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Sample records for caged protein prenyltransferase

  1. Regulation of protein prenyltransferase in central neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiu-Ping; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2009-01-01

    Geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGT) is a protein prenyltransferase that mediates lipid modification of some proteins such as Rho family small GTPases. Since the activation of Rho GTPases mediates tumorgenesis and metastasis, GGT has become an attractive target for anti-tumor drug design. Although GGT is extensively expressed in the brain, the function of GGT in central nervous system (CNS) is totally unknown. We have previously shown that GGT was involved in neuromuscular synaptogenesis. In thi...

  2. Protein Cages as Containers for Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aijie; Verwegen, Martijn; de Ruiter, Mark V; Maassen, Stan J; Traulsen, Christoph H-H; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2016-07-01

    Abundant and highly diverse, viruses offer new scaffolds in nanotechnology for the encapsulation, organization, or even synthesis of novel materials. In this work the coat protein of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles with different sizes and stabilizing ligands yielding stable particles in buffered solutions at neutral pH. The sizes of the virus-like particles correspond to T = 1, 2, and 3 Caspar-Klug icosahedral triangulation numbers. We developed a simple one-step process enabling the encapsulation of commercially available gold nanoparticles without prior modification with up to 97% efficiency. The encapsulation efficiency is further increased using bis-p-(sufonatophenyl)phenyl phosphine surfactants up to 99%. Our work provides a simplified procedure for the preparation of metallic particles stabilized in CCMV protein cages. The presented results are expected to enable the preparation of a variety of similar virus-based colloids for current focus areas. PMID:27135176

  3. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  4. Biologically tunable reactivity of energetic nanomaterials using protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocik, Joseph M; Crouse, Christopher A; Spowart, Jonathan E; Naik, Rajesh R

    2013-06-12

    The performance of aluminum nanomaterial based energetic formulations is dependent on the mass transport, diffusion distance, and stability of reactive components. Here we use a biologically inspired approach to direct the assembly of oxidizer loaded protein cages onto the surface of aluminum nanoparticles to improve reaction kinetics by reducing the diffusion distance between the reactants. Ferritin protein cages were loaded with ammonium perchlorate (AP) or iron oxide and assembled with nAl to create an oxidation-reduction based energetic reaction and the first demonstration of a nanoscale biobased thermite material. Both materials showed enhanced exothermic behavior in comparison to nanothermite mixtures of bulk free AP or synthesized iron oxide nanopowders prepared without the use of ferritin. In addition, by utilizing a layer-by-layer (LbL) process to build multiple layers of protein cages containing iron oxide and iron oxide/AP on nAl, stoichiometric conditions and energetic performance can be optimized. PMID:23713514

  5. Chemical virology: Packing polymers in protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.

    2012-10-01

    The combination of addressable synthetic macromolecules with proteins of precise structure and function often leads to materials with unique properties, as is now shown by the efficient multi-site initiation of polymer growth inside the cavity of a virus capsid.

  6. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Trevor [Montana State University

    2014-11-21

    The central focus of the work performed under this award has been to develop the bacteriophage P22 viral capsid as a vehicle for the encapsulation of catalyticaly active cargo materials and study their utility towards economic energy harvesting systems. We have demonstrated that the capsid of the bacteriophage P22 can be used to genetically program the assembly and encapsulation of a range of inorganic nanoparticles and protein cargoes. The P22 capsid uses a scaffold protein (SP) to direct the assembly of its coat protein (CP) into icosahedral capsids. By creating a genetic fusion of a desired cargo enzyme or a small peptide that can act as a nucleation site for subsequent NP growth, we have demonstrated the co-assembly of these SP-fusions and CP into stable “nano-reactors”. The cargo is sequestered inside the engineered capsid and can either be used directly as a nanocatalyst or for the nucleation and growth of inorganic or organic nanoparticles or polymers. The synthetic cargos (NP or polymers) were shown to have photocatalytic activity. The time dependent photophysics of a select few of these systems were studied to determine the underlying mechanisms and efficiency of light harversting. Enzyme cargos encapsulated within the P22 were thermally activated catalysts and their kinetic behavior was characterized. During the course of this work we have demonstrated that the method is a robust means to harness biology for materials applications and have initiated work into assembling the P22 nanoreactors into hierarchically ordered materials. The successful implementation of the work performed under this DOE grant provides us with a great deal of knowledge and a library of components to go forward towards the development of bioinspired catalytic materials for energy harvesting.

  7. Photoregulation of protein plasmid expression in vitro and in vivo using BHQ caging group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Ping Zhang; Yi Ming Li; Xiao Yun Chen; Qing Xiang Guo

    2011-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid was caged by 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinolinyl chromophore (BHQ) for controlling its expression with exact spatiotemporal resolution. In vitro and in vivo experiments clearly verified that, comparing with Bhc caging, the expression level of caged GFP plasmid was dramatically decreased and then efficiently restored after subsequent photolysis.

  8. Immobilization of two organometallic complexes into a single cage to construct protein-based microcompartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Basudev; Fukumori, Kazuki; Abe, Satoshi; Ueno, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Natural protein-based microcompartments containing multiple enzymes promote cascade reactions within cells. We use the apo-ferritin protein cage to mimic such biocompartments by immobilizing two organometallic Ir and Pd complexes into the single protein cage. Precise locations of the metals and their accumulation mechanism were studied by X-ray crystallography. PMID:27021005

  9. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  10. Protein cages, rings and tubes: useful components of future nanodevices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Heddle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan G HeddleGlobal Edge Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda, Midori-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa, JapanAbstract: There is a great deal of interest in the possibility that complex nanoscale devices can be designed and engineered. Such devices will lead to the development of new materials, electronics and smart drugs. Producing complex nanoscale devices, however will present many challenges and the components of such devices will require a number of special features. Devices will be engineered to incorporate desired functionalities but, because of the difficulties of controlling matter precisely at the nanoscale with current technology, the nanodevice components must self-assemble. In addition, nanocomponents that are to have wide applicability in various devices must have enough flexibility to integrate into a large number of potentially very different environments. These challenges are daunting and complex, and artificial nanodevices have not yet been constructed. However, the existence of nanomachines in nature in the form of proteins (eg, enzymes suggests that they will be possible to produce. As the material from which nature’s nanomachines are made, proteins seem ideal to form the basis of engineered components of such nanodevices. Initially, engineering projects may focus on building blocks such as rings, cages and tubes, examples of which exist in nature and may act as a useful start point for modification and further development. This review focuses on the recent research and possible future development of such protein building blocks.Keywords: bionanotechnology, protein engineering, nanomachine, building-blocks, synthetic biology

  11. Protein Nanocontainers from Nonviral Origin: Testing the Mechanics of Artificial and Natural Protein Cages by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, K; Sasaki, E; King, N P; Baker, D; Hilvert, D; Wuite, G J L; Roos, W H

    2016-07-01

    Self-assembling protein nanocontainers are promising candidates for an increasingly wide scope of purposes. Their applications range from drug delivery vehicles and imaging agents to nanocompartments for controlled enzymatic activity. In order to exploit their full potential in these different fields, characterization of their properties is vital. For example, their mechanical properties give insight into the stability of a particle as a function of their internal content. The mechanics can be probed by atomic force microscopy nanoindentation, and while this single particle method is increasingly used to probe material properties of viral nanocages, it has hardly been used to characterize nonviral nanocages. Here we report nanoindentation studies on two types of nonviral nanocontainers: (i) lumazine synthase from Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS), which naturally self-assembles into icosahedral cages, and (ii) the artificial protein cage O3-33 originating from a computational design approach. In addition, we tested particles that had been engineered toward improved cargo loading capacity and compared these nanocages in empty and loaded states. We found that the thermostable AaLS cages are stiffer and resist higher forces before breaking than the O3-33 particles, but that mutations affecting the size of AaLS particles have a dramatic effect on their structural stability. Furthermore, we show that cargo packaging can occur while maintaining the cage's mechanical properties. PMID:27187612

  12. Equilibrium simulation of trp-cage in the presence of protein crowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille, Anna; Linse, Björn; Mohanty, Sandipan; Irbäck, Anders

    2015-11-01

    While steric crowders tend to stabilize globular proteins, it has been found that protein crowders can have an either stabilizing or destabilizing effect, where a destabilization may arise from nonspecific attractive interactions between the test protein and the crowders. Here, we use Monte Carlo replica-exchange methods to explore the equilibrium behavior of the miniprotein trp-cage in the presence of protein crowders. Our results suggest that the surrounding crowders prevent trp-cage from adopting its global native fold, while giving rise to a stabilization of its main secondary-structure element, an α-helix. With the crowding agent used (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor), the trp-cage-crowder interactions are found to be specific, involving a few key residues, most of which are prolines. The effects of these crowders are contrasted with those of hard-sphere crowders.

  13. Indole prenyltransferases from fungi: a new enzyme group with high potential for the production of prenylated indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan, N; Grundmann, A; Yin, W-B; Kremer, A; Li, S-M

    2009-01-01

    Prenylated indole derivatives are hybrid natural products containing both aromatic and isoprenoid moieties and are widely spread in plants, fungi and bacteria. Some of these complex natural products, e.g. the ergot alkaloids ergotamine and fumigaclavine C as well as the diketopiperazine derivative fumitremorgin C and its biosynthetic precursors tryprostatin A and B, show a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. Prenyl transfer reactions catalysed by prenyltransferases represent key steps in the biosynthesis of these compounds and often result in formation of products which possess biological activities distinct from their non-prenylated precursors. Recently, a series of putative indole prenyltransferase genes could be identified in the genome sequences of different fungal strains including Aspergillus fumigatus. The gene products show significant sequence similarities to dimethylallyltryptophan synthases from fungi. We have cloned and overexpressed six of these genes, fgaPT1, fgaPT2, ftmPT1, ftmPT2, 7-dmats and cdpNPT from A. fumigatus in E. coli and S. cerevisiae. The overproduced enzymes were characterised biochemically. Three additional prenyltransferases, DmaW-Cs, TdiB and MaPT were identified and characterised in a Clavicipitalean fungus, Aspergillus nidulans and Malbranchea aurantiaca, respectively. Sequence analysis and alignments with known aromatic prenyltransferases as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that these enzymes belong to a new group of "aromatic prenyltransferases". They differ clearly from membrane-bound aromatic prenyltransferases from different sources and soluble prenyltransferases from bacteria. The characterised enzymes are soluble proteins, catalyse different prenyl transfer reactions on indole moieties of various substrates and do not require divalent metal ions for their enzymatic reactions. All of the enzymes accepted only dimethylallyl diphosphate as prenyl donor. On the other hand, they showed broad substrate

  14. Recombinant expression and purification of "virus-like" bacterial encapsulin protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, W Frederik; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Koay, Melissa S T

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules and organelles, the rate of migration can be used as a tool for purification. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of recently discovered virus-like assemblies called bacterial encapsulins from Thermotoga maritima and Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25358773

  15. Structural features of the GroEL-GroES nano-cage required for rapid folding of encapsulated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Chang, HC; Roeben, A; Wischnewski, D; Wischnewski, N; Kerner, MJ; Hartl, FU; Hayer-Hartl, M

    2006-01-01

    . Additionally, interactions with the C-terminal, mildly hydrophobic Gly-Gly-Met repeat sequences of GroEL protruding into the cavity, and repulsion effects from the negatively charged cavity wall were required for rapid folding of some proteins. We suggest that by combining these features, the chaperonin cage......GroEL and GroES form a chaperonin nano-cage for proteins up to similar to 60 kDa to fold in isolation. Here we explored the structural features of the chaperonin cage critical for rapid folding of encapsulated substrates. Modulating the volume of the GroEL central cavity affected folding speed in...... accordance with confinement theory. Small proteins (similar to 30 kDa) folded more rapidly as the size of the cage was gradually reduced to a point where restriction in space slowed folding dramatically. For larger proteins (similar to 40-50 kDa), either expanding or reducing cage volume decelerated folding...

  16. A direct comparison of protein structure in the gas and solution phase: the Trp-cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patriksson, Alexandra; Adams, Christopher M; Kjeldsen, Frank;

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of zwitterions of the Trp-cage protein in the gas phase show that the most stable ion in vacuo has preserved the charge locations acquired in solution. A direct comparison of the gas and solution-phase structures reveals that, despite the similarity in charge locati......, there is significant difference in the structures, with a substantial increase in hydrogen bonds and exposure of hydrophobic parts in the gas phase. The structure of the salt bridge in the gas phase is also much more stable than in the (experimental) solution structure....

  17. Systematic characterization of protein folding pathways using diffusion maps: Application to Trp-cage miniprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which proteins fold from disordered amino-acid chains to spatially ordered structures remains an area of active inquiry. Molecular simulations can provide atomistic details of the folding dynamics which complement experimental findings. Conventional order parameters, such as root-mean-square deviation and radius of gyration, provide structural information but fail to capture the underlying dynamics of the protein folding process. It is therefore advantageous to adopt a method that can systematically analyze simulation data to extract relevant structural as well as dynamical information. The nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique known as diffusion maps automatically embeds the high-dimensional folding trajectories in a lower-dimensional space from which one can more easily visualize folding pathways, assuming the data lie approximately on a lower-dimensional manifold. The eigenvectors that parametrize the low-dimensional space, furthermore, are determined systematically, rather than chosen heuristically, as is done with phenomenological order parameters. We demonstrate that diffusion maps can effectively characterize the folding process of a Trp-cage miniprotein. By embedding molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of Trp-cage folding in diffusion maps space, we identify two folding pathways and intermediate structures that are consistent with the previous studies, demonstrating that this technique can be employed as an effective way of analyzing and constructing protein folding pathways from molecular simulations

  18. Systematic characterization of protein folding pathways using diffusion maps: Application to Trp-cage miniprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Beom; Dsilva, Carmeline J.; Debenedetti, Pablo G., E-mail: pdebene@princeton.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Kevrekidis, Ioannis G. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Understanding the mechanisms by which proteins fold from disordered amino-acid chains to spatially ordered structures remains an area of active inquiry. Molecular simulations can provide atomistic details of the folding dynamics which complement experimental findings. Conventional order parameters, such as root-mean-square deviation and radius of gyration, provide structural information but fail to capture the underlying dynamics of the protein folding process. It is therefore advantageous to adopt a method that can systematically analyze simulation data to extract relevant structural as well as dynamical information. The nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique known as diffusion maps automatically embeds the high-dimensional folding trajectories in a lower-dimensional space from which one can more easily visualize folding pathways, assuming the data lie approximately on a lower-dimensional manifold. The eigenvectors that parametrize the low-dimensional space, furthermore, are determined systematically, rather than chosen heuristically, as is done with phenomenological order parameters. We demonstrate that diffusion maps can effectively characterize the folding process of a Trp-cage miniprotein. By embedding molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of Trp-cage folding in diffusion maps space, we identify two folding pathways and intermediate structures that are consistent with the previous studies, demonstrating that this technique can be employed as an effective way of analyzing and constructing protein folding pathways from molecular simulations.

  19. Glucose activates prenyltransferases in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goalstone, Marc [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, VA Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220 (United States); Kamath, Vasudeva [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Kowluru, Anjaneyulu, E-mail: akowluru@med.wayne.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates small G-proteins [e.g., Cdc42 and Rac1] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] in the islet {beta}-cell. These signaling proteins undergo post-translational modifications [e.g., prenylation] at their C-terminal cysteine residue and appear to be essential for the transport and fusion of insulin-containing secretory granules with the plasma membrane and the exocytotic secretion of insulin. However, potential regulation of the prenylating enzymes by physiological insulin secretogues [e.g., glucose] has not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report immunological localization, sub-cellular distribution and regulation of farnesyltransferases [FTases] and geranylgeranyltransferase [GGTase] by glucose in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 {beta}-cells and normal rat islets. Our findings suggest that an insulinotropic concentration of glucose [20 mM] markedly stimulated the expression of the {alpha}-subunits of FTase/GGTase-1, but not the {beta}-subunits of FTase or GGTase-1 without significantly affecting the predominantly cytosolic distribution of these holoenzymes in INS 832/13 cells and rodent islets. Under these conditions, glucose significantly stimulated [2.5- to 4.0-fold over basal] the activities of both FTase and GGTase-1 in both cell types. Together, these findings provide the first evidence to suggest that GSIS involves activation of the endogenous islet prenyltransferases by glucose, culminating in the activation of their respective G-protein substrates, which is necessary for cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicular transport, fusion and secretion of insulin.

  20. Glucose activates prenyltransferases in pancreatic islet β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing body of evidence implicates small G-proteins [e.g., Cdc42 and Rac1] in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] in the islet β-cell. These signaling proteins undergo post-translational modifications [e.g., prenylation] at their C-terminal cysteine residue and appear to be essential for the transport and fusion of insulin-containing secretory granules with the plasma membrane and the exocytotic secretion of insulin. However, potential regulation of the prenylating enzymes by physiological insulin secretogues [e.g., glucose] has not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report immunological localization, sub-cellular distribution and regulation of farnesyltransferases [FTases] and geranylgeranyltransferase [GGTase] by glucose in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 β-cells and normal rat islets. Our findings suggest that an insulinotropic concentration of glucose [20 mM] markedly stimulated the expression of the α-subunits of FTase/GGTase-1, but not the β-subunits of FTase or GGTase-1 without significantly affecting the predominantly cytosolic distribution of these holoenzymes in INS 832/13 cells and rodent islets. Under these conditions, glucose significantly stimulated [2.5- to 4.0-fold over basal] the activities of both FTase and GGTase-1 in both cell types. Together, these findings provide the first evidence to suggest that GSIS involves activation of the endogenous islet prenyltransferases by glucose, culminating in the activation of their respective G-protein substrates, which is necessary for cytoskeletal rearrangement, vesicular transport, fusion and secretion of insulin.

  1. Loss of dispersion energy changes the stability and folding/unfolding equilibrium of the Trp-Cage protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří; Hobza, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 16 (2009), s. 5657-5660. ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/06/1727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Trp-Cage protein * dispersion energy * protein folding Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.471, year: 2009

  2. Molecular evolution of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) membrane-bound prenyltransferases for linear and/or angular furanocoumarin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Ryosuke; Olry, Alexandre; Karamat, Fazeelat; Courdavault, Vincent; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Date, Yoshiaki; Krieger, Célia; Silie, Prisca; Foureau, Emilien; Papon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Jérémy; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-07-01

    In Apiaceae, furanocoumarins (FCs) are plant defence compounds that are present as linear or angular isomers. Angular isomers appeared during plant evolution as a protective response to herbivores that are resistant to linear molecules. Isomeric biosynthesis occurs through prenylation at the C6 or C8 position of umbelliferone. Here, we report cloning and functional characterization of two different prenyltransferases, Pastinaca sativa prenyltransferase 1 and 2 (PsPT1 and PsPT2), that are involved in these crucial reactions. Both enzymes are targeted to plastids and synthesize osthenol and demethylsuberosin (DMS) using exclusively umbelliferone and dimethylallylpyrophosphate (DMAPP) as substrates. Enzymatic characterization using heterologously expressed proteins demonstrated that PsPT1 is specialized for the synthesis of the linear form, demethylsuberosin, whereas PsPT2 more efficiently catalyses the synthesis of its angular counterpart, osthenol. These results are the first example of a complementary prenyltransferase pair from a single plant species that is involved in synthesizing defensive compounds. This study also provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the angular FC biosynthetic pathway in apiaceous plants, which involves two paralogous enzymes that share the same phylogenetic origin. PMID:26918393

  3. Molecular characterization of the cis-prenyltransferase of Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Grabińska, Kariona A.; Cui, Jike; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Guan, Ziqiang; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, the protist that causes diarrhea, makes an Asn-linked-glycan (N-glycan) precursor that contains just two sugars (GlcNAc2) attached by a pyrophosphate linkage to a polyprenol lipid. Because the candidate cis-prenyltransferase of Giardia appears to be more similar to bacterial enzymes than to those of most eukaryotes and because Giardia is missing a candidate dolichol kinase (ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae SEC59 gene product), we wondered how Giardia synthesizes dolichol ...

  4. Protein denaturation in wet nanoporous silica gels: effect of caging and crowding on the dynamics of GFPmut2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins encapsulated in wet, nanoporous silica gels usually maintain their structural and functional properties. However, excluded-volume effects and the perturbation of water structure inside the pores of the gel may influence the kinetics of conformational transitions and the thermodynamics of functionally relevant conformational states. We investigated the unfolding of a mutant of GFP, GFPmut2, in wet nanoporous gels. Protein molecules are individually caged in the pores of the gel, avoiding protein aggregation and reproducing some of the effects exerted by molecular crowding and confinement in the cellular environment. Encapsulation in silica gels results in the alteration of the equilibrium distribution of native conformations, so that at least two alternative substates of the protein, spectrally undistinguishable in bulk studies, are significantly populated in the absence of denaturant. The evidence of an altered conformational distribution upon caging indicates that studies in dilute solution can miss functionally relevant structural and dynamic properties, highlighting the importance to carry out experiments under conditions that mimic the intracellular milieu

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the aromatic prenyltransferase CloQ from the clorobiocin biosynthetic cluster of Streptomyces roseochromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aromatic prenyltransferase (CloQ) from S. roseochromogenes that is implicated in clorobiocin biosynthesis has been crystallized in space group I4122. X-ray data to 2.2 Å resolution were collected in-house. Crystals of recombinant CloQ (subunit MW = 35 626 Da; 324 amino acids), an aromatic prenyltransferase from Streptomyces roseochromogenes, were grown by vapour diffusion. The protein crystallizes in space group I4122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 135.19, c = 98.13 Å. Native data from a single crystal were recorded to a resolution of 2.2 Å in-house. Preliminary analysis of these data indicated that the asymmetric unit corresponds to a monomer, giving an estimated solvent content of 60.6%. CloQ is involved in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotic clorobiocin, which targets the essential bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase

  6. Characterization of stable, electroactive protein cage/synthetic polymer multilayer thin films prepared by layer-by-layer assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated electroactive multilayer thin films containing ferritin protein cages. The multilayer thin films were prepared on a solid substrate by the alternate electrostatic adsorption of (apo)ferritin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide) (NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm) in pH 3.5 acetate buffer solution. The assembly process was monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance. The (apo)ferritin/poly(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm) multilayer thin films were then cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide, 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide. The cross-linked films were stable under a variety of conditions. The surface morphology and thickness of the multilayer thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, and the ferritin iron cores were observed by scanning electron microscopy to confirm the assembly mechanism. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed different electrochemical properties for the cross-linked ferritin and apoferritin multilayer thin films, and the effect of stability of the multilayer film on its electrochemical properties was also examined. Our method for constructing multilayer films containing protein cages is expected to be useful in building more complex functional inorganic nanostructures.

  7. Antibody-drug conjugates: targeting melanoma with cisplatin encapsulated in protein-cage nanoparticles based on human ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, Elisabetta; Tremante, Elisa; Fraioli, Rocco; Leonetti, Carlo; Zamparelli, Carlotta; Boffi, Alberto; Morea, Veronica; Ceci, Pierpaolo; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2013-12-21

    A novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was synthesized incorporating ferritin-based nanoparticles. An average of three molecules of monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ep1 to the human melanoma-specific antigen CSPG4 were conjugated to a single ferritin cage encapsulating about 50 cisplatin molecules (HFt-Pt-Ep1). The HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had an estimated molecular size of about 900 kD and 33 nm, and flow cytometry demonstrated specific binding to a CSPG4(+) melanoma cell line, but not to a CSPG4(-) breast carcinoma cell line. As compared to the cisplatin-containing ferritin nanoparticle alone (HFt-Pt), which inhibited thymidine incorporation more efficiently in breast carcinoma than melanoma cells, the mAb-derivatized HFt-Pt-Ep1 nanoparticle had a 25-fold preference for the latter. A similar preference for melanoma was observed upon systemic intravenous administration of HFt-Pt-Ep1 to nude mice xenotransplanted with pre-established, palpable melanoma and breast carcinoma tumors. Thus, we have been able to determine precise combinations and stoichiometric relationships between mAbs and nanoparticle protein cages, whereby the latter lose their tropism for ubiquitously distributed cellular receptors, and acquire instead remarkably lineage-selective binding. HFt-Pt-Ep1 is therefore an interesting model to improve the therapeutic index of antiblastic therapy in a tumor such as melanoma, which at its advanced stages is totally refractory to mono- and combination-chemotherapy. PMID:24150593

  8. Characterization of Coumarin-Specific Prenyltransferase Activities in Citrus limon Peel

    OpenAIRE

    MUNAKATA, Ryosuke; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Koeduka, Takao; Sasaki, Kanako; TSURUMARU, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Azuma, Jun-ichi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2012-01-01

    Coumarins, a large group of polyphenols, play important roles in the defense mechanisms of plants, and they also exhibit various biological activities beneficial to human health, often enhanced by prenylation. Despite the high abundance of prenylated coumarins in citrus fruits, there has been no report on coumarin-specific prenyltransferase activity in citrus. In this study, we detected both O- and C-prenyltransferase activities of coumarin substrates in a microsome fraction prepared from lem...

