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Sample records for caged protein prenyltransferase

  1. Caged Protein Prenyltransferase Substrates: Tools for Understanding Protein Prenylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGraw, Amanda J.; Hast, Michael A.; Xu, Juhua; Mullen, Daniel; Beese, Lorena S.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D. (Duke); (UMM)

    2010-11-15

    Originally designed to block the prenylation of oncogenic Ras, inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase currently in preclinical and clinical trials are showing efficacy in cancers with normal Ras. Blocking protein prenylation has also shown promise in the treatment of malaria, Chagas disease and progeria syndrome. A better understanding of the mechanism, targets and in vivo consequences of protein prenylation are needed to elucidate the mode of action of current PFTase (Protein Farnesyltransferase) inhibitors and to create more potent and selective compounds. Caged enzyme substrates are useful tools for understanding enzyme mechanism and biological function. Reported here is the synthesis and characterization of caged substrates of PFTase. The caged isoprenoid diphosphates are poor substrates prior to photolysis. The caged CAAX peptide is a true catalytically caged substrate of PFTase in that it is to not a substrate, yet is able to bind to the enzyme as established by inhibition studies and X-ray crystallography. Irradiation of the caged molecules with 350 nm light readily releases their cognate substrate and their photolysis products are benign. These properties highlight the utility of those analogs towards a variety of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  2. The CaaX specificities of Arabidopsis protein prenyltransferases explain era1 and ggb phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizinga David H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein prenylation is a common post-translational modification in metazoans, protozoans, fungi, and plants. This modification, which mediates protein-membrane and protein-protein interactions, is characterized by the covalent attachment of a fifteen-carbon farnesyl or twenty-carbon geranylgeranyl group to the cysteine residue of a carboxyl terminal CaaX motif. In Arabidopsis, era1 mutants lacking protein farnesyltransferase exhibit enlarged meristems, supernumerary floral organs, an enhanced response to abscisic acid (ABA, and drought tolerance. In contrast, ggb mutants lacking protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 exhibit subtle changes in ABA and auxin responsiveness, but develop normally. Results We have expressed recombinant Arabidopsis protein farnesyltransferase (PFT and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT1 in E. coli and characterized purified enzymes with respect to kinetic constants and substrate specificities. Our results indicate that, whereas PFT exhibits little specificity for the terminal amino acid of the CaaX motif, PGGT1 exclusively prenylates CaaX proteins with a leucine in the terminal position. Moreover, we found that different substrates exhibit similar Km but different kcat values in the presence of PFT and PGGT1, indicating that substrate specificities are determined primarily by reactivity rather than binding affinity. Conclusions The data presented here potentially explain the relatively strong phenotype of era1 mutants and weak phenotype of ggb mutants. Specifically, the substrate specificities of PFT and PGGT1 suggest that PFT can compensate for loss of PGGT1 in ggb mutants more effectively than PGGT1 can compensate for loss of PFT in era1 mutants. Moreover, our results indicate that PFT and PGGT1 substrate specificities are primarily due to differences in catalysis, rather than differences in substrate binding.

  3. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

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    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  4. Functional detection of proteins by caged aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alessandro; Lennarz, Sabine; Rodrigues-Correia, Alexandre; Heckel, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Mayer, Günter

    2012-02-17

    While many diagnostic assay platforms enable the measurement of analytes with high sensitivity, most of them result in a disruption of the analyte's native structure and, thus, in loss of function. Consequently, the analyte can be used neither for further analytical assessment nor functional analysis. Herein we report the use of caged aptamers as templates during apta-PCR analysis of targets. Aptamers are short nucleic acids that fold into a well-defined three-dimensional structure in which they interact with target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Nucleic acid aptamers can also serve as templates for qPCR approaches and, thus, have been used as high affinity ligands to bind to target molecules and subsequently for quantification by qPCR, an assay format coined apta-PCR. Caged aptamers in turn refer to variants that bear one or more photolabile groups at strategic positions. The activity of caged aptamers can thus be turned on or off by light irradiation. The latter allows the mild elution of target-bound aptamers while the target's native structure and function remain intact. We demonstrate that this approach allows the quantitative and subsequently the functional assessment of analytes. Since caged aptamers can be generated emanating from virtually every available aptamer, the described approach can be generalized and adopted to any target-aptamer pair and, thus, have a broad applicability in proteomics and clinical diagnostics.

  5. Chemical virology: Packing polymers in protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.

    2012-10-01

    The combination of addressable synthetic macromolecules with proteins of precise structure and function often leads to materials with unique properties, as is now shown by the efficient multi-site initiation of polymer growth inside the cavity of a virus capsid.

  6. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

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    Douglas, Trevor [Montana State University

    2014-11-21

    The central focus of the work performed under this award has been to develop the bacteriophage P22 viral capsid as a vehicle for the encapsulation of catalyticaly active cargo materials and study their utility towards economic energy harvesting systems. We have demonstrated that the capsid of the bacteriophage P22 can be used to genetically program the assembly and encapsulation of a range of inorganic nanoparticles and protein cargoes. The P22 capsid uses a scaffold protein (SP) to direct the assembly of its coat protein (CP) into icosahedral capsids. By creating a genetic fusion of a desired cargo enzyme or a small peptide that can act as a nucleation site for subsequent NP growth, we have demonstrated the co-assembly of these SP-fusions and CP into stable “nano-reactors”. The cargo is sequestered inside the engineered capsid and can either be used directly as a nanocatalyst or for the nucleation and growth of inorganic or organic nanoparticles or polymers. The synthetic cargos (NP or polymers) were shown to have photocatalytic activity. The time dependent photophysics of a select few of these systems were studied to determine the underlying mechanisms and efficiency of light harversting. Enzyme cargos encapsulated within the P22 were thermally activated catalysts and their kinetic behavior was characterized. During the course of this work we have demonstrated that the method is a robust means to harness biology for materials applications and have initiated work into assembling the P22 nanoreactors into hierarchically ordered materials. The successful implementation of the work performed under this DOE grant provides us with a great deal of knowledge and a library of components to go forward towards the development of bioinspired catalytic materials for energy harvesting.

  7. Differential scanning calorimetry to quantify the stability of protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Ardejani, Maziar S

    2015-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an experimental technique through which the differences in amount of heat required to maintain equal temperature between a sample and a reference cell are measured at various temperatures. The quantified heat relates to the differences in apparent heat capacity of the analytes. The data from DSC studies will thereby provide direct information about the energetics of thermally induced processes in the sample. Here we present a detailed protocol to quantify the thermostability of protein cage, bacterioferritin (BFR), using differential scanning calorimetry.

  8. Construction of silica-enhanced S-layer protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, D; Küpcü, S; Belton, D J; Perry, C C; Stöger-Pollach, M; Sleytr, U B; Pum, D

    2013-03-01

    The work presented here shows for the first time that it is possible to silicify S-layer coated liposomes and to obtain stable functionalized hollow nano-containers. For this purpose, the S-layer protein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 was recombinantly expressed and used for coating positively charged liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and hexadecylamine in a molar ratio of 10:5:4. Subsequently, plain (uncoated) liposomes and S-layer coated liposomes were silicified. Determination of the charge of the constructs during silicification allowed the deposition process to be followed. After the particles had been silicified, lipids were dissolved by treatment with Triton X-100 with the release of previously entrapped fluorescent dyes being determined by fluorimetry. Both, ζ-potential and release experiments showed differences between silicified plain liposomes and silicified S-layer coated liposomes. The results of the individual preparation steps were examined by embedding the respective assemblies in resin, ultrathin sectioning and inspection by bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy filtered TEM confirmed the successful construction of S-layer based silica cages. It is anticipated that this approach will provide a key to enabling technology for the fabrication of nanoporous protein cages for applications ranging from nano medicine to materials science.

  9. Protein cages, rings and tubes: useful components of future nanodevices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Heddle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan G HeddleGlobal Edge Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda, Midori-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa, JapanAbstract: There is a great deal of interest in the possibility that complex nanoscale devices can be designed and engineered. Such devices will lead to the development of new materials, electronics and smart drugs. Producing complex nanoscale devices, however will present many challenges and the components of such devices will require a number of special features. Devices will be engineered to incorporate desired functionalities but, because of the difficulties of controlling matter precisely at the nanoscale with current technology, the nanodevice components must self-assemble. In addition, nanocomponents that are to have wide applicability in various devices must have enough flexibility to integrate into a large number of potentially very different environments. These challenges are daunting and complex, and artificial nanodevices have not yet been constructed. However, the existence of nanomachines in nature in the form of proteins (eg, enzymes suggests that they will be possible to produce. As the material from which nature’s nanomachines are made, proteins seem ideal to form the basis of engineered components of such nanodevices. Initially, engineering projects may focus on building blocks such as rings, cages and tubes, examples of which exist in nature and may act as a useful start point for modification and further development. This review focuses on the recent research and possible future development of such protein building blocks.Keywords: bionanotechnology, protein engineering, nanomachine, building-blocks, synthetic biology

  10. Structure and assembly of scalable porous protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Eita; Böhringer, Daniel; van de Waterbeemd, Michiel; Leibundgut, Marc; Zschoche, Reinhard; Heck, Albert J. R.; Ban, Nenad; Hilvert, Donald

    2017-03-01

    Proteins that self-assemble into regular shell-like polyhedra are useful, both in nature and in the laboratory, as molecular containers. Here we describe cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of two versatile encapsulation systems that exploit engineered electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. We show that increasing the number of negative charges on the lumenal surface of lumazine synthase, a protein that naturally assembles into a ~1-MDa dodecahedron composed of 12 pentamers, induces stepwise expansion of the native protein shell, giving rise to thermostable ~3-MDa and ~6-MDa assemblies containing 180 and 360 subunits, respectively. Remarkably, these expanded particles assume unprecedented tetrahedrally and icosahedrally symmetric structures constructed entirely from pentameric units. Large keyhole-shaped pores in the shell, not present in the wild-type capsid, enable diffusion-limited encapsulation of complementarily charged guests. The structures of these supercharged assemblies demonstrate how programmed electrostatic effects can be effectively harnessed to tailor the architecture and properties of protein cages.

  11. Protein cages and synthetic polymers: a fruitful symbiosis for drug delivery applications, bionanotechnology and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Martin; Nussbaumer, Martin G; Renggli, Kasper; Bruns, Nico

    2016-11-07

    Protein cages are hollow protein nanoparticles, such as viral capsids, virus-like particles, ferritin, heat-shock proteins and chaperonins. They have well-defined capsule-like structures with a monodisperse size. Their protein subunits can be modified by genetic engineering at predetermined positions, allowing for example site-selective introduction of attachment points for functional groups, catalysts or targeting ligands on their outer surface, in their interior and between subunits. Therefore, protein cages have been extensively explored as functional entities in bionanotechnology, as drug-delivery or gene-delivery vehicles, as nanoreactors or as templates for the synthesis of organic and inorganic nanomaterials. The scope of functionalities and applications of protein cages can be significantly broadened if they are combined with synthetic polymers on their surface or within their interior. For example, PEGylation reduces the immunogenicity of protein cage-based delivery systems and active targeting ligands can be attached via polymer chains to favour their accumulation in diseased tissue. Polymers within protein cages offer the possibility of increasing the loading density of drug molecules, nucleic acids, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents or catalysts. Moreover, the interaction of protein cages and polymers can be used to modulate the size and shape of some viral capsids to generate structures that do not occur with native viruses. Another possibility is to use the interior of polymer cages as a confined reaction space for polymerization reactions such as atom transfer radical polymerization or rhodium-catalysed polymerization of phenylacetylene. The protein nanoreactors facilitate a higher degree of control over polymer synthesis. This review will summarize the hybrid structures that have been synthesized by polymerizing from protein cage-bound initiators, by conjugating polymers to protein cages, by embedding protein cages into bulk polymeric

  12. E2 protein cage as a multifunctional nanoplatform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau Mallorqui, Merce

    Caged protein systems such as viral capsids, heat shock proteins, and ferritin are spherical structures that occur naturally in living organisms and are a growing class of biomimetic templates used to create new materials in nanotechnology. Such systems have been proposed as general drug carriers since they form highly symmetric nanoscale architectures that offer the potential to be tailored according to the desired application. Within this framework, this dissertation focuses on the design and development of a new drug delivery nanoplatform based on the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus. This scaffold forms a 25-nm nanocapsule structure with a hollow cavity. We produced a variant of this protein consisting only of the structural core, and found the thermostability of this self-assembled scaffold to be unusually high, with an onset unfolding temperature of 81.1 +/- 0.9°C and an apparent midpoint unfolding temperature of 91.4 +/- 1.4°C. To evaluate the potential of this scaffold for encapsulation of guest molecules in the internal cavity, we made variants which altered the physicochemical properties of the hollow internal surface. These mutants, yielding up to 240 mutations within this cavity, assembled into correct architectures and exhibited high thermostability that was also comparable to the wild-type scaffold. To show the applicability of this scaffold we coupled two drug-like small molecules to the internal cavity. We also developed a new strategy for encapsulation of small hydrophobic drug molecules. This method is based on hydrophobic differences between the interior cavity and the external buffer to nucleate drug-like agents inside the protein cage. We demonstrate that internal mutations can introduce non-native functionality and enable molecular encapsulation within the cavity while still retaining the dodecahedral structure. Another surface amenable to modifications is the interface between subunits. Such

  13. Designing and defining dynamic protein cage nanoassemblies in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Ting; Hura, Greg L; Dyer, Kevin N; Tang, Henry Y H; Tainer, John A; Yeates, Todd O

    2016-12-01

    Central challenges in the design of large and dynamic macromolecular assemblies for synthetic biology lie in developing effective methods for testing design strategies and their outcomes, including comprehensive assessments of solution behavior. We created and validated an advanced design of a 600-kDa protein homododecamer that self-assembles into a symmetric tetrahedral cage. The monomeric unit is composed of a trimerizing apex-forming domain genetically linked to an edge-forming dimerizing domain. Enhancing the crystallographic results, high-throughput small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) comprehensively contrasted our modifications under diverse solution conditions. To generate a phase diagram associating structure and assembly, we developed force plots that measure dissimilarity among multiple SAXS data sets. These new tools, which provided effective feedback on experimental constructs relative to design, have general applicability in analyzing the solution behavior of heterogeneous nanosystems and have been made available as a web-based application. Specifically, our results probed the influence of solution conditions and symmetry on stability and structural adaptability, identifying the dimeric interface as the weak point in the assembly. Force plots comparing SAXS data sets further reveal more complex and controllable behavior in solution than captured by our crystal structures. These methods for objectively and comprehensively comparing SAXS profiles for systems critically affected by solvent conditions and structural heterogeneity provide an enabling technology for advancing the design and bioengineering of nanoscale biological materials.

  14. Structure of Coatomer Cage Proteins and the Relationship among COPI, COPII, and Clathrin Vesicle Coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changwook; Goldberg, Jonathan (MSKCC)

    2010-09-13

    COPI-coated vesicles form at the Golgi apparatus from two cytosolic components, ARF G protein and coatomer, a heptameric complex that can polymerize into a cage to deform the membrane into a bud. Although coatomer shares a common evolutionary origin with COPII and clathrin vesicle coat proteins, the architectural relationship among the three cages is unclear. Strikingly, the {alpha}{beta}-COP core of coatomer crystallizes as a triskelion in which three copies of a {beta}-COP {beta}-propeller domain converge through their axial ends. We infer that the trimer constitutes the vertex of the COPI cage. Our model proposes that the COPI cage is intermediate in design between COPII and clathrin: COPI shares with clathrin an arrangement of three curved {alpha}-solenoid legs radiating from a common center, and COPI shares with COPII highly similar vertex interactions involving the axial ends of {beta}-propeller domains.

  15. Expression, localization and function of a cis-prenyltransferase in the tapetum and microspores of lily anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Che; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Huang, Jenq-Kuen; Wang, Co-Shine

    2011-09-01

    The cis-prenyltransferase gene LLA66 (Lilium longiflorum anther-66), the first prenyltransferase to be identified in the tapetum and microspores, was selected from a suppression subtractive cDNA library during microspore development in the anther of L. longiflorum. The LLA66 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 308 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 35.7 kDa. Thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR was employed to obtain the 5'-regulatory region of LLA66. Sequence alignment revealed that the LLA66 protein shares 30-41% identity with cis-prenyltransferases of various broad-spectrum species and is phylogenetically distinct from other monocot cis-prenyltransferases. Based on critical regulatory domains in cis-prenyltransferase, LLA66 was concluded to catalyze the production of long-chain polyprenyl products. RNA blot analysis indicated that the LLA66 gene is anther specific and differentially expressed during microspore development in the anther. In situ hybridization with the digoxigenin-labeled antisense riboprobe of LLA66 showed strong signals at the tapetal layer of the anther wall. The LLA66 mRNA was also coordinately detected in the microspores. Furthermore, gibberellin inhibitor analysis indicated that the LLA66 gene is endogenously induced by gibberellin, but its induction is independent of ethylene regulation. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that gene expression of LLA66 both in the microspore and in the anther wall increased to the maximum level, at which stage the tapetum became highly active and secretory. The enzyme activity of prenyltransferases in various stages of microspore development correlated with tapetal growth and disintegration. LLA66 was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the His-tagged LLA66 protein was affinity purified using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid-agarose. The involvement of cis-prenyltransferase in the anther in the synthesis of dolichols and polyprenols is discussed.

  16. Specific Internalisation of Gold Nanoparticles into Engineered Porous Protein Cages via Affinity Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Free, Paul; Fernig, David G.; Lim, Sierin; Tomczak, Nikodem

    2016-01-01

    Porous protein cages are supramolecular protein self-assemblies presenting pores that allow the access of surrounding molecules and ions into their core in order to store and transport them in biological environments. Protein cages’ pores are attractive channels for the internalisation of inorganic nanoparticles and an alternative for the preparation of hybrid bioinspired nanoparticles. However, strategies based on nanoparticle transport through the pores are largely unexplored, due to the difficulty of tailoring nanoparticles that have diameters commensurate with the pores size and simultaneously displaying specific affinity to the cages’ core and low non-specific binding to the cages’ outer surface. We evaluated the specific internalisation of single small gold nanoparticles, 3.9 nm in diameter, into porous protein cages via affinity binding. The E2 protein cage derived from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus presents 12 pores, 6 nm in diameter, and an empty core of 13 nm in diameter. We engineered the E2 protein by site-directed mutagenesis with oligohistidine sequences exposing them into the cage’s core. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy analysis show that the structures of E2 protein cages mutated with bis- or penta-histidine sequences are well conserved. The surface of the gold nanoparticles was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer made of a mixture of short peptidols and thiolated alkane ethylene glycol ligands. Such monolayers are found to provide thin coatings preventing non-specific binding to proteins. Further functionalisation of the peptide coated gold nanoparticles with Ni2+ nitrilotriacetic moieties enabled the specific binding to oligohistidine tagged cages. The internalisation via affinity binding was evaluated by electron microscopy analysis. From the various mutations tested, only the penta-histidine mutated E2 protein cage showed repeatable and stable internalisation. The present work overcomes the limitations of

  17. The tomato cis-prenyltransferase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Tariq A; Matsuba, Yuki; Schauvinhold, Ines; Yu, Geng; Lees, Hazel A; Klein, Samuel E; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-02-01

    cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) are predicted to be involved in the synthesis of long-chain polyisoprenoids, all with five or more isoprene (C5) units. Recently, we identified a short-chain CPT, neryl diphosphate synthase (NDPS1), in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we searched the tomato genome and identified and characterized its entire CPT gene family, which comprises seven members (SlCPT1-7, with NDPS1 designated as SlCPT1). Six of the SlCPT genes encode proteins with N-terminal targeting sequences, which, when fused to GFP, mediated GFP transport to the plastids of Arabidopsis protoplasts. The SlCPT3-GFP fusion protein was localized to the cytosol. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant SlCPT proteins demonstrated that SlCPT6 produces Z,Z-FPP, and SlCPT2 catalyzes the formation of nerylneryl diphosphate while SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 synthesize longer-chain products (C25-C55). Although no in vitro activity was demonstrated for SlCPT3, its expression in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dolichol biosynthesis mutant (rer2) complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect. Transcripts of SlCPT2, SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 are present at low levels in multiple tissues, SlCPT6 is exclusively expressed in red fruit and roots, and SlCPT1, SlCPT3 and SlCPT7 are highly expressed in trichomes. RNAi-mediated suppression of NDPS1 led to a large decrease in β-phellandrene (which is produced from neryl diphosphate), with greater reductions achieved with the general 35S promoter compared to the trichome-specific MKS1 promoter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed CPT gene families in both eudicots and monocots, and showed that all the short-chain CPT genes from tomato (SlCPT1, SlCPT2 and SlCPT6) are closely linked to terpene synthase gene clusters.

  18. Two-component magnetic structure of iron oxide nanoparticles mineralized in Listeria innocua protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J.; Klem, Michael T.; Russek, Stephen E.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor; Goldfarb, Ron B.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetometry was used to determine the magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles formed within Listeria innocua protein cage. The electron magnetic resonance spectrum shows the presence of at least two magnetization components. The magnetization curves are explained by a sum of two Langevin functions in which each filled protein cage contains both a large magnetic iron oxide core plus an amorphous surface consisting of small noncoupled iron oxide spin clusters. This model qualitatively explains the observed decrease in the temperature dependent saturation moment and removes an unrealistic temperature dependent increase in the particle moment often observed in nanoparticle magnetization measurements.

  19. Observation of gold sub-nanocluster nucleation within a crystalline protein cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Basudev; Abe, Satoshi; Ueno, Takafumi

    2017-03-01

    Protein scaffolds provide unique metal coordination environments that promote biomineralization processes. It is expected that protein scaffolds can be developed to prepare inorganic nanomaterials with important biomedical and material applications. Despite many promising applications, it remains challenging to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of formation of metal nanoparticles in protein environments. In the present work, we describe a crystalline protein cage constructed by crosslinking treatment of a single crystal of apo-ferritin for structural characterization of the formation of sub-nanocluster with reduction reaction. The crystal structure analysis shows the gradual movement of the Au ions towards the centre of the three-fold symmetric channels of the protein cage to form a sub-nanocluster with accompanying significant conformational changes of the amino-acid residues bound to Au ions during the process. These results contribute to our understanding of metal core formation as well as interactions of the metal core with the protein environment.

  20. Observation of gold sub-nanocluster nucleation within a crystalline protein cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Basudev; Abe, Satoshi; Ueno, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Protein scaffolds provide unique metal coordination environments that promote biomineralization processes. It is expected that protein scaffolds can be developed to prepare inorganic nanomaterials with important biomedical and material applications. Despite many promising applications, it remains challenging to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of formation of metal nanoparticles in protein environments. In the present work, we describe a crystalline protein cage constructed by crosslinking treatment of a single crystal of apo-ferritin for structural characterization of the formation of sub-nanocluster with reduction reaction. The crystal structure analysis shows the gradual movement of the Au ions towards the centre of the three-fold symmetric channels of the protein cage to form a sub-nanocluster with accompanying significant conformational changes of the amino-acid residues bound to Au ions during the process. These results contribute to our understanding of metal core formation as well as interactions of the metal core with the protein environment. PMID:28300064

  1. Protein dynamics: from rattling in a cage to structural relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodadadia, S.; Sokolov, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of protein dynamics based mostly on results of neutron scattering, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. We identify several major classes of protein motions on the time scale from faster than picoseconds to several microseconds, and discuss th

  2. Structural features of the GroEL-GroES nano-cage required for rapid folding of encapsulated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Chang, HC; Roeben, A

    2006-01-01

    GroEL and GroES form a chaperonin nano-cage for proteins up to similar to 60 kDa to fold in isolation. Here we explored the structural features of the chaperonin cage critical for rapid folding of encapsulated substrates. Modulating the volume of the GroEL central cavity affected folding speed....... Additionally, interactions with the C-terminal, mildly hydrophobic Gly-Gly-Met repeat sequences of GroEL protruding into the cavity, and repulsion effects from the negatively charged cavity wall were required for rapid folding of some proteins. We suggest that by combining these features, the chaperonin cage...

  3. Structure of a designed protein cage that self-assembles into a highly porous cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Ting; Reading, Eamonn; Hura, Greg L.; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Laganowsky, Arthur; Asturias, Francisco J.; Tainer, John A.; Robinson, Carol V.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-12-01

    Natural proteins can be versatile building blocks for multimeric, self-assembling structures. Yet, creating protein-based assemblies with specific geometries and chemical properties remains challenging. Highly porous materials represent particularly interesting targets for designed assembly. Here, we utilize a strategy of fusing two natural protein oligomers using a continuous alpha-helical linker to design a novel protein that self assembles into a 750 kDa, 225 Å diameter, cube-shaped cage with large openings into a 130 Å diameter inner cavity. A crystal structure of the cage showed atomic-level agreement with the designed model, while electron microscopy, native mass spectrometry and small angle X-ray scattering revealed alternative assembly forms in solution. These studies show that accurate design of large porous assemblies with specific shapes is feasible, while further specificity improvements will probably require limiting flexibility to select against alternative forms. These results provide a foundation for the design of advanced materials with applications in bionanotechnology, nanomedicine and material sciences.

  4. A direct comparison of protein structure in the gas and solution phase: the Trp-cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patriksson, Alexandra; Adams, Christopher M; Kjeldsen, Frank;

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of zwitterions of the Trp-cage protein in the gas phase show that the most stable ion in vacuo has preserved the charge locations acquired in solution. A direct comparison of the gas and solution-phase structures reveals that, despite the similarity in charge location......, there is significant difference in the structures, with a substantial increase in hydrogen bonds and exposure of hydrophobic parts in the gas phase. The structure of the salt bridge in the gas phase is also much more stable than in the (experimental) solution structure....

  5. Glucose activates prenyltransferases in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goalstone, Marc [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, VA Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States); Kamath, Vasudeva [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Kowluru, Anjaneyulu, E-mail: akowluru@med.wayne.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates small G-proteins [e.g., Cdc42 and Rac1] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] in the islet {beta}-cell. These signaling proteins undergo post-translational modifications [e.g., prenylation] at their C-terminal cysteine residue and appear to be essential for the transport and fusion of insulin-containing secretory granules with the plasma membrane and the exocytotic secretion of insulin. However, potential regulation of the prenylating enzymes by physiological insulin secretogues [e.g., glucose] has not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report immunological localization, sub-cellular distribution and regulation of farnesyltransferases [FTases] and geranylgeranyltransferase [GGTase] by glucose in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 {beta}-cells and normal rat islets. Our findings suggest that an insulinotropic concentration of glucose [20 mM] markedly stimulated the expression of the {alpha}-subunits of FTase/GGTase-1, but not the {beta}-subunits of FTase or GGTase-1 without significantly affecting the predominantly cytosolic distribution of these holoenzymes in INS 832/13 cells and rodent islets. Under these conditions, glucose significantly stimulated [2.5- to 4.0-fold over basal] the activities of both FTase and GGTase-1 in both cell types. Together, these findings provide the first evidence to suggest that GSIS involves activation of the endogenous islet prenyltransferases by glucose, culminating in the activation of their respective G-protein substrates, which is necessary for cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicular transport, fusion and secretion of insulin.

  6. A photoactive isoprenoid diphosphate analogue containing a stable phosphonate linkage: synthesis and biochemical studies with prenyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraw, Amanda J.; Zhao, Zongbao; Strickland, Corey L.; Taban, A. Huma; Hsieh, John; Michael, Jefferies; Xie, Wenshuang; Shintani, David; McMahan, Colleen; Cornish, Katrina; Distefano, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    A number of biochemical processes rely on isoprenoids, including the post-translational modification of signaling proteins and the biosynthesis of a wide array of compounds. Photoactivatable analogues have been developed to study isoprenoid utilizing enzymes such as the isoprenoid synthases and prenyltransferases. While these initial analogues proved to be excellent structural analogues with good cross linking capability, they lack the stability needed when the goals include isolation of cross-linked species, tryptic digestion, and subsequent peptide sequencing. Here, the synthesis of a benzophenone-based farnesyl diphosphate analogue containing a stable phosphonophosphate group is described. Inhibition kinetics, photolabeling experiments, as well as x-ray crystallographic analysis with a protein prenyltransferase are described, verifying this compound as a good isoprenoid mimetic. In addition, the utility of this new analogue was explored by using it to photoaffinity label crude protein extracts obtained from Hevea brasiliensis latex. Those experiments suggest that a small protein, Rubber Elongation Factor, interacts directly with farnesyl diphosphate during rubber biosynthesis. These results indicate that this benzophenone-based isoprenoid analogue will be useful for identifying enzymes that utilize farnesyl diphosphate as a substrate. PMID:17477573

  7. Levels of digestible protein to surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudoplatystoma sp. is species of carnivorous fish that require special attention in the diet offered. This work had the objective to determine the digestible protein requirement of juvenile the Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages. The test consisted of four isoenergetic diets (2606.69 ± 39.16 kcal kg-1 of digestible energy containing increasing levels of digestible protein (23, 24, 26 and 28%PD provided to juveniles of surubim (157.35±11.23g for five months. The parameters of growth, fillet composition, metabolic liver enzymes and morphometry of the intestine and liver were analyzed in completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates. An increase of protein in the diet provided better weight gain. The metabolic liver enzymes increased in fish fed 24PD. The histopathological changes were not observed in the liver of the fish. The bowel histology showed adaptation to increased protein in the diet until the 26 level PD. juveniles of Pseudoplatystoma sp. Were demanding in digestible protein, showing the best results of production performance and nutrient use efficiency with the diet containing 28%PD.

  8. Hierarchical Organization of Organic Dyes and Protein Cages into Photoactive Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Joona; Anaya-Plaza, Eduardo; Liljeström, Ville; Caston, Jose R; Torres, Tomas; Escosura, Andrés de la; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-01-26

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are non-natural organic dyes with wide and deep impact in materials science, based on their intense absorption at the near-infrared (NIR), long-lived fluorescence and high singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yields. However, Pcs tend to stack in buffer solutions, losing their ability to generate singlet oxygen, which limits their scope of application. Furthermore, Pcs are challenging to organize in crystalline structures. Protein cages, on the other hand, are very promising biological building blocks that can be used to organize different materials into crystalline nanostructures. Here, we combine both kinds of components into photoactive biohybrid crystals. Toward this end, a hierarchical organization process has been designed in which (a) a supramolecular complex is formed between octacationic zinc Pc (1) and a tetraanionic pyrene (2) derivatives, driven by electrostatic and π-π interactions, and (b) the resulting tetracationic complex acts as a molecular glue that binds to the outer surface anionic patches of the apoferritin (aFt) protein cage, inducing cocrystallization. The obtained ternary face-centered cubic (fcc) packed cocrystals, with diameters up to 100 μm, retain the optical properties of the pristine dye molecules, such as fluorescence at 695 nm and efficient light-induced (1)O2 production. Considering that (1)O2 is utilized in important technologies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), water treatments, diagnostic arrays and as an oxidant in organic synthesis, our results demonstrate a powerful methodology to create functional biohybrid systems with unprecedented long-range order. This approach should greatly aid the development of nanotechnology and biomedicine.

  9. Moving Fe2+ from ferritin ion channels to catalytic OH centers depends on conserved protein cage carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Rabindra K; Theil, Elizabeth C

    2014-06-03

    Ferritin biominerals are protein-caged metabolic iron concentrates used for iron-protein cofactors and oxidant protection (Fe(2+) and O2 sequestration). Fe(2+) passage through ion channels in the protein cages, like membrane ion channels, required for ferritin biomineral synthesis, is followed by Fe(2+) substrate movement to ferritin enzyme (Fox) sites. Fe(2+) and O2 substrates are coupled via a diferric peroxo (DFP) intermediate, λmax 650 nm, which decays to [Fe(3+)-O-Fe(3+)] precursors of caged ferritin biominerals. Structural studies show multiple conformations for conserved, carboxylate residues E136 and E57, which are between ferritin ion channel exits and enzymatic sites, suggesting functional connections. Here we show that E136 and E57 are required for ferritin enzyme activity and thus are functional links between ferritin ion channels and enzymatic sites. DFP formation (Kcat and kcat/Km), DFP decay, and protein-caged hydrated ferric oxide accumulation decreased in ferritin E57A and E136A; saturation required higher Fe(2+) concentrations. Divalent cations (both ion channel and intracage binding) selectively inhibit ferritin enzyme activity (block Fe(2+) access), Mn(2+) protein binding stabilities. Fe(2+)-Cys126 binding in ferritin ion channels, observed as Cu(2+)-S-Cys126 charge-transfer bands in ferritin E130D UV-vis spectra and resistance to Cu(2+) inhibition in ferritin C126S, was unpredicted. Identifying E57 and E136 links in Fe(2+) movement from ferritin ion channels to ferritin enzyme sites completes a bucket brigade that moves external Fe(2+) into ferritin enzymatic sites. The results clarify Fe(2+) transport within ferritin and model molecular links between membrane ion channels and cytoplasmic destinations.

  10. A coumarin-specific prenyltransferase catalyzes the crucial biosynthetic reaction for furanocoumarin formation in parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Fazeelat; Olry, Alexandre; Munakata, Ryosuke; Koeduka, Takao; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Paris, Cedric; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-02-01

    Furanocoumarins constitute a sub-family of coumarin compounds with important defense properties against pathogens and insects, as well as allelopathic functions in plants. Furanocoumarins are divided into two sub-groups according to the alignment of the furan ring with the lactone structure: linear psoralen and angular angelicin derivatives. Determination of furanocoumarin type is based on the prenylation position of the common precursor of all furanocoumarins, umbelliferone, at C6 or C8, which gives rise to the psoralen or angelicin derivatives, respectively. Here, we identified a membrane-bound prenyltransferase PcPT from parsley (Petroselinum crispum), and characterized the properties of the gene product. PcPT expression in various parsley tissues is increased by UV irradiation, with a concomitant increase in furanocoumarin production. This enzyme has strict substrate specificity towards umbelliferone and dimethylallyl diphosphate, and a strong preference for the C6 position of the prenylated product (demethylsuberosin), leading to linear furanocoumarins. The C8-prenylated derivative (osthenol) is also formed, but to a much lesser extent. The PcPT protein is targeted to the plastids in planta. Introduction of this PcPT into the coumarin-producing plant Ruta graveolens showed increased consumption of endogenous umbelliferone. Expression of PcPT and a 4-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana, which does not produce furanocoumarins, resulted in formation of demethylsuberosin, indicating that furanocoumarin production may be reconstructed by a metabolic engineering approach. The results demonstrate that a single prenyltransferase, such as PcPT, opens the pathway to linear furanocoumarins in parsley, but may also catalyze the synthesis of osthenol, the first intermediate committed to the angular furanocoumarin pathway, in other plants.

  11. Bimetallic cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, René; Afzal-Hussain, Sabeen

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of density functional theory for 39 clusters AxBy (x + y = 10 or 12) where A and B are metals from group 1, 2, 11, 12, 13, or 14 of the periodic table. The chemical compositions were chosen to satisfy an electronic shell closing criterion. We performed an unbiased search for the global minimum (GM) by taboo search in descriptor space in each case. Eight of the 39 putative GM are cages even though none of the clusters contains gold, a metal with a well known propensity to form cages. These cages are large enough to accommodate a dopant atom with an atomic radius varying between 0.7 Å and 1.2 Å. The chemical compositions most likely to produce cages have an element of group 11 alloyed with an element of group 2, 12, or 13.

  12. Antibody-drug conjugates: targeting melanoma with cisplatin encapsulated in protein-cage nanoparticles based on human ferritin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, Elisabetta; Tremante, Elisa; Fraioli, Rocco; Leonetti, Carlo; Zamparelli, Carlotta; Boffi, Alberto; Morea, Veronica; Ceci, Pierpaolo; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2013-11-01

    A novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was synthesized incorporating ferritin-based nanoparticles. An average of three molecules of monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ep1 to the human melanoma-specific antigen CSPG4 were conjugated to a single ferritin cage encapsulating about 50 cisplatin molecules (HFt-Pt-Ep1). The HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had an estimated molecular size of about 900 kD and 33 nm, and flow cytometry demonstrated specific binding to a CSPG4+ melanoma cell line, but not to a CSPG4- breast carcinoma cell line. As compared to the cisplatin-containing ferritin nanoparticle alone (HFt-Pt), which inhibited thymidine incorporation more efficiently in breast carcinoma than melanoma cells, the mAb-derivatized HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had a 25-fold preference for the latter. A similar preference for melanoma was observed upon systemic intravenous administration of HFt-Pt-Ep1 to nude mice xenotransplanted with pre-established, palpable melanoma and breast carcinoma tumors. Thus, we have been able to determine precise combinations and stoichiometric relationships between mAbs and nanoparticle protein cages, whereby the latter lose their tropism for ubiquitously distributed cellular receptors, and acquire instead remarkably lineage-selective binding. HFt-Pt-Ep1 is therefore an interesting model to improve the therapeutic index of antiblastic therapy in a tumor such as melanoma, which at its advanced stages is totally refractory to mono- and combination-chemotherapy.A novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was synthesized incorporating ferritin-based nanoparticles. An average of three molecules of monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ep1 to the human melanoma-specific antigen CSPG4 were conjugated to a single ferritin cage encapsulating about 50 cisplatin molecules (HFt-Pt-Ep1). The HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had an estimated molecular size of about 900 kD and 33 nm, and flow cytometry demonstrated specific binding to a CSPG4+ melanoma cell line, but not to a CSPG4- breast carcinoma cell

  13. Geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of the prenyltransferase UBIAD1 between membranes of the ER and Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Marc M; Jun, Dong-Jae; Jo, Youngah; Seemann, Joachim; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A

    2016-07-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize the vitamin K2 subtype menaquinone-4. Previously, we found that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, including GGpp. This binding inhibits sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, which contributes to feedback regulation of the enzyme. The addition to cells of geranylgeraniol (GGOH), which can become converted to GGpp, triggers release of UBIAD1 from reductase, allowing for its maximal degradation and permitting ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. Here, we further characterize geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of UBIAD1. Results of this characterization support a model in which UBIAD1 continuously cycles between the ER and medial-trans Golgi of isoprenoid-replete cells. Upon sensing a decline of GGpp in ER membranes, UBIAD1 becomes trapped in the organelle where it inhibits reductase degradation. Mutant forms of UBIAD1 associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD), a human eye disease characterized by corneal accumulation of cholesterol, are sequestered in the ER and block reductase degradation. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel sensing mechanism that allows for stringent metabolic control of intracellular trafficking of UBIAD1, which directly modulates reductase degradation and becomes disrupted in SCD.

  14. A lettuce (Lactuca sativa) homolog of human Nogo-B receptor interacts with cis-prenyltransferase and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T; Kwon, Eun-Joo G; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-23

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3-15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. A Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Homolog of Human Nogo-B Receptor Interacts with cis-Prenyltransferase and Is Necessary for Natural Rubber Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T.; Kwon, Eun-Joo G.; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3–15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. PMID:25477521

  16. Flexible, Symmetry Directed Approach To Assembling Protein Cages (Publisher’s Version Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    removed these during purification (Fig. S1). We envisage that the coiled-coil domains act like “twist ties” to hold the esterase trimers in a... nanomaterials . Nature 510(7503):103–108. 17. King NP, et al. (2012) Computational design of self-assembling protein nanomaterials with atomic level accuracy

  17. Re-evaluation of the optimum dietary protein level for maximum growth of juvenile barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus reared in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We determined the optimum dietary protein level in juvenile barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus in cages. Five semi-purified isocaloric diets were formulated with white fish meal and casein-based diets to contain 35, 40, 45, 50, and 60 % crude protein (CP. Fish with an initial body weight of 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD were randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 cm × 40 cm × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish in triplicates. The fish were fed at apparent satiation level twice a day. After 8 weeks of feeding, the weight gain (WG of fish fed 45, 50, and 60 % CP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed 35 and 40 % CP diets. However, there were no significant differences in WG among fish fed 45, 50, and 60 % CP diets. Generally, feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR showed a similar trend as WG. However, the protein efficiency ratio (PER was inversely related to dietary protein levels. Energy retention efficiency increased with the increase of dietary protein levels by protein sparing from non-protein energy sources. Blood hematocrit content was not affected by dietary protein levels. However, a significantly lower amount of hemoglobin was found in fish fed 35 % CP than in fish fed 40, 45, 50, and 60 % CP diets. Fish fed 60 % CP showed the lowest survival rate than the fish fed 35, 40, 45, and 50 % CP diets. Broken-line analysis of WG showed the optimum dietary protein level was 45.2 % with 18.8 kJ/g diet for juvenile barred knifejaw. This study has potential implication for the successful cage culture of barred knifejaw.

  18. Development of protein-cage-based delivery nanoplatforms by polyvalently displaying β-cyclodextrins on the surface of ferritins through copper(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chanho; Kang, Young Ji; Jeon, Sangbin; Jung, Seunho; Hong, Sung You; Kang, Sebyung

    2012-11-01

    Protein cages are spherical hollow macromolecules that are attractive platforms for the construction of nanoscale cargo delivery vehicles. Human heavy-chain ferritin (HHFn) is modified genetically to control the number and position of functional groups per cage. 24 β-CDs are conjugated precisely to the modified HHFn in specific locations through thiol-maleimide Michael-type addition followed by copper(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The resulting human ferritins displaying β-CDs (β-CD-C90 HHFn) can form inclusion complexes with FITC-AD, which can slowly release the guest molecule reversibly in a buffer solution via non-covalent β-CD/AD interactions. β-CD-C90 HHFn can potentially be used as delivery vehicles for insoluble drugs. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Temperature dependence of electron magnetic resonance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles mineralized in Listeria innocua protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J; Russek, Stephen E; Klem, Michael T; Allen, Mark A; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Idzerda, Yves U; Singel, David J

    2012-10-15

    Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles formed within size-constraining Listeria innocua (LDps)-(DNA-binding protein from starved cells) protein cages that have an inner diameter of 5 nm. Variable-temperature X-band EMR spectra exhibited broad asymmetric resonances with a superimposed narrow peak at a gyromagnetic factor of g ≈ 2. The resonance structure, which depends on both superparamagnetic fluctuations and inhomogeneous broadening, changes dramatically as a function of temperature, and the overall linewidth becomes narrower with increasing temperature. Here, we compare two different models to simulate temperature-dependent lineshape trends. The temperature dependence for both models is derived from a Langevin behavior of the linewidth resulting from "anisotropy melting." The first uses either a truncated log-normal distribution of particle sizes or a bi-modal distribution and then a Landau-Liftshitz lineshape to describe the nanoparticle resonances. The essential feature of this model is that small particles have narrow linewidths and account for the g ≈ 2 feature with a constant resonance field, whereas larger particles have broad linewidths and undergo a shift in resonance field. The second model assumes uniform particles with a diameter around 4 nm and a random distribution of uniaxial anisotropy axes. This model uses a more precise calculation of the linewidth due to superparamagnetic fluctuations and a random distribution of anisotropies. Sharp features in the spectrum near g ≈ 2 are qualitatively predicted at high temperatures. Both models can account for many features of the observed spectra, although each has deficiencies. The first model leads to a nonphysical increase in magnetic moment as the temperature is increased if a log normal distribution of particles sizes is used. Introducing a bi-modal distribution of particle sizes resolves

  20. Temperature dependence of electron magnetic resonance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles mineralized in Listeria innocua protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J.; Russek, Stephen E.; Klem, Michael T.; Allen, Mark A.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Idzerda, Yves U.; Singel, David J.

    2012-10-01

    Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles formed within size-constraining Listeria innocua (LDps)-(DNA-binding protein from starved cells) protein cages that have an inner diameter of 5 nm. Variable-temperature X-band EMR spectra exhibited broad asymmetric resonances with a superimposed narrow peak at a gyromagnetic factor of g ≈ 2. The resonance structure, which depends on both superparamagnetic fluctuations and inhomogeneous broadening, changes dramatically as a function of temperature, and the overall linewidth becomes narrower with increasing temperature. Here, we compare two different models to simulate temperature-dependent lineshape trends. The temperature dependence for both models is derived from a Langevin behavior of the linewidth resulting from "anisotropy melting." The first uses either a truncated log-normal distribution of particle sizes or a bi-modal distribution and then a Landau-Liftshitz lineshape to describe the nanoparticle resonances. The essential feature of this model is that small particles have narrow linewidths and account for the g ≈ 2 feature with a constant resonance field, whereas larger particles have broad linewidths and undergo a shift in resonance field. The second model assumes uniform particles with a diameter around 4 nm and a random distribution of uniaxial anisotropy axes. This model uses a more precise calculation of the linewidth due to superparamagnetic fluctuations and a random distribution of anisotropies. Sharp features in the spectrum near g ≈ 2 are qualitatively predicted at high temperatures. Both models can account for many features of the observed spectra, although each has deficiencies. The first model leads to a nonphysical increase in magnetic moment as the temperature is increased if a log normal distribution of particles sizes is used. Introducing a bi-modal distribution of particle sizes resolves the unphysical

  1. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  2. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Xanthone Prenyltransferase from Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Fiesel; Mariam Gaid; Andreas Müller; Joana Bartels; Islam El-Awaad; Till Beuerle; Ludger Ernst; Sönke Behrends; Ludger Beerhues

    2015-01-01

    In plants, prenylation of metabolites is widely distributed to generate compounds with efficient defense potential and distinct pharmacological activities profitable to human health. Prenylated compounds are formed by members of the prenyltransferase (PT) superfamily, which catalyze the addition of prenyl moieties to a variety of acceptor molecules. Cell cultures of Hypericum calycinum respond to elicitor treatment with the accumulation of the prenylated xanthone hyperxanthone E. A cDNA encod...

  3. Magnetic Particle-Based Immunoassay of Phosphorylated p53 Using Protein-Cage Templated Lead Phosphate and Carbon Nanospheres for Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiqiong; Bao, Yuanwu; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Shin, Yongsoon; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-11-20

    Phosphorylated p53 at serin 15 (phospho-p53-15) is a potential biomarker of Gamma-radiation exposure. In this paper, we described a new magnetic particles (MPs)-based electrochemical immunoassay of human phospho-p53-15 using carbon nanospheres (CNS) and protein-cage templated lead phosphate nanoparticles for signal amplification. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by three aspects: 1) The protein-cage nanoparticle (PCN) and p53-15 signal antibody (p53-15 Ab2) are linked to CNS (PCNof each apoferritin; 3) MPs capture a large amount of primary antibodies. Using apoferritin templated metallic phosphate instead of enzyme as label has the advantage of eliminating the addition of mediator or immunoreagents and thus makes the immunoassay system simpler. The subsequent stripping voltammetric analysis of the released lead ions were detected on a disposable screen printed electrode. The response current was proportional to the phospho-p53-15 concentration in the range of 0.02 to 20 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.01 ng mL-1. This method shows a good stability, reproducibility and recovery.

