times during the switch from rigor to fully active tension development, the fibers were rapidly frozen on a liquid helium-cooled metal block, freeze-substituted, and examined in an electron microscope. The limits of str...

  4. Small Cages with Insect Couples Provide a Simple Method for a Preliminary Assessment of Mating Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Briand; Guerin, Patrick M.; Pierre-Joseph Charmillot; Patrik Kehrli

    2012-01-01

    Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density). The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia ...

  5. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Bex-Capelle, Valérie; Huonnic, Didier; Balaine, Loïc; Guillam, Marie-Thérèse; Squizani, Fabrice; Ségala, Claire; Michel, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract 1. Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. 2. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 ?m) from cage and alternative system henhouses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experiment...

  6. Cage rattling does not correlate with the local geometry in molecular liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Bernini, S.; Puosi, F.; Leporini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a liquid of short linear molecules have been performed to investigate the correlation between the particle dynamics in the cage of the neighbors and the local geometry. The latter is characterized in terms of the size and the asphericity of the Voronoi polyhedra. The correlation is found to be poor. In particular, in spite of the different Voronoi volume around the end and the inner monomers of a molecule, all the monomers exhibit coinciding displacement dist...

  7. Confocal Bioluminescence Imaging for Living Tissues with a Caged Substrate of Luciferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Mitsuru; Kawamura, Genki; Kojima, Ryosuke; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2016-06-21

    Fluorescence imaging can elucidate morphological organization and coordinal networks, but its background luminescence degrades the image contrast. Our confocal bioluminescence imaging system uses a luciferase caged substrate, with light passing through multipinhole arrays, causing bioluminescence at a focal plane. After a charge-coupled device camera captures luminescence, the imaging system acquires confocal images of multilayered cells with depth information, supporting quantitative analysis of spatial cellular localization in living tissues. PMID:27216493

  8. Enhancement Effect of Sea Urchin Grow-out Cages in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celia Defrance Malay; Helen Grace Bangi; Marie Antonette Juinio-Meñez

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the environmental impact of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla Linnaeas) grow-out culture in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. It was hypothesized that the feces generated by the caged urchins (~6,000 individuals at any one time) might cause localised sediment organic enrichment and subsequent shifts in benthic faunal communities. Results from preliminary surveys conducted in April and August of 1999 indicated minimal impact of sea urchin grow-out culture on the ...

  9. Template-directed synthesis of nets based upon octahemioctahedral cages that encapsulate catalytically active metalloporphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-01-18

    meso-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) templates the synthesis of six new metal-organic materials by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate with transition metals, five of which exhibit HKUST-1 or tbo topology (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg). The resulting materials, porph@MOMs, selectively encapsulate the corresponding metalloporphyrins in octahemioctahedral cages and can serve as size-selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of olefins. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. A chemist and biologist talk to each other about caged neurotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Davies, Graham C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Caged compounds are small organic molecules that can be photoactivated with brief pulses of light. They are widely used to study a great variety of biological processes by physiologists, cell biologists and neuroscientists. Initially made and invented by biologists in the late 1970s, they are now made mostly by chemists, often without any dialogue with the end users, the biologists. The idea for this review is to stimulate interaction between the two communities to further the creative develo...

  11. The Effect of the PEEK Cage on the Cervical Lordosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gulsen

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: We achieved better cervical lordotic angles at the postoperative period by implanting one-level, two-level, three-level or four-level PEEK cage filled with demineralized bone matrix. Also, the causes of cervical root and or medulla spinalis impingement were different in group1 and 2. While extruded cervical disc impingement was the first pathology in group 1, osteophyte formation was the first pathology in group 2.

  12. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  13. Modeling and control of squirrel cage induction generator with full power converter applied to windmills

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Garcia, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    The project aims to develop a dynamic model, of a generation system of electrical energy with a variable speed wind turbine using a squirrel cage induction generator which is connected to the grid by a back to back frequency converter, for testing purposes. In the project has been done an analysis of the mathematical equations of the whole system, separating the mechanical system (turbine and gearbox) and the electrical (generator and converter). We study the control design ...

  14. Diagnosis of Wind Energy System Faults Part I : Modeling of the Squirrel Cage Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Lahcène Noureddine; Omar Touhami

    2015-01-01

    Generating electrical power from wind energy is becoming increasingly important throughout the world. This fast development has attracted many researchers and electrical engineers to work on this field. The authors develop a dynamic model of the squirrel cage induction generator exists usually on wind energy systems, for the diagnosis of broken rotor bars defects from an approach of magnetically coupled multiple circuits. The generalized model is established on the base of mathematical recurr...

  15. Experimental practices of music and philosophy in John Cage and Gilles Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Iain

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we construct a critical encounter between the composer John Cage and the philosopher Gilles Deleuze. This encounter circulates through a constellation of problems found across and between mid-twentieth century musical, artistic, and philosophical practices, the central focus for our line of enquiry being the concept of experimentation. We emphasize the production of a method of experimentation through a practice historically situated with regards to the traditions of the respec...

  16. Foraging and nesting behavior of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the presence of fungicides: cage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, E; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P; Maini, S

    2008-06-01

    During orchard pollination studies in California, we observed dramatic changes in nesting and foraging behavior of Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) after sprays with tank mixtures containing fungicides. A characteristic pattern of postspray events observed includes erratic behavior and interrupted foraging and nesting activity for several days. In an effort to determine whether fungicidal sprays were disruptive to bee foraging and thus to pollination, we exposed O. lignaria females nesting in field cages planted with lacy scorpionweed, Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth (Hydrophyllaceae), to selected spray mixtures normally encountered in California orchard production systems: iprodione (Rovral), propiconazole (Orbit), benomyl (Benlate), and captan (Captan 50 WP); the surfactant Dyne-Amic, alone and mixed with Rovral; and the tank mixture IDB (Rovral + Dyne-Amic + the foliar fertilizer Bayfolan Plus). An additional cage sprayed with an equal volume of water acted as control, and a cage sprayed with the insecticide dimethoate as a toxic standard. For each female O. lignaria, we recorded time spent inside the nest depositing pollen-nectar loads, foraging time, cell production rate, and survival. All females in the dimethoate treatment died postspray + 1 d. Before death, some of these females behaved similarly to our previous orchard observations. A high proportion of females in the IDB cage were inactive for a few hours before resuming normal foraging and nesting activity. No lethal or behavioral effects were found for any of the other compounds or mixtures tested. Our results indicate that the fungicide applications that we tested are compatible with the use of O. lignaria as an orchard pollinator. PMID:18613561

  17. Calcium and phosphorus dynamics in commercial laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; House, J D; Guenter, W; Kebreab, E