  9. Structural Analyses of Short-Chain Prenyltransferases Identify an Evolutionarily Conserved GFPPS Clade in Brassicaceae Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Qingwen; Fan, Dongjie; Li, Jianxu; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Terpenoids are the largest and most diverse class of plant-specialized metabolites, which function in diverse physiological processes during plant development. In the biosynthesis of plant terpenoids, short-chain prenyltransferases (SC-PTs), together with terpene synthases (TPSs), play critical roles in determining terpenoid diversity. SC-PTs biosynthesize prenyl pyrophosphates with different chain lengths, and these compounds are the direct precursors of terpenoids. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a subgroup of SC-PTs whose functions are not clearly known. In this study, we focus on 10 geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase-like [GGPPSL] proteins, which are commonly thought to produce GGPP [C20]. We found that a subset of members of the Arabidopsis GGPPSL gene family have undergone neo-functionalization: GGPPSL6, 7, 9, and 10 mainly have geranylfarnesyl pyrophosphate synthase activity (C25; renamed AtGFPPS1, 2, 3, and 4), and GGPPSL8 produces even longer chain prenyl pyrophosphate (≥ C30; renamed polyprenyl pyrophosphate synthase 2, AtPPPS2). By solving the crystal structures of AtGFPPS2, AtPPPS2, and AtGGPPS11, we reveal the product chain-length determination mechanism of SC-PTs and interpret it as a "three floors" model. Using this model, we identified a novel GFPPS clade distributed in Brassicaceae plants and found that the GFPPS gene typically occurs in tandem with a gene encoding a TPS, forming a GFPPS-TPS gene cluster. PMID:26537048

  10. Geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of the prenyltransferase UBIAD1 between membranes of the ER and Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Marc M; Jun, Dong-Jae; Jo, Youngah; Seemann, Joachim; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A

    2016-07-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize the vitamin K2 subtype menaquinone-4. Previously, we found that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, including GGpp. This binding inhibits sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, which contributes to feedback regulation of the enzyme. The addition to cells of geranylgeraniol (GGOH), which can become converted to GGpp, triggers release of UBIAD1 from reductase, allowing for its maximal degradation and permitting ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. Here, we further characterize geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of UBIAD1. Results of this characterization support a model in which UBIAD1 continuously cycles between the ER and medial-trans Golgi of isoprenoid-replete cells. Upon sensing a decline of GGpp in ER membranes, UBIAD1 becomes trapped in the organelle where it inhibits reductase degradation. Mutant forms of UBIAD1 associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD), a human eye disease characterized by corneal accumulation of cholesterol, are sequestered in the ER and block reductase degradation. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel sensing mechanism that allows for stringent metabolic control of intracellular trafficking of UBIAD1, which directly modulates reductase degradation and becomes disrupted in SCD. PMID:27121042

  11. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  12. Simulation of the thermodynamics of folding and unfolding of the Trp-cage mini-protein TC5b using different combinations of force fields and solvation models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; John; ZengHui

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations based on AMBER force fields(ff96 and ff03) and generalized Born models(igb1 and igb5) have been carried out in order to study folding/unfolding of the Trp-cage mini-protein TC5b.The thermodynamic properties of TC5b were found to be sensitive to the specific version of the solvation model and force field employed.When the ff96/igb5 combination was used,the predicted melting temperature from unfolding simulations was in good agreement with the experimental value of 315 K,but the folding simulation did not converge.The most stable thermodynamic profile in both folding and unfolding simulations was obtained when the ff03/igb5 combination was employed,and the predicted melting temperature was about 345 K,showing over-stabilization of the protein.Simulations using the igb1 version in combination with ff96 or ff03 were difficult to converge within the simulation time limit(50 ns).

  13. Change of caged dynamics at Tg in hydrated proteins: Trend of mean squared displacements after correcting for the methyl-group rotation contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Capaccioli, S.; Paciaroni, A.

    2013-06-01

    The question whether the dynamics of hydrated proteins changes with temperature on crossing the glass transition temperature like that found in conventional glassformers is an interesting one. Recently, we have shown that a change of temperature dependence of the mean square displacement (MSD) at Tg is present in proteins solvated with bioprotectants, such as sugars or glycerol with or without the addition of water, coexisting with the dynamic transition at a higher temperature Td. The dynamical change at Tg is similar to that in conventional glassformers at sufficiently short times and low enough temperatures, where molecules are mutually caged by the intermolecular potential. This is a general and fundamental property of glassformers which is always observed at or near Tg independent of the energy resolution of the spectrometer, and is also the basis of the dynamical change of solvated proteins at Tg. When proteins are solvated with bioprotectants they show higher Tg and Td than the proteins hydrated by water alone, due to the stabilizing action of excipients, thus the observation of the change of T-dependence of the MSD at Tg is unobstructed by the methyl-group rotation contribution at lower temperatures [S. Capaccioli, K. L. Ngai, S. Ancherbak, and A. Paciaroni, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 1745 (2012)], 10.1021/jp2057892. On the other hand, in the case of proteins hydrated by water alone unambiguous evidence of the break at Tg is hard to find, because of their lower Tg and Td. Notwithstanding, in this paper, we provide evidence for the change at Tg of the T-dependence of proteins hydrated by pure water. This evidence turns out from (i) neutron scattering experimental investigations where the sample has been manipulated by either full or partial deuteration to suppress the methyl-group rotation contribution, and (ii) neutron scattering experimental investigations where the energy resolution is such that only motions with characteristic times shorter than 15 ps can be

  14. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Priya; Sarkar, Subir K. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 110 067 (India)

    2014-07-07

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy—along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5 k{sub B}T higher than the value at the global minimum.

  15. Wang-Landau density of states based study of the folding-unfolding transition in the mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a high-statistics equilibrium study of the folding/unfolding transition for the 20-residue mini-protein Trp-cage (TC5b) in water. The ECEPP/3 force field is used and the interaction with water is treated by a solvent-accessible surface area method. A Wang-Landau type simulation is used to calculate the density of states and the conditional probabilities for the various values of the radius of gyration and the number of native contacts at fixed values of energy—along with a systematic check on their convergence. All thermodynamic quantities of interest are calculated from this information. The folding-unfolding transition corresponds to a peak in the temperature dependence of the computed specific heat. This is corroborated further by the structural signatures of folding in the distributions for radius of gyration and the number of native contacts as a function of temperature. The potentials of mean force are also calculated for these variables, both separately and jointly. A local free energy minimum, in addition to the global minimum, is found in a temperature range substantially below the folding temperature. The free energy at this second minimum is approximately 5 kBT higher than the value at the global minimum

  16. Sensitive magnetic nanoparticle-based immunoassay of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase using protein cage templated lead phosphate for signal amplification with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Kang, Caiyan; Yang, Enjian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new magnetic nanoparticles sandwich-like immunoassay using protein cage nanoparticles (PCN) for signal amplification together with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase adduct (OP-AChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and nerve agents. OP-AChE adducts were firstly captured by titanium dioxide coated magnetic nanoparticles (TiO2-MNPs) from the sample matrixes through metal chelation with phospho-moieties, and then selectively recognized by anti-AChE antibody labeled on PCN which was packed with lead phosphate in its cavity (PCN-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreaction was performed among TiO2-MNPs, OP-AChE and PCN-anti-AChE to form TiO2-MNPs/OP-AChE/PCN-anti-AChE immunocomplex. The complex could be easily isolated from the sample solution with the help of magnet, and the released lead ions from PCN were detected by GFAAS for the quantification of OP-AChE. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved because PCN increased the amount of metal ions in the cavity of each apoferritin. The proposed immunoassay yielded a linear response over a broad OP-AChE concentrations from 0.01 nM to 2 nM, with a detection limit of 2 pM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This new method showed an acceptable stability and reproducibility and was validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma. PMID:26953358

  17. Doped golden fullerene cages

    OpenAIRE

    Baletto, Francesca; Ferrando, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles investigation of the effect of the doping of golden cages of 32 atoms is proposed. It is shown that Ag and Cu doping affects the geometrical stability of the icosahedral fullerene Au-32 cage, where Ag-doping leads to a new, low symmetric, and prolate motif while Cu-doping leads to a lump, incomplete decahedral shape. Most significantly, the HOMO-LUMO gap depends strongly on the cluster geometry while its dependence on the cluster chemical composition seems to be weaker.

  18. Evidence of hollow golden cages

    OpenAIRE

    Bulusu, Satya; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The fullerenes are the first “free-standing” elemental hollow cages identified by spectroscopy experiments and synthesized in the bulk. Here, we report experimental and theoretical evidence of hollow cages consisting of pure metal atoms, Aun− (n = 16–18); to our knowledge, free-standing metal hollow cages have not been previously detected in the laboratory. These hollow golden cages (“bucky gold”) have an average diameter >5.5 Å, which can easily accommodate one guest atom inside.

  19. John Cage Discusses Fluxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ellsworth

    1992-01-01

    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  20. Influence of metabolic cage on Wistar rat physiological state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Zymantiene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of metabolic cage housing on the Wistar rat physiological state and to analyze the correlation between the minerals in blood and urine. Thirty male rats were used in the experiment. Fifteen rats (control group were housed individually in standard polycarbonate cages and fifteen rats (experimental group in metabolic cages (Techniplast, Italy for two weeks. Body weight, respiration rate, water and food consumptions were recorded for each animal at the beginning of the experiment. The same parameters, as well as blood and urine parameters of control and experimental animals were recorded during the experiment after 72 h, 168 h and 336 h of housing in standard cages and metabolic cages. Urine collection was measured only in the experimental group. Rats weight decreased from 3.84 % to 18.59 % (P<0.05, respiration rate from 18.65 % to 24.59 % (P<0.05 when rats were housed in metabolic cages. Consumption of food and water by the rat depended on how long the animal was kept in metabolic cage. Glucose concentration increased on average by 15.37 %, WBC count decreased by 5.83 % in the blood of rats housed in metabolic cages compared to the animals housed in standard cages. We did not observe significant changes of triglycerides concentration, red blood cells count and total protein between all rats. The positive moderate correlation of rat housing in a metabolic cage was between K blood and K urine, P blood and P urine, Na blood and K blood, between Na urine and P urine and significant negative moderate correlation was determined between K urine and P urine. These present study findings indicate that metabolism cage housing significantly affects rat’s physiological parameters and potentially may influence animal health and well being.

  1. Manipulation of prenylation reactions by structure-based engineering of bacterial indolactam prenyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takahiro; Zhang, Lihan; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Hoshino, Shotaro; Okada, Masahiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-03-01

    Prenylation reactions play crucial roles in controlling the activities of biomolecules. Bacterial prenyltransferases, TleC from Streptomyces blastmyceticus and MpnD from Marinactinospora thermotolerans, catalyse the `reverse' prenylation of (-)-indolactam V at the C-7 position of the indole ring with geranyl pyrophosphate or dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, to produce lyngbyatoxin or pendolmycin, respectively. Using in vitro analyses, here we show that both TleC and MpnD exhibit relaxed substrate specificities and accept various chain lengths (C5-C25) of the prenyl donors. Comparisons of the crystal structures and their ternary complexes with (-)-indolactam V and dimethylallyl S-thiophosphate revealed the intimate structural details of the enzyme-catalysed `reverse' prenylation reactions and identified the active-site residues governing the selection of the substrates. Furthermore, structure-based enzyme engineering successfully altered the preference for the prenyl chain length of the substrates, as well as the regio- and stereo-selectivities of the prenylation reactions, to produce a series of unnatural novel indolactams.

  2. Building a better Faraday cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    MartinAlfven; Wright, David; skocpol; Rounce, Graham; Richfield, Jon; W, Nick; wheelsonfire

    2015-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news article “Are Faraday cages less effective than previously thought?” (15 September, http://ow.ly/SfklO), about a study that indicated, based on mathematical modelling, that conducting wire-mesh cages may not be as good at excluding electromagnetic radiation as is commonly assumed.

  3. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  4. Blueprints for dodecahedral DNA cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cage structures engineered from nucleic acids are of interest in nanotechnology, for example as a means of drug delivery (Destito et al 2007). Until now, most experimentally realized DNA cages have crystallographic symmetry, such as the shape of a cube (Chen and Seeman 1991 Nature 350 631-3), a tetrahedron (Goodman et al 2005 Science 310 1661-5), an octahedron (Shih et al 2004 Nature 427 618-21) or a truncated octahedron (Zhang and Seeman 1994 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116 1661-9). Two examples of cages with non-crystallographic symmetry, a dodecahedron and a buckyball, have been realized recently (He et al 2008 Nature 452 198-201). A characteristic feature of these realizations is the fact that the cages are built from a number of identical building blocks called tiles: 20 for the case of the dodecahedron, and 60 for the case of the buckyball. We derive here a blueprint for the organization of nucleic acid in a dodecahedral cage such that the final product has a minimal number of strands. In particular, we show that a dodecahedral cage can be realized in terms of only two circular DNA molecules. We focus on the dodecahedral cage, because the volume to surface ratio of such a cage is larger than that of its crystallographic counterparts given the same fixed radial distance of the polyhedral vertices from the centre of the structure, whilst still requiring a smaller complexity than the truncated icosahedron (buckyball). We therefore expect that the dodecahedral DNA cages discussed here may be of interest in further applications in nanotechnology

  5. Determination of residues responsible for substrate and product specificity of Solanum habrochaites short-chain cis-prenyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Matsuba, Yuki; Pichersky, Eran; Barry, Cornelius S

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids are diverse compounds that have their biosynthetic origin in the initial condensation of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate to form C10 prenyl diphosphates that can be elongated by the addition of subsequent isopentenyl diphosphate units. These reactions are catalyzed by either cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) or trans-prenyltransferases. The synthesis of volatile terpenes in plants typically proceeds through either geranyl diphosphate (C10) or trans-farnesyl diphosphate (C15), to yield monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. However, terpene biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and related wild relatives also occurs via the cis-substrates neryl diphosphate (NPP) and 2Z,6Z-farnesyl diphosphate (Z,Z-FPP). NPP and Z,Z-FPP are synthesized by neryl diphosphate synthase1 (NDPS1) and Z,Z-farnesyl diphosphate synthase (zFPS), which are encoded by the orthologous CPT1 locus in tomato and Solanum habrochaites, respectively. In this study, comparative sequence analysis of NDPS1 and zFPS enzymes from S. habrochaites accessions that synthesize either monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes was performed to identify amino acid residues that correlate with the ability to synthesize NPP or Z,Z-FPP. Subsequent structural modeling, coupled with site-directed mutagenesis, highlighted the importance of four amino acids located within conserved domain II of CPT enzymes that form part of the second α-helix, for determining substrate and product specificity of these enzymes. In particular, the relative positioning of aromatic amino acid residues at positions 100 and 107 determines the ability of these enzymes to synthesize NPP or Z,Z-FPP. This study provides insight into the biochemical evolution of terpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of Solanum species. PMID:24254315

  6. In Vivo Targeting of Cutaneous Melanoma Using an Melanoma Stimulating Hormone-Engineered Human Protein Cage with Fluorophore and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tracers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vannucci, Luca; Falvo, E.; Failla, C. M.; Carbo, M.; Fornara, M.; Canese, R.; Cecchetti, S.; Rajsiglová, Lenka; Stakheev, Dmitry; Křižan, Jiří; Boffi, A.; Carpinelli, G.; Morea, V.; Ceci, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2015), s. 81-92. ISSN 1550-7033 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Protein-Based Nanoparticles * Ferritin * In Vivo Melanoma-Targeting Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.338, year: 2014

  7. An evaluation of intra-cage ventilation in three animal caging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L S; White, W J; Snider, M T; Lang, C M

    1989-05-01

    Although temperature and relative humidity have been quantitated and their effects on research data studied, few studies have measured the air turnover rates at cage level. We evaluated the air distribution and air turnover rates in unoccupied shoe-box mouse cages, filter-top covered cages and shoe-box mouse cages housed in a flexible film isolator by using discontinuous gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and smoke. Results showed that air turnover was most rapid in the unoccupied shoe-box mouse cage and slowest in the filter-top covered cage. Placing mice in the filter-top covered cage did not significantly improve the air turnover rate. Although filter-top covered cages reduce cage-to-cage transmission of disease, the poor airflow observed within these cages could lead to a buildup of gaseous pollutants that may adversely affect the animal's health. PMID:2724925

  8. Cage culture of sea bass in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The article discusses the cage culture practice of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in Malaysia. Problems on feed and seed supply and overcrowding are also discussed. Despite these problems, seabass cage culture still continuously booms.

  9. DNA Cages with Icosahedral Symmetry in Bionanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonoska, Nataša; Taormina, Anne; Twarock, Reidun

    Blueprints for polyhedral cages with icosahedral symmetry made of circular DNA molecules are provided. The basic rule is that every edge of the cage is met twice in opposite directions by the DNA strand(s), and vertex junctions are realized by a set of admissible junction types. As nanocontainers for cargo storage and delivery, the icosidodecahedral cages are of special interest because they have the largest volume per surface ratio of all cages discussed here.

  10. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  11. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  12. In Vivo Targeting of Cutaneous Melanoma Using an Melanoma Stimulating Hormone-Engineered Human Protein Cage with Fluorophore and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Luca; Falvo, Elisabetta; Failla, Cristina Maria; Carbo, Miriam; Fornara, Manuela; Canese, Rossella; Cecchetti, Serena; Rajsiglova, Lenka; Stakheev, Dmitry; Krizan, Jiri; Boffi, Alberto; Carpinelli, Giulia; Morea, Veronica; Ceci, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based materials are promising agents for enhancing cancer diagnosis and treatment. Once functionalized for selective targeting of tumor-expressed molecules, they can specifically deliver drugs and diagnostic molecules inside tumor cells. In the present work, we evaluated the in vivo melanoma-targeting ability of a nanovector (HFt-MSH-PEG) based on human protein ferritin (HFt), functionalized with both melanoma-targeting melanoma stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and stabilizing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules. Independent and complementary techniques, such as whole-specimen confocal microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, were used to detect in vivo localization of NP constructs with suitable tracers (i.e., fluorophores or magnetic metals). Targeted HFt-MSH-PEG NPs accumulated persistently at the level of primary melanoma and with high selectivity with respect to other organs. Melanoma localization of untargeted HFt-PEG NPs, which lack the α-MSH moiety, was less pronounced. Furthermore, HFt-MSH-PEG NPs accumulated to a significantly lower extent and with a different distribution in a diverse type of tumor (TS/A adenocarcinoma), which does not express α-MSH receptors. Finally, in a spontaneous lung metastasis model, HFt-MSH-PEG NPs localized at the metastasis level as well. These results suggest that HFt-MSH-PEG NPs are suitable carriers for selective in vivo delivery of diagnostic or therapeutic agents to cutaneous melanoma. PMID:26301302

  13. Proteína e energia na dieta de jundiás criados em tanques-rede Protein and energy in diet for catsfish raised in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Marcela Azambuja de Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência de dois níveis de energia digestível (3.250 e 3.500 kcal kg-1 em combinação a três níveis de proteína bruta (25, 30 e 35% sobre o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia voulezi. Utilizaram-se 240 juvenis de jundiá com peso inicial de 95,55±6,70 g e 20,43±1,13 cm de comprimento total, distribuídos ao acaso em 24 tanques-rede (370 L cada em delineamento fatorial com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. O arraçoamento foi realizado quatro vezes ao dia, à vontade. Ao final do período experimental, a análise fatorial de variância evidenciou influência significativa nos parâmetros zootécnicos avaliados. Foram observados melhor ganho de peso e comprimento final médios e menor deposição de gordura visceral nos peixes alimentados com a dieta contendo 30% de proteína bruta e 3.250 kcal de energia digestível kg-1. Portanto, recomendam-se para juvenis de jundiá dietas que contenham no mínimo 30% de proteína bruta e 3.250 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de ração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two levels of digestible energy (3250 and 3500 kcal kg-1 in conjunction with three levels of crude protein (25, 30 and 35% on the productive performance of catfish (Rhamdia voulezi juveniles. Two-hundred and forty catfish juveniles with 95.55±6.70 g average weight and 20.43±1.13 cm total length were randomly assigned into twenty-four 370 L-cages, in a factorial arrangement with six treatments and four reptitions. Feeding was performed four times a day, ad libitum. At end of experimental period, the factorial analysis of variance showed significant influence with respect to the different parameters evaluated. The fish fed with diets of 30% crude protein and 3,250 kcal digestible energy kg-1 of diet presented the best results. Therefore, diets with at least 30% crude protein and 3,250 kcal digestible energy kg-1 are recommend for catfish

  14. The prenyltransferase UBIAD1 is the target of geranylgeraniol in degradation of HMG CoA reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Marc M; Elsabrouty, Rania; Seemann, Joachim; Jo, Youngah; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder in humans characterized by abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in the cornea. SCD-associated mutations have been identified in the gene encoding UBIAD1, a prenyltransferase that synthesizes vitamin K2. Here, we show that sterols stimulate binding of UBIAD1 to the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase, which is subject to sterol-accelerated, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation augmented by the nonsterol isoprenoid geranylgeraniol through an unknown mechanism. Geranylgeraniol inhibits binding of UBIAD1 to reductase, allowing its degradation and promoting transport of UBIAD1 from the ER to the Golgi. CRISPR-CAS9-mediated knockout of UBIAD1 relieves the geranylgeraniol requirement for reductase degradation. SCD-associated mutations in UBIAD1 block its displacement from reductase in the presence of geranylgeraniol, thereby preventing degradation of reductase. The current results identify UBIAD1 as the elusive target of geranylgeraniol in reductase degradation, the inhibition of which may contribute to accumulation of cholesterol in SCD. PMID:25742604

  15. Electronic cages for living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saeed, Sarah; Bakewell, David J

    2015-08-01

    Design and construction of an electronic cage is described which enables real-time manipulation of live and dead eukaryotic cells. Non-uniform, radio frequency (RF) AC electric fields are used to enable translational and rotational movement of cells, known as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electro-rotation (EROT), and distinguish their state as viable and non-viable. A concentric multilayered mathematical model, applicable for eukaryotic cells, is also developed, coded and implemented. The simulations predict three dielectric dispersions in the DEP and EROT spectra, though in practice the third is very small so that two are observed. The cage is part of a multi-staged project incorporating controller and DEP/EROT digital signal generator and image processing. PMID:26736401

  16. Transcription regulatory networks analysis using CAGE

    KAUST Repository

    Tegnér, Jesper N.

    2009-10-01

    Mapping out cellular networks in general and transcriptional networks in particular has proved to be a bottle-neck hampering our understanding of biological processes. Integrative approaches fusing computational and experimental technologies for decoding transcriptional networks at a high level of resolution is therefore of uttermost importance. Yet, this is challenging since the control of gene expression in eukaryotes is a complex multi-level process influenced by several epigenetic factors and the fine interplay between regulatory proteins and the promoter structure governing the combinatorial regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we review how the CAGE data can be integrated with other measurements such as expression, physical interactions and computational prediction of regulatory motifs, which together can provide a genome-wide picture of eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks at a new level of resolution. © 2010 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  18. Laying Performance of Wareng Chicken under Free Choice Feeding and Different Cage Density

    OpenAIRE

    S Iskandar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using free choice feeding technique under different cage density for unselected native chicken. Eighty hens of laying Wareng chicken were divided into two feeding systems. Half of them were fed complete commercial diet of 17% crude protein, with 2800 kcal ME/kg and the other half were subjected to free choice diet. The diets were in mash form and placed in sufficient feed troughs in front of each cage. Each cage was occupied by four ...

  19. UBIAD1 mutation alters a mitochondrial prenyltransferase to cause Schnyder corneal dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Nickerson

    Full Text Available Mutations in a novel gene, UBIAD1, were recently found to cause the autosomal dominant eye disease Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD. SCD is characterized by an abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea resulting in progressive corneal opacification and visual loss. We characterized lesions in the UBIAD1 gene in new SCD families and examined protein homology, localization, and structure.We characterized five novel mutations in the UBIAD1 gene in ten SCD families, including a first SCD family of Native American ethnicity. Examination of protein homology revealed that SCD altered amino acids which were highly conserved across species. Cell lines were established from patients including keratocytes obtained after corneal transplant surgery and lymphoblastoid cell lines from Epstein-Barr virus immortalized peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for UBIAD1 protein in keratocytes revealed that both wild type and N102S protein were localized sub-cellularly to mitochondria. Analysis of cholesterol metabolites in patient cell line extracts showed no significant alteration in the presence of mutant protein indicating a potentially novel function of the UBIAD1 protein in cholesterol biochemistry. Molecular modeling was used to develop a model of human UBIAD1 protein in a membrane and revealed potentially critical roles for amino acids mutated in SCD. Potential primary and secondary substrate binding sites were identified and docking simulations indicated likely substrates including prenyl and phenolic molecules.Accumulating evidence from the SCD familial mutation spectrum, protein homology across species, and molecular modeling suggest that protein function is likely down-regulated by SCD mutations. Mitochondrial UBIAD1 protein appears to have a highly

  20. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage

  1. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  2. Listening to Cage: Nonintentional philosophy and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fleming

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening to Cage: Nonintentional Philosophy and Music threads together the writings of ordinary language philosophy and the music of John Cage, responding specifically to requests made by Cage and Stanley Cavell. While many texts downplay or ignore the philosophical demands in Cage’s music and other texts find grandiose spiritual and philosophical material tied to his work, this text rejects both efforts. It challenges the basic directions of the growing secondary source material on Cage, finding it largely contrary to what Cage himself and his music teaches. That secondary material constantly offers an intentional approach to the music which is to make Cage understandable or easier to understand. The present text makes him appropriately difficult and basically unapproachable, asking the reader for serious acknowledgment of what Cage says he does, namely, “I have nothing to say and I am saying it.” While there is little hope of stopping the Cage industry that academia and publishers have grown, this text wishes at least to try to slow it down. The footnotes of this text include direct conversation material with Cage from the 1980s and 1990s regarding many subjects—his own compositions, our life struggles, remarks on Wittgenstein, Thoreau, philosophy, and music—all with a new context for their hearing.

  3. Humidity and Cage and Bedding Temperatures in Unoccupied Static Mouse Caging after Steam Sterilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Gina M; Cole, Kelly; Faerber, Jennifer; Hankenson, F Claire

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary rodent caging and equipment often are sterilized by steam autoclaves prior to use in facilities. This work assessed the microenvironment of unoccupied static mouse cages after steam sterilization to determine when internal temperatures had cooled to levels appropriate for rodent housing. Polycarbonate static cages containing food and corncob bedding were stacked (10 rows × 7 columns) in duplicate (front and back; n = 140 cages) on a storage truck and autoclaved to 249 °F (121 °C)...

  4. Structure of Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase-I from the Human Pathogen Candida albicans Complexed with a Lipid Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hast, Michael A.; Beese, Lorena S. (Duke)

    2008-11-21

    Protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) catalyzes the transfer of a 20-carbon isoprenoid lipid to the sulfur of a cysteine residue located near the C terminus of numerous cellular proteins, including members of the Rho superfamily of small GTPases and other essential signal transduction proteins. In humans, GGTase-I and the homologous protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) are targets of anticancer therapeutics because of the role small GTPases play in oncogenesis. Protein prenyltransferases are also essential for many fungal and protozoan pathogens that infect humans, and have therefore become important targets for treating infectious diseases. Candida albicans, a causative agent of systemic fungal infections in immunocompromised individuals, is one pathogen for which protein prenylation is essential for survival. Here we present the crystal structure of GGTase-I from C. albicans (CaGGTase-I) in complex with its cognate lipid substrate, geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. This structure provides a high-resolution picture of a non-mammalian protein prenyltransferase. There are significant variations between species in critical areas of the active site, including the isoprenoid-binding pocket, as well as the putative product exit groove. These differences indicate the regions where specific protein prenyltransferase inhibitors with antifungal activity can be designed.