  4. High-Temperature unfolding of a trp-Cage mini-protein: a molecular dynamics simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshasayee Aswin Sai Narain

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trp cage is a recently-constructed fast-folding miniprotein. It consists of a short helix, a 3,10 helix and a C-terminal poly-proline that packs against a Trp in the alpha helix. It is known to fold within 4 ns. Results High-temperature unfolding molecular dynamics simulations of the Trp cage miniprotein have been carried out in explicit water using the OPLS-AA force-field incorporated in the program GROMACS. The radius of gyration (Rg and Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD have been used as order parameters to follow the unfolding process. Distributions of Rg were used to identify ensembles. Conclusion Three ensembles could be identified. While the native-state ensemble shows an Rg distribution that is slightly skewed, the second ensemble, which is presumably the Transition State Ensemble (TSE, shows an excellent fit. The denatured ensemble shows large fluctuations, but a Gaussian curve could be fitted. This means that the unfolding process is two-state. Representative structures from each of these ensembles are presented here.

  5. Evidence of coexistence of change of caged dynamics at T(g) and the dynamic transition at T(d) in solvated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioli, S; Ngai, K L; Ancherbak, S; Paciaroni, A

    2012-02-16

    Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering measurements on proteins embedded in solvents including water and aqueous mixtures have emphasized the observation of the distinctive temperature dependence of the atomic mean square displacements, , commonly referred to as the dynamic transition at some temperature T(d). At low temperatures, increases slowly, but it assumes stronger temperature dependence after crossing T(d), which depends on the time/frequency resolution of the spectrometer. Various authors have made connection of the dynamics of solvated proteins, including the dynamic transition to that of glass-forming substances. Notwithstanding, no connection is made to the similar change of temperature dependence of obtained by quasielastic neutron scattering when crossing the glass transition temperature T(g), generally observed in inorganic, organic, and polymeric glass-formers. Evidences are presented here to show that such a change of the temperature dependence of from neutron scattering at T(g) is present in hydrated or solvated proteins, as well as in the solvent used, unsurprisingly since the latter is just another organic glass-former. If unaware of the existence of such a crossover of at T(g), and if present, it can be mistaken as the dynamic transition at T(d) with the ill consequences of underestimating T(d) by the lower value T(g) and confusing the identification of the origin of the dynamic transition. The obtained by neutron scattering at not so low temperatures has contributions from the dissipation of molecules while caged by the anharmonic intermolecular potential at times before dissolution of cages by the onset of the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation or of the merged α-β relaxation. The universal change of at T(g) of glass-formers, independent of the spectrometer resolution, had been rationalized by sensitivity to change in volume and entropy of the dissipation of the caged molecules and its contribution to . The same rationalization applies

  6. Simulation of the thermodynamics of folding and unfolding of the Trp-cage mini-protein TC5b using different combinations of force fields and solvation models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; John; ZengHui

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations based on AMBER force fields(ff96 and ff03) and generalized Born models(igb1 and igb5) have been carried out in order to study folding/unfolding of the Trp-cage mini-protein TC5b.The thermodynamic properties of TC5b were found to be sensitive to the specific version of the solvation model and force field employed.When the ff96/igb5 combination was used,the predicted melting temperature from unfolding simulations was in good agreement with the experimental value of 315 K,but the folding simulation did not converge.The most stable thermodynamic profile in both folding and unfolding simulations was obtained when the ff03/igb5 combination was employed,and the predicted melting temperature was about 345 K,showing over-stabilization of the protein.Simulations using the igb1 version in combination with ff96 or ff03 were difficult to converge within the simulation time limit(50 ns).

  7. Change of caged dynamics at Tg in hydrated proteins: Trend of mean squared displacements after correcting for the methyl-group rotation contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Capaccioli, S.; Paciaroni, A.

    2013-06-01

    The question whether the dynamics of hydrated proteins changes with temperature on crossing the glass transition temperature like that found in conventional glassformers is an interesting one. Recently, we have shown that a change of temperature dependence of the mean square displacement (MSD) at Tg is present in proteins solvated with bioprotectants, such as sugars or glycerol with or without the addition of water, coexisting with the dynamic transition at a higher temperature Td. The dynamical change at Tg is similar to that in conventional glassformers at sufficiently short times and low enough temperatures, where molecules are mutually caged by the intermolecular potential. This is a general and fundamental property of glassformers which is always observed at or near Tg independent of the energy resolution of the spectrometer, and is also the basis of the dynamical change of solvated proteins at Tg. When proteins are solvated with bioprotectants they show higher Tg and Td than the proteins hydrated by water alone, due to the stabilizing action of excipients, thus the observation of the change of T-dependence of the MSD at Tg is unobstructed by the methyl-group rotation contribution at lower temperatures [S. Capaccioli, K. L. Ngai, S. Ancherbak, and A. Paciaroni, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 1745 (2012)], 10.1021/jp2057892. On the other hand, in the case of proteins hydrated by water alone unambiguous evidence of the break at Tg is hard to find, because of their lower Tg and Td. Notwithstanding, in this paper, we provide evidence for the change at Tg of the T-dependence of proteins hydrated by pure water. This evidence turns out from (i) neutron scattering experimental investigations where the sample has been manipulated by either full or partial deuteration to suppress the methyl-group rotation contribution, and (ii) neutron scattering experimental investigations where the energy resolution is such that only motions with characteristic times shorter than 15 ps can be

  8. Comparison of Gene and Protein Expressions in Rats Residing in Standard Cages with Those Having Access to an Exercise Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine M. Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong physical inactivity is associated with morbidity in adulthood, possibly influenced by changes in gene and protein expressions occurring earlier in life. mRNA (Affymetrix gene array and proteomic (2D-DIGE MALDI-TOF/MS analyses were determined in cardiac tissue of young (3 months and old (16 months Sprague-Dawley rats housed with no access to physical activity (SED versus an exercise wheel (EX. Unfavorable phenotypes for body weight, dyslipidemia, and tumorogenesis appeared more often in adult SED versus EX. No differentially expressed genes (DEGs occurred between groups at 3 or 16 months. Within groups, SED and EX shared 215 age-associated DEGs. In SED, ten unique DEGs occurred with age; three had cell adhesion functions (fn1, lgals3, ncam2. In EX, five unique DEGs occurred with age; two involved hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal hormone axis (nrob2, xpnpep2. Protein expression involved in binding, sugar metabolic processes, and vascular regulation declined with age in SED (KNT1, ALBU, GPX1, PYGB, LDHB, G3P, PYGM, PGM1, ENOB. Protein expression increased with age in EX for ATP metabolic processes (MYH6, MYH7, ATP5J, ATPA and vascular function (KNT1, ALBU, GPX1. Differences in select gene and protein expressions within sedentary and active animals occurred with age and contributed to distinct health-related phenotypes in adulthood.

  9. A Unique TryptophanC-Prenyltransferase from the Kawaguchipeptin Biosynthetic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Anirudra; Kwak, Daniel H.; Dalponte, Luca; Leikoski, Niina; Galica, Tomas; Umeobika, Ugochukwu; Trembleau, Laurent; Bent, Andrew; Sivonen, Kaarina; Wahlsten, Matti; Wang, Hao; Rizzi, Ermanno; De Bellis, Gianluca; Naismith, James; Jaspars, Marcel; Liu, Xinyu; Houssen, Wael; Fewer, David Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobactins are are rapidly growing family of linear and cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Kawaguchipeptins A and B, two macrocyclic undecapeptides reported earlier from Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-88, are shown to be products of the cyanobactin biosynthetic pathway. The 9 kb kawaguchipeptin (kgp) gene cluster was identified in a 5.26 Mb draft genome of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-88. We verified that this gene cluster is responsible for the production of the kawaguchipeptins through heterologous expression of the kgp gene cluster in Escherichia coli. The KgpF prenyltransferase was overexpressed and was shown to prenylate C-3 of Trp residues in both linear and cyclic peptides in vitro. Our findings serve to further enhance the structural diversity of cyanobactins to include tryptophan-prenylated cyclic peptides. PMID:26846478

  10. A fermionic spacetime cage

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, De-Hone

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of a spacetime structure to a three-dimensional quantum system. There are three components. First, the main part of this paper presents the constraint conditions which build the relation of a spacetime structure and a form invariance solution to the covariant Dirac equation. The second is to devise a spacetime cage for fermions with chosen constraints. The third part discusses the feasibility of the cage with an experiment.

  11. Induction of two prenyltransferases for the accumulation of coumarin phytoalexins in elicitor-treated Ammi majus cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerski, D; Schmitt, D; Matern, U

    1990-01-01

    Two dimethylallyl diphosphate:umbelliferone dimethylallyltransferase (prenyltransferase) activities, catalysing the 6-prenylation and the 7-O-prenylation, respectively, of umbelliferone in the course of phytoalexin synthesis, increased in Ammi majus cell suspension cultures in response to elicitor treatment. Both enzyme activities were dependent on Mg2+ or Mn2+ with significant preference for Mg2+ in the 6-prenylation reaction. Whereas dark-grown cells did not contain these activities, both prenyltransferase activities were induced rapidly by the addition of elicitor reaching a first maximum after 10-14 hr and a second maximum beyond 30 hr. Other coumarin specific, elicitor-induced enzyme activities of A. majus cells, in contrast, showed only one maximum of activity within the 50 hr experimental period, while the pattern of induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity resembled that of the prenyltransferases with maxima at ca 8 hr and 20-30 hr. Preliminary data suggest that the apparent biphasic induction of these enzyme activities is due to post-translational enzyme modifications.

  12. A sensitive magnetic nanoparticle-based immunoassay of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase using protein cage templated lead phosphate for signal amplification with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Kang, Caiyan; Yang, Enjian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-04-01

    We developed a new magnetic nanoparticle sandwich-like immunoassay using protein cage nanoparticles (PCN) for signal amplification together with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the quantification of an organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase adduct (OP-AChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and nerve agents. OP-AChE adducts were firstly captured by titanium dioxide coated magnetic nanoparticles (TiO2-MNPs) from the sample matrixes through metal chelation with phospho-moieties, and then selectively recognized by anti-AChE antibody labeled on PCN which was packed with lead phosphate in its cavity (PCN-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreaction was performed among TiO2-MNPs, OP-AChE and PCN-anti-AChE to form a TiO2-MNP/OP-AChE/PCN-anti-AChE immunocomplex. The complex could be easily isolated from the sample solution with the help of magnet, and the released lead ions from PCN were detected by GFAAS for the quantification of OP-AChE. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved because PCN increased the amount of metal ions in the cavity of each apoferritin. The proposed immunoassay yielded a linear response over a broad range of OP-AChE concentrations from 0.01 nM to 2 nM, with a detection limit of 2 pM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This new method showed an acceptable stability and reproducibility and was validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma.

  13. Sensitive magnetic nanoparticle-based immunoassay of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase using protein cage templated lead phosphate for signal amplification with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Kang, Caiyan; Yang, Enjian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new magnetic nanoparticles sandwich-like immunoassay using protein cage nanoparticles (PCN) for signal amplification together with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase adduct (OP-AChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and nerve agents. OP-AChE adducts were firstly captured by titanium dioxide coated magnetic nanoparticles (TiO2-MNPs) from the sample matrixes through metal chelation with phospho-moieties, and then selectively recognized by anti-AChE antibody labeled on PCN which was packed with lead phosphate in its cavity (PCN-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreaction was performed among TiO2-MNPs, OP-AChE and PCN-anti-AChE to form TiO2-MNPs/OP-AChE/PCN-anti-AChE immunocomplex. The complex could be easily isolated from the sample solution with the help of magnet, and the released lead ions from PCN were detected by GFAAS for the quantification of OP-AChE. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved because PCN increased the amount of metal ions in the cavity of each apoferritin. The proposed immunoassay yielded a linear response over a broad OP-AChE concentrations from 0.01 nM to 2 nM, with a detection limit of 2 pM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This new method showed an acceptable stability and reproducibility and was validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma. PMID:26953358

  14. Structure-based engineering increased the catalytic turnover rate of a novel phenazine prenyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Zocher

    Full Text Available Prenyltransferases (PTs catalyze the regioselective transfer of prenyl moieties onto aromatic substrates in biosynthetic pathways of microbial secondary metabolites. Therefore, these enzymes contribute to the chemical diversity of natural products. Prenylation is frequently essential for the pharmacological properties of these metabolites, including their antibiotic and antitumor activities. Recently, the first phenazine PTs, termed EpzP and PpzP, were isolated and biochemically characterized. The two enzymes play a central role in the biosynthesis of endophenazines by catalyzing the regiospecific prenylation of 5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylic acid (dhPCA in the secondary metabolism of two different Streptomyces strains. Here we report crystal structures of EpzP in its unliganded state as well as bound to S-thiolodiphosphate (SPP, thus defining the first three-dimensional structures for any phenazine PT. A model of a ternary complex resulted from in silico modeling of dhPCA and site-directed mutagenesis. The structural analysis provides detailed insight into the likely mechanism of phenazine prenylation. The catalytic mechanism suggested by the structure identifies amino acids that are required for catalysis. Inspection of the structures and the model of the ternary complex furthermore allowed us to rationally engineer EpzP variants with up to 14-fold higher catalytic reaction rate compared to the wild-type enzyme. This study therefore provides a solid foundation for additional enzyme modifications that should result in efficient, tailor-made biocatalysts for phenazines production.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Xanthone Prenyltransferase from Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Fiesel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In plants, prenylation of metabolites is widely distributed to generate compounds with efficient defense potential and distinct pharmacological activities profitable to human health. Prenylated compounds are formed by members of the prenyltransferase (PT superfamily, which catalyze the addition of prenyl moieties to a variety of acceptor molecules. Cell cultures of Hypericum calycinum respond to elicitor treatment with the accumulation of the prenylated xanthone hyperxanthone E. A cDNA encoding a membrane-bound PT (HcPT was isolated from a subtracted cDNA library and transcript preparations of H. calycinum. An increase in the HcPT transcript level preceded hyperxanthone E accumulation in cell cultures of H. calycinum treated with elicitor. The HcPT cDNA was functionally characterized by expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The recombinant enzyme catalyzed biosynthesis of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenylxanthone through regiospecific C–8 prenylation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone, indicating its involvement in hyperxanthone E formation. The enzymatic product shared significant structural features with the previously reported cholinesterase inhibitor γ-mangostin. Thus, our findings may offer a chance for semisynthesis of new active agents to be involved in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  16. Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    CERN Document Server

    French, M M J

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physics phenomena where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can! The background of the physics behind this is described in some detail followed by a explanation of some demonstrations and experiments which I have used.

  17. Photoactivatable Caged Prodrugs of VEGFR-2 Kinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pinchuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report on the design, synthesis, photokinetic properties and in vitro evaluation of photoactivatable caged prodrugs for the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR-2. Highly potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors 1 and 3 were caged by introduction of a photoremovable protecting group (PPG to yield the caged prodrugs 4 and 5. As expected, enzymatic and cellular proliferation assays showed dramatically diminished efficacy of caged prodrugs in vitro. Upon ultraviolet (UV irradiation of the prodrugs original inhibitory activity was completely restored and even distinctly reinforced, as was the case for the prodrug 4. The presented results are a further evidence for caging technique being an interesting approach in the protein kinase field. It could enable spatial and temporal control for the inhibition of VEGFR-2. The described photoactivatable prodrugs might be highly useful as biological probes for studying the VEGFR-2 signal transduction.

  18. Genetic encoding of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine in bacterial and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Rajendra; Luo, Ji; Liu, Jihe; Naro, Yuta; Samanta, Subhas; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-08-18

    We report the genetic incorporation of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine into proteins in bacterial and mammalian cells. The genetic code of these cells was expanded with an engineered pyrrolysine tRNA/tRNA synthetase pair that accepts both light-activatable amino acids as substrates. Incorporation was validated by reporter assays, western blots, and mass spectrometry, and differences in incorporation efficiency were explained by molecular modeling of synthetase-amino acid interactions. As a proof-of-principle application, the genetic replacement of an active-site cysteine residue with a caged cysteine residue in Renilla luciferase led to a complete loss of enzyme activity; however, upon brief exposure to UV light, a >150-fold increase in enzymatic activity was observed, thus showcasing the applicability of the caged cysteine in live human cells. A simultaneously conducted genetic replacement with homocysteine yielded an enzyme with greatly reduced activity, thereby demonstrating the precise probing of a protein active site. These discoveries provide a new tool for the optochemical control of protein function in mammalian cells and expand the set of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids.

  19. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  20. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  1. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  2. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  3. A generic strategy for pharmacological caging of growth factors for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria; Lienemann, Philipp S; Sprossmann, Natallia; Heilmann, Katharina; Brummer, Tilman; Lutolf, Matthias P; Ehrbar, Martin; Weber, Wilfried

    2013-07-01

    The caging of small molecules has revolutionized biological research by providing a means to regulate a wide range of processes. Here we report on a generic pharmacological method to cage proteins in a similar fashion. The present approach is of value in both fundamental and applied research, e.g. in tissue engineering.

  4. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  5. Triply interlocked covalent organic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasell, Tom; Wu, Xiaofeng; Jones, James T A; Bacsa, John; Steiner, Alexander; Mitra, Tamoghna; Trewin, Abbie; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-09-01

    Interlocked molecules comprise two or more separate components that are joined by 'mechanical' rather than covalent bonds. In other words, these molecular assemblies cannot be dissociated without the cleavage of one or more chemical bonds. Although recent progress has enabled the preparation of such topologies through coordination or templating interactions, three-dimensional interlocked covalent architectures remain difficult to prepare. Here, we present a template-free one-pot synthesis of triply interlocked organic cages. These 20-component dimers consist of two tetrahedral monomeric cages each built from four nodes and six linkers. The monomers exhibit axial chirality, which is recognized by their partner cage during the template-free interlocking assembly process. The dimeric cages also include two well-defined cavities per assembly, which for one of the systems studied led to the formation of a supramolecular host-guest chain. These interlocked organic molecules may prove useful as part of a toolkit for the modular construction of complex porous solids and other supramolecular assemblies.

  6. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  7. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  8. A mobile phone Faraday cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-05-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is described in some detail, and this is followed by a explanation of some demonstrations and experiments which I have used.

  9. UBIAD1 mutation alters a mitochondrial prenyltransferase to cause Schnyder corneal dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Nickerson

    Full Text Available Mutations in a novel gene, UBIAD1, were recently found to cause the autosomal dominant eye disease Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD. SCD is characterized by an abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea resulting in progressive corneal opacification and visual loss. We characterized lesions in the UBIAD1 gene in new SCD families and examined protein homology, localization, and structure.We characterized five novel mutations in the UBIAD1 gene in ten SCD families, including a first SCD family of Native American ethnicity. Examination of protein homology revealed that SCD altered amino acids which were highly conserved across species. Cell lines were established from patients including keratocytes obtained after corneal transplant surgery and lymphoblastoid cell lines from Epstein-Barr virus immortalized peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for UBIAD1 protein in keratocytes revealed that both wild type and N102S protein were localized sub-cellularly to mitochondria. Analysis of cholesterol metabolites in patient cell line extracts showed no significant alteration in the presence of mutant protein indicating a potentially novel function of the UBIAD1 protein in cholesterol biochemistry. Molecular modeling was used to develop a model of human UBIAD1 protein in a membrane and revealed potentially critical roles for amino acids mutated in SCD. Potential primary and secondary substrate binding sites were identified and docking simulations indicated likely substrates including prenyl and phenolic molecules.Accumulating evidence from the SCD familial mutation spectrum, protein homology across species, and molecular modeling suggest that protein function is likely down-regulated by SCD mutations. Mitochondrial UBIAD1 protein appears to have a highly

  10. Proteína e energia na dieta de jundiás criados em tanques-rede Protein and energy in diet for catsfish raised in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Marcela Azambuja de Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência de dois níveis de energia digestível (3.250 e 3.500 kcal kg-1 em combinação a três níveis de proteína bruta (25, 30 e 35% sobre o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia voulezi. Utilizaram-se 240 juvenis de jundiá com peso inicial de 95,55±6,70 g e 20,43±1,13 cm de comprimento total, distribuídos ao acaso em 24 tanques-rede (370 L cada em delineamento fatorial com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. O arraçoamento foi realizado quatro vezes ao dia, à vontade. Ao final do período experimental, a análise fatorial de variância evidenciou influência significativa nos parâmetros zootécnicos avaliados. Foram observados melhor ganho de peso e comprimento final médios e menor deposição de gordura visceral nos peixes alimentados com a dieta contendo 30% de proteína bruta e 3.250 kcal de energia digestível kg-1. Portanto, recomendam-se para juvenis de jundiá dietas que contenham no mínimo 30% de proteína bruta e 3.250 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de ração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two levels of digestible energy (3250 and 3500 kcal kg-1 in conjunction with three levels of crude protein (25, 30 and 35% on the productive performance of catfish (Rhamdia voulezi juveniles. Two-hundred and forty catfish juveniles with 95.55±6.70 g average weight and 20.43±1.13 cm total length were randomly assigned into twenty-four 370 L-cages, in a factorial arrangement with six treatments and four reptitions. Feeding was performed four times a day, ad libitum. At end of experimental period, the factorial analysis of variance showed significant influence with respect to the different parameters evaluated. The fish fed with diets of 30% crude protein and 3,250 kcal digestible energy kg-1 of diet presented the best results. Therefore, diets with at least 30% crude protein and 3,250 kcal digestible energy kg-1 are recommend for catfish

  11. Transcription regulatory networks analysis using CAGE

    KAUST Repository

    Tegnér, Jesper N.

    2009-10-01

    Mapping out cellular networks in general and transcriptional networks in particular has proved to be a bottle-neck hampering our understanding of biological processes. Integrative approaches fusing computational and experimental technologies for decoding transcriptional networks at a high level of resolution is therefore of uttermost importance. Yet, this is challenging since the control of gene expression in eukaryotes is a complex multi-level process influenced by several epigenetic factors and the fine interplay between regulatory proteins and the promoter structure governing the combinatorial regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we review how the CAGE data can be integrated with other measurements such as expression, physical interactions and computational prediction of regulatory motifs, which together can provide a genome-wide picture of eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks at a new level of resolution. © 2010 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regiospecificities and Prenylation Mode Specificities of the Fungal Indole Diterpene Prenyltransferases AtmD and PaxD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengwei; Minami, Atsushi; Noike, Motoyoshi; Toshima, Hiroaki; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported the function of paxD, which is involved in the paxilline (compound 1) biosynthetic gene cluster in Penicillium paxilli. Recombinant PaxD catalyzed a stepwise regular-type diprenylation at the 21 and 22 positions of compound 1 with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) as the prenyl donor. In this study, atmD, which is located in the aflatrem (compound 2) biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus flavus and encodes an enzyme with 32% amino acid identity to PaxD, was characterized using recombinant enzyme. When compound 1 and DMAPP were used as substrates, two major products and a trace of minor product were formed. The structures of the two major products were determined to be reversely monoprenylated compound 1 at either the 20 or 21 position. Because compound 2 and β-aflatrem (compound 3), both of which are compound 1-related compounds produced by A. flavus, have the same prenyl moiety at the 20 and 21 position, respectively, AtmD should catalyze the prenylation in compound 2 and 3 biosynthesis. More importantly and surprisingly, AtmD accepted paspaline (compound 4), which is an intermediate of compound 1 biosynthesis that has a structure similar to that of compound 1, and catalyzed a regular monoprenylation of compound 4 at either the 21 or 22 position, though the reverse prenylation was observed with compound 1. This suggests that fungal indole diterpene prenyltransferases have the potential to alter their position and regular/reverse specificities for prenylation and could be applicable for the synthesis of industrially useful compounds. PMID:24038699

  13. The caged state of some small molecules in the C60 cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The potential energy curves of some small molecules, H2, N2, O2, F2, HF, CO and NO, in the caged state within C60 cage and in the free state have been calculated by the quantum-chemical method AM1. In this study, the focus is on the cage effect of C60, and the concept of caged state is put forward. The results show that the bond lengths in the caged states are not much different from those in their corresponding free states, but the bond intensities in the caged states are much greater than those in their corresponding free states.

  14. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  15. Proteína e energia na alimentação de pacus criados em tanques-rede Protein and energy on food of pacu fish raised in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus criados em tanques-rede e alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de proteína bruta (PB e energia digestível (ED. Foram utilizados 3.960 peixes com 293,38 ± 5,67 g de peso inicial, distribuídos em 18 tanques-rede de 5 m³, com 220 peixes por unidade experimental (44 peixes/m³, em esquema fatorial 3 × 2, composto de três níveis de proteína bruta (25, 30 e 35% e dois de energia digestível (3.250 e 3.500 kcal/kg. O arraçoamento foi realizado quatro vezes ao dia (às 9 h, 11h30min, 14 h e 17 h até a saciedade aparente dos animais. Não foram observadas diferenças no ganho de peso, na taxa de sobrevivência, na conversão alimentar aparente nem na taxa de crescimento específico. No entanto, houve diferença na deposição de gordura visceral, que foi maior nos animais alimentados com as rações de maior nível energético. Também não foi observada influência dos níveis de proteína e energia da dieta nos teores de umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e lipídio dos filés. Rações contendo 25% de proteína bruta e 3.250 kcal/kg de energia digestível promovem melhores resultados de desempenho.The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus raised in cages and fed diets containing levels of crude protein (CP and digestible energy (DE. It was used 3.960 fish with an average initial weight of 293.38 ± 5.67 g, distributed in 18 net-ponds with 5 m³, with 220 fish per experimental unit (44 fish/m³ in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme composed of three levels of crude protein (25, 30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3,250 and 3,500 kcal/kg. Feeding was performed four times a day (9:00 a.m., 11:30 a.m., 2:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. until apparent satiety of the animals. No differences were observed for weight gain, survival rate, apparent feed conversion and specific growing rate. Nevertheless, there was a

  16. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J. [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Otter, Wouter K. den, E-mail: w.k.denotter@utwente.nl [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Multi Scale Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  17. Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Ioana M; den Otter, Wouter K; Briels, Wim J

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  18. Furnished cage system and hen well-being: Comparative effects of furnished cages and battery cages on behavioral exhibitions in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-08-01

    The battery cage system is being banned in the European Union before or by 2012, and the furnished cage system will be the only cage system allowed after 2012. This study was conducted to examine the different effects of caging systems, furnished cages vs. battery cages, on bird behaviors. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 White Leghorn chicks were reared using standard management practices in raised wire cages. At 19 wk of age, the birds were randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm(2) of floor space per birds. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with a concealment curtain. Based on the company recommendations, 10 birds were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm(2) of floor space per bird. Behavioral observations were conducted using the Noldus Observer software package. The birds were observed at 5-min intervals for the entire light period. The birds housed in battery cages had higher posture and behavioral transitions and increased time spent walking and performing exploratory behavior (P cages had higher levels of preening (P cages may be a favorable alternative system for housing birds by allowing them to perform certain natural behaviors.

  19. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand

  20. Structure of nanoscale truncated octahedral DNA cages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto; Juul, Sissel; Jørgensen, Hanne Laerke

    2010-01-01

    . The structures assemble with a high efficiency in a one-step procedure, compared to previously published structures of similar complexity. The structures of the cages were determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. With increasing linker length, there is a systematic increase of the cage size and decrease...

  1. Particle cage dynamics in flowing colloidal dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenne, Stephanie; Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2016-11-01

    The idea of the particle in a suspension at rest being trapped in a cage formed by its neighbors, widely used to understand glassy suspensions, has been applied to freely flowing suspensions. Stokesian Dynamics, a discrete particle simulation, is used to simulate the flow of monodisperse colloidal hard sphere suspensions. The cage analogy is useful to study the nonlinear stress in the material during start-up of shear flow, where the neighbor cage deforms and breaks, and during oscillatory shear flow where, depending on the amplitude of oscillation, the particle is trapped inside the cage or escapes during the oscillation cycle. A precise statistical definition of the cage in terms of the nearest neighbor ring in the pair distribution function is developed. We examine the dependence of the cage dynamics on the volume fraction of particles and the Peclet number Pe , the ratio between shear and Brownian forces. Under flow, the cage is found to break at quite definite positions, and the structural distortion is found to be clearly related to the shear and normal stress response. The shear strain needed to break the neighbor cage depends on Pe as Brownian motion enhances the total deformation. A simple model captures the strain at the stress overshoot for start-up of steady shear.

  2. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand L

  3. Synthesis, Chemistry, and Applications of Heterocyclic Cage Compounds (V)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The synthesis and chemistry of polycyclic of cage compounds have attracted considerable attention in recent years. The vast majority of the work reported in this area has dealt with carbocylic cage compounds. On the other hand, the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds have received less attention. Recently, we envisioned that studies on the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds can greatly expand the scopes and utilities of cage compounds.1 As part of a program that involves the synthesis, chemistry, and application of heterocyclic cage compounds, we report here the synthesis of new thia-oxa-cage compounds and the chemical nature of these thia-cages.

  4. Some exclusion cages do not exclude predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. C. C. Ameixa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Exclusion techniques, such as cages, are the most frequently used means of evaluating the efficiency of natural enemies in suppressing the abundance of their prey. The growth rates and peak densities of aphid populations within cages are usually larger than those in uncaged populations. However, cages change the microenvironment and prevent aphids from emigrating. Attempts were made to avoid the change in the microenvironment by using cages with a large (8 mm mesh. Here we test the hypothesis that because of the large mesh size, predators can easily penetrate into such cages during an experiment. Our results have shown that cages with a large (8 mm mesh size do not prevent predators from entering the cages and therefore cannot be used as “exclusion cages” for measuring the effect of predators on aphid numbers. Other methods of assessing the effectiveness of natural enemies in reducing the abundance of their prey, like removing the predators or direct observations, should be used instead.

  5. Structure of Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase-I from the Human Pathogen Candida albicans Complexed with a Lipid Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hast, Michael A.; Beese, Lorena S. (Duke)

    2008-11-21

    Protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) catalyzes the transfer of a 20-carbon isoprenoid lipid to the sulfur of a cysteine residue located near the C terminus of numerous cellular proteins, including members of the Rho superfamily of small GTPases and other essential signal transduction proteins. In humans, GGTase-I and the homologous protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) are targets of anticancer therapeutics because of the role small GTPases play in oncogenesis. Protein prenyltransferases are also essential for many fungal and protozoan pathogens that infect humans, and have therefore become important targets for treating infectious diseases. Candida albicans, a causative agent of systemic fungal infections in immunocompromised individuals, is one pathogen for which protein prenylation is essential for survival. Here we present the crystal structure of GGTase-I from C. albicans (CaGGTase-I) in complex with its cognate lipid substrate, geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. This structure provides a high-resolution picture of a non-mammalian protein prenyltransferase. There are significant variations between species in critical areas of the active site, including the isoprenoid-binding pocket, as well as the putative product exit groove. These differences indicate the regions where specific protein prenyltransferase inhibitors with antifungal activity can be designed.

  6. Active cage model of glassy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Étienne; Hayakawa, Hisao; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    We build up a phenomenological picture in terms of the effective dynamics of a tracer confined in a cage experiencing random hops to capture some characteristics of glassy systems. This minimal description exhibits scale invariance properties for the small-displacement distribution that echo experimental observations. We predict the existence of exponential tails as a crossover between two Gaussian regimes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the onset of glassy behavior is controlled only by two dimensionless numbers: the number of hops occurring during the relaxation of the particle within a local cage and the ratio of the hopping length to the cage size.

  7. Structural basis for non-genuine phenolic acceptor substrate specificity of Streptomyces roseochromogenes prenyltransferase CloQ from the ABBA/PT-barrel superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Martens, Bianca; Schaftenaar, Gijs; Leipoldt, Franziska; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Acceptor substrate specificity of Streptomyces roseochromogenes prenyltransferase SrCloQ was investigated using different non-genuine phenolic compounds. RP-UHPLC-UV-MSn was used for the tentative annotation and quantification of the prenylated products. Flavonoids, isoflavonoids and stilbenoids with different types of substitution were prenylated by SrCloQ, although with less efficiency than the genuine substrate 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The isoflavan equol, followed by the flavone 7,4’-dihydroxyflavone, were the best non-genuine acceptor substrates. B-ring C-prenylation was in general preferred over A-ring C-prenylation (ratio 5:1). Docking studies of non-genuine acceptor substrates with the B-ring oriented towards the donor substrate dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, showed that the carbonyl group of the C-ring was able to make stabilizing interactions with the residue Arg160, which might determine the preference observed for B-ring prenylation. No reaction products were formed when the acceptor substrate had no phenolic hydroxyl groups. This preference can be explained by the essential hydrogen bond needed between a phenolic hydroxyl group and the residue Glu281. Acceptor substrates with an additional hydroxyl group at the C3’ position (B-ring), were mainly O3’-prenylated (> 80% of the reaction products). This can be explained by the proximity of the C3’ hydroxyl group to the donor substrate at the catalytic site. Flavones were preferred over isoflavones by SrCloQ. Docking studies suggested that the orientation of the B-ring and of the phenolic hydroxyl group at position C7 (A-ring) of flavones towards the residue Tyr233 plays an important role in this observed preference. Finally, the insights obtained on acceptor substrate specificity and regioselectivity for SrCloQ were extended to other prenyltransferases from the CloQ/NhpB family. PMID:28355308

  8. Working papers cage Mod 2A definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, L.D.

    1969-01-30

    This report presents working papers for the Cage Mod 2A program. Cost data are presented for manpower, irradiation, nuclear fuels and targets, security, transportation, reactor start-up and reactor shutdown.

  9. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  10. NMR Evidence of Cage-to-Cage Diffusion of H2 in H2-Clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Lasitha; Conradi, Mark

    2008-03-01

    H2 and heavy-ice at P>1 kbar and T ˜250 K form H2-D2O clathrate; four and one H2 may occupy each large (L) and small (S) cage, respectively. In H2-THF-H2O clathrate, H2 occupies singly and only S cages. Previous electronic-structure calculations estimate the barriers for H2 passage though hexagonal and pentagonal faces of cages as ˜6 and ˜25 kcal/mol, respectively. Our H2 NMR linewidth data reflect random crystal fields from frozen cage-wall D2O orientations. We find dramatic reductions in linewidth starting at 120 K (175 K) for H2-D2O (H2-TDF-D2O) indicating time-averaging of the crystal fields. Assuming Arrhenius behavior, our data imply energies for escape from L (S) cages of about ˜4 (˜6) kcal/mol. For L cages, the agreement with the calculated (cages were treated as rigid) barrier is reasonable. For H2 in S cages, in H2-TDF-D2O, the extreme disagreement with theory points to another mechanism of time-averaging, reorientations of the cage-wall D2O molecules, as suggested by previous work in TDH-H2O clathrate. Our limited NMR spectra at high T ˜145 K in H2-D2O show evidence of distinct resonances from diffusionally mobile and immobile H2 molecules, as expected.

  11. Self-Assembled Pyridine-Dipyrrolate Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huacheng; Lee, Juhoon; Lammer, Aaron D; Chi, Xiaodong; Brewster, James T; Lynch, Vincent M; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhan; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-04-06

    An inherently nonlinear pyridine dipyrrolate ligand, namely 2,6-bis(3,4-diethyl-5-carboxy-1H-pyrrol-2yl)pyridine (compound 1), is able to distinguish between different zinc(II) cation sources, namely Zn(acac)2 and Zn(OAc)2, respectively. This differentiation is manifest both in terms of the observed fluorescent behavior in mixed organic media and the reaction chemistry. Treatment of 1 with Zn(acac)2 gives rise to a cage dimer, cage-1, wherein two molecules of compound 1 act as double bridging units to connect two individual cage subunits. As inferred from X-ray crystallographic studies, this cage system consists of discrete zinc dimers with hydroxide bridges that, with the assistance of bound DMF solvent molecules, serve to fix the geometry and orientation of the pyridine dipyrrolate building blocks. When a different zinc source, Zn(OAc)2, is used to carry out an ostensibly similar complexation reaction with compound 1, an acetate-bridged 1D abacus-like cage polymer is obtained as inferred from X-ray diffraction analysis. This extended solid state structure, cage-2, contains individual zinc dimer cage submits and appears stabilized by solvent molecules (DMF) and the counteranion (acetate). Rod-like assemblies are also observed by DLS and SEM. This construct, in contrast to cage-1, proved fluorescent in mixed organic media. The structure of the ligand itself (i.e., in the absence of Zn(II)) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and was found to assemble into a supramolecular polymer. Conversion to a dimer form was seen upon the addition of TBAOAc. On the basis of the metric parameters, the structures seen in the solid state are stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions involving solvent molecules.

  12. Provision Of Carbon Nanotube Bucky Paper Cages For Immune Shielding Of Cells, Tissues, and Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, David J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method for enclosing cells and/or tissue, for purposes of growth, cell differentiation, suppression of cell differentiation, biological processing and/or transplantation of cells and tissues (biological inserts), and for secretion, sensing and monitoring of selected chemical substances and activation of gene expression of biological inserts implanted into a human body. Selected cells and/or tissue are enveloped in a "cage" that is primarily carbon nanotube Bucky paper, with a selected thickness and porosity. Optionally, selected functional groups, proteins and/or peptides are attached to the carbon nanotube cage, or included within the cage, to enhance the growth and/or differentiation of the cells and/or tissue, to select for certain cellular sub-populations, to optimize certain functions of the cells and/or tissue and/or to optimize the passage of chemicals across the cage surface(s). A cage system is also used as an immuns shield and to control operation of a nano-device or macroscopic device, located within the cage, to provide or transform a selected chemical and/or a selected signal.

  13. Photochemical Modulation of Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction using Caged Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors: Activation via One- and Two-Photon Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Warmka, Janel K.; Dore, Timothy M.; Blank, David A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The creation of caged molecules involves the attachment of protecting groups to biologically active compounds such as ligands, substrates, and drugs that can be removed under specific conditions. Photoremovable caging groups are the most common due to their ability to be removed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, the synthesis and photochemistry of a caged inhibitor of protein farnesyltransferase, Bhc-FTI, is described. The inhibitor was caged by alkylation of a critical thiol functional group with a Bhc moiety; while Bhc is well established as a protecting group for carboxylates and phosphates, it has not been extensively used to cage sulfhydryls. The resulting caged molecule, Bhc-FTI, can be photolyzed with UV light to release the inhibitor (FTI) that prevents Ras farnesylation, Ras membrane localization and downstream signaling. Finally, it is shown that Bhc-FTI can be uncaged by two-photon excitation to produce FTI at levels sufficient to inhibit Ras localization and alter cell morphology. Given the widespread involvement of Ras proteins in signal transduction pathways, this caged inhibitor should be useful in a plethora of studies. PMID:22492666

  14. Photochemical modulation of Ras-mediated signal transduction using caged farnesyltransferase inhibitors: activation by one- and two-photon excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Ochocki, Joshua D; Warmka, Janel K; Dore, Timothy M; Blank, David A; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Distefano, Mark D

    2012-05-07

    The creation of caged molecules involves the attachment of protecting groups to biologically active compounds such as ligands, substrates and drugs that can be removed under specific conditions. Photoremovable caging groups are the most common due to their ability to be removed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, the synthesis and photochemistry of a caged inhibitor of protein farnesyltransferase is described. The inhibitor, FTI, was caged by alkylation of a critical thiol group with a bromohydroxycoumarin (Bhc) moiety. While Bhc is well established as a protecting group for carboxylates and phosphates, it has not been extensively used to cage sulfhydryl groups. The resulting caged molecule, Bhc-FTI, can be photolyzed with UV light to release the inhibitor that prevents Ras farnesylation, Ras membrane localization and downstream signaling. Finally, it is shown that Bhc-FTI can be uncaged by two-photon excitation to produce FTI at levels sufficient to inhibit Ras localization and alter cell morphology. Given the widespread involvement of Ras proteins in signal transduction pathways, this caged inhibitor should be useful in a plethora of studies.

  15. Usefulness of the "CAGE" in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, S K

    1995-04-01

    This study examines the usefulness of the "CAGE", (which is an acronym for "cut down", "annoyed", "guilty" and "eye-opener"), a 4-question screening test to identify excessive drinkers among Malaysian inpatients. The CAGE questionnaire after translation and back translation was administered to all inpatients in the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The author interviewed 'blindly' all who score positive on the CAGE score and 10% of all negatives using the DSM III interview schedule for alcohol abuse dependence. The results show that the CAGE performs best at a cut-off point of 2 and above, with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 62%, positive predictive values of 38% and Kappa (K) of 0.37 with a DSM III R diagnosis for alcohol abuse/dependence. The poor agreement with a DSM III diagnosis indicates that the CAGE is not useful in the Malaysian population. Reasons suggested for this are: cultural factors in the Malaysian population resulting in the overrating of the question of 'guilt' by Muslims and translations into the local languages which are only the closest approximations.

  16. Temperature dependence of polyhedral cage volumes in clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Rawn, C.J.; Rondinone, A.J.; Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Ishii, Y.; Jones, C.Y.; Toby, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The polyhedral cage volumes of structure I (sI) (carbon dioxide, methane, trimethylene oxide) and structure II (sII) (methane-ethane, propane, tetrahydrofuran, trimethylene oxide) hydrates are computed from atomic positions determined from neutron powder-diffraction data. The ideal structural formulas for sI and sII are, respectively, S2L6 ?? 46H2O and S16L???8 ?? 136H2O, where S denotes a polyhedral cage with 20 vertices, L a 24-cage, and L??? a 28-cage. The space-filling polyhedral cages are defined by the oxygen atoms of the hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Collectively, the mean cage volume ratio is 1.91 : 1.43 : 1 for the 28-cage : 24-cage : 20-cage, which correspond to equivalent sphere radii of 4.18, 3.79, and 3.37 A??, respectively. At 100 K, mean polyhedral volumes are 303.8, 227.8, and 158.8 A??3 for the 28-cage, 24-cage, and 20-cage, respectively. In general, the 20-cage volume for a sII is larger than that of a sI, although trimethylene oxide is an exception. The temperature dependence of the cage volumes reveals differences between apparently similar cages with similar occupants. In the case of trimethylene oxide hydrate, which forms both sI and sII, the 20-cages common to both structures contract quite differently. From 220 K, the sII 20-cage exhibits a smooth monotonic reduction in size, whereas the sI 20-cage initially expands upon cooling to 160 K, then contracts more rapidly to 10 K, and overall the sI 20-cage is larger than the sII 20-cage. The volumes of the large cages in both structures contract monotonically with decreasing temperature. These differences reflect reoriented motion of the trimethyelene oxide molecule in the 24-cage of sI, consistent with previous spectroscopic and calorimetric studies. For the 20-cages in methane hydrate (sI) and a mixed methane-ethane hydrate (sII), both containing methane as the guest molecule, the temperature dependence of the 20-cage volume in sII is much less than that in sI, but sII is overall

  17. Rate constant and reaction coordinate of Trp-cage folding in explicit water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juraszek, J.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    We report rate constant calculations and a reaction coordinate analysis of the rate-limiting folding and unfolding process of the Trp-cage mini-protein in explicit solvent using transition interface sampling. Previous transition path sampling simulations revealed that in this (un)folding process the

  18. High-throughput Transcriptome analysis, CAGE and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2008-11-25

    1. Current research - PhD work on discovery of new allergens - Postdoctoral work on Transcriptional Start Sites a) Tag based technologies allow higher throughput b) CAGE technology to define promoters c) CAGE data analysis to understand Transcription - Wo

  19. Synthesis, Chemistry, and Applications of Heterocyclic Cage Compounds (V)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Hsien-Jen

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis and chemistry of polycyclic of cage compounds have attracted considerable attention in recent years. The vast majority of the work reported in this area has dealt with carbocylic cage compounds. On the other hand, the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds have received less attention. Recently, we envisioned that studies on the synthesis and chemistry of heterocyclic cage compounds can greatly expand the scopes and utilities of cage compounds.1 As part of a program that involves the synthesis, chemistry, and application of heterocyclic cage compounds, we report here the synthesis of new thia-oxa-cage compounds and the chemical nature of these thia-cages.  ……

  20. Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Disulfide Cages in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Kevin R.; Bake, Kyle D.; Otto, Sijbren

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) containing water-soluble disulfide-linked cages (alongside macrocyclic structures) have been generated and characterized. Unlike most other strategies for generating molecular cages, the structures are held together by covalent bonds, which are formed under

  1. Mutation on Gly115 and Tyr205 of the cyclic dipeptide C2-prenyltransferase FtmPT1 increases its catalytic activity toward hydroxynaphthalenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Fan, Aili; Tarcz, Sylwia; Zhou, Kang; Yin, Wen-Bing; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Li, Shu-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The fungal cyclic dipeptide prenyltransferase FtmPT1 from Aspergillus fumigatus catalyzes a regular C2-prenylation of brevianamide F (cyclo-L-Trp-L-Pro) and is involved in the biosynthesis of a number of biologically active natural products including tryprostatins, spirotryprostatins, verruculogen, and fumitremorgins. FtmPT1, like other members of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase superfamily, was shown to have high substrate promiscuity for tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides and a few other aromatic substrates. A previous study demonstrated the acceptance of 1-naphthol by FtmPT1, but with very low product yield. In this study, we report the significantly increased acceptance of 1-naphthol and other hydroxynaphthalenes by FtmPT1_G115A and six FtmPT1_Y205X single mutants as well as FtmPT1_G115A_Y205C. These results provided an example for creation of biocatalysts with improved catalytic activity by site-directed mutagenesis.

  2. Growth and stress of dourado cultivated in cages at different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Braun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and the stress levels of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis cultivated in cages. Fish stocked at densities of 15 (D15 and 30 (D30 fish per square meter were evaluated in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Fish were fed twice a day with extruded ration (42% crude protein. Density influenced only biomass and daily food intake, and glucose and lactate concentrations increased over time. D15 and D30 did not influence the growth of dourado. However, the increase of glucose and lactate levels over time indicates that cultivation in cages is a stressful condition for this species.