    2011-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) dynamics in Shaver White hens (19-63 wk of age) were compared between enriched (EC) and conventional cage (CC) systems. Calcium and P intake and their levels in egg components and excreta were considered. Using commercial levels of production (4,836 hens), 10 test cages/system (24 hens/test cage) were used as replicate units. Enriched cages provided a nesting area, scratch pad, perches, and more floor space (643 cm(2)/hen ) than CC (468 cm(2)/hen). All birds were offered similar phase-fed diets based on wheat-soybean formulation and housed under semicontrolled environmental conditions for 11 periods (28 d each). Egg weight, production, and shell quality indices (egg specific gravity, shell weight, thickness, and percentage shell) were also measured. Data were analyzed as a repeated measures design using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Egg production, weight, and shell quality measurements were not significantly different between the 2 systems. On a DM basis, EC hens exhibited lower feed disappearance than CC hens (92.5 vs. 95.0 ± 0.61 g/hen per day, respectively; P hens (Ca: 2.11 vs. 2.29 ± 0.04 g/hen per day, respectively; P: 0.619 vs. 0.643 ± 0.005 g/hen per day, respectively; P hen per day, respectively; P hens was not significantly different (-7.22 vs. -7.45 ± 0.71% P intake, respectively), but Ca retention was higher in EC than CC hens (-1.37 vs. -4.76 ± 0.89% Ca intake, respectively; P < 0.05). In addition to providing environmental enrichment, EC systems may help to reduce Ca and P excretions when compared with CC systems, thereby improving the utilization of these nutrients. PMID:21934024

  18. Aerial dust concentration in cage-housed, floor-housed, and aviary facilities for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouquin, S; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Martin, S; Michel, V

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (≤4 μm) of 0.37 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m(3) [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. PMID:24135584

  19. Synthesis and Structure of A Novel Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Flame Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel caged bicyclic phosphate flame retardant tri(1-oxo-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane-methyl) phosphate (Trimer) was synthesized from 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) and phosphorus oxychloride in this paper.Its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. Confocal Bioluminescence Imaging for Living Tissues with a Caged Substrate of Luciferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Mitsuru; Kawamura, Genki; Kojima, Ryosuke; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2016-06-21

    Fluorescence imaging can elucidate morphological organization and coordinal networks, but its background luminescence degrades the image contrast. Our confocal bioluminescence imaging system uses a luciferase caged substrate, with light passing through multipinhole arrays, causing bioluminescence at a focal plane. After a charge-coupled device camera captures luminescence, the imaging system acquires confocal images of multilayered cells with depth information, supporting quantitative analysis of spatial cellular localization in living tissues.

  1. Lewis acid fragmentation of a lithium aryloxide cage: generation of new heterometallic aluminium-lithium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Urbaneja, Carmen; Temprado, Manuel; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2011-11-14

    Heterometallic aluminium-lithium species were prepared by the fragmentation reaction of the hexametallic cage compound [Li{2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3)O}](6) (1) with alkyl aluminium derivatives. Depending on the aluminium precursor, the species formed present different nuclearities in the solid state as shown by single crystal X-ray analysis. Spectroscopic and computational studies have been performed to study the nuclearity of the synthesized compounds in solution.

  2. cagE as a biomarker of the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Bastos Ramis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastro-duodenal diseases. Genes related to pathogenicity have been described for H. pylori and some of them appear to be associated with more severe clinical outcomes of the infection. The present study investigates the role of cagE as a pathogenicity biomarker of H. pylori compare it to cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2 genes and correlate with endoscopic diagnoses. Methods Were collected biopsy samples of 144 dyspeptic patients at the Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After collection, the samples were sent for histological examination, DNA extraction and detection of all putative pathogenicity genes by PCR. Results Of the 144 patients undergoing endoscopy, 57 (39.6% presented H. pylori by histological examination and PCR by detection of the ureA gene. Based on the endoscopic diagnoses, 45.6% (26/57 of the patients had erosive gastritis, while 54.4% (31/57 had enanthematous gastritis. The genes cagA, cagE, vacAs1/m1, vacAs1/m2 and iceA1 were related to erosive gastritis, while the genes vacAs2/m2, iceA2 and babA2 were associated to enanthematous gastritis. We found a statistically significant association between the presence of cagE and the endoscopic diagnosis. However, we detect no statistically significant association between the endoscopic diagnosis and the presence of cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2, although a biological association has been suggested. Conclusions Thus, cagE could be a risk biomarker for gastric lesions and may contribute to a better evaluation of the H. pylori pathogenic potential and to the prognosis of infection evolution in the gastric mucosa.

  3. Cage accidents at the Lithgow State Coal Mine, 1922-1925

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christison, R.

    2009-10-01

    Between 1922 and 1925 three workers in the Lithgow State Coal Mine were killed in accidents associated with cages. These deaths occurred in the mine's No. 1 and No. 2 shafts and highlight the risks associated with equipment malfunctions, remote communication and the potentially catastrophic consequences of poor individual decisions. The article recounts incidents recorded in the author's recent book 'Lithgow State Coal Mine: a pictorial history'. 2 refs.

  4. Cathodic cage nitriding of AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel with the addition of CH4

    OpenAIRE

    Rômulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa; Francisco Odolberto de Araújo; José Alzamir Pereira da Costa; Antonio Maia de Oliveira; Mineia Sampaio Melo; Clodomiro Alves Junior

    2012-01-01

    AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel samples were nitrided using the cathodic cage plasma nitriding technique (CCPN), with the addition of methane to reduce chromium precipitation, increase hardness and wear resistance and reduce the presence of nitrides when compared to plasma carbonitriding. Microhardness profiles and X-Ray analysis confirm the formation of a very hard layer containing mainly ε-Fe3N and expanded ferrite phases.

  5. Cathodic cage nitriding of AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel with the addition of CH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel samples were nitrided using the cathodic cage plasma nitriding technique (CCPN, with the addition of methane to reduce chromium precipitation, increase hardness and wear resistance and reduce the presence of nitrides when compared to plasma carbonitriding. Microhardness profiles and X-Ray analysis confirm the formation of a very hard layer containing mainly ε-Fe3N and expanded ferrite phases.

  6. Check list of the parasitofauna in Adriatic sea cage-reared fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mladineo Ivona

    2006-01-01

    Along with the fast development of aquaculture in the Mediterranean, a number of emerging parasitic diseases was observed in cage-reared fish, which in confined rearing conditions induced mortality or/and indirect economical losses related to suppressed growth. The trend of diversification of aquaculture products and the introduction of new fish species in the rearing system, helped the introduction of new parasitic pathogens along with their host in the new environment. The process resulted ...

  7. Enhanced cooperativity below the caging temperature of glass-forming liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, B. M.; Colby, R. H.; Kamath, S. Y.; Kumar, S K

    2004-01-01

    The utility of a cooperative length scale for describing the dynamics of small molecule glass-formers is shown. Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations reveal a distribution of cooperatively moving fractal events below the temperature Ta at which dynamics become caged. Guided by these results, four straightforward methods emerge to recognize Ta in experimental data and quantify the length scale that grows on cooling below Ta. This length scale is consistent with 4-D NMR experiments whi...