  5. Active cage model of glassy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Étienne; Hayakawa, Hisao; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    We build up a phenomenological picture in terms of the effective dynamics of a tracer confined in a cage experiencing random hops to capture some characteristics of glassy systems. This minimal description exhibits scale invariance properties for the small-displacement distribution that echo experimental observations. We predict the existence of exponential tails as a crossover between two Gaussian regimes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the onset of glassy behavior is controlled only by two dimensionless numbers: the number of hops occurring during the relaxation of the particle within a local cage and the ratio of the hopping length to the cage size. PMID:27575182

  6. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-05-28

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  7. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-11-11

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  8. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A.

    2015-09-15

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  9. Synthesis of caged Garcinia xanthone analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Woo Cheal

    2009-01-01

    A new synthetic strategy is developed toward the synthesis of the caged Garcinia xanthone analogues. The key to the strategy is a Pd-catalyzed reverse prenylation reaction. This new synthetic approach provides a rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues, including cluvenone which is known to induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. Evaluation of their growth inhibitory activities also leads to identification of the pharmacophoric motif of...

  10. Welfare assessment of laying hens in furnished cages and non-cage systems: an on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.; Reu, de K.; Herman, L.; Zoons, J.; Sonck, B.

    2008-01-01

    From 2012 onwards, all laying hens in Europe will need to be housed either in furnished cages or non-cage systems (aviaries or floor-housing systems). In terms of animal welfare, furnished cages and non-cage systems both have advantages and disadvantages. Data on direct comparisons between the two,

  11. Synthesis of photoactivatable azido-acyl caged oxazine fluorophores for live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Andrew V; Chen, Zhixing; Cornish, Virginia W

    2016-07-19

    We report the design and synthesis of a photoactivatable azido-acyl oxazine fluorophore. Photoactivation is achieved cleanly and rapidly with UV light, producing a single fluorescent oxazine photoproduct. We demonstrate the utility of azido-acyl caged oxazines for protein specific labeling in living mammalian cells using the TMP-tag technology. PMID:27377037

  12. Different denaturation pathways of TrpCage minipeptide triggered by urea and guanidinium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyda, J.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Dzubiella, J.

    Praha : Ústav organické chemie a biochemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012. s. 34-34. ISBN 978-80-86241-47-0. [Prague Protein Spring Meeting 2012. 03.05.2012-06.05.2012, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : TrpCage * denaturation * urea * guanidinium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Phosphonate Based High Nuclearity Magnetic Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Clearfield, Abraham; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-06-21

    Transition metal based high nuclearity molecular magnetic cages are a very important class of compounds owing to their potential applications in fabricating new generation molecular magnets such as single molecular magnets, magnetic refrigerants, etc. Most of the reported polynuclear cages contain carboxylates or alkoxides as ligands. However, the binding ability of phosphonates with transition metal ions is stronger than the carboxylates or alkoxides. The presence of three oxygen donor sites enables phosphonates to bridge up to nine metal centers simultaneously. But very few phosphonate based transition metal cages were reported in the literature until recently, mainly because of synthetic difficulties, propensity to result in layered compounds, and also their poor crystalline properties. Accordingly, various synthetic strategies have been followed by several groups in order to overcome such synthetic difficulties. These strategies mainly include use of small preformed metal precursors, proper choice of coligands along with the phosphonate ligands, and use of sterically hindered bulky phosphonate ligands. Currently, the phosphonate system offers a library of high nuclearity transition metal and mixed metal (3d-4f) cages with aesthetically pleasing structures and interesting magnetic properties. This Account is in the form of a research landscape on our efforts to synthesize and characterize new types of phosphonate based high nuclearity paramagnetic transition metal cages. We quite often experienced synthetic difficulties with such versatile systems in assembling high nuclearity metal cages. Few methods have been emphasized for the self-assembly of phosphonate systems with suitable transition metal ions in achieving high nuclearity. We highlighted our journey from 2005 until today for phosphonate based high nuclearity transition metal cages with V(IV/V), Mn(II/III), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) metal ions and their magnetic properties. We observed that

  14. Growth of Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii, Pimelodidae) in cages at different stocking densities

    OpenAIRE

    Saula Corrêa Afonso de Almeida; Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of densities 8, 32, 56 and 80 fish/m3 on the productive performance of Pimelodus maculatus in 1m3 cages installed in 0.19ha earthen ponds without water renewal, located on private property in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina. Fish were fed daily with extruded commercial ration containing 32% of crude protein, in a proportion of 5.0% of the stocked biomass. Fish were sampled monthly (30% of the stocked fish) in each cage to evaluate length, w...

  15. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry study of Trp-cage's conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingxiang; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Taormina, Christopher R; Somayajula, Kasi V

    2007-02-01

    Trp-cage is a synthetic 20-residue miniprotein that uses tertiary contacts to stabilize its native conformation. NMR, circular dichroism (CD), and UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy were used to probe its energy landscape. In this quadrupole/time-of-flight study, electrospray ionization charge state distribution (CSD) and solution-phase H/D exchange are used to probe Trp-cage's tertiary structure. The CSDs of Trp-cage and its mutant provide spectra showing a pH-dependent conformation change. Solution-phase H/D exchange in 30% deuterated trifluoroethanol solution of the wild type shows increased protection of one labile hydrogen in the native state. Together, CSDs and solution-phase H/D exchange are demonstrated to constitute a simple but effective means to follow conformation changes in a small tertiary protein. PMID:17067814

  16. Cage RACK ventilation options for laboratory animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakutis, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Individually ventilated cage systems have become the method of choice for housing rodents. The author describes the various options for cage ventilation, from using supply and exhaust fans to directly connecting the racks to the building ventilation system. PMID:12966448

  17. High-throughput Transcriptome analysis, CAGE and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2008-11-25

    1. Current research - PhD work on discovery of new allergens - Postdoctoral work on Transcriptional Start Sites a) Tag based technologies allow higher throughput b) CAGE technology to define promoters c) CAGE data analysis to understand Transcription - Wo

  18. Chemical contamination of animal feeding systems: evaluation of two caging systems and standard cage-washing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Helfrich-Smith, M E

    1980-12-01

    Sodium fluorescein was added as a tracer to an ager gel diet which was fed for 5 day to 90 of 180 rats housed in two different polycarbonate caging systems, shoe-box cages and suspension solid-bottom cages. Cage racks, supplementary equipment, and case washer surfaces were analysed for fluorescein both before and after a complete wash and rinse cycle. Efficacy of washing was greater than 99% for both the inside and outside of the suspended cages and greater than 99% for the inside, but only 93% for the outside, of the shoe-box cages. The shoe-box cages, which were larger than the suspended cages, were spaced closer together on the washer rack, which may account for this variation in cleaning effectiveness. The cage washer surfaces and the water, which was recirculated during each cycle, also became contaminated with fluorescein. Strict adherence to proper cage-washing procedures and careful selection of cage design are important factors in controlling the potential for residual contamination of caging and cage-washing equipment. PMID:7464031

  19. Nonlinear vs. linear biasing in Trp-cage folding simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiwok, Vojtěch, E-mail: spiwokv@vscht.cz; Oborský, Pavel; Králová, Blanka [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 3, Prague 6 166 28 (Czech Republic); Pazúriková, Jana [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Křenek, Aleš [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Center CERIT-SC, Masaryk Univerzity, Šumavská 416/15, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-21

    Biased simulations have great potential for the study of slow processes, including protein folding. Atomic motions in molecules are nonlinear, which suggests that simulations with enhanced sampling of collective motions traced by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods may perform better than linear ones. In this study, we compare an unbiased folding simulation of the Trp-cage miniprotein with metadynamics simulations using both linear (principle component analysis) and nonlinear (Isomap) low dimensional embeddings as collective variables. Folding of the mini-protein was successfully simulated in 200 ns simulation with linear biasing and non-linear motion biasing. The folded state was correctly predicted as the free energy minimum in both simulations. We found that the advantage of linear motion biasing is that it can sample a larger conformational space, whereas the advantage of nonlinear motion biasing lies in slightly better resolution of the resulting free energy surface. In terms of sampling efficiency, both methods are comparable.

  20. Nonlinear vs. linear biasing in Trp-cage folding simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biased simulations have great potential for the study of slow processes, including protein folding. Atomic motions in molecules are nonlinear, which suggests that simulations with enhanced sampling of collective motions traced by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods may perform better than linear ones. In this study, we compare an unbiased folding simulation of the Trp-cage miniprotein with metadynamics simulations using both linear (principle component analysis) and nonlinear (Isomap) low dimensional embeddings as collective variables. Folding of the mini-protein was successfully simulated in 200 ns simulation with linear biasing and non-linear motion biasing. The folded state was correctly predicted as the free energy minimum in both simulations. We found that the advantage of linear motion biasing is that it can sample a larger conformational space, whereas the advantage of nonlinear motion biasing lies in slightly better resolution of the resulting free energy surface. In terms of sampling efficiency, both methods are comparable

  1. Laying Performance of Wareng Chicken under Free Choice Feeding and Different Cage Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using free choice feeding technique under different cage density for unselected native chicken. Eighty hens of laying Wareng chicken were divided into two feeding systems. Half of them were fed complete commercial diet of 17% crude protein, with 2800 kcal ME/kg and the other half were subjected to free choice diet. The diets were in mash form and placed in sufficient feed troughs in front of each cage. Each cage was occupied by four or six hens. Free choice feeding hens were served with commercial concentrate (30% crude protein, ground corn and oyster shell, placed separately in feed troughs. Observation was carried out during 24 weeks laying period, starting from 20 to 44 weeks of age. The results showed that egg production (9.35% hen day, and the intake of feed (42.74 g/day, protein (7.01 g/day, energy (116.6 kcal ME/day, calcium (1.99 g/day and phosphorus (0.22 g/day were not affected (P>0.05 by feeding system nor by cage density. The results however indicated that free choice feeding technique provided sufficient nutrients in supporting maximum egg production of unselected native chicken.

  2. Convective Cage Release in Model Colloidal Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alan R; Poulos, Andreas S; Kim, Sunhyung; Vermant, Jan; Petekidis, George

    2015-11-20

    The mechanism of flow in glassy materials is interrogated using mechanical spectroscopy applied to model nearly hard sphere colloidal glasses during flow. Superimposing a small amplitude oscillatory motion orthogonal onto steady shear flow makes it possible to directly evaluate the effect of a steady state flow on the out-of-cage (α) relaxation as well as the in-cage motions. To this end, the crossover frequency deduced from the viscoelastic spectra is used as a direct measure of the inverse microstructural relaxation time, during flow. The latter is found to scale linearly with the rate of deformation. The microscopic mechanism of flow can then be identified as a convective cage release. Further insights are provided when the viscoelastic spectra at different shear rates are shifted to scale the alpha relaxation and produce a strain rate-orthogonal frequency superposition, the colloidal analogue of time temperature superposition in polymers with the flow strength playing the role of temperature. Whereas the scaling works well for the α relaxation, deviations are observed both at low and high frequencies. Brownian dynamics simulations point to the origins of these deviations; at high frequencies these are due to the deformation of the cages which slows down the short-time diffusion, while at low frequency, deviations are most probably caused by some mild hydroclustering. PMID:26636876

  3. Stabilizing a 22 karat nanogolden cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.

    2009-11-01

    Since the discovery of C60 fullerene, considerable efforts have been devoted to find other elements with similar hollow cage structures. However, search for hollow metallic cages with a diameter similar to that of C60 fullerene has been elusive. We describe a procedure for the rational design of metallic cages by suitably choosing their size, composition, and charge state. A 22 karat nanogolden cage with a diameter of about 8.5 Å and consisting of 12 Al and 20 Au atoms is found to be metastable, which can be stabilized by embedding a Mn4 cluster. In contrast to bulk Mn, which is antiferromagnetic, and isolated Mn4 cluster, which is ferromagnetic with a giant magnetic moment of 20μB, the Mn4@Al12Au20 endohedral complex exhibits magnetic bistability with 0μB and 14μB configurations being energetically nearly degenerate. These results, based on density functional theory, open the door to design a novel class of endohedral complexes with possible applications.

  4. 50 CFR 648.75 - Cage identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are issued, or if rendered null and void in accordance with 15 CFR part 904. (d) Return. Tags that... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.75 Cage identification. Except as provided in § 648.76,...

  5. An Easy Synthesis of Two Cage Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dao Cong

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simple, three-step synthesis of two cage molecules, birdcage hydrocarbon (VIII) and its homologue, the homobirdcage hydrocarbon IX. Indicates that all products are easily purified and formed in high yields in this activity suitable for advanced undergraduate laboratory courses. (Author/JN)

  6. Synthesis of hexa aza cages, SarAr-NCS and AmBaSar and a study of their metal complexation, conjugation to nanomaterials and proteins for application in radioimaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mume, Eskender; Asad, Ali; Di Bartolo, Nadine M; Kong, Linggen; Smith, Christopher; Sargeson, Alan M; Price, Roger; Smith, Suzanne V

    2013-10-28

    A novel hexa aza cage, N(1)-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane-1,8-diamine (SarAr-NCS) was synthesized in good yield and characterized by (1)H NMR and electrospray mass spectrometry. A new method for the synthesis of the related N(1)-(4-carboxybenzyl)-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane-1,8-diamine (AmBaSar) using the p-carboxybenzaldehyde is reported. The complexation of Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) by the two ligands over a range of pHs was found to be similar to the parent derivative SarAr. SarAr-NCS was conjugated to both silica particles (≈90 nm diam.) and the model B72.3 murine antibody. The SarAr-NCSN-silica particles were radiolabeled with Cu(2+) doped (64)Cu and the number of ligands conjugated was calculated to be an average of 7020 ligands per particle. Conjugation of SarAr-NCS to the B72.3 antibody was optimized over a range of conditions. The SarAr-NCSN-B72.3 conjugate was stored in buffer and as a lyophilized powder at 4 °C over 38 days. Its radiolabeling efficiency, stability and immunoreactivity were maintained. The development of a high yielding synthesis of SarAr-NCS should provide an entry point for a wide range of Cu and Zn radiometal PET imaging agents and potentially radiotherapeutic agents with (67)Cu. PMID:23851350

  7. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  8. Porous Organic Cages for Sulfur Hexafluoride Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasell, Tom; Miklitz, Marcin; Stephenson, Andrew; Little, Marc A; Chong, Samantha Y; Clowes, Rob; Chen, Linjiang; Holden, Daniel; Tribello, Gareth A; Jelfs, Kim E; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-02-10

    A series of porous organic cages is examined for the selective adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) over nitrogen. Despite lacking any metal sites, a porous cage, CC3, shows the highest SF6/N2 selectivity reported for any material at ambient temperature and pressure, which translates to real separations in a gas breakthrough column. The SF6 uptake of these materials is considerably higher than would be expected from the static pore structures. The location of SF6 within these materials is elucidated by X-ray crystallography, and it is shown that cooperative diffusion and structural rearrangements in these molecular crystals can rationalize their superior SF6/N2 selectivity. PMID:26757885

  9. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, R. R. M.; de Araújo, F. O.; da Costa, J. A. P.; A. de S. Brandim; de Brito, R. A.; Alves, C

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN), in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and...

  10. Titanium mesh cages (TMC) in spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, Dieter; Daehn, Sylvia; Mannion, Anne F.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of the titanium mesh cage (TMC) in spinal surgery has opened up a variety of applications that are realizable as a result of the versatility of the implant. Differing applications of TMCs in the whole spine are described in a series of 150 patients. Replacement and reinforcement of the anterior column represent the classic use of cylindrical TMCs. The TMC as a multisegmental concave support in kyphotic deformities and as a posterior interlaminar spacer or lamina replacement a...

  11. Trace element kinetics in caged Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Lepoint, Gilles; Donnay, Annick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) remain contaminants of concern because of their persistence, ability to concentrate in organisms and toxicity. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 is a relevant bioindicator of TE coastal contamination. However, little research has studied the combined influence of environmental condition changes and physiological processes on their kinetics in that species. Caged M. galloprovincialis were thus immerged in 2 contrasted pristine Corsican (Franc...

  12. Biomechanische Untersuchungen von LWS-Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Fragestellung: Cages sind Implantate, die der Fusionierung von Wirbelkörpern dienen. Zu ihren wichtigsten biomechanischen Eigenschaften gehört die Gewährleistung einer hohen Stabilität unmittelbar nach Implantation - der Primärstabilität -, die Aufrechterhaltung dieser Stabilität auch nach wiederholten Belastungen - Langzeitstabilität - und eine geringe Sinterungsneigung, worunter man das eindringen der Implantate in die angrenzenden Wirbelkörper versteht. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es nun zwe...

  13. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2016-07-27

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  14. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication. PMID:17067048

  15. GroEL and CCT are catalytic unfoldases mediating out-of-cage polypeptide refolding without ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Smriti; Sharma, Sandeep Kumar; Sood, Vishal; Mattoo, Rayees U H; Finka, Andrija; Azem, Abdussalam; De Los Rios, Paolo; Goloubinoff, Pierre

    2013-04-30

    Chaperonins are cage-like complexes in which nonnative polypeptides prone to aggregation are thought to reach their native state optimally. However, they also may use ATP to unfold stably bound misfolded polypeptides and mediate the out-of-cage native refolding of large proteins. Here, we show that even without ATP and GroES, both GroEL and the eukaryotic chaperonin containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT/TRiC) can unfold stable misfolded polypeptide conformers and readily release them from the access ways to the cage. Reconciling earlier disparate experimental observations to ours, we present a comprehensive model whereby following unfolding on the upper cavity, in-cage confinement is not needed for the released intermediates to slowly reach their native state in solution. As over-sticky intermediates occasionally stall the catalytic unfoldase sites, GroES mobile loops and ATP are necessary to dissociate the inhibitory species and regenerate the unfolding activity. Thus, chaperonin rings are not obligate confining antiaggregation cages. They are polypeptide unfoldases that can iteratively convert stable off-pathway conformers into functional proteins. PMID:23584019

  16. A secure and economical system for caging venomous snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive and secure cage system for housing venomous snakes. The cages are easily constructed from commercially available plastic containers and are lightweight and can be stacked, minimizing the area needed to house numerous animals. They allow easy access to the animal and can be adequately disinfected. These cages can be individually locked and also allow for full viewing of the animal.

  17. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Merica Slišković; Gorana Jelić

    2002-01-01

    Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems nece...

  18. THE PROCEDURE AND THE CRITERIA FOR FISH CAGES ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Andrić; Gordana Jelić Mrčelić; Merica Slišković; Ivana Miletić

    2010-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia, fish cage farming is one of the most important economic activities. Fish cage farms inevitably influence the quality of marine environment. Environment protection measures are established in order to minimize negative effects on the stability of ecosystem. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the procedure of fish cage farm allocation, environment protection measures, as also as program of monitoring before, during and after fish farming allocation.

  19. THE PROCEDURE AND THE CRITERIA FOR FISH CAGES ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Andrić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, fish cage farming is one of the most important economic activities. Fish cage farms inevitably influence the quality of marine environment. Environment protection measures are established in order to minimize negative effects on the stability of ecosystem. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the procedure of fish cage farm allocation, environment protection measures, as also as program of monitoring before, during and after fish farming allocation.

  20. Advanced behavioural screening: automated home cage ethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Berry M; DeVisser, Leonie

    2006-01-01

    Animal behaviour has been studied using two approaches, (1) well-controlled experiments focusing on specific responses and (2) those with natural - fuzzy - but biologically relevant conditions. Ideally, one behavioural test should be able to address both. The home cage provided with various stimuli is proposed as an all-in-one possibility. This, however, results in an exponential increase in complexity regarding observation and analysis tools. It seems difficult to accept that behavioural expressions need a mathematical approach to unravel its organisation and meaning. Developments in artificial intelligence and data mining are essential to accelerate this necessary evolution in behavioural sciences.: PMID:24980412

  1. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  2. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  3. Morphosynthesis of cubic silver cages on monolithic activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Lai, Yijian; Liu, Siyu; Zhao, Binyuan; Ning, Yuesheng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2013-11-14

    Cubic silver cages were prepared on monolithic activated carbon (MAC) pre-absorbed with Cl(-), SO4(2-), or PO4(3-) anions. Silver insoluble salts served as templates for the morphosynthesis of silver cages. The silver ions were reduced by reductive functional groups on MAC micropores through a galvanic cell reaction mechanism. PMID:24080952

  4. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...)(1) If a prospective contractor located in the United States must register in the Central Contractor... registrants must obtain a North Atlantic Treaty Organization CAGE (NCAGE) code in order to register in the CCR... dial-up capability; or (D) The Internet to access the CAGE Lookup Server at...

  5. Design of the UHVDC Corona Cage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian; LU Jiayu; ZHANG Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of testing and analysing the corona characteristics of UHVDC bundle conductors,UHVDC corona cage would be built in China.Corona cage is one of the indispensable equipments for conductor corona performance researches.Tests of conductor cotona characteristics in corona cages can overcome the shortages of those with test lines.The dimensions of several corona cages constructed overseas were introduced in this paper.Based on foreign experiences and the requirement of State Grid Corporation of China,the UHVDC corona cage was designed as double-cage,double-layer,three-seetions,and catenary shape with the size of 70 m×22 m× 13 m.The corona loss measurement system,radio interference measuring system,and the audible noise measuring system are also detailed,including the measurement theory,connection with the cage,the parameters and the designing basis.The UHVDC corona cage has been put into service.It now undergoes a large amount of audible noise and radio frequency interference tests.

  6. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  7. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A.

    2012-06-05

    Polymers comprising residues of borane and/or carborane cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Methods of making and applications for using such polymers are also disclosed.

  8. Ammonia Levels and Urine-Spot Characteristics as Cage-Change Indicators for High-Density Individually Ventilated Mouse Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Ida M; Payton, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mouse cage and bedding changes are potentially stressful to mice and are also labor- and resource-intensive. These changes are often performed on a calendar-based schedule to maintain a clean microenvironment and limit the concentrations of ammonia to which mice and workers are exposed. The current study sought to establish a performance-based approach to mouse cage-changing that uses urine spot characteristics as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels. Colorimetric ammonia indicators were used to measure ammonia levels in individually-ventilated cages (IVC) housing male or female mice (n =5 per cage) of various strains at 1 to 16 d after cage change. Urine spot characteristics were correlated with ammonia levels to create a visual indicator of the cage-change criterion of 25 ppm ammonia. Results demonstrated a consistent increase in ammonia levels with days since cage change, with cages reaching the cage-change criterion at approximately 10 d for IVC containing male mice and 16 d for those with female mice. Ammonia levels were higher for male than female mice but were not correlated with mouse age. However, urine spot diameter, color, and edge characteristics were strongly correlated with ammonia levels. Husbandry practices based on using urine spot characteristics as indicators of ammonia levels led to fewer weekly cage changes and concomitant savings in labor and resources. Therefore, urine spot characteristics can be used as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels for use of a performance (urine spot)-based approach to cage-changing frequency that maintains animal health and wellbeing. PMID:27177558

  9. Electrofriction method of manufacturing squirrel cage rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a squirrel cage rotor of copper material for use in AC or DC motors, includes forming a core with longitudinal slots, inserting bars of conductive material in the slots, with ends extending out of opposite ends of the core, and joining the end rings to the bars, wherein the conductive material of either the end rings or the bars is copper. Various methods of joining the end rings to the bars are disclosed including electrofriction welding, current pulse welding and brazing, transient liquid phase joining and casting. Pressure is also applied to the end rings to improve contact and reduce areas of small or uneven contact between the bar ends and the end rings. Rotors made with such methods are also disclosed.

  10. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  11. Performance and welfare of rabbit does in various caging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, A; Matics, Zs; Gerencsér, Zs; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Nagy, I; Szendrő, K; Szendrő, Zs

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare production and welfare of rabbit does and their kits housed in various types of cages. Female rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups with the following cage types: CN: common wire-mesh flat-deck cage, without footrest; CF: cage similar to the CN but with plastic footrest; ECWP: enlarged cage with wire-mesh platform; and ECPP: extra enlarged cage with plastic-mesh platform. All does were inseminated on the same day, 11 days after kindlings. Reproductive performance was evaluated during the first five consecutive kindlings. Severity of sore hocks was scored at each insemination. Location preference of the does and the platform usage of their kits were evaluated. Kindling rate, litter size (total born, born alive, alive at 21 and 35 days) and kit mortality were not significantly influenced by the cage types. The litter weight at 21 days was higher in ECWP and ECPP cages than in the CF group (3516, 3576 and 3291 g, respectively; P2.5 cm) and 3 to 4 (3=callus opened, cracks present; 4=wounds) were 58%, 60%, 78% and 48%, and 0%, 5%, 0% and 48% in groups ECPP, ECWP, CF and CN, respectively. Higher number of daily nest visits was observed for CF does than for ECWP does (12.5 v. 5.9; P2/day) was higher in the CF group than in the ECWP group (12.1 v. 3.2%; Pplastic footrests and plastic-mesh platforms in conventional and/or large cages reduced sore hocks' problems, plastic-mesh platforms were more used by both does and kits compared with the wire-mesh platforms. PMID:26263030

  12. Folding Dynamics of the Trp-Cage Miniprotein: Evidence for a Native-Like Intermediate from Combined Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Meuzelaar; K.A. Marino; A. Huerta-Viga; M.R. Panman; L.E.J. Smeenk; A.J. Kettelarij; J.H. van Maarseveen; P. Timmerman; P.G. Bolhuis; S. Woutersen

    2013-01-01

    Trp-cage is a synthetic 20-residue miniprotein which folds rapidly and spontaneously to a well-defined globular structure more typical of larger proteins. Due to its small size and fast folding, it is an ideal model system for experimental and theoretical investigations of protein folding mechanisms

  13. Endohedral dynamics of push-pull rotor-functionalized cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Marcel; Holstein, Julian; Würtele, Christian; Clever, Guido H

    2016-08-16

    A series of [Pd2L4] coordination cages featuring endohedral functionalities in central backbone positions was synthesized. Although attached via C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds, the substituents behave as molecular rotors. This is explained by their pronounced donor-acceptor character which lowers rotational barriers and allows for electronic control over the spinning rates inside the cage. The dynamic behaviour of the free ligands, assembled cages and host-guest complexes is compared with the aid of NMR experiments, X-ray structure analysis and molecular modelling. PMID:27484435

  14. The planimetric unfold method of fullerene cage structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of planimetric diagrams, which consist of the boat form F6 and F5, the storm petrel form F6 and F5, respectively, were proposed to express the geometric structure of fullerene cage in this study. There are two chief advantages using the diagrams: (ⅰ) the spatial symmetrical characteristic of fullerene cage is not destroyed; (ⅱ) the coordination forms of F5 and F6 in the structure can be clearly expressed. This work has laid the foundation for studying the structural geometry of fullerene cage and its quantum chemistry and property.