  3. Busting out of the Teacher Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    The author lays out guidelines and suggestions for how teachers can actually become policy leaders, taken from his book, "The Cage-Busting Teacher" (Harvard Education Press, 2015). Teachers serious about leadership can get the ear of policy makers by leveraging their positional and moral authority--though they may need to be persistent…

  4. Systemic listeriosis in caged Canaries (Serinus canarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Akanbi, Olatunde B; Breithaupt, Angele; Polster, Ulf; Alter, Thomas; Quandt, Anette; Bracke, Andreas; Teifke, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of listeriosis in 12 caged canaries is described where 50 % of the birds including the female and all the offspring died within two weeks without clinical signs. At necropsy, multifocal necrotising and partly granulomatous hepatitis, splenitis, myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, and exudative pericarditis with intralesional Listeria monocytogenes were the predominant findings as shown by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Microbiology, serology ...

  5. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  6. Resonance spectra of caged black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that {\\it confined} scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region $x_{\\text{m}}\\equiv (r_{\\text{m}}-r_+)/r_+\\ll\\tau\\equiv (r_+-r_-)/r_+$ (here $r_{\\text{m}}$ is the radius of the confining mirror and $r_{\\pm}$ are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system: $\\omega_n=-i2\\pi T_{\\text{BH}}\\cdot n[1+O(x^n_{\\text{m}}/\\tau^n)]$, where $T_{\\text{BH}}$ is the temperature of the caged black...

  7. A caged substrate peptide for matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaneto, Elena; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Heise, Inge; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Viappiani, Cristiano; Knipp, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Based on the widely applied fluorogenic peptide FS-6 (Mca-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2; Mca = methoxycoumarin-4-acetyl; Dpa = N-3-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)l-α,β-diaminopropionyl) a caged substrate peptide Ac-Lys-Pro-Leu-Gly-Lys*-Lys-Ala-Arg-NH2 (*, position of the cage group) for matrix metalloproteinases was synthesized and characterized. The synthesis implies the modification of a carbamidated lysine side-chain amine with a photocleavable 2-nitrobenzyl group. Mass spectrometry upon UV irradiation demonstrated the complete photolytic cleavage of the protecting group. Time-resolved laser-flash photolysis at 355 nm in combination with transient absorption spectroscopy determined the biphasic decomposition with τa = 171 ± 3 ms (79%) and τb = 2.9 ± 0.2 ms (21%) at pH 6.0 of the photo induced release of the 2-nitrobenzyl group. The recombinantly expressed catalytic domain of human membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) was used to determine the hydrolysis efficiency of the caged peptide before and after photolysis. It turned out that the cage group sufficiently shields the peptide from peptidase activity, which can be thus controlled by UV light.

  8. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  9. Resonance spectra of caged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that confined scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region x{sub m} ≡ (r{sub m} - r{sub +})/r{sub +} << τ ≡ (r{sub +} - r{sub -})/r{sub +} (here r{sub m} is the radius of the confining mirror and r{sub ±} are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled blackhole- field-cage system: ω{sub n} = -2πT{sub BH}.n [1 + O(x{sub m}{sup n}/τ{sup n})], where T{sub BH} is the temperature of the caged black hole and n = 1, 2, 3,.. is the resonance parameter. (orig.)

  10. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-free 1-888-352-9333); (B) The on-line access to the CAGE file through the Defense Logistics Information System; (C) The on-line access to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) CAGE file through the DLA Network or....39-M, Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual, prescribe use of CAGE codes. (b...

  11. Laying Performance of Wareng Chicken under Free Choice Feeding and Different Cage Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using free choice feeding technique under different cage density for unselected native chicken. Eighty hens of laying Wareng chicken were divided into two feeding systems. Half of them were fed complete commercial diet of 17% crude protein, with 2800 kcal ME/kg and the other half were subjected to free choice diet. The diets were in mash form and placed in sufficient feed troughs in front of each cage. Each cage was occupied by four or six hens. Free choice feeding hens were served with commercial concentrate (30% crude protein, ground corn and oyster shell, placed separately in feed troughs. Observation was carried out during 24 weeks laying period, starting from 20 to 44 weeks of age. The results showed that egg production (9.35% hen day, and the intake of feed (42.74 g/day, protein (7.01 g/day, energy (116.6 kcal ME/day, calcium (1.99 g/day and phosphorus (0.22 g/day were not affected (P>0.05 by feeding system nor by cage density. The results however indicated that free choice feeding technique provided sufficient nutrients in supporting maximum egg production of unselected native chicken.

  12. Multielectrode machine for making the cages of bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, F.I.; Arkov, V.G.; Boldyrev, A.F.; Sharenko, D.G.; Zhidkov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic multielectrode machine for making wire cages with an internal spiral. The machine automatically produces an endless cage from wire, joins the wires by multiple spot contact welding, and cuts it into pieces of desired length. The machine is illustrated and the method of making wire cages is demonstrated. The cages are used in bag filters of gas-cleaning systems. The machine can be used to form cages of 130-mm diameter from wires of 3-mm diameter. It is easy to operate and has a high output rate of 90m/h.

  13. Effect of number of birds per cage on poultry behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Klecker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this ethological experiment was to study the effect of decreasing numbers of hens kept in cages on changes in their behaviour. The numbers of hens were reduced from three to two and one bird per cage and the results of ethological observations were as follows: in cages with three birds the behaviour of hens was relatively normal and corresponded with behaviour patterns observed in cage technologies. A reduction to two hens per cage increased their fighting activities because one of them struggled for a dominant position so that the performance of subordinated hen was usually decreased. Individual rearing resulted in attenuated feeding activities, reduction of motivation behaviour.

  14. Comparison between Two Different Cervical Interbody Fusion Cages in One Level Stand-alone ACDF: Carbon Fiber Composite Frame Cage Versus Polyetheretherketone Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Wook-Ha; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2014-09-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective study to compare the implantation of carbon fiber composite frame cages (CFCFCs) to the implantation of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages after anterior cervical discectomy for cervical degenerative disc disease. In addition, the predictive factors that influenced fusion or subsidence were investigated. A total of 58 patients with single-level degenerative disc disease were treated with anterior cervical discectomy and implantation of stand-alone cages; CFCFCs were used in 35 patients, and PEEK cages were used in 23 patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiological and clinical assessments were performed. During the mean follow-up period of 41 months, fusion occurred in 43 patients (74.1%), and subsidence developed in 18 patients (31.0%). Pain decreased in all patients, and the patients' satisfaction rate was 75.9%. Neither fusion nor subsidence was related to the clinical outcome. There were no significant differences in the clinical and radiological outcomes between the CFCFC and the PEEK cage groups. Smoking history (p=0.023) was significantly associated with pseudarthrosis, and cage height (≥7mm) (p=0.037) were significantly associated with subsidence. The clinical and radiological results were similar between the CFCFC and the PEEK cage groups. Fusion or subsidence did not affect the clinical outcomes. Smoking history and cage height (≥7mm) were predictive factors for pseudarthrosis or subsidence in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with stand-alone cages.

  15. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,R.R.M.; de Araújo, F. O.; J. A. P. da Costa; Brandim,A.S.; R. A. de Brito; C. Alves

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN), in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and...

  16. On metallic clusters squeezed in atomic cages

    CERN Document Server

    Apostol, M

    1996-01-01

    The stability of metallic clusters of sodium (Na) in the octahedral cages of Na-doped fullerites Na6C60 and Na11C60 is discussed within a Thomas-Fermi model. It is shown that the tetrahedral Na4-cluster in Na6C60 has an electric charge of cca. +2.7 (in electron charge units), while the body-centered cubic Na9-cluster in Na11C60 is almost electrically neutral.

  17. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  18. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2016-07-27

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  19. Adsorption. Cage molecules to pick up the pollutants; Adsorption. Des molecules cages pour capter les polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-12-01

    The cyclo-dextrins have the property to be cage molecules, that is to say they are able to shut up organic molecules in their structure. To use them in remedial action against pollution it is necessary to find a support on which they can be grafted. The Laboratory of organic chemistry and macromolecules from the University of Sciences and Technologies of Lilles is looking for this. The researchers have used a textile material in non weaved polypropylene, a support chemically steady that resists to aggressive media such polluted effluents. To graft the cage molecule, the technique of electrons bombing has been chosen. It produces a monomer (methacrylate of glycidyl) that allows to have a tissue bearer of epoxide functions susceptible to react with the cyclo-dextrin. The studies are continued in particular to valid the use of cage molecules on the dioxin and pesticides, and also to adapt the filter to gaseous media (volatile organic compounds, smells). (N.C.)

  20. Multi-responsive metal-organic lantern cages in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brega, Valentina; Zeller, Matthias; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter; Klosterman, Jeremy K

    2015-03-25

    Soluble copper-based M4L4 lantern-type metal-organic cages bearing internal amines were synthesized. The solution state integrity of the paramagnetic metal-organic cages was demonstrated using NMR, DLS, MS, and AFM spectroscopy. 1D supramolecular pillars of pre-formed cages or covalent host-guest complexes selectively formed upon treatment with 4,4'-bipyridine and acetic anhydride, respectively.

  1. Systemic listeriosis in caged canaries (Serinus canarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olatunde B; Breithaupt, Angele; Polster, Ulf; Alter, Thomas; Quandt, Anette; Bracke, Andreas; Teifke, Jens P

    2008-06-01

    The occurrence of listeriosis in 12 caged canaries is described where 50% of the birds, including the female and all of the offspring, died within 2 weeks without clinical signs. At necropsy, multifocal necrotizing and partly granulomatous hepatitis, splenitis, myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, and exudative pericarditis with intra-lesional Listeria monocytogenes were the predominant findings as shown by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Microbiology, serology and polymerase chain reaction revealed L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a as the causative agent. Thus listeriosis has to be considered in the differential diagnosis for granulomas associated with mycobacteriosis, yersiniosis, coligranulomatosis or fungal infections.

  2. Control of an Unusual Photo-Claisen Rearrangement in Coumarin Caged Tamoxifen through an Extended Spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pamela T; Roberts, Edward W; Tang, Shengzhuang; Mukherjee, Jhindan; Cannon, Jayme; Nip, Alyssa J; Corbin, Kaitlin; Krummel, Matthew F; Choi, Seok Ki

    2017-02-17

    The use of coumarin caged molecules has been well documented in numerous photocaging applications including for the spatiotemporal control of Cre-estrogen receptor (Cre-ERT2) recombinase activity. In this article, we report that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) caged with coumarin via a conventional ether linkage led to an unexpected photo-Claisen rearrangement which significantly competed with the release of free 4OHT. The basis for this unwanted reaction appears to be related to the coumarin structure and its radical-based mechanism of uncaging, as it did not occur in ortho-nitrobenzyl (ONB) caged 4OHT that was otherwise linked in the same manner. In an effort to perform design optimization, we introduced a self-immolative linker longer than the ether linkage and identified an optimal linker which allowed rapid 4OHT release by both single-photon and two-photon absorption mechanisms. The ability of this construct to actively control Cre-ERT2 mediated gene modifications was investigated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in which the expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter dependent gene recombination was controlled by 4OHT release and measured by confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In summary, we report the implications of this photo-Claisen rearrangement in coumarin caged compounds and demonstrate a rational linker strategy for addressing this unwanted side reaction.

  3. Evaluation of alkyne-modified isoprenoids as chemical reporters of protein prenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraw, Amanda J; Palsuledesai, Charuta; Ochocki, Joshua D; Dozier, Jonathan K; Lenevich, Stepan; Rashidian, Mohammad; Distefano, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Protein prenyltransferases catalyze the attachment of C15 (farnesyl) and C20 (geranylgeranyl) groups to proteins at specific sequences localized at or near the C-termini of specific proteins. Determination of the specific protein prenyltransferase substrates affected by the inhibition of these enzymes is critical for enhancing knowledge of the mechanism of such potential drugs. Here, we investigate the utility of alkyne-containing isoprenoid analogs for chemical proteomics experiments by showing that these compounds readily penetrate mammalian cells in culture and become incorporated into proteins that are normally prenylated. Derivatization via Cu(I) catalyzed click reaction with a fluorescent azide reagent allows the proteins to be visualized and their relative levels to be analyzed. Simultaneous treatment of cells with these probes and inhibitors of prenylation reveals decreases in the levels of some but not all of the labeled proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoretic separation of these labeled proteins followed by mass spectrometric analysis allowed several labeled proteins to be unambiguously identified. Docking experiments and density functional theory calculations suggest that the substrate specificity of protein farnesyl transferase may vary depending on whether azide- or alkyne-based isoprenoid analogs is employed. These results demonstrate the utility of alkyne-containing analogs for chemical proteomic applications.

  4. Effect of cage configuration in structural and optical properties of tin films grown by cathodic cage discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Freitas Daudt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathodic cage discharge was developed recently in order to eliminate phenomena as edge effect and overheating, which occurs during conventional processes. In this study, the effect of cage configuration in active species during the deposition process and optical properties of TiN film were studied. TiN compound was chosen because its optical properties are very sensitive to slight variations in microstructure and film thickness, becoming a good monitoring tool in fabrication process control. Cages were made of titanium and have different holes numbers and holes diameter. Electrical efficiency of the system and optical properties of TiN films were strongly influenced by experimental conditions. It was found that with more holes at the top of cage, deposition rate and crystallinity were higher, if compared to cages with a small number of holes at the top. On the other hand, the opposite behavior was observed when more holes were located at the sidewall of cage.

  5. Utilisation of dried caged-hen manure and cassava peels for intensive sheep production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeudo, N J; Adegbola, A A

    1993-11-01

    Twenty grower ewes with an average weight of 14.3 +/- 3.7 kg were allotted to 5 dietary treatments. The diets contained 0, 13, 25, 35 and 45% dried caged-hen manure which replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the conventional protein supplements. The animals were fed 55.0 g/w0.75 kg/day of the concentrate food during a 104 days growth study. Air dried cassava peels and water were also provided ad libitum. The differences in average total dry matter intake were not statistically significant. The higher the manure content in the diets, the lower the energy content and the higher the cassava peels intake. No statistical differences were found in growth rates. The efficiency of food conversion decreased progressively though insignificantly. It was concluded that sheep can be fed caged-hen manure as the sole protein supplement in cassava peel based diets.

  6. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  7. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  8. Computed Tomography Measurement of Rib Cage Morphometry in Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Colombi, Davide; Randi, Giorgia; Pavarani, Antonio; Silva, Mario; Walsh, Simon L.; Pistolesi, Massimo; Alfieri, Veronica; Chetta, Alfredo; Vaccarezza, Mauro; Vitale, Marco; Pastorino, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. Methods Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage) in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT). CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%). The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. Results A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)%, and forced vital capacity (FVC)% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level). Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area). Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%). Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation). Conclusions This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema. PMID:23935872

  9. Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries of Disulfide Cages in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Kevin R.; Bake, Kyle D.; Otto, Sijbren

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) containing water-soluble disulfide-linked cages (alongside macrocyclic structures) have been generated and characterized. Unlike most other strategies for generating molecular cages, the structures are held together by covalent bonds, which are formed under the

  10. Teaching in the Institutional Cage: Metaphor and Collateral Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël Smith, Becky L.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a philosophical exploration of Marilyn Frye's metaphor of the cage and Patricia Hill Collins' theory of intersecting oppressions. It argues that social structures and forms of oppressive knowledge make up the individual wires on each person's cage and that these work to confine individuals, particularly those in the…

  11. variations in dimensions and shape of thoracic cage with aging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thoracic cage variations in dimensions and proportions are influenced by age, sex and race. The objective ... respiration entails studying body wall movement .... (1984) analyzed chest ... the gravitational forces operating on the rib cage .... with increased airway resistance (Allen et al.,. 1990 .... Environ Exercise Physiol.

  12. Morphosynthesis of cubic silver cages on monolithic activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Lai, Yijian; Liu, Siyu; Zhao, Binyuan; Ning, Yuesheng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2013-11-14

    Cubic silver cages were prepared on monolithic activated carbon (MAC) pre-absorbed with Cl(-), SO4(2-), or PO4(3-) anions. Silver insoluble salts served as templates for the morphosynthesis of silver cages. The silver ions were reduced by reductive functional groups on MAC micropores through a galvanic cell reaction mechanism.

  13. Design of the UHVDC Corona Cage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian; LU Jiayu; ZHANG Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of testing and analysing the corona characteristics of UHVDC bundle conductors,UHVDC corona cage would be built in China.Corona cage is one of the indispensable equipments for conductor corona performance researches.Tests of conductor cotona characteristics in corona cages can overcome the shortages of those with test lines.The dimensions of several corona cages constructed overseas were introduced in this paper.Based on foreign experiences and the requirement of State Grid Corporation of China,the UHVDC corona cage was designed as double-cage,double-layer,three-seetions,and catenary shape with the size of 70 m×22 m× 13 m.The corona loss measurement system,radio interference measuring system,and the audible noise measuring system are also detailed,including the measurement theory,connection with the cage,the parameters and the designing basis.The UHVDC corona cage has been put into service.It now undergoes a large amount of audible noise and radio frequency interference tests.

  14. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  15. Organic cage compounds--from shape-persistency to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Mastalerz, Michael

    2014-03-21

    Defined cavities are found in biological systems, such as in enzymes to accelerate specific reactions with specific molecular targets, or as transport containers for molecular cargoes. Chemists have been inspired by those phenomena found in nature and synthesized defined cage compounds for different purposes, such as for stabilizing reactive intermediates, running reactions within the cavities or studying recognition events. However, most cage compounds are based on the coordination of metal ions, and only a few are charge neutral. Purely organic cages are usually charge neutral and more stable due to existing covalent bonds. Covalent bonds can be made in two ways, applying irreversible reactions or reversible reactions. By introducing dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC), cages have become accessible in good yields from rather simple precursors. Here, we compare both methods and highlight those that give very good yields. Furthermore, the use of organic cage compounds in sorption, recognition, sensing, separation and stabilization of molecules will be discussed.

  16. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  17. Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hung-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Methods Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The specimens were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 received unilateral procedures while group 2 received bilateral procedures. Laminectomy, facectomy, discectomy, cage insertion and transpedicle screw insertion were performed sequentially after testing the intact status. Changes in range of motion (ROM and neutral zone (NZ were compared between unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Results Both ROM and NZ, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF, transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not revealed a significant difference between flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation direction except the ROM in the axial rotation. The bilateral group's ROM (-1.7 ± 0. 8 of axial rotation was decreased significantly after transpedicle screw insertion procedure in comparison with the unilateral group (-0.2 ± 0.1. In the unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF group, the transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not demonstrate a significant difference between right and left side in the lateral bending and axial rotation direction. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF have similar stability after transpedicle screw fixation in the sheep spine model. The unilateral approach can substantially reduce exposure requirements. It also offers the biomechanics advantage of construction using anterior column support combined with pedicle

  18. In-situ bioassays using caged bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    It is important to make the distinction between chemical measurements to assess bioaccumulation potential versus biological measurements to assess potential bioeffects because bioaccumulation is not a bioeffect. Caging provides a unique opportunity to make synoptic measurements of each and facilitates making these measurements over space and time. Measuring bioaccumulation in resident and transplanted bivalves has probably been the most frequently used form of an in-situ bioassay because bivalves concentrate chemicals in their tissues. They are also easy to collect, cage, and measure. The authors have refined bivalve bioassay methods by minimizing the size range of test animals, making repetitive measurements of the same individuals, and standardizing test protocols for a variety of applications. They are now attempting to standardize criteria for accepting and interpreting data in the same way that laboratory bioassays have been standardized. Growth measurements can serve two purposes in this assessment strategy: (1) An integrated biological response endpoint that is easily quantifiable and with significance to the population, and (2) A means of calibrating bioaccumulation by assessing the relative health and physiological state of tissues that have accumulated the chemicals. In general, the authors have found the highest bioconcentration factors associated with the highest growth rates, the highest concentrations ({micro}g/g) of chemicals in juvenile mussels, and the highest chemical content ({micro}g/animal) in adult mussels. Without accounting for possible dilution of chemical concentrations by tissue growth or magnification through degrowth, contaminant concentrations can be misleading. Examples are provided for the Sudbury River in Massachusetts (Elliptio complanata), San Diego Bay (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and the Harbor Island Superfund Site in Puget Sound (Mytilus trossulus).

  19. A novel vented microisolation container for caging animals: microenvironmental comfort in a closed-system filter cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, G F; Neff, D E; Cullen, J F; Welch, S W

    2000-01-01

    We designed a closed-system cage with vent ports that would allow continuous airflow in the occupied cage to ensure adequate ventilation and gas exchange. In this system, the metabolic heat loads of mice generate upward thermal air currents. Heat exits via the exhaust port, and room air enters via the intake port, providing adequate ventilation. Simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helped us to optimize the cage's design. CFD simulations and smoke visualizations with a feeder-trough assembly illustrated the one-pass air circulation pattern and the lack of air recirculation, turbulence, and dead air space in our system. We used hot-film anemometry and smoke-test methodologies to show that adequate ventilation was provided. In a room with still air (0 air changes per hour [ACH]), a cage fitted with double wire-cloth filters (40 mesh size) and occupied by five mice has at least 12 ACH, whereas the same cage occupied by one mouse has 6 ACH. After five mice had occupied the cage for a week, its average temperature was 0.58C, relative humidity was 34%, and ammonia concentration was 3 ppm higher than that of the room. Our novel vented microisolation cage provides adequate intracage ACH, isolates mice from environmental contaminants, and contains allergenic particles within the cage in an environment appropriate for the species.

  20. Social discrimination of cage-mates and non-cage-mates by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samantha; Burman, Oliver; Mendl, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The ability to discriminate between group-mates and non-group-mates likely underpins the occurrence of affiliative and aggressive behaviour towards 'in-group' and 'out-group' individuals. Here we present two experiments aimed at testing the ability of rats (Rattus norvegicus) to discriminate between cage-mate (CM: animals residing in the subject's home cage) and non-cage-mate (NCM) conspecifics. In experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate between different exemplars of CM and NCM using a lever pressing task employing symmetrical reinforcement. Subjects did not reach performance criterion, but they did show some evidence of discrimination between the two types of stimuli. In experiment 2, we employed a digging task to determine if rats can discriminate between odour cues from CM and NCM presented simultaneously on two sand-filled bowls. Subjects reached performance criterion on the first pair of odours, and on three more different pairs of CM and NCM odours. The results of a reversal task, using a fifth pair of odours, indicate that the rats were using a common factor to discriminate between social cues from CM and NCM conspecifics, rather than learning each pair independently. Possible candidates include a group-specific odour cue, or the development of a CM/NCM category concept. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomechanical analysis of cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantigrossi, Alfonso; Galbusera, Fabio; Raimondi, Manuela Teresa; Sassi, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Interbody fusions using intervertebral cages have become increasingly common in spinal surgery. Computational simulations were conducted in order to compare different cage designs in terms of their biomechanical interaction with the spinal structures. Differences in cage design and surgical technique may significantly affect the biomechanics of the fused spine segment, but little knowledge is available on this topic. In the present study, four 3D finite element models were developed, reproducing the human L4-L5 spinal unit in intact condition and after implantation of three different cage models. The intact model consisted of two vertebral bodies and relevant laminae, facet joints, main ligaments and disc. The instrumented models reproduced the post-operative conditions resulting after implant of the different cages. The three considered devices were hollow threaded titanium cages, the BAK (Zimmer Centerpulse, Warsaw, IN, USA), the Interfix and the Interfix Fly (both by Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA). Simulations were run imposing various loading conditions, under a constant compressive preload. A great increase in the stiffness induced on the spinal segment by all cages was observed in all the considered loading cases. Stress distributions on the bony surface were evaluated and discussed. The differences observed between the biomechanics of the instrumented models were associated with the geometrical and surgical features of the devices.

  2. The planimetric unfold method of fullerene cage structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of planimetric diagrams, which consist of the boat form F6 and F5, the storm petrel form F6 and F5, respectively, were proposed to express the geometric structure of fullerene cage in this study. There are two chief advantages using the diagrams: (ⅰ) the spatial symmetrical characteristic of fullerene cage is not destroyed; (ⅱ) the coordination forms of F5 and F6 in the structure can be clearly expressed. This work has laid the foundation for studying the structural geometry of fullerene cage and its quantum chemistry and property.

  3. Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials: Protein Cage Nano-Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    eluted from a and stirred overnight at room temperature. The product was collected Thermoelectric Biobasic size exclusion column (250 x I (mm)) in by...rigorously, kinetic plasticity in biological function is well documented hydrolysis allows the determination of conforma- for large complexes such as the

  4. Linear diffusion into a Faraday cage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lin, Yau Tang; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2011-11-01

    Linear lightning diffusion into a Faraday cage is studied. An early-time integral valid for large ratios of enclosure size to enclosure thickness and small relative permeability ({mu}/{mu}{sub 0} {le} 10) is used for this study. Existing solutions for nearby lightning impulse responses of electrically thick-wall enclosures are refined and extended to calculate the nearby lightning magnetic field (H) and time-derivative magnetic field (HDOT) inside enclosures of varying thickness caused by a decaying exponential excitation. For a direct strike scenario, the early-time integral for a worst-case line source outside the enclosure caused by an impulse is simplified and numerically integrated to give the interior H and HDOT at the location closest to the source as well as a function of distance from the source. H and HDOT enclosure response functions for decaying exponentials are considered for an enclosure wall of any thickness. Simple formulas are derived to provide a description of enclosure interior H and HDOT as well. Direct strike voltage and current bounds for a single-turn optimally-coupled loop for all three waveforms are also given.

  5. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey D; Zucherman, James F; Kucharzyk, Donald W; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Miller, Larry E; Kunwar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. PMID:27729817

  6. Multiple biomarkers of pollution effects in caged mussels on the Greek coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, C; Kormas, K; Strogyloudi, E; Hatzianestis, I; Neofitou, C; Andral, B; Galgani, F

    2010-04-01

    A suite of biomarkers was measured in caged mussels at areas impacted by different anthropogenic activities along the Greek coastline to assess biological effects of environmental pollution. Mussels were caged at coastal sites in the vicinity of major cities, in areas influenced by major industries, agricultural practices and in islands away from known sources of pollution. Biomarkers indicative of neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AchE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT), phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics (glutathione S-transferase, GST), metal exposure (metallothioneins, MTs) and protein synthesis (RNA:DNA ratio) were measured to assess effects of various types of pollutants. AchE activity proved to be the most responsive biomarker with decreased values at sites influenced by agricultural, urban and industrial activities. Decreased CAT and GST activities and increased MTs levels were recorded at a number of anthropogenic-impacted sites. RNA:DNA ratio showed a biphasic response as both high and low values were found at impacted sites. Principal component analysis clearly distinguished sites receiving pollution inputs from non-polluted sites. The combination of the selected biomarkers used in caged mussels resulted useful in the assessment of the effects of environmental pollution.

  7. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  8. Caged molecular beacons: controlling nucleic acid hybridization with light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming; Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Yang, Chaoyong James; Tan, Weihong

    2011-05-28

    We have constructed a novel class of light-activatable caged molecular beacons (cMBs) that are caged by locking two stems with a photo-labile biomolecular interaction or covalent bond. With the cMBs, the nucleic acid hybridization process can be easily controlled with light, which offers the possibility for a high spatiotemporal resolution study of intracellular mRNAs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Smart identification of roll cages through logistics chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarovszki, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Article provides research in field of automatic identification of roll cages through radio-frequency identification technology (RFID) in terms of supply chain of particular postal-logistics operators. The ambition of this work is selection of appropriate identifier type and its placement on a roll cage. A special section is dedicated to description of the technical equipment used during measurements as well as their results from MySQL database. Article deals with relationship between the orie...

  10. Folding Dynamics of the Trp-Cage Miniprotein: Evidence for a Native-Like Intermediate from Combined Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuzelaar, H.; Marino, K.A.; Huerta-Viga, A.; Panman, M.R.; Smeenk, L.E.J.; Kettelarij, A.J.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Timmerman, P.; Bolhuis, P.G.; Woutersen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Trp-cage is a synthetic 20-residue miniprotein which folds rapidly and spontaneously to a well-defined globular structure more typical of larger proteins. Due to its small size and fast folding, it is an ideal model system for experimental and theoretical investigations of protein folding

  11. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, D. P.; Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called `Faraday cage effect'). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells.

  12. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, D P; Hewitt, I J

    2016-05-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called 'Faraday cage effect'). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells.

  13. Subsidence of polyetheretherketone cage after minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Chan; Chung, Hung-Tae; Cho, Jae-Lim; Kim, Dong-Jun; Chung, Nam-Su

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective case series. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of cage subsidence after minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) conducted using a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage, and to identify associated risk factors. Although various rates of cage subsidence after lumbar interbody fusion have been reported, few studies have addressed subsidence rate after MITLIF using PEEK cage. A total of 104 consecutive patients who had undergone MITLIF using a PEEK cage with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in this study. Cage subsidence was defined to have occurred when a cage was observed to sink into an adjacent vertebral body by ≥2 mm on the postoperative or serial follow-up lateral radiographs. The demographic variables considered to affect cage subsidence were the following: age, sex, body mass index, bone mineral density, diagnosis, number of fusion segment, and the quality/quantity of back muscle, and the cage-related variables considered were: level of fusion, intervertebral angle, cage size, cage position, and postoperative distraction of disc height. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore relations between these variables and cage subsidence. : For the 122 cages inserted, the rate of cage subsidence was 14.8% (18 cages), and cage subsidence occurred within 7.2±8.5 (1-25) months of surgery. The odds ratios for factors found to significantly increase the risk of cage subsidence were; 1.950 (95% confidence interval, 1.002-4.224) for L5-S1 level, and 1.018 (95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.066) for anterior cage position. The rate of PEEK cage subsidence after MITLIF was relatively low. End-plate manipulation and cage insertion during MITLIF were not influenced by a small operation window.

  14. 3D reconstruction of VZV infected cell nuclei and PML nuclear cages by serial section array scanning electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Reichelt

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox and herpes zoster (shingles. Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity, what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the

  15. 3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages by Serial Section Array Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Mike; Joubert, Lydia; Perrino, John; Koh, Ai Leen; Phanwar, Ibanri; Arvin, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM) and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity), what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency) and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the single cell

  16. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  17. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  18. Assembly and structural analysis of a covalently closed nano-scale DNA cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Felicie F; Knudsen, Bjarne; Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto De

    2008-01-01

     The inherent properties of DNA as a stable polymer with unique affinity for partner molecules determined by the specific Watson-Crick base pairing makes it an ideal component in self-assembling structures. This has been exploited for decades in the design of a variety of artificial substrates...... be described as a nano-scale DNA cage, Hence, in theory it could hold proteins or other bio-molecules to enable their investigation in certain harmful environments or even allow their organization into higher order structures...

  19. High levitation pressures with cage-cooled superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Komori, Mochimitsu [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    We present an analysis of and experimental results from a levitational system comprising a stationary, bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and a levitated component (rotor) that consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet surrounded by an annular HTS. The rotor is cooled below the critical temperature of the HTS while surrounded by a ferromagnetic cage. When the ferromagnetic cage is removed, the flux from the permanent magnet is essentially excluded from the interior of the HTS. When brought into proximity with the HTS stator, the cage-cooled rotor experiences a levitational force. The levitational force may be calculated by applying magnetic circuit theory. Such calculations indicate that for a sufficiently high critical current density, the levitational pressure may exceed that between the permanent magnet and its mirror image. We constructed a rotor from an NdFeB permanent magnet and YBCO bulk HTS with a critical current density of {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. A soft ferromagnetic steel cage was constructed in segments. The critical current density of the stator HTS was also {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. Experimental results obtained with the cage-cooled rotor and stationary HTS show a significant increase in force over that of an equivalent PM rotor and stationary HTS. (author)

  20. High levitation pressures with cage-cooled superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Komori, Mochimitsu

    2002-05-01

    We present an analysis of and experimental results from a levitational system comprising a stationary, bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and a levitated component (rotor) that consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet surrounded by an annular HTS. The rotor is cooled below the critical temperature of the HTS while surrounded by a ferromagnetic cage. When the ferromagnetic cage is removed, the flux from the permanent magnet is essentially excluded from the interior of the HTS. When brought into proximity with the HTS stator, the cage-cooled rotor experiences a levitational force. The levitational force may be calculated by applying magnetic circuit theory. Such calculations indicate that for a sufficiently high critical current density, the levitational pressure may exceed that between the permanent magnet and its mirror image. We constructed a rotor from an NdFeB permanent magnet and YBCO bulk HTS with a critical current density of ≈5 kA cm-2. A soft ferromagnetic steel cage was constructed in segments. The critical current density of the stator HTS was also ≈5 kA cm-2. Experimental results obtained with the cage-cooled rotor and stationary HTS show a significant increase in force over that of an equivalent PM rotor and stationary HTS.

  1. The theory of the bird-cage resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, James

    Circuit equations for the low-pass bird-cage resonator are solved to yield a two-parameter expression for the resonant frequencies; good agreement with experiment is shown for a bird cage of eight meshes. A theory of the driven bird-cage coil is given, which describes capacitive or inductive drive schemes, neglecting perturbations of coil symmetry due to the drive reactance. The theory shows how the polarization plane of the B field of a perfectly symmetrical bird cage can be rotated arbitrarily about the resonator's cylinder axis. Deviations from ideal symmetry, due to imperfect construction or trimming reactances, are then treated by perturbation theory. It is shown that in first order, the perturbation does not disturb the sinusoidal current distribution of the bird cage, although it does polarize that distribution along a direction fixed by the positions of the perturbing elements. The measured and calculated polarization directions are shown to agree to within experimental error; the measured frequency shifts due to perturbation are within 10% of those calculated. It is shown that two identical perturbations in space quadrature produce eigenstates with no spatial polarization, i.e., circularly traveling current waves.

  2. Application of Taguchi method in optimization of cervical ring cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Teo, Ee-Chon; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    The Taguchi method is a statistical approach to overcome the limitation of the factorial and fractional factorial experiments by simplifying and standardizing the fractional factorial design. The objective of the current study is to illustrate the procedures and strengths of the Taguchi method in biomechanical analysis by using a case study of a cervical ring cage optimization. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of C(5)-C(6) with a generic cervical ring cage inserted was modelled. Taguchi method was applied in the optimization of the cervical ring cage in material property and dimensions for producing the lowest stress on the endplate to reduce the risk of cage subsidence, as in the following steps: (1) establishment of objective function; (2) determination of controllable factors and their levels; (3) identification of uncontrollable factors and test conditions; (4) design of Taguchi crossed array layout; (5) execution of experiments according to trial conditions; (6) analysis of results; (7) determination of optimal run; (8) confirmation of optimum run. The results showed that a cage with larger width, depth and wall thickness can produce the lower von Mises stress under various conditions. The contribution of implant materials is found trivial. The current case study illustrates that the strengths of the Taguchi method lie in (1) consistency in experimental design and analysis; (2) reduction of time and cost of experiments; (3) robustness of performance with removing the noise factors. The Taguchi method will have a great potential application in biomechanical field when factors of the issues are at discrete level.

  3. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merica Slišković

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

  4. Performance and welfare of laying hens in conventional and enriched cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tactacan, G B; Guenter, W; Lewis, N J; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; House, J D

    2009-04-01

    Concerns regarding the welfare of laying hens raised in battery cages have led to the development of enriched cages that allow hens to perform natural behaviors including nesting, roosting, and scratching. This study was conducted to compare indices of production and welfare in birds housed in 2 different caging systems. Shaver White hens were housed from 21 to 61 wk in either conventional battery cages (n = 500; 10 cages; 5 hens/cage; floor space = 561.9 cm(2)/hen) or enriched cages (n = 480; 2 cages; 24 hens/cage; floor space = 642.6 cm(2)/hen) and were replicated 10 times. Enriched cages provided hens with a curtained nesting area, scratch pad, and perches. Production parameters and egg quality measures were recorded throughout the experiment. Plumage condition was evaluated at 37 and 61 wk. Bone quality traits and immunological response parameters were measured at 61 wk, and 59 and 61 wk, respectively. Hen-day egg production, feed consumption, egg weight, and percentage of cumulative mortality of laying hens were not affected by the cage designs. Specific gravity and the percentage of cracked and soft-shelled eggs were also similar between the 2 housing systems. The incidence of dirty eggs was, however, significantly higher (P cages than in conventional cages. Feather scores were similar between birds except for the wing region, which was higher (P cages. Bone quality measures tended to be higher for hens housed in enriched cages compared with hens in conventional cages. However, the increase was significant only for bone mineral density. Immunological response parameters did not reveal statistically significant differences. Overall, laying performance, exterior egg quality measures, plumage condition, and immunological response parameters appear to be similar for hens housed in the 2 cage systems tested. Enrichment of laying hen cages resulted in better bone quality, which could have resulted from increased activity.

  5. The rib cage stabilizes the human thoracic spine: An in vitro study using stepwise reduction of rib cage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Christian; Graf, Nicolas; Appelt, Konrad; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of the rib cage on the human thoracic spine is still not sufficiently analyzed. For a better understanding of this effect as well as the calibration and validation of numerical models of the thoracic spine, experimental biomechanics data is required. This study aimed to determine (1) the stabilizing effect of the single rib cage structures on the human thoracic spine as well as the effect of the rib cage on (2) the flexibility of the single motion segments and (3) coupled motion behavior of the thoracic spine. Six human thoracic spine specimens including the entire rib cage were loaded quasi-statically with pure moments of ± 2 Nm in flexion/extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) using a custom-built spine tester. Motion analysis was performed using an optical motion tracking system during load application to determine range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ). Specimens were tested (1) in intact condition, (2) after removal of the intercostal muscles, (3) after median sternotomy, after removal of (4) the anterior rib cage up to the rib stumps, (5) the right sixth to eighth rib head, and (6) all rib heads. Significant (p rib cage (FE: + 21.1%, LB: + 10.9%, AR: + 72.5%), and all rib heads (AR: + 5.8%) relative to its previous condition. Compared to the intact condition, ROM and NZ increased significantly after removing the anterior part of the rib cage (FE: + 52.2%, + 45.6%; LB: + 42.0%, + 54.0%; AR: + 94.4%, + 187.8%). Median sternotomy (FE: + 11.9%, AR: + 21.9%) and partial costovertebral release (AR: + 11.7%) significantly increased the ROM relative to its previous condition. Removing the entire rib cage increased both monosegmental and coupled motion ROM, but did not alter the qualitative motion behavior. The rib cage has a strong effect on thoracic spine rigidity, especially in axial rotation by a factor of more than two, and should therefore be considered in clinical scenarios, in vitro, and in silico.

  6. A laboratory cage for foster nursing newborn mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marques-de-Araújo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a cage to be used for foster nursing in order to guarantee that original mother's colostrum is not ingested by the newborn mice. A common (30.5 cm x 19.5 cm x 12.0 cm mouse cage was fitted with a wire net tray with a mesh (1 cm x 1 cm, which divides the cage into an upper and a lower compartment. Mice born to females placed in the upper compartment pass through the mesh and fall into the lower compartment, where another lactating female with one or two of its own pups are. Of a total of 28 newborn mice of C3H/He and Swiss strains, 23 were successfully fostered. Important observations are presented to show that this is a valuable alternative for foster studies without great suffering on the part of the female.

  7. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_ann... - - Description of data contents Annotation of human and mouse CAGE peaks and RNA transcriptional initiatio...rence sequences (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Homo sapiens) File URL...: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotation/ ...File size: 16 MB File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Mus musculus) Fil

  8. Monitoring the Folding of Trp-cage Peptide by Two-dimensional Infrared (2DIR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zaizhi; Preketes, Nicholas K.; Mukamel, Shaul; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding is one of the most fundamental problems in modern molecular biology. Uncovering the detailed folding mechanism requires methods that can monitor the structures at high temporal and spatial resolution. Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy is a new tool for studying protein structures and dynamics with high time resolution. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we illustrate the folding process of Trp-cage along the dominant pathway on free energy landscape by analyzing nonchiral and chiral coherent 2DIR spectra along the pathway. Isotope-labeling is used to reveal residue-specific information. We show that the high resolution structural sensitivity of 2DIR can differentiate the ensemble evolution of protein, and thus provides a microscopic picture of the folding process. PMID:23448437

  9. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin;

    2013-01-01

    state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice...... of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites...

  10. A Post-Functionalizable Iso-Polyoxotitanate Cage Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Hu, Junyi; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Guanyun; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-07-18

    During solvothermal alcoholysis of a mixture of TiI4 and Ti(O(i)Pr)4, a {I@Ti22} cage cluster encapsulating an OH and iodide guests is crystallized. The {I@Ti22} host-guest cluster surface is postfunctionalizable with catecholate and carboxylate ligands. The synthetic details, structural characterization, spectroscopic properties of the obtained cages clusters are provided. The present study provides candidates for modeling ligand exchange and electron-hole transfer at the titanate nanoparticle surface, and meanwhile offers new opportunities for understanding the TiO2 nanocrystalline formation in solvothermal processes.

  11. Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Gravity Cage in Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Yu-cheng; DONG Guo-hai; GUI Fu-kun

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at investigation of the dynamic properties of gravity cage exposed to waves by use of a numerical model. The numerical model is developed, based on lumped mass method to set up the equations of motion of the whole cage; meanwhile the solutions of equations are solved by the Runge-Kutta-Verner fifth-order and sixth-order method. Physical model tests have been carried out to examine the validity of the numerical model. The results by the numerical simulation agree well with the experimental data.

  13. Quantum collision states for positive charges in an octahedral cage

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R V

    2003-01-01

    One-electron energy levels are studied for a configuration of two positive charges inside an octahedral cage, the vertices of the cage being occupied by atoms with a partially filled shell. Although ground states correspond to large separations, there are relatively low-lying states with large collision probabilities. Electromagnetic radiation fields used to excite the quantum collisional levels may provide a means to control nuclear reactions. However, given the scale of the excitation energies involved, this mechanism cannot provide an explanation for the unexplained ``cold fusion'' events.

  14. Caged DNA does not aggregate in high ionic strength solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Loomis, A; Slattum, P M; Hagstrom, J E; Budker, V G; Wolff, J A

    1999-01-01

    The assembly of DNA into compact particles that do not aggregate in physiologic salt solution occurs naturally in chromatin and viral particles but has been challenging to duplicate using artificial constructs. Cross-linking amino-containing polycations in the presence of DNA with bisimidoester cross-linker leads to the formation of caged DNA particles that are stable in salt solutions. This first demonstration of caged DNA provides insight into how natural condensation processes avoid aggregation and a promising avenue for developing nonviral gene therapy vectors.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Soybean Pterocarpan 2-Dimethylallyltransferase in Glyceollin Biosynthesis: Local Gene and Whole-Genome Duplications of Prenyltransferase Genes Led to the Structural Diversity of Soybean Prenylated Isoflavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Keisuke; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) accumulates several prenylated isoflavonoid phytoalexins, collectively referred to as glyceollins. Glyceollins (I, II, III, IV and V) possess modified pterocarpan skeletons with C5 moieties from dimethylallyl diphosphate, and they are commonly produced from (6aS, 11aS)-3,9,6a-trihydroxypterocarpan [(-)-glycinol]. The metabolic fate of (-)-glycinol is determined by the enzymatic introduction of a dimethylallyl group into C-4 or C-2, which is reportedly catalyzed by regiospecific prenyltransferases (PTs). 4-Dimethylallyl (-)-glycinol and 2-dimethylallyl (-)-glycinol are precursors of glyceollin I and other glyceollins, respectively. Although multiple genes encoding (-)-glycinol biosynthetic enzymes have been identified, those involved in the later steps of glyceollin formation mostly remain unidentified, except for (-)-glycinol 4-dimethylallyltransferase (G4DT), which is involved in glyceollin I biosynthesis. In this study, we identified four genes that encode isoflavonoid PTs, including (-)-glycinol 2-dimethylallyltransferase (G2DT), using homology-based in silico screening and biochemical characterization in yeast expression systems. Transcript analyses illustrated that changes in G2DT gene expression were correlated with the induction of glyceollins II, III, IV and V in elicitor-treated soybean cells and leaves, suggesting its involvement in glyceollin biosynthesis. Moreover, the genomic signatures of these PT genes revealed that G4DT and G2DT are paralogs derived from whole-genome duplications of the soybean genome, whereas other PT genes [isoflavone dimethylallyltransferase 1 (IDT1) and IDT2] were derived via local gene duplication on soybean chromosome 11.

  16. Evaluation of Nile tilapia strains cultivated in cages under different feeding programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Archangelo Freato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus strains cultivated in cages and subjected to different feeding programmes. Initially, 31,200 Nile tilapia juveniles with an average weight of 61.15 g were distributed in 48 cages. Two genetically improved strains were used together with one from the Fish Culture Section of Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. The fish were subjected to four feeding programmes, consisting of different levels of crude protein (CP in diets provided at different stages of cultivation. There was no interaction effect of the strain and feeding programme for most variables. The UFLA strain presented the highest weight gain, but with greatest lack of uniformity at the end of cultivation. The feeding programme with diets containing 36%, 32% and 28% CP, consecutively, promoted the highest weight gain and highest final biomass. The UFLA strain has great growth potential, justifying the development of a breeding programme for this strain. Crude protein levels below 36% for tilapias between 60 and 170 g and below 32% for tilapias between 170 and 700 g worsen fish performance.

  17. The effect of different cage tiers and age on egg performance, egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admOUjg

    2014-10-04

    Oct 4, 2014 ... battery cages with five replicates of six hens per treatment in a .... The differences between groups were determined by Duncan's multiple-range tests. ..... Effect of cage size and bird density on performance of six commercial.

  18. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coe JD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Coe,1 James F Zucherman,2 Donald W Kucharzyk,3 Kornelis A Poelstra,4 Larry E Miller,5 Sandeep Kunwar,6 1Silicon Valley Spine Institute, Campbell, 2San Francisco Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, CA, 3Orthopaedic Pediatric and Spine, Crown Point, IN, 4Department of Surgery, Sacred Heart Hospital on the Emerald Coast, Miramar Beach, FL, 5Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 6Bell Neuroscience Institute, Washington Hospital Healthcare System, Fremont, CA, USA Abstract: The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. Keywords: degenerative disc disease, expandable, low back pain, Luna

  19. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  20. Dynamics of caged ions in glassy ionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habasaki, J; Ngai, K L; Hiwatari, Y

    2004-05-01

    At sufficiently high frequency and low temperature, the dielectric responses of glassy, crystalline, and molten ionic conductors all invariably exhibit nearly constant loss. This ubiquitous characteristic occurs in the short-time regime when the ions are still caged, indicating that it could be a determining factor of the mobility of the ions in conduction at longer times. An improved understanding of its origin should benefit the research of ion conducting materials for portable energy source as well as the resolution of the fundamental problem of the dynamics of ions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of glassy lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and find that the length scales of the caged Li+ ions motions are distributed according to a Levy distribution that has a long tail. These results suggest that the nearly constant loss originates from "dynamic anharmonicity" experienced by the moving but caged Li+ ions and provided by the surrounding matrix atoms executing correlated movements. The results pave the way for rigorous treatments of caged ion dynamics by nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics.