  8. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice: automated home cage observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-08-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129S2/Sv, on locomotor activity. Strains differed in circadian rhythmicity, novelty-induced activity and the time-course of specific behavioural elements. For instance, C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice showed a much faster decrease in activity over time than C3H and 129S2/Sv mice. Principal component analysis revealed two major factors within locomotor activity, which were defined as 'level of activity' and 'velocity/stops'. These factors were able to distinguish strains. Interestingly, mice that displayed high levels of activity in the initial phase of the home cage test were also highly active during an open-field test. Velocity and the number of stops during movement correlated positively with anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus maze. The use of an automated home cage observation system yields temporal changes in elements of locomotor activity with an advanced level of spatial resolution. Moreover, it avoids the confounding influence of human intervention and saves time-consuming human observations.

  9. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfu eCao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with Pasteurella multocida(type B, serotype 2, then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24h after inoculation. The ratio of 24h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24h/MIC or AUC24h/MPC was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida (R2=0.8514 by nonlinear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24h/MIC and AUC24h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10CFU/mL reduction and 90% (3log10CFU/mL reduction of maximum response were 18.60h and 50.65h, 4.67h and 12.89h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest.

  10. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changfu; Qu, Ying; Sun, Meizhen; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Huang, Xianhui; Huai, Binbin; Lu, Yan; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with P. multocida(type B, serotype 2), then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24 h after inoculation. The ratio of 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24 h/MIC or AUC24 h/MPC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against P. multocida (R (2) = 0.8514) by non-linear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24 h/MIC and AUC24 h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10 CFU/mL reduction) and 90% (3log10 CFU/mL reduction) of maximum response were 18.60 and 50.65 h, 4.67 and 12.89 h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest.

  11. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds.

  12. Enhancement Effect of Sea Urchin Grow-out Cages in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia Defrance Malay

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted on the environmental impact of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla Linnaeas grow-out culture in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. It was hypothesized that the feces generated by the caged urchins (~6,000 individuals at any one time might cause localised sediment organic enrichment and subsequent shifts in benthic faunal communities. Results from preliminary surveys conducted in April and August of 1999 indicated minimal impact of sea urchin grow-out culture on the local reef flat community. Some enhancement of faunal abundance and sediment organic matter content in the cage area were noted; however, the impact was limited to a radius of 5-25 meters from the grow-out cages. The enhancement effects appeared to be seasonal occurrences that were dependent on local currents and degree of wave exposure. Epiphyte biomass, total suspended solids, sediment grain size, and relative water movement seemed largely unaffected by sea urchin grow-out culture. However, more frequent and thorough samplings are needed to validate these initial results. The presence of localised enrichment in sediment organic content and epibenthic faunal density suggest the possibility of converting the sea urchin grow-out area into polyculture systems that would make more efficient use of the food resources available while minimizing potential anthropogenic impacts on the environment.

  13. Multiple biomarkers of pollution effects in caged mussels on the Greek coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, C; Kormas, K; Strogyloudi, E; Hatzianestis, I; Neofitou, C; Andral, B; Galgani, F

    2010-04-01

    A suite of biomarkers was measured in caged mussels at areas impacted by different anthropogenic activities along the Greek coastline to assess biological effects of environmental pollution. Mussels were caged at coastal sites in the vicinity of major cities, in areas influenced by major industries, agricultural practices and in islands away from known sources of pollution. Biomarkers indicative of neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AchE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT), phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics (glutathione S-transferase, GST), metal exposure (metallothioneins, MTs) and protein synthesis (RNA:DNA ratio) were measured to assess effects of various types of pollutants. AchE activity proved to be the most responsive biomarker with decreased values at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities. Decreased CAT and GST activities and increased MTs levels were recorded at a number of anthropogenic-impacted sites. RNA:DNA ratio showed a biphasic response as both high and low values were found at impacted sites. Principal component analysis clearly distinguished sites receiving pollution inputs from non-polluted sites. The combination of the selected biomarkers used in caged mussels resulted useful in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollution.

  14. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  15. Probing confinement resonances by photoionizing Xe inside a C60+ molecular cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneuf, R. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aryal, N. B.; Baral, K. K.; Thomas, C. M.; Esteves-Macaluso, D. A.; Lomsadze, R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Ballance, C. P.; Manson, S. T.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Hellhund, J.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.

    2014-05-01

    Double photoionization accompanied by loss of n C atoms (n = 0 , 2 , 4 , 6) was investigated by merging beams of Xe@C60+ ions and synchrotron radiation and measuring the yields of product ions. The giant 4 d dipole resonance of the caged Xe atom has a prominent signature in the cross section for these product channels, which together account for 6 . 2 +/- 1 . 4 of the total Xe 4 d oscillator strength of 10. Compared to that for a free Xe atom, the oscillator strength is redistributed in photon energy due to multipath interference of outgoing Xe 4 d photoelectron waves that may be transmitted or reflected by the spherical C60+ molecular cage, yielding so-called confinement resonances. The data are compared with an earlier measurement and with theoretical predictions for this single-molecule photoelectron interferometer system. Relativistic R-matrix calculations for the Xe atom in a spherical potential shell representing the fullerene cage show the sensitivity of the interference pattern to the molecular geometry.

  16. Distance Factors and Croatian Export Obstacles in the EU15: CAGE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Miloloža

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For long-term sustainability of any enterprise, it is required to observe each market separately and systematically modify business approach to prevailing conditions in each. However, adaptation to each market can be a complex affair that requires certain financial costs but ignoring distinguishing criteria leads to reduction in revenues and undermines long-term profitability. Time saving and cost-effectiveness can be achieved by application of The CAGE Distance Framework – a model that analysis all diversities between two or more countries. Croatia did not yet utilize the benefits that European Union membership provides nor did significantly improved its international business. It is obvious that Croatia faces difficulties in the strategic approach to prospective foreign markets. Therefore, emphasis of this article is on analysis and identification of the distinguishing factors between Croatia and the EU15 in order to facilitate and enhance cooperation among them in the future. Throughout the analysis of Croatian export from the beginning of the economic crisis, this article gives an overview of international collaboration among Croatia and the EU15 and comparative analysis by using The CAGE Distance Framework. This analysis has confirmed significant fluctuations, unexploited potential and problems of the Croatian economy in all dimensions of The CAGE model.

  17. A tethering system for direct measurement of cardiovascular function in the caged baboon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    A device suitable for the continuous measurement of physiological activity in large, conscious monkeys has permitted the direct recording of systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate in caged baboons. The device comprises a lightweight fiberglass backpack, retained in place on the baboon by a thoracic elastic band and shoulder straps, and a flexible stainless steel tether connecting the pack to an electrocannular slip-ring in the top center of the baboon's cage. A chronically indwelling arterial catheter inserted retrograde into the abdominal aorta via the internal iliac artery and connected to a small pressure transducer on the pack provides direct measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. Body fluids can be sampled or drugs administered via an indwelling catheter in the inferior vena cava. Electrical and fluid connections between the fiberglass pack and recording and infusion equipment located outside the cage pass through the flexible tether and remain protected from the subject. The reliability of the tethering system has been demonstrated in physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral experiments with baboons.