  15. Bemisia tabaci: A new clip-cage for biological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Muñiz, M.; Nombela, G.

    2001-01-01

    This new clip-cage has been designed in our laboratory. It is a transparent plastic truncated cone clip-cage (3.6 cm x 2.6 cm diameter; 4 cm high). A very thin polypropylene mesh (30 holes/inch) is attached to the bottom by paraffin wax. We have used this clip-cage attached to the under surface of the leaves in our studies on the biology of both B and Q biotypes of Bemisia tabaci with excellent results.

  16. Smart Vaults: Thermally-Responsive Protein Nanocapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Nicholas M.; Prabhakaran, Panchami; Rome, Leonard H.; Maynard, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic modification of a recombinant protein cage called a vault with stimuli-responsive smart polymers provides access to a new class of biohybrid materials; the polymer nanocapsules retain the structure of the protein cage and exhibit the responsive nature of the polymer. Vaults are naturally-occurring ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein particles 41 × 41 × 72.5 nm composed of a protein shell enclosing multiple copies of two proteins and multiple copies of one or more small untranslated RNAs. R...

  17. Performance of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Cages, under Different Percentage of Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. B. Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different rate in percentage feeding of the productivity (Body weight (BW and feed conversion (FC of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, with a total of 13500 animals, distributed in nine cages, with n = 1500 fish/cage, with three replicates in a period of four weeks. The animals were feed with   three treatments: treatment 1 (2% BW; treatment 2 ( 3% BW and treatment 3 (4% BW, divided in two meals,  and feed  with commercial food 36% crude protein. The BW gain was significantly higher for the animals that received feed rate of 4% BW. However, apparent feed conversion was better when used the rate of (2% BW- treatment 1 of tambaqui reared in cages.

  18. Caging the beast: TRIM5α binding to the HIV-1 core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2011-05-01

    The potent HIV-1 inhibitor TRIM5α blocks HIV-1 infection by accelerating the uncoating of HIV-1. TRIM5α is known to form higher-order self-association complexes that contribute to the avidity of TRIM5α for the HIV-1 capsid, and are essential to inhibit infection; these higher-order self-association complexes are dependent upon an intact B-box 2 domain. Even though the ability to form higher-order self-association complexes resembles the clathrin triskelion that forms a protein array, or cage, around the endocytic vesicle, evidence for the ability of TRIM5α to assemble a similar type of structure surrounding the HIV-1 core has been lacking. Recent work by Ganser-Pornillos, Chandrasekaran and colleagues has now demonstrated the ability of the restriction factor TRIM5α to "cage" or "net" the HIV-1 core by forming an hexagonal array on the surface of the viral capsid. This hexagonal array is strikingly similar in design to the array formed by the clathrin triskelion on the surface of the clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. This remarkable finding represents an important advance on our understanding of the restriction factor TRIM5α, and suggests that TRIM5α cages the HIV-1 core in order to terminate infection. The present note discusses the implications of this discovery. PMID:21994740

  19. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  20. Linear diffusion into a Faraday cage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lin, Yau Tang; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2011-11-01

    Linear lightning diffusion into a Faraday cage is studied. An early-time integral valid for large ratios of enclosure size to enclosure thickness and small relative permeability ({mu}/{mu}{sub 0} {le} 10) is used for this study. Existing solutions for nearby lightning impulse responses of electrically thick-wall enclosures are refined and extended to calculate the nearby lightning magnetic field (H) and time-derivative magnetic field (HDOT) inside enclosures of varying thickness caused by a decaying exponential excitation. For a direct strike scenario, the early-time integral for a worst-case line source outside the enclosure caused by an impulse is simplified and numerically integrated to give the interior H and HDOT at the location closest to the source as well as a function of distance from the source. H and HDOT enclosure response functions for decaying exponentials are considered for an enclosure wall of any thickness. Simple formulas are derived to provide a description of enclosure interior H and HDOT as well. Direct strike voltage and current bounds for a single-turn optimally-coupled loop for all three waveforms are also given.

  1. La cage qui cache : La Cage Dorée de Ruben Alves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The French Comedy La Cage Dorée (produced by the luso descendant Ruben Alves, 2013 success seems to be mainly due to its clichés of Portuguese epics in Paris, and its miseries may not have been underlined enough. Thus, under this apparently naif portrait an intriguing painting of Portuguese immigrants’ French dis-integration may really be hiding, which is the aim of this essay, on one hand, to bring out and, on the other one, to clarify, by questioning comparative critical common denominators of the two countries.

  2. La cage qui cache : La Cage Dorée de Ruben Alves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marinho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Comedy La Cage Dorée (produced by the luso descendant Ruben Alves, 2013 success seems to be mainly due to its clichés of Portuguese epics in Paris, and its miseries may not have been underlined enough. Thus, under this apparently naif portrait an intriguing painting of Portuguese immigrants’ French dis-integration may really be hiding, which is the aim of this essay, on one hand, to bring out and, on the other one, to clarify, by questioning comparative critical common denominators of the two countries.

  3. Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones†

    OpenAIRE

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Cho, Woo Cheal; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Moore, Curtis; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of unique structure and potent bioactivity exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method for the reverse prenylation of catechols that, together with a Claisen/Diels–Alder reaction cascade, provides rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues. Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity of these compounds leads to the conclusion that the intact ABC ring system c...

  4. Cage experiments in an East African mangrove forest: a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijvers, J.; Vincx, M.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of epibenthos on endobenthos has frequently been investigated for temperate saltmarsh regions by using cage exclusion experiments. Although the insight into the function of the endobenthos of mangrove forests is crucial for their management, very few cage experiments have so far been carried out in such areas. The present paper summarises the result of such experiments in a typical East African mangrove forest at Gazi Bay about 60 km south of Mombasa, Kenya. Epibenthic animals were...

  5. Catalogue Note on Taner Ceylan's Cage of Flesh (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Cakirlar, C.; Delice, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cage of Flesh (Ten Kafesi), the most recent piece by the photorealist painter Taner Ceylan, engages with the politics of and the erotics within representation in Orientalist painting by confronting the viewer with a re-imagined figure of an odalisque. Following his highly acclaimed Lost Painting Series that featured Fake World (2011), 1640 (2011), 1879 (2011), 1923 (2010) and 1881 (2010), Cage of Flesh uses an ingenious amalgam of allusions to both Orientalist eroticisation of female flesh an...

  6. Experimental setup for the measurement of induction motor cage currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental setup for measurement of the currents flowing in the rotor bars of induction motors during synchronous no-load tests is described in the paper. The experimental verification of the high-frequency phenomena in the rotor cage is fundamental for a deep insight of the additional loss estimation by numerical methods. The attention is mainly focused on the analysis and design of the transducers developed for the cage current measurement

  7. 3D reconstruction of VZV infected cell nuclei and PML nuclear cages by serial section array scanning electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Reichelt

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox and herpes zoster (shingles. Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity, what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the

  8. A hydrodynamic view of the first-passage folding of Trp-cage miniprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryushchenko, Vladimir A; Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2016-04-01

    We study folding of Trp-cage miniprotein in the conditions when the native state of the protein is stable and unfolding events are improbable, which corresponds to physiological conditions. Using molecular dynamics simulations with an implicit solvent model, an ensemble of folding trajectories from unfolded (practically extended) states of the protein to the native state was generated. To get insight into the folding kinetics, the free energy surface and kinetic network projected on this surface were constructed. This, "conventional" analysis of the folding reaction was followed by a recently proposed hydrodynamic description of protein folding (Chekmarev et al. in Phys Rev Lett 100(1):018107, 2008), in which the process of the first-passage folding is viewed as a stationary flow of a folding "fluid" from the unfolded to native state. This approach is conceptually different from the previously used approaches and thus allows an alternative view of the folding dynamics and kinetics of Trp-cage, the conclusions about which are very diverse. In agreement with most previous studies, we observed two characteristic folding pathways: in one pathway (I), the collapse of the hydrophobic core precedes the formation of the [Formula: see text]-helix, and in the other pathway (II), these events occur in the reverse order. We found that although pathway II is complicated by a repeated partial protein unfolding, it contributes to the total folding flow as little as ≈10 %, so that the folding kinetics remain essentially single-exponential. PMID:26559408

  9. Computational investigation of dynamical transitions in Trp-cage miniprotein powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Beom; Gupta, Devansh R.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate computationally the dynamical transitions in Trp-cage miniprotein powders, at three levels of hydration: 0.04, 0.26 and 0.4 g water/g protein. We identify two distinct temperatures where transitions in protein dynamics occur. Thermal motions are harmonic and independent of hydration level below Tlow ≈ 160 K, above which all powders exhibit harmonic behavior but with a different and enhanced temperature dependence. The second onset, which is often referred to as the protein dynamical transition, occurs at a higher temperature TD that decreases as the hydration level increases, and at the lowest hydration level investigated here (0.04 g/g) is absent in the temperature range we studied in this work (T ≤ 300 K). Protein motions become anharmonic at TD, and their amplitude increases with hydration level. Upon heating above TD, hydrophilic residues experience a pronounced enhancement in the amplitude of their characteristic motions in hydrated powders, whereas it is the hydrophobic residues that experience the more pronounced enhancement in the least hydrated system. The dynamical transition in Trp-cage is a collective phenomenon, with every residue experiencing a transition to anharmonic behavior at the same temperature.

  10. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Comparison of titanium and polyetheretherketone cages

    OpenAIRE

    Cabraja Mario; Oezdemir Soner; Koeppen Daniel; Kroppenstedt Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Titanium (TTN) cages have a higher modulus of elasticity when compared with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. This suggests that TTN-cages could show more frequent cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and therefore might lead to a higher loss of correction. We compared the long term results of stand-alone PEEK- and TTN-cages in a comparable patient collective that was operated under identical operative settings. Methods From 2002 to 2007 15...

  11. Evaluation of individually ventilated cage systems for laboratory rodents: cage environment and animal health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, A U; Renström, A

    2001-01-01

    The use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become an attractive housing regime of laboratory rodents. The benefits of IVC systems are, reportedly, a high degree of containment combined with relative ease of handling, and a high degree of protection from allergenes. In the present study we tested whether two IVC systems (BioZone VentiRack, IVC1 and Techniplast SealSafe, IVC2S), in which we held mature male NMRI mice, were constructed to maintain a constant differential pressure, positive or negative, during a prolonged period of time. We also measured ammonia (NH3) concentrations after about 2 weeks of use, and CO2 build-up during a 60 min simulated power failure situation. In addition, animal weight development and bite-wound frequency were recorded (Renström et al. 2000). From the present study it is concluded that the IVC1 air handling system provides a more uniform and balanced differential pressure than the IVC2S. Both systems effectively scavenge NH3 when bedding material is not soaked by urine. Although the IVCs are dependent on the continual function of the fans to work properly, it seems unlikely that CO2 concentrations increase to hazardous levels, as a result of a one hour power failure, with the type of cages used in this study. Differences in weight development and bite-wound occurrence were noted between the two IVC systems. Causes for these differences could not be established and need more investigation. PMID:11201288

  12. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Kähler, P.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-07-01

    The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater (DIC) is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, which is the time elapsed since a body of water has been in contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with ageing, i.e. the time component of circulation, and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". The latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere-ocean equilibration of 14C particularly in high latitudes where many water masses form. In the ocean's interior, preformed 14C-age behaves like a passive tracer. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. Here, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age. Between models, the variability of preformed 14C-age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combination of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics or gas exchange. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation, the choice of the gas-exchange constant from within the currently accepted range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age, it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a model's circulation on global and regional

  13. Caging the Beast: TRIM5α Binding to the HIV-1 Core

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Diaz-Griffero

    2011-01-01

    The potent HIV-1 inhibitor TRIM5α blocks HIV-1 infection by accelerating the uncoating of HIV-1. TRIM5α is known to form higher-order self-association complexes that contribute to the avidity of TRIM5α for the HIV-1 capsid, and are essential to inhibit infection; these higher-order self-association complexes are dependent upon an intact B-box 2 domain. Even though the ability to form higher-order self-association complexes resembles the clathrin triskelion that forms a protein array, or cage,...

  14. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  15. Temporal Control of Aptamer Biosensors Using Covalent Self-Caging To Shift Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhesen; Feagin, Trevor A; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2016-05-25

    Aptamer-based sensors provide a versatile and effective platform for the detection of chemical and biological targets. These sensors have been optimized to function in multiple formats, however, a remaining limitation is the inability to achieve temporal control over their sensing function. To overcome this challenge, we took inspiration from nature's ability to temporally control the activity of enzymes and protein receptors through covalent self-caging. We applied this strategy to structure-switching aptamer sensors through the installation of a cleavable linker between the two DNA fragments that comprise the sensor. Analogous to self-caged proteins, installation of this linker shifts the equilibrium of the aptamer sensor to disfavor target binding. However, activity can be restored in a time-resolved manner by cleavage of the linker. To demonstrate this principle, we chose a photocleavable linker and found that installation of the linker eliminates target binding, even at high target concentrations. However, upon irradiation with 365 nm light, sensor activity is restored with response kinetics that mirror those of the linker cleavage reaction. A key benefit of our approach is generality, which is demonstrated by grafting the photocleavable linker onto a different aptamer sensor and showing that an analogous level of temporal control can be achieved for sensing of the new target molecule. These results demonstrate that nature's self-caging approach can be effectively applied to non-natural receptors to provide precise temporal control over function. We envision that this will be of especially high utility for deploying aptamer sensors in biological environments. PMID:27159220

  16. PROBLEMS OF BIOFOULING ON FISH–CAGE NETS IN AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merica Slišković

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling on fish–cage netting is a serious technical and economical problem to aquaculture worldwide. Compensation for the effects of biofouling must be included in cage system design and planning, as fouling can dramatically increase both weight and drag. Settlements of sessile plants and animals, with accumulation of the detritus diminish the size of mesh and can rapidly occlude mesh. Negative effect of smaller mesh size is changing in water flow trough the cages. Biofouling problems necessitating purchase of a second sets of nets or more, and frequent cleaning and changing of biofouling. Changing and cleaning frequency depend on many factors such as: location of cages (near the coast or off shore, productivity of that location, time of the year, time period in which the cages are placed on that location (cause of loading of phosphorus and nitrogen from the unconsumed food in the sediment. Net changing and cleaning procedures are labor and capital intensive. Process of the cleaning of the nets is inadequate, especially when there isnžt adequate equipment available as it is case in smaller aquaculture industry. Chemical control of biofouling e. g. use of antifoulants is questioningly cause of their possible negative effects on breeding species and environment.

  17. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIANG; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and fi...

  18. Hexaphosphapentaprismane: a new gateway to organophosphorus cage compound chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Ktaifani, Mahmoud M; Bauer, Walter; Bergsträsser, Uwe; Breit, Bernhard; Francis, Matthew D; Heinemann, Frank W; Hitchcock, Peter B; Mack, Andreas; Nixon, John F; Pritzkow, Hans; Regitz, Manfred; Zeller, Matthias; Zenneck, Ulrich

    2002-06-01

    Several independent synthetic routes are described leading to the formation of a novel unsaturated tetracyclic phosphorus carbon cage compound tBu4C4P6 (1), which undergoes a light-induced valence isomerization to produce the first hexaphosphapentaprismane cage tBu4C4P6 (2). A second unsaturated isomer tBu4C4P6 (9) of 1 and the bis-[W(CO)5] complex 13 of 1 are stable towards similar isomerization reactions. Another starting material for the synthesis of the hexaphosphapentaprismane cage tBu4C4P6 (2) is the trimeric mercury complex [(tBu4C4P6)Hg]3 (11), which undergoes elimination of mercury to afford the title compound 2. Single-crystal X-ray structural determinations have been carried out on compounds 1, 2, 9, 11, and 13. PMID:12180342

  19. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  20. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin;

    2013-01-01

    abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in...... in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased......The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of...

  1. A Post-Functionalizable Iso-Polyoxotitanate Cage Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Hu, Junyi; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Guanyun; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-07-18

    During solvothermal alcoholysis of a mixture of TiI4 and Ti(O(i)Pr)4, a {I@Ti22} cage cluster encapsulating an OH and iodide guests is crystallized. The {I@Ti22} host-guest cluster surface is postfunctionalizable with catecholate and carboxylate ligands. The synthetic details, structural characterization, spectroscopic properties of the obtained cages clusters are provided. The present study provides candidates for modeling ligand exchange and electron-hole transfer at the titanate nanoparticle surface, and meanwhile offers new opportunities for understanding the TiO2 nanocrystalline formation in solvothermal processes. PMID:27351728

  2. Laboratory animal welfare: cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, David P; Litvin, Oxana; Morf, Samuel; Nitsch, Roger M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Würbel, Hanno

    2004-12-16

    Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show that environmental enrichment increases neither individual variability in behavioural tests nor the risk of obtaining conflicting data in replicate studies. Our findings indicate that the housing conditions of laboratory mice can be markedly improved without affecting the standardization of results. PMID:15602544

  3. Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.

  4. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Koeve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2, related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose

  5. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Finzi; Paolo Negretti; Giovanna Bianconi; Pedro González-Redondo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The sig...

  6. Reproductive performance of mice in disposable and standard individually ventilated cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintained in the same location during breeding. Environmental parameters included intracage temperature, humidity, and ammonia and carbon dioxide levels and room light intensity and sound. Overall, 776 offspring were produced. Breeding performance did not differ significantly between the 2 cage types. By 11 wk of age, the weights of pups from both cage types were equivalent. The intracage temperature was 1.1 °F warmer and light intensity at the site of the nest was 34 lx dimmer in disposable cages than in standard caging. The difference in lighting likely was due to nest location; the nests in the disposable cages were at the back of the cages and away from the anterior air supply, whereas in standard caging, nests were at the front of the cages, with the air supply at the rear. Under these husbandry conditions, mice housed in disposable caging systems have comparable breeding performance to those housed in standard individually ventilated cages. PMID:23849403

  7. Play Caging Benefits the Behavior of Singly Housed Laboratory Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Griffis, Caroline M; Martin, Allison L; Perlman, Jaine E; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a recommendation in The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to provide singly housed nonhuman primates with intermittent access to large, enriched (play) caging. Research on the potential benefits of this type of caging is limited. The present study examines the effects of play caging on behavior, activity, and enrichment use. Singly housed, adult male, rhesus macaques (n = 10) underwent a baseline phase in their home cages, a 2-wk treatment phase with housin...

  8. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported ...

  9. Caged polyprenylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; He, Shiwen; Tang, Chu; Li, Jun; Yang, Guangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Five new caged polyprenylated xanthones (1a, 2a, 3, 10a and 10b), and 12 known related compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro. Most of xanthones showed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. PMID:26688377

  10. Pathogen Prevalence From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview: A study was conducted to determine if differences in pathogen prevalence occurred between a sister flock of conventional cage and free range laying hens. Both environmental and egg microbiology was monitored throughout 20 – 79 weeks of age. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria preval...

  11. Environmental Impact of Cage Culture on Poondi Reservoir, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusuya Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Poondi reservoir, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 8 months from September, 2014 to April, 2015 where the cage culture has been already initiated by the state fisheries department. The water and sediment samples were collected from the reservoir at point and non- point sources of the cage culture units and were analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total microbial load, E. coli and feacal streptococci population were also assessed from the reservoir. During the study period, pH, sulphate, nitrate and BOD values were found within the permissible range for drinking water quality. The alkalinity values were found optimum in the reservoir water. The sediment characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and available phosphorus values were also found to be within the standard limit. The optimum water and sediment quality characteristics and the absence of E. coli and feacal streptococci observed in the cage culture unit clearly showed that the small cage farming in the reservoir does not have major environmental impacts on the water and sediment quality.

  12. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  13. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  14. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Ebert, Hans

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  15. Social communication in mice--are there optimal cage conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain-Thibeault Ferhat

    Full Text Available Social communication is heavily affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, mouse models designed to study the mechanisms leading to these disorders are tested for this phenotypic trait. Test conditions vary between different models, and the effect of these test conditions on the quantity and quality of social interactions and ultrasonic communication is unknown. The present study examines to which extent the habituation time to the test cage as well as the shape/size of the cage influence social communication in freely interacting mice. We tested 8 pairs of male mice in free dyadic social interactions, with two habituation times (20 min and 30 min and three cage formats (rectangle, round, square. We tested the effect of these conditions on the different types of social contacts, approach-escape sequences, follow behavior, and the time each animal spent in the vision field of the other one, as well as on the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations and their contexts of emission. We provide for the first time an integrated analysis of the social interaction behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations. Surprisingly, we did not highlight any significant effect of habituation time and cage shape/size on the behavioral events examined. There was only a slight increase of social interactions with the longer habituation time in the round cage. Remarkably, we also showed that vocalizations were emitted during specific behavioral sequences especially during close contact or approach behaviors. The present study provides a protocol reliably eliciting social contacts and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice. This protocol is therefore well adapted for standardized investigation of social interactions in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  17. Complexation and aggregation of a surfactant cage molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For applications in selective extraction chemistry, new surfactant cage molecules have been developed and their micellar aqueous solutions studied. With the objective of separating the surfactant properties from the complexing ones, the molecules have been designed with a di-block structure. They have been synthesized by grafting one (or more) surfactant unit to an aza crown macrocycle which is able to selectively complex cations. We have changed the number of linked surfactant (1 or 2) on the aza type cage. The complexing properties of those surfactant cage molecules with Na+ and K+ ions have been shown by mass-spectroscopy. The shape and aggregation number of the micelles are determined by fitting a molecular constrained model of the small angle X-ray and neutron scattering data simultaneously. The surfactant unit displays ellipsoidal to cylindrical micelles and bilayers while increasing the alkyl chain length. On the other hand, the surfactant cage molecules form ellipsoidal micelles whose structure is quite independent of the charge of the molecule. The structure is mostly controlled by the nature and the number of linked surfactants via their steric hindrance added to the volume of the macrocycle. In the last part of this work, we have rescaled a ionic flotation apparatus to dimensions suitable with a small quantity of available product. The surfactant is foaming in the flotation column. With this technic, we can study die adsorption equilibrium at the air/water interface. It is either the adsorption of the counter-ions of a ionic surfactant or the complexation of a cation with a macrocycle ligand at the interface. We have applied this method to a surfactant cage molecule in order to evaluate its extraction properties. (author)

  18. Cage Clusters of Gold and Tin: Golden Buckyballs and Stannaspherene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2008-03-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) yields direct electronic structure information for size-selected clusters. Combining PES with theoretical calculations has become an effective approach to obtain structural information for small and medium-sized clusters. We present recent discoveries of two classes of cage clusters in gold and tin. Negatively charged gold clusters (Aun^-) have been shown to exhibit a remarkable structural diversity from 2D structures for n = 4-12 and the pyramidal structure for n = 20. Using PES and DFT calculations, we have found that gold clusters with n = 16-18 possess unprecedented hollow cage structures. We have been able to successfully dope a variety of transition-metal atoms into the empty spaces in the golden cages, confirming their structural robustness, as well as demonstrating chemical tuning of their electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Unlike carbon, the heavier congeners of the group 14 elements are not known to form hollow cage structures similar to the fullerenes. In PES studies of tin clusters, we noted that the spectrum of Sn12^- is distinctly different from that of its neighbors or its Si/Ge counterpart. This observation led to our discovery of a highly symmetric and stable icosahedral Sn12^2- cage, for which we coined a name ``stannaspherene'' to describe its high symmetry and spherical pi bonding. We have also shown that all transition metals including the f-block elements can be doped inside Sn12^2- to form a whole class of endohedral stannaspherenes, which may be used as potential building blocks for new cluster-assembled materials. In a preliminary experiment to synthesize stannaspherene in the bulk, a new cluster, Pd2@Sn18^4-, was crystallized and characterized, suggesting all stannaspherene and endohedral stannasphernes may be fabricated in the bulk under suitable conditions.

  19. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    OpenAIRE

    Majid SHAKERI; Oskoueian, Ehsan; NAJAFI, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density) and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density). The treatments were as (i) control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii) control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii) control diet + ...

  20. Intra-cage dynamics of molecular hydrogen confined in cages of two different dimensions of clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russina, Margarita; Kemner, Ewout; Mezei, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    In porous materials the molecular confinement is often realized by means of weak Van der Waals interactions between the molecule and the pore surface. The understanding of the mechanism of such interactions is important for a number of applications. In order to establish the role of the confinement size we have studied the microscopic dynamics of molecular hydrogen stored in the nanocages of clathrate hydrates of two different dimensions. We have found that by varying the size of the pore the diffusive mobility of confined hydrogen can be modified in both directions, i.e. reduced or enhanced compared to that in the bulk solid at the same temperatures. In the small cages with a mean crystallographic radius of 3.95 Å the confinement reduces diffusive mobility by orders of magnitude. In contrast, in large cages with a mean radius of 4.75 Å hydrogen molecules displays diffusive jump motion between different equilibrium sites inside the cages, visible at temperatures where bulk H2 is solid. The localization of H2 molecules observed in small cages can promote improved functional properties valuable for hydrogen storage applications. PMID:27270444

  1. Multiplexed Analysis of Cage and Cage Free Chicken Egg Fatty Acids Using Stable Isotope Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Torde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binary stable isotope labeling couple with LC-ESI-MS has been used as a powerful non-targeted approach for the relative quantification of lipids, amino acids, and many other important metabolite classes. A multiplexed approach using three or more isotopic labeling reagents greatly reduces analytical run-time while maintaining excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. Three isotopic cholamine labeling reagents have been developed to take advantage of the pre-ionized character of cholamine, for ESI, and the ease by which stable isotopes can be incorporated into the cholamine structure. These three cholamine labeling reagents have been used to relatively quantify three fatty acid samples simultaneously. The quantification resulted in the observation of 12 fatty acids that had an average absolute error of 0.9% and an average coefficient of variation of 6.1%. Caged versus cage-free isotope labeling experiments showed that cage-free eggs have an increased level of omega-3 fatty acids as compared to caged eggs. This multiplexed fatty acid analysis provides an inexpensive and expedited tool for broad-based lipid profiling that will further aid discoveries in the mechanisms of fatty acid action in cells.