  1. Massive acetabular bone loss: Limits of trabecular metal cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva-Martínez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive acetabular bone loss (more than 50% of the acetabular area can result in insufficient native bone for stable fixation and long-term bone ingrowth of conventional porous cups. The development of trabecular metal cages with osteoconductive properties may allow a more biological and versatile approach that will help restore bone loss, thus reducing the frequency of implant failure in the short-to-medium term. We report a case of massive bone loss affecting the dome of the acetabulum and the ilium, which was treated with a trabecular metal cage and particulate allograft. Although the trabecular metal components had no intrinsic stability, they did enhance osseointegration and incorporation of a non-impacted particulate graft, thus preventing failure of the reconstruction. The minimum 50% contact area between the native bone and the cup required for osseointegration with the use of porous cups may not hold for new trabecular metal cups, thus reducing the need for antiprotrusio cages. The osteoconductive properties of trabecular metal enhanced allograft incorportation and iliac bone rebuilding without the need to fill the defect with multiple wedges nor protect the reconstruction with an antiprotrusio cage.

  2. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10-3 S cm-1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores.

  3. Business plan Tilapia cage farming in Tete Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Magnus; Brouwer, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Tete province offers great opportunities for cage farming of tilapia in Lake Cahora Bassa. The climate and water quality are favourable for fish production, and the fast economic developments in the region will facilitate fish sales. In Tete tilapia (pende) is highly valued food. Major markets for t

  4. 48 CFR 204.7204 - Maintenance of the CAGE file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Submit requests for changes to CAGE files on DD Form 2051, or electronic equivalent, to—Defense Logistics.... Telephone Numbers: toll-free (888) 352-9333, DSN 932-4725, commercial (616) 961-4725. Facsimile: (616) 961... contracting and contract administration office receiving notification of changes from the commercial...

  5. Environmental Impact of Cage Culture on Poondi Reservoir, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusuya Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Poondi reservoir, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 8 months from September, 2014 to April, 2015 where the cage culture has been already initiated by the state fisheries department. The water and sediment samples were collected from the reservoir at point and non- point sources of the cage culture units and were analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total microbial load, E. coli and feacal streptococci population were also assessed from the reservoir. During the study period, pH, sulphate, nitrate and BOD values were found within the permissible range for drinking water quality. The alkalinity values were found optimum in the reservoir water. The sediment characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and available phosphorus values were also found to be within the standard limit. The optimum water and sediment quality characteristics and the absence of E. coli and feacal streptococci observed in the cage culture unit clearly showed that the small cage farming in the reservoir does not have major environmental impacts on the water and sediment quality.

  6. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.

    2011-01-01

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  7. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    KAUST Repository

    Noguchi, Shuhei

    2017-08-29

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples, consisting of a variety of primary cells, tissues, cell lines, and time series samples during cell activation and development, were subjected to a uniform pipeline of CAGE data production. The analysis pipeline started by measuring RNA extracts to assess their quality, and continued to CAGE library production by using a robotic or a manual workflow, single molecule sequencing, and computational processing to generate frequencies of transcription initiation. Resulting data represents the consequence of transcriptional regulation in each analyzed state of mammalian cells. Non-overlapping peaks over the CAGE profiles, approximately 200,000 and 150,000 peaks for the human and mouse genomes, were identified and annotated to provide precise location of known promoters as well as novel ones, and to quantify their activities.

  8. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10−3 S cm−1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  9. Laser Induced C60 Cage Opening Studied by Semiclassical Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Dou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced opening of the C60 cage is studied by a semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics technique. The simulation results indicate that the C60 cage is abruptly opened immediately after laser excitation. The opening of the C60 cage induces a quick increase in kinetic energy and a sharp decrease in electronic energy, suggesting that the breaking of the C60 cage efficiently heats up the cluster and enhances the thermal fragmentation of C60 fullerene.

  10. The biological effect of cage design corrected for reductions in spray penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz Bradley Keith; Hoffmann Wesley Clint; Bonds Jane Annalise Sara; Haas Keith; Czaczyk Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    In-field measures of physical spray concentration do not tend to correlate well with caged insect mortality data. This is partly due to the reduced penetration of the spray into the cage. Spray penetration is hindered by the structure of the cage. Wind tunnel studies were conducted to investigate the accuracy of those calculations developed to correct for filtration levels in caged mosquito bioassays. Zenivex E20 (Etofenprox) was applied at rates ranging from an LD10 to an LD90. Thre...

  11. Mouse Housing System Using Pressurized Cages Intraventilated by Direct-Current Microfans

    OpenAIRE

    Martinewski, Alexandre; Correia, Caio SC; de Souza, Nívea L; Merusse, José LB

    2012-01-01

    We performed the initial assessment of an alternative pressurized intraventilated (PIV) caging system for laboratory mice that uses direct-current microfans to achieve cage pressurization and ventilation. Twenty-nine pairs of female SPF BALB/c mice were used, with 19 experimental pairs kept in PIV cages and 10 control pairs kept in regular filter-top (FT) cages. Both groups were housed in a standard housing room with a conventional atmospheric control system. For both systems, intracage tempe...

  12. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  13. Social communication in mice--are there optimal cage conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain-Thibeault Ferhat

    Full Text Available Social communication is heavily affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, mouse models designed to study the mechanisms leading to these disorders are tested for this phenotypic trait. Test conditions vary between different models, and the effect of these test conditions on the quantity and quality of social interactions and ultrasonic communication is unknown. The present study examines to which extent the habituation time to the test cage as well as the shape/size of the cage influence social communication in freely interacting mice. We tested 8 pairs of male mice in free dyadic social interactions, with two habituation times (20 min and 30 min and three cage formats (rectangle, round, square. We tested the effect of these conditions on the different types of social contacts, approach-escape sequences, follow behavior, and the time each animal spent in the vision field of the other one, as well as on the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations and their contexts of emission. We provide for the first time an integrated analysis of the social interaction behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations. Surprisingly, we did not highlight any significant effect of habituation time and cage shape/size on the behavioral events examined. There was only a slight increase of social interactions with the longer habituation time in the round cage. Remarkably, we also showed that vocalizations were emitted during specific behavioral sequences especially during close contact or approach behaviors. The present study provides a protocol reliably eliciting social contacts and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice. This protocol is therefore well adapted for standardized investigation of social interactions in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Effects of dietary energy content on the performance of laying hens in furnished and conventional cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, E; Venäläinen, E; Rossow, L; Valaja, J

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary energy content on the egg production and egg quality of hens kept in 3-hen conventional cages or 8-hen furnished cages. A total of 1,088 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were housed in either furnished or conventional cages and offered low- or high-energy diets (from 2,342 to 2,414 kcal/kg or from 2,581 to 2,629 kcal/kg) during 3 consecutive feeding phases of 20, 16, and 16 wk, respectively. The same dietary energy effects were observed in both cage systems. The hens that received the low-energy diet consumed more feed (P cages than in conventional cages (P cages at the beginning of the experiment, these hens consumed more feed during the first feeding phase than the hens in conventional cages. During the third feeding phase, the hens in furnished cages consumed less feed than those in conventional cages (P cage types. The results of this study confirm the results of previous studies providing evidence of equal production rates and feed conversion ratios in furnished and conventional cages.

  15. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...

  16. Our first experience with cervical expandable cage for vertebral body reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral body reconstruction after corpectomy using expandable cage has become a common surgical procedure especially at thoracic level. The recent published papers describe the successful use of expandable cages for cervical vertebral body reconstruction. In this paper we present our first experience with expandable cervical cage in the reconstruction of the cervical spine in a patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM

  17. 48 CFR 252.204-7001 - Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Entity (CAGE) code reporting. 252.204-7001 Section 252.204-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Entity (CAGE) Code Reporting (AUG 1999) (a) The offeror is requested to enter its CAGE code on its offer... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7001 Commercial and Government...

  18. Can forced hot air quickly dry feces on transport cage flooring and eliminate campylobacter before cage re-use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allowing feces left on transport coops to dry is an effective way to reduce numbers of viable Campylobacter left by positive flocks. The problem with this approach is that poultry processors do not have the time, space or resources to maintain several times the minimum number of transport cages that...

  19. Effects of separation of resources on behaviour, physical condition and production of laying hens in furnished cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmura, T; Azuma, T; Eguchi, Y; Uetake, K; Tanaka, T

    2009-01-01

    1. Based on our previous studies, we designed a medium-sized furnished cage with a dust bath and nest box on both sides of the cage (MFS) and evaluated its usefulness. 2. We used 180 White Leghorn layers. At the age of 17 weeks, the birds were distributed at random into one of the 4 cage designs: conventional cages (CC; 6 cages and 5 hens per cage), small (SF; 6 cages and 5 hens per cage) and medium furnished cages (MFL; 6 cages and 10 hens per cage) with a 'localised' dust bath and nest box on one side of the cage, and MFS (6 cages and 10 hens per cage). The total allocation of resources per bird was similar for all furnished cage designs. Behaviour, physical condition and production were measured in each cage. 3. Moving was more frequent in MFS and MFL than in CC and SF. The proportion of hens performing aggressive pecking and severe feather pecking was higher in MFL than CC and SF. These aggressive interactions occurred frequently in the dust bath area in MFL; however, these tendencies were not found in MFS. Egg production and egg mass were lower in MFL than in SF, while the production in MFS was similar to those in CC and SF. MFS hens laid eggs on the cage floor more often than in MFL. 4. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the possible usefulness of MFS. However, some inconsistent results and ways of improving MFS design were also identified.

  20. Nano-cage-mediated refolding of insulin by PEG-PE micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Yang, Tao; Wang, Luoyang; Yu, Jibing; Wei, Xiuli; Zhou, Yinjian; Wang, Chen; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin aggregation has pronounced pharmaceutical implications and biological importance. Deposition of insulin aggregates is associated with type II diabetes and instability of pharmaceutical formulations. We present in this study the renaturation effect of PEG-PE micelle on dithiothreitol (DTT)-denatured insulin revealed by techniques including turbidity assay, circular dichroism (CD), thioflavinT (ThT) binding assay, bis-ANS binding assay, agarose gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. The obtained results show that PEG-PE micelle having a hydrophilic nano-cage-like structure in which with a negative charge layer, can capture DTT-induced insulin A and B chains, and block their hydrophobic interaction, thereby preventing aggregation. The reduced insulin A and B chain in the nano-cage are capable of recognizing each other and form the native insulin with yields of ∼30% as measured by hypoglycemic activity analysis in mice. The observed insulin refolding assisted by PEG-PE micelle may be applicable to other proteins.

  1. CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 CAGE_peaks_annotation Data detail Data name CAGE_peaks_annotation DOI 10.18908/lsdba....nbdc01389-010.V002 Version V2 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-010.V002 Update History V1 - - Description of data contents Ann...file File name: CAGE_peaks_annotation File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...e/fantom5/datafiles/LATEST/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotation File size: 195 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisitio...on Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Protein Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, ... the heart and respiratory system, and death. All Protein Isn’t Alike Protein is built from building ...

  3. Optical triggered seizures using a caged 4-Aminopyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingrui; McGarry, Laura M.; Ma, Hongtao; Harris, Samuel; Berwick, Jason; Yuste, Rafael; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of epilepsy are critical not only for understanding the fundamental mechanism of epilepsy but also for testing the efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs and novel therapeutic interventions. Photorelease of caged molecules is widely used in biological research to control pharmacologic events with high spatio-temporal resolution. We developed a technique for in vivo optical triggering of neocortical seizures using a novel caged compound based on ruthenium photochemistry (RuBi-4AP). Epileptiform events in mouse cortex were induced with blue light in both whole brain and focal illumination. Multi-electrode array recording and optical techniques were used to characterize the propagation of these epileptic events, including interictal spikes, polyspikes, and ictal discharges. These results demonstrate a novel optically-triggered seizure model, with high spatio-temporal control, that could have widespread application in the investigation of ictal onset, propagation and to develop novel light-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25698919

  4. Mutual Inductance in the Bird-Cage Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp

    1997-05-01

    Formulas are derived to account for the effect of the mutual inductances, between all meshes, upon the electrical resonance spectra bird-cage resonators, and similar structures such as the TEM resonator of P. K. H. Roschmann (United States Patent 4,746,866) and J. T. Vaughan et al. (Magn. Reson. Med. 32, 206, 1994). The equations are parameterized in terms of isolated mesh frequencies and coupling coefficients, and ought therefore apply not only to simple magnetic couplings used in the derivation, but to electromagnetic couplings as well. A method for measuring the coupling coefficients-applicable to shielded as well as unshielded resonators-is described, based upon the splitting of frequencies in pairs of coupled resonators; and detailed comparisons are given between calculated and measured resonance spectra: for bird-cage resonators, with and without shields, and for the TEM resonator.

  5. Oriented Two-Dimensional Porous Organic Cage Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Song, Qilei; Massey, Alan; Chong, Samantha Y; Chen, Linjiang; Sun, Shijing; Hasell, Tom; Raval, Rasmita; Sivaniah, Easan; Cheetham, Anthony K; Cooper, Andrew I

    2017-08-01

    The formation of two-dimensional (2D) oriented porous organic cage crystals (consisting of imine-based tetrahedral molecules) on various substrates (such as silicon wafers and glass) by solution-processing is reported. Insight into the crystallinity, preferred orientation, and cage crystal growth was obtained by experimental and computational techniques. For the first time, structural defects in porous molecular materials were observed directly and the defect concentration could be correlated with crystal growth rate. These oriented crystals suggest potential for future applications, such as solution-processable molecular crystalline 2D membranes for molecular separations. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Mutual Inductance in the Bird-Cage Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, James

    1997-05-01

    Formulas are derived to account for the effect of the mutual inductances, between all meshes, upon the electrical resonance spectra bird-cage resonators, and similar structures such as the TEM resonator of P. K. H. Röschmann (United States Patent 4,746,866) and J. T. Vaughanet al.(Magn. Reson. Med.32,206, 1994). The equations are parameterized in terms of isolated mesh frequencies and coupling coefficients, and ought therefore apply not only to simple magnetic couplings used in the derivation, but to electromagnetic couplings as well. A method for measuring the coupling coefficients-applicable to shielded as well as unshielded resonators-is described, based upon the splitting of frequencies in pairs of coupled resonators; and detailed comparisons are given between calculated and measured resonance spectra: for bird-cage resonators, with and without shields, and for the TEM resonator.

  7. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH); Turk, Thomas R. (Mentor, OH)

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  8. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH)

    1987-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  9. Macromolecularly "Caged" Carbon Nanoparticles for Intracellular Trafficking via Switchable Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K; Srivastava, Indrajit; Tripathi, Indu; Daza, Enrique; Ostadhossein, Fatemeh; Pan, Dipanjan

    2017-02-08

    Reversible switching of photoluminescence (PL) of carbon nanoparticles (CNP) can be achieved with counterionic macromolecular caging and decaging at the nanoscale. A negatively charged uncoated, "bare" CNP with high luminescence loses its PL when positively charged macromolecules are wrapped around its surface. Prepared caged carbons could regain their emission only through interaction with anionic surfactant molecules, representing anionic amphiphiles of endocytic membranes. This process could be verified by gel electrophoresis, spectroscopically and in vitro confocal imaging studies. Results indicated for the first time that luminescence switchable CNPs can be synthesized for efficient intracellular tracking. This study further supports the origin of photoluminescence in CNP as a surface phenomenon correlated a function of characteristic charged macromolecules.

  10. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-13

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  11. Segmental kyphosis after cervical interbody fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a comparative study on 2 different PEEK cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae; Sohn, Seil; Lee, Sungjoon

    2015-02-01

    Retrospective comparative study. Two polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages of different designs were compared in terms of the postoperative segmental kyphosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Segmental kyphosis occasionally occurs after the use of a stand-alone cage for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Although PEEK material seems to have less risk of segmental kyphosis compared with other materials, the occurrence of segmental kyphosis for PEEK cages has been reported to be from 0% to 29%. There have been a few reports that addressed the issue of PEEK cage design. A total of 41 consecutive patients who underwent single-level anterior discectomy and fusion with a stand-alone cage were included. Either a round tube-type (Solis; 18 patients, S-group) or a trapezoidal tube-type (MC+; 23 patients, M-group) cage was used. The contact area between the cage and the vertebral body is larger in MC+ than in Solis, and anchoring pins were present in the Solis cage. The effect of the cage type on the segmental angle (SA) (lordosis vs. kyphosis) at postoperative month 24 was analyzed. Preoperatively, segmental lordosis was present in 12/18 S-group and 16/23 M-group patients (P=0.84). The SA was more lordotic than the preoperative angle in both groups just after surgery, with no difference between groups (P=0.39). At 24 months, segmental lordosis was observed in 9/18 S-group and 20/23 M-group patients (P=0.01). The patients in M-group were 7.83 times more likely than patients in S-group (P=0.04; odds ratio, 7.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-56.28) not to develop segmental kyphosis. The design of the PEEK cage used may influence the SA, and this association needs to be considered when using stand-alone PEEK cages.

  12. Inherent helicity in an extended tris-bipyridyl molecular cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, D.; Lindoy, L.; Meehan, G.; Turner, P. (University of Sydney)

    2010-11-16

    A new molecular cage incorporating three bipyridyl units has been synthesised by a conventional multi-step procedure as well as, much more efficiently, by a Ni(II) template procedure; an X-ray structure of the nickel complex shows that it adopts an exo configuration of each of the bridgehead nitrogen lone pairs, the central metal ion acts to promote a triple helical twist that extends {approx}22 {angstrom} along the axial length of the molecule.

  13. Early access to perches in caged White Leghorn pullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W; Jefferson-Moore, K Y; Einstein, M E; Rubin, D A; Hester, P Y

    2012-09-01

    Osteoporosis, a progressive decrease in mineralized structural bone, causes 20 to 35% of all mortalities in caged White Leghorn hens. Previous research has focused on manipulating the egg laying environment to improve skeletal health, with little research on the pullet. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of perch access on pullet health, bone mineralization, muscle deposition, and stress in caged White Leghorns. From 0 to 17 wk of age, half of the birds were placed in cages with 2 round metal perches, while the other half did not have perches (controls). Bone mineralization and bone size traits were determined in the tibia, femur, sternum, humerus, ulna, radius, and phalange (III carpometacarpal) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Muscle weights were obtained for the breast and left leg (drum and thigh). A sample of pullets from each cage was evaluated for foot health, BW, right adrenal weight, and packed cell volume. Most measurements were taken at 3, 6, and 12 wk of age. Access to perches did not affect breast muscle weight, percentage breast muscle, percentage leg muscle, bone mineral density, bone length, bone width, adrenal weight, packed cell volume, and hyperkeratosis of the foot-pad and toes. There were no differences in BW, bone mineral content, and leg muscle weight at 3 and 6 wk of age. However, at 12 wk of age, BW (P = 0.025), bone mineral content of the tibia, sternum, and humerus (P = 0.015), and the left leg muscle weight (P = 0.006) increased in pullets with access to perches as compared with controls. These results suggest that perch access has beneficial effects on pullet health by stimulating leg muscle deposition and increasing the mineral content of certain bones without causing a concomitant decrease in bone mineral density.

  14. Crop impaction resulting from feather ball formation in caged layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T Y; Aye, P P; Harr, B S

    1999-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in commercial poultry, including feather pulling and pica, have been known to occur when birds are exposed to an unfamiliar environment. We report here the development of crop impactions resulting from feather ball formation. Twelve specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were placed in one of three cages housed among a commercial layer flock in three different buildings on a farm site. Three weeks after placement, the birds were removed from the cages and given a physical exam. Chickens were thin, and one bird in each of the three caged groups had a palpable mass at the level of the thoracic inlet. At necropsy, a mass was noted in the crop. Upon further dissection, a wet, foul-smelling mass consisting of feathers and feed debris was recovered. Results from our case indicate that unfamiliar surroundings can cause pica in birds. Hence, avian researchers and veterinarians planning to introduce new birds into a flock, i.e., SPF birds, should consider the birds' previous environmental conditions prior to placement because sudden placement in unfamiliar surroundings can result in pica.

  15. Validation of a self-administered modified CAGE test (CAGE-C) in a somatic hospital ward: comparison with biochemical markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, F; Hardt, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The time frame for the original CAGE questionnaire is lifetime and it does not quantify drinking frequency and may be less suitable in a population with very few teetotalers. The purpose of this study was to validate a variant of the CAGE questionnaire and compare it with the outcome...

  16. Cage drying and the application of a dry treatment (absorbent cornstarch powder) as a means to diminish Campylobacter on transport cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages soiled with Campylobacter-positive feces have been shown to facilitate cross contamination of broilers. Campylobacter organisms are sensitive to dry stress. Allowing feces left on transport cage flooring to dry during extended periods of nonuse would be an effective method ...

  17. (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m5_rp_exp_details#en Data acquisition method HeliScopeCAGE ( http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/protocol...ocol RNA extraction protocol Material type RNA Material type RNA tube RNA tube ID (.../280 Ratio (260nm/280nm) of the sample Concentration RNA concentration lsid RNA Integrity number Library protocol Library protocol... Library ID Library ID Sequence protocol Sequence protocol ...Machine name Machine name Run name Run name Flowcell channel Flowcell channel Alignment protocol Alignment protocol

  18. HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thod - Data analysis method HeliScopeCAGE ( http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/protocols/heliscope.html ) Delve (Ali...Collaboration Collaboration Provider Cell provider Extraction protocol RNA extraction protocol...ion RNA Integrity number RNA Integrity number lsid Sample group ID Library protocol Library protocol... Library ID Library ID Sequence protocol Sequence protocol Machine name Machine name Run ...name Run name Flowcell channel Flowcell channel Alignment protocol Alignment protocol BAM file Read mapping

  19. Cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions.

  20. Structure and energetic characteristics of methane hydrates. From single cage to triple cage: A DFT-D study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricheva, N. I.; Ischenko, A. A.; Yusupov, V. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Girichev, G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Electronic, geometrical, vibrational and energetic characteristics of the ice I TDT fragment consisted of dodecahedron H2O[512] (D) fused with two tetrakaidecahedrons H2O[51262] (T) and of the TDT cluster with three encapsulated CH4 molecules (3CH4·TDT) were calculated using a DFT/B97-D/6-311++G(2d,2p) approach. Binding energies, hydrogen bonding energies, energies of encapsulation of methane molecules into small D- and large T-cages of the TDT fragment, energies of frontier orbitals, the translational and librational frequencies, as well as the intramolecular vibrations of methane within the cages of different sizes were studied. Similar characteristics of isolated D- and T-cages and clathrates CH4·D and CH4·T were studied as function of compression/expansion of their oxygen skeletons using DFT/B97-D, LC-B3LYP, B3LYP-D2 methods.

  1. Flow Field Characteristics of the Rotor Cage in Turbo Air Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lijie; LIU Jiaxiang; LIU Shengzhao

    2009-01-01

    The turbo air classifier is widely used powder classification equipment in a variety of fields. The flow field characteristics of the turbo air classifier are important basis for the improvement of the turbo air classifier's structural design. The flow field characteristics of the rotor cage in turbo air classifiers were investigated under different operating conditions by laser Doppler velocimeter(LDV), and a measure diminishing the axial velocity is proposed. The investigation results show that the tangential velocity of the air flow inside the rotor cage is different from the rotary speed of the rotor cage on the same measurement point due to the influences of both the negative pressure at the exit and the rotation of the rotor cage. The tangential velocity of the air flow likewise decreases as the radius decreases in the case of the rotor cage's low rotary speed. In contrast, the tangential velocity of the air flow increases as the radius decreases in the case of the rotor cage's high rotary speed. Meanwhile, the vortex inside the rotor cage is found to occur near the pressure side of the blade when the rotor cage's rotary speed is less than the tangential velocity of air flow. On the contrary, the vortex is found to occur near the blade suction side once the rotor cage's rotary speed is higher than the tangential velocity of air flow. Inside the rotor cage, the axial velocity could not be disregarded and is largely determined by the distances between the measurement point and the exit.

  2. Blood parameters in fattening pigs fed whole-ear corn silage and housed in group pens or in metabolic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Petrera, F; Dal Prà, A; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of whole-ear corn silage (WECS) in diets for advanced fattening heavy pigs (substitution for part of the dry corn and wheat bran) allocated or not in metabolic cages on the main blood parameters. The high-moisture shelled corn is largely used in pig feeding while WECS is less often used despite the fact that it increases the DM crop yield. Three experimental diets were fed to 27 barrows (Italian Large White × Italian Duroc), with an average BW of 98.2 (±5.6) kg at the start of the trial, and randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups including a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals (corn, barley, and wheat, 80.2% DM in total), soybean meal (9% DM), wheat bran (8% DM), minerals and supplements (2.8% DM), and 2 diets containing WECS (15 or 30% DM referred to as 15WECS and 30WECS, respectively) in partial or complete substitution for wheat bran and corn meal. The pigs were randomly housed in 9 pens with 3 animals per pen and 3 pens per dietary treatment. Six pigs per each of the 3 treatments were moved from the pens to individual metabolic cages for 3 consecutive periods (2 pigs per treatment per period). Each period lasted 14 d, and blood was collected at the start and at the end of the periods. Blood was drawn from the jugular vein before feed distribution in the morning, at 14 d intervals, and analyzed for hematological, metabolic, and serum protein profiles. The effect of the metabolic cage housing was included in the statistical model to compare the results obtained in the 2 different environments of restrained and group-housed barrows. The WECS affected the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The main diet effect on plasma metabolites was recorded for plasma NEFA, with higher values in WECS diets compared with the CON. The metabolic cage housing affected both hematological (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) and metabolic (protein and

  3. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

  4. Synthesis and photochemical properties of PEGylated coumarin-caged ceramides for cell studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ah; Day, Jenna; Lirette, Carol Ann; Costain, Willard J; Johnston, Linda J; Bittman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Caged ceramide analogues (C6-, C16-, C18-, C22- and C24-Cer) have been prepared by introducing a hydrophilic coumarin-based cage bearing a short polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain. (6-Bromo-7-mTEGylated-coumarin-4-yl)methyl (Btc) caged ceramide showed efficient photo-uncaging to release the parent ceramide upon direct exposure to 350 nm UV light; in contrast (7-mTEGylated-coumarin-4-yl)methyl (Tc) caged ceramide was photolysed more slowly. In preliminary experiments, Btc-caged ceramides were taken up by cells and their photolysis led to decreases in cell viability, but not to activation of caspase enzymes, suggesting that either reactive oxygen species or an alternate caspase-independent pathway may be responsible for the decreases in cell viability caused by photolysis of caged ceramides.

  5. Design and performance of a double-tuned bird-cage coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Alan R.

    The "high-pass" and "low-pass" designations commonly given to bird-cage coils derive in each case from the relationship of the individual sections of the bird cage to simple filters. By extension of the concept of constructing a bird-cage coil from elementary filter sections, it is possible to create coils which support "bird-cage mode" resonances at more than one frequency. Designs based on both simple bandpass and band-stop filters, for example, provide means to realize bird-cage coils which may be tuned simultaneously to two frequencies. Construction and performance of a band-stop bird cage operating at both 200 and 81 MHz are described.

  6. Design And Development Of Roll Cage For An All-Terrain Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelan Chaudhari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to design, develop and fabricate a roll cage for an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV in accordance with the rulebook of BAJA 2013 given by SAE. A roll cage is a skeleton of an ATV. The roll cage not only forms the structural base but also a 3-D shell surrounding the occupant which protects the occupant in case of impact and roll over incidents. The roll cage also adds to the aesthetics of a vehicle. The design and development comprises of material selection, chassis and frame design, cross section determination, determining strength requirements of roll cage, stress analysis and simulations to test the ATV against failure. Finally the roll cage is fabricated as per the tools and techniques available in the workshop.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Feddes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age. The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively, CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1. The shift to manure belt systems needs to be encouraged since this housing system significantly decreases the production of GHG.

  8. Are assemblages of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata enhanced in sediments beneath offshore fish cages?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Riera; Oscar Prez; Myriam Rodrguez; Eva Ramos; scar Monterroso

    2014-01-01

    Abundances of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata were counted through a monitoring assessment study of fish cages in Barranco Hondo (NE Tenerife). Seven campaigns were conducted from November 2007 to June 2010 and temporal variations were found, as well as differences among sampling stations. The poly-chaete H. carunculata obtained its highest abundance in sediments beneath fish cages throughout the study period. Thus, the assemblages of this omnivorous species were favoured by the presence of fish cages.

  9. Effect of steerable cage placement during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion on lumbar lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Timothy E; Viljoen, Stephanus V; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2014-03-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) is commonly used for the treatment of a variety of degenerative spine disorders. Recently, steerable interbody cages have been developed which potentially allow for greater restoration of lumbar lordosis. Here we describe a technique and radiographic results following minimally invasive placement of steerable cages through a bilateral approach. A retrospective review was conducted of the charts and radiographs of 15 consecutive patients who underwent 19 levels of bilateral MIS-TLIF with the placement of steerable cages. These were compared to 10 patients who underwent 16 levels of unilateral MIS-TLIF with the placement of bullet cages. The average age, body mass index, distribution of the levels operated and follow-up were similar in both groups. The average height of the steerable cage placed was 10.9 mm compared to 8.5mm for bullet cages. The preoperative focal Cobb's angle per level was similar between both groups with a mean of -5.3 degrees for the steerable cage group and -4.8 degrees for the bullet cage group. There was a significant improvement in postoperative Cobb's angle after placement of a steerable cage with a mean of -13.7 (p<0.01) and this persisted at the last follow-up with -13 degrees (p<0.01). There was no significant change in Cobb's angle after bullet cage placement with -5.7 degrees postoperatively and a return to the baseline preoperative Cobb's angle of -4.8 at the last follow-up. Steerable cage placement for MIS-TLIF improves focal lordosis compared to bullet cage placement.

  10. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Gazi Md. Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and ...

  11. Shape assisted fabrication of fluorescent cages of squarate based metal-organic coordination frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Krishna, Katla Sai; George, Subi J; Eswaramoorthy, Muthuswamy; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2013-05-11

    Micronic cage structures of squarate based metal-organic coordination frameworks (MOCFs) have been fabricated for the first time by specific anion selective etching of metal squarate cubes. Time and stoichiometry dependent synthesis and the corresponding microscopic studies have provided mechanistic insight into the cage formation. Furthermore, a non-covalent post-synthetic strategy has been adopted to functionalize the micronic cubes or cages with chromophores rendering the resulting hybrids green fluorescent.

  12. SAMURAI-TPC: Field Cage Design and Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F.; Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yenello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI-TPC is a time-projection chamber to be used in conjunction with the SAMURAI spectrometer being built at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Facility at RIKEN, Japan. It will be used to measure charged pions, protons and light ions. The pi+/pi- ratios from heavy-ion collisions should provide constraints on the asymmetry term in the nuclear equation of state at densities about twice saturation density. In this talk, the design and operation of the field cage, an essential part of the detector, will be discussed, along with the results of prototype testing. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0004835.

  13. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Esakkidurai; M Kumarraja; K Pitchumani

    2003-04-01

    Phenol is nitrated regioselectively by fuming nitric acid inside the cages of faujasite zeolites (dependent on the loading level) and a remarkable orthoselectivity is observed in solid state nitration. Toluene and chlorobenzene also containing ortho-/para-orienting substituents, undergo faster nitration, though the regioselectivity is less significant in zeolite media. The results are explained on the basis of diffusion and binding of phenol inside zeolite, which facilitate regioselectivity (and which is absent in toluene and chlorobenzene). Other advantages of employing zeolites as media for mild and selective nitration are also highlighted.

  14. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S.Kapnichor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system involved all the mechanical components along with the sensors used to restrict the rotating operations, stop and go operations etc.

  15. Bambusurils as effective ion caging agents: Does desolvation guide conformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Tânia F. G. G.; Nunes, Sandra C. C.; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M. V. D.; Pais, Alberto A. C. C.

    2017-03-01

    Water soluble bambusurils can bind and isolate inorganic anions in the center of the hydrophobic cavity, with high affinity and selectivity. This makes them appealing anion carriers and ion transporters for a wide range of biomedical applications, including in ion-channel diseases of the muscles, bones and brain. For understanding the bambusuril ion caging ability in aqueous media, molecular dynamics simulations, including free energy calculations are used. It is seen that the ion is hermetically sealed inside the cavity, as a result of a concerted action involving conformation and desolvation of both ion and bambusuril cavity.

  16. Concerning the Optimal Salt Bridge for Trp-cage Stabilization†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. Victoria; Byrne, Aimee; Stewart, James; Andersen, Niels H.

    2011-01-01

    Gai and co-workers (Bunagan, M. R. (2006) J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 3759-3763) reported computational design studies suggesting that a D9E mutation would stabilize the Trp-cage. Experimental studies for this mutation were reported in 2008 (Hudaky, P. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 1007-1016); the authors suggested that [D9E]-TC5b presented a more compact, and melting resistant structure due to the “optimal distance between the two sides of the molecule”. Nonetheless, the authors reported essentially the same CD melting temperature, 38±0.3 °C, for TC5b and its [D9E] mutant. In this study, a more stable Trp-cage, DAYAQ WLKDG GPSSG RPPPS, was examined by NMR and CD with the following mutations: [D9E], [D9R,R16E], [R16Orn], [D9E,R16Orn], [R16K], and [D9E,R16K]. Of these, the [D9E]-mutant displayed the smallest acidification induced change in the apparent Tm. In analogy to the prior study, the CD melts of TC10b and its [D9E] mutant were, however, very similar; all of the other mutations were significantly fold destabilizing by all measures. A detailed analysis indicates that the original D9/R16 salt bridge is optimal with regard to fold cooperativity and fold stabilization. Evidence for salt-bridging is also provided for a swapped pair, the [D9R,R16E]-mutant. Model systems reveal that an ionized aspartate at the C-terminus of a helix significantly decreases intrinsic helicity, a requirement for Trp-cage fold stability. The CD evidence which was cited as supporting increased fold stability for the [D9E]-TC5b at higher temperatures appears to be a reflection of increased helix stability in both the folded and unfolded state rather than a more favorable salt bridge. The present study also provides evidence for other Trp-cage stabilizing roles of the R16 sidechain. PMID:21222485

  17. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  18. Evaluation of cage micro-environment of mice housed on various types of bedding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schweitzer, I.; Langley, S.H.; Smith, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of environmental factors can affect the outcomes of studies using laboratory rodents. One such factor is bedding. Several new bedding materials and processing methods have been introduced to the market in recent years, but there are few reports of their performance. In the studies reported here, we have assessed the cage micro-environment (in-cage ammonia levels, temperature, and humidity) of mice housed on various kinds of bedding and their combinations. We also compared results for bedding supplied as Nestpaks versus loose bedding. We studied C57BL/6J mice (commonly used) and NOD/LtJ mice (heavy soilers) that were maintained, except in one study, in static duplex cages. In general, we observed little effect of bedding type on in-cage temperature or humidity; however, there was considerable variation in ammonia concentrations. The lowest ammonia concentrations occurred in cages housing mice on hardwood bedding or a mixture of corncob and alpha cellulose. In one experiment comparing the micro-environments of NOD/LtJ male mice housed on woodpulp fiber bedding in static versus ventilated caging, we showed a statistically significant decrease in ammonia concentrations in ventilated cages. Therefore, our data show that bedding type affects the micro-environment in static cages and that effects may differ for ventilated cages, which are being used in vivaria with increasing frequency.

  19. Finite element analysis of lordosis restoration with anterior longitudinal ligament release and lateral hyperlordotic cage placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Juan S; Harris, Jeffrey E; Beckman, J M; Turner, Alexander W L; Mundis, Gregory M; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2015-04-01

    Restoring sagittal alignment is an important factor in the treatment of spinal deformities. Recent investigations have determined that releasing the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and placing hyperlordotic cages can increase lordosis, while minimizing need for 3 column osteotomies. The influences of parameters such as cage height and angle have not been determined. Finite element analysis was employed to assess the extent of lordosis achievable after placement of different sized lordotic cages. A 3-dimensional model of a L3-4 segment was used. Disc distraction was simulated by inserting interbody cages mid-body in the disc space. Analyses were performed in the following conditions: (1) intact, (2) ALL release, (3) ALL release + facetectomy, and (4) ALL release + posterior column osteotomy. Changes in segmental lordosis, disc height, foraminal height, and foraminal area were measured. After ALL resection and insertion of hyperlordotic cages, lordosis was increased in all cases. The lordosis achieved by the shorter cages was less due to posterior disc height maintained by the facet joints. A facetectomy increased segmental lordosis, but led to contact between the spinous processes. For some configurations, a posterior column osteotomy was required if the end goal was to match cage angle to intradiscal angle. Increased segmental lumbar lordosis is achievable with hyperlordotic cages after ALL resection. Increased cage height tended to increase the amount of lordosis achieved, although in some cases additional posterior bone resection was required to maximize lordosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact on regional lumbar lordosis.

  20. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  1. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production.

  2. Sensitivity of BN nano-cages to caffeine and nicotine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Alireza; Baei, Mohammad T.; Tazikeh Lemeski, E.; Shahini, Malihe

    2014-12-01

    Adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules over B12N12 and B16N16 nano-cages were investigated by using first-principles calculations to define whether BN nano-cages are applicable for filtering or sensing caffeine and nicotine molecules. The chemisorption energy of nicotine molecule on BN nano-cages is very stronger than caffeine molecule. Upon the adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules, the electronic properties of the BN nano-cages can be significantly changed, being too much sensitized on the caffeine and nicotine adsorptions.

  3. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Chen, H; Yu, T; Li, B

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  4. Porous titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium cage has better osseointegration and less micromotion than a poly-ether-ether-ketone cage in sheep vertebral fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Hua; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Li, Xiao-Kang; Yuan, Chao-Fan; Hao, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Interbody fusion cages made of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) have been widely used in clinics for spinal disorders treatment; however, they do not integrate well with surrounding bone tissue. Ti-6Al-4V (Ti) has demonstrated greater osteoconductivity than PEEK, but the traditional Ti cage is generally limited by its much greater elastic modulus (110 GPa) than natural bone (0.05-30 GPa). In this study, we developed a porous Ti cage using electron beam melting (EBM) technique to reduce its elastic modulus and compared its spinal fusion efficacy with a PEEK cage in a preclinical sheep anterior cervical fusion model. A porous Ti cage possesses a fully interconnected porous structure (porosity: 68 ± 5.3%; pore size: 710 ± 42 μm) and a similar Young's modulus as natural bone (2.5 ± 0.2 GPa). When implanted in vivo, the porous Ti cage promoted fast bone ingrowth, achieving similar bone volume fraction at 6 months as the PEEK cage without autograft transplantation. Moreover, it promoted better osteointegration with higher degree (2-10x) of bone-material binding, demonstrated by histomorphometrical analysis, and significantly higher mechanical stability (P < 0.01), shown by biomechanical testing. The porous Ti cage fabricated by EBM could achieve fast bone ingrowth. In addition, it had better osseointegration and superior mechanical stability than the conventional PEEK cage, demonstrating great potential for clinical application. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  5. ErbB-2 blockade and prenyltransferase inhibition alter epidermal growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking and enhance (111)In-DTPA-hEGF Auger electron radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Bart; Darbar, Sonali; Hernandez, Rebecca; Kersemans, Veerle; Tullis, Iain; Barber, Paul R; Smart, Sean; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Reilly, Raymond; Vallis, Katherine A

    2011-05-01

    The intracellular distribution of Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals is a determinant of cytotoxicity. However, the mechanisms by which these agents are routed through the cell are ill understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how trafficking of (111)In-labeled human epidermal growth factor ((111)In-DTPA-hEGF) relates to that of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and whether coadministration of agents that modulate EGFR signaling alters the efficacy of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF. The spatiotemporal interaction between AlexaFluor488-EGF (AF488-EGF) and Cy3-conjugated anti-EGFR antibody (Cy3-anti-EGFR) was studied in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging. (111)In internalization and nuclear fractionation assays were performed to investigate the effect of the ErbB-2-blocking antibody trastuzumab and a prenyltransferase inhibitor, L-778,123, on the subcellular localization of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF in MDA-MB-468 (1.3 × 10(6) EGFR per cell; ErbB-2 negative) and 231-H2N (0.2 × 10(6) EGFR per cell; 0.4 × 10(5) ErbB-2 per cell) cell lines. The cytotoxicity of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF (0-64 nM) plus trastuzumab (0-50 μg/mL) or L-778,123 (0-22.5 μM) was measured using clonogenic assays in a panel of breast cancer cell lines that express different levels of EGFR and ErB-2. Clonogenic survival data were used to calculate combination indices. Tumor growth inhibition was measured in vivo in 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice treated with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF plus trastuzumab or L-788,123. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we showed that EGF interacts with EGFR in the cytoplasm and nucleus after internalization of the ligand-receptor complex in MDA-MB-468 cells. Nuclear localization of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF is enhanced by trastuzumab and L-788,123. Trastuzumab and L-788,123 sensitized 231-H2N cells to (111)In-DTPA-hEGF. Nuclear localization and cytotoxicity of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF were significantly

  6. [Rib cage ostheosynthesis. Literature review and case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quijano, Andrés; Varón-Cotés, Juan Carlos; García-Herreros-Hellal, Luis Gerardo; Espinosa-Moya, Beatriz; Rivero-Rapalino, Oscar; Salazar-Marulanda, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the chest wall include sternum and rib fractures. Traditionally they are managed conservatively due to the anatomy of the rib cage that allows most of them to remain stable and to form a callus that unites the fractured segments. In spite of this management, some patients present with chronic pain or instability of the wall which makes them require some type of fixation. The present article performs a literature review based on 4 cases. The first case was a 61 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, with a great deformity of the chest wall associated with subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax. The second case was a 51 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, initially managed at another institution, who despite treatment, had persistent pain and dyspnoea. The third case was a 30 year-old man that suffered a motor vehicle accident, with resulting pain and crepitation of the rib cage and with diagnostic images showing multiple rib fractures. The last case is a 62 year-old man that fell down the stairs, with blunt chest trauma with high intensity pain, dyspnoea and basal ipsilateral hypoventilation. Rib fracture fixation offers a good alternative in selected patients to decrease associated morbidity, leading to a patient's fast return to his or her working life. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  8. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior.

  9. Automated Operant Conditioning in the Mouse Home Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nikolas A.; Kanold, Patrick O.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems. Here, we describe a new system for automated operant conditioning, the Psibox. It is assembled from low cost parts, designed to fit within typical commercial wire-top cages, and allows large numbers of mice to train independently in their home cages on positive reinforcement tasks. We found that groups of mice trained together learned to accurately detect sounds within 2 weeks of training. In addition, individual mice isolated from groups also showed good task performance. The Psibox facilitates high-throughput testing of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills in mice, and provides a readily available animal population for studies ranging from experience-dependent neural plasticity to rodent models of mental disorders. PMID:28298887

  10. Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Timo P.; Tenhunen, Asmo; Arkkio, Antero

    2005-06-01

    Eccentric rotor motion induces an unbalanced magnetic pull between the rotor and stator of cage induction motors. Recently, a linear parametric model of this eccentricity force due to the arbitrary rotor motion was presented. The purpose of this study is to combine this electromagnetic force model with a simple mechanical rotor model, and further, to demonstrate the rotordynamic response induced by this electromechanical interaction. An electromechanical rotor model is derived on the basis of the Jeffcott rotor with two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The electromechanical parameters of these motors were estimated from the numerical simulations carried out separately. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the natural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in motors operating at or near the first bending critical speed. Excluding the potential rotordynamic instability, the numerical results indicate that the electromechanical interaction reduces effectively the unbalance response close to the first bending critical speed.

  11. Caged fluorescent haptens reveal the generation of cryptic epitopes in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Carl; Andersson, Sofia I; Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Bergström, Jörgen; Bauer, Brigitte; Jonsson, Charlotte A; Ericson, Marica B; Broo, Kerstin S

    2011-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most prevalent form of human immunotoxicity. It is caused by skin exposure to haptens, i.e., protein-reactive, low-molecular-weight chemical compounds, which form hapten-protein complexes (HPCs) in the skin, triggering the immune system. These immunogenic HPCs are elusive. In this study a series of thiol-reactive caged fluorescent haptens, i.e., bromobimanes, were deployed in combination with two-photon fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and proteomics to identify possible hapten targets in proteins in human skin. Key targets found were the basal keratinocytes and the keratins K5 and K14. Particularly, cysteine 54 of K5 was found to be haptenated by the bromobimanes. In addition, elevated levels of anti-keratin antibodies were found in the sera of mice exposed to bromobimanes in vivo. The results indicate a general mechanism in which thiol-reactive haptens generate cryptic epitopes normally concealed from the immune system. In addition, keratinocytes and keratin seem to have an important role in the mechanism behind ACD, which is a subject for further investigations.

  12. Comparative Study between a Curved and a Wedge PEEK Cage for Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Song, Joon Suk; Heo, Weon; Cha, Jae Hoon; Rhee, Dong Youl

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a curved polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage in comparison with a wedge PEEK cage according to radiologic and clinical outcomes in patients with cervical degenerative disease. A total of 37 patients who suffering from cervical disc disease with radiculopathy or myelopathy were reviewed retrospectively. Seventeen patients were underwent anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion with a curved shape PEEK cage (curved cage group), and twenty patients with wedge shape PEEK cage (wedge cage group). Clinical assessment was graded using Odom's criteria, NDI score and VAS score. For radiologic analysis, disc height (DH), segmental angle (SA), subsidence were measured at the preoperative and last follow up. A comparison of the preoperative and postoperative results revealed improvements after the surgery in the DH and SA in both cage groups. The change of postoperative DH between the preoperative and the last follow-up in wedge cage group and curved cage group was 6.85% and 25.5%, respectively. The change of postoperative SA was 1.75° and 0.95°, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the DH and SA between the 2 groups. The subsidence rate in the wedge cage group and curved cage group was 20% and 6%, respectively. The 2 different cage groups showed significant improvements in the disc height, segmental angle and clinical outcomes. However, the shape of PEEK Cage influences the tendency for subsidence. Increasing contact surface area and fitting into two adjacent vertebral body prevent significant subsidence.