  18. Survey of Saprolegnia sp. in cage cultured carp in Tikves Lake in 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cvetkovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish cage culture is one of the most intensive and productive aquaculture methods. Besides all production advantages, this system is facing with health problems in cultured fish due to lack of prophylactic measures and increased disease susceptibility as a result of the culture technology. In order to determine the presence of the Saprolegniosis in the warm water cage culture systems, a two year monitoring was conducted. The survey included investigation in 12 carp (Cyprinus carpio cage culture systems in Tikves Lake in the period 2005 and 2006. The objects of examination were only the growing categories of carp (yearlings. From each farm 30 specimens were examined. The survey included clinical and pathological examination as well as routine laboratory diagnostics – microscopic examination and isolation of the agent on fungal specific nutrient agar. The conducted research, demonstrated 91,66% prevalence of the causitive agent in the investigated farms in 2005 and the prevalence of 33,33% in 2006. Although the disease was present in 2005 and 2006, obtained results demonstrated deviation in the appearance and presence of Saprolegnia sp. in the investigated period. The determined difference was a consequence of the applied ichtyotechnical and ichtyosanitary prophylactic measures, resulting with significantly lower prevalence in 2006.

  19. Cage correlation and diffusion in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Masheyeva, R. U.; Ott, T.; Hartmann, P.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bonitz, M.; Donkó, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of an external homogeneous magnetic field on the quasilocalization of the particles—characterized quantitatively by cage correlation functions—in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems is investigated via molecular dynamics computer simulations over a wide domain of the system parameters (coupling and screening strengths, and magnetic field). The caging time is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field B . The anisotropic migration of the particles in the presence of magnetic field is quantified via computing directional correlation functions, which indicate a more significant increase of localization in the direction perpendicular to B , while a moderate increase is also found along the B field lines. Associating the particles' escapes from the cages with jumps of a characteristic length, a connection is found with the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficients derived from the decay time of the directional correlation functions in both the directions perpendicular to and parallel with B are in very good agreement with respective diffusion coefficients values obtained from their usual computation based on the mean-squared displacement of the particles.

  20. Lumbar interbody expanding cage. A preliminary study on an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, M L; Careddu, G M; Masala, G; Columbano, N; Doria, C; Crissantu, L; Sanna Passino, E

    2008-01-01

    Interbody fusion devices are used in human medicine for treating degenerative diseases of the spine. Currently, there is not a universally accepted assessment tool for determining fusion, and the definitive criteria for diagnosing a successful interbody fusion remain controversial. The aim of this study was to describe microscopic and helical computed tomography (CT) imaging in the assessment of lumbar interbody fusion using cylindrical threaded titanium expanding cage in sheep. One cylindrical threaded expanding titanium cage (Proconcept--SA, Orange, France) was inserted through a transperitoneal approach after radical discectomy and packed with cancellous bone autograft in five adult sheep. The subjects were euthanatized after three, six, 12, 18 and 24 months. CT images revealed lumbar fusion at 12 months post operation, whereas microscopic evaluations indicated the presence of lumbar fusion at 18 months. CT and histological grades were the same in 65% of the cases observed. There were not a significant difference between CT, histological and micro radiographic grades. Helical CT scanning can be considered to be a suitable method for the monitoring of lumbar fusion as it enables observation of the deposition of bony bridging within the cage. PMID:18704248

  1. The Iron Cage and the Gaze: Interpreting Medical Control in the English Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Exworthy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to determine the value of theoretical ideal-types of medical control. Whilst ideal types (such as the iron cage and gaze need revision in their application to medical settings, they remain useful in describing and explaining patterns of control and autonomy in the medical profession. The apparent transition from the cage to the gaze has often been over-stated since both types are found in many contemporary health reforms. Indeed, forms of neo-bureaucracy have emerged alongside surveillance of the gaze. These types are contextualised and elaborated in terms of two empirical examples: the management of medical performance and financial incentives for senior hospital doctors in England. Findings point towards the reformulation of medical control, an on-going re-stratification of the medical profession, and the internalisation of managerial discourses. The cumulative effect involves the medical profession’s ability to re-cast and enhance its position (vis-à-vis managerial interests.Keywords: medical profession, medical control, iron cage, gaze

  2. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Le Bouquin, S; Bex-Capelle, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Guillam, M-T; Squizani, F; Segala, C; Michel, V

    2011-10-01

    Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 µm) from cage and alternative system houses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experimental and commercial conditions. The endotoxin concentration was higher in experimental aviaries (median: 565 EU/m³, range: 362-1491 EU/m³) than in cage housing (98 EU/m³ (51-470)). In field conditions, the endotoxin concentration in the air of 13 alternative houses was higher (35 to 3156 EU/m³) than in cage system buildings (n = 8, 78-576 EU/m³). It was correlated to the respirable dust concentration (fraction below 5 µm) and to the temperature inside the hen house but no seasonal variation was observed. The present study emphasises that considerable worker exposure to endotoxins may occur in laying houses, especially in alternative systems. PMID:22029777

  3. Modelling the nitrogen loadings from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) cage aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Ross, Lindsay G; Telfer, Trevor C; Wu, Changwen; Zhu, Aiyi; Zhao, Sheng; Xu, Meiying

    2016-04-01

    Large yellow croaker (LYC) cage farming is a rapidly developing industry in the coastal areas of the East China Sea. However, little is known about the environmental nutrient loadings resulting from the current aquaculture practices for this species. In this study, a nitrogenous waste model was developed for LYC based on thermal growth and bioenergetic theories. The growth model produced a good fit with the measured data of the growth trajectory of the fish. The total, dissolved and particulate nitrogen outputs were estimated to be 133, 51 and 82 kg N tonne(-1) of fish production, respectively, with daily dissolved and particulate nitrogen outputs varying from 69 to 104 and 106 to 181 mg N fish(-1), respectively, during the 2012 operational cycle. Greater than 80 % of the nitrogen input from feed was predicted to be lost to the environment, resulting in low nitrogen retention (85 %) of the dissolved nitrogen generated from cage farming. This nitrogen loading assessment model is the first to address nitrogenous output from LYC farming and could be a valuable tool to examine the effects of management and feeding practices on waste from cage farming. The application of this model could help improve the scientific understanding of offshore fish farming systems. Furthermore, the model predicts that a 63 % reduction in nitrogenous waste production could be achieved by switching from the use of trash fish for feed to the use of pelleted feed. PMID:26728289

  4. Structural and electronic properties of uranium-encapsulated Au14 cage

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yang; Kang, Seung-gu; Cruz, Camilo Andres Jimenez; Xin, Minsi; Meng, Yan; Han, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2013-01-01

    The structural properties of the uranium-encapsulated nano-cage U@Au14 are predicted using density functional theory. The presence of the uranium atom makes the Au14 structure more stable than the empty Au14-cage, with a triplet ground electronic state for U@Au14. Analysis of the electronic structure shows that the two frontier single-occupied molecular orbital electrons of U@Au14 mainly originate from the 5f shell of the U atom after charge transfer. Meanwhile, the bonding orbitals have both the 5f and 6d components of the U atom, along with the 5d and 6s components of the Au atoms, indicating the covalent nature of the interaction between the U and Au atoms. Moreover, the charge population analysis shows that this nanostructure displays some unique electronic properties where the encapsulated atom gains electrons while the outer shell loses electrons. Therefore, this designed U@Au14 nano-cage structure is stabilized by ionocovalent interactions. The current findings provide theoretical basis for future synt...