  2. Impaired fear extinction as displayed by serotonin transporter knockout rats housed in open cages is disrupted by IVC cage housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shan

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. A well-known example for gene x environment interactions in psychiatry is the low activity (s allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR that in the context of stress increases risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Previously, we observed robust anxiety-related phenotypes, such as an impairment in fear extinction, in 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT-/- versus wild-type (5-HTT+/+ rats housed in open cages. Recently, housing conditions were changed from open cages to individually ventilated cages (IVC, which are associated with a high ventilation fold and noise. This switch in housing conditions prompted an unplanned 5-HTT gene x environment interaction study in our rats. The current study shows that lifetime stress by means of IVC cage housing abolished genotype differences in fear extinction between 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Although this effect was not attributed specifically to either the 5-HTT+/+ or the 5-HTT-/- genotype, the findings are in agreement with the modulatory role of serotonin in the processing of environmental stimuli. Our findings also underline the possibility that housing conditions confound the interpretation of anxiety-related behaviours in rodents.

  3. Intra-cage dynamics of molecular hydrogen confined in cages of two different dimensions of clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russina, Margarita; Kemner, Ewout; Mezei, Ferenc

    2016-06-01

    In porous materials the molecular confinement is often realized by means of weak Van der Waals interactions between the molecule and the pore surface. The understanding of the mechanism of such interactions is important for a number of applications. In order to establish the role of the confinement size we have studied the microscopic dynamics of molecular hydrogen stored in the nanocages of clathrate hydrates of two different dimensions. We have found that by varying the size of the pore the diffusive mobility of confined hydrogen can be modified in both directions, i.e. reduced or enhanced compared to that in the bulk solid at the same temperatures. In the small cages with a mean crystallographic radius of 3.95 Å the confinement reduces diffusive mobility by orders of magnitude. In contrast, in large cages with a mean radius of 4.75 Å hydrogen molecules displays diffusive jump motion between different equilibrium sites inside the cages, visible at temperatures where bulk H2 is solid. The localization of H2 molecules observed in small cages can promote improved functional properties valuable for hydrogen storage applications.

  4. Effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal wellbeing and health and cage environment in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disappearance, cage ammonia, ATP concentrations, behavior, morbidity, and mortality were assessed weekly; fecal corticosterone, microbiology, and lung histopathology (rats only) were evaluated at the culmination of the trial. In both rats and mice, parameters indicative of animal health and welfare were not significantly affected by cage density and sanitation frequency or bedding type. Occasional effects of feed disappearance and cage ammonia concentrations due to density and sanitation guidelines were noted in rat cages, and bedding type affected cage ammonia and ATP concentrations. Periodic spikes of cage ammonia and ATP concentrations were recorded in mouse cages maintained according to inhouse compared with Guide standards and in cages containing aspen compared with cellulose or aspen-cellulose mixed bedding. Ongoing studies and historical data support the finding that deviations or exceptions from the cage density and sanitation frequency standards set forth in the Guide do not negatively affect animal health, welfare, or production parameters at our institution. These parameters appear to be credible measures of animal health and wellbeing and may be useful for evaluating performance standards for animal husbandry. PMID:23294884

  5. Effects of Cage Density, Sanitation Frequency, and Bedding Type on Animal Wellbeing and Health and Cage Environment in Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Mandy J; Hudson, Shanice V.; Bostrom, Linda A; Cooper, Dale M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cage density, sanitation frequency, and bedding type on animal growth and welfare. At weaning, Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice were allocated to treatment groups according to sex, bedding type (shredded aspen, cellulose, or a 50:50 mixture), and cage density and sanitation frequency (inhouse cage density standards and sanitation procedures measured against Guide recommendations) for an 8-wk period. Body weight, feed disapp...

  6. Nano-cage-mediated refolding of insulin by PEG-PE micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Yang, Tao; Wang, Luoyang; Yu, Jibing; Wei, Xiuli; Zhou, Yinjian; Wang, Chen; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin aggregation has pronounced pharmaceutical implications and biological importance. Deposition of insulin aggregates is associated with type II diabetes and instability of pharmaceutical formulations. We present in this study the renaturation effect of PEG-PE micelle on dithiothreitol (DTT)-denatured insulin revealed by techniques including turbidity assay, circular dichroism (CD), thioflavinT (ThT) binding assay, bis-ANS binding assay, agarose gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. The obtained results show that PEG-PE micelle having a hydrophilic nano-cage-like structure in which with a negative charge layer, can capture DTT-induced insulin A and B chains, and block their hydrophobic interaction, thereby preventing aggregation. The reduced insulin A and B chain in the nano-cage are capable of recognizing each other and form the native insulin with yields of ∼30% as measured by hypoglycemic activity analysis in mice. The observed insulin refolding assisted by PEG-PE micelle may be applicable to other proteins. PMID:26595505

  7. Caging the Beast: TRIM5α Binding to the HIV-1 Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Diaz-Griffero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The potent HIV-1 inhibitor TRIM5α blocks HIV-1 infection by accelerating the uncoating of HIV-1. TRIM5α is known to form higher-order self-association complexes that contribute to the avidity of TRIM5α for the HIV-1 capsid, and are essential to inhibit infection; these higher-order self-association complexes are dependent upon an intact B-box 2 domain. Even though the ability to form higher-order self-association complexes resembles the clathrin triskelion that forms a protein array, or cage, around the endocytic vesicle, evidence for the ability of TRIM5α to assemble a similar type of structure surrounding the HIV-1 core has been lacking. Recent work by Ganser-Pornillos, Chandrasekaran and colleagues has now demonstrated the ability of the restriction factor TRIM5α to “cage” or “net” the HIV-1 core by forming an hexagonal array on the surface of the viral capsid [1]. This hexagonal array is strikingly similar in design to the array formed by the clathrin triskelion on the surface of the clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. This remarkable finding represents an important advance on our understanding of the restriction factor TRIM5α, and suggests that TRIM5α cages the HIV-1 core in order to terminate infection. The present note discusses the implications of this discovery.

  8. Growth of Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii, Pimelodidae in cages at different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saula Corrêa Afonso de Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of densities 8, 32, 56 and 80 fish/m3 on the productive performance of Pimelodus maculatus in 1m3 cages installed in 0.19ha earthen ponds without water renewal, located on private property in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina. Fish were fed daily with extruded commercial ration containing 32% of crude protein, in a proportion of 5.0% of the stocked biomass. Fish were sampled monthly (30% of the stocked fish in each cage to evaluate length, weight, specific growth rate, survival, condition factor and biomass. Final length and weight were the same at densities 8, 32 and 56 fish/m3, with values higher than those registered with 80 fish/m3. The survival was the same at the different densities, with a mean of 91.4 ± 5.4%, whereas a higher biomass was registered with 56 and 80 fish/m3. The results showed that density influences fish growth and indicated 56 fish/m3 as the ideal for the performance of P. maculatus juveniles. However, additional information must be produced to optimize the species biomass production.

  9. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2013-03-01

    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2-15 years old) that had been housed in a group for at least 7 months were moved to three kinds of single cages (small, medium and large) by rotation on a Latin square design. They experienced each cage size for 6 days. Cats could use vertical dimensions when housed in a group room and the large cage. Behavioral observation was conducted for 3 h in the evening, and stress levels were assessed by urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios. The amounts (estimated proportions) of time spent in locomotion and social/solitary play were lower even in large cages than in group housing (both P < 0.05). Conversely, the amount of time spent resting tended to increase when housed singly (P = 0.104). The urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratios of singly housed cats tended to be higher than that of group-housed cats (P = 0.086). The results indicate that cats become less active when they are housed singly in cages regardless of the cage size. Cats seem to feel no undue stress even in small cages if the stay is short. PMID:23480709

  10. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-01

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  11. Jamming vs Caging in Three Dimensional Jamming Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokef, Yair; Segall, Nimrod; Teomy, Eial

    We study a three-dimensional kinetically-constrained lattice-gas model, in which the ability of a particle to move depends on the occupation of neighboring sites in an orientational manner. The kinetic rules are constructed such that chains of permanently-frozen particles reach an infinite length at the critical density of directed percolation. Thus at this critical density the system undergoes a jamming transition, above which there is a finite fraction of jammed particles. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional mesh-like structure of the one-dimensional jammed chains enables the free particles to propagate through the holes in this mesh. This diffusive motion is terminated at a second critical density above which all particles are caged. The largest and second largest clusters of dynamically-connected sites exhibit singularities at both densities. Thus our model assists in separating between the two distinct phenomena of jamming and caging.

  12. Cages and Anomalous Diffusion in Vibrated Dense Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalliet, Camille; Gnoli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2015-05-01

    A vertically shaken granular medium hosts a blade rotating around a fixed vertical axis, which acts as a mesorheological probe. At high densities, independently of the shaking intensity, the blade's dynamics shows strong caging effects, marked by transient subdiffusion and a maximum in the velocity power density spectrum, at a resonant frequency ˜10 Hz . Interpreting the data through a diffusing harmonic cage model allows us to retrieve the elastic constant of the granular medium and its collective diffusion coefficient. For high frequencies f , a tail ˜1 /f in the velocity power density spectrum reveals nontrivial correlations in the intracage microdynamics. At very long times (larger than 10 s), a superdiffusive behavior emerges, ballistic in the most extreme cases. Consistently, the distribution of slow velocity inversion times τ displays a power-law decay, likely due to persistent collective fluctuations of the host medium.

  13. Cages and anomalous diffusion in vibrated dense granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalliet, Camille; Gnoli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2015-05-15

    A vertically shaken granular medium hosts a blade rotating around a fixed vertical axis, which acts as a mesorheological probe. At high densities, independently of the shaking intensity, the blade's dynamics shows strong caging effects, marked by transient subdiffusion and a maximum in the velocity power density spectrum, at a resonant frequency ~10 Hz. Interpreting the data through a diffusing harmonic cage model allows us to retrieve the elastic constant of the granular medium and its collective diffusion coefficient. For high frequencies f, a tail ~1/f in the velocity power density spectrum reveals nontrivial correlations in the intracage microdynamics. At very long times (larger than 10 s), a superdiffusive behavior emerges, ballistic in the most extreme cases. Consistently, the distribution of slow velocity inversion times τ displays a power-law decay, likely due to persistent collective fluctuations of the host medium. PMID:26024199

  14. Faraday cage angled-etching of nanostructures in bulk dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Latawiec, Pawel; Burek, Michael J.; Sohn, Young-Ik; Lončar, Marko

    2016-01-01

    For many emerging optoelectronic materials, heteroepitaxial growth techniques do not offer the same high material quality afforded by bulk, single-crystal growth. However, the need for optical, electrical, or mechanical isolation at the nanoscale level often necessitates the use of a dissimilar substrate, upon which the active device layer stands. Faraday cage angled-etching (FCAE) obviates the need for these planar, thin-film technologies by enabling in-situ device release and isolation thro...

  15. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should spec...

  16. Effect of Cage-Wash Temperature on the Removal of Infectious Agents from Caging and the Detection of Infectious Agents on the Filters of Animal Bedding-Disposal Cabinets by PCR Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Susan R; Macy, James D

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconvert...

  17. Energy saving work of frequency controlled induction cage machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy saving work, understood as lowering the supply voltage when load torque is much less than rated, is one way of reducing power losses in an induction cage machine working with a variable load. Reduction in power losses also affects the thermal properties of an induction machine because the energy saving work allows the temperature rise of the windings to decrease. Thanks to a lower temperature of the windings, the same load torque can be carried by a machine of less rated power. The ability of energy saving work to reduce the temperature of windings depends on the thermal properties of an induction machine, which are different in the case of a machine with foreign ventilation and its own ventilation. This paper deals with the thermal effect of energy saving work on a frequency controlled induction cage machine. A comparison of the properties of a machine with its own and outside ventilation is presented. The results of the investigations are shown for a 3 kW induction cage machine with the two previously mentioned ways of ventilation: one provided with a fan placed on a shaft and the other provided with a fan driven by an auxiliary motor

  18. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella in flocks housed in enriched cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, P; Ducrot, A; Burie, J-B; Beaumont, C

    2015-04-01

    Salmonellosis is a foodborne disease of humans and animals caused by infection with Salmonella. The aim of this paper is to improve a deterministic model (DM) and an individual-based model (IBM) with reference to Salmonella propagation in flocks of laying hens taking into account variations in hens housed in the same cage and to compare both models. The spatio-temporal evolution, the basic reproduction number, R 0, and the speed of wave propagation were computed for both models. While in most cases the DM allows summary of all the features of the model in the formula for computation of R 0, slight differences between individuals or groups may be observed with the IBM that could not be expected from the DM, especially when initial environmental contamination is very low and some cages may get rid of bacteria. Both models suggest that the cage size plays a role on the risk and speed of propagation of the bacteria, which should be considered when designing new breeding systems. PMID:25084397

  20. Blood parameters in fattening pigs fed whole-ear corn silage and housed in group pens or in metabolic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Petrera, F; Dal Prà, A; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of whole-ear corn silage (WECS) in diets for advanced fattening heavy pigs (substitution for part of the dry corn and wheat bran) allocated or not in metabolic cages on the main blood parameters. The high-moisture shelled corn is largely used in pig feeding while WECS is less often used despite the fact that it increases the DM crop yield. Three experimental diets were fed to 27 barrows (Italian Large White × Italian Duroc), with an average BW of 98.2 (±5.6) kg at the start of the trial, and randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups including a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals (corn, barley, and wheat, 80.2% DM in total), soybean meal (9% DM), wheat bran (8% DM), minerals and supplements (2.8% DM), and 2 diets containing WECS (15 or 30% DM referred to as 15WECS and 30WECS, respectively) in partial or complete substitution for wheat bran and corn meal. The pigs were randomly housed in 9 pens with 3 animals per pen and 3 pens per dietary treatment. Six pigs per each of the 3 treatments were moved from the pens to individual metabolic cages for 3 consecutive periods (2 pigs per treatment per period). Each period lasted 14 d, and blood was collected at the start and at the end of the periods. Blood was drawn from the jugular vein before feed distribution in the morning, at 14 d intervals, and analyzed for hematological, metabolic, and serum protein profiles. The effect of the metabolic cage housing was included in the statistical model to compare the results obtained in the 2 different environments of restrained and group-housed barrows. The WECS affected the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The main diet effect on plasma metabolites was recorded for plasma NEFA, with higher values in WECS diets compared with the CON. The metabolic cage housing affected both hematological (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) and metabolic (protein and

  1. Flow Field Characteristics of the Rotor Cage in Turbo Air Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lijie; LIU Jiaxiang; LIU Shengzhao

    2009-01-01

    The turbo air classifier is widely used powder classification equipment in a variety of fields. The flow field characteristics of the turbo air classifier are important basis for the improvement of the turbo air classifier's structural design. The flow field characteristics of the rotor cage in turbo air classifiers were investigated under different operating conditions by laser Doppler velocimeter(LDV), and a measure diminishing the axial velocity is proposed. The investigation results show that the tangential velocity of the air flow inside the rotor cage is different from the rotary speed of the rotor cage on the same measurement point due to the influences of both the negative pressure at the exit and the rotation of the rotor cage. The tangential velocity of the air flow likewise decreases as the radius decreases in the case of the rotor cage's low rotary speed. In contrast, the tangential velocity of the air flow increases as the radius decreases in the case of the rotor cage's high rotary speed. Meanwhile, the vortex inside the rotor cage is found to occur near the pressure side of the blade when the rotor cage's rotary speed is less than the tangential velocity of air flow. On the contrary, the vortex is found to occur near the blade suction side once the rotor cage's rotary speed is higher than the tangential velocity of air flow. Inside the rotor cage, the axial velocity could not be disregarded and is largely determined by the distances between the measurement point and the exit.

  2. Influence of 5 Different Caging Types and the Use of Cage-Changing Stations on Mouse Allergen Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Feistenauer, Susan; Sander, Ingrid; Schmidt, Jörg; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika; Brielmeier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Animal allergens constitute a serious health risk in laboratory animal facilities. To assess possibilities for allergen reduction by technical and organizational measures, we studied personnel exposure to mouse urinary aeroallergens in an animal facility with a holding capacity of 30,000 cages. Short-term (2 h) and intermediate-term (12 h) stationary samples (n = 107) and short-term (2 h) personnel samples (n = 119) were collected on polytetrafluorethylene filters by using air pumps. Long-ter...

  3. New caged neurotransmitter analogs selective for glutamate receptor sub-types based on methoxynitroindoline and nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl caging groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palma-Cerda, F.; Auger, C.; Crawford, D.J.; Hodgson, A.C.C.; Reynolds, S.J.; Cowell, J.K.; Swift, K.A.D.; Cais, Ondřej; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Corrie, J.E.T.; Ogden, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 4 (2012), s. 624-634. ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0271 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2007-037765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : photolysis * glutamate receptors * caged neurotransmitters Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.114, year: 2012

  4. Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (phens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (phens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (phens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs. PMID:26954171

  5. Clinical outcomes of two types of cages used in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases: n-HA/PA66 cages versus PEEK cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qian-Xing; Ou, Yun-Sheng; Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Zeng-Hui; Liu, Bo; Huang, Qiu; Du, Xing; Jiang, Dian-Ming

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the clinical effects of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cages (n-HA/PA66 cages) and compares the clinical outcomes between n-HA/PA66 and polyetheretherketone cages (PEEK cages) for application in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A retrospective and case-control study involving 124 patients using n-HA/PA66 cages and 142 patients using PEEK cages was conducted. All patients underwent TLIF and had an average of 2-years of follow-up. The Oswestry Disability Index and Visual Analog Scale were selected to assess the pain of low back and leg, as well as neurological status. The intervertebral space height and segmental angle were also measured to estimate the radiological changes. At the 1-year and final follow-ups, the fusion and subsidence rates were evaluated. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding clinical and radiological results. At the final follow-up, the bony fusion rate was 92.45 and 91.57 % for the n-HA/PA66 and PEEK groups, respectively, and the subsidence rate was 7.55 and 8.99 %, respectively. The study indicated that both n-HA/PA66 and PEEK cages could promote effective clinical and radiographic outcomes when used to treat degenerative lumbar diseases. The high fusion and low subsidence rates revealed that n-HA/PA66 cages could be an alternative ideal choice as the same to PEEK cages for lumbar reconstruction after TLIF. PMID:27091044

  6. Utilization of Poultry Waste (Composted Caged-Layer) as a Supplement for Sheep Fed Straw During Late Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    R., Raul Meneses

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of composed caged-layer waste (CCLW) in diets for pregnant ewes fed cereal straw was evaluated. Five sheep were assigned to five diets containing, 0, 5.72, 11.37, 23.80, and 32.69% CCLW in a 5x5 Latin square design. Water intake, feed intake and feces output were measured. Feed and feces were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), organic matter, hemicellulose and minerals. Thus, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen ba...

  7. Reproductive Performance of Mice in Disposable and Standard Individually Ventilated Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Danielle R; Bailey, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the reproductive performance of mice housed in 2 types of individually ventilated caging systems. Breeding pairs from 48 female and 24 male mice of 3 established transgenic mouse breeding colonies were placed in either a standard or disposable ventilated caging system. For 3 breeding cycles, the number of pups born, pup survival rate to weaning, time interval between litters, and pup weights were monitored for each breeding pair. Disposable and standard cages were maintain...

  8. Are assemblages of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata enhanced in sediments beneath offshore fish cages?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Riera; Oscar Prez; Myriam Rodrguez; Eva Ramos; scar Monterroso

    2014-01-01

    Abundances of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata were counted through a monitoring assessment study of fish cages in Barranco Hondo (NE Tenerife). Seven campaigns were conducted from November 2007 to June 2010 and temporal variations were found, as well as differences among sampling stations. The poly-chaete H. carunculata obtained its highest abundance in sediments beneath fish cages throughout the study period. Thus, the assemblages of this omnivorous species were favoured by the presence of fish cages.

  9. Healing properties of allograft from alendronate-treated animal in lumbar spine interbody cage fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Qingyun; Li, Haisheng; Zou, Xuenong; Bünger, Mathias; Egund, Niels; Lind, Martin; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Bünger, Cody

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the healing potential of allograft from bisphosphonate-treated animals in anterior lumbar spine interbody fusion. Three levels of anterior lumbar interbody fusion with Brantigan cages were performed in two groups of five landrace pigs. Empty Brantigan cages or cages filled with either autograft or allograft were located randomly at different levels. The allograft materials for the treatment group were taken from the pigs that had been fed with alendronate, 10 mg daily ...

  10. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Shields; Michael Greger

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated wi...

  11. Individually Ventilated Cages Impose Cold Stress on Laboratory Mice: A Source of Systemic Experimental Variability

    OpenAIRE

    David, John M.; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M.; Stout, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermor...

  12. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Hrabčáková; Eva Voslářová; Iveta Bedáňová; Vladimíra Pištěková; Jan Chloupek; Vladimír Večerek

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P ...

  13. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Skye; Miller, Melinda M.; Filipski, Sarah B.; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables and husbandry practices can influence physiology and alter behavior in mice. Our study evaluated the effects of cage change on serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL/6 male mice. We examined the effects of 3 different methods of performing cage transfer and of transferring mice to a clean or a dirty familiar cage microenvironment. The 3 different handling methods were forceps transfer, gentle transfer with gloved hands, and a passive transfer t...

  14. Progesterone After Estradiol Modulates Shuttle-Cage Escape by Facilitating Volition

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeaux, Darryl J.; Tandle, Sarah M.; Cilano, Sean M.; Fitzharris, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In animal models of depression, depression is defined as performance on a learning task. That task is typically escaping a mild electric shock in a shuttle cage by moving from one side of the cage to the other. Ovarian hormones influence learning in other kinds of tasks, and these hormones are associated with depressive symptoms in humans. The role of these hormones in shuttle-cage escape learning, however, is less clear. This study manipulated estradiol and progesterone in ovariectomized fem...

  15. Stand-alone LLIF Lateral Cage Migration: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Wendy S; Kurtom, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral approaches to the lumbar disc space have become popular in recent years with very few reported complications. We report on a rare case of a stand-alone cage migration. A 77-year-old female presented with a right L2-3 radiculopathy that was refractory to maximum medical management. This was secondary to foraminal compression at L2-3 and L3-4 due to degenerative disc disease and levoscoliosis, as well as Grade 1 spondylolisthesis at both levels. A left-sided approach lateral lumbar interbody fusion was performed at L2-3 and L3-4 using a lordotic polyetheretherketone (PEEK) graft (50 mm length x 18 mm width x 9 mm height) packed with demineralized bone matrix (DBM). A contralateral release of the annulus fibrosis was performed during the decompression prior to graft insertion. Postoperative anteroposterior and lateral x-ray imaging confirmed good position of interbody grafts, correction of scoliosis as well as spondylolisthesis, and restoration of disc height achieving foraminal indirect decompression. A routine postoperative x-ray at three months demonstrated asymptomatic ipsilateral cage migration at the L2-3 level with evidence of arthrodesis in the disc space. This was managed conservatively without further surgical intervention. Placement of a lateral plate or interbody intradiscal plating system in patients with scoliosis and significant coronal deformity is an option that can be considered to prevent this rare LLIF complication. Moreover, asymptomatic cage migration may be conservatively managed without reoperation. PMID:26623202

  16. Hollow Gold Cages and Their Topological Relationship to Dual Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombach, Lukas; Rampino, Sergio; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2016-06-20

    Golden fullerenes have recently been identified by photoelectron spectra by Bulusu et al. [S. Bulusu, X. Li, L.-S. Wang, X. C. Zeng, PNAS 2006, 103, 8326-8330]. These unique triangulations of a sphere are related to fullerene duals having exactly 12 vertices of degree five, and the icosahedral hollow gold cages previously postulated are related to the Goldberg-Coxeter transforms of C20 starting from a triangulated surface (hexagonal lattice, dual of a graphene sheet). This also relates topologically the (chiral) gold nanowires observed to the (chiral) carbon nanotubes. In fact, the Mackay icosahedra well known in gold cluster chemistry are related topologically to the dual halma transforms of the smallest possible fullerene C20 . The basic building block here is the (111) fcc sheet of bulk gold which is dual to graphene. Because of this interesting one-to-one relationship through Euler's polyhedral formula, there are as many golden fullerene isomers as there are fullerene isomers, with the number of isomers Niso increasing polynomially as O(Niso9 ). For the recently observed Au16- , Au17- , and Au18- we present simulated photoelectron spectra including all isomers. We also predict the photoelectron spectrum of Au32- . The stability of the golden fullerenes is discussed in relation with the more compact structures for the neutral and negatively charged Au12 to Au20 and Au32 clusters. As for the compact gold clusters we observe a clear trend in stability of the hollow gold cages towards the (111) fcc sheet. The high stability of the (111) fcc sheet of gold compared to the bulk 3D structure explains the unusual stability of these hollow gold cages. PMID:27244703

  17. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  18. Temporal variation of the static electric field inside an animal cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, T; Tsuchida, Y; Nishiyama, F; Matsumoto, G; Nakamura, H; Shimizu, K

    1981-01-01

    The temporal variation of a static electric field inside an animal cage was investigated with a newly developed small, simple field meter. The field inside the cage was found to be highly dependent on the surface conductivity of the dielectric material. As the surface of the cage became dirty because of animal occupancy, the static electric field inside it became considerably smaller from the moment the field was turned on. Clean cages also modified the static electric field inside them, the field decaying from an initial to a much lower value over several hours. The mechanism of field attenuation for both cases is surface leakage. Surface leakage for a clean cage takes place much more slowly than for a dirty cage. This was confirmed by measuring DC insulation resistance. To examine this phenomenon further, the field in a metal cage width high electrical conductivity was measured. The static electric field inside the metal cage was also found to be reduced. An improved cage design that avoids these problems, is suggested for the study of the biologic effects of static electric fields. PMID:7326060

  19. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production. PMID:27478744

  20. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Moe, Randi O; Hansen, Tone B; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  1. Size effect of fullerene cages and encaged clusters in M3N@C2n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the calculated findings that the sizes of encaged clusters determine the structures and the stability of C80-based trimetallic nitride fullerenes (TNFs), more extensive density functional theory calculations were performed on M3N@C68, M3N@C78 and M3N@C80 (M=Sc, Y and La). The calculated results demonstrated that the structures and stability undergo a transition with the increasing of the sizes of the cages and clusters. Sc3N is planar inside the three considered cages, Y3N is slightly pyramidal inside C68-6140 and C78-5 and planar inside I h C80-7, however, La3N is pyramidal inside all the three cages. Those cages with pyramidal clusters inside deformed considerably, compared with their parent cages. In these cases, the bonding of metallic atoms toward the cages does not play an impor-tant role, and the encaged cluster tends to be located inside the cages with the largest M-M and M-C distances so that the strain energy can be released mostly. These calculations revealed the size effect of fullerene cages and encaged clusters, and can explain the position priority of M3N inside fullerene cages and the differences in yield of M3N@C2n.