  13. A pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene cage: Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent A.; Jeppesen, Jan O.; Levillain, Eric

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of tetrathiafulvalene-cage 4 containing three monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene units has been prepared employing a general and efficient synthetic approach. X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that the cage is able to accommodate solvent molecules within a cavity in the solid state....

  14. Development of an integrated CAD-FEA system for patient-specific design of spinal cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzheng; Pu, Fang; Xu, Liqiang; Zhang, Linlin; Liang, Hang; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo

    2017-03-01

    Spinal cages are used to create a suitable mechanical environment for interbody fusion in cases of degenerative spinal instability. Due to individual variations in bone structures and pathological conditions, patient-specific cages can provide optimal biomechanical conditions for fusion, strengthening patient recovery. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a valuable tool in the biomechanical evaluation of patient-specific cage designs, but the time- and labor-intensive process of modeling limits its clinical application. In an effort to facilitate the design and analysis of patient-specific spinal cages, an integrated CAD-FEA system (CASCaDeS, comprehensive analytical spinal cage design system) was developed. This system produces a biomechanical-based patient-specific design of spinal cages and is capable of rapid implementation of finite element modeling. By comparison with commercial software, this system was validated and proven to be both accurate and efficient. CASCaDeS can be used to design patient-specific cages with a superior biomechanical performance to commercial spinal cages.

  15. Mercury accumulation in caged Corbicula: rate of uptake and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Douglas S G

    2010-09-01

    The uptake and seasonal fluctuations of total mercury were followed in caged and uncaged Asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea, over a 1-year period in South River, Virginia. Mercury was rapidly accumulated in clams transplanted from a nominally uncontaminated site into cages on the contaminated South River, reaching 0.99 microg g(-1) dry mass within the first month. Resident clams moved to cages had higher mercury contents after the first month (2.04 microg g(-1) dry mass) and at all subsequent times in the study. Large monthly fluctuations in mercury were noted for both resident caged and transplant caged clams with a notable peak occurring in early spring (4.31 microg g(-1) dry mass in resident caged clams). Tissue mass of caged clams steadily increased through the winter and early spring. Adjustment of mercury concentrations for tissue mass changes indicated that the changes in mercury contents were primarily due to uptake/release rather than changes in tissue mass (concentration/dilution). The present study demonstrates the utility of using caged Corbicula as mercury biomonitors and illustrates the importance of accounting for large, short-term changes of mercury content in Corbicula when designing long-term biomonitoring studies.

  16. Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.R.; Alaux, C.; Costa, C.; Csaki, C.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may c

  17. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness Following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrethe eBrantsæter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 and 21 (N = 48 weeks of age selected from 50 and 48 independent cages. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages.

  18. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  19. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  20. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  1. Small female rib cage fracture in frontal sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Ash, Joseph; Poplin, Jerry; McMurry, Tim; Sochor, Mark; Crandall, Jeff

    2017-01-02

    The 2 objectives of this study are to (1) examine the rib and sternal fractures sustained by small stature elderly females in simulated frontal crashes and (2) determine how the findings are characterized by prior knowledge and field data. A test series was conducted to evaluate the response of 5 elderly (average age 76 years) female postmortem human subjects (PMHS), similar in mass and size to a 5th percentile female, in 30 km/h frontal sled tests. The subjects were restrained on a rigid planar seat by bilateral rigid knee bolsters, pelvic blocks, and a custom force-limited 3-point shoulder and lap belt. Posttest subject injury assessment included identifying rib cage fractures by means of a radiologist read of a posttest computed tomography (CT) and an autopsy. The data from a motion capture camera system were processed to provide chest deflection, defined as the movement of the sternum relative to the spine at the level of T8.  A complementary field data investigation involved querying the NASS-CDS database over the years 1997-2012. The targeted cases involved belted front seat small female passenger vehicle occupants over 40 years old who were injured in 25 to 35 km/h delta-V frontal crashes (11 to 1 o'clock). Peak upper shoulder belt tension averaged 1,970 N (SD = 140 N) in the sled tests. For all subjects, the peak x-axis deflection was recorded at the sternum with an average of -44.5 mm or 25% of chest depth. The thoracic injury severity based on the number and distribution of rib fractures yielded 4 subjects coded as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3 (serious) and one as AIS 5 (critical). The NASS-CDS field data investigation of small females identified 205 occupants who met the search criteria. Rib fractures were reported for 2.7% of the female occupants. The small elderly test subjects sustained a higher number of rib cage fractures than expected in what was intended to be a minimally injurious frontal crash test condition. Neither field studies nor

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Cage of High-speed Angular Contact Ball Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓四二; 谢鹏飞; 杨海生; 高银涛

    2012-01-01

    A dynamics formula was established for the flexible cage of high-speed angular contact ball bearing. A modified Craig-Bampton component mode synthetic method was used to establish the formula with regard to the flexibility of cage and based on a dynamic analysis of angular contact ball bearing, and a rigid-flexible multi-body dynamic analysis program was developed using ADAMS, which is verified by a computation example of Gupta. The results show that it' s not likely to keep the rotation smoothness of cage when the ratio of pocket clearance to guiding clearance and the ratio of radial load to axial load become too large or too small. By comparison, the flexible cage runs more smoothly than the rigid cage.

  3. Parameters estimation of squirrel-cage induction motors using ANN and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi Jirdehi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the transient behavior analysis of a squirrel-cage induction motor, the parameters of the single-cage and double-cage models are studied. These parameters are usually hard to obtain. This paper presents two new methods to predict the induction motor parameters in the single-cage and double-cage models based on artificial neural network (ANN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. For this purpose, the experimental data (manufacturer data of 20 induction motors with the different power are used. The experimental data are including of the starting torque and current, maximum torque, full load sleep, efficiency, rated active power and reactive power. The obtained results from the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are compared with each other and with the experimental data, which show a good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data. But the proposed ANFIS model is more accurate than the proposed ANN model.

  4. Agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization in smooth muscle: redundancy of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) and response kinetics, a caged compound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, Mykhaylo V; Momotani, Ko; Stevenson, Andra; Trentham, David R; Derewenda, Urszula; Derewenda, Zygmunt S; Read, Paul W; Gutkind, J Silvio; Somlyo, Avril V

    2013-11-22

    Many agonists, acting through G-protein-coupled receptors and Gα subunits of the heterotrimeric G-proteins, induce contraction of smooth muscle through an increase of [Ca(2+)]i as well as activation of the RhoA/RhoA-activated kinase pathway that amplifies the contractile force, a phenomenon known as Ca(2+) sensitization. Gα12/13 subunits are known to activate the regulator of G-protein signaling-like family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), which includes PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG) and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG). However, their contributions to Ca(2+)-sensitized force are not well understood. Using permeabilized blood vessels from PRG(-/-) mice and a new method to silence LARG in organ-cultured blood vessels, we show that both RhoGEFs are activated by the physiologically and pathophysiologically important thromboxane A2 and endothelin-1 receptors. The co-activation is the result of direct and independent activation of both RhoGEFs as well as their co-recruitment due to heterodimerization. The isolated recombinant C-terminal domain of PRG, which is responsible for heterodimerization with LARG, strongly inhibited Ca(2+)-sensitized force. We used photolysis of caged phenylephrine, caged guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) in solution, and caged GTPγS or caged GTP loaded on the RhoA·RhoGDI complex to show that the recruitment and activation of RhoGEFs is the cause of a significant time lag between the initial Ca(2+) transient and phasic force components and the onset of Ca(2+)-sensitized force.

  5. Comparative Study between a Curved and a Wedge PEEK Cage for Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Interbody Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Song, Joon Suk; Heo, Weon; Cha, Jae Hoon; Rhee, Dong Youl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a curved polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage in comparison with a wedge PEEK cage according to radiologic and clinical outcomes in patients with cervical degenerative disease...

  6. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente Evaluación del tratamiento de la enfermedad degenerativa del disco cervical por la artrodesis anterior utilizando placas asociadas con jaulas o jaulas en peec, aisladamente Evaluation of cervical degenerative disc disease treatment by anterior arthrodesis using plates associated with cages or cages in peek alone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    André Rafael Hübner; Marcelo Ribeiro Mendes; Jean Carlo Frigotto Queruz; Jean Marcel Dambrós; Álvaro Diego Heredia Suárez; Leandro de Freitas Spinelli

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS...

  7. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  8. Resonance Spectra of Caged Stringy Black Hole and Its Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I

    2015-01-01

    The Maggiore's method (MM), which evaluates the transition frequency that appears in the adiabatic invariant from the highly damped quasinormal mode (QNM) frequencies, is used to investigate the entropy/area spectra of the Garfinkle--Horowitz--Strominger black hole (GHSBH). Instead of the ordinary QNMs, we compute the boxed QNMs (BQNMs) that are the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined scalar fields in the GHSBH geometry. For this purpose, we assume that the GHSBH has a confining cavity (mirror) placed in the vicinity of the event horizon. We then show how the complex resonant frequencies of the caged GHSBH are computed using the Bessel differential equation that arises when the scalar perturbations around the event horizon are considered. Although the entropy/area is characterized by the GHSBH parameters, their quantization is shown to be independent of those parameters. However, both spectra are equally spaced.

  9. Resonance Spectra of Caged Stringy Black Hole and Its Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sakalli

    2015-01-01

    quasinormal mode (QNM frequencies, is used to investigate the entropy/area spectra of the Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black hole (GHSBH. Instead of the ordinary QNMs, we compute the boxed QNMs (BQNMs that are the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined scalar fields in the GHSBH geometry. For this purpose, we assume that the GHSBH has a confining cavity (mirror placed in the vicinity of the event horizon. We then show how the complex resonant frequencies of the caged GHSBH are computed using the Bessel differential equation that arises when the scalar perturbations around the event horizon are considered. Although the entropy/area is characterized by the GHSBH parameters, their quantization is shown to be independent of those parameters. However, both spectra are equally spaced.

  10. Chemistry and biology of the caged Garcinia xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-09-03

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70 % of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development.

  11. Classical Effective Field Theory and Caged Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kol, Barak

    2007-01-01

    Matched Asymptotic Expansion (MAE) is a useful technique in General Relativity and other fields whenever interaction takes place between physics at two different length scales. Here MAE is argued to be equivalent quite generally to Classical Effective Field Theory (ClEFT) where one (or more) of the zones is replaced by an effective theory whose terms are organized in order of increasing irrelevancy, as demonstrated by Goldberger and Rothstein in a certain gravitational context. The ClEFT perspective has advantages as the procedure is clearer, it allows a representation via Feynman diagrams, and divergences can be regularized and renormalized in standard field theoretic methods. As a side product we obtain a wide class of classical examples of regularization and renormalization, concepts which are usually associated with Quantum Field Theories. We demonstrate these ideas through the thermodynamics of caged black holes, both simplifying the non-rotating case, and computing the rotating case. In particular we ar...

  12. CAGE Analysis of China’s Trade Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun STOBER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gravity model of international trade states that trade interaction between two countries is in direct proportion to their size measured by Gross Domestic Product and in inverse proportion to the geographic distance. Conley and Ligon (2001 argued that the relevant economic distance between countries is often not the geographic distance. Thus, this study uses original datasets on economic distance to structure observed variations, to decompose the multidimensional CAGE distance framework of globalization derived from the Newton’s Law of gravitation as it applies to China’s international interaction, to evaluate bilateral trade patterns in identifying and prioritizing the importance of cross-border flows and differences that accounted for the development of China’s global strategies. This study confirms that distance must be accounted for in the decision making of any country’s globalization process or any firm’s global expansion as the effects on cross-border economic activities are enormous.

  13. Development of perching behavior in 3 strains of pullets reared in furnished cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habinski, A M; Caston, L J; Casey-Trott, T M; Hunniford, M E; Widowski, T M

    2017-03-01

    Furnished rearing cages are becoming more widely available to replace conventional systems for pullets. To date, there is little information on how pullets develop perching behavior in furnished cages or how this varies among strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of perches and a platform in a commercial furnished rearing "Combi-Cage" system by 3 pure-bred heritage strains of pullets (Rhode Island Red, Columbian Rock, and White Leghorn). Each cage had 4 elevated locations: one platform and 3 perches of differing heights and positions in the cage. The length of each cage was visually divided into 4 sections for observation. The number of birds using each section in each location was counted by one observer d per wk at 1200 h (d) from one to 14 wk of age and at 1600 h (night) right after lights were turned off from 4 to 14 wk of age. Mixed model repeated analyses were used to test effects of strain, age, and their interaction on the use of the platform, the 3 perches, and all 4 locations combined (vertical space use) at both time periods. GLM were used to compare overall use of the sections and locations. On average, pullets used vertical space more during the d than at night. There were also effects of age (P cage at both time periods. Generally, the Columbian Rocks used the perches and platform the most, and Rhode Island Reds the least. The highest perch in the cage was rarely used and birds showed a preference for perching in sections that were closest to cage walls (P cages may still require improvements in order to ensure the furnishings are used by pullets as intended. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Photo-controlled binding of MutS to photo-caged DNA duplexes incorporating 4-O-(2-nitrobenzyl) or 4-O-[2-(2-nitrophenyl)propyl]thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seio, Kohji; Ohno, Yurie; Ohno, Kentaro; Takeshita, Leo; Kanamori, Takashi; Masaki, Yoshiaki; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2016-10-01

    Mismatch binding protein MutS binding to bulge structure in DNA duplexes was controlled by UV irradiation. 4-O-(2-Nitrobenzyl)thymidine or 4-O-[2-(2-nitrophenyl)propyl]thymidine was incorporated into DNA duplexes a bulged position. The MutS did not bind to the caged DNA duplexes but bound after removing the 2-nitrobenzyl or 2-(2-nitrophenyl)propyl group by photo-irradiation. By using photo-caged DNA duplex, we revealed that binding of MutS to the uncaged DNA downstream of the T7 RNA promoter weakly inhibited transcription by T7 RNA polymerase.

  15. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns.

  16. Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T.P. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields in the air gap of an electric machine produce electromagnetic forces between the rotor and stator. The total force exerted on the rotor due to the eccentric rotor position is called the unbalanced magnetic pull. This eccentricity force is directed roughly over the shortest air gap. At low frequencies, the vibration amplitudes of flexural modes may be large enough to couple the electromagnetic system to the mechanical one. This electromechanical inter-action changes the vibration behaviour of the system. The main purpose of this dissertation is to reveal the main rotordynamic consequences induced by the electromechanical interaction in cage induction motors. Another goal is to achieve this by deriving a simple and representative electro mechanical rotor model with physical variables and parameters. In this study, a new parametric model was derived for the unbalanced magnetic pull induced by an arbitrary rotor motion in transient operation. The parameters of this model can be determined analytically from the basis of the machine characteristics or estimated numerically as in this study. To estimate the parameters, an efficient numerical method was developed from the analysis of impulse response. The numerical results showed that the simple electromagnetic force model, together with the estimated parameters, predicts the unbalanced magnetic pull fairly accurately. An electromechanical rotor model was derived by combining the Jeffcott rotor model with the simple electromagnetic force model, including two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the flexural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in

  17. Comparative Study between a Curved and a Wedge PEEK Cage for Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Interbody Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Song, Joon Suk; Heo, Weon; Cha, Jae Hoon; Rhee, Dong Youl

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the efficiency of a curved polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage in comparison with a wedge PEEK cage according to radiologic and clinical outcomes in patients with cervical degenerative disease. Methods A total of 37 patients who suffering from cervical disc disease with radiculopathy or myelopathy were reviewed retrospectively. Seventeen patients were underwent anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion with a curved shape PEEK cage (curved cage group), and ...

  18. Chronic stress due to high stocking density in open sea cage farming induces variation in biochemical and immunological functions in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Narasimhulu; Sharma, S R Krupesha; Joseph, Shoji; Dube, Praveen; Philipose, K K

    2014-08-01

    Stocking density is an important factor in cage aquaculture of finfish. Effects of high stocking density (35 fish cubic m(-1)) on a range of biochemical and immunological parameters in Asian seabass reared in open sea floating net cages were compared to fish held in relatively low density (15 fish cubic m(-1)). The results revealed that chronic stress due to high stocking density induced variations in most of the parameters studied as evidenced by increased cortisol and glucose levels and decreased activity of lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and complement. Production of reactive oxygen species, total leucocyte count and total serum protein were also decreased, whereas anti-protease, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities were increased in high stocking-density group when compared to low stocking-density group. Effects of chronic stress due to high stocking density were discussed in relation to variations in these parameters.

  19. Effect of curcumin caged silver nanoparticle on collagen stabilization for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Kunnavakkam Vinjimur; Duraipandy, N; Begum, Shajitha; Lakra, Rachita; Ramamurthy, Usha; Korrapati, Purna Sai; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala

    2015-04-01

    The current study aims at understanding the influence of curcumin caged silver nanoparticle (CCSNP) on stability of collagen. The results indicated that curcumin caged silver nanoparticles efficiently stabilize collagen, indicated by enhanced tensile strength, fibril formation and viscosity. The tensile strength of curcumin caged silver nanoparticle cross-linked collagen and elongation at break was also found to be higher than glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen. The physicochemical characteristics of curcumin caged nanoparticle cross-linked collagen exhibited enhanced strength. The thermal properties were also good with both thermal degradation temperature and hydrothermal stability higher than native collagen. CD analysis showed no structural disparity in spite of superior physicochemical properties suggesting the significance of curcumin caged nanoparticle mediated cross-linking. The additional enhancement in the stabilization of collagen could be attributed to multiple sites for interaction with collagen molecule provided by curcumin caged silver nanoparticles. The results of cell proliferation and anti-microbial activity assays indicated that curcumin caged silver nanoparticles promoted cell proliferation and inhibited microbial growth making it an excellent biomaterial for wound dressing application. The study opens scope for nano-biotechnological strategies for the development of alternate non-toxic cross-linking agents facilitating multiple site interaction thereby improving therapeutic values to the collagen for biomedical application.

  20. Individually ventilated cages cause chronic low-grade hypoxia impacting mice hematologically and behaviorally

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jason M.; McDaniel, Allison W.; Blevins, Neil A.; Guillet, Riley R.; Allison, Sarah O.; Cengel, Keith A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    Use of individually ventilated caging (IVC) systems for mouse-based laboratory investigation has dramatically increased. We found that without mice present, intra-cage oxygen concentration was comparable (21%) between IVC housing and ambient environment caging (AEC) that used wire top lids. However, when mice were housed 4-to-a-cage for 1 week, intra-cage oxygen dropped to 20.5% in IVC housing as compared to 21% for AEC housing. IVC intra-cage humidity was also elevated relative to AEC housing. Mice raised in IVC housing as compared to mice raised in AEC housing had higher RBC mass, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations. They also had elevated platelet counts but lower white blood cell counts. IVC mice relative to AEC mice had increased saccharin preference and increased fluid consumption but similar locomotion, food intake, social exploration and novel object recognition when tested in an AEC environment. Taken together, these data indicate that ventilated caging systems can have a 0.5% reduction from ambient oxygen concentration that is coupled to mouse red blood cell indices indicative of chronic exposure to a hypoxia. Importantly, IVC housing can impact behavioral testing for depressive-like behavior. PMID:22561683

  1. Computational design and fabrication of a novel bioresorbable cage for tibial tuberosity advancement application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Vorndran, Elke; Gbureck, Uwe; Quental, Carlos; Folgado, João; Fernandes, Paulo R

    2017-01-01

    Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is a promising method for the treatment of cruciate ligament rupture in dogs that usually implies the implantation of a titanium cage as bone implant. This cage is non-biodegradable and fails in providing adequate implant-bone tissue integration. The objective of this work is to propose a new process chain for designing and manufacturing an alternative biodegradable cage that can fulfill specific patient requirements. A three-dimensional finite element model (3D FEM) of the TTA system was first created to evaluate the mechanical environment at cage domain during different stages of the dog walk. The cage microstructure was then optimized using a topology optimization tool, which addresses the accessed local mechanical requirements, and at same time ensures the maximum permeability to allow nutrient and oxygen supply to the implant core. The designed cage was then biofabricated by a 3D powder printing of tricalcium phosphate cement. This work demonstrates that the combination of a 3D FEM with a topology optimization approach enabled the design of a novel cage for TTA application with tailored permeability and mechanical properties, that can be successfully 3D printed in a biodegradable bioceramic material. These results support the potential of the design optimization strategy and fabrication method to the development of customized and bioresorbable implants for bone repair.

  2. Digestibility and behavior of dogs housed in kennels or metabolic cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabyta Tamara Sabchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the apparent digestibility coefficients of a commercial dog food, fecal consistency and behavior of dogs housed in kennels and metabolic cages. Six adult Beagle dogs were distributed in cross-over experimental design, with six replicates per treatment. Dogs were housed in two environments: metabolic cages and in masonry kennels with solarium. Dogs were fed for a five-day adaptation period, and the five following days were used for total feces collection. Dogs behavior was recorded during a 48-h period, with 10-min intervals. Apparent digestibility coefficients were not different between treatments. However, dogs housed in metabolic cages produced lower weight and more consistent feces as compared with dogs housed in kennels. Dogs spent most of the time sleeping in both housing systems; however, dogs housed in the metabolic cages slept more than those in kennels. Stress-related behaviors (barking, whimpering, stereotypies, etc were observed for no longer than 15 minutes per day, and were not different between dogs in kennels or in cages. There is no difference in food digestibility evaluated in dogs housed in metabolic cages or kennels; however, dogs kept in metabolic cages eliminate drier feces and spend more time inactive than those kept in kennels.

  3. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; Kelly, Richard; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system.

  4. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; III, Richard Kelly; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague–Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system. PMID:26817976

  5. Suitability of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone cages for use as anterior struts following corpectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heary, Robert F; Parvathreddy, Naresh K; Qayumi, Zainab S; Ali, Naiim S; Agarwal, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Fibular allograft remains a widely used strut for corpectomy surgeries. The amount of graft material that can be packed into an allograft strut has not been quantified. Cages are an alternative to fibular allograft for fusion surgeries. The authors of this study assessed the suitability of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRP) cages for anterior corpectomy surgeries. They further explored the parameters known to affect fusion rates in clinical practice. METHODS Six fibular allografts were tested at standard lengths. Three sets of carbon fiber cages (Bengal, DePuy Spine), each with a different footprint size but the same lengths, were tested. The allografts and cages were wrapped in adhesive, fluid-tight transparent barriers and filled with oil. The volume and weight of the oil instilled as well as the implant footprints were measured. The fibular allografts and cages were tested at 20-, 40-, and 50-mm lengths. Two investigators independently performed all measurements 5 times. Five CFRP cubes (1 × 1 × 1 cm) were tested under pure compression, and load versus displacement curves were plotted to determine the modulus of elasticity. RESULTS Significantly more oil fit in the CFRP cages than in the fibular allografts (p Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone cages can accommodate much more graft material than can fibular allografts. In clinical practice, the ability to deliver greater amounts of graft material following a corpectomy may improve fusion rates.

  6. Growth of uniform CaGe2 films by alternating layer molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam S.; Pinchuk, Igor V.; Young, Justin R.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelz, Jonathan; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2017-02-01

    Layered Zintl phase van der Waals (vdW) materials are of interest due to their strong spin-orbit coupling and potential for high mobility. Here, we report the successful growth of large area CaGe2 films, as a model of layered Zintl phase materials, on atomically flat Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an alternating layer growth (ALG) protocol. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicate high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform CaGe2 films. The appearance of Laue oscillations in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in the X-ray reflectivity (XRR), which are absent in co-deposited CaGe2, confirms the uniformity of the CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. These results demonstrate a novel method of deposition of CaGe2 that could be also applied to other layered Zintl phase vdW materials. Also, the high quality of the CaGe2 film is promising for the exploration of novel properties of germanane.

  7. Low home cage social behaviors in BTBR T+tf/J mice during juvenile development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babineau, Brooke A; Yang, Mu; Berman, Robert F; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2013-04-10

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is a genetically homogenous inbred strain of mice that displays abnormal social behaviors, deficits in vocalizations, and high levels of repetitive behaviors, relevant to the three diagnostic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, leading to the use of this strain as a mouse model of autism. Comprehensive observations of BTBR social behaviors within the home cage during early stages of development have not been conducted. Here we evaluate the home cage behaviors of BTBR in two laboratory environments (NIMH, Bethesda, Maryland vs. UC Davis, Davis, California), starting from the day of weaning and continuing into adulthood. Extensive ethogram parameters were scored for BTBR in home cages that contained four BTBR conspecifics, versus home cages that contained four C57BL/6J (B6) conspecifics. BTBR were considerably less interactive than B6 in the home cage at both sites, as measured during the early dark stage of their circadian cycle. A novel home cage behavioral measure, frequency of long interactions, was found to be more frequent and of longer duration in B6 versus BTBR home cages across experimental sites. Significant strain differences in the occurrence of investigative and affiliative behaviors were also seen, however these findings were not fully consistent across the two testing sites. At the end of the 30-day home cage observation period, each seven-week old subject mouse was tested in the three-chambered social approach task. BTBR displayed lack of sociability and B6 displayed significant sociability, consistent with previous reports. Our findings reveal that BTBR engaged in lower levels of some components of spontaneous conspecific social interactions in the home cage environment throughout juvenile development, consistent with their deficits in juvenile and adult sociability as measured in specialized social tasks.

  8. Radiosensitization of Prostate Cells by Prenyltransferase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    response. 16th CERRO meeting of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. , Les Menuires, France. March 5, 2001 Farnesyltransferases...and Samid, D. Increased useful adjuvants for radiotherapy. radioresistance of Ebras-transformed human osteosarcoma cells and its modulation by thus...Radiation Research Society 1997-present Associate Member European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1998-present Member American Association

  9. Evolution of lone pair of excess electrons inside molecular cages with the deformation of the cage in e2@C60F60 systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Feng; Chen, Wei; Yu, Guang-Tao; Li, Zhi-Ru; Wu, Di; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2011-07-15

    For unusual e(2)@C(60)F(60)(I(h), D(6h), and D(5d)) cage structures with two excess electrons, it is reported that not only the lone pair in singlet state but also two single excess electrons in triplet state can be encapsulated inside the C(60)F(60) cages to form single molecular solvated dielectrons. The interesting relationship between the shape of the cage and the spin state of the system has revealed that ground states are singlet state for spherical shaped e(2)@C(60)F(60)(I(h)) and triplet states for short capsular shaped e(2)@C(60)F(60)(D(6h)) and long capsular shaped e(2)@C(60)F(60)(D(5d)), which shows a spin evolution from the singlet to triplet state with the deformation of the cage from spherical to capsular shape. For these excess electron systems, the three ground state structures have large vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs (I) of 1.720-2.283 eV and VDEs (II) of 3.959-5.288 eV), which shows their stabilities and suggests that the large C(60)F(60) cage is the efficient container of excess electrons. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Spiro annulation of cage polycycles via Grignard reaction and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic strategy to C2-symmetric bis-spiro-pyrano cage compound 7 involving ring-closing metathesis is reported. The hexacyclic dione 10 was prepared from simple and readily available starting materials such as 1,4-naphthoquinone and cyclopentadiene. The synthesis of an unprecedented octacyclic cage compound through intramolecular Diels–Alder (DA reaction as a key step is described. The structures of three new cage compounds 7, 12 and 18 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  11. Genome-wide detection and analysis of hippocampus core promoters using DeepCAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Pascarella, Giovanni; Chalk, Alistair;

    2009-01-01

    in a given tissue. Here, we present a new method for high-throughput sequencing of 5' cDNA tags-DeepCAGE: merging the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression method with ultra-high-throughput sequence technology. We apply DeepCAGE to characterize 1.4 million sequenced TSS from mouse hippocampus and reveal a wealth...... of novel core promoters that are preferentially used in hippocampus: This is the most comprehensive promoter data set for any tissue to date. Using these data, we present evidence indicating a key role for the Arnt2 transcription factor in hippocampus gene regulation. DeepCAGE can also detect promoters...

  12. A Perspective on the Synthesis, Purification, and Characterization of Porous Organic Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael E; Cooper, Andrew I

    2017-01-10

    Porous organic cages present many opportunities in functional materials chemistry, but the synthetic challenges for these molecular solids are somewhat different from those faced in the areas of metal-organic frameworks, covalent-organic frameworks, or porous polymer networks. Here, we highlight the practical methods that we have developed for the design, synthesis, and characterization of imine porous organic cages using CC1 and CC3 as examples. The key points are transferable to other cages, and this perspective should serve as a practical guide to researchers who are new to this field.

  13. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of

  14. [Our experiences with anterior cervical cages and spacer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, József; Lapis, István; Marik, László; Kondacs, András; Rusznyák, Csaba

    2007-11-30

    Between 2001 and 2005 86 patients were treated for cervical disc herniations and spondylosis at our department. Stabilization was performed with different cervical cages or spacer after discectomy and decompression. The aim of the study was to examine the changes of the patients' pain, quality of life and work ability, fusion rate, the intervertebral disc height, changes of under and upper segments and finally curvature of cervical spine. Patients were followed by the authors, clinical examination, lateral and antero-posterior radiographic examinations were performed. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire, concerning their pre- and postoperative pain, quality of life and work ability. The patients' pain was graded using a 10-point analog scale (VAS) and with a simplified, McGill-Melzak analog scale. The quality of life was measured with a 10-graduated analog scale as well. More than 77% of our patients appeared at follow up examination. The fusion rate was 89.3%, operated spaces were held in 61%. In the upper segment of operated space 7%, and in the under-segment 14% were found increasingly degenerated. The curvature of cervical spine of the patients' were 64.51% lordotic, 27.42% straight and 8.07% kyphotic. On average the patients' pain changed on VAS from 8.179 to 5.015; on McGill-Melzak scale from 3.89 to 2.80; quality of life changed from 8.045 to 5.463. By the advantage of using cages, the operative approach has become smaller than before, consequently the operative pain has become less too. In addition operation time and hospital stay were significantly shorter (p work and 5 patients do easier work. The majority of our patients were disabled before the operation, but from that time many of them became disabled, in some cases the grade of disability increased. There can be some reasons for it: the majority of the patients have other diseases for example: lumbar spondylosis and disc herniation, hypertension, diabetes, asthma and depression. There is just a

  15. Dynamic covalent chemistry approaches toward macrocycles, molecular cages, and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinghua; Wang, Qi; Taynton, Philip; Zhang, Wei

    2014-05-20

    The current research in the field of dynamic covalent chemistry includes the study of dynamic covalent reactions, catalysts, and their applications. Unlike noncovalent interactions utilized in supramolecular chemistry, the formation/breakage of covalent bonding has slower kinetics and usually requires the aid of a catalyst. Catalytic systems that enable efficient thermodynamic equilibrium are thus essential. In this Account, we describe the development of efficient catalysts for alkyne metathesis, and discuss the application of dynamic covalent reactions (mainly imine, olefin, and alkyne metathesis) in the development of organic functional materials. Alkyne metathesis is an emerging dynamic covalent reaction that offers robust and linear acetylene linkages. By introducing a podand motif into the catalyst ligand design, we have developed a series of highly active and robust alkyne metathesis catalysts, which, for the first time, enabled the one-step covalent assembly of ethynylene-linked functional molecular cages. Imine chemistry and olefin metathesis are among the most well-established reversible reactions, and have also been our main synthetic tools. Various shape-persistent macrocycles and covalent organic polyhedrons have been efficiently constructed in one-step through dynamic imine chemistry and olefin metathesis. The geometrical features and solubilizing groups of the building blocks as well as the reaction kinetics have significant effect on the outcome of a covalent assembly process. More recently, we explored the orthogonality of imine and olefin metatheses, and successfully synthesized heterosequenced macrocycles and molecular cages through one-pot orthogonal dynamic covalent chemistry. In addition to discrete molecular architectures, functional polymeric materials can also be accessed through dynamic covalent reactions. Defect-free solution-processable conjugated polyaryleneethynylenes and polydiacetylenes have been prepared through alkyne metathesis

  16. Self assembling proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  17. Intermolecular hydrogen transfer between guest species in small and large cages of methane + propane mixed gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Tani, Atsushi; Inoue, Tatsuya; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2012-03-15

    To investigate the molecular interaction between guest species inside of the small and large cages of methane + propane mixed gas hydrates, thermal stabilities of the methyl radical (possibly induced in small cages) and the normal propyl and isopropyl radicals (induced in large cages) were investigated by means of electron spin resonance measurements. The increase of the total amount of the normal propyl and isopropyl radicals reveals that the methyl radical in the small cage withdraws one hydrogen atom from the propane molecule enclathrated in the adjacent large cage of the structure-II hydrate. A guest species in a hydrate cage has the ability to interact closely with the other one in the adjacent cages. The clathrate hydrate may be utilized as a possible nanoscale reaction field.

  18. Use of cage molecules for cleansing and chemical analysis; Utilisations de molecules cages pour la depollution et l'analyse chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janus, L.

    2003-06-15

    Cage molecules are capable to include a large variety of compounds, and to release them without any modification. This 'host'-'guest' or 'receptor'-'substrate' association concept is commonly encountered in the biological domains, and thus cage molecules can imitate a natural process. In this work 4 types of cage molecules have been used: beta-cyclo-dextrin and two of its derivatives, and tetra-pyrazole macrocycles. Polymer supports carrying these different molecules have been elaborated by different ways (grafting, polymerization, coating of a pre-existing mineral support) and have been used for two types of applications: cleansing and chiral recognition. The targeted pollutants are the toxic aromatic compounds and the heavy metals. The chiral recognition is performed by capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. (J.S.)

  19. Evolution of enzyme catalysts caged in biomimetic gel-shell beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischlechner, Martin; Schaerli, Yolanda; Mohamed, Mark F.; Patil, Santosh; Abell, Chris; Hollfelder, Florian

    2014-09-01

    Natural evolution relies on the improvement of biological entities by rounds of diversification and selection. In the laboratory, directed evolution has emerged as a powerful tool for the development of new and improved biomolecules, but it is limited by the enormous workload and cost of screening sufficiently large combinatorial libraries. Here we describe the production of gel-shell beads (GSBs) with the help of a microfluidic device. These hydrogel beads are surrounded with a polyelectrolyte shell that encloses an enzyme, its encoding DNA and the fluorescent reaction product. Active clones in these man-made compartments can be identified readily by fluorescence-activated sorting at rates >107 GSBs per hour. We use this system to perform the directed evolution of a phosphotriesterase (a bioremediation catalyst) caged in GSBs and isolate a 20-fold faster mutant in less than one hour. We thus establish a practically undemanding method for ultrahigh-throughput screening that results in functional hybrid composites endowed with evolvable protein components.

  20. Redefining the transcriptional regulatory dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages by deepCAGE transcriptomics

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, S.

    2015-06-27

    Classically or alternatively activated macrophages (M1 and M2, respectively) play distinct and important roles for microbiocidal activity, regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. Despite this, their transcriptional regulatory dynamics are poorly understood. Using promoter-level expression profiling by non-biased deepCAGE we have studied the transcriptional dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Transcription factor (TF) binding motif activity analysis revealed four motifs, NFKB1_REL_RELA, IRF1,2, IRF7 and TBP that are commonly activated but have distinct activity dynamics in M1 and M2 activation. We observe matching changes in the expression profiles of the corresponding TFs and show that only a restricted set of TFs change expression. There is an overall drastic and transient up-regulation in M1 and a weaker and more sustainable up-regulation in M2. Novel TFs, such as Thap6, Maff, (M1) and Hivep1, Nfil3, Prdm1, (M2) among others, were suggested to be involved in the activation processes. Additionally, 52 (M1) and 67 (M2) novel differentially expressed genes and, for the first time, several differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome markers were identified. In conclusion, the finding of novel motifs, TFs and protein-coding and lncRNA genes is an important step forward to fully understand the transcriptional machinery of macrophage activation.

  1. Copper nanoparticles encapsulated in multi-shell carbon cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, A.K. [Material Sciences Center and Department of Geosciences, Philipps University, Hans-Meerwein-Str., 35032, Marburg (Germany); Hou, H. [Material Sciences Center and Department of Chemistry, Philipps University, Hans-Meerwein-Str., 35032, Marburg (Germany); University of Akron, Ohio (United States); Greiner, A. [Material Sciences Center and Department of Chemistry, Philipps University, Hans-Meerwein-Str., 35032, Marburg (Germany); Schneider, R. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University, Invalidenstr. 110, 10115, Berlin (Germany); Phillipp, F. [Max Planck Institute for Metal Research, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest because of their high potential for a great number of practical applications, such as optical and electronic devices, nanoscale storage, and delivery systems. Using Cu-phthalocyanine as precursor material, we have synthesized multi-shell graphitic carbon nanospheres without and with metal encapsulation, depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The encapsulated elemental copper nanocrystals achieved using that route were of the order of 50 nm in size. The particles were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and by energy filtering microscopy (EFTEM). The concentric graphitic carbon shells of the as-grown particles were clearly discernable. After in situ high-temperature annealing, an increase in the degree of order was observed. Under high-voltage electron irradiation and heating, a melting point reduction of the enclosed nanosized copper of more than 200 K could be detected, as compared to the melting point 1083 C of bulk copper. Time-resolved imaging revealed the displacement of the melting copper by migration through the carbon shells, leaving intact carbon cages with a central hole. At intermediate stages of this process the transformation into a hexagonal morphology of the copper nanocrystals was observed. (orig.)

  2. Courses of Action to Optimize Heavy Bearings Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    The global expansion in the industrial, economically and technological context determines the need to develop products, technologies, processes and methods which ensure increased performance, lower manufacturing costs and synchronization of the main costs reported to the elementary values which correspond to utilization”. The development trend of the heavy bearing industry and the wide use of bearings determines the necessity of choosing the most appropriate material for a given application in order to meet the cumulative requirements of durability, reliability, strength, etc. Evaluation of commonly known or new materials represents a fundamental criterion, in order to choose the materials based on the cost, machinability and the technological process. In order to ensure the most effective basis for the decision, regarding the heavy bearing cage, in the first stage the functions of the product are established and in a further step a comparative analysis of the materials is made in order to establish the best materials which satisfy the product functions. The decision for selecting the most appropriate material is based largely on the overlapping of the material costs and manufacturing process during which the half-finished material becomes a finished product. The study is orientated towards a creative approach, especially towards innovation and reengineering by using specific techniques and methods applied in inventics. The main target is to find new efficient and reliable constructive and/or technological solutions which are consistent with the concept of sustainable development.

  3. Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann eGo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons receive thousands of synaptic inputs that are distributed in space and time. The systematic study of how neurons process these inputs requires a technique to stimulate multiple yet highly targeted points of interest along the neuron's dendritic tree. Three-dimensional multi-focal patterns produced via holographic projection combined with two-photon photolysis of caged compounds can provide for highly localized release of neurotransmitters within each diffraction-limited focus, and in this way emulate simultaneous synaptic inputs to the neuron. However, this technique so far cannot achieve time-dependent stimulation patterns due to fundamental limitations of the hologram-encoding device and other factors that affect the consistency of controlled synaptic stimulation. Here, we report an advanced technique that enables the design and application of arbitrary spatio-temporal photostimulation patterns that resemble physiological synaptic inputs. By combining holographic projection with a programmable high-speed light-switching array, we have overcome temporal limitations with holographic projection, allowing us to mimic distributed activation of synaptic inputs leading to action potential generation. Our experiments uniquely demonstrate multi-site two-photon glutamate uncaging in three dimensions with submillisecond temporal resolution. Implementing this approach opens up new prospects for studying neuronal synaptic integration in four dimensions.

  4. Comparative effects of furnished and battery cages on egg production and physiological parameters in White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-10-01

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in species-specific natural or near-to-natural environments. An enriched environment may have a similar effect on chickens. The purpose of this study was to examine if housing environment (furnished cages vs. battery cages) effects the well-being of laying hens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed White Leghorn W-36 chicks were reared and randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages at 19 wk of age. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with concealment curtain. Ten hens were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm2 of floor space per hen. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm2 of floor space per hen. Body weight and egg production were calculated from 25 to 60 wk of age. The peripheral concentrations of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, corticosterone, and IgG were analyzed at 30, 40, 50, and 60 wk of age. Compared with the hens housed in the battery cages, the hens housed in the furnished cages were significantly heavier from 30 to 60 wk of age (P0.05). The concentrations of serotonin were reduced, whereas corticosterone was increased from 50 to 60 wk of age in the hens housed in the battery cages (Pcages, which may indicate that the hens housed in the battery cages were stressed. Although further studies remain to be completed, the present results suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative for housing laying hens.

  5. STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY OF CONCRETE CYLINDERS REINFORCED WITH PREFABRICATED STEEL CAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHITHRA R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an experimental and analytical study on behaviour of concrete cylinders confined with prefabricated cage. Totally 75 cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300mm in high confined by prefabricated cage are tested under uniaxial compression loads to obtain the stress strain curves of the cylinders. Test variables include thickness of cage, centre to centre spacing of ties and compressive strength of concrete. Equations to predict the ultimate compressive strength and strain at peak load were developed. A comparison between the experimental results and those of analytical results indicate that the proposed model provides satisfactory predictions of ultimate compressive strength. The study shows that the Mander et al’s model underestimate the strength of concrete confined by prefabricated cage.

  6. A Cobalt Supramolecular Triple-Stranded Helicate-based Discrete Molecular Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hien Duy; Kang, Philjae; Kim, Jin Kyung; Yoo, Hyojong

    2017-01-01

    We report a strategy to achieve a discrete cage molecule featuring a high level of structural hierarchy through a multiple-assembly process. A cobalt (Co) supramolecular triple-stranded helicate (Co-TSH)-based discrete molecular cage (1) is successfully synthesized and fully characterized. The solid-state structure of 1 shows that it is composed of six triple-stranded helicates interconnected by four linking cobalt species. This is an unusual example of a highly symmetric cage architecture resulting from the coordination-driven assembly of metallosupramolecular modules. The molecular cage 1 shows much higher CO2 uptake properties and selectivity compared with the separate supramolecular modules (Co-TSH, complex 2) and other molecular platforms. PMID:28262690

  7. The design of a cervical vertebra titanium plate-interbody fusion cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the biomechanical feature of a newly designed cervical vertebra internal fixation device and its clinical applications Methods: Some functional spinal units were fixed respectively with titanium plate, fusion cage and new device designed by ourselves, then a controlled biomechanical study including flexion, extension, torsion and lateral bending was performed and the results were analyzed. Results: As to the mechanical performance, fusion cage showed poor performance in extension test and so did the titanium plate in the distortion test. However, the new device showed good performance in every test. Conclusion: Both simple titanium plate fixation and simple fusion cage fixation have biomechanical defaults, but they are complementary. The titanium plate-interbody fusion cage avoids the defaults and has specific advantages.

  8. Physiological and pharmacokinetic effects of multilevel caging on Sprague Dawley rats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Zullian, Chiara; Beaudry, Francis; Gourdon, Jim; Chevrette, Julie; Hélie, Pierre; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    ... that need to be taken into consideration. In this study, ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) caused a short duration anesthesia that was significantly decreased in Sprague-Dawley rats housed in multilevel cages...

  9. Anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion with ray titanium cage: a prospective randomized clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, J.; Kosteljanetz, M.; Bøge-Rasmussen, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective randomized clinical study. OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 surgical methods in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy caused by hard or soft disc herniation; namely, simple discectomy versus discectomy with an additional interbody fusion with a Ray titanium cage. SUMMARY...... by fusion with a Ray titanium cage (40 patients) or to discectomy alone (46 patients). Clinical and radiologic follow-up was performed 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups concerning self-reported satisfaction or severity of pain...... in the neck and arm. Two years after the operation, 86.1% of the patients treated with cage stated a good outcome versus 76.7% in the discectomy group (P = 0.44). The rate of fusion was 83.3% in the cage group versus 81.0% in the discectomy group (P = 0.30). Furthermore, after 2 years, also the rates of new...

  10. Reducing organic contamination of shallow areas in brackish lagoons during rearing fish in cages in polyculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the technology of the controlled rearing of marine fish remains one of the priority strategic trends of development of national mariculture. A study of the possibility of using polyculture for cage culture has a particular interest. Joint cultivation of several species of fish in the same cage, as practice of fish farming has demonstrated, does not have a tangible positive effect. At the same time, the use of cages of special design can provide significant additional fish products through the use of additional aquaculture objects. The ecological state of water areas, where the cages are located, is of great importance. High fish stocking density and the use of artificial feeds can serve as a source of powerful biogenic and organic pollution, which is especially important for shallow water areas with weak water exchange. The purpose of the study is to develop the methods for joint fish production in cage mariculture capable to provide high fish production and to weaken organic pollution of shallow water areas where cage farms are located. Methodology. The studies were conducted in 1999 and 2004. Cages of special design (internal 10 m3 and external 18.75 m3 installed in the brackish Shabolat Lagoon were used for rearing, steelhead trout, haarder, grass goby and round goby in polyculture. The standard aquaculture research methods were used. For express-analysis of environment hydrochemical parameters in cage location area the following devices were used: "ECOTEST-2000 T" (О2, NO2, NO3, NH4, CO2, phosphates, pH; termooksimetr "АJА-101М" (Т; О2; "pH meter-150 M; Refractometer "ATAGO-100" (salinity and water density. Findings. The results of marine fish cultivation in cages in polyculture in the shallow Shabolat lagoon are presented. It has been shown that joint cultivation of salmon, mullet and gobies in specially designed cages in shallow marine lagoons allows using artificial and natural feeds more fully and

  11. Direct gravimetric sensing of GBL by a molecular recognition process in organic cage compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutschy, Malte; Schneider, Markus W; Mastalerz, Michael; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2013-09-28

    Organic cages were identified as highly potent affinity materials for the tracing of γ-butyrolactone. The selectivity over ethanol and water is based on the interior functional groups which allow preferential hydrogen bonding to the target analyte.

  12. Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological ... varied spatially and temporally but were generally within safe ranges for freshwater habitats. ... and depressed zooplankton diversity at WC suggested impacts from the fish ...