  5. Stocking densities of juvenile Brycon orthotaenia: production parameters and economic benefits in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Assis Lago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a rearing technology requires the determination of the optimum stocking density. This study aimed to determine the best stocking density for Brycon orthotaenia juveniles grown in net cages, during the rearing phase. The research was conducted at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, in the Três Marias Reservoir. 9,000 fingerlings were distributed into 12 net cages, 2 m3each, according to a completely randomized design with three replications and four different stocking densities (150, 300, 450, 600 fish m-3. Random samples were taken from each net cage, at the onset of the experiment and at 60 rearing days, to assess production parameters, specific growth rate and uniformity. We verified a positive linear relationship (p 0.05 for growth parameters, uniformity and final weight. It can be concluded that the density of 300 fish m-3 is the most suitable, because it provides higher net revenue, survival, and a good feed conversion.

  6. A pecking device as an environmental enrichment for caged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroki, Yuko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    To improve the welfare of caged laying hens, a pecking device made of stones was introduced on the cage floor. Twenty-four White Leghorn hens aged 15 months were divided into four groups: single-housed hens with device, single-housed control hens, pair-housed hens with device and pair-housed control hens. Hens housed with the device pecked at various pecking objects less often than control hens. Agonistic behavior was also lower in hens with the device than in hens without the device, implied a possibility of improvement in quality of pecking stimuli with the device. Not only time spent pecking, but also quality of pecking might be important to fill their need for stimulation. Both single- and pair-housed hens more often pecked at the device in the evening. Response to various pecking objects also showed that pecking behaviors were most frequently expressed in the evening. Increased foraging at dusk is a well-known habit; therefore, the increase in pecking behavior in the evening might reflect the hens' general circadian rhythm. These results indicate that the device made of stones could promote some instinctive behavior. Enhancement of behavioral repertories and reduced agonistic behavior with the pecking device might improve the welfare of caged laying hens. PMID:27436770

  7. Efficacy of PEEK Cages and Plate Augmentation in Three-Level Anterior Cervical Fusion of Elderly Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kyung Jin; Kim, Gyu Hyung; Choi, Byeong Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the clinical efficacy of three-level anterior cervical arthrodesis with polyethyletherketone (PEEK) cages and plate fixation for aged and osteoporotic patients with degenerative cervical spinal disorders. Methods Twenty one patients, who had undergone three-level anterior cervical arthrodesis with a cage and plate construct for degenerative cervical spinal disorder from November 2001 to April 2007 and were followed up for at least two years, were enrolled in this study....

  8. Interactions Between Housing Density and Ambient Temperature in the Cage Environment: Effects on Mouse Physiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Linda A; Trammell, Rita A; Ilsley-Woods, Megan

    2015-01-01

    To determine how housing density and ambient temperature interact to influence the physiology and behavior of mice, we systematically varied housing density (1 to 5 mice per cage) and ambient temperature (22, 26, or 30 °C) and measured effects on body weight, food intake, diurnal patterns of locomotor activity and core temperature, fecal corticosterone, and serum cytokine and adipokine panels. Temperatures inside cages housing 5 mice were 1 to 2 °C higher than the ambient temperature. As the ...

  9. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Carbone

    2016-03-01

    In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments.

  10. Voltage control in the stator circuit of cage induction machine operating as generator in small scale hydropower plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kandyba, Andrzej; Kalus, Marian; Kurytnik, Igor Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of RMS voltage control system in the stator circuit of squirrel cage induction machine based on the linear criterion of " optimum magnitude" by C. Kessler 'a was performed. The squirrel cage induction machine was operating as a generator in autonomous (isolated) network. Induction machine is driven by an induction machine supplied from the inverter, which simulates the low pressure head water turbine. Synthesis process of the control system was supported by experimental studi...

  11. Intracage Ammonia Levels in Static and Individually Ventilated Cages Housing C57BL/6 Mice on 4 Bedding Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrecchia, Christie E.; Jensen, Kelly; Van Andel, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The relationship among ammonia levels, cage-changing frequency, and bedding types is an important and potentially controversial topic in the laboratory animal science community. Some bedding options may not provide sufficient urine absorption and bacterial regulation to minimize ammonia production during the interval between cage changes. High intracage ammonia levels can cause subclinical degeneration and inflammation of nasal passages, rhinitis and olfactory epithelial necrosis in exposed m...

  12. Does rearing laying hens in aviaries adversely affect long-term welfare following transfer to furnished cages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Tahamtani

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03. Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10. There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000, with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52% compared to cage birds (2.48%. The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing.

  13. Report of the baseline survey undertaken on the Chinese cage site in Napoleon Gulf, Northern Lake Victoria, 12 March 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Magezi, G.; Naluwairo, J.; Ocaya, H.; Kiggundu, V.; Pabire Ghandi, W.; Wandera, S.B.; Olokotum, M.; Ndawula, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The government of the People's Republic of China through a 2007 agreement with the Government of the Republic of Uganda, has establishment of an Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center (ATDC). The first phase covering the building of aquaculture infrastructure at Kajjansi ARDC is complete and the second operation phase has started in which facilities for cage culture have been set up in the Napoleon gulf, northern Lake Victoria near Jinja. The cage facility is aimed at boosting fish far...

  14. Coordinate unsaturation with fluorinated ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, J.L.; Hurlburt, P.K.; Anderson, O.P.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The preparation and characterization of Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} has resulted in a model compound with which to explore the concept of coordinative unsaturation. The coordination of solvents of varying donicity and dielectric constant to the Zn(II) ions in Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} was studied by vapor phase monometry, NMR and IR spectroscopy, conductimetry, and X-Ray crystallography. The structures of [Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OTeF{sub 5})2]2 and Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OTEF{sub 5}){sub 2} demonstrate the electronic flexibility of some weakly coordinating solvents in that nitrobenzene can function as either an {eta}{sup 1}O or {eta}{sup 2}O,O`-ligand. The dependence of the number of bound solvent molecules and the degree of OTeF{sub 5}{minus} dissociation on solvent donor number and dielectric constant will be presented.