  2. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  3. Effects of Cage Density on the Performance of Laying Hens During High Summer Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Altan, Ali; ALTAN, Özge; ÖZKAN, Sezen; ÖZKAN, Kahraman; AKBAŞ, Yavuz; Ayhan, Veysel

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different cage densities on laying performance of white and brown hybrid layers during high summer temperatures. White layers, 68 weeks of age, were housed at a density of 3, 4 or 5 hens/cage (respectively 640, 480 and 384 cm2/hen); brown layers were housed at 3 or 4 hens/cage (respectively 640 and 480 cm2/hen). The results indicated that housing at 3 or 4 hens/cage did not affect egg production or egg quality significantly. Increasing t...

  4. Effects of Nominal Differences in Cage Height and Floor Space on the Wellbeing of Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kay L; Suckow, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits. Groups of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were housed in cages that provided either 15 in. of interior cage height (720 in(2) of floor space) or 18 in. of interior height (784 in(2) of floor space). The rabbits were observed during 25 periods (1 h each) over 7 wk, and various behavioral parameters were scored. In addition, rabbits were weighed weekly, and general clinical health was assessed. After 4 wk, the groups were switched to the alternate housing. No significant differences in body weight gain or behavioral parameters were detected between groups housed in cages with different heights and amounts of floor space, nor were significant behavioral differences noted in individual rabbits when moved from one cage type to the other. In addition, all rabbits remained clinically healthy throughout the study. These results demonstrate that these differences in interior cage height neither benefit nor harm rabbits. PMID:27025808

  5. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n......=46) or standard cages (2.550 cm², n=44). Behavioural observations were made four weeks before birth until kits were nine weeks old with one-zero sampling during two hours before feeding. During week 1-4 after females had given birth they were mostly recorded in the nest box and there were no...... differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...

  6. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values heavy metal contents and a potential use in agricultural soils, which could reduce the risks of water pollution on water from fish farming. PMID:16962324

  7. DESIGN OF AUTOMATED ROTORY CAGE TYPE FIXTURE FOR CYLINDER BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S.Kapnichor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system involved all the mechanical components along with the sensors used to restrict the rotating operations, stop and go operations etc.

  8. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S.Kapnichor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system involved all the mechanical components along with the sensors used to restrict the rotating operations, stop and go operations etc.

  9. Experimental Determination of Stray Load Losses in Cage Induction Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Aoulkadi, M´hamed

    2011-01-01

    With different purposeful measurements like for the stray load losses and the flux densities, on two low-voltage squirrel-cage rotor asynchronous generators for 1.5 MW wind turbines with different types of the stator winding (litz and round wire), the sources of the losses and the causes for the winding overheating are localized and defined. Different measures to reduce the stray load losses due the skin effect in the stator of the round wire winding generator are successfully tested and impl...

  10. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Esakkidurai; M Kumarraja; K Pitchumani

    2003-04-01

    Phenol is nitrated regioselectively by fuming nitric acid inside the cages of faujasite zeolites (dependent on the loading level) and a remarkable orthoselectivity is observed in solid state nitration. Toluene and chlorobenzene also containing ortho-/para-orienting substituents, undergo faster nitration, though the regioselectivity is less significant in zeolite media. The results are explained on the basis of diffusion and binding of phenol inside zeolite, which facilitate regioselectivity (and which is absent in toluene and chlorobenzene). Other advantages of employing zeolites as media for mild and selective nitration are also highlighted.

  11. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  12. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to

  13. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Comparison of titanium and polyetheretherketone cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabraja Mario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Titanium (TTN cages have a higher modulus of elasticity when compared with polyetheretherketone (PEEK cages. This suggests that TTN-cages could show more frequent cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF and therefore might lead to a higher loss of correction. We compared the long term results of stand-alone PEEK- and TTN-cages in a comparable patient collective that was operated under identical operative settings. Methods From 2002 to 2007 154 patients underwent single-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease (DDD. Clinical and radiological outcome were assessed in 86 eligible patients after a mean of 28.4 months. 44 patients received a TTN- and 42 patients a PEEK-cage. Results Solid arthrodesis was found in 93.2% of the TTN-group and 88.1% of the PEEK-group. Cage subsidence was observed in 20.5% of the TTN- and 14.3% of the PEEK-group. A significant segmental lordotic correction was achieved by both cage-types. Even though a loss of correction was found at the last follow-up in both groups, it did not reach the level of statistical significance. Statistical analysis of these results revealed no differences between the TTN- and PEEK-group. When assessed with the neck disability index (NDI, the visual analogue scale (VAS of neck and arm pain and Odom’s criteria the clinical data showed no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of ACDF with TTN- or PEEK-cages do not appear to be influenced by the chosen synthetic graft. The modulus of elasticity represents only one of many physical properties of a cage. Design, shape, size, surface architecture of a cage as well as bone density, endplate preparation and applied distraction during surgery need to be considered as further important factors.

  14. Outcome of single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66 cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cages have been widely used for the anterior reconstruction and fusion of cervical spine. Nonmetal cages have become popular due to prominent stress shielding and high rate of subsidence of metallic cages. This study aims to assess fusion with n-HA/PA66 cage following one level anterior cervical discectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty seven consecutive patients with radiculopathy or myelopathy underwent single level ACDF using n-HA/PA66 cage. We measured the segmental lordosis and intervertebral disc height on preoperative radiographs and then calculated the loss of segmental lordosis correction and cage subsidence over followup. Fusion status was evaluated on CT scans. Odom criteria, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA and Visual Analog Pain Scales (VAS scores were used to assess the clinical results. Statistically quantitative data were analyzed while Categorical data by χ2 test. Results: Mean correction of segmental lordosis from surgery was 6.9 ± 3.0° with a mean loss of correction of 1.7 ± 1.9°. Mean cage subsidence was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm and the rate of cage subsidence (>2 mm was 2%. The rate of fusion success was 100%. No significant difference was found on clinical or radiographic outcomes between the patients (n=27 who were fused by n-HA/PA66 cage with pure local bone and the ones (n=20 with hybrid bone (local bone associating with bone from iliac crest. Conclusions: The n-HA/PA66 cage is a satisfactory reconstructing implant after anterior cervical discectomy, which can effectively promote bone graft fusion and prevent cage subsidence.

  15. Animal welfare beyond the cage...and beyond the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    In "Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage," Balcombe (2010/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and more enriched spaces reduce aggression and mortality and improve the health and friendliness of rodents in the laboratory. Remarkably, many of the studies cited as supporting these assertions fail to provide data bearing on the issues involved or may even report findings opposite to those described by Balcombe, whereas many studies that are highly relevant to these issues are not cited or described. Moreover, although the "evolved needs" of rats and mice are presented as the basis for an analysis of rodent welfare, the important and well-documented changes in needs- or motivation-related behaviors of a rodent in the laboratory (due to human selection over hundreds of generations) is ignored. This pattern of disconnections between data and conclusions is so pervasive as to demolish the scientific value of the exposition. PMID:20017049

  16. [Supplementation of swine feed rations with zeolite during cage rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, P; Chabada, J; Vrzgula, L; Solár, I; Blazovský, J

    1983-07-01

    The effect of the addition of zeolite to pig feed ration was studied in the cage rearing system under production conditions. Zeolite was mixed in the COS I and COS II feed mixtures directly in the feed plant, the mixing ratio being 100 kg feed mixture + 5 kg zeolite. The feed mixture was administered in granular form ad libitum. The test group had 648 weanlings and the control group 674 weanlings; the piglets, kept in two-story cages in four sections, were arranged so that the test group could be a mirror-like reflection of the control group. The trial lasted 45 days. The piglets given the fortified feed ration had daily weight gains higher by 0.017 kg and feed consumption lower by 0.234 kg per 1 kg of gain, as compared with the control animals. The costs of the feed ration required for producing a kilogram of gain were 8.55 Cz. crowns in the zeolite group and 9.422 crowns in the control group. PMID:6312666

  17. Optical triggered seizures using a caged 4-Aminopyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui eZhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of epilepsy are critical not only for understanding the fundamental mechanism of epilepsy but also for testing the efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs and novel therapeutic interventions. Photorelease of caged molecules is widely used in biological research to control pharmacologic events with high spatio-temporal resolution. We developed a technique for in vivo optical triggering of neocortical seizures using a novel caged compound based on ruthenium photochemistry (RuBi-4AP. Epileptiform events were induced with blue light illumination. Multi-electrode array recording and optical techniques were used to characterize the propagation of these epileptic events. Epileptiform events including interictal spikes, polyspikes, and ictal discharges were induced with blue light illumination. This model can be induced in vivo with both whole brain and focal illumination to provide high spatio-temporal control of the site of ictal onset. These results demonstrate a novel optically-triggered seizure model that may have widespread application in the investigation of ictal onset, propagation and in novel light-based therapeutic interventions.

  18. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior. PMID:16363987

  19. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  20. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns. PMID:26237714

  1. Large-scale clustering of CAGE tag expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Jun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses have suggested that many genes possess multiple transcription start sites (TSSs that are differentially utilized in different tissues and cell lines. We have identified a huge number of TSSs mapped onto the mouse genome using the cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE method. The standard hierarchical clustering algorithm, which gives us easily understandable graphical tree images, has difficulties in processing such huge amounts of TSS data and a better method to calculate and display the results is needed. Results We use a combination of hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering to cluster expression profiles of TSSs based on a large amount of CAGE data to profit from the best of both methods. We processed the genome-wide expression data, including 159,075 TSSs derived from 127 RNA samples of various organs of mouse, and succeeded in categorizing them into 70–100 clusters. The clusters exhibited intriguing biological features: a cluster supergroup with a ubiquitous expression profile, tissue-specific patterns, a distinct distribution of non-coding RNA and functional TSS groups. Conclusion Our approach succeeded in greatly reducing the calculation cost, and is an appropriate solution for analyzing large-scale TSS usage data.

  2. Cage Opening of a Carborane Ligand by Metal Cluster Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard D; Kiprotich, Joseph; Peryshkov, Dmitry V; Wong, Yuen Onn

    2016-05-01

    The reaction of Os3 (CO)10 (NCMe)2 with closo-o-C2 B10 H10 has yielded two interconvertible isomers Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -4,5,9-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 a) and Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -3,4,8-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 b) formed by the loss of the two NCMe ligands and one CO ligand from the Os3 cluster. Two BH bonds of the o-C2 B10 H10 were activated in its addition to the osmium cluster. A second triosmium cluster was added to the 1 a/1 b mixture to yield the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)2 (μ3 -4,5,9-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H7 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)3 (2) that contains two triosmium triangles attached to the same carborane cage. When heated, 2 was transformed to the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)(μ3 -3,4,8-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H8 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H) (3) by a novel opening of the carborane cage with loss of H2 . PMID:26971388

  3. Self-Assembly, Guest Capture, and NMR Spectroscopy of a Metal-Organic Cage in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Eun Bin; Srisuknimit, Veerasak; Cheng, Stephanie L.; Vosburg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A green organic-inorganic laboratory experiment has been developed in which students prepare a self-assembling iron cage in D[subscript 2]O at room temperature. The tetrahedral cage captures a small, neutral molecule such as cyclohexane or tetrahydrofuran. [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis distinguishes captured and free guests through diagnostic…

  4. Biomechanische Untersuchung eines biodegradierbaren Cages zur interkorporellen Spondylodese der Halswirbelsäule.

    OpenAIRE

    Gumnior, Sarah Nicole Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical evaluation of a biodegradable cage for interbody fusion at the cervical spine Biomechanical evaluation of a biodegradable cage for interbody fusion in the cervical spine. A in vivo animal study in a sheep model.   Abstract Background Anterior interbody fusion using an intervertebral spacer is a widely accepted surgical treatment for patients with degenerative and traumatic cervical spinal-c...

  5. Healing properties of allograft from alendronate-treated animal in lumbar spine interbody cage fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qingyun; Li, Haisheng; Zou, Xuenong; Bünger, Mathias; Egund, Niels; Lind, Martin; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Bünger, Cody

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the healing potential of allograft from bisphosphonate-treated animals in anterior lumbar spine interbody fusion. Three levels of anterior lumbar interbody fusion with Brantigan cages were performed in two groups of five landrace pigs. Empty Brantigan cages or cages filled with either autograft or allograft were located randomly at different levels. The allograft materials for the treatment group were taken from the pigs that had been fed with alendronate, 10 mg daily for 3 months. The histological fusion rate was 2/5 in alendronate-treated allograft and 3/5 in non-treated allograft. The mean bone volume was 39% and 37.2% in alendronate-treated or non-treated allograft (NS), respectively. No statistical difference was found between the same grafted cage comparing two groups. The histological fusion rate was 7/10 in all autograft cage levels and 5/10 in combined allograft cage levels. No fusion was found at all in empty cage levels. With the numbers available, no statistically significant difference was found in histological fusion between autograft and allograft applications. There was a significant difference of mean bone volume between autograft (49.2%) and empty cage (27.5%) (P<0.01). In conclusion, this study did not demonstrate different healing properties of alendronate-treated and non-treated allograft for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in pigs. PMID:15248057

  6. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  7. Design and synthesis of novel bis-annulated caged polycycles via ring-closing metathesis: pushpakenediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intricate caged molecular frameworks are assembled by an atom economical process via a Diels–Alder (DA reaction, a Claisen rearrangement, a ring-closing metathesis (RCM and an alkenyl Grignard addition. The introduction of olefinic moieties in the pentacycloundecane (PCUD framework at appropriate positions followed by RCM led to the formation of novel heptacyclic cage systems.

  8. Alterations of diaphragm and rib cage morphometry in severe COPD patients by CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salito, C; Luoni, E; Aliverti, A

    2015-08-01

    Although it is known that in patients with COPD acute hyperinflation determines shortening of the inspiratory muscles, its effects on both diaphragm and rib cage morphology are still to be investigated. In this preliminary study the relationships between hyperinflation, emphysema, diaphragm and rib cage geometry were studied in 5 severe COPD patients and 5 healthy subjects. An automatic software was developed to obtain the 3-D reconstruction of diaphragm and rib cage from CT scans taken at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV). Dome surface area (Ado), radius of curvature, length (Ld) and position (referred to xiphoid level) of the diaphragm and antero-posterior (A-P) and transverse (T) diameters of rib cage were calculated at both volumes. Ado and Ld were similar in COPD and controls when compared at similar absolute lung volumes. Radius of curvature was significantly higher in COPD than in controls only at TLC. In COPD, the range of diaphragm position was invariantly below the xiphoid level, while in controls the top of diaphragm dome was always above it. Rib cage diameters were not different at TLC. A-P diameter was greater in COPD than in controls at RV, while T diameters were similar. In conclusion, in severe COPD diaphragm and rib cage geometry is altered at RV. The lower position of diaphragm is associated to smaller A-P but not transversal rib cage diameters, such that rib cage adopts a more circular shape. PMID:26737755

  9. Tuneable dynamics of a scandium nitride cluster inside an Ih-C80 cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Wang, Taishan; Xiang, Junfeng; Gan, Lihua; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Li; Wang, Chunru

    2015-02-01

    The internal clusters in metallofullerenes usually exhibit certain motion that is potentially usable in molecular gyroscopes and nano-machines. Based on (45)Sc NMR, the motion of the scandium nitride cluster within the C80 cage was investigated via varying the temperature and modifying the cage, and by changing the cluster size. PMID:25558825

  10. Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.R.; Alaux, C.; Costa, C.; Csaki, C.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adult honey bees are maintained in vitro in laboratory cages for a variety of purposes. For example, researchers may wish to perform experiments on honey bees caged individually or in groups to study aspects of parasitology, toxicology, or physiology under highly controlled conditions, or they may c

  11. Modulation of aggression in male mice : influence of group size and cage size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Mol, JA; Koolhaas, JM; Van Zutphen, BFM; Baumans, [No Value; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Zutphen, Bert F.M. van; Baumans, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Aggression in group-housed male mice is known to be influenced by both cage size and group size. However, the interdependency of these two parameters has not been studied yet. In this study, the level of aggression in groups of three, five, or eight male BALB/c mice housed in cages with a floor size

  12. A pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene cage: Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent A.; Jeppesen, Jan O.; Levillain, Eric;

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of tetrathiafulvalene-cage 4 containing three monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene units has been prepared employing a general and efficient synthetic approach. X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that the cage is able to accommodate solvent molecules within a cavity in the solid state....

  13. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  14. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  15. Outcome of instrumented lumbar fusion for low grade spondylolisthesis; Evaluation of interbody fusion with & without cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, Mostafa; Fahmy, Mohamed; Fakhri, Mazen; Aref, Khaled; Abdin, Khaled; Zidan, Ihab

    2010-01-01

    Object: The aim is to evalute the outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with autologous bone graft versus titanium Cages, BAK system (Bagby – Kuslich, Spine Tech, Inc. Minneapolis, MN) for low grade spondyloisthesis (Grade1,11). Interbody cages have been developed to replace tricortical Interbody grafts in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedures. The cages provide immediate post operative stability and facilitate bony union with cancellous bone packed in the cage itself. METHOD: We Evaluated 50 consecutive patients in whom surgery was performed between June 2000 to June 2003 in the Main Alexandria University Hospital at EGYPT. Twenty five patients were operated using autologous bone graft and 25 patients using the BAK cages. The neuro–radiologic al work up consisted of; plain X – ray lumbosacral spine including dynamic films preoperative and postoperative follow up; C.T lumbosacral spine and MRI lumbosacral spine. The surgery was performed at L4-5 level in 34 cases and at L5-S1 level in 16 cases. The median follow up was 15 months. RESULTS: Satisfactory fusion was obtained at all levels at a minimum one year follow – up. The fusion rate was 96% (24 patients) for the cage group and 80% (20 patients) for bone graft group however clinical improvement was 64% (16 patients) for those with bone graft group. CONCLUSION: A higher fusion rates and a better clinical outcome have been obtained by Instrumented PLIF with titanium cages that with bone graft. Inderbody fusion cages help to stabilize spainal segment primarily by distracting them as well as by allowing bone ingrowth and fusion. The procedure is safe and effective with 96% fusion rate and 76% overall Satisfactory rate. The use of cages help to distract the space between the vertebral bodies making the correction of the degree of spondylolisthesis easier. Long term follow up revealed better fusion rate and better realignment and less resorption with cages than with bone grafts. PMID

  16. Resonance Spectra of Caged Stringy Black Hole and Its Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I

    2015-01-01

    The Maggiore's method (MM), which evaluates the transition frequency that appears in the adiabatic invariant from the highly damped quasinormal mode (QNM) frequencies, is used to investigate the entropy/area spectra of the Garfinkle--Horowitz--Strominger black hole (GHSBH). Instead of the ordinary QNMs, we compute the boxed QNMs (BQNMs) that are the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined scalar fields in the GHSBH geometry. For this purpose, we assume that the GHSBH has a confining cavity (mirror) placed in the vicinity of the event horizon. We then show how the complex resonant frequencies of the caged GHSBH are computed using the Bessel differential equation that arises when the scalar perturbations around the event horizon are considered. Although the entropy/area is characterized by the GHSBH parameters, their quantization is shown to be independent of those parameters. However, both spectra are equally spaced.

  17. CAGE Analysis of China’s Trade Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun STOBER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gravity model of international trade states that trade interaction between two countries is in direct proportion to their size measured by Gross Domestic Product and in inverse proportion to the geographic distance. Conley and Ligon (2001 argued that the relevant economic distance between countries is often not the geographic distance. Thus, this study uses original datasets on economic distance to structure observed variations, to decompose the multidimensional CAGE distance framework of globalization derived from the Newton’s Law of gravitation as it applies to China’s international interaction, to evaluate bilateral trade patterns in identifying and prioritizing the importance of cross-border flows and differences that accounted for the development of China’s global strategies. This study confirms that distance must be accounted for in the decision making of any country’s globalization process or any firm’s global expansion as the effects on cross-border economic activities are enormous.

  18. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices

  19. Gaiola de metabolismo para equinos Metabolism cage for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt Vitti

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available A gaiola de metabolismo, modelo proposto neste trabalho, foi construida na Seção de Oficina da FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP e utilizada no Laboratório de Ciências Animais do Cena-USP, Piracicaba-SP. Este equipamento permite alojar eqüinos machos com idade a partir do desmame. Os animais foram treinados (condicionados diariamente a permanecer na gaiola de metabolismo por um período de aproximadamente 30 dias antes do início do experimento. O material necessário e a construção de uma gaiola metabólica para eqüinos machos é descrita e ilustrada. A estrutura principal da gaiola (2,68 m de comprimento x 0,80 m de largura x 2,02 m de altura é constituida por canos de metal de duas polegadas e todas as unidades de apoio - tábuas do piso, grade de urina, bebedouro, comedouro, bandeja coletora de urina e barras de contenção - estão fixas à estrutura principal de modo a serem removidas desta, faciltando o manejo e a limpeza do equipamento. O equipamento foi projetado para alojar animais de vários tamanhos e também para ser efetiva na coleta total de fezes e urina e no fornecimento de alimento e água. Os animais permaneceram em pé durante todo o período de confinamento, sem contudo ter havido a ocorrência de edemas graves nos membros. O modelo proposto foi testado em experimentos de metabolismo de fósforo utilizando-se radioisótopos.The metabolism cage here proposed was built at FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and used in the Animal Science Laboratory at Cena-USP, Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The equipment allows to host male horses from weaning to adult age. Before starting the experiment, the animals were daily conditioned for a 30-day period to remain in the cage. The necessary material and the building process of the horse metabolic cage are described and illustrated. The main structure of the cage (2.68m long x 0.80 m wide x 2.02 m high was made of 2-inch-diameter metal tube, and all the

  20. Role of cage material, working style and hearing sensitivity in perception of animal care noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, H-M; Nevalainen, T; Halonen, P; Hakumäki, M; Björk, E

    2006-10-01

    During daily care, laboratory animals are exposed to a variety of sounds which may have effects on welfare and also cause physiological and behavioural changes. So far, almost no attention has been paid to individual sounds or the sound level caused by animal care or the sound level inside the animal cage. In this study, sounds from selected rat care procedures were recorded: pulling cage out of the rack, placing it onto a table and replacing the cage back into the rack; with measurements made inside the rat cage and in the adjacent cage. Diet was poured into the food hopper and sounds were recorded inside the cage and also the adjacent cage. The work was repeated in a calm and also in a hurried style, using stainless steel and polycarbonate cages. Finally, the sounds produced by running tap water were recorded. Differences between rat and human hearing were compared using novel species-specific sound level weightings: R-weighting for rats dB(R) and H-weighting for human dB(H). Hurried work with steel caused sound exposure levels exceeding 90 dB(R) when the cages were placed into the rack and about 80 dB(R) when pulling them out of the rack or placing onto a table. With polycarbonate, the levels were 10-15 dB(R) lower. Unhurried calm working produced lower sound exposure levels than hurried working in many procedures. When the procedures were repeated with measurements in the adjacent cage, the sound exposure levels were lower, but the results were similar. Pouring food pellets into a hopper above the rat's head caused 15 dB(R) higher sound exposure levels than pouring food to an adjacent cage. In general, humans hear these sounds about 10-15 dB louder than rats. In conclusion, cage material, working style and hearing sensitivity all have an impact on the sound exposure level in the rodent cage. With correct working methods, high sound levels can be efficiently avoided in most cases. PMID:17018211

  1. Comparative growth in cages of three strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: common, chitralada and mixed race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Patrocínio Lopes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to compare the performance of three strains of Nile tilapia, chitralada (T1, a common lineage (T2 and a mixed race (T3, in cages over a period of 98 days. The fish were stocked in nine cages with a volume of 1m3 each, where there were 200 fish/m3, in a pond that was 2,500m2 and 1.6m deep. The study had three replications, and the tilapia were fed a diet containing 32% crude protein with pellets that were 4-6mm. Measurements were made by sampling 20 fish/tank. Variables in water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity were monitored weekly at 5am. We compared weight gain, feed conversion, biomass, specific growth rate and survival. The mixed race was not significantly different when compared to chitralada lineage, but when these two strains were compared to the common lineage, there was a significant difference for weight gain, specific growth and biomass. The feed conversion did not differ significantly between treatments (1.66; 1.68; 1.47. The survival of the mixed race did not differ when compared to the other strains; however, the chitralada lineage differed significantly from the common strain (97.67%; 94.00%. The results indicate that the mixed race adapted to the culture system evaluated.

  2. Digestibility and behavior of dogs housed in kennels or metabolic cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabyta Tamara Sabchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the apparent digestibility coefficients of a commercial dog food, fecal consistency and behavior of dogs housed in kennels and metabolic cages. Six adult Beagle dogs were distributed in cross-over experimental design, with six replicates per treatment. Dogs were housed in two environments: metabolic cages and in masonry kennels with solarium. Dogs were fed for a five-day adaptation period, and the five following days were used for total feces collection. Dogs behavior was recorded during a 48-h period, with 10-min intervals. Apparent digestibility coefficients were not different between treatments. However, dogs housed in metabolic cages produced lower weight and more consistent feces as compared with dogs housed in kennels. Dogs spent most of the time sleeping in both housing systems; however, dogs housed in the metabolic cages slept more than those in kennels. Stress-related behaviors (barking, whimpering, stereotypies, etc were observed for no longer than 15 minutes per day, and were not different between dogs in kennels or in cages. There is no difference in food digestibility evaluated in dogs housed in metabolic cages or kennels; however, dogs kept in metabolic cages eliminate drier feces and spend more time inactive than those kept in kennels.