  13. Archaeal characterization of bioaerosols from cage-housed and floor-housed poultry operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Just, Natasha; Blais Lecours, Pascale; Marcoux-Voiselle, Mélissa; Kirychuk, Shelley; Veillette, Marc; Singh, Baljit; Duchaine, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Although bioaerosols from both cage-housed (CH) and floor-housed (FH) poultry operations are highly concentrated, the concentrations of dust, endotoxin, and bacteria are significantly higher in FH bioaerosols...

  14. Unprecedented formation of polycyclic diazadiborepine derivatives through cage deboronation of m-carborane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmgarth, Nicole; Hrib, Cristian G; Lorenz, Volker; Hilfert, Liane; Edelmann, Frank T

    2014-11-11

    An unprecedented deboronation reaction of icosahedral carboranes is described, in which a BH group of m-carborane is detached from the cage and incorporated into an unusual nido-carborane-anellated diazadiborepine ring system.

  15. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  16. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  17. Folding Thermodynamics and Mechanism of Five Trp-Cage Variants from Replica-Exchange MD Simulations with RSFF2 Force Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen-Yang; Jiang, Fan; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2015-11-10

    To test whether our recently developed residue-specific force field RSFF2 can reproduce the mutational effect on the thermal stability of Trp-cage mini-protein and decipher its detailed folding mechanism, we carried out long-time replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on five Trp-cage variants, including TC5b and TC10b. Initiated from their unfolded structures, the simulations not only well-reproduce their experimental structures but also their melting temperatures and folding enthalpies reasonably well. For each Trp-cage variant, the overall folding free energy landscape is apparently two-state, but some intermediate states can be observed when projected on more detailed coordinates. We also found different variants have the same major folding pathway, including the well formed PII-helix in the unfolded state, the formation of W6-P12/P18/P19 contacts and the α-helix before the transition state, the following formation of most native contacts, and the final native loop formation. The folding mechanism derived here is consistent with many previous simulations and experiments.

  18. Extended Durability of a Cloth-Covered Star-Edwards Caged Ball Prosthesis in Aortic Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Starr-Edwards caged ball valve is one of the oldest cardiac valve prosthesis and was widely used all around the world in the past decades. Despite the long-term results that have been reported there are only a few cases reported that exceed 30 years of durability. Here in, we report a 53-year-old patient with a well-functioning 35-year-old aortic Starr-Edwards caged ball prosthesis.

  19. Synthesis of Silsesquioxane Cages from Phenyl-cis-tetrol,1,3-Divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and Cyclopentyl Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-hua; Alan R. Bassindale; Peter G. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of Ts, T10 and T12 silsesquioxane cages from a range of starting materials: phenyl-cistetrol, 1,3-divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and cyclopentyl T resins by using tetra n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) as the catalyst is described in this paper. The reaction yields obtained via the current route are better compared to those via the literature routes. Some of the cage compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  20. DFT-based inhibitor and promoter selection criteria for pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snehanshu Pal; T K Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations have been performed to provide electronic structure property correlation based reasoning for conceptualizing the effect of encapsulated methane molecule on the formation of methane hydrate cages, the role of methanol and ethylene glycol as inhibitor and the role of tetra-hydro-furan (THF) and cyclopentane as promoter of methane hydrate. Geometry optimization of 512 cage, 51262 cage and 51264 cage with and without encapsulated methane and the cluster of 512 cage with ethylene glycol, methanol, cyclopentane have been performed by density functional theory using B97X-D/6-31++G(d,p) method. Methane hydrate formation inhibition by methanol and ethylene glycol as well as methane hydrate stabilization by cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran are critically analysed based on the interaction energy, free energy change, dipole moment and infrared frequency calculation. Calculation of free energy change for formation of methane hydrate with/without reagents at various temperature and pressure using optimized structure is reported here. It is observed that hydrogen bond between water molecules of clathrate 512 cages become stronger in the presence of cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran but weaker/broken in the presence of ethylene glycol and methanol. Simulated results correspond well with experimental findings and can be useful for designing new inhibitor and promoter molecules for gas hydrate formation.

  1. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  2. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on sickness behaviour in hens kept in cage and free range environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, N G; Payne, S R; Devine, C D; Cook, C J

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether environmental enrichment and environmental conditions can influence the expression of sickness behaviour. The behaviour in response to injection of lipopolysaccharide or saline was examined in a total of 96 62-weeks old hatchmate hens kept in a free range or cage environment. There were eight experimental treatments, each with 12 birds. Half the birds were sourced from a commercial cage layer unit (C/-) and half from a commercial free range unit (FR/-). After intraperitoneal injection with either lipopolysaccharide or saline (as a control), the hens were placed in either a cage (-/C) or free range (-/FR) environment. Lipopolysaccharide caused greater suppression of activity in free range (FR/FR) than in caged hens, including less walking (53% reduction), roosting (-86%) and preening (-60%) (pcaged birds released into free range, nor in free range birds introduced to cages, suggesting that both the presence of and the familiarity with an environment affected sickness behaviour patterns. Increased sleeping was the most consistent response (+147%; pcaged hens, and this may make it more difficult to recognise disease expression in the caged environment.

  3. Atomistic simulations of CO2 and N2 within cage-type silica zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Lindsey; Heitzer, Henry; Russell, Colin; Kohen, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of CO(2) and N(2), both as single components and as binary mixtures, in two cage-type silica zeolites was studied using atomistic simulations. The zeolites considered, ITQ-3 and paradigm cage-type zeolite ZK4 (the all-silica analog of LTA), were chosen so that the principles illustrated can be generalized to other adsorbent/adsorbate systems with similar topology and types of interactions. N(2) was chosen both because of the potential uses of N(2)/CO(2) separations and because it differs from CO(2) most significantly in the magnitude of its Coulombic interactions with zeolites. Despite similarities between N(2) and CO(2) diffusion in other materials, we show here that the diffusion of CO(2) within cage-type zeolites is dominated by an energy barrier to diffusion located at the entrance to the narrow channels connecting larger cages. This barrier originates in Coulombic interactions between zeolites and CO(2)'s quadrupole and results in well-defined orientations for the diffusing molecules. Furthermore, CO(2)'s favorable electrostatic interactions with the zeolite framework result in preferential binding in the windows between cages. N(2)'s behavior, in contrast, is more consistent with that of molecules previously studied. Our analysis suggests that CO(2)'s behavior might be common for adsorbates with quadrupoles that interact strongly with a material that has narrow windows between cages.

  4. Anisotropy and memory during cage breaking events close to a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Matthias; Härtel, Andreas; Schmiedeberg, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The slow dynamics in a glassy hard-sphere system is dominated by cage breaking events, i.e. rearrangements where a particle escapes from the cage formed by its neighboring particles. We study such events for an overdamped colloidal system by the means of Brownian dynamics simulations. While it is difficult to relate cage breaking events to structural mean field results in bulk, we show that the microscopic dynamics of particles close to a wall can be related to the anisotropic two-particle density. In particular, we study cage-breaking trajectories, mean forces on a tracked particle, and the impact of the history of trajectories. Based on our simulation results, we further construct two different one-particle random-walk models—one without and one with memory incorporated—and find the local anisotropy and the history-dependence of particles as crucial ingredients to describe the escape from a cage. Finally, our detailed study of a rearrangement event close to a wall not only reveals the memory effect of cages, but leads to a deeper insight into the fundamental mechanisms of glassy dynamics.

  5. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being.

  6. Mouse housing system using pressurized cages intraventilated by direct-current microfans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinewski, Alexandre; Correia, Caio S C; de Souza, Nívea L; Merusse, José L B

    2012-03-01

    We performed the initial assessment of an alternative pressurized intraventilated (PIV) caging system for laboratory mice that uses direct-current microfans to achieve cage pressurization and ventilation. Twenty-nine pairs of female SPF BALB/c mice were used, with 19 experimental pairs kept in PIV cages and 10 control pairs kept in regular filter-top (FT) cages. Both groups were housed in a standard housing room with a conventional atmospheric control system. For both systems, intracage temperatures were in equilibrium with ambient room temperature. PIV cages showed a significant difference in pressure between days 1 and 8. Air speed (and consequently airflow rate) and the number of air changes hourly in the PIV cages showed decreasing trends. In both systems, ammonia concentrations increased with time, with significant differences between groups starting on day 1. Overall, the data revealed that intracage pressurization and ventilation by using microfans is a simple, reliable system, with low cost, maintenance requirements, and incidence of failures. Further experiments are needed to determine the potential influence of this system on the reproductive performance and pulmonary integrity in mice.

  7. Titanium Alloy Cage Implantation for the Treatment of Ischemic Necrosis of Femoral Head in Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiying WANG; Yan GAO; Shuhua YANG; Cao YANG

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of titanium alloy cage on the treatment of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head in dog, the model of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head was made with the liquid nitrogon in 15 hybrid adult dogs. The titanium alloy cage made of a hollow cylinder was driven into the subchondral bone of necrotic femoral head via central channel. The dogs were divided into 3 groups, each group was sacrificed 3, 6, 12 weeks after the operation respectively. No collapse of femoral head was observed after the operation. The position of the cages was good on radiograph. Microscopically, the cancellous bone of necrotic femoral head rebuilt gradually and grew into cage. After 12 weeks of creeping substitution, the cancellous bone filled up the hollow cavity and holes of the cages. It is concluded that the titanium alloy cage can provide structural support for the subchondral bone and prevent collapse and can be used for the treatment of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head.

  8. Model of a generator end-winding cage; Modelisation d`une cage de developpantes d`alternateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, A.C.; Fanton, J.P.; Davies, C.

    1994-09-01

    This document presents some studies concerning the vibratory characterization of particular structures called: generator end-winding cages. These structures are mainly made up of the endings of armature windings. The question of their good mechanical behaviour is of prime importance, since they are submitted to high electromagnetic efforts during the different electrical ratings encountered during operation. The designer (GEC-Alsthom) and the user (EDF) have both undertaken numerical calculations in order to characterize a given machine, in this case a 600 MW bipolar generator; it appeared interesting to compare such calculations. The models realized respectively by GEC-Alsthom and EDF make use of different techniques and hypotheses. GEC-Alsthom represents the sets of rods and spacers by plates, which properties are determined by a pre-processor. The model is simplified to take into account the existing symmetries. It takes profit of previous experience and aims at a fast utilisation. The EDF model tends to allow a further comprehensive calculation, form the electromagnetic efforts to the determination of local stresses. The whole set of the constituting elements of the structure is modelled by beams, which leads to an important size for the model (21 000 degrees of freedom). The validation performed on the two models has been focused on the comparison between respective results and also with experimental results. Each model provides values for the first eigenfrequencies and the associated modes shapes. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Flexibility and fatigue evaluation of oblique as compared with anterior lumbar interbody cages with integrated endplate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew L; Camisa, William J; Buttermann, Glenn R; Malcolm, James R

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify the in vitro range of motion (ROM) of oblique as compared with anterior lumbar interbody devices, pullout resistance, and subsidence in fatigue. Anterior and oblique cages with integrated plate fixation (IPF) were tested using lumbar motion segments. Flexibility tests were conducted on the intact segments, cage, cage + IPF, and cage + IPF + pedicle screws (6 anterior, 7 oblique). Pullout tests were then performed on the cage + IPF. Fatigue testing was conducted on the cage + IPF specimens for 30,000 cycles. No ROM differences were observed in any test group between anterior and oblique cage constructs. The greatest reduction in ROM was with supplemental pedicle screw fixation. Peak pullout forces were 637 ± 192 N and 651 ± 127 N for the anterior and oblique implants, respectively. The median cage subsidence was 0.8 mm and 1.4 mm for the anterior and oblique cages, respectively. Anterior and oblique cages similarly reduced ROM in flexibility testing, and the integrated fixation prevented device displacement. Subsidence was minimal during fatigue testing, most of which occurred in the first 2500 cycles.

  10. Effects of wire-bottom caging on heart rate, activity and body temperature in telemetry-implanted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; García-Olmo, Dolores C; Kramer, Klaas

    2011-10-01

    Some experimental procedures are associated with placement of animals in wire-bottom cages. The goal of this study was to evaluate stress-related physiological parameters (heart rate [HR], body temperature [BT], locomotor activity [LA], body weight [BW] and food consumption) in rats under two housing conditions, namely in wire-bottom cages and in bedding-bottom cages. Telemetry devices were surgically implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. HR, BT and LA were recorded at 5 min intervals. Analysis under each housing condition was performed from 16:00 to 08:00 h of the following day (4 h light, 12 h dark). During almost all of the light phase, the HR of rats housed in wire-bottom cages remained high (371 ± 35 bpm; mean ± SD; n = 6) and was significantly different from that of rats housed in bedding-bottom cages (340 ± 29 bpm; n = 6; P wire-bottom cages, BT tended to fluctuate more widely during the dark phase. LA decreased when animals were housed in wire-bottom cages, in particular during the dark phase. Moreover, there was a significant difference with respect to the gain in BW: BW of rats housed in bedding-bottom cages increased 12 ± 2 g, whereas that of rats in wire-bottom cages decreased by 2 ± 3 g (P wire-bottom cages overnight leads to immediate alterations of HR, BW and LA, which might be related to a stress response.

  11. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Munić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  12. Impact of sea waves on underwater fish-breeding cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of sea objects is of great importance while solving the problems of providing the constantly growing requirements of the national economy with sea products. Cultivation of sea objects uses special hydrobiotechnical constructions. As the practice showed, cultivation of seafood is commercially impossible without solving the questions of calculating and designing such constructions. In special literature these questions are poorly covered or not considered at all. In the article the results of theoretical and pilot studies of waves influence on hydrobiotechnical constructions is provided, in particular on underwater fish-breeding cages.This article offers the theoretical solution to the problem of determining the efforts of the ropes holding the fish tank under wave influences. In order to solve this problem, the equations of hard drives movements were set up and the differential equations of free oscillations of buzz were obtained.When determining the horizontal movements, the four different configurations of connections and the system motion directions in general are possible in case of waveoscillations. Next step is the solution of the differential equations and determination of natural oscillation frequency in the direction of the vertical axis. Defining efforts in the ropes from their own weight (static calculation is self-explanatory, it should be noted that accounting for the weighing influence of water on such structures does not have significant influence.Further the authors defined loading and efforts from the regular waves’ impacts.Modeling of the waves influence on submersible fish tank was carried by Fraud method. The studies were conducted with two models with large and small mesh. The signals of strain gauge sensors were registered by electronic measuring equipment.When comparing the theoretical and experimental data, satisfactory results have been obtained. It was determined that in order to improve the calculation

  13. Sea-cage aquaculture, sea lice, and declines of wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, L Neil

    2009-06-01

    A sea cage, sometimes referred to as a net pen, is an enclosure designed to prevent farm fish from escaping and to protect them from large predators, while allowing a free flow of water through the cage to carry away waste. Farm fish thus share water with wild fish, which enables transmission of parasites, such as sea lice, from wild to farm and farm to wild fishes. Sea lice epidemics, together with recently documented population-level declines of wild salmon in areas of sea-cage farming, are a reminder that sea-cage aquaculture is fundamentally different from terrestrial animal culture. The difference is that sea cages protect farm fish from the usual pathogen-control mechanisms of nature, such as predators, but not from the pathogens themselves. A sea cage thus becomes an unintended pathogen factory. Basic physical theory explains why sea-cage aquaculture causes sea lice on sympatric wild fish to increase and why increased lice burdens cause wild fish to decline, with extirpation as a real possibility. Theory is important to this issue because slow declines of wild fish can be difficult to detect amid large fluctuations from other causes. The important theoretical concepts are equilibrium, host-density effect, reservoir-host effect, and critical stocking level of farmed fish (stocking level at which lice proliferate on farm fish even if wild fish are not present to infect them). I explored these concepts and their implications without mathematics through examples from salmon farming. I also considered whether the lice-control techniques used by sea-cage farmers (medication and shortened grow-out times) are capable of protecting wild fish. Elementary probability showed that W ≈ W* - εF (where W is the abundance of wild fish, W* is the prefarm abundance, F is the abundance of farm fish, and ε is the ratio of lice per farm fish to lice per wild fish). Declines of wild fish can be reduced by short growing cycles for farm fish, medicating farm fish, and keeping

  14. Effect of cage type on the behaviour patterns of rabbit does at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Alfonso-Carrillo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in commercially farmed rabbit welfare has increased in recent years. As a result, new alternativehousing systems have been developed, although they require evaluation in order to demonstrate their potential for improving welfare. The aim of this trial was to study the behavioural traits of rabbit does housed in 2 different types of cage (TC: conventional vs. alternative with an elevated platform, at different physiological stages (PS; lactation and gestation. Behavioural observations were carried out on 12 rabbit commercial does using continuous 24 h video recording. Independently of PS and TC, rabbit does spent most of their time on foot mats (on av. 57.7%. However, due to the use of platforms (on av. 23.0% of time, lactating does spent 36.6% less time on foot mats (P<0.001 and gestating does spent 27.0% less time on wire mesh (P<0.001 in alternative cages than in conventional cages. Alternative cages allowed for standing posture, but this behaviour was only observed in gestating does (on av. 4.6 times a day. Frequency of drinking was higher in conventional than in alternative cages (24.6 vs. 19.1 times a day; P<0.05. Gestating does housed in conventional cages reached the highest duration and frequency of interacting with neighbours (276 s/d and 4.6 times/d; P<0.05. The frequency of interacting with kits was lower in alternative than in conventional cages (2.4 vs. 8.6 times a day; P<0.01. Doe behaviour was influenced by the time of day, with less activity during the midday hours. During dark hours, rabbit does more frequently performed restless behaviour such as hyperactivity or nursing, matching the time at which rabbit does spent more time on the platform. The platform was frequently used by rabbit does, regardless of their physiological stage, and during late lactation phase, when mothers were not receptive to nursing, does housed in alternative cages used the platform as a mean to flee from kits trying to suckle

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct. Methods Six cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7) specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N) in the following conditions: 1) intact (C3–C7), 2) LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3) removal of all rods (LMS retained) and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4) bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods), and 5) C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted. Results Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–extension (P=0.001), (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3°) in lateral bending (P=0.053), (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9°) in axial rotation (P=0.091) for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced range of motion in a multilevel construct (P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral posterior cages provide similar cervical segmental stability compared with a LMS and rod construct and may be an alternative surgical option for select patients. Furthermore, supplementation of a lateral mass construct with posterior cages increases cervical spine stability in single- and multilevel conditions. PMID

  16. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

    2013-07-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for

  17. Posterior lumbar inter-body fusion (PLIF) using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw instrumentation versus PLIF using cage with pedicle screw instrumentation in adult spondylolisthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Yusheng; Hao Dingjun; Wen Shiming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical outcomes of PLIF using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw fixation (group 2) and simple cage fusion with pedicle screw fixation (group 1) in adult spondylolisthesis.Methods: 27 patients with minimum follow-up of 24 months, treated by inter-body fusion with pedicle screw fixation were prospectively studied. Disc space height, degree of slippage and fusion rate had been compared before and after operation between the two groups. Results: After minimum 24 month's follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the amount of blood loss, duration of hospital stay, back pain,radiating pain, fusion rate, or complication (P>0.05). however, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of disc space height and percentage of slippage (P<0.05). Conclusion: PLIF using autogenous bone and cage with pedicle screw fixation more beneifical to improve fusion rate and prevent long-term instabilities than simple cage fusion with pedicle screw fixation in adult spondylolisthesis.

  18. Horizontal transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in experimentally infected laying hens housed in conventional or enriched cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2014-12-01

    The majority of human illnesses caused by Salmonella Enteritidis are attributed to contaminated eggs, and the prevalence of this pathogen in commercial laying flocks has been identified as a leading epidemiologic risk factor. Flock housing and management systems can affect opportunities for the introduction, transmission, and persistence of foodborne pathogens in poultry. The animal welfare implications of different types of housing for laying hens have been widely discussed in recent years, but the food safety consequences of these production systems remain incompletely understood. The present study assessed the effects of 2 different housing systems (conventional cages and colony cages enriched with perching and nesting areas) on the horizontal transmission of experimentally introduced Salmonella Enteritidis infection within groups of laying hens. In each of 2 trials, 136 hens were distributed among cages of both housing systems and approximately one-third of the hens in each cage were orally inoculated with doses of 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis (phage type 13a in one trial and phage type 4 in the other). At regular intervals through 23 d postinoculation, cloacal swabs were collected from all hens (inoculated and uninoculated) and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. Horizontal contact transmission of infection was observed for both Salmonella Enteritidis strains, reaching peak prevalence values of 27.1% of uninoculated hens in conventional cages and 22.7% in enriched cages. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the overall frequencies of horizontal Salmonella Enteritidis transmission were evident between the 2 types of housing. These results suggest that opportunities for Salmonella Enteritidis infection to spread horizontally throughout laying flocks may be similar in conventional and enriched cage-based production systems.

  19. The fear levels after transport of hens from cages and a free-range system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, G B; Connell, B J; Lambe, N R

    1998-01-01

    All end-of-lay hens must be transported from the production site to the site for slaughter, usually by road. The acts of being crated and transported are likely to be novel and potentially frightening. Frightened birds can be put into tonic immobility (TI), an unlearned, catatonic state, the duration of which is positively related to the fear level of the birds. Ninety ISA Brown free-range birds (in three groups of 30) and 90 caged ISA Brown birds (in similar groups) were transported (one group from cages and free-range per day) on a journey of 68 km (74 min approximately). On their return, each of the birds was subjected to TI. Although no significant differences were recorded between free-range and caged birds after they were transported (P = 0.087), in the comparison between the same birds after 7 wk, without transport, a significant difference in fear levels was observed (P birds were less frightened than the caged birds. No significant difference was ever found in fear levels for caged birds from different tiers. Handling and transport on this relatively short journey was apparently equally frightening for caged and free-range birds. It cannot be assumed that just because fear levels differ between free-range and caged birds, this difference will be apparent for all novel stimuli. If all birds, at all tiers, receive the same amount of human contact during the production period, there is no reason to expect differences to occur in fear levels of birds from different tiers.

  20. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico.OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results.Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  1. The model of double-cage induction motor for the analysis of thermal fields in transient operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency motor switch-on happens occasionally while operating a doublesquirrel- cage motor at full supply voltage with the rotor blocked (e.g., in coal mills. After releasing the blockage, the by now heated motor is started up again. However, the mechanical stress caused by the increased temperature poses considerable hazards to the squirrel-cage winding. This paper presents a double-cage induction motor model for analysis of thermal fields in transient operation. The thermal field for the rotor of a doublesquirrel- cage motor of soldered or cast structure, operating in the conditions described, has been calculated in the present paper using a thermal network method. Measurement results have been presented for the double-squirrel-cage winding temperature for a soldered cage construction in the blocked rotor state.

  2. Effect of multilevel laboratory rat caging system on the well-being of the singly-housed Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R R; Swan, M P; Hickman, D L

    2015-01-01

    Current regulations emphasize that good husbandry practices allow animals to engage in species appropriate postural adjustments without touching the enclosure walls. This study evaluated the well-being of rats housed in a commercially available multilevel rat caging system, with or without access to the upper level of the caging. The evaluation methodologies included assessment of behavioral observations in the home cage, physiological assessment of metabolism and immune function, and determination of the affective state using a spatial cognitive bias assay. The study determined that rats that were provided access to the full multilevel cage during testing after initial restriction to the lower level of the cage demonstrated behavioral changes consistent with a positive affective state, while those with no changes to their housing situation had no significant differences in their affective states. Rats that were consistently housed with access restricted to the lower level of the cage exhibited a tendency to increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios as compared with those provided with access to all levels of the multilevel cage. There were no differences in body weight demonstrated between the experimental groups. Overall use of the cage space, as documented through analysis of behavioral observations in the home cage, demonstrated no significant differences in preferred location in the cage during the light or dark cycles, though rats with access to both levels of the cage were significantly more active during the light cycle. The results of this study suggest that the use of a multilevel caging system may improve the well-being of rats used in research.

  3. The effect of perch availability during pullet rearing and egg laying on the behavior of caged White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, P Y; Garner, J P; Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W; Einstein, M E

    2014-10-01

    Enriched cages, compared with conventional cages, allow egg laying strains of chickens to meet some behavioral needs, including a high motivation to perch. The objective of this study was to determine if perch availability during rearing affected perch use as adults and if perch presence affected eating and drinking in caged White Leghorn hens. Chickens were assigned to 14 cages each with and without 2 round metal perches from hatch to 16.9 wk of age. At 17 wk of age, pullets were assigned to laying cages consisting of 1 of 4 treatments. Treatment 1 chickens never had access to perches (controls). Treatment 2 chickens only had access to 2 round metal perches during the laying phase (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 3 chickens only had access to 2 round perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens had access to the perches during both the pullet and laying phase. Each treatment during the adult phase consisted of 9 cages with 9 birds/cage for a total of 36 cages. Automatic infrared cameras were used to monitor behavior of hens in each cage for a 24-h period at 19, 24, 29, 34, 39, 44, 49, 54, 59, 64, and 69 wk of age. Behavior was also recorded twice weekly by an observer in the room where the hens were housed during photophase from 25 to 68 wk of age. Behavioral data were analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures and the MIXED model procedure. A greater proportion of hens without perches as pullets used the rear perch more during both photophase and scotophase than hens with prior pullet perching experience. Eating and drinking activities of caged adult Leghorns were not impaired by their prior experience to perches as pullets or by the presence of perches in laying cages. It is concluded that providing perches in cages to White Leghorns during pullet rearing did not facilitate use of perches as adults.

  4. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  5. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of immediate stability with rectangular versus cylindrical interbody cages in stabilization of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb John K

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent cadaver studies show stability against axial rotation with a cylindrical cage is marginally superior to a rectangular cage. The purpose of this biomechanical study in cadaver spine was to evaluate the stability of a new rectangular titanium cage design, which has teeth similar to the threads of cylindrical cages to engage the endplates. Methods Ten motion segments (five L2-3, five L4-5 were tested. From each cadaver spine, one motion segment was fixed with a pair of cylindrical cages (BAK, Sulzer Medica and the other with paired rectangular cages (Rotafix, Corin Spinal. Each specimen was tested in an unconstrained state, after cage introduction and after additional posterior translaminar screw fixation. The range of motion (ROM in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and rotation was tested in a materials testing machine, with +/- 5 Nm cyclical load over 10 sec per cycle; data from the third cycle was captured for analysis. Results ROM in all directions was significantly reduced (p Conclusions There was no significant difference in immediate stability in any direction between the threaded cylindrical cage and the new design of the rectangular cage with endplate teeth.

  7. DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum amphipods: A tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, Emilie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Devaux, Alain [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Mons, Raphael [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Bony, Sylvie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Garric, Jeanne [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Geffard, Alain [EA 2069 URVVC-SE, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Geffard, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.geffard@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to propose a tool for freshwater environmental genotoxicity assessment using Gammarus fossarum, a high ecologically relevant species. In a first part, gammarids were caged upstream and downstream wastewater treatment plant effluent output. The sensitivity of genotoxic responses of haemocytes, oocytes and spermatozoa was compared using the Comet assay. Spermatozoa appeared to be the most sensitive, suitable and relevant cell type for genotoxicity risk assessment. In a second part, a watershed-scale study was conducted over 2 years to evaluate the applicability of our caging procedure. The genotoxic impact of a contamination was followed, taking into account seasonal variability. DNA damage in spermatozoa exhibited low basal level and low variability in control upstream sites, providing a reliable discrimination of polluted sites. Finally, DNA damage in caged G. fossarum has been proved to be a sensitive and reproducible tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: > Two different contamination contexts: WWTP effluents and polymetallic contamination. > DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum is a sensitive tool for freshwater quality assessment. > Spermatozoa is the most relevant cell type for biomonitoring freshwater genotoxicity. > Combining biomarker responses with analytical chemistry provides rich ecotoxicological information. - We propose an approach to assess freshwater genotoxicity in the field based on caged Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, amphipoda).

  8. Effect of housing birds in cages or an aviary system on bone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Leeson, S

    1998-10-01

    Sixty-nine-week-old brown egg layers were either maintained in cages or moved to a litter-floored aviary system. After 10 or 20 d, birds were selected at random from within each environment, and their tibiae removed. After drying, bones were measured and then subject to various physical measurements of strength and elasticity. Bone ash and bone calcium content were also measured. Birds maintained in an aviary initially had stronger bones as measured by force (P birds had stronger bones, as assessed by force, than their contemporaries maintained in cages. This same relationship was seen in measures of bone stress (P caged birds had bone ash values that were intermediate between birds held only in cages or the aviary (P > 0.05). Bone calcium content was not influenced by the bird's environment. It appears that the skeleton of caged birds can be affected by providing them with an environment that allows opportunity for increased static and dynamic loading of the bones.

  9. Small cages with insect couples provide a simple method for a preliminary assessment of mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Françoise; Guerin, Patrick M; Charmillot, Pierre-Joseph; Kehrli, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density). The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  10. Small Cages with Insect Couples Provide a Simple Method for a Preliminary Assessment of Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Briand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density. The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  11. RESULTS OF THE USE OF PEEK CAGES IN THE TREATMENT OF BASILAR INVAGINATION BY GOEL TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analysis of the use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cages for atlantoaxial facet realignment and distraction for treatment of basilar invagination by Goel technique. Method: Retrospective descriptive statistical analysis of the neurological status, pain, presence of subsidence and bone fusion with the use of PEEK cages in 8 atlantoaxial joints of 4 patients with basilar invagination. All patients were treated with atlantoaxial facet distraction and realignment and subsequent arthrodesis C1-C2 by the technique of Goel modified by the use of PEEK cage. Results: All patients showed improvement in Nurick neurological assessment scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain. There were no cases of subsidence, migration, or damage to the vertebral artery during the insertion of the cage. All joints evolved with bone fusion, assessed by dynamic radiographs, and computed tomography. Two patients developed neuropathic pain in dermatome of C2 and one patient had unilateral vertebral artery injury during C2 instrumentation treated with insertion of pedicle screw to control the bleeding. Conclusion: The results of the treatment of basilar invagination by the Goel technique with the use of PEEK cages shown to be effective and safe although further studies are needed to confirm this use.

  12. Effects of Muscle Atrophy on Motor Control: Cage-size Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Two populations of male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised either in conventional minimum-specification cages or in a larger cage. When the animals were mature (125 to 150 d), the physiological status of the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the small- and large-cage animals were compared. Analysis of whole-muscle properties including the performance of the test muscle during a standardized fatigue test in which the nerve to the test muscle was subjected to supramaximal intermittent stimulation shows: (1) the amplitude, area, mean amplitude, and peak-to-peak rate of the compound muscle action potential decreased per the course of the fatigue test; (2) cage size did not affect the profile of changes for any of the action-potential measurements; (3) changes exhibited in the compound muscle action potential by SOL and EDL were substantially different; and (4) except for SOL of the large-cage rats, there was a high correlation between all four measures of the compound muscle action potential and the peak tetanic force during the fatigue test; i.e., either the electrical activity largely etermines the force profile during the fatigue test or else contractile-related activity substantially affects the compound muscle action potential.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Two Net Cages with Grid Mooring System Under Wave Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-ping; ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Yu-cheng; DONG Guo-hai; ZHENG Yan-na

    2012-01-01

    Based on rigid kinematics theory and lumped mass method,a mathematical model of the two net cages of grid mooring system under waves is developed.In order to verify the numerical model,a series of physical model tests have been carried out.According to the comparisons between the simulated and the experimental results,it can be found that the simulated and the experimental results agree well in each wave condition.Then,the forces on the mooring lines and the floating collar movement are calculated under different wave conditions.Numerical results show that under the same condition,the forces on the bridle ropes are the largest,followed by forces on the main ropes and the grid ropes.The horizontal and the vertical float collar motion amplitudes increase with the increase of wave height,while the relationship of the horizontal motion amplitude and the wave period is indistinct.The vertical motion amplitude of the two cages is almost the same,while on the respect of horizontal motion amplitude,cage B (behind cage A,as shown in Fig.4) moves much farther than cage A under the same wave condition.The inclination angle of the floating system both in clockwise alongy axis and the counter one enlarges a little with the increase of wave height.

  14. Hydrodynamic coefficients of a simplified floating system of gravity cage in waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-wen WU; Fu-kun GUI; Yu-cheng LI; Wei-huan FANG

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental tests were carried out to examine the hydrodynamic behaviors of a double-column floating system of gravity cage under wave conditions. A floating system of gravity cage can be treated as a small-sized floating structure when compared with the wavelengths. The main problem in calculating the wave loads on the small-sized floating structure is to obtain the reasonable force coefficients, which may differ from a submerged structure. In this paper, the floating system of gravity cage is simplified to a 2D problem, where the floating system is set symmetrically under wave conditions. The motion equations were deduced under wave conditions and a specific method was proposed to resolve the problem of wave forces acting on a small-sized floating system of gravity cage at water surface. Results of the numerical method were compared with those from model tests and the hydrodynamic coefficients Cn and C?were studied. It is found that Cn ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 while C?is between 0.4 and 0.6 in this study. The results are useful for research on the hydrodynamic behavior of the deep-water gravity sea cages.

  15. The use of carbon fiber cages in anterior cervical interbody fusion: report of 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Khalil; Ouaknine, Georges E R; Razon, Nissim; Rochkind, Semion

    2002-01-15

    Cage devices were introduced in spinal fusion to overcome the shortcomings of autograft, allograft, and biocompatible implants. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term results of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in which an interbody carbon fiber cage (CFC) and local osteophyte-derived bone graft were implanted. A retrospective review was conducted of 100 consecutive patients treated by ACDF in which a CFC was packed with bone fragments obtained from osteophytes at the surgical site. Plain radiographs with dynamic lateral views obtained 1 year postoperatively were used to assess bone fusion, alignment of the cervical spine, and stability. Dynamic radiographs were also obtained at last follow up to determine whether loss of cervical alignment or collapse at the fused disc had occurred. The mean follow-up period was 25 months. In all cases the cervical lordosis was maintained or corrected to different extents and disc height was restored. Solid fusion was achieved in 98% of the cases. There were no cage-related complications and no cases of cage failure. The authors conclude that application of the CFC for ACDF is safe, effective, and technically feasible. Osteophytes resected during surgery may be a good alternative material for bone grafting in cage-assisted cervical interbody fusion.

  16. Tilapia cage culture and the dissolved oxygen trends in Sampaloc Lake, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, A E; Arcilla, R P

    1993-02-01

    The 28-hectare tilapia cage culture that occupied the 104-hectare Sampaloc Lake, a crater lake, shifted to intensive method in 1986 when tilapia growth slowed done at the beginning of 1982. Thus, commercial feeds became the main source of allochthonous organic matter in the lake. Total feeds given annually for the 28-hectare cage culture at 3 croppings per year amounted to 5250 tons. At feed conversion ratio of 1 : 2 a significant portion of the feeds given ended as organic wastes in the lake. In 1988, tilapia cage operators began experiencing their worst occurrences of fishkill, worth millions of pesos. An assessment of the dissolved oxygen condition of Sampaloc lake in late 1989, 1990 and mid-1991 showed ominous trends which might adversely affect the use of Sampaloc lake for fishery.

  17. Design Concepts of Polycarbonate-Based Intervertebral Lumbar Cages: Finite Element Analysis and Compression Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Obedt Figueroa-Cavazos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the viability of 3D printed intervertebral lumbar cages based on biocompatible polycarbonate (PC-ISO® material. Several design concepts are proposed for the generation of patient-specific intervertebral lumbar cages. The 3D printed material achieved compressive yield strength of 55 MPa under a specific combination of manufacturing parameters. The literature recommends a reference load of 4,000 N for design of intervertebral lumbar cages. Under compression testing conditions, the proposed design concepts withstand between 7,500 and 10,000 N of load before showing yielding. Although some stress concentration regions were found during analysis, the overall viability of the proposed design concepts was validated.

  18. Cage rattling does not correlate with the local geometry in molecular liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Bernini, S; Leporini, D

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a liquid of short linear molecules have been performed to investigate the correlation between the particle dynamics in the cage of the neighbors and the local geometry. The latter is characterized in terms of the size and the asphericity of the Voronoi polyhedra. The correlation is found to be poor. In particular, in spite of the different Voronoi volume around the end and the inner monomers of a molecule, all the monomers exhibit coinciding displacement distribution when they are caged (as well as at longer times during the structural relaxation). It is concluded that the fast dynamics during the cage trapping is a non-local collective process involving monomers beyond the nearest neighbours.

  19. Photorelease of GABA with visible light using an inorganic caging group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Rial Verde

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the selective photorelease of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA with a novel caged-GABA compound that uses a ruthenium complex as photosensor. This compound (“RuBi-GABA” can be excited with visible wavelengths, providing greater tissue penetration, less photo-toxicity, and faster photorelease kinetics than currently used UV light-sensitive caged compounds. Using pyramidal neurons from neocortical brain slices, we show that RuBi-GABA uncaging induces GABA-A receptor-mediated responses, has no detectable side effects on endogenous GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors and generates responses with kinetics and spatial resolution comparable to the best caged GABA compounds presently available. Finally, we illustrate two potential applications of RuBi-GABA uncaging: GABA receptor mapping, and optical silencing of neuronal firing.

  20. Tunneling Motion and Antiferroelectric Ordering of Lithium Cations Trapped inside Carbon Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Shinobu; Tokumitu, Akio; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Okada, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Norihisa; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-09-01

    Dielectric and X-ray diffraction measurements of [Li@C60](PF6) single crystals reveal the motion of the Li+ cations inside the C60 cages at low temperature. An increase in the dielectric permittivity below 100 K is consistent with a combined tunneling and hopping motion of the Li+ cation between two positions inside the C60 cage. A phase transition accompanied by a decrease in the dielectric permittivity at TC = 24 K is explained by an antiferroelectric ordering of the Li+ cations. The Li+ ordering is caused by interactions among electric dipole moments formed between the Li+ cations inside and the PF6- anions outside the C60 cages. The electric dipole moments that are switched by the Li+ tunneling and interact with each other are potential qubits in a quantum computer using electric dipole moments.

  1. Nature of the valence excited states of bromine in the T and P clathrate cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Romero, Fidel A.; Gamboa-Suárez, Antonio; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón; Janda, Kenneth C.

    2017-04-01

    The guest-host intermolecular potentials for the valence excited states of Br2 in the tetrakaidecahedral(T) and pentakaidecahedral(P) clathrate cages have been calculated using ab initio local correlation methods. We find that the excited states are more strongly bound than the corresponding ground states even in the small T cage where bromine has a tight fit. The angular dependence of the interaction energies is quite anisotropic; this reflects in the corresponding electronic shifts where regions of maxima for blue-shifts in the T cage indicate the presence of halogen bonding. We predict a large temperature dependence of the electronic shifts and compare absolute values with recent experimental studies. This stringent test indicates the reliability of local correlation treatments to describe weak intermolecular forces in ground and excited states.

  2. On the Damper Cage Bar´s Currents Calculation Forsalient Pole Large Synchronous Machina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Vicol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The damper cage bars’ currents occur only when the synchronous machine operates in a dynamic regime and its rotor speed differs from the stator field speed. Basically there are two ways of calculating the damper cage currents, by using the machine equivalent circuit or by employing a 2D or 3D finite element method (FEM analysis. In this paper are discussedtwo methods to calculate the damper cage currents, one based on a coupled field-circuit approach when all the machine dimensions and winding should be known and another based on DC-decay tests conducted with the rotor on d, respectively q axis when all the transient parameters and time constants are obtained. Both methods are quite simple and offer an acceptable accuracy.

  3. A smart platform for hyperthermia application in cancer treatment: cobalt-doped ferrite nanoparticles mineralized in human ferritin cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantechi, Elvira; Innocenti, Claudia; Zanardelli, Matteo; Fittipaldi, Maria; Falvo, Elisabetta; Carbo, Miriam; Shullani, Valbona; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Ponti, Alessandro; Sangregorio, Claudio; Ceci, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-27

    Magnetic nanoparticles, MNPs, mineralized within a human ferritin protein cage, HFt, can represent an appealing platform to realize smart therapeutic agents for cancer treatment by drug delivery and magnetic fluid hyperthermia, MFH. However, the constraint imposed by the inner diameter of the protein shell (ca. 8 nm) prevents its use as heat mediator in MFH when the MNPs comprise pure iron oxide. In this contribution, we demonstrate how this limitation can be overcome through the controlled doping of the core with small amount of Co(II). Highly monodisperse doped iron oxide NPs with average size of 7 nm are mineralized inside a genetically modified variant of HFt, carrying several copies of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide, which has already been demonstrated to have excellent targeting properties toward melanoma cells. HFt is also conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules to increase its in vivo stability. The investigation of hyperthermic properties of HFt-NPs shows that a Co doping of 5% is enough to strongly enhance the magnetic anisotropy and thus the hyperthermic efficiency with respect to the undoped sample. In vitro tests performed on B16 melanoma cell line demonstrate a strong reduction of the cell viability after treatment with Co doped HFt-NPs and exposure to the alternating magnetic field. Clear indications of an advanced stage of apoptotic process is also observed from immunocytochemistry analysis. The obtained data suggest this system represents a promising candidate for the development of a protein-based theranostic nanoplatform.

  4. Remedies for a high incidence of broken eggs in furnished cages: effectiveness of increasing nest attractiveness and lowering perch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Struelens, E; Ampe, B

    2013-01-01

    Two remedial treatments to reduce the high incidence of broken eggs in the furnished cages of our experimental layer farm were investigated: lining the nest floor with artificial turf (to increase nest acceptance) and lowering perch height (to reduce the chance of egg breakage of outside-nest eggs). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with low (7 cm) or high (24 cm) perches, and with nest floors lined with artificial turf or plastic mesh. Eight cages, each housing 8 hens initially (aged 40 to 56 wk), were used per treatment. Egg location and percentage of broken eggs were recorded. Hen position (cage floor, nest, or perch) was recorded by direct scan-sampling observations. In addition, 8 cages (4 high + 4 low) each containing 8 hens (aged 54 to 56 wk) were videorecorded to determine perch use and behavior during the light period. Data were mainly analyzed using logistic regression and mixed models with cage as the experimental unit. Nest floor material did not influence the percentage of eggs broken or laid outside the nest. The proportion of outside-nest eggs (2.6 vs. 10.6%, P = 0.004), and consequently also of total eggs (2 vs. 4.6%, P = 0.016) broken, was lower for low than high cages. Perch use increased during the observation period, more so for the high cages during the light period and the low cages during the dark period. Perch bout duration (P cages. In this study, replacing plastic mesh nest floor lining with artificial turf was not an effective remedy for the already-high rate of broken eggs, but the prevalence of broken outside-nest eggs was lower in cages with low versus high perches. However, perching behavior during the light period was more disturbed in cages with low perches.

  5. Application of carbon cage (Brantigan) to lumber vertebra diseases. The examination by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Taro [Okayama National Hospital (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Recently several kinds of interlumber spacers have been used for the posterior lumber interbody fusion (PLIF). We have used Brantigan I/F cage (carbon cage) for PLIF. Here we report the results of PLIF and the postoperative MRI. We examined 10 patients (9 men and 10 women) who underwent carbon cage-used PLIF. Patients at surgery were aged from 36 to 77 years (average 61 years). The postoperative observation periods were from 6 months to 17 months (mean 8.2 months). Diseases contained 12 of lumber degenerative sliding disease, 2 of lumber-spine separate disease and 5 of lumber spine stricture complicating the unstable lumber vertebra. We observed synostosis in all cases, and we obtained the improvement rate by JOA score of 71.4%. There was no complications during surgery, except one case of transient neuroparalysis by postoperative hematoma. The carbon cage-used PLIF was effective to minimize sampling of autologous bones and to prevent the crush of bone grafts. MRI was quite effective to evaluate the position of the carbon cage and to judge synostosis. Using MRI we could judge synostosis by the contrast of grafted bones at only 3 months after surgery. The carbon cage transmits X-ray, which makes it easy to judge synostosis. It has the open window to graft autologous bones and the elasticity almost similar to the cortical bone. On the other hand it has some disadvantages; the difficulty to determine the position by the X-ray images, the biological safety, etc. (K.H.)

  6. Comparison of bones of 4 strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, F G; Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Korver, D R

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of bone strength has been an important issue in the debate over cage use for laying hens. Bone strength depends on adequate mechanical load and cages restrict movement. Four laying crosses (Lohmann White, Lohmann Brown, H&N White, and Rhode Island Red × Barred Plymouth Rock cross hens) were housed in conventional cages or in floor pens equipped with perches and nest boxes to measure the effect of the housing system on bone strength. Approximately 15 hens of each genotype from each housing system were killed at 50 wk of age and the radius and tibia of each were removed for analysis. There were no differences between the Lohmann White and H&N White (White Leghorn) hens, likely because of their similar genetic background. The Lohmann Brown and the cross hens (brown-egg layers) were larger and they had heavier bones, but the bone density was not different from that of the other lines. The radius was heavier for hens kept in floor pens than for those kept in cages, but the tibia was not. When hens were kept in floor pens, both bones had greater cortical bone density and cross-sectional area, but the difference between housing systems in cortical bone cross-sectional area was much greater for the radius than it was for the tibia. Although the movement of hens in cages is limited, they spend a great deal of time standing, which puts a mechanical load on the tibia. Hens in floor pens are able to stretch their wings or fly, in contrast to hens kept in cages, which likely explains why the difference between housing systems in cortical bone was greater for the radius than for the tibia.

  7. Perching behaviour and perch height preference of laying hens in furnished cages varying in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Duchateau, L; Leroy, T; Cox, M; Vranken, E; Buyse, J; Zoons, J; Berckmans, D; Odberg, F; Sonck, B

    2008-07-01

    1. The objective was to investigate the effect of cage height on perch height preference and perching behaviour in laying hens. Twelve groups of two hens and 12 groups of 14 hens were tested in furnished cages equipped with two wooden perches. These stepwise perches were designed such that hens could choose between 7 different heights (6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31 and 36 cm). Day- and night-time perching behaviour was observed on 4 consecutive days with a different cage height each day: 150, 55, 50 and 45 cm. 2. Given that a minimum perch-roof distance of 19 to 24 cm was available, hens preferred to roost on the highest perches at night. 3. Lowering cage height not only forced hens to use lower perches, but also reduced time spent on the perches during the day (two-hen and 14-hen test) and night (14-hen test). Moreover, it affected daytime behavioural activities (more standing and less preening) on the perches in the two-hen tests (but not in the 14-hen tests). 4. During the day lower perches were used more for standing and walking, higher perches more for sitting and sleeping. This behavioural differentiation was most pronounced in the highest cages. 5. Perch preference and perching behaviour depend on both the floor-perch distance and the perch-roof distance. Higher cages provide more opportunity for higher perches (which hens prefer), for better three-dimensional spacing (and consequently reduced density at floor level) and for behavioural differentiation according to perch height.