  15. General behaviors and perching behaviors of laying hens in cages with different colored perches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D H; Bao, J

    2012-05-01

    Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was

  16. The effectiveness of polyvinyl chloride plastic bands impregnated with permethrin as a control for the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), infesting caged laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E M; Kissam, J B

    1983-06-01

    Caged White Leghorn hens were used to study the effectiveness of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bands impregnated with 10% permethrin (50 mg/active ingredient/band) for control of the northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). The PVC bands were attached two ways, either to the leg of the bird or to the cage floor. Leg band treatments included one, two, three, four, and six birds banded (one band per bird) per cage of six birds. Cage band treatments included one, two, and four PVC strips attached to the cage floor. The attachment of PVC bands to cages was very effective in controlling NFM. Birds in the treatment with four bands attached to the cage floor were essentially mite free for the duration of the 19-week test. Based on this test, the leg banding technique does not seem to be as effective or practical for controlling NFM on caged layers as is attachment of the bands to the cage floor. The use of permethrin-impregnated PVC bands or strips attached to the floor of poultry cages shows promise for effective NFM control and for relieving stress on birds resulting from conventional spraying or dusting treatments. PMID:6878145

  17. Ligand inducible assembly of a DNA tetrahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohno, Chikara; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2011-03-28

    Here we show that a small synthetic ligand can be used as a key building component for DNA nanofabrication. Using naphthyridinecarbamate dimer (NCD) as a molecular glue for DNA hybridization, we demonstrate NCD-triggered formation of a DNA tetrahedron.

  18. Chemistry of Marine Ligands and Siderophores

    OpenAIRE

    Vraspir, Julia M.; Butler, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are presented with unique challenges to obtain essential metal ions required to survive and thrive in the ocean. The production of organic ligands to complex transition metal ions is one strategy to both facilitate uptake of specific metals, such as iron, and to mitigate the potential toxic effects of other metal ions, such as copper. A number of important trace metal ions are complexed by organic ligands in seawater, including iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and cad...

  19. Fas ligand deficiency in HIV disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sieg, Scott; Smith, Dawn; Yildirim, Zafer; Kaplan, David

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis is postulated to be involved as an anti-viral immune mechanism by killing infected cells before viral replication has occurred. The Fas–Fas ligand interaction is a powerful regulator of T cell apoptosis and could potentially act as a potent anti-viral immune mechanism against T cell tropic virus such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated the status of Fas ligand in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from persons infected with HIV. We found that mono...

  20. Designer TGFβ superfamily ligands with diversified functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P Allendorph

    Full Text Available Transforming Growth Factor--beta (TGFβ superfamily ligands, including Activins, Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs, and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, are excellent targets for protein-based therapeutics because of their pervasiveness in numerous developmental and cellular processes. We developed a strategy termed RASCH (Random Assembly of Segmental Chimera and Heteromer, to engineer chemically-refoldable TGFβ superfamily ligands with unique signaling properties. One of these engineered ligands, AB208, created from Activin-βA and BMP-2 sequences, exhibits the refolding characteristics of BMP-2 while possessing Activin-like signaling attributes. Further, we find several additional ligands, AB204, AB211, and AB215, which initiate the intracellular Smad1-mediated signaling pathways more strongly than BMP-2 but show no sensitivity to the natural BMP antagonist Noggin unlike natural BMP-2. In another design, incorporation of a short N-terminal segment from BMP-2 was sufficient to enable chemical refolding of BMP-9, without which was never produced nor refolded. Our studies show that the RASCH strategy enables us to expand the functional repertoire of TGFβ superfamily ligands through development of novel chimeric TGFβ ligands with diverse biological and clinical values.

  1. Construction of dinuclear complexes using multidentate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, C.L

    2000-04-01

    This work details the synthesis of novel copper(I), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) dinuclear complexes. Attempts have been made to control the co-ordination architectures of the metal centres by using bis-bidentate and tridentate chelating N,S- and N-donor ligands to generate dinuclear systems. The ligands were both symmetrically and asymmetrically disubstituted pyridazine-based and pyridine-based ligands consisting of a mixture of N-only and mixed N,S-donors. The study using the pyridazine-based ligands continues previous research in our group using 3,6-bis disubstituted pyridazine-based ligands to form complexes with copper(l) and copper(II). The pyridazine-based ligands have been seen to be bis-bidentate upon co-ordination of copper. The pyridazine-based ligands could be envisaged to generate dinuclear complexes by directly bridging between two metal ions. This study involved the formation of copper(l), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes with these ligands. The structural properties of two particular complexes have been explored using X-ray crystallography and spectroscopic techniques. Pyridine-based ligands have also been used previously in our group as tridentate chelating ligands. They have been seen to form dinuclear complexes with copper(I) and copper(II) when reacted with an additional bridging ligand e.g. 4,4'-bipyridine. This provides an alternative method for generating dinuclear complexes. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the area of supramolecular chemistry from which we can learn the principles of polymer formation and them 'in reverse' to generate discrete dinuclear systems. Chapter 2 details the synthesis of the pyridazine and pyridine-based ligands including a detailed nmr study of the ligands. Since the ligands were synthesised using cyclic thioamides as terminal groups it has been found that thiol-thione tautomerisation occurred during synthesis giving rise to two possible ligand conformations. The nmr study has been used

  2. LigandRFs: random forest ensemble to identify ligand-binding residues from sequence information alone

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng

    2014-12-03

    Background Protein-ligand binding is important for some proteins to perform their functions. Protein-ligand binding sites are the residues of proteins that physically bind to ligands. Despite of the recent advances in computational prediction for protein-ligand binding sites, the state-of-the-art methods search for similar, known structures of the query and predict the binding sites based on the solved structures. However, such structural information is not commonly available. Results In this paper, we propose a sequence-based approach to identify protein-ligand binding residues. We propose a combination technique to reduce the effects of different sliding residue windows in the process of encoding input feature vectors. Moreover, due to the highly imbalanced samples between the ligand-binding sites and non ligand-binding sites, we construct several balanced data sets, for each of which a random forest (RF)-based classifier is trained. The ensemble of these RF classifiers forms a sequence-based protein-ligand binding site predictor. Conclusions Experimental results on CASP9 and CASP8 data sets demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art protein-ligand binding site prediction methods.