  3. Cage-induced stereotypies, perseveration and the effects of environmental enrichment in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alexandra N; Richter, S Helene; Engel, A Katarina J; Würbel, Hanno

    2012-09-01

    When kept in barren and restrictive cages, animals frequently develop stereotypic behaviour patterns that are characterized by high repetition rates, conspicuous invariance and an apparent lack of function. Although millions of animals are affected, the underlying causes and mechanisms are still unclear. Growing evidence suggests that cage-induced stereotypies may reflect pathological dysfunction within basal ganglia circuitry expressed by perseverative behaviour. In order to assess whether variation in stereotypy performance and variation in perseverative behaviour may have a common cause in ICR CD-1 mice, we assessed the effects of environmental enrichment on both phenomena. We raised 48 female ICR CD-1 mice in standard or enriched cages from three weeks to either 6 or 11 months of age and measured stereotypy level in the home cage and perseveration on an extinction task. We further examined whether enriched rearing conditions (early enrichment) protect mice from the developing stereotypies later in life and whether stereotypies developed in barren cages would persist in an enriched environment (late enrichment) by transferring standard mice to enriched cages and vice versa for 14 weeks after completion of the extinction task. We found no evidence for a causal relation between stereotypy and perseveration in mice. However, transfer to enriched cages reduced stereotypy levels significantly both at 6 and 11 months of age indicating that stereotypies had not become established yet. Finally, we found that removing enrichments at both ages did not induce higher stereotypy levels, thereby confirming earlier reports of a neuroprotective effect of early enrichment. PMID:22721674

  4. Evaluation of the 96/4 PLDLLA polymer resorbable lumbar interbody cage in a long term animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Jean Y; Madi, Abdallah; Rousseau, Marc A; Roger, Bernard; Saillant, Gérard

    2006-10-01

    Arthrodesis using interbody cages has demonstrated high fusion rates. However, permanent cages are exposed to stress-shielding, corrosion, and may require explanation when necessary. Polylactic acid (PLA) bioresorbable cages are developed for avoiding these problems, but significant tissue reaction has been reported with 70/30 PLDLLA in some preclinical animal studies. The objective was to evaluate 96/4 PLDLLA cages in a sheep model over 3 years. Sixteen sheeps underwent one level anterior lumbar interbody fusion using 96/4 PLDLLA cages, filled and surrounded with cancellous bone graft from the iliac crest. Six groups of three animals were killed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months. Harvested lumbar spine had radiographic, MRI, and CT evaluation and histological analysis. Histological results: cage swelling and slight signs of fragmentation associated to fibrocartilaginous tissue apposition at 3 months; bone remodeling around the cage with direct apposition of the mineralization front at 6 months; active cage degradation and complete fusion around the cage at 9 months; cage fragmentation and partial replacement by bone tissue at 12 months; bone bridges in and around the cage at 24 months; full resorption and intervertebral fusion at 36 months. Radiological results: partial arthrodesis at 3 months; definite peripheral arthrodesis at 6 months; similar aspect at 9 months; significant cage resorption at 12 months; definite inner and outer fusion at 24 months; complete cage resorption and calcification at the location of the cage at 36 months confirmed histological observations. Radiographic, CT scan, MRI, and histological data were consistent for showing progressive resorption of 96/4 PLDLLA, interbody fusion, and bone remodeling, with no significant signs of local intolerance reaction. These results are promising and suggest further development of 96/4 PLDLLA cages. PMID:16736199

  5. The centrifugal Jahn-Teller effect in rare-earth cage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the properties of rare-earth based materials relies on the Crystalline Electric Field theory. This theory has to be reconsidered in case of cage-type compounds, where the rare-earth ion can substantially depart from its, high symmetry, average position. It is shown that, in case of an orbital degeneracy at the cage center, a specific Jahn-Teller effect develops in the paramagnetic range: at low temperature, the distribution of the magnetic ion spreads inside the cage, the magn...

  6. Apoptotic activity of caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chariya; Hahnvajanawong; Wongwarut; Boonyanugomol; Tapanawan; Nasomyon; Watcharin; Loilome; Nisana; Namwat; Natthinee; Anantachoke; Wichittra; Tassaneeyakul; Banchob; Sripa; Wises; Namwat; Vichai; Reutrakul

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the growth inhibitory mechanism of four caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma(CCA) KKU-100 and KKU-M156 cells.METHODS:Four caged xanthones,selected on the basis of their anticancer potency and chemical structure diversities(i.e.isomorellin,isomorellinol,forbesione and gambogic acid) were used in this study.Growth inhibition of these caged xanthones was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay.Induction of apoptosis was assessed by observing cell morphology,ethidi...

  7. Spiro annulation of cage polycycles via Grignard reaction and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic strategy to C2-symmetric bis-spiro-pyrano cage compound 7 involving ring-closing metathesis is reported. The hexacyclic dione 10 was prepared from simple and readily available starting materials such as 1,4-naphthoquinone and cyclopentadiene. The synthesis of an unprecedented octacyclic cage compound through intramolecular Diels–Alder (DA reaction as a key step is described. The structures of three new cage compounds 7, 12 and 18 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  8. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in a Broken Vertebral Titanium Implant (Titanium Mesh Cage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a percutaneous consolidation of a broken vertebral implant (Surgical Titanium Mesh Implants; DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA) by vertebroplasty. Four years after anterior spondylectomy with cage implantation and stabilization with posterior instrumentation, the patient was admitted for excruciating back pain. Radiographs showed fracture of the cage, screw, and rod. An anterior surgical approach was deemed difficult and a percutaneous injection of polymethyl methacrylate into the cage was performed following posterior instrumentation replacement. This seems to be an interesting alternative to the classical anterior surgical approach, which is often difficult in postoperative conditions

  9. Genome-wide detection and analysis of hippocampus core promoters using DeepCAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Pascarella, Giovanni; Chalk, Alistair;

    2009-01-01

    given tissue. Here, we present a new method for high-throughput sequencing of 5' cDNA tags-DeepCAGE: merging the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression method with ultra-high-throughput sequence technology. We apply DeepCAGE to characterize 1.4 million sequenced TSS from mouse hippocampus and reveal a wealth...... of novel core promoters that are preferentially used in hippocampus: This is the most comprehensive promoter data set for any tissue to date. Using these data, we present evidence indicating a key role for the Arnt2 transcription factor in hippocampus gene regulation. DeepCAGE can also detect...

  10. Pet Birds. Cages and Practices of Domestication in Eighteenth-Century Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Breittruck, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the genesis of the »pet making« of birds in eighteenth-century Paris. It examines the ways in which particular cages, and the corresponding imagination and practice of caretaking and domestication, construed birds as »pets.« The status of these animals in either their difference or similarity to »the human« is analyzed by looking at different kinds of bird-caging instructions. First, I found that bird caging developed as a cultural technique of domestication since it org...

  11. Redefining the transcriptional regulatory dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages by deepCAGE transcriptomics

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, S.

    2015-06-27

    Classically or alternatively activated macrophages (M1 and M2, respectively) play distinct and important roles for microbiocidal activity, regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. Despite this, their transcriptional regulatory dynamics are poorly understood. Using promoter-level expression profiling by non-biased deepCAGE we have studied the transcriptional dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Transcription factor (TF) binding motif activity analysis revealed four motifs, NFKB1_REL_RELA, IRF1,2, IRF7 and TBP that are commonly activated but have distinct activity dynamics in M1 and M2 activation. We observe matching changes in the expression profiles of the corresponding TFs and show that only a restricted set of TFs change expression. There is an overall drastic and transient up-regulation in M1 and a weaker and more sustainable up-regulation in M2. Novel TFs, such as Thap6, Maff, (M1) and Hivep1, Nfil3, Prdm1, (M2) among others, were suggested to be involved in the activation processes. Additionally, 52 (M1) and 67 (M2) novel differentially expressed genes and, for the first time, several differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome markers were identified. In conclusion, the finding of novel motifs, TFs and protein-coding and lncRNA genes is an important step forward to fully understand the transcriptional machinery of macrophage activation.

  12. Evolution of enzyme catalysts caged in biomimetic gel-shell beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischlechner, Martin; Schaerli, Yolanda; Mohamed, Mark F.; Patil, Santosh; Abell, Chris; Hollfelder, Florian

    2014-09-01

    Natural evolution relies on the improvement of biological entities by rounds of diversification and selection. In the laboratory, directed evolution has emerged as a powerful tool for the development of new and improved biomolecules, but it is limited by the enormous workload and cost of screening sufficiently large combinatorial libraries. Here we describe the production of gel-shell beads (GSBs) with the help of a microfluidic device. These hydrogel beads are surrounded with a polyelectrolyte shell that encloses an enzyme, its encoding DNA and the fluorescent reaction product. Active clones in these man-made compartments can be identified readily by fluorescence-activated sorting at rates >107 GSBs per hour. We use this system to perform the directed evolution of a phosphotriesterase (a bioremediation catalyst) caged in GSBs and isolate a 20-fold faster mutant in less than one hour. We thus establish a practically undemanding method for ultrahigh-throughput screening that results in functional hybrid composites endowed with evolvable protein components.

  13. Storage of molecular hydrogen into leaky clathrate hydrate cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Efficient storage of hydrogen into compact media is an essential challenge to establish a hydrogen economy. A nanostructured compound made of water and gas molecules, which is called as clathrate hydrate, is one reasonable choice for this important task. Its structure consists of three-dimensional network of hydrogen-bonded water molecules (host cages) and small nonpolar molecules (guests) encaged within this network. The clathrate hydrate medium is chemically durable, environmentally benign, and also free from the necessity of expensive rare metals. Large amount of molecular hydrogen up to 3.8 wt.% was successfully stored into the structure II hydrogen clathrate hydrate (Fd3m space group, lattice constant ∼ 1.7 nm), while it is only synthesized at low temperature and/or high pressure conditions which are not suitable for industrial applications. Required pressure to put significant amount of hydrogen into the hydrate structure is much reducible by blending in additional guest species acting as a hydrate promoter. The promoter molecules added to the system occupy some of the cages to stabilize the hydrate structure at lower pressures, so that the hydrogen storage capacity is partly reduced instead. In addition to the problem of storage capacity, kinetic aspect of hydrogen clathrate hydrate synthesis is also essential for the expected application. Its conventional production scheme was by freezing promoter's solution contacting with pressurized hydrogen gas; it then takes long time for crystal growth. We have established an alternative scheme enabling much faster synthesis (Okuchi et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 171903, 2007). We found that when hydrogen-free clathrate hydrate powders including a promoter (tetrahydrofuran) was contacted with pressurized hydrogen gas, hydrogen was quickly absorbed into the hydrate medium. We observed the absorption kinetics by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a function of hydrogen pressure and temperature. In

  14. Synthesis of FMRFaNV, a Photoreleasable Caged Transmitter Designed to Study Neuron-Glia Interactions in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janett, Elia; Bernardinelli, Yann; Müller, Dominique; Bochet, Christian G

    2015-12-16

    Neuroscience studies require technologies able to deliver compounds with both scale and timing compatibility with morphological and physiological synaptic properties. In this light, two-photon flash photolysis has been extensively used to successfully apply glutamate or other neurotransmitters at the synaptic level. However, the set of commercially available caged compounds is restricted and incompatible with studies demanding high cell specificity. The gain in cell specificity is especially relevant and challenging when studying neuron-glia interactions in the central nervous system. Here we develop a system to mimic the metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent response of astrocytes, a glial cell type, following synaptic glutamate release. For this, we expressed an exogeneous orphan Gq-coupled protein of the Mas-related-gene (Mrg) family in glial cells and generated an MrgR's agonist peptide (FMRFa) that was chemically caged with a nitroveratryl photolabile protecting group (NV). NV has an appropriate quantum yield and a high absorption maximum that makes it very adapted to experiments with very short irradiation time. This novel caged compound allowed the activation of MrgR with both single- and two-photon light sources. Indeed, MrgR activation induced calcium transients and morphological changes in astrocytes as described previously. Thus, FMRFaNV is a very promising tool to study neuron-glia interactions. PMID:26511675

  15. M8L12 cubic cages with all facial Δ or facial Λ configuration: effects of surface anions on the occupancy of the cage and anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Chang, Xiao-Yong; Sham, Kiu-Chor; Yiu, Shek-Man; Kwong, Hoi-Lun; Che, Chi-Ming

    2016-05-21

    M8L12 cubic cages (M = Mn(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II)), with all eight metal ions having all facial Δ or facial Λ configurations and having an encapsulated anion, were prepared by the self-assembly of m-xylene-bridged imidazolyl-imine ligands and MX2 (X = PF6(-), SbF6(-), TfO(-)) salts; the encapsulated anion exchange with different anions (SbF6(-), Tf2N(-), NO3(-), TsO(-)) was studied and the results with NO3(-) and TsO(-) indicate that anions on the cage surfaces affect the encapsulated anion exchange and the occupancy of the cage. PMID:27064122

  16. Bedding disposal cabinet for containment of aerosols generated by animal cage cleaning procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, C L; Sabel, F L; Henke, C B

    1976-02-01

    Laboratory tests with aerosolized spores and animal room tests with uranine dye indicate the effectiveness of a prototype bedding disposal cabinet in reducing airborne contamination generated by cage cleaning procedures. PMID:826219

  17. Highly efficient catalysis of the Kemp elimination in the cavity of a cubic coordination cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, William; Misuraca, M. Cristina; Hunter, Christopher A.; Williams, Nicholas H.; Ward, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    The hollow cavities of coordination cages can provide an environment for enzyme-like catalytic reactions of small-molecule guests. Here, we report a new example (catalysis of the Kemp elimination reaction of benzisoxazole with hydroxide to form 2-cyanophenolate) in the cavity of a water-soluble M8L12 coordination cage, with two features of particular interest. First, the rate enhancement is among the largest observed to date: at pD 8.5, the value of kcat/kuncat is 2 × 105, due to the accumulation of a high concentration of partially desolvated hydroxide ions around the bound guest arising from ion-pairing with the 16+ cage. Second, the catalysis is based on two orthogonal interactions: (1) hydrophobic binding of benzisoxazole in the cavity and (2) polar binding of hydroxide ions to sites on the cage surface, both of which were established by competition experiments.

  18. Cooperative Veratryle and Nitroindoline Cages for Two-Photon Uncaging in the NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto Diaz, Eduardo; Picard, Sébastien; Klausen, Maxime; Hugues, Vincent; Pagano, Paolo; Genin, Emilie; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2016-07-25

    Tandem uncaging systems in which a two-photon absorbing module and a cage moiety, linked via a phosphorous clip, that act together by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been developed. A library of these compounds, using different linkers and cages (7-nitroindolinyl or nitroveratryl) has been synthesized. The investigation of their uncaging and two-photon absorption properties demonstrates the scope and versatility of the engineering strategy towards efficient two-photon cages and reveals surprising cooperative and topological effects. The interactions between the 2PA module and the caging moiety are found to promote cooperative effects on the 2PA response while additional processes that enhance the uncaging efficiency are operative in well-oriented nitroindoline-derived dyads. These synergic effects combine to lead to record two-photon uncaging cross-section values (i.e., up to 20 GM) for uncaging of carboxylic acids. PMID:27346866

  19. The design of a cervical vertebra titanium plate-interbody fusion cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the biomechanical feature of a newly designed cervical vertebra internal fixation device and its clinical applications Methods: Some functional spinal units were fixed respectively with titanium plate, fusion cage and new device designed by ourselves, then a controlled biomechanical study including flexion, extension, torsion and lateral bending was performed and the results were analyzed. Results: As to the mechanical performance, fusion cage showed poor performance in extension test and so did the titanium plate in the distortion test. However, the new device showed good performance in every test. Conclusion: Both simple titanium plate fixation and simple fusion cage fixation have biomechanical defaults, but they are complementary. The titanium plate-interbody fusion cage avoids the defaults and has specific advantages.

  20. Feasibility of the sustainable freshwater cage culture in Hungary and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dénes Gál

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensive cage culture has an adverse effect on the quality of waters due to the highnutrient discharge of intensive fish culture. The combination of the intensive cage and the extensiveaquaculture exploits the advantages of traditional pond farming and intensive fish culture systems.Valuable predatory fish species can be produced in the intensive part of the system, whilst theintegration of an extensive pond as a treatment unit results in decreased nutrient loading to theenvironment and increased nutrient recovery in fish production. The combination of cage and pond fishfarming is a new method for predatory fish production in fishponds. By the exploiting of the traditionalfish ponds with intensive fish production in cages makes possible for the traditional carp farmers toincrease their production capacity, diversify the cultured species and recycle the nutrients within theproduction systems.

  1. Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann eGo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons receive thousands of synaptic inputs that are distributed in space and time. The systematic study of how neurons process these inputs requires a technique to stimulate multiple yet highly targeted points of interest along the neuron's dendritic tree. Three-dimensional multi-focal patterns produced via holographic projection combined with two-photon photolysis of caged compounds can provide for highly localized release of neurotransmitters within each diffraction-limited focus, and in this way emulate simultaneous synaptic inputs to the neuron. However, this technique so far cannot achieve time-dependent stimulation patterns due to fundamental limitations of the hologram-encoding device and other factors that affect the consistency of controlled synaptic stimulation. Here, we report an advanced technique that enables the design and application of arbitrary spatio-temporal photostimulation patterns that resemble physiological synaptic inputs. By combining holographic projection with a programmable high-speed light-switching array, we have overcome temporal limitations with holographic projection, allowing us to mimic distributed activation of synaptic inputs leading to action potential generation. Our experiments uniquely demonstrate multi-site two-photon glutamate uncaging in three dimensions with submillisecond temporal resolution. Implementing this approach opens up new prospects for studying neuronal synaptic integration in four dimensions.

  2. Model of a generator end-winding cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents some studies concerning the vibratory characterization of particular structures called: generator end-winding cages. These structures are mainly made up of the endings of armature windings. The question of their good mechanical behaviour is of prime importance, since they are submitted to high electromagnetic efforts during the different electrical ratings encountered during operation. The designer (GEC-Alsthom) and the user (EDF) have both undertaken numerical calculations in order to characterize a given machine, in this case a 600 MW bipolar generator; it appeared interesting to compare such calculations. The models realized respectively by GEC-Alsthom and EDF make use of different techniques and hypotheses. GEC-Alsthom represents the sets of rods and spacers by plates, which properties are determined by a pre-processor. The model is simplified to take into account the existing symmetries. It takes profit of previous experience and aims at a fast utilisation. The EDF model tends to allow a further comprehensive calculation, form the electromagnetic efforts to the determination of local stresses. The whole set of the constituting elements of the structure is modelled by beams, which leads to an important size for the model (21 000 degrees of freedom). The validation performed on the two models has been focused on the comparison between respective results and also with experimental results. Each model provides values for the first eigenfrequencies and the associated modes shapes. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Mary Ann; To, Minh-Son; Stricker, Christian; Redman, Stephen; Bachor, Hans-A.; Stuart, Greg J.; Daria, Vincent R.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons receive thousands of synaptic inputs that are distributed in space and time. The systematic study of how neurons process these inputs requires a technique to stimulate multiple yet highly targeted points of interest along the neuron's dendritic tree. Three-dimensional multi-focal patterns produced via holographic projection combined with two-photon photolysis of caged compounds can provide for highly localized release of neurotransmitters within each diffraction-limited focus, and in this way emulate simultaneous synaptic inputs to the neuron. However, this technique so far cannot achieve time-dependent stimulation patterns due to fundamental limitations of the hologram-encoding device and other factors that affect the consistency of controlled synaptic stimulation. Here, we report an advanced technique that enables the design and application of arbitrary spatio-temporal photostimulation patterns that resemble physiological synaptic inputs. By combining holographic projection with a programmable high-speed light-switching array, we have overcome temporal limitations with holographic projection, allowing us to mimic distributed activation of synaptic inputs leading to action potential generation. Our experiments uniquely demonstrate multi-site two-photon glutamate uncaging in three dimensions with submillisecond temporal resolution. Implementing this approach opens up new prospects for studying neuronal synaptic integration in four dimensions. PMID:24348330

  4. Bioresorbable polymers: heading for a new generation of spinal cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuisman, P I J M; Smit, T H

    2006-02-01

    The use of polymer-based bioresorbable materials is now expanding to the realm of spinal interbody fusion. Bioresorbable polymers have important advantages over metals, because they are temporary, much less stiff, and radiolucent. Most promising is a group of alpha-polyesters, in particular polylactide acids (PLAs). Their biocompatibility is excellent, and they have sufficient stiffness and strength to provide initial and intermediate-term stability required for bone healing. However, polylactides have characteristics that make them vulnerable to complications if not properly controlled. Degradation rate strongly depends on polymer type, impurities, manufacturing process, sterilization, device size, and the local environment. The fact that larger implants degrade faster is contra-intuitive, and should be considered in the design process. Also optimal surgical techniques, such as careful bone bed preparation, are required for a successful application of these materials. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the specific properties of these bioresorbable polymers and to discuss their potential and limitations. This is illustrated with early preclinical and clinical data.Bioresorbable cage technology is just emerging: their time-engineered degradation characteristics allow controlled dynamization in interbody applications, facilitating spinal fusion. Their radiolucency improves image assessment of fusion healing. Acceptance and use of bioresorbable implants may increase as further research and clinical studies report on their safety, efficacy, and proper usage. PMID:16292588

  5. Diaphragm muscle shortening modulates kinematics of lower rib cage in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Iris; Fernandez, Cristina; Rodowicz, Kathleen Allen; Lopez, Michael A.; Lu, Raymond; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm muscle shortening modulates volume displacement and kinematics of the lower rib cage in dogs and that posture and mode of ventilation affect such modulation. Radiopaque markers were surgically attached to the lower three ribs of the rib cage and to the midcostal region of the diaphragm in six dogs of ∼8 kg body masses, and the locations of these markers were determined by a biplane fluoroscopy system. Three-dimensional software modeling techniques were ...

  6. Photorelease of GABA with Visible Light Using an Inorganic Caging Group

    OpenAIRE

    Rial Verde, Emiliano M.; Zayat, Leonardo; Etchenique, Roberto; Yuste, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    We describe the selective photorelease of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) with a novel caged-GABA compound that uses a ruthenium complex as photosensor. This compound (“RuBi-GABA”) can be excited with visible wavelengths, providing greater tissue penetration, less photo-toxicity, and faster photorelease kinetics than currently used UV light-sensitive caged compounds. Using pyramidal neurons from neocortical brain slices, we show that RuBi-GABA uncaging induces GABA-A receptor-mediated responses, ...

  7. Control System for Producing Electricity with Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Nicolae Tutelea; Sorin Ioan Deaconu; Gabriel Nicolae Popa

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present the key design equations and control design model of the Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator (DSWIG) to achieve wide-speed-range operation with reduced capacity of the static power controller for low power wind or hydro applications. The proposed induction generator consists of a standard squirrel-cage rotor and a stator with two separate windings wound for a similar number of poles. Moreover, the system control strategy using the stato...

  8. Focusing of high intensity ultrasound through the rib cage using a therapeutic random phased array

    OpenAIRE

    Bobkova, Svetlana; Gavrilov, Leonid; Khokhlova, Vera; Shaw, Adam; Hand, Jeffrey; ,

    2010-01-01

    A method for focusing high intensity ultrasound through a rib cage that aims to minimize heating of the ribs whilst maintaining high intensities at the focus (or foci) is proposed and tested theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches, one based on geometric acoustics and the other accounting for diffraction effects associated with propagation through the rib cage, are investigated theoretically for idealized source conditions. It is shown that for an idealized radiator the diffraction a...

  9. A practical guide to the synthesis of dinitroindolinyl-caged neurotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Davies, Graham C. R.

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for efficient chemical synthesis of dinitroindolinyl derivatives of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid. these caged neurotransmitters are currently the most chemically and photochemically efficient probes for two-photon photolysis in living brain slices. the protocol only requires basic organic synthesis equipment, and no silica gel column chromatography or NMR spectroscopy is needed at any stage. Hplc is used to purify the caged transmitters at the end of ...

  10. Late Results of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Interbody Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Dağlı, Murat; Er, Uygur; Şimşek, Serkan; Bavbek, Murad

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion for degenerative cervical disc disease. Overview of Literature Anterior spinal surgery originated in the mid-1950s and graft for fusion was also employed. Currently anterior cervical microdiscectomy and fusion with an intervertebral cage is a widely accepted procedure for treatment of cervical disc hernia. Artificial grafts and cages for fusion are preferred because of their ...

  11. Synthesis of Silsesquioxane Cages from Phenyl-cis-tetrol,1,3-Divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and Cyclopentyl Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-hua; Alan R. Bassindale; Peter G. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of Ts, T10 and T12 silsesquioxane cages from a range of starting materials: phenyl-cistetrol, 1,3-divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and cyclopentyl T resins by using tetra n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) as the catalyst is described in this paper. The reaction yields obtained via the current route are better compared to those via the literature routes. Some of the cage compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  12. Multifunctional photoreactive inorganic cages for three-dimensional holographic data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Jeong, Yong-Cheol; Lee, Jihye; Park, Jung-Ki

    2009-10-15

    We demonstrate a holographic photopolymer based on multifunctional photoreactive inorganic cages, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). It is shown that a second photopolymerizable monomer, POSS, for the photopolymer, contributes to significantly enhance photosensitivity as well as refractive index modulation (Deltan). We also found that during the formation of holographic gratings, polymerization of POSS could effectively suppress volume shrinkage of photopolymer resin, owing to its filler-strengthening effect of inorganic cages accompanied with interpenetrating effect. PMID:19838237

  13. Economic analysis of the environmental impact on marine cage lobster aquaculture in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Nguyen Thi Y

    2009-01-01

    In Vietnam, marine cage lobster aquaculture has been expanding significantly over the last years. Besides the economic contribution for locals living in the coastal areas in Central of Vietnam, this industry has created some problems that are relating to the marine environmental protection where trash fish feed is predominant. This paper investigates the environmental impact on cage marine lobster aquaculture in Vietnam by using the Change of Productivity method in which nitrogen releasing fr...

  14. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation†

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A.; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph P.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids—biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged...

  15. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  16. Titanium Alloy Cage Implantation for the Treatment of Ischemic Necrosis of Femoral Head in Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiying WANG; Yan GAO; Shuhua YANG; Cao YANG

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of titanium alloy cage on the treatment of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head in dog, the model of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head was made with the liquid nitrogon in 15 hybrid adult dogs. The titanium alloy cage made of a hollow cylinder was driven into the subchondral bone of necrotic femoral head via central channel. The dogs were divided into 3 groups, each group was sacrificed 3, 6, 12 weeks after the operation respectively. No collapse of femoral head was observed after the operation. The position of the cages was good on radiograph. Microscopically, the cancellous bone of necrotic femoral head rebuilt gradually and grew into cage. After 12 weeks of creeping substitution, the cancellous bone filled up the hollow cavity and holes of the cages. It is concluded that the titanium alloy cage can provide structural support for the subchondral bone and prevent collapse and can be used for the treatment of the ischemic necrosis of femoral head.

  17. Evaluation of caged freshwater mussels as an alternative method for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from caged mussel experiments agreed with benthic invertebrate surveys, but not with trends observed for fish. - On three occasions between 1998 and 2000, freshwater mussels were collected by divers in Lake Memphremagog during the spring and transplanted to various locations in the St-Francois River (Quebec, Canada). Mussel growth was monitored by comparing total weight and length at the beginning and end of the exposure period. In 1998, mussels were caged for 60 days at 10 stations, including locations receiving treated effluents from three pulp and paper mills. Overall, there was an apparent trend of increased mussel growth from upstream to downstream along the river. However, mussels caged downstream from the effluent discharge of a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill grew more slowly than those caged immediately upstream in the river. In 1999 and 2000, we further investigated the situation in the vicinity of this bleached kraft mill. The measurements again indicated that growth of mussels in the effluent plume from this mill was reduced in comparison to sites upstream. Overall, in terms of growth, the caged mussels responded both positively and negatively to different environmental conditions. Compared with other monitoring approaches used at these sites during the same period, the caged mussel experiment results were consistent with the trends observed with the benthic invertebrate survey but not with the trends observed for fish

  18. DFT-based inhibitor and promoter selection criteria for pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snehanshu Pal; T K Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations have been performed to provide electronic structure property correlation based reasoning for conceptualizing the effect of encapsulated methane molecule on the formation of methane hydrate cages, the role of methanol and ethylene glycol as inhibitor and the role of tetra-hydro-furan (THF) and cyclopentane as promoter of methane hydrate. Geometry optimization of 512 cage, 51262 cage and 51264 cage with and without encapsulated methane and the cluster of 512 cage with ethylene glycol, methanol, cyclopentane have been performed by density functional theory using B97X-D/6-31++G(d,p) method. Methane hydrate formation inhibition by methanol and ethylene glycol as well as methane hydrate stabilization by cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran are critically analysed based on the interaction energy, free energy change, dipole moment and infrared frequency calculation. Calculation of free energy change for formation of methane hydrate with/without reagents at various temperature and pressure using optimized structure is reported here. It is observed that hydrogen bond between water molecules of clathrate 512 cages become stronger in the presence of cyclopentane and tetrahydrofuran but weaker/broken in the presence of ethylene glycol and methanol. Simulated results correspond well with experimental findings and can be useful for designing new inhibitor and promoter molecules for gas hydrate formation.

  19. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being. PMID:27057787

  20. Diffusive hydrogen inter-cage migration in hydrogen and hydrogen-tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huayu; English, Niall J; MacElroy, J M D

    2013-03-01

    Classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the diffusive properties of inter-cage hydrogen migration in both pure hydrogen and mixed hydrogen-tetrahydrofuran sII hydrates at 0.05 kbar from 200 K and up to 250-260 K. For mixed H2-THF systems in which there is single H2 occupation of the small cage (labelled "1S1L"), we found that no H2 migration occurs. However, for more densely filled H2-THF and pure-H2 systems, in which there is more than single H2 occupation in the small cage, there is an onset of inter-cage H2 migration events from the small cages to neighbouring cavities at around 200 K. The mean square displacements of the hydrogen molecules were fitted to a mathematical model consisting of an anomalous term and a Fickian component, and nonlinear regression fitting was conducted to estimate long-time (inter-cage) diffusivities. An approximate Arrhenius temperature relationship for the diffusion coefficient was examined and an estimation of the hydrogen hopping energy barrier was calculated for each system. PMID:23485313

  1. Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

    2009-06-01

    Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

  2. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Munić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  3. Biological evaluation of protein nanocapsules containing doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toita R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Riki Toita,1,2 Masaharu Murata,1–3 Kana Abe,3 Sayoko Narahara,1 Jing Shu Piao,2 Jeong-Hun Kang,4 Kenoki Ohuchida,2,5 Makoto Hashizume1–31Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 2Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Kyushu University, 3Center for Advanced Medical Innovation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institutes, Suita, 5Department of Surgery and Oncology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: This study describes the applications of a naturally occurring small heat shock protein (Hsp that forms a cage-like structure to act as a drug carrier. Mutant Hsp cages (HspG41C were expressed in Escherichia coli by substituting glycine 41 located inside the cage with a cysteine residue to allow conjugation with a fluorophore or a drug. The HspG41C cages were taken up by various cancer cell lines, mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The cages were detected in acidic organelles (endosomes/lysosomes for at least 48 hours, but none were detected in the mitochondria or nuclei. To generate HspG41C cages carrying doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer agent, the HspG41C cages and DOX were conjugated using acid-labile hydrazone linkers. The release of DOX from HspG41C cages was accelerated at pH 5.0, but was negligible at pH 7.2. The cytotoxic effects of HspG41C–DOX against Suit-2 and HepG2 cells were slightly weaker than those of free DOX, but the effects were almost identical in Huh-7 cells. Considering the relatively low release of DOX from HspG41C–DOX, HspG41C–DOX exhibited comparable activity towards HepG2 and Suit-2 cells and slightly stronger cytotoxicity towards Huh-7 cells than free DOX. Hsp cages offer good biocompatibility, are easy to prepare, and are easy to modify; these properties facilitate their use as nanoplatforms in drug delivery systems and in other biomedical applications.Keywords: anticancer

  4. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct. Methods Six cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7) specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N) in the following conditions: 1) intact (C3–C7), 2) LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3) removal of all rods (LMS retained) and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4) bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods), and 5) C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted. Results Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–extension (P=0.001), (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3°) in lateral bending (P=0.053), (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9°) in axial rotation (P=0.091) for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced range of motion in a multilevel construct (P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral posterior cages provide similar cervical segmental stability compared with a LMS and rod construct and may be an alternative surgical option for select patients. Furthermore, supplementation of a lateral mass construct with posterior cages increases cervical spine stability in single- and multilevel conditions. PMID

  5. Impact of sea waves on underwater fish-breeding cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of sea objects is of great importance while solving the problems of providing the constantly growing requirements of the national economy with sea products. Cultivation of sea objects uses special hydrobiotechnical constructions. As the practice showed, cultivation of seafood is commercially impossible without solving the questions of calculating and designing such constructions. In special literature these questions are poorly covered or not considered at all. In the article the results of theoretical and pilot studies of waves influence on hydrobiotechnical constructions is provided, in particular on underwater fish-breeding cages.This article offers the theoretical solution to the problem of determining the efforts of the ropes holding the fish tank under wave influences. In order to solve this problem, the equations of hard drives movements were set up and the differential equations of free oscillations of buzz were obtained.When determining the horizontal movements, the four different configurations of connections and the system motion directions in general are possible in case of waveoscillations. Next step is the solution of the differential equations and determination of natural oscillation frequency in the direction of the vertical axis. Defining efforts in the ropes from their own weight (static calculation is self-explanatory, it should be noted that accounting for the weighing influence of water on such structures does not have significant influence.Further the authors defined loading and efforts from the regular waves’ impacts.Modeling of the waves influence on submersible fish tank was carried by Fraud method. The studies were conducted with two models with large and small mesh. The signals of strain gauge sensors were registered by electronic measuring equipment.When comparing the theoretical and experimental data, satisfactory results have been obtained. It was determined that in order to improve the calculation

  6. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Y.; Feixas, F; Eun, C; McCammon, JA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Folding of four fast-folding proteins, including chignolin, Trp-cage, villin headpiece and WW domain, was simulated via accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD). In comparison with hundred-of-microsecond timescale conventional molecular dynamics (cMD) simulations performed on the Anton supercomputer, aMD captured complete folding of the four proteins in significantly shorter simulation time. The folded protein conformations were found within 0.2-2.1 Å of the native ...

  7. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  8. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente Evaluación del tratamiento de la enfermedad degenerativa del disco cervical por la artrodesis anterior utilizando placas asociadas con jaulas o jaulas en peec, aisladamente Evaluation of cervical degenerative disc disease treatment by anterior arthrodesis using plates associated with cages or cages in peek alone

    OpenAIRE

    André Rafael Hübner; Marcelo Ribeiro Mendes; Jean Carlo Frigotto Queruz; Jean Marcel Dambrós; Álvaro Diego Heredia Suárez; Leandro de Freitas Spinelli

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo comparativo entre dois grupos de pacientes operados pela técnica de discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 70 pacientes, 35 operados com o método de fixação com placas associadas a cages - denominado Grupo...

  9. Porous Biodegradable Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage Design and Fabrication Using Integrated Global-Local Topology Optimization With Laser Sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical lar...

  10. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  11. Effect of multilevel laboratory rat caging system on the well-being of the singly-housed Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R R; Swan, M P; Hickman, D L

    2015-01-01

    Current regulations emphasize that good husbandry practices allow animals to engage in species appropriate postural adjustments without touching the enclosure walls. This study evaluated the well-being of rats housed in a commercially available multilevel rat caging system, with or without access to the upper level of the caging. The evaluation methodologies included assessment of behavioral observations in the home cage, physiological assessment of metabolism and immune function, and determination of the affective state using a spatial cognitive bias assay. The study determined that rats that were provided access to the full multilevel cage during testing after initial restriction to the lower level of the cage demonstrated behavioral changes consistent with a positive affective state, while those with no changes to their housing situation had no significant differences in their affective states. Rats that were consistently housed with access restricted to the lower level of the cage exhibited a tendency to increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios as compared with those provided with access to all levels of the multilevel cage. There were no differences in body weight demonstrated between the experimental groups. Overall use of the cage space, as documented through analysis of behavioral observations in the home cage, demonstrated no significant differences in preferred location in the cage during the light or dark cycles, though rats with access to both levels of the cage were significantly more active during the light cycle. The results of this study suggest that the use of a multilevel caging system may improve the well-being of rats used in research. PMID:25117586

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of immediate stability with rectangular versus cylindrical interbody cages in stabilization of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb John K

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent cadaver studies show stability against axial rotation with a cylindrical cage is marginally superior to a rectangular cage. The purpose of this biomechanical study in cadaver spine was to evaluate the stability of a new rectangular titanium cage design, which has teeth similar to the threads of cylindrical cages to engage the endplates. Methods Ten motion segments (five L2-3, five L4-5 were tested. From each cadaver spine, one motion segment was fixed with a pair of cylindrical cages (BAK, Sulzer Medica and the other with paired rectangular cages (Rotafix, Corin Spinal. Each specimen was tested in an unconstrained state, after cage introduction and after additional posterior translaminar screw fixation. The range of motion (ROM in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and rotation was tested in a materials testing machine, with +/- 5 Nm cyclical load over 10 sec per cycle; data from the third cycle was captured for analysis. Results ROM in all directions was significantly reduced (p Conclusions There was no significant difference in immediate stability in any direction between the threaded cylindrical cage and the new design of the rectangular cage with endplate teeth.

  13. Detection of early behavioral markers of Huntington's disease in R6/2 mice employing an automated social home cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudenko, Olga; Tkach, Vadim; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2009-01-01

    developed behavior screening system, the IntelliCage, allows automated testing of mouse behavior in the home cage employing individual recognition of animals living in social groups. The present study validates the ability of the IntelliCage system to detect behavioral and cognitive dysfunction in R6/2 mice......, an established transgenic model of HD. The results indicate that the IntelliCage is a reliable system for recording exploratory activity, drinking behavior, circadian rhythm, spatial preference, and cognition in mice during prolonged periods of assessment. The system detected early dysfunctional...

  14. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  15. Chemical basis for the recognition of trimethyllysine by epigenetic reader proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Jos J. A. G.; Huang, Jiaxin; Poater, Jordi; Xu, Chao; Pieters, Bas J. G. E.; Dong, Aiping; Min, Jinrong; Sherman, Woody; Beuming, Thijs; Matthias Bickelhaupt, F.; Li, Haitao; Mecinović, Jasmin

    2015-11-01

    A large number of structurally diverse epigenetic reader proteins specifically recognize methylated lysine residues on histone proteins. Here we describe comparative thermodynamic, structural and computational studies on recognition of the positively charged natural trimethyllysine and its neutral analogues by reader proteins. This work provides experimental and theoretical evidence that reader proteins predominantly recognize trimethyllysine via a combination of favourable cation-π interactions and the release of the high-energy water molecules that occupy the aromatic cage of reader proteins on the association with the trimethyllysine side chain. These results have implications in rational drug design by specifically targeting the aromatic cage of readers of trimethyllysine.

  16. Folding dynamics of the Trp-cage miniprotein: evidence for a native-like intermediate from combined time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Marino, Kristen A; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Panman, Matthijs R; Smeenk, Linde E J; Kettelarij, Albert J; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Timmerman, Peter; Bolhuis, Peter G; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-10-01

    Trp-cage is a synthetic 20-residue miniprotein which folds rapidly and spontaneously to a well-defined globular structure more typical of larger proteins. Due to its small size and fast folding, it is an ideal model system for experimental and theoretical investigations of protein folding mechanisms. However, Trp-cage's exact folding mechanism is still a matter of debate. Here we investigate Trp-cage's relaxation dynamics in the amide I' spectral region (1530-1700 cm(-1)) using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Residue-specific information was obtained by incorporating an isotopic label ((13)C═(18)O) into the amide carbonyl group of residue Gly11, thereby spectrally isolating an individual 310-helical residue. The folding-unfolding equilibrium is perturbed using a nanosecond temperature-jump (T-jump), and the subsequent re-equilibration is probed by observing the time-dependent vibrational response in the amide I' region. We observe bimodal relaxation kinetics with time constants of 100 ± 10 and 770 ± 40 ns at 322 K, suggesting that the folding involves an intermediate state, the character of which can be determined from the time- and frequency-resolved data. We find that the relaxation dynamics close to the melting temperature involve fast fluctuations in the polyproline II region, whereas the slower process can be attributed to conformational rearrangements due to the global (un)folding transition of the protein. Combined analysis of our T-jump data and molecular dynamics simulations indicates that the formation of a well-defined α-helix precedes the rapid formation of the hydrophobic cage structure, implying a native-like folding intermediate, that mainly differs from the folded conformation in the orientation of the C-terminal polyproline II helix relative to the N-terminal part of the backbone. We find that the main free-energy barrier is positioned between the folding intermediate and the unfolded state ensemble, and that it involves the formation of

  17. Nitrodibenzofuran: A One- and Two-Photon Sensitive Protecting Group That Is Superior to Brominated Hydroxycoumarin for Thiol Caging in Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, M Mohsen; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Pundsack, Tom J; Palsuledesai, Charuta C; Goff, Philip C; Blank, David A; Distefano, Mark D

    2016-05-11

    Photoremovable protecting groups are important for a wide range of applications in peptide chemistry. Using Fmoc-Cys(Bhc-MOM)-OH, peptides containing a Bhc-protected cysteine residue can be easily prepared. However, such protected thiols can undergo isomerization to a dead-end product (a 4-methylcoumarin-3-yl thioether) upon photolysis. To circumvent that photoisomerization problem, we explored the use of nitrodibenzofuran (NDBF) for thiol protection by preparing cysteine-containing peptides where the thiol is masked with an NDBF group. This was accomplished by synthesizing Fmoc-Cys(NDBF)-OH and incorporating that residue into peptides by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis procedures. Irradiation with 365 nm light or two-photon excitation with 800 nm light resulted in efficient deprotection. To probe biological utility, thiol group uncaging was carried out using a peptide derived from the protein K-Ras4B to yield a sequence that is a known substrate for protein farnesyltransferase; irradiation of the NDBF-caged peptide in the presence of the enzyme resulted in the formation of the farnesylated product. Additionally, incubation of human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3) cells with an NDBF-caged version of a farnesylated peptide followed by UV irradiation resulted in migration of the peptide from the cytosol/Golgi to the plasma membrane due to enzymatic palmitoylation. Overall, the high cleavage efficiency devoid of side reactions and significant two-photon cross-section of NDBF render it superior to Bhc for thiol group caging. This protecting group should be useful for a plethora of applications ranging from the development of light-activatable cysteine-containing peptides to the development of light-sensitive biomaterials. PMID:27027927

  18. DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum amphipods: A tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, Emilie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Devaux, Alain [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Mons, Raphael [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Bony, Sylvie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Garric, Jeanne [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Geffard, Alain [EA 2069 URVVC-SE, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Geffard, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.geffard@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to propose a tool for freshwater environmental genotoxicity assessment using Gammarus fossarum, a high ecologically relevant species. In a first part, gammarids were caged upstream and downstream wastewater treatment plant effluent output. The sensitivity of genotoxic responses of haemocytes, oocytes and spermatozoa was compared using the Comet assay. Spermatozoa appeared to be the most sensitive, suitable and relevant cell type for genotoxicity risk assessment. In a second part, a watershed-scale study was conducted over 2 years to evaluate the applicability of our caging procedure. The genotoxic impact of a contamination was followed, taking into account seasonal variability. DNA damage in spermatozoa exhibited low basal level and low variability in control upstream sites, providing a reliable discrimination of polluted sites. Finally, DNA damage in caged G. fossarum has been proved to be a sensitive and reproducible tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: > Two different contamination contexts: WWTP effluents and polymetallic contamination. > DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum is a sensitive tool for freshwater quality assessment. > Spermatozoa is the most relevant cell type for biomonitoring freshwater genotoxicity. > Combining biomarker responses with analytical chemistry provides rich ecotoxicological information. - We propose an approach to assess freshwater genotoxicity in the field based on caged Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, amphipoda).

  19. RESULTS OF THE USE OF PEEK CAGES IN THE TREATMENT OF BASILAR INVAGINATION BY GOEL TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analysis of the use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cages for atlantoaxial facet realignment and distraction for treatment of basilar invagination by Goel technique. Method: Retrospective descriptive statistical analysis of the neurological status, pain, presence of subsidence and bone fusion with the use of PEEK cages in 8 atlantoaxial joints of 4 patients with basilar invagination. All patients were treated with atlantoaxial facet distraction and realignment and subsequent arthrodesis C1-C2 by the technique of Goel modified by the use of PEEK cage. Results: All patients showed improvement in Nurick neurological assessment scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain. There were no cases of subsidence, migration, or damage to the vertebral artery during the insertion of the cage. All joints evolved with bone fusion, assessed by dynamic radiographs, and computed tomography. Two patients developed neuropathic pain in dermatome of C2 and one patient had unilateral vertebral artery injury during C2 instrumentation treated with insertion of pedicle screw to control the bleeding. Conclusion: The results of the treatment of basilar invagination by the Goel technique with the use of PEEK cages shown to be effective and safe although further studies are needed to confirm this use.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Two Net Cages with Grid Mooring System Under Wave Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-ping; ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Yu-cheng; DONG Guo-hai; ZHENG Yan-na

    2012-01-01

    Based on rigid kinematics theory and lumped mass method,a mathematical model of the two net cages of grid mooring system under waves is developed.In order to verify the numerical model,a series of physical model tests have been carried out.According to the comparisons between the simulated and the experimental results,it can be found that the simulated and the experimental results agree well in each wave condition.Then,the forces on the mooring lines and the floating collar movement are calculated under different wave conditions.Numerical results show that under the same condition,the forces on the bridle ropes are the largest,followed by forces on the main ropes and the grid ropes.The horizontal and the vertical float collar motion amplitudes increase with the increase of wave height,while the relationship of the horizontal motion amplitude and the wave period is indistinct.The vertical motion amplitude of the two cages is almost the same,while on the respect of horizontal motion amplitude,cage B (behind cage A,as shown in Fig.4) moves much farther than cage A under the same wave condition.The inclination angle of the floating system both in clockwise alongy axis and the counter one enlarges a little with the increase of wave height.

  1. Dynamic behavior and deformation analysis of the fish cage system using mass-spring model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun Woo; Lee, Jihoon; Park, Subong

    2015-06-01

    Fish cage systems are influenced by various oceanic conditions, and the movements and deformation of the system by the external forces can affect the safety of the system itself, as well as the species of fish being cultivated. Structural durability of the system against environmental factors has been major concern for the marine aquaculture system. In this research, a mathematical model and a simulation method were presented for analyzing the performance of the large-scale fish cage system influenced by current and waves. The cage system consisted of netting, mooring ropes, floats, sinkers and floating collar. All the elements were modeled by use of the mass-spring model. The structures were divided into finite elements and mass points were placed at the mid-point of each element, and mass points were connected by springs without mass. Each mass point was applied to external and internal forces, and total force was calculated in every integration step. The computation method was applied to the dynamic simulation of the actual fish cage systems rigged with synthetic fiber and copper wire simultaneously influenced by current and waves. Here, we also tried to find a relevant ratio between buoyancy and sinking force of the fish cages. The simulation results provide improved understanding of the behavior of the structure and valuable information concerning optimum ratio of the buoyancy to sinking force according to current speeds.

  2. Growth of conformal graphene cages on micrometre-sized silicon particles as stable battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhang; Yan, Kai; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructuring has been shown to be fruitful in addressing the problems of high-capacity Si anodes. However, issues with the high cost and poor Coulombic efficiencies of nanostructured Si still need to be resolved. Si microparticles are a low-cost alternative but, unlike Si nanoparticles, suffer from unavoidable particle fracture during electrochemical cycling, thus making stable cycling in a real battery impractical. Here we introduce a method to encapsulate Si microparticles (˜1-3 µm) using conformally synthesized cages of multilayered graphene. The graphene cage acts as a mechanically strong and flexible buffer during deep galvanostatic cycling, allowing the microparticles to expand and fracture within the cage while retaining electrical connectivity on both the particle and electrode level. Furthermore, the chemically inert graphene cage forms a stable solid electrolyte interface, minimizing irreversible consumption of lithium ions and rapidly increasing the Coulombic efficiency in the early cycles. We show that even in a full-cell electrochemical test, for which the requirements of stable cycling are stringent, stable cycling (100 cycles; 90% capacity retention) is achieved with the graphene-caged Si microparticles.

  3. Hydrodynamic coefficients of a simplified floating system of gravity cage in waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-wen WU; Fu-kun GUI; Yu-cheng LI; Wei-huan FANG

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental tests were carried out to examine the hydrodynamic behaviors of a double-column floating system of gravity cage under wave conditions. A floating system of gravity cage can be treated as a small-sized floating structure when compared with the wavelengths. The main problem in calculating the wave loads on the small-sized floating structure is to obtain the reasonable force coefficients, which may differ from a submerged structure. In this paper, the floating system of gravity cage is simplified to a 2D problem, where the floating system is set symmetrically under wave conditions. The motion equations were deduced under wave conditions and a specific method was proposed to resolve the problem of wave forces acting on a small-sized floating system of gravity cage at water surface. Results of the numerical method were compared with those from model tests and the hydrodynamic coefficients Cn and C?were studied. It is found that Cn ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 while C?is between 0.4 and 0.6 in this study. The results are useful for research on the hydrodynamic behavior of the deep-water gravity sea cages.

  4. Relative effects of nutrient emission from intensive cage aquaculture on the semiarid reservoir water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; do Monte, Thiago Maia; Vasconcellos, George Harrison; de Souza Barroso, Hortência; Moreira, Maria Odete Parente; Becker, Helena; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Franco, Marcos Alberto Lima; de Farias, Eduardo Guilherme Gentil; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa

    2015-11-01

    The effects of cage aquaculture on freshwater ecosystems are determined by multiple farming and environmental variables, and thus, the assessment of a wide range of abiotic and biotic variables enables better understanding of the impacts generated by this nutrient source. This study was carried out at Castanhão reservoir located in the State of Ceará, which is the largest Brazilian producer of Nile tilapia in cage systems, wherein about 8000 reservoirs provide a vast area to expand not only this important socio-economic but also pollution-prone activity. Nutrient mass budget, water quality monitoring, hydrodynamic characterization, and elemental/stable isotopic composition of end-member products were measured in cage aquaculture and other reservoir areas in order to determine the relative effects on reservoir conditions. Nutrient budgets showed that 34% of the artificial feed was lost to the water column but water quality monitoring and isotopic composition analysis suggested that the cages were not extensively impacting the water quality probably because of the physiographic and hydrodynamic features of the cage site. PMID:26502728

  5. A smart platform for hyperthermia application in cancer treatment: cobalt-doped ferrite nanoparticles mineralized in human ferritin cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantechi, Elvira; Innocenti, Claudia; Zanardelli, Matteo; Fittipaldi, Maria; Falvo, Elisabetta; Carbo, Miriam; Shullani, Valbona; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Ponti, Alessandro; Sangregorio, Claudio; Ceci, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-27

    Magnetic nanoparticles, MNPs, mineralized within a human ferritin protein cage, HFt, can represent an appealing platform to realize smart therapeutic agents for cancer treatment by drug delivery and magnetic fluid hyperthermia, MFH. However, the constraint imposed by the inner diameter of the protein shell (ca. 8 nm) prevents its use as heat mediator in MFH when the MNPs comprise pure iron oxide. In this contribution, we demonstrate how this limitation can be overcome through the controlled doping of the core with small amount of Co(II). Highly monodisperse doped iron oxide NPs with average size of 7 nm are mineralized inside a genetically modified variant of HFt, carrying several copies of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide, which has already been demonstrated to have excellent targeting properties toward melanoma cells. HFt is also conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules to increase its in vivo stability. The investigation of hyperthermic properties of HFt-NPs shows that a Co doping of 5% is enough to strongly enhance the magnetic anisotropy and thus the hyperthermic efficiency with respect to the undoped sample. In vitro tests performed on B16 melanoma cell line demonstrate a strong reduction of the cell viability after treatment with Co doped HFt-NPs and exposure to the alternating magnetic field. Clear indications of an advanced stage of apoptotic