  8. Interacting Stochastic Processes: From Viciousness to Caging to Force Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiliyang

    This thesis documents a quest to develop and study several novel interacting stochastic processes. As for the first example, we generalize a system of vicious random walkers in which the only interaction between any two random walkers is that when they intersect, both walkers are annihilated. We define a system of N vicious accelerating walkers with each walker undergoing random acceleration and compute the survival probability distribution for this system. We also define and study a system of N vicious Levy flights in which any two Levy flights crossing one another annihilate each other. The average mean-squared displacement of a Levy flight is not proportional to time, but scales with what is known as the Levy index divided by two. In both cases, vicious accelerating walkers and vicious Levy flights, we are motivated by ultimately generalizing our understanding of Gaussian random matrices via non-Markovian and non-Gaussian extensions respectively. Moreover, inspired by recent experiments on periodically sheared colloids at low densities, we define and investigate several new contact processes, or interacting stochastic processes, with conserved particle number and three-or-more-body interactions. We do so to characterize the periodically sheared colloidal system at higher densities. We find two new dynamical phase transitions between an active phase, where some fraction of the colloids are always being displaced from their position at the beginning and end of each shear cycle, and an inactive phase in which all colloids return to their initial positions at the end of each shear cycle. One of the transitions is discontinuous, while the second, which is due to a caging, or crowding, effect at high densities, appears to be continuous and in a new universality from what is known as conserved directed percolation. The latter transition may have implications for the onset of glassiness in dense, particulate systems. In addition, this thesis also includes analysis of

  9. The Design and its Verification of the Double Rotor Double Cage Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumita; Deb, Nirmal K.; Biswas, Sujit K.

    2016-06-01

    The concept of a double rotor motor presented earlier and its equivalent circuit has been developed, showing a non-linear parameter content. The two rotors (which are recommended to be double cage type for development of high starting torque) can run with equal or unequal speed independently, depending on their individual loading. This paper presents the elaborate design procedure, step-by-step, for the double rotor double cage motor and verifies the designed data with that obtained from three separate tests (compared to two for conventional motor) on a prototype, such that optimum performance can be obtained from the motor.

  10. The Design and its Verification of the Double Rotor Double Cage Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumita; Deb, Nirmal K.; Biswas, Sujit K.

    2017-02-01

    The concept of a double rotor motor presented earlier and its equivalent circuit has been developed, showing a non-linear parameter content. The two rotors (which are recommended to be double cage type for development of high starting torque) can run with equal or unequal speed independently, depending on their individual loading. This paper presents the elaborate design procedure, step-by-step, for the double rotor double cage motor and verifies the designed data with that obtained from three separate tests (compared to two for conventional motor) on a prototype, such that optimum performance can be obtained from the motor.

  11. High-pass bird-cage coil for nuclear-magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Joel C.; Fukushima, Eiichi

    1988-06-01

    Cylindrical bird-cage coils generate uniform magnetic fields transverse to the cylinder axis for use in the large sample nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. We describe the design and construction of an eight-rung high-pass bird-cage coil to operate at 80 MHz in a cylindrical bore of a superconducting magnet. The coil is 12.7 cm in diameter by 30.5 cm long and has a 7-cm-diam region in the center where the field intensity is within 10% of the average.

  12. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of {delta}E/E

  13. Calculation of the environmental capacity of cooling ponds for cage fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Starco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The determination of a maximum annual amount of fish reared in cagesm which does not result in the deterioration of the ecological state of water cooling ponds of the Zmiev Thermal Power Plant and Kursk Nuclear Power Plant series Ι and ΙΙ. Methodology. The specific (per 1 ton of farmed fish nutrient intake necessary for calculations was determined according to the data of own studies. For this purpose, we perfrormed the determination of the input of suspended solids into cooling ponds from cage lines. The calculation of mean fish weight increase during the period of trap exposition bsed on fish farm data allowed calculating the specific input of suspended solids from cages. The effect of artificial feeds and a mixture of feed resideus and fish of fishes collected under cages on water quality were evaluated in the condoitins of laboratory experiments. The effect of fish metabolites on water quality was taken into account according to literature data. Findings. In the specific conditions of the investigated cooling ponds, the environmentally allowable concentrations of biogenic elements are established based on the mineral nitrogen content. With the mean volume of the Zmiev Thermal Power Plant of 40.5 million m3, the total amount of mineral nitrogen, which can be introduced with cage aquaculture residues, is 21.87 tons. When rearing one ton of fish in cages, 91.3 kg of mineral nitrogen get into the cooling pond. Thus, the environmental capacity of the Zmiev Thermal Power Plant cooling pond for cage fish farming is 281.7 tons. Accordingly, the allowable amounts of the production of cage fish farming for the Kursk NPP taking into account N content of 0.406 mgN/dm3 and volume of the cooling pond is 625.5 tons. Originality. For the first time, we calculated the ecological capacity of cooling ponds of the Zmiev TPP and Kursk NPP, series I–II. Practical value. Application of the results presented in the paper will allow creating and

  14. Thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM with and without a squirrel cage rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Mohammadali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM is a novel switched reluctance machine with limited information about its heat distribution and dissipation. This paper presents a two dimensional (2-D thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM to observe actual heat distribution in the parts of the machine, using Finite Element Method (FEM. Two topologies for the rotor of DSSRM are considered, Non-Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (NSC-DSSRM and Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (SC-DSSRM. The heat distribution of these two topologies is analyzed, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Finally the results are presented and compared.

  15. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P

    2010-12-01

    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community.

  16. Factors influencing bacterial eggshell contamination in conventional cages, furnished cages and free-range systems for laying hens under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Michel, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Le Bouquin, S

    2010-04-01

    1. The aim was to assess eggshell contamination in various laying hen-housing systems and to identify factors influencing this contamination. 2. Fifty-eight laying hen farms in France were studied, including 21 flocks housed in conventional cages, 7 in furnished cages and 30 kept on-floor. 3. Sixty eggs per flock were analysed to obtain counts of the total mesophilic flora. Data on equipment and hen management were collected. 4. Mean bacterial count on eggshells tended to be higher in on-floor systems (4.82 +/- 0.51 log CFU/eggshell) than in cage systems (4.57 +/- 0.58 log CFU/eggshell, P = 0.09). 5. Contamination increased with age of the hens, airborne dust concentration, manual packing of the eggs, and packing in plastic rather than in recycled-pulp egg-flats. 6. The effect of the housing system on eggshell contamination, previously described in experimental assays, was confirmed under production conditions.

  17. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leonard I Voronov,1,2 Krzysztof B Siemionow,3 Robert M Havey,1,2 Gerard Carandang,2 Avinash G Patwardhan1,2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, 2Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: Lateral mass screw (LMS fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct.Methods: Seven cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7 specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N in the following conditions: 1 intact (C3–C7, 2 LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3 removal of all rods (LMS retained and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods, and 5 C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted.Results: Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05. Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–­extension (P=0.001, (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3° in lateral bending (P=0.053, (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9° in axial rotation (P=0.091 for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced

  18. On the growth of Penaeus indicus experimented in cages at different densities in a selected nursery ground

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N; Paulinose, V.T.; Balasubramanian, T.; Menon, P.G.; Kutty, M.K.

    Effect of different densities on the growth of Penaeus indicus was studied in a higly productive nursery ground located at Ramanthuruth Island (lat. 9~'58'50"N, long. 76~'15'40"E) using cages. Eight cages of the same size were placed with prawns...

  19. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  20. Spray washing, absorbent cornstarch powder, and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Allowing feces to dry is an effective but slow and logistically impractical means to kill Campylobacter in soiled transport cages. ...

  1. Palladium-catalyzed regioselective intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-03-18

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of o-carborane-functionalized aromatics in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, the site selectivity can also be tuned by the substituents on cage carbon atom.

  2. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.7 Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Railroad cars...

  3. Kinetic stabilization against the oxidation reaction induced by a silaalkane cage in a thiophene-bridged molecular gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaka, Wataru; Ohmizu, Soichiro; Kira, Mitsuo

    2014-02-01

    Macrocage molecules with a bridged rotor have been synthesized as molecular gyroscopes. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction of the thiophene-bridged molecular gyroscope, whose thiophene ring was bridged inside a silaalkane cage, was investigated. A remarkable kinetic stabilization against the oxidation of the thiophene moiety induced by the molecular cage framework was observed.

  4. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilie, I.M.; Otter, den W.K.; Briels, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assem

  5. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilie, Ioana Mariuca; den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Willem J.

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the

  6. Masked rhodamine dyes of five principal colors revealed by photolysis of a 2-diazo-1-indanone caging group: synthesis, photophysics, and light microscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Vladimir N; Mitronova, Gyuzel Yu; Bossi, Mariano L; Boyarskiy, Vadim P; Hebisch, Elke; Geisler, Claudia; Kolmakov, Kirill; Wurm, Christian A; Willig, Katrin I; Hell, Stefan W

    2014-10-06

    Caged rhodamine dyes (Rhodamines NN) of five basic colors were synthesized and used as "hidden" markers in subdiffractional and conventional light microscopy. These masked fluorophores with a 2-diazo-1-indanone group can be irreversibly photoactivated, either by irradiation with UV- or violet light (one-photon process), or by exposure to intense red light (λ∼750 nm; two-photon mode). All dyes possess a very small 2-diazoketone caging group incorporated into the 2-diazo-1-indanone residue with a quaternary carbon atom (C-3) and a spiro-9H-xanthene fragment. Initially they are non-colored (pale yellow), non-fluorescent, and absorb at λ=330-350 nm (molar extinction coefficient (ε)≈10(4)  M(-1)  cm(-1)) with a band edge that extends to about λ=440 nm. The absorption and emission bands of the uncaged derivatives are tunable over a wide range (λ=511-633 and 525-653 nm, respectively). The unmasked dyes are highly colored and fluorescent (ε=3-8×10(4)  M(-1)  cm(-1) and fluorescence quantum yields (ϕ)=40-85% in the unbound state and in methanol). By stepwise and orthogonal protection of carboxylic and sulfonic acid groups a highly water-soluble caged red-emitting dye with two sulfonic acid residues was prepared. Rhodamines NN were decorated with amino-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester groups, applied in aqueous buffers, easily conjugated with proteins, and readily photoactivated (uncaged) with λ=375-420 nm light or intense red light (λ=775 nm). Protein conjugates with optimal degrees of labeling (3-6) were prepared and uncaged with λ=405 nm light in aqueous buffer solutions (ϕ=20-38%). The photochemical cleavage of the masking group generates only molecular nitrogen. Some 10-40% of the non-fluorescent (dark) byproducts are also formed. However, they have low absorbance and do not quench the fluorescence of the uncaged dyes. Photoactivation of the individual molecules of Rhodamines NN (e.g., due to reversible or irreversible

  7. Photoactivatable Drug-Caged Fluorophore Conjugate Allows Direct Quantification of Intracellular Drug Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Rainer H.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We report here a method that utilizes photoactivatable drug-caged fluorophore conjugate to quantify intracellular drug trafficking processes at single cell resolution. Photoactivation is performed in labeled cellular compartments to visualize intracellular drug exchange at physiologic conditions, without the need for washing, facilitating its translation to in vivo cancer models. PMID:24135896

  8. That Entertainment Called a Discussion: The Critical Arts Pedagogy of John Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Just as John Cage used chance techniques to relinquish control in his practice as a composer, he used pedagogical techniques that facilitated shared learning and experimentation. The tenets of Critical Pedagogy, as laid out by Paulo Freire in "The Pedagogy of the Oppressed," offer insights into the structures and strategies implicit in…

  9. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

  10. Dye-sensitization of CdS nano-cage - A density functional theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kalpna; Singh, Kh. S. [Department of Physics, D. J. College, Baraut, U.P.-250611 (India); Kishor, Shyam [Department of Chemistry, J. V. College, Baraut, U.P.-250611 (India); Josefsson, Ida; Odelius, Michael [Fysikum, Albanova University Center, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ramaniah, Lavanya M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Quantum dots a few nanometer in size exhibit unique properties in comparison to bulk due to quantum confinement. Their properties can be tuned according to their sizes. Dye sensitized quantum dot (DSQD) solar cells are based on the same principle with surface dangling bonds as a challenge. Researches have shown the existence and stability of nano-cages which are assembled such as to minimize the surface dangling bonds and hence maximize stability. Here, we report a first principles DFT study of optical and electronic properties of CdS-cage (Cd{sub 34}S{sub 34}) sensitized with nkx-2388 dye in three different geometric configurations of dye attachment. A significant distortion is found to occur in the geometric structure of the cage when it interacts strongly with the dye. The relative positioning of dye and cage energy levels is found to be different in different configurations. The absorption spectrum has been analyzed with the help of natural transition orbitals (NTO).

  11. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

  12. Effect of Elastic Modulus on Biomechanical Properties of Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhu; Fusheng Li; Shujun Li; Yulin Hao; Rui Yang

    2009-01-01

    This work focuses on the influence of elastic modulus on biomechanical properties of lumbar interbody fusion cages by selecting two titanium alloys with different elastic modulus.They were made by a new β type alloy with chemical composition of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-7.6Sn having low Young's modulus ~50 GPa and by a conventional biomedical alloy Ti-6Al-4V having Young's modulus ~110 GPa.The results showed that the designed cages with low modulus (LMC) and high modulus (HMC) can keep identical compression load ~9.8 kN and endure fatigue cycles higher than 5× 106 without functional or mechanical failure under 2.0 kN axial compression.The anti-subsidence ability of both group cages were examined by axial compression of thoracic spine specimens (T9~T10) dissected freshly from the calf with averaged age of 6 months.The results showed that the LMC has better anti-subsidence ability than the HMC (p<0.05).The above results suggest that the cage with low elastic modulus has great potential for clinical applications.

  13. Sternum Length and Rib Cage Dimensions Compared with Bodily Proportions in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Laurin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A greater structural expansion of the rib cage in females compared with males has been described in cystic fibrosis (CF patients; however, conflicting data exist as to whether an elongation of the bony ribs and sternum contributes to this expansion.

  14. Comparison of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cage and cervical disc prostheses used in anterior cervical microscopic discectomy operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadir Alkan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: It was shown that in the cervical disc prosthesis group (Group A in the early and later postoperative period, intervertebral disk heights were preserved by a statistically significant amount compared to the PEEK cage group (Group B. However, this scenario did not create any significant difference in the clinical evaluation results. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 1-8

  15. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2006-01-01

    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  16. Nicolas Cage otsib kadunud tütart naistesaarelt / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Õudusfilm "Ohvripidu" : režissöör Neil LaBute : peaosas Nicholas Cage : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Film on uusversioon briti 1973.a. filmist, mille režissöör oli Robin Hardy ja ühes peaosadest Christopher Lee

  17. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Oliveira, R.; McDonough, S.; Matser, A.; Khatikarn, J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Domingues, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxy

  18. Economic traits and performance of Italian quails reared at different cage stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABG Faitarone

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of different cage stocking densities on the performance of Italian quails in the laying period. Two hundred and sixty four quails with 30 weeks of age and 280g mean body weight were used. Birds were randomly assigned to 96 x 33 x 16 cm cages and distributed in a randomized block design with 4 treatments (12, 15, 18 and 21 quails per cage or 264, 211, 176 and 151 cm² per quail, respectively and 4 replicates. Birds were given feed and water ad libitum and submitted to the same experimental conditions. The experimental diet was formulated based on NRC (1994 recommendations. There were no significant differences among treatments for feed conversion per egg mass (kg:kg, percentage of broken eggs and mortality. There was a linear reduction (p<0.05 in egg weight, feed consumption, percentage of production, egg mass and feed conversion per dozen with the increase in stocking density. The gain per house per day was better at the cage density of 151 cm² per bird. However, the density of 211 cm² per bird provided the best gain per bird per day, because this stocking density had better productive indexes when compared with the other treatments.

  19. Romantic Remediation? John Cage and Henry David Thoreau’s Walden State of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2014-01-01

    Rather than identifying Cage as a romantic soul mate of the transcendentalists exhibiting a rebellious attitude against conventions, I will investigate new ways to detect with greater exactness what Sean Wilentz described in the context of David S. Reynolds work on the American Renaissance as “the s

  20. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S.; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J.; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible.

  1. Analysis of Efficiency Characteristics of Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor Loaded With Water System Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lukasik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a method of calculating efficiency of squirrel-cage induction motor. This efficiency depends on frequency of the voltage supplied to the motor and on electrical power. Results of laboratory testing of the motor's efficiency are presented.

  2. Let the Caged Bird Sing: Using Literature to Teach Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of fictional literature in a college-level developmental psychology class. Focuses specifically on Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and its relation to several child development topics. Contends that literature should be used more often as part of instruction, especially in the sciences. (CFR)

  3. Energy loss caused by shielding effect of steel cage outside source tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The energy loss, produced by shielding effect of steel cage outside the source tube, is quite considerable.With PENELOPE software package, MC results have been obtained based on the simulation of different source conformations. The result illustrates that the naked source tubes can improve the utilization ratio of the cobalt facilities. It demonstrates the applied value of the naked source tube in engineering.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of Hydrodynamic Behavior of A Flatfish Cage System Under Wave Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; 关长涛; 万荣; 黄滨; 李娇

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model based on the finite element method. The method is used to analyze the motion response and mooring line tension of the flatfish cage system in waves. The cage system consists of top frames, netting, mooring lines, bottom frames, and floats. A series of scaled physical model tests in regular waves are conducted to verify the numerical model. The comparison results show that the simulated and the experimental results agree well under the wave conditions, and the maximum pitch of the bottom frame with two orientations is about 12º. The motion process of the whole cage system in the wave can be described with the computer visualized technology. Then, the mooring line tensions and the motion of the bottom frame with three kinds of weight are calculated under different wave conditions. According to the numerical results, the differences in mooring line tensions of flatfish cages with three weight modes are indistinct. The maximum pitch of the bottom frame decreases with the increase of the bottom weight.

  5. Parameters identification of the compound cage rotor induction machine based on linearized Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁成; 李伟力; 孙建伟

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model has been built up for compound cage rotor induction machine with the rotor re-sistance and leakage inductance in the model identified through Kalman filtering method. Using the identifiedparameters, simulation studies are performed, and simulation results are compared with testing results.

  6. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shaona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyroscope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  7. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice : automated home cage observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-01-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129

  8. The split cube in a cage: bulk negative-index material for infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose the split cube in a cage (SCiC) design for application in producing a bulk metamaterial. Applying realistic material data for thin silver films, we observe an immediate convergence of the effective parameters obtained with a number of layers towards the bulk properties. Results are obt...

  9. Coupling of caged molecule dynamics to Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Ngai, K. L.; Wang, W. H.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-01-01

    Three recently published papers have discovered a general property of the fast caged dynamics observed in the glassy states of polyalcohols (S. Capaccioli et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 8800 (2015)), amorphous polymers (K. L. Ngai et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 12502 (2015)), and van der Waals molecular glass-formers (K. L. Ngai et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 12519 (2015)). The fast caged dynamics are manifested as nearly constant loss (NCL) in dielectric and mechanical susceptibility. Shown before in these papers is the intensity of the caged dynamics change temperature dependence at a temperature THF nearly coincident with the secondary glass transition temperature Tgβ, at which the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation time τJG reaches ˜103 s. Evidently this finding indicates the coupling of the caged dynamics to the secondary glass transition. The glass-formers considered so far are all soft matters. However, the generality of the phenomenon and its explanation implies that the relation, THF ≈ Tgβ, should be observed in other classes of glass-formers. In this paper, we extend the consideration of the phenomenon and explanation to metallic glasses, which are not soft matter. The experimental data presented show the same phenomenon, supporting its generality and fundamental importance in the physics of glass and glass transition.

  10. Nicolas Cage otsib kadunud tütart naistesaarelt / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Õudusfilm "Ohvripidu" : režissöör Neil LaBute : peaosas Nicholas Cage : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Film on uusversioon briti 1973.a. filmist, mille režissöör oli Robin Hardy ja ühes peaosadest Christopher Lee

  11. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Shaona; Chen Xiaoyang; Gu Jiaming; Shen Xuejin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyro-scope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  12. Let the Caged Bird Sing: Using Literature to Teach Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of fictional literature in a college-level developmental psychology class. Focuses specifically on Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and its relation to several child development topics. Contends that literature should be used more often as part of instruction, especially in the sciences. (CFR)

  13. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible

  14. Kinetic network study of the diversity and temperature dependence of Trp-Cage folding pathways: combining transition path theory with stochastic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weihua; Gallicchio, Emilio; Deng, Nanjie; Andrec, Michael; Levy, Ronald M

    2011-02-17

    We present a new approach to study a multitude of folding pathways and different folding mechanisms for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-Cage using the combined power of replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations for conformational sampling, transition path theory (TPT) for constructing folding pathways, and stochastic simulations for sampling the pathways in a high dimensional structure space. REMD simulations of Trp-Cage with 16 replicas at temperatures between 270 and 566 K are carried out with an all-atom force field (OPLSAA) and an implicit solvent model (AGBNP). The conformations sampled from all temperatures are collected. They form a discretized state space that can be used to model the folding process. The equilibrium population for each state at a target temperature can be calculated using the weighted-histogram-analysis method (WHAM). By connecting states with similar structures and creating edges satisfying detailed balance conditions, we construct a kinetic network that preserves the equilibrium population distribution of the state space. After defining the folded and unfolded macrostates, committor probabilities (P(fold)) are calculated by solving a set of linear equations for each node in the network and pathways are extracted together with their fluxes using the TPT algorithm. By clustering the pathways into folding "tubes", a more physically meaningful picture of the diversity of folding routes emerges. Stochastic simulations are carried out on the network, and a procedure is developed to project sampled trajectories onto the folding tubes. The fluxes through the folding tubes calculated from the stochastic trajectories are in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained from the TPT analysis. The temperature dependence of the ensemble of Trp-Cage folding pathways is investigated. Above the folding temperature, a large number of diverse folding pathways with comparable fluxes flood the energy landscape. At low temperature

  15. Chemical basis for the recognition of trimethyllysine by epigenetic reader proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Jos J. A. G.; Huang, Jiaxin; Poater, Jordi; Xu, Chao; Pieters, Bas J. G. E.; Dong, Aiping; Min, Jinrong; Sherman, Woody; Beuming, Thijs; Matthias Bickelhaupt, F.; Li, Haitao; Mecinović, Jasmin

    2015-11-01

    A large number of structurally diverse epigenetic reader proteins specifically recognize methylated lysine residues on histone proteins. Here we describe comparative thermodynamic, structural and computational studies on recognition of the positively charged natural trimethyllysine and its neutral analogues by reader proteins. This work provides experimental and theoretical evidence that reader proteins predominantly recognize trimethyllysine via a combination of favourable cation-π interactions and the release of the high-energy water molecules that occupy the aromatic cage of reader proteins on the association with the trimethyllysine side chain. These results have implications in rational drug design by specifically targeting the aromatic cage of readers of trimethyllysine.

  16. Chemical basis for the recognition of trimethyllysine by epigenetic reader proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Jos J A G; Huang, Jiaxin; Poater, Jordi; Xu, Chao; Pieters, Bas J G E; Dong, Aiping; Min, Jinrong; Sherman, Woody; Beuming, Thijs; Matthias Bickelhaupt, F; Li, Haitao; Mecinović, Jasmin

    2015-11-18

    A large number of structurally diverse epigenetic reader proteins specifically recognize methylated lysine residues on histone proteins. Here we describe comparative thermodynamic, structural and computational studies on recognition of the positively charged natural trimethyllysine and its neutral analogues by reader proteins. This work provides experimental and theoretical evidence that reader proteins predominantly recognize trimethyllysine via a combination of favourable cation-π interactions and the release of the high-energy water molecules that occupy the aromatic cage of reader proteins on the association with the trimethyllysine side chain. These results have implications in rational drug design by specifically targeting the aromatic cage of readers of trimethyllysine.

  17. Expiratory rib cage compression in mechanically ventilated adults: systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lúcia Faria; Saraiva, Mateus Sasso; Saraiva, Marcos Ariel Sasso; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Kessler, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the effects of expiratory rib cage compression on ventilatory mechanics, airway clearance, and oxygen and hemodynamic indices in mechanically ventilated adults. Methods Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PEDro, and LILACS. Studies on adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units and under mechanical ventilation that analyzed the effects of expiratory rib cage compression with respect to a control group (without expiratory rib cage compression) and evaluated the outcomes static and dynamic compliance, sputum volume, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen were included. Experimental studies with animals and those with incomplete data were excluded. Results The search strategy produced 5,816 studies, of which only three randomized crossover trials were included, totaling 93 patients. With respect to the outcome of heart rate, values were reduced in the expiratory rib cage compression group compared with the control group [-2.81 bpm (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -4.73 to 0.89; I2: 0%)]. Regarding dynamic compliance, there was no significant difference between groups [-0.58mL/cmH2O (95%CI: -2.98 to 1.82; I2: 1%)]. Regarding the variables systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, significant differences were found after descriptive evaluation. However, there was no difference between groups regarding the variables secretion volume, static compliance, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Conclusion There is a lack of evidence to support the use of expiratory rib cage compression in routine care, given that the literature on this topic offers low methodological quality and is inconclusive. PMID

  18. Effects of perch access and age on physiological measures of stress in caged White Leghorn pullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F F; Hester, P Y; Enneking, S A; Cheng, H W

    2013-11-01

    The neuroendocrine system controls animals' adaptability to their environments by releasing psychotropic compounds such as catecholamines [epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA)], corticosterone (CORT), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT). Changes of these neuroendocrine compounds have been used as biomarkers of animals' stress responses associated with their well-being. Assuming that pullets, like laying hens, are highly motivated to perch, we hypothesize that pullets with access to perches will experience less stress than pullets that never have access to perches. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of perch access and age on physiological measurements of stress in White Leghorn pullets housed in conventional cages. Hatchlings (n = 1,064) were randomly assigned to 28 cages. Two parallel metal round perches were installed in each of 14 cages assigned the perch treatment, whereas control cages were without perches. Two birds per cage were bled at wk 4, 6, and 12 wk of age. Plasma levels of CORT, DA, EP, and NE, blood concentrations of 5-HT and Trp, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were measured. Data were analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA. The perch treatment or its interaction with age did not affect any parameter measured in the study. The increase in the concentrations of circulating EP, NE, 5-HT (numerical increase at 4 wk), and Trp in 4- and 6-wk-old pullets compared with 12-wk-old pullets is unclear, but may have been due to acute handling stress at younger ages. In contrast, concentrations of DA were less at 4 wk compared with levels at 6 and 12 wk of age. Plasma CORT levels and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, indicators of long-term stress, were unaffected by age (P = 0.07 and 0.49, respectively). These results indicated that age, but not perch access, affects neuroendocrine homeostasis in White Leghorn pullets. Pullets that were never exposed to perches showed no evidence of eliciting a stress response.

  19. High-temperature in situ crystallographic observation of reversible gas sorption in impermeable organic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Bin; Moon, Dohyun; Graf, Robert; Cho, Woo Jong; Park, Sung Woo; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Cho, Seung Joo; Hwang, In-Chul; Bae, Youn-Sang; Spiess, Hans W; Lee, Hee Cheon; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-11-17

    Crystallographic observation of adsorbed gas molecules is a highly difficult task due to their rapid motion. Here, we report the in situ single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray observations of reversible CO2 sorption processes in an apparently nonporous organic crystal under varying pressures at high temperatures. The host material is formed by hydrogen bond network between 1,3,5-tris-(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene (H3BTB) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and by π-π stacking between the H3BTB moieties. The material can be viewed as a well-ordered array of cages, which are tight packed with each other so that the cages are inaccessible from outside. Thus, the host is practically nonporous. Despite the absence of permanent pathways connecting the empty cages, they are permeable to CO2 at high temperatures due to thermally activated molecular gating, and the weakly confined CO2 molecules in the cages allow direct detection by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 323 K. Variable-temperature in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies also show that the CO2 sorption is reversible and driven by temperature increase. Solid-state magic angle spinning NMR defines the interactions of CO2 with the organic framework and dynamic motion of CO2 in cages. The reversible sorption is attributed to the dynamic motion of the DMF molecules combined with the axial motions/angular fluctuations of CO2 (a series of transient opening/closing of compartments enabling CO2 molecule passage), as revealed from NMR and simulations. This temperature-driven transient molecular gating can store gaseous molecules in ordered arrays toward unique collective properties and release them for ready use.

  20. Forms and Balance of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Cage Culture Waters in Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to approach the characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution caused by cage culture and the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus during the process of cage culture, a monitoring was conducted in Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, China from April 2002 to Jane 2003. The results show that the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in the waters at the sites with five and ten years of cage culture history are 1.8 and 2.3 times of that at control site respectively. Ammonium (NH3-N) is the main form of nitrogen in spring while nitrate (NO3-) in winter. The concentrations of TN, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) are highest in autumn. The concentration of phosphorus increases with the increasing of the culturing time, among which phosphate (PO34-) increases most obviously.The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) are highest in autumn. The nitrogen and phosphorus are accumulated significantly in the sediment of cage culture area. The model of N balance in the cage culture area: bait (70.62%) + fry (0.28%) + input by tide (14.8%) + release from sediment (14.3%) = harvest of adult fish (12.07%) + deposition into sediment (28.75%) + output by tide (56.18%) + others (3.00%). The model of P balance: bait (83.11%) + fry (0.17%) + input by tide (12.23%) + release from sediment (4.49%) = harvest of adult fish (8.43%) + deposition into sediment (48.59%) + output by tide (41.94%) + others (1.04%). In one fish growth year, the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in harvest of adult fish are only 17.0% and 10.1% of the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in fish bait and fry, wherein 83% of nitrogen and more than 89% of phosphorus in fish bait became marine pollutants.

  1. The efficacy of the synthetic interbody cage and Grafton for anterior cervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Woong; Lee, Jung-Kil; Moon, Sung-Jun; Seo, Seung-Kweon; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Han

    2009-08-01

    Prospective study of 31 patients who underwent anterior cervical fusion. To investigate the efficacy of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Although high fusion rates can be achieved with autogenous bone grafts, donor-site morbidity affects the patient's satisfaction with the surgical outcome. Thirty-one consecutive patients treated with ACDF using the PEEK cage with DBM (Grafton, Osteotech, Inc., Shrewsbury, NJ) at 42 levels were prospectively evaluated with a minimum of 12-month follow-up (mean: 16 months). Twenty-one patients underwent a single-level ACDF, 9 patients underwent a 2-level ACDF, and 1 patient had a 3-level ACDF. The affected level was C3-C4 in 7 patients; C4-C5 in 9, C5-C6 in 16, and C6-C7 in 10. The neurologic outcomes were evaluated using the VAS score for neck and arm pain and the Japanese Orthopedic Association scoring system for myelopathy at 3, 6, and 12 months. The cervical lordosis and fusion status were assessed on radiographs including flexion/extension radiographs. At 12 months, the radiographs demonstrated grades I, II, and III new bone formation at 1, 13, and 28 levels, respectively. There was a significant improvement in both the neck and arm pain and a significant improvement in the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores at the last follow-up. There was no case with implant-related complications such as cage failure or migration, and no complications associated with the use of Grafton. ACDF using the Solis cage packed with Grafton demonstrated good clinical and radiologic outcomes. The fusion rate was comparable with the published results of the traditional ACDF using tricortical iliac crest grafts. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the ongoing use of the PEEK cage packed with DBM and autologous bone chips in ACDF is a safe and effective alternative to the gold standard of autologous iliac bone grafts.

  2. A systematic review of the use of expandable cages in the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin D; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Goodwin, C Rory; Lina, Ioan A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Expandable vertebral body replacement cages (VBRs) have been widely used for reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy. However, their use in the cervical spine is less common, and currently, no expandable cages on the market are cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of expandable cages in the treatment of cervical spine pathology with a focus on fusion rates, deformity correction, complications, and indications. A comprehensive Medline search was performed, and 24 applicable articles were identified and included in this review. The advantages of expandable cages include greater ease of implantation with less risk of damage to the end plate, less intraoperative manipulation of the device, and potentially greater control over lordosis. They may be particularly advantageous in cases with poor bone quality, such as patients with osteoporosis or metastatic tumors that have been radiated. However, there is a potential risk of overdistraction, which is increased in the cervical spine, their minimum height limits their use in cases with collapsed vertebra, and the amount of hardware in the expansion mechanism may limit the surface area available for fusion. The use of expandable VBRs are a valuable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of the anterior column of the cervical spine with an acceptable safety profile. Although expandable cervical cages are clearly beneficial in certain clinical situations, widespread use following all corpectomies is not justified due to their significantly greater cost compared to structural bone grafts or non-expandable VBRs, which can be utilized to achieve similar clinical outcomes.

  3. Disparities in ammonia, temperature, humidity, and airborne particulate matter between the micro-and macroenvironments of mice in individually ventilated caging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Matthew D; VandeWoude, Susan; Volckens, John; Johnson, Thomase

    2010-03-01

    Animal room environmental parameters typically are monitored with the assumption that the environment within the cage closely mirrors the room environment. This study evaluated that premise by examining macro- (room) and microenvironmental (cage) parameters in individually ventilated cages housing mice with variable amounts of bedding over a period of 17 d without cage changes. Intracage ammonia levels remained within recommended human guidelines but were higher than room levels, confirming that microisolation caging is efficient at preventing ammonia generated from animal waste from escaping into the room. Humidity and temperature within cages were consistently higher than room levels. Particles in the room predominantly consisted of fine particles (diameter less than 2.5 mum), presumably from the ambient atmosphere; some of these particles were found in the cage microenvironment. In addition, mouse activity within cages produced larger particles, and these particles contributed to substantially higher aerosol mass concentrations within the cage. These findings demonstrate that, although cage and room environmental parameters differ, knowledge of room environmental conditions can be used to predict certain conditions within the cage. This association is relevant in that typical animal care standard operating procedures rely on room measurements, not intracage measurements, which arguably are more important for assessing animal welfare. Further, location and ambient climate can influence particle concentrations in the room, and consequently within the animal cage, suggesting local weather patterns and air quality may account for variability among studies conducted at sites that are geographically divergent.

  4. A polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold as an autograft-free spinal fusion cage in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Zhi-gang; Li, Xiao-kang; Guo, Zheng; Wu, Su-hua; Zhang, Yong-quan; Shi, Lei; Teoh, Swee-hin; Liu, Yu-chun; Zhang, Zhi-yong

    2014-07-01

    Titanium (Ti) based spinal fusion cages are frequently used in the clinics for the treatment of spinal degeneration and related diseases, however, their further clinical application is generally harassed by several drawbacks such as stress shielding, non-biodegradability and additional bone grafting procedure. Our earlier work has demonstrated the efficacy of a biodegradable macro-porous polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) composite scaffold in promoting bony tissue ingrowth as well as its ability to sustain mechanical loads upon implantation into an orthotopic defect site. In this study, we investigated the use of PCL-TCP scaffold as an autograft-free spinal fusion cage in a preclinical sheep model over 12 months, and compared the fusion efficacy against Ti cages incorporated with autografts. Results showed that despite PCL-TCP scaffold as an autograft-free cage attaining a slower fusion rate at early stage (6 month), it achieved similar degree of spinal fusion efficacy as Ti cages aided with autograft at 12 month post-operation as evidenced by the radiographic and histological evaluation. PCL-TCP cages alone demonstrated better bone ingrowth with 2.6 fold higher bone/interspace ratio (B/I) and more homogeneous bone tissue distribution compared with that of the Ti cages (88.10  ±  3.63% vs. 33.74  ±  2.78%, p CT analysis. Moreover, besides the bone tissue ingrowth, a quantitative approach was illustrated to accurately evaluate the osteointegration of fusion cage with surrounding bone tissue, and showed a 1.36 fold higher degree of osteointegration occurred in PCL-TCP cage group than Ti cage group (CS/PC: 79.31  ±  3.15% vs 58.44  ±  2.43%, p  0.05). The degradation profile of the PCL-TCP cages was noted to increase in tandem with new bone ingrowth into the pores, while maintaining good structural integrity necessary for supporting the spinal interbody segments. Therefore, with the better osteointegration, more bone tissue

  5. Atomically flat Ge buffer layers and alternating shutter growth of CaGe2 for large area germanane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam; Pinchuk, Igor; Williams, Robert; McComb, David; Kawakami, Roland

    Germanane (GeH), which is converted from CaGe2 by soaking in HCl acid, has recently attracted interest because of its novel properties, such as large band gap (1.56eV), spin orbit coupling and predictions of high mobility (18000 cm2/Vs). Previously CaGe2 was successfully grown on Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. But there were cracks between µm-sized islands, which is not desirable for scientific study and application, and limits the material quality. By growing atomically flat Ge buffer layers and using alternating shutter MBE growth, we are able to grow crack-free, large area films of CaGe2 films. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicates high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform Ge buffer layer and CaGe2. The appearance of Laue oscillation in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in X-ray reflectivity (XRR) proves the uniformity of CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. The high quality of CaGe2 film makes it promising to explore novel properties of GeH. Funded by NSF MRSEC DMR-1420451.

  6. Application of Homochiral Alkylated Organic Cages as Chiral Stationary Phases for Molecular Separations by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Xie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular organic cage compounds have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in gas storage, catalysis, chemical sensing, molecular separations, etc. In this study, a homochiral pentyl cage compound was synthesized from a condensation reaction of (S,S-1,2-pentyl-1,2-diaminoethane and 1,3,5-triformylbenzene. The imine-linked pentyl cage diluted with a polysiloxane (OV-1701 was explored as a novel stationary phase for high-resolution gas chromatographic separation of organic compounds. Some positional isomers were baseline separated on the pentyl cage-coated capillary column. In particular, various types of enantiomers including chiral alcohols, esters, ethers and epoxides can be resolved without derivatization on the pentyl cage-coated capillary column. The reproducibility of the pentyl cage-coated capillary column for separation was investigated using nitrochlorobenzene and styrene oxide as analytes. The results indicate that the column has good stability and separation reproducibility after being repeatedly used. This work demonstrates that molecular organic cage compounds could become a novel class of chiral separation media in the near future.

  7. Application of Homochiral Alkylated Organic Cages as Chiral Stationary Phases for Molecular Separations by Capillary Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shengming; Zhang, Junhui; Fu, Nan; Wang, Bangjin; Hu, Cong; Yuan, Liming

    2016-11-08

    Molecular organic cage compounds have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in gas storage, catalysis, chemical sensing, molecular separations, etc. In this study, a homochiral pentyl cage compound was synthesized from a condensation reaction of (S,S)-1,2-pentyl-1,2-diaminoethane and 1,3,5-triformylbenzene. The imine-linked pentyl cage diluted with a polysiloxane (OV-1701) was explored as a novel stationary phase for high-resolution gas chromatographic separation of organic compounds. Some positional isomers were baseline separated on the pentyl cage-coated capillary column. In particular, various types of enantiomers including chiral alcohols, esters, ethers and epoxides can be resolved without derivatization on the pentyl cage-coated capillary column. The reproducibility of the pentyl cage-coated capillary column for separation was investigated using nitrochlorobenzene and styrene oxide as analytes. The results indicate that the column has good stability and separation reproducibility after being repeatedly used. This work demonstrates that molecular organic cage compounds could become a novel class of chiral separation media in the near future.

  8. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using one diagonal fusion cage with transpedicular screw/rod fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Hou, Tiesheng; Wang, Xinwei; Ma, Shengzhong

    2003-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using threaded cages has gained wide popularity for lumbosacral spinal disease. Our biomechanical tests showed that PLIF using a single diagonal cage with unilateral facetectomy does add a little to spinal stability and provides equal or even higher postoperative stability than PLIF using two posterior cages with bilateral facetectomy. Studies also demonstrated that cages placed using a posterior approach did not cause the same increase in spinal stiffness seen with pedicle screw instrumentation, and we concluded that cages should not be used posteriorly without other forms of fixation. On the other hand, placement of two cages using a posterior approach does have the disadvantage of risk to the bilateral nerve roots. We therefore performed a prospective study to determine whether PLIF can be accomplished by utilizing a single diagonal fusion cage with the application of supplemental transpedicular screw/rod instrumentation. Twenty-seven patients underwent a PLIF using one single fusion cage (BAK, Sulzer Spine-Tech, Minneapolis, MN, USA) inserted posterolaterally and oriented anteromedially on the symptomatic side with unilateral facetectomy and at the same level supplemental fixation with a transpedicular screw/rod system. The internal fixation systems included 12 SOCON spinal systems (Aesculap AG, Germany) and 15 TSRH spinal systems (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, USA). The inclusion criteria were grade 1 to 2 lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis, lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, and recurrent lumbar disc herniations with instability. Patients had at least 1 year of low back pain and/or unilateral sciatica and a severely restricted functional ability in individuals aged 28-55 years. Patients with more than grade 2 spondylolisthesis or adjacent-level degeneration were excluded from the study. Patients were clinically assessed prior to surgery by an independent assessor; they were then reassessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24

  9. Sagittal Plane Correction Using the Lateral Transpsoas Approach: A Biomechanical Study on the Effect of Cage Angle and Surgical Technique on Segmental Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikian, Rojeh; Yoon, Sangwook Tim; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Kun Young; Yoon, Caroline; Hutton, William

    2016-09-01

    Cadaveric biomechanical study. To determine the degree of segmental correction that can be achieved through lateral transpsoas approach by varying cage angle and adding anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) release and posterior element resection. Lordotic cage insertion through the lateral transpsoas approach is being used increasingly for restoration of sagittal alignment. However, the degree of correction achieved by varying cage angle and ALL release and posterior element resection is not well defined. Thirteen lumbar motion segments between L1 and L5 were dissected into single motion segments. Segmental angles and disk heights were measured under both 50 N and 500 N compressive loads under the following conditions: intact specimen, discectomy (collapsed disk simulation), insertion of parallel cage, 10° cage, 30° cage with ALL release, 30° cage with ALL release and spinous process (SP) resection, 30° cage with ALL release, SP resection, facetectomy, and compression with pedicle screws. Segmental lordosis was not increased by either parallel or 10° cages as compared with intact disks, and contributed small amounts of lordosis when compared with the collapsed disk condition. Placement of 30° cages with ALL release increased segmental lordosis by 10.5°. Adding SP resection increased lordosis to 12.4°. Facetectomy and compression with pedicle screws further increased lordosis to approximately 26°. No interventions resulted in a decrease in either anterior or posterior disk height. Insertion of a parallel or 10° cage has little effect on lordosis. A 30° cage insertion with ALL release resulted in a modest increase in lordosis (10.5°). The addition of SP resection and facetectomy was needed to obtain a larger amount of correction (26°). None of the cages, including the 30° lordotic cage, caused a decrease in posterior disk height suggesting hyperlordotic cages do not cause foraminal stenosis. N/A.

  10. Bone mineral density and breaking strength of White Leghorns housed in conventional, modified, and commercially available colony battery cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendral, M J; Korver, D R; Church, J S; Feddes, J J R

    2008-05-01

    Limited opportunity for movement and load-bearing exercise for conventionally caged laying hens leads to bone loss and increased susceptibility to osteoporosis, bone fractures, and cage layer fatigue, all of which compromise hen welfare and have negative consequences for production. The objective of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) and strength measures of White Leghorns housed in conventional battery cages (CONV), cages modified to incorporate a nest box and perch (MOD), and commercially available, furnished colony cages with (CWDB) or without (CWODB) a raised dust bath. Hens reared on floor litter were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 cage systems at 19 wk of age. Hen-day production and egg quality were measured between 20 and 64 wk. At 65 wk, hens were killed, and right femur, tibia, and humerus were excised. Bone mineral density was assessed using quantitative computed tomography, and breaking strength was measured with an Instron Materials Tester. In the femur and tibia, CONV hens exhibited lower total BMD, bone mass, cortical bone area, cortical bone mass, and bone-breaking strength than CWDB, CWODB, and MOD hens. Density and cross-sectional area of bone in the trabecular space was highest in CONV. In the humerus, total and cortical BMD and mass and breaking strength values were higher for colony-housed birds than hens in CONV and MOD. The MOD birds did not exhibit increased humeral BMD or strength measures over CONV hens. These findings provide evidence that hens housed in modified and colony cages, furnished systems that promote load-bearing movement, are better able to preserve cortical structural bone than conventionally caged hens and simultaneously have stronger bones. Furthermore, inclusion of raised amenities that encourage wing loading is necessary to reduce humeral cortical bone loss. The overall absence of correlation between egg production or quality and bone quality measures also suggests that improved bone quality in CWDB, CWODB

  11. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  12. Impact of wastewater on fish health: a case study at the Neckar River (Southern Germany) using biomarkers in caged brown trout as assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Krisztina; Scheil, Volker; Kuch, Bertram; Köhler, Heinz R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes a field survey aiming at assessing the impact of a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on fish health by means of biomarkers. Indigenous fish were absent downstream of the STP. To elucidate the reason behind this, brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) were exposed in floating steel cages up- and downstream of a STP located at the Neckar River near Tübingen (Southern Germany), for 10 and 30 days. A combination of biomarker methods (histopathological investigations, analysis of the stress protein Hsp70, micronucleus test, B-esterase assays) offered the possibility to investigate endocrine, geno-, proteo- and neurotoxic effects in fish organs. Biological results were complemented with chemical analyses on 20 accumulative substances in fish tissue. Even after short-term exposure, biomarkers revealed clear evidence of water contamination at both Neckar River sites; however, physiological responses of caged brown trout were more severe downstream of the STP. According to this, similar bioaccumulation levels (low μg/kg range) of DDE and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at both sampling sites, while up to fourfold higher concentrations of four PAHs, methyl-triclosan and two synthetic musks occurred in the tissues of downstream-exposed fish. The results obtained in this study suggest a constitutive background pollution at both sites investigated at the Neckar River and provided evidence for the additional negative impact of the STP Tübingen on water quality and the health condition of fish.

  13. Detection of early behavioral markers of Huntington's disease in R6/2 mice employing an automated social home cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudenko, Olga; Tkach, Vadim; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2009-01-01

    developed behavior screening system, the IntelliCage, allows automated testing of mouse behavior in the home cage employing individual recognition of animals living in social groups. The present study validates the ability of the IntelliCage system to detect behavioral and cognitive dysfunction in R6/2 mice......Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, for which no known cure or effective treatment exists. To facilitate the search for new potential treatments of HD, an automated system for analyzing the behavior of transgenic HD mice is urgently needed. A recently...