  3. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and the neurotoxicity of local anesthesitics%瞬时感受器电位香草酸受体1与局部麻醉药物神经毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭辉; 任全

    2015-01-01

    背景 瞬时感受器电位香草酸受体1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1,TRPV1)是一种非选择性阳离子通道,主要分布于感觉神经纤维,介导伤害性感受的传入.同时,它能够将外来刺激进行整合影响神经递质的释放以及激活细胞内蛋白酶,从而调节突触传递和细胞功能(如细胞凋亡).局部麻醉药物可以激活TRPV1,且在高浓度时具有神经毒性,表现为病理性疼痛和痛觉过敏,可能与神经细胞的损伤有关.目的 综述TRPV1受体在局部麻醉药物外周神经毒性中的作用机制的研究进展.内容 TRPV1受体的活化能够升高神经纤维局部麻醉药物的浓度而增加其阻断效能,同时增加细胞内钙离子浓度,释放谷氨酸及激活N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体(N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor,NMDAR),最终通过钙超载、氧化应激损伤及细胞凋亡途径的活化导致神经元凋亡,介导局部麻醉药物物神经毒性反应.趋向 鉴于TRPV1受体在局部麻醉药物神经毒性的发生机制中所起的作用,靶向调节TRPV1受体的功能是否可以防治局部麻醉药物的神经毒性值得研究.%Background Transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1),a non-selective cation channel,which mainly locates on the sensory nerve fibers,mediates nociception input and integrates external stimuli as well,affects the release of neurotransmitters and activates intracellular proteases to regulate synaptic transmission and intracellular function such as cellular apoptosis.Local anesthetics induce TRPV1 activation and at high concentration lead to neurotoxicity,such as neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia,which may be related to the nerve injury.Objective To review the research progress regarding involvement of TRPV1 in the neurotoxicity induced by local anesthetics.Content The activation of TRPV1 can increase the concentration of local anesthetic in nerve fibers and strengthen the action of blockade,increase intracellular calcium

  4. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Guven, Zekiye P.

    2016-06-22

    Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 cation channel is abundant in macrophages accumulating at the peri-infarct zone and may enhance their migration capacity towards injured cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Entin-Meer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A novel family of transient receptor potential (TRP channels, that may hold a role in calcium homeostasis, has recently been described. By employing a GeneChip array analysis we have demonstrated a clear and specific upregulation of the TRP vanilloid 2 (TRPV2 mRNA in the left ventricles (LV 3-5 days post-acute myocardial infarction (MI compared to sham-operated controls, both in rats and in mice. We sought to characterize the cardiac cellular subpopulations in which TRPV2 is overexpressed upon acute MI. METHODS: Lewis rats underwent an acute MI by ligation of the left anterior descending artery or chest opening only (sham. The animals were terminated at various time points and an immunohistochemical (IHC and immunofluorescent (IFC staining of the LV sections as well as a flow cytometry analysis of LV-derived cells were carried out, using anti-TRPV2 and anti-monocyte/macrophage antibodies. Rat alveolar macrophage cells, NR8383, transiently transfected with TRPV2 siRNA were allowed to migrate towards hypoxic conditioned media of the rat cardiac myoblast line H9C2 using a trans-well migration assay. The macrophage cells migrating to the bottom side of the inserts were counted. RESULTS: The IHC and IFC staining as well as the flow cytometry data demonstrated a substantial expression of TRPV2 in infiltrating macrophages in the peri-infarct region 3-5 days post-acute MI. The in vitro migration assay data demonstrated that following inhibition of the TRPV2 channel, the number of migrating macrophages towards conditioned medium of hypoxic cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: TRPV2 is highly expressed on the peri-infarct infiltrating macrophages and may play an important role in post-MI phagocytosis. Better characterization of this channel may pave the way for identifying a new target for modulating the dramatic post-MI immune reactions.

  6. Urea-Functionalized M4L6 Cage Receptors: Self-Assembly, Dynamics, and Anion Recognition in Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We present an extensive study of a novel class of de novo designed tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} (M = Ni, Zn) cage receptors, wherein internal decoration of the cage cavities with urea anion-binding groups, via functionalization of the organic components L, led to selective encapsulation of tetrahedral oxoanions EO{sub 4}{sup -} (E = S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, n = 2; E = P, n = 3) from aqueous solutions, based on shape, size, and charge recognition. External functionalization with tBu groups led to enhanced solubility of the cages in aqueous methanol solutions, thereby allowing for their thorough characterization by multinuclear ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 77}Se) and diffusion NMR spectroscopies. Additional experimental characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, as well as theoretical calculations, led to a detailed understanding of the cage structures, self-assembly, and anion encapsulation. We found that the cage self-assembly is templated by EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions (n {ge} 2), and upon removal of the templating anion the tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} cages rearrange into different coordination assemblies. The exchange selectivity among EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions has been investigated with {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy using {sup 77}SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} as an anionic probe, which found the following selectivity trend: PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In addition to the complementarity and flexibility of the cage receptor, a combination of factors have been found to contribute to the observed anion selectivity, including the anions charge, size, hydration, basicity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities.

  7. EFFECTS OF STRAIN, CAGE DENSITY AND POSITION ON IMMUNE RESPONSE TO VACCINES AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN LAYER PULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. BOZKURT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thousand 1-day-old layer chicks were used in the study from Lohman Brown, Isa Brown, Lohman White and Bowans White breeds. The chicks were placed in the at 3 cage densities (211.8, 274.5 and 370.6 cm2 per bird and on 3 positions (as top, middle and bottom tiers. All birds were kept under standard management policy and a commercial vaccination program was practiced. Total specific antibody titres to Infectious Brochitis Virus (IBV, Infectious Bursal Desease Virus (IBDV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and Egg Drop Syndrome Virus (EDSV vaccines at the ages of 5, 10 and 20 weeks were serologically determined by ELISA. Cellmediated immune response was also evaluated. In commercial white egg laying strains specific antibody titres to IBV, IBDV, NDV and EDSV vaccines were greater than in Brown egg layer strains. Keeping in cage created more stress in Brown egg laying chicks than those in white egg laying chicks. As cage density increased, the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L ratio slightly increased. Cage position had no influence on the titres of antibodies to IBV and IBDV vaccines but the position of cage in pullets where chicks were stocked, from top to bottom, NDV and EDSV antibody titre decreased and percentage of heterophils, H/L ratio and basophil rates were low. These findings suggest that cage-related stress could be decreased, resistance to diseases and finally well-being of hens may be improved if hens are kept under proper position and density within cage systems with respect to their physiological and behavioral characteristics that controlled by genes.

  8. Simultaneous Detection of Caga and Cage of Helicobacter pylori Strains Recovered from Iranian Patients with Different Gastroduodenal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Douraghi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To asses the status of two representative genes of cag PAI i.e cagA and cagE of Helicobacter pylori strains infecting Iranian patients suffered from various clinical outcomes using one-step PCR. "nMethods: A total of 120 H. pylori infected patients including non-ulcer dyspepsia, NUD (n=81, peptic ulcer disease, PUD (n=17, and gastric carcinoma, GC (n= 22 referred for endoscopy or gastric resection to AmirAlam Hospital or Cancer Institute from 2005 to 2008 were assessed. The status of cagA and cagE genes was determined by gene specific PCR."nResults: 84.2% and 90.8% of the tested strains were positive for cagA and cage, respectively. 81.7% strains were positive for both cagA and cagE genes, whereas 8 (6.7% were found double negative. The prevalence of cagA in GC patients (100% was slightly higher than PUD patients (94.1%. All of GC cases were infected with cagA-positive strains. The same distribution pattern was indicated for cagE gene in GC and PUD patients. The cagA-positive strains were significantly associated with GC as compared with NUD (P< 0.05 but this association did not gain statistical significance when cagE gene was assessed."nConclusion: The concurrent detection of cagA/cagE genes allowed rapid and specific clarification of cag PAI status. The strains with cagA/cagE genotype are predominant in Iran regardless of clinical outcome and create a distinct cluster pattern from those in the West and similar to those of East Asian countries. The current study also demonstrated that cagE gene can be explored as a better indication of cag-PAI in Iranian H. pylori strains.