  14. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  15. Energetics and bonding study of hexamethylenetetramine and fourteen related cage molecules: An ab initio G3(MP2 investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HO-ON HO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The ab initio G3(MP2method has been applied to hexamethylenetetramine (HMT and fourteen related cage systems. The agreement between the calculated and experimental molecular dimensions, which are available for five of the 15 cage species, ranges from satisfactory to excellent. In addition, the G3(MP2 heat of formation at 298 K for HMT is in excellent accord with experimental results. Hence, the calculated heats of formation for the other 14 cage systems should be reliable estimates.

  16. Effects of calcium diet supplements on egg strength in conventional and furnished cages, and effects of 2 different nest floor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, E; Venäläinen, E; Rossow, L; Valaja, J

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a greater incidence of cracked eggs in furnished than in conventional cages. Hens kept in furnished cages may have greater bone strength, so they may lay eggs with weaker shells because they may utilize more calcium for bone mineralization and less for shell formation. The effects of increased dietary calcium content were therefore studied in 3-hen conventional and 8-hen furnished cages. In addition, the effects of 2 different nest floor materials were studied in furnished cages. A total of 1,216 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were housed in either furnished or conventional cages and offered either the normal calcium supplementation used in commercial diets (37 to 40 g of calcium/kg) or increased calcium supplementation (44 to 50 g of calcium/kg) consisting of added limestone for 3 consecutive feeding phases of 20, 16, and 16 wk. Dietary calcium had similar effects in both cage systems. Greater limestone supplementation increased the laying rate (P cages (P cage types in terms of total egg mass produced. The cage type had no effect on tibia-breaking strength. However, the specific gravity and ash content of tibias were higher in hens kept in furnished than in conventional cages (P cages is not caused by a possible calcium shortage resulting from high bone mineralization.

  17. Stand-alone anchored cage versus cage with plating for single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a prospective, randomized, controlled study with a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Osamu; Kitada, Akira; Naitou, Satoko; Tachibana, Atsuko; Ito, Yuya; Fujikawa, Akira

    2015-07-01

    To avoid complications associated with plating in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), stand-alone anchored PEEK cage was developed and favourable outcomes with a low rate of dysphasia have been described. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of ACDF using a standalone anchored PEEK cage (PREVAIL; Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) with those of a PEEK cage with plating in a prospective randomized manner. Fifty patients with single-level cervical radiculopathy were randomly assigned to a PREVAIL or a PEEK cage with plating. Following 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed. The mean surgical time for the patients with a PREVAIL was significantly shorter than that for those with a PEEK cage with plating. The clinical outcomes evaluated by visual analogue scale for pain and the Odom's criteria were comparable between both the groups. Both the groups demonstrated the high fusion rate (92% in PREVAIL; 96% in PEEK cage with plating). The subsidence rate and the improvement of cervical alignment were comparable between both the groups. The incidence of adjacent-level ossification was significantly lower for patients with a PREVAIL than that for those with a PEEK cage with plating. The rate of dysphasia graded by the method of Bazaz and measurement of prevertebral soft tissue swelling indicated no significant differences between both the groups. Our prospective randomized study confirmed that stand-alone anchored PEEK cage is a valid alternative to plating in ACDF with a low rate of adjacent-level ossification. However, the potential to reduce the incidence of dysphasia was not confirmed.

  18. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol system—An ab initio study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snehanshu Pal; T K Kundu

    2013-03-01

    Density functional theory based studies have been performed to elucidate the role of methanol as an methane hydrate inhibitor. A methane hydrate pentagonal dodecahedron cage’s geometry optimization, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, Mullikan charge determination, electrostatic potential evaluation and vibrational frequency calculation with and without the presence of methanol using WB97XD/6-31++G(d,p) have been carried out. Calculated geometrical parameters and interaction energies indicate that methanol destabilizes pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage (1CH4@512) with and without the presence of sodium ion. NBO analysis and red shift of vibrational frequency reveal that hydrogen bond formation between methanol and water molecules of 1CH4@512 cage is favourable subsequently after breaking its original hydrogen bonded network.

  19. The cage effect on assembly of cyclic-bis-(zinc porphyrin) with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An inclusion complex of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin) 1 with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin derivative 3 has been designed and constructed. The complex formation is induced by Zn-N coordination, and is robust (Kassoc ~ 106 L/mol) due to the presence of the cage effect of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin). The cage-like complex as an entity is stable enough, and also convenient to achieve relative movement between the bis(zinc porphyrin) host and the dipyridylporphyrin guest connected by Zn-N coordination. The characteristics of these assemblies have been demonstrated by 1 H NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectra. The results show its potential applications as a molecular gyroscope in molecular machines.

  20. The cage effect on assembly of cyclic-bis(zinc porphyrin) with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU ZaiChun; ZHU YiZhou; ZHENG JianYu

    2009-01-01

    An inclusion complex of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin) 1 with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin derivative 3 has been designed and constructed.The complex formation is induced by Zn-N coordination,and is robust (Kassoc ~ 106 L/mol) due to the presence of the cage effect of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin).The cage-like complex as an entity is stable enough,and also convenient to achieve relative movement between the bis(zinc porphyrin) host and the dipyridylporphyrin guest connected by Zn-N coordination.The characteristics of these assemblies have been demonstrated by 1 H NMR,UV-vis,and fluorescence spectra.The results show its potential applications as a molecular gyroscope in molecular machines.

  1. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities.

  2. Cup-cage construct for acute fractures of the acetabulum, re-defining indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Rojo-Manaute, Jose; Sanz-Ruíz, Pablo; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Acetabular fractures in the elderly are challenging injuries. The use of a trabecular metal acetabular cage was investigated as the treatment option in a series of elderly patients with acetabular fractures. At a 2-year follow up, 6 elderly patients were found to have mimimum pain, increased function, and increased scores using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel system modified by Charnley. Radiographically, the areas of morsellised autograft that surrounded the cups were seen to have incorporated uniformly well, and the acetabular fractures were healed within six months after surgery. No mechanical failure, screw breakage, loosening, or migration was noticed. This novel indication of the cup-cage construction that uses revision techniques, for selected patients and fractures, to achieve an acute stable reconstruction, should be considered as an alternative reconstruction option in elderly patients presenting with acetabular fractures.

  3. Isolation of avian serotype 3 paramyxoviruses from imported caged birds in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihmanter, E; Weisman, Y; Lublin, A; Mahani, S; Panshin, A; Lipkind, M

    1998-01-01

    Ten avian serotype 3 paramyxoviruses were isolated for the first time in Israel from passerine and psittacine imported caged birds. The birds were submitted for investigation of an illness characterized by nonspecific signs of weakness, anorexia, vomiting, and sneezing. In addition, only the parakeets developed specific neurologic signs. In bacteriologic and pathologic investigation, cachexia and diarrhea were observed in both groups of birds. In psittacines, considerable alterations were observed in lungs, liver, and spleen. Some nonviral pathogens were occasionally isolated. The isolates appeared to belong to serotype 3b avian paramyxovirus (APMV), the prototype strain of which is APMV-3b/parakeet/Netherlands/449/75. The isolation of APMV-3 viruses from imported caged birds may represent a way of introduction of these viruses into the country.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Response of A Net Cage for Flatfish in Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂福坤; 赵云鹏; 许条建; 关长涛

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model of flatfish cage is built based on the lumped mass method and the principle of rigid body kinematics. To validate the numerical model, a series of physical model tests are conducted in the wave flume. The numerical results correspond well with the data sets from physical model test. The effect of weight of bottom frame, height of fish net and net shape on motion responses of fish cage and tension force on mooring lines is then analyzed. The results indicate that the vertical displacements of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increase in the weight of bottom frame; the maximum tension force on mooring lines increases with the increasing weight of bottom frame. The inclination angles of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increasing net height; the maximum tension force increases obviously with the increase of net height.

  5. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamone, Salvatore, E-mail: s.mamone@soton.ac.uk; Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H., E-mail: mhl@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-21

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  6. Cyclic Water Clusters in Tape-Like and Cage-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhou Lei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the ratio of 2,2′-bpy to benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid produces two interesting complexes, namely [Co(2,2′-bpy3] (SO4 8.5H2O (1 and [Cu2(BTCA (2,2′-bpy4] (OH (2,2′-bpy0.5·14H2O (2 (H3BTCA = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine. We report the structural evidence in the solid state of discrete lamellar water cluster conformations. These units are found to act as supramolecular glue in the aggregation of cobalt (II or copper (II complexes to give three dimensional cage-like networks through hydrogen-bonding. It is interesting that the structure of complex 1 contains a 3D negatively charged cage.

  7. Numerical simulation of dynamic response of a net cage for flatfish in waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Fu-kun; Zhao, Yun-peng; Xu, Tiao-jian; Guan, Chang-tao

    2014-03-01

    A numerical model of flatfish cage is built based on the lumped mass method and the principle of rigid body kinematics. To validate the numerical model, a series of physical model tests are conducted in the wave flume. The numerical results correspond well with the data sets from physical model test. The effect of weight of bottom frame, height of fish net and net shape on motion responses of fish cage and tension force on mooring lines is then analyzed. The results indicate that the vertical displacements of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increase in the weight of bottom frame; the maximum tension force on mooring lines increases with the increasing weight of bottom frame. The inclination angles of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increasing net height; the maximum tension force increases obviously with the increase of net height.

  8. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The pH regulation has a fundamental role in several intracellular processes and its variation via exogenous compounds is a potential tool for intervening in the intracellular processes. Proton caged compounds (PPCs) release protons upon UV irradiation and may efficiently provoke intracellular on-command acidification. Here, we explore the intracellular pH variation, when purposely synthesized PCCs are coupled to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and dosed to HEK-293 cells. We detected the acidification process caused by the UV irradiation by monitoring the intensity of the asymmetric stretching mode of the CO(2) molecule at 2343 cm(-1). The comparison between free and AuNPs functionalized proton caged compound demonstrates a highly enhanced CO(2) yield, hence pH variation, in the latter case. Finally, PCC functionalized AuNPs were marked with a purposely synthesized fluorescent marker and dosed to HEK-293 cells. The corresponding fluorescence optical images show green grains throughout the whole cytoplasm.

  9. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D.; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M.; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal

    2017-07-01

    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  10. Simulation of alternative genetic control systems for Aedes aegypti in outdoor cages and with a computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.F.; Lorimer, N.; Rai, K.S.; Suguna, S.G.; Uppal, D.K.; Kazmi, S.J.; Hallinan, E.; Dietz, K.

    1976-06-01

    Cycling populations of A. aegypti of wild origin were established in outdoor cages. Releases were then made for 32 to 43 days of either males carrying chromosome translocations cr males of the sex ratio distorter type. The translocation caused a maximum of 50% sterility, but this declined rapidly after termination of releases. The distorter males depressed the proportion of females among the pupae produced in the cage to a minimum of 35% and the distortion of sex ratio persisted for 13 weeks following termination of releases. It was possible to simulate the effects of the releases with a computer. Simulations were aslo made of standard release schedules of three types of genetic material. A strain carrying both sex ratio distortion and a translocation gave the most effective population suppression.

  11. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J Anibal

    2017-07-17

    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  12. STUDIES ON THE SYNTHESES AND PROPERTIES OF SNAKE—CAGE TYPE CHELATE RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QURongjun; WANGShen; 等

    1999-01-01

    Using carboxymethyl chitosan(CM-CTS) as snake resin,B-62 resin crosslinked by triethylentetraamine(TETA)as cage resin,a series of novel snake-cage type resin were synthesized.Such factors as the best synthetic conditions,the swelling and regeneration properties.and the sorption capactities of the above mentioned resins for metal ions were investigated.The experimental results show these resins have good swelling properties and mechanical stability,and do not run off in organic and inorganic solvents.The sorption capactities of them for Cu2+,Ni2+,Zn2+,and Pb2+ were 0.89,0.54,0.32,and 0.22mmol/g,rspectively.

  13. Spatial cognition in a virtual reality home-cage extension for freely moving rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupert, Ursula; Thurley, Kay; Frei, Katja; Bagorda, Francesco; Schatz, Alexej; Tocker, Gilad; Rapoport, Sophia; Derdikman, Dori; Winter, York

    2017-01-11

    Virtual reality environments are part of a powerful tool set to investigate brain mechanisms of behavior in animals. For this, animals are mostly head-fixed or in a harness, and training for cognitively more complex VR paradigms is time consuming. A virtual reality apparatus allowing free animal movement and 24/7 operator-independent training of tasks would enable many new applications. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals carrying a miniaturized mobile device such as a fluorescence microscope, or an optetrode. Here we introduce the servoball, a spherical virtual reality treadmill that is connected to the home cage from where single individuals can voluntarily enter through an RFID automated access control. We automatically trained rats that demonstrated use of visual or acoustic cues to solve spatial cognitive tasks, and recorded spatially modulated entorhinal cells. This integrated home cage with VR-arena experimental system permits highly efficient experimentation for complex cognitive experiments.

  14. Beyond molecules: mesoporous supramolecular frameworks self-assembled from coordination cages and inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Li, Dan

    2015-05-18

    Biological function arises by the assembly of individual biomolecular modules into large aggregations or highly complex architectures. A similar strategy is adopted in supramolecular chemistry to assemble complex and highly ordered structures with advanced functions from simple components. Here we report a series of diamond-like supramolecular frameworks featuring mesoporous cavities, which are assembled from metal-imidazolate coordination cages and various anions. Small components (metal ions, amines, aldehydes, and anions) are assembled into the hierarchical complex structures through multiple interactions including covalent bonds, dative bonds, and weak C-H⋅⋅⋅X (X=O, F, and π) hydrogen bonds. The mesoporous cavities are large enough to trap organic dye molecules, coordination cages, and vitamin B12. The study is expected to inspire new types of crystalline supramolecular framework materials based on coordination motifs and inorganic ions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Calibration of excitation function measurement based on corona cage test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Wen, Xishan; Li, Wei; Xiao, Guozhou

    2016-11-01

    Corona cage approaches are crucial for research on the corona characteristics of conductors. Calibration is an indispensable task for determining excitation functions, which are used to predict corona performance of long transmission lines through extrapolation from measurements of short lines in corona cages. In this paper, the amplification factor G is calculated through a frequently adopted method, propagation analysis of high-frequency corona current along a short line. Another convenient calibration method, based on distributed parameter equivalent circuits, is established. The results for G obtained through propagation analysis and equivalent circuits are compared. To verify the rationality of calculation parameters in propagation analysis and equivalent circuits, a calibration experiment based on the excitation caused by a simulated monopulse current was performed. The results of the proposed calibration method and the calibration experiment are in good agreement.

  16. Activity of gallium on prevention of fatal cage-layer osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuxia; Wang, Chao

    2009-12-01

    The prevention of fatal cage-layer osteoporosis of gallium was studied in this paper. One-day-old hens were fed up to 68 weeks on a control diet and diets containing gallium. Plasma variables were measured during lay. End-of-lay trabecular and medullary bone volumes in the proximal tarsometatarsus and free thoracic vertebra were measured by histomorphometry. Medullary and trabecular bone volumes were increased significantly by supplementation with gallium. The experiment confirmed that dietary gallium supplementation was an effective way to enhance the egg production and reduce mortality percentage. The beneficial effects of gallium supplementation over the lifetime of the hens were attributable mainly to improved cage-layer osteoporosis.

  17. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere

    2009-05-01

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  18. Production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of two strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbaşılar, E E; Ünal, N; Erdem, E; Kocakaya, A; Yaranoğlu, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of 2 strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages. Lohmann Brown Classic (LB, n=532) and Lohmann LSL Classic (LW, n=532) hens were housed from 16 to 73 wk in either conventional cages or enriched cages. Enriched cages had a nesting area, scratch pad, perch, and nail shortener. Body weight (BW), hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cracked and dirty eggs, use of nest box for lay, and external appearance were determined. Laying period influenced the hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Cage type affected the hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, while strain affected the egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Laying period×cage type and laying period×strain interactions affected egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. Both strains preferred to lay in the nest box. Percentages of cracked and dirty eggs of LW hens in enriched cages were higher than that in conventional cages. Most of the dirty eggs laid by both strains were found outside of the nest box. The LW hens laid more dirty eggs than the LB hens. Cage type and cage type×strain interaction were important for total feather score. Final claw length was affected by cage type, strain, and cage type×strain interaction. This study suggests that cage type, strain, and also cage type×strain and period×strain interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are used. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Lewis acid fragmentation of a lithium aryloxide cage: generation of new heterometallic aluminium-lithium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Urbaneja, Carmen; Temprado, Manuel; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2011-11-14

    Heterometallic aluminium-lithium species were prepared by the fragmentation reaction of the hexametallic cage compound [Li{2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3)O}](6) (1) with alkyl aluminium derivatives. Depending on the aluminium precursor, the species formed present different nuclearities in the solid state as shown by single crystal X-ray analysis. Spectroscopic and computational studies have been performed to study the nuclearity of the synthesized compounds in solution.

  20. Confocal Bioluminescence Imaging for Living Tissues with a Caged Substrate of Luciferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Mitsuru; Kawamura, Genki; Kojima, Ryosuke; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2016-06-21

    Fluorescence imaging can elucidate morphological organization and coordinal networks, but its background luminescence degrades the image contrast. Our confocal bioluminescence imaging system uses a luciferase caged substrate, with light passing through multipinhole arrays, causing bioluminescence at a focal plane. After a charge-coupled device camera captures luminescence, the imaging system acquires confocal images of multilayered cells with depth information, supporting quantitative analysis of spatial cellular localization in living tissues.

  1. CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...rsion V2 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-002.V002 Update History V1 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-002.V001 - Description... This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Cathodic cage nitriding of AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel with the addition of CH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel samples were nitrided using the cathodic cage plasma nitriding technique (CCPN, with the addition of methane to reduce chromium precipitation, increase hardness and wear resistance and reduce the presence of nitrides when compared to plasma carbonitriding. Microhardness profiles and X-Ray analysis confirm the formation of a very hard layer containing mainly ε-Fe3N and expanded ferrite phases.

  3. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages

    OpenAIRE

    Mul, Monique; van Riel, Johan; Meerburg, Bastiaan; Dicke, Marcel; George, David; Groot Koerkamp, Peter

    2015-01-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an “automated mite counter”) was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This va...

  4. The Effect of the PEEK Cage on the Cervical Lordosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gulsen

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: We achieved better cervical lordotic angles at the postoperative period by implanting one-level, two-level, three-level or four-level PEEK cage filled with demineralized bone matrix. Also, the causes of cervical root and or medulla spinalis impingement were different in group1 and 2. While extruded cervical disc impingement was the first pathology in group 1, osteophyte formation was the first pathology in group 2.

  5. Template-directed synthesis of nets based upon octahemioctahedral cages that encapsulate catalytically active metalloporphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-01-18

    meso-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) templates the synthesis of six new metal-organic materials by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate with transition metals, five of which exhibit HKUST-1 or tbo topology (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg). The resulting materials, porph@MOMs, selectively encapsulate the corresponding metalloporphyrins in octahemioctahedral cages and can serve as size-selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of olefins. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. IMPACT OF HEAVY METAL TO FISH AQUACULTURE IN FLOATING NET CAGE IN CIRATA RESERVOIR, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Heru Prihadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Cirata Reservoir for fisheries aquaculture with floating net cage system has been increasing rapidly. Industrial waste existed along watershed brings significant heavy metal pollutant that flows and difficult to control. Consequences of such activities were reflected in the degradation of reservoir environment indicated by sedimentation, water quality degradation and fish mass mortality because of up welling. The objectives of this research were: 1 to obtain data and information on heavy metal content in Cirata Reservoir waters, and 2 to observe and understand the effect of heavy metal to the fish cultured in floating net cage to support aquaculture in floating net cage system. Water quality and fish histology analyses were the methodologies used in this research. Descriptive and laboratory analysis were carry out to analysis the data. Based on observation and descriptive analyses, the content of heavy metal in Cirata Reservoir was classified as worse. Concentration of Pb, Cr, Hg, and Cd in the sample of water and tilapia digestive organ becomes fragile. Infiltration of hemoglobin cell, necrosis, degeneration and pigmentation occurred in body organs when up welling happened. Beside that, during up-welling digestive organ become easily breakable resulted in fish mass mortality in floating net cage. The affinity of hemoglobin to the toxic gas was higher than to oxygen, therefore aeration was not affective and mass mortality cannot be avoided. This was because of various events that occured to the fish and the other water biota that encompassed regular diffusion, bio-magnification, and bio-concentration to fish.

  7. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  8. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract 1. Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. 2. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 ?m) from cage and alternative system henhouses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experiment...

  9. CAGE: A Database of Cancer Genes of Human, Mouse and Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Khalid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CAGE is the database of cancer genes of human, mouse and rat. We have designed PCR oligonucleotide primer sequences for each gene, with their features and conditions given. This feature alone greatly facilitates researchers in PCR amplification of genes sequences, especially in cloning experiments. Currently it encompasses more than 1000 nucleotide entries. Flexible database design, easy expandability, and easy retrieval of information are the main features of this database. The Database is publicly available at cgdb.pakbiz.org.

  10. Synthesis and Structure of A Novel Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Flame Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel caged bicyclic phosphate flame retardant tri(1-oxo-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane-methyl) phosphate (Trimer) was synthesized from 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) and phosphorus oxychloride in this paper.Its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  11. A Non-Parametric Item Response Theory Evaluation of the CAGE Instrument Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-08-04

    The validity of the CAGE using item response theory (IRT) has not yet been examined in older adult population. This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAGE using both non-parametric and parametric IRT models, assess whether there is any differential item functioning (DIF) by age, gender and ethnicity and examine the measurement precision at the cut-off scores. We used data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study to conduct Mokken scaling analysis (MSA), dichotomous Rasch and 2-parameter logistic IRT models. The measurement precision at the cut-off scores were evaluated using classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC). The MSA showed the overall scalability H index was 0.459, indicating a medium performing instrument. All items were found to be homogenous, measuring the same construct and able to discriminate well between respondents with high levels of the construct and the ones with lower levels. The item discrimination ranged from 1.07 to 6.73 while the item difficulty ranged from 0.33 to 2.80. Significant DIF was found for 2-item across ethnic group. More than 90% (CC and CA ranged from 92.5% to 94.3%) of the respondents were consistently and accurately classified by the CAGE cut-off scores of 2 and 3. The current study provides new evidence on the validity of the CAGE from the IRT perspective. This study provides valuable information of each item in the assessment of the overall severity of alcohol problem and the precision of the cut-off scores in older adult population.

  12. A Self-Assembled Electro-Active M8L4 Cage Based on Tetrathiafulvalene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Goeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two self-assembled redox-active cages are presented. They are obtained by coordination-driven self-assembly of a tetra-pyridile tetrathiafulvalene ligand with cis-M(dppf(OTf2 (M = Pd or Pt; dppf = 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphinoferrocene; OTf = trifluoromethane-sulfonate complexes. Both species are fully characterized and are constituted of 12 electro-active subunits that can be reversibly oxidized.

  13. In-electrode vs. on-electrode: ultrasensitive Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Sha, Yuhong; Hu, Yufang; Wang, Sui

    2016-03-28

    A new-concept of an "in-electrode" Faraday cage-type electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method for the ultrasensitive detection of neurotensin (NT) was reported with capture antibody (Ab1)-nanoFe3O4@graphene (GO) and detector antibody (Ab2)&N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI)@GO, which led to about 1000-fold improvement in sensitivity by extending the Helmholtz plane (OHP) of the proposed electrode assembly effectively.

  14. Protein-Based Nanomedicine Platforms for Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Ham, Aihui; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-08-03

    Drug delivery systems have been developed for many years, however some limitations still hurdle the pace of going to clinical phase, for example, poor biodistribution, drug molecule cytotoxicity, tissue damage, quick clearance from the circulation system, solubility and stability of drug molecules. To overcome the limitations of drug delivery, biomaterials have to be developed and applied to drug delivery to protect the drug molecules and to enhance the drug’s efficacy. Protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery are platforms comprised of naturally self-assembled protein subunits of the same protein or a combination of proteins making up a complete system. They are ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability coupled with low toxicity. A variety of proteins have been used and characterized for drug delivery systems including the ferritin/apoferritin protein cage, plant derived viral capsids, the small Heat shock protein (sHsp) cage, albumin, soy and whey protein, collagen, and gelatin. There are many different types and shapes that have been prepared to deliver drug molecules using protein-based platforms including the various protein cages, microspheres, nanoparticles, hydrogels, films, minirods and minipellets. There are over 30 therapeutic compounds that have been investigated with protein-based drug delivery platforms for the potential treatment of various cancers, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases. In protein-based drug delivery platforms, protein cage is the most newly developed biomaterials for drug delivery and therapeutic applications. Their uniform sizes, multifunctions, and biodegradability push them to the frontier for drug delivery. In this review, the recent strategic development of drug delivery has been discussed with a special emphasis upon the polymer based, especially protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery. The advantages and disadvantages are also

  15. 9 CFR 82.10 - Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.10 Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops,...

  16. High-pressure carbon dioxide uptake for porous organic cages: comparison of spectroscopic and manometric measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasell, Tom; Armstrong, Jayne A; Jelfs, Kim E; Tay, Feng H; Thomas, K Mark; Kazarian, Sergei G; Cooper, Andrew I

    2013-10-21

    A chemoselective spectroscopic method for measuring CO2 sorption isotherms at pressures up to 14 MPa (140 bar) is validated against manometric measurements and molecular simulations, giving insights into the preferred sorption sites in various crystalline porous organic cages.

  17. The impact of light, noise, cage cleaning and in-house transport on welfare and stress of laboratory rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castelhano-Carlos, M J; Baumans, V

    2009-01-01

    ... stressor, the animal's wellbeing is threatened. This review article summarizes several published studies on the impact of environmental factors such as light, noise, cage cleaning and in-house transport on welfare and stress of laboratory rats...

  18. Transdural retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage: Technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Hasan Aqdas; Shah, Ashish; Kakarla, Udaya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe a novel method to retrieve a herniated lumbar interbody cage. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an increasingly popular method of spinal fixation and fusion. Unexpected retropulsion of an interbody is a rare event that can result in intractable pain or motor compromise necessitating surgical retrieval of the interbody. Both anterior and posterior approaches to removing migrated cages may be associated with significant surgical morbidity and mortality. A 60-year-old woman underwent an L4-S1 TLIF coupled with pedicle screw fixation at a previous hospital 5 years prior to admission. She noted sudden-onset bilateral lower extremity weakness and right-sided foot drop. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographs were notable for purely centrally herniated interbody. A posterior, midline transdural approach was used to retrieve the interbody. Situated in between nerve rootlets to the ventral canal, this virgin corridor allowed us to easily visualize and protect neurological structures while safely retrieving the interbody. The patient experienced an immediate improvement in symptoms and was discharged on postoperative day 3. At 12-month follow-up, she had no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and had returned to normal activities of daily living. While the risk of CSF leak may be higher with a transdural approach, we maintain that avoiding unnecessary retraction of the nerve roots may outweigh this risk. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a transdural approach for the retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage.

  19. Partitioning of the contributions of rib cage and abdomen to ventilation in ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimby, Gunnar; Fugl-Meyer, Axel R.; Blomstrand, Ann

    1974-01-01

    Grimby, G., Fugl-Meyer, A. R., and Blomstrand, A. (1974).Thorax,29, 179-184. Partitioning of the contributions of rib cage and abdomen to ventilation in ankylosing spondylitis. The relative contributions of the rib cage and abdomen to ventilation were studied in the sitting position in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, using measurements of changes in the anteroposterior diameters. The functional impairment of the spine and adjacent joints was also evaluated. In most patients vital capacity and total lung capacity were reduced, but functional residual capacity was normal. The relative contribution of the rib cage to ventilation was reduced at rest compared to normal subjects, and decreased further during hyperventilation induced by rebreathing. The end-expiratory level of the abdomen decreased more markedly during hyperventilation than in normal subjects and even the end-inspiratory level of the abdomen increased somewhat. The findings are consistent with a reduced mobility of the ribs and a greater than normal excursion of the diaphragm during breathing. PMID:4831523

  20. The reaction process of firefly bioluminescence triggered by photolysis of caged-ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Sekiya, Takao; Ohno, Shin-Ya; Wada, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The reaction process of firefly bioluminescence was studied by photolyzing caged-ATP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 100 ms. The intensity of luminescence increases markedly to reach a maximum within 1 s, maintains almost the same intensity up to 5 s and then decays monotonically. The rise γ(1) and decay γ(2) rate constants were determined to be about 5 s(-1) and 1 × 10(-2) s(-1), respectively, so as to phenomenologically fit the time course. A second luminescence peak appears after around 350 s. The dependence of the rate constants on the concentrations of reactants and a viscous reagent revealed that two kinds of reaction contribute the observed time course: (1) an intrinsic reaction by ATP photolyzed from caged-ATP that is already trapped in luciferase; and (2) a diffusion-controlled reaction by free ATP in the buffer solution outside luciferase. Numerical analysis based on reaction kinetics related γ(1) and γ(2) to the rate constants of a three-step reaction model, and accurately described the effects of concentration of reactants and a viscous reagent on the time courses of bioluminescence. Thus, it has been clearly concluded that the binding mode of caged-ATP at the catalytic center of luciferase is very different from that of ATP.

  1. The Iron Cage and the Gaze: Interpreting Medical Control in the English Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Exworthy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to determine the value of theoretical ideal-types of medical control. Whilst ideal types (such as the iron cage and gaze need revision in their application to medical settings, they remain useful in describing and explaining patterns of control and autonomy in the medical profession. The apparent transition from the cage to the gaze has often been over-stated since both types are found in many contemporary health reforms. Indeed, forms of neo-bureaucracy have emerged alongside surveillance of the gaze. These types are contextualised and elaborated in terms of two empirical examples: the management of medical performance and financial incentives for senior hospital doctors in England. Findings point towards the reformulation of medical control, an on-going re-stratification of the medical profession, and the internalisation of managerial discourses. The cumulative effect involves the medical profession’s ability to re-cast and enhance its position (vis-à-vis managerial interests.Keywords: medical profession, medical control, iron cage, gaze

  2. Dipole-induced band-gap reduction in an inorganic cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yaokang; Cheng, Jun; Steiner, Alexander; Gan, Lihua; Wright, Dominic S

    2014-02-10

    Metal-doped polyoxotitanium cages are a developing class of inorganic compounds which can be regarded as nano- and sub-nano sized molecular relatives of metal-doped titania nanoparticles. These species can serve as models for the ways in which dopant metal ions can be incorporated into metal-doped titania (TiO2 ), a technologically important class of photocatalytic materials with broad applications in devices and pollution control. In this study a series of cobalt(II)-containing cages in the size range ca. 0.7-1.3 nm have been synthesized and structurally characterized, allowing a coherent study of the factors affecting the band gaps in well-defined metal-doped model systems. Band structure calculations are consistent with experimental UV/Vis measurements of the Tix Oy absorption edges in these species and reveal that molecular dipole moment can have a profound effect on the band gap. The observation of a dipole-induced band-gap decrease mechanism provides a potentially general design strategy for the formation of low band-gap inorganic cages.

  3. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide and particulate matter from cage-free layer houses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingjun; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiang, Shumei; El-Mashad, Hamed; Xin, Hongwei

    2017-03-01

    Cage-free housing systems have attracted considerable attention in the United States recently as they provide more space and other resources (such as litter area, perches, and nest boxes) for hens and are considered to be more favorable from the standpoint of hen welfare. This study was carried out to quantify emissions of aerial ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from cage-free layer houses in California and compare the values with those for other types of layer houses. Two commercial cage-free houses with 38,000 hens each were monitored from March 1, 2012 to April 1, 2013. Results show that NH3 and CO2 concentrations in the houses were affected by ventilation rate, which was largely influenced by ambient air temperature. The PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the houses depended on the activity of birds, ventilation rate and relative humidity of the ambient air. The average emission rates of NH3, CO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.29, 89.9, 0.163 and 0.020 g d-1 hen-1, respectively. The NH3 emission rate determined in this study was higher than those of aviary houses. The PM10 and PM2.5 emission rates were higher than those reported for high-rise layer houses.

  4. Be12O12 Nano-cage as a Promising Catalyst for CO2 Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Li, Yawei; Zhu, Guizhi; Su, Haibin; Chan, Siew Hwa; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    An efficient conversion of CO2 into valuable fuels and chemicals has been hotly pursued recently. Here, for the first time, we have explored a series of M12x12 nano-cages (M = B, Al, Be, Mg; X = N, P, O) for catalysis of CO2 to HCOOH. Two steps are identified in the hydrogenation process, namely, H2 activation to 2H*, and then 2H* transfer to CO2 forming HCOOH, where the barriers of two H* transfer are lower than that of the H2 activation reaction. Among the studied cages, Be12O12 is found to have the lowest barrier in the whole reaction process, showing two kinds of reaction mechanisms for 2H* (simultaneous transfer and a step-wise transfer with a quite low barrier). Moreover, the H2 activation energy barrier can be further reduced by introducing Al, Ga, Li, and Na to B12N12 cage. This study would provide some new ideas for the design of efficient cluster catalysts for CO2 reduction.

  5. Probing confinement resonances by photoionizing Xe inside a C60+ molecular cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneuf, R. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aryal, N. B.; Baral, K. K.; Thomas, C. M.; Esteves-Macaluso, D. A.; Lomsadze, R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Ballance, C. P.; Manson, S. T.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Hellhund, J.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.

    2014-05-01

    Double photoionization accompanied by loss of n C atoms (n = 0 , 2 , 4 , 6) was investigated by merging beams of Xe@C60+ ions and synchrotron radiation and measuring the yields of product ions. The giant 4 d dipole resonance of the caged Xe atom has a prominent signature in the cross section for these product channels, which together account for 6 . 2 +/- 1 . 4 of the total Xe 4 d oscillator strength of 10. Compared to that for a free Xe atom, the oscillator strength is redistributed in photon energy due to multipath interference of outgoing Xe 4 d photoelectron waves that may be transmitted or reflected by the spherical C60+ molecular cage, yielding so-called confinement resonances. The data are compared with an earlier measurement and with theoretical predictions for this single-molecule photoelectron interferometer system. Relativistic R-matrix calculations for the Xe atom in a spherical potential shell representing the fullerene cage show the sensitivity of the interference pattern to the molecular geometry.

  6. Distance Factors and Croatian Export Obstacles in the EU15: CAGE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Miloloža

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For long-term sustainability of any enterprise, it is required to observe each market separately and systematically modify business approach to prevailing conditions in each. However, adaptation to each market can be a complex affair that requires certain financial costs but ignoring distinguishing criteria leads to reduction in revenues and undermines long-term profitability. Time saving and cost-effectiveness can be achieved by application of The CAGE Distance Framework – a model that analysis all diversities between two or more countries. Croatia did not yet utilize the benefits that European Union membership provides nor did significantly improved its international business. It is obvious that Croatia faces difficulties in the strategic approach to prospective foreign markets. Therefore, emphasis of this article is on analysis and identification of the distinguishing factors between Croatia and the EU15 in order to facilitate and enhance cooperation among them in the future. Throughout the analysis of Croatian export from the beginning of the economic crisis, this article gives an overview of international collaboration among Croatia and the EU15 and comparative analysis by using The CAGE Distance Framework. This analysis has confirmed significant fluctuations, unexploited potential and problems of the Croatian economy in all dimensions of The CAGE model.

  7. Survey of prevalence and control of ectoparasites in caged poultry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F F; Wang, M; Xu, F R; Liang, D M; Pan, B L

    2010-12-11

    To investigate the prevalence and control of ectoparasites in China, 1200 questionnaires were delivered to caged commercial layer or parent hen keepers. Of the 860 respondents, 785 (91.3 per cent) claimed they found suspected ectoparasites in their birds and 833 samples were received. Ectoparasites of the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum or Menacanthuss stramineus were found in 736 (88.4 per cent) samples. For caged commercial layers, D gallinae was the most common ectoparasite (64.1 per cent). For caged parent hens, O sylviarum was the most common ectoparasite (46.9 per cent). Most bird keepers (95.0 per cent of commercial layer keepers and 74.9 per cent of parent hen keepers) used pyrethroids, organophosphates or other insecticides or acaricides to control ectoparasites. However, 34.6 per cent of layer keepers and 25.7 per cent of parent hen keepers did not re-treat their birds with insecticides or acaricides within two weeks after the first treatment. Sanitation procedures, including cleaning, washing and disinfection, were conducted in empty houses between flocks and on most commercial layer farms and parent hen farms. However, insecticides or acaricides were used in empty houses between flocks only in 24.8 per cent of commercial layer farms and in 36.1 per cent of parent hen farms.

  8. Corticosterone and fear behaviour in white and brown caged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, F; Cockrem, J F

    2006-04-01

    Physiological and behavioural measures of stress in caged hens on a commercial farm were compared between White Leghorn and brown Hyline strains, and between three tiers of cages. Blood and faecal samples were collected from undisturbed birds for corticosterone measurements. Plasma corticosterone responses to a stressor were measured by the collection of blood samples after 15, 30, and 60 min of a handling stressor. Tonic immobility and novel object tests were used to measure fear behaviour. Plasma corticosterone in undisturbed hens and faecal corticosterone did not differ between White Leghorn and brown Hyline hens, whereas the plasma corticosterone response to a handling stressor was greater in White Leghorns. The duration of tonic immobility, latency to first head movement and number of head movements in tonic immobility tests were greater in white than brown birds, whereas the number of inductions was less for tonic immobility tests. There were no differences between the strains in their responses to a novel object. There were no differences between tiers in plasma corticosterone or corticosterone responses or tonic immobility responses, and no consistent differences in responses of birds to a novel object. This is the first study in which plasma and faecal corticosterone concentrations and fear behaviour have been measured together in laying hens, and the first description of plasma corticosterone responses to handling over 60 min for caged laying hens on a commercial farm. The study has shown the value of measuring endocrine and behavioural variables together to provide objective data on characteristics of different strains of hens.

  9. Effect of Cage Type on Fecal Corticosterone Concentration in Buck Rabbits During the Reproductive Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornale, Paolo; Macchi, Elisabetta; Renna, Manuela; Prola, Liviana; Perona, Giovanni; Mimosi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) was measured in 14 buck rabbits individually housed in standard-dimension cages (SC) or in bigger cages (BC; with a volume more than double that of SC and equipped with a plastic foot mat) during 4 consecutive reproductive cycles. Cage type and reproductive phase (estrous synchronization of doe rabbits, artificial insemination, partum, preweaning, and postweaning) were not statistically significant but tendentially affected FCCs (.05 Buck rabbits housed in SC showed higher FCCs than those housed in BC (27.42 pg g(- 1) dried feces and 25.57 pg g(- 1), respectively; SEM = 2.952). The highest FCC values were detected at artificial insemination (BC, 27.91 pg g(- 1); SC, 30.45 pg g(- 1); SEM = 3.520), highlighting that the phase of semen collection could be one of the most critical moments for buck rabbits, although further investigations are needed. These preliminary results suggest that measurement of FCC could be used as an indicator of chronic stress in buck rabbits.

  10. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds.

  11. Sublethal effects in caged rainbow trout during remedial activities in Lake Jaernsjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, S.; Foerlin, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology; Norrgren, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Pathology

    1998-08-01

    Caging juvenile rainbow trout in the PCB polluted Lake Jaernsjoen in 1991 prior to remediation resulted in induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, liver lesions, skin lesions and fin erosions, all of which can be caused by subchronic exposure to PCB. During the remediation in 1993 and 1994, pronounced induction of the liver EROD, bile-duct proliferation and a relatively high incidence of necrotic hepatocytes were seen in the rainbow trout caged in Lake Jaernsjoen. The histopathological damage noted in the liver was reflected in changes in plasma ASAT activities. In 1996, two years after the remedial activities, the EROD activity was still slightly induced in caged rainbow trout in Jaernsjoen, but the fish showed no sign of histopathological changes. In addition, the liver EROD activity was induced in some sites downstream of Jaernsjoen. These results indicate a downstream transport of contaminants following the remedial action Special issue. The Jaernsjoen project, Sweden. Remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments. 50 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Le Bouquin, S; Bex-Capelle, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Guillam, M-T; Squizani, F; Segala, C; Michel, V

    2011-10-01

    Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 µm) from cage and alternative system houses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experimental and commercial conditions. The endotoxin concentration was higher in experimental aviaries (median: 565 EU/m³, range: 362-1491 EU/m³) than in cage housing (98 EU/m³ (51-470)). In field conditions, the endotoxin concentration in the air of 13 alternative houses was higher (35 to 3156 EU/m³) than in cage system buildings (n = 8, 78-576 EU/m³). It was correlated to the respirable dust concentration (fraction below 5 µm) and to the temperature inside the hen house but no seasonal variation was observed. The present study emphasises that considerable worker exposure to endotoxins may occur in laying houses, especially in alternative systems.

  13. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice: automated home cage observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-08-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129S2/Sv, on locomotor activity. Strains differed in circadian rhythmicity, novelty-induced activity and the time-course of specific behavioural elements. For instance, C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice showed a much faster decrease in activity over time than C3H and 129S2/Sv mice. Principal component analysis revealed two major factors within locomotor activity, which were defined as 'level of activity' and 'velocity/stops'. These factors were able to distinguish strains. Interestingly, mice that displayed high levels of activity in the initial phase of the home cage test were also highly active during an open-field test. Velocity and the number of stops during movement correlated positively with anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus maze. The use of an automated home cage observation system yields temporal changes in elements of locomotor activity with an advanced level of spatial resolution. Moreover, it avoids the confounding influence of human intervention and saves time-consuming human observations.

  14. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changfu; Qu, Ying; Sun, Meizhen; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Huang, Xianhui; Huai, Binbin; Lu, Yan; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with P. multocida(type B, serotype 2), then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24 h after inoculation. The ratio of 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24 h/MIC or AUC24 h/MPC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against P. multocida (R (2) = 0.8514) by non-linear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24 h/MIC and AUC24 h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10 CFU/mL reduction) and 90% (3log10 CFU/mL reduction) of maximum response were 18.60 and 50.65 h, 4.67 and 12.89 h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest.

  15. Structural and static electric response properties of highly symmetric lithiated silicon cages: theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Zdetsis, Aristides D; Karamanis, Panaghiotis; Pouchan, Claude; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G

    2012-04-15

    It is shown by density functional theory calculations that high symmetry silicon cages can be designed by coating with Li atoms. The resulting highly symmetric lithiated silicon cages (up to D(5d) symmetry) are low-lying true minima of the energy hypersurface with binding energies of the order of 4.6 eV per Si atom and moderate highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps. Moreover, relying on a systematic study of the electric response properties obtained by ab initio (Hartree-Fock, MP2, and configuration interaction singles (CIS)) and density functional (B3LYP, B2PLYP, and CAM-B3LYP) methods, it is shown that lithium coating has a large impact on the magnitude of their second hyperpolarizabilities resulting to highly hyperpolarizable species. Such hyperpolarizable character is directly connected to the increase in the density of the low-lying excited states triggered by the interaction between the Si cage and the surrounding Li atoms.

  16. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  17. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfu eCao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with Pasteurella multocida(type B, serotype 2, then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24h after inoculation. The ratio of 24h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24h/MIC or AUC24h/MPC was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida (R2=0.8514 by nonlinear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24h/MIC and AUC24h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10CFU/mL reduction and 90% (3log10CFU/mL reduction of maximum response were 18.60h and 50.65h, 4.67h and 12.89h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest.

  18. Stocking densities of juvenile Brycon orthotaenia: production parameters and economic benefits in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Assis Lago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a rearing technology requires the determination of the optimum stocking density. This study aimed to determine the best stocking density for Brycon orthotaenia juveniles grown in net cages, during the rearing phase. The research was conducted at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, in the Três Marias Reservoir. 9,000 fingerlings were distributed into 12 net cages, 2 m3each, according to a completely randomized design with three replications and four different stocking densities (150, 300, 450, 600 fish m-3. Random samples were taken from each net cage, at the onset of the experiment and at 60 rearing days, to assess production parameters, specific growth rate and uniformity. We verified a positive linear relationship (p 0.05 for growth parameters, uniformity and final weight. It can be concluded that the density of 300 fish m-3 is the most suitable, because it provides higher net revenue, survival, and a good feed conversion.

  19. Slotted cage resonator for high-field magnetic resonance imaging of rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrufo, O; Vasquez, F; Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O, E-mail: arog@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2011-04-20

    A variation of the high-frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. Circular slots were used instead of cavities to form the coil endplates and it was called the slotted cage resonator coil. The theoretical principles were validated via a coil equivalent circuit and also experimentally with a coil prototype. The radio frequency magnetic field, B1, produced by several coil configurations was numerically simulated using the finite-element approach to investigate their performances. A transceiver coil, 8 cm long and 7.6 cm in diameter, and composed of 4 circular slots with a 15 mm diameter on both endplates, was built to operate at 300 MHz and quadrature driven. Experimental results obtained with the slotted cage resonator coil were presented and showed very good agreement with the theoretical expectations for the resonant frequency as a function of the coil dimensions and slots. A standard birdcage coil was also built for performance comparison purposes. Phantom images were then acquired to compute the signal-to-noise ratio of both coils showing an important improvement of the slotted cage coil over the birdcage coil. The whole-body images of the mouse were also obtained showing high-quality images. Volume resonator coils can be reliably built following the physical principles of the cavity resonator design for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications of rodents.

  20. Dorsal and ventral target strength measurements on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in sea cages

    CERN Document Server

    Soliveres, Ester; Espinosa, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between target strength (TS) and total body length of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), in order to monitor its growth in sea cages. Five classes of commercial size gilthead sea bream are characterized, comprising lengths from 20 to 25 cm, corresponding to weights between 160 and 270 g. A few specimens were introduced into a sea cage of 3 m in diameter and a height of 2.7 m. We measure TS directly using a Simrad EK60 echosounder with a 7^{\\circ} split-beam transducer working at 200 kHz. The transducer was located in the center of the cage during measurements, at the bottom facing upwards for ventral recordings and on the surface facing downwards to perform dorsal recordings. Two analyses based on single echo detection were performed: the first one obtains compensated transducer directivity TS values from intensity and angular echosounder data; while the second one omit phase information, affording uncompensated TS values (TSu). Two algorithms have bee...