  9. Evaluation of anterior cervical reconstruction with titanium mesh cages versus nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cages after 1- or 2-level corpectomy for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a retrospective study of 117 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare the efficacy of the titanium mesh cage (TMC and the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cage (n-HA/PA66 cage for 1- or 2-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM. METHODS: A total of 117 consecutive patients with MCSM who underwent 1- or 2-level ACCF using a TMC or an n-HA/PA66 cage were studied retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 45.28 ± 12.83 months. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of corpectomy (1- or 2-level corpectomy and cage type used (TMC or n-HA/PA66 cage. Clinical and radiological parameters were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS: At the one-year follow-up, the fusion rate in the n-HA/PA66 group was higher, albeit non-significantly, than that in the TMC group for both 1- and 2-level ACCF, but the fusion rates of the procedures were almost equal at the final follow-up. The incidence of cage subsidence at the final follow-up was significantly higher in the TMC group than in the n-HA/PA66 group for the 1-level ACCF (24% vs. 4%, p = 0.01, and the difference was greater for the 2-level ACCF between the TMC group and the n-HA/PA66 group (38% vs. 5%, p = 0.01. Meanwhile, a much greater loss of fused height was observed in the TMC group compared with the n-HA/PA66 group for both the 1- and 2-level ACCF. All four groups demonstrated increases in C2-C7 Cobb angle and JOA scores and decreases in VAS at the final follow-up compared with preoperative values. CONCLUSION: The lower incidence of cage subsidence, better maintenance of the height of the fused segment and similar excellent bony fusion indicate that the n-HA/PA66 cage may be a superior alternative to the TMC for cervical reconstruction after cervical corpectomy, in particular for 2-level ACCF.

  10. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Tahmasby; Sara Barati; Hassan Momtaz; Mohammad Rafiee Dolatabadi; Mohammad Ghasemi; Seied Vahid Ahmadi Salianeh; Samaneh Mehrabiyan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and metho...

  11. Transdural retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage: Technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Hasan Aqdas; Shah, Ashish; Kakarla, Udaya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe a novel method to retrieve a herniated lumbar interbody cage. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an increasingly popular method of spinal fixation and fusion. Unexpected retropulsion of an interbody is a rare event that can result in intractable pain or motor compromise necessitating surgical retrieval of the interbody. Both anterior and posterior approaches to removing migrated cages may be associated with significant surgical morbidity and mortality. A 60-year-old woman underwent an L4-S1 TLIF coupled with pedicle screw fixation at a previous hospital 5 years prior to admission. She noted sudden-onset bilateral lower extremity weakness and right-sided foot drop. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographs were notable for purely centrally herniated interbody. A posterior, midline transdural approach was used to retrieve the interbody. Situated in between nerve rootlets to the ventral canal, this virgin corridor allowed us to easily visualize and protect neurological structures while safely retrieving the interbody. The patient experienced an immediate improvement in symptoms and was discharged on postoperative day 3. At 12-month follow-up, she had no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and had returned to normal activities of daily living. While the risk of CSF leak may be higher with a transdural approach, we maintain that avoiding unnecessary retraction of the nerve roots may outweigh this risk. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a transdural approach for the retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage. PMID:26889290

  12. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorine M. Rommers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine, straw in a plastic bin (Straw, a compressed wooden block (Ply or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine. The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparous lactating hybrid (Hycole rabbit does. Behavioural observations were conducted in the first 4 wk of 2 successive lactations of 6 wk each, twice a week from 15:00 to 18:30 h. Once every week the consumption of gnawing materials and soiling of the cages was scored. More does were significantly occupied with Straw and Ply than with Pine (24±20, 11±9 and 4±3% of does, respectively for a longer duration (4±4, 2±2, 0.1±0.2% of observed time, respectively. In does of Straw+Pine group, the pinewood was barely touched and straw was preferred. It can be concluded that straw (loose material and wooden block are used by the animals as enrichment material to gnaw or chew on. The materials remain attractive for the 2 lactations which were measured. The pinewood stick as provided in this study was rarely used and it may be questioned whether it is sufficient as enrichment material or if it should be provided in another way than hanging on the roof of the cage. This study provides a first step towards a positive list of enrichment materials that can be used in commercial rabbit farming in The Netherlands.

  13. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds. PMID:26072393

  14. Elevator cage

    OpenAIRE

    Boďa, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with design of a frame of a lift, whose roading capacity is 400 kg (5 people) and it olso deals with calculation of maximum distance between armatures of quides. Nominal speed is 1 m.s -1. This diploma thesis also includes final element analysis of the frame. The frame structure is analysed by software I – DEAS.

  15. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  16. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    OpenAIRE

    Jorine M. Rommers; Bracke, Marc B.M.; Berry Reuvekamp; Henk Gunnink; Ingrid C. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C) was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine), straw in a plastic bin (Straw), a compressed wooden block (Ply) or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine). The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparo...

  17. Assembly and structural analysis of a covalently closed nano-scale DNA cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Felicie F; Knudsen, Bjarne; Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto De;

    2008-01-01

     The inherent properties of DNA as a stable polymer with unique affinity for partner molecules determined by the specific Watson-Crick base pairing makes it an ideal component in self-assembling structures. This has been exploited for decades in the design of a variety of artificial substrates...... be described as a nano-scale DNA cage, Hence, in theory it could hold proteins or other bio-molecules to enable their investigation in certain harmful environments or even allow their organization into higher order structures...

  18. Diagnosis of Wind Energy System Faults Part I : Modeling of the Squirrel Cage Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcène Noureddine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating electrical power from wind energy is becoming increasingly important throughout the world. This fast development has attracted many researchers and electrical engineers to work on this field. The authors develop a dynamic model of the squirrel cage induction generator exists usually on wind energy systems, for the diagnosis of broken rotor bars defects from an approach of magnetically coupled multiple circuits. The generalized model is established on the base of mathematical recurrences. The winding function theory is used for determining the rotor resistances and the inductances in the case of n- broken bars. Simulation results, in Part. II of this paper, confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  19. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Animal house stock control based on bar-coded cage labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, R

    1985-10-01

    In an animal house serving the needs of a large research institute, a regular inventory of the animals in stock is a considerable help towards effective management of the facility. In particular, advising the licence-holders of what animals are being held in their name and reminding them of the costs involved is a valuable exercise. The introduction of a computerized system of stock control, based on bar-coded cage labels, is described. The system has proved economical to operate, accurate, and can be run by persons without computer expertise. PMID:4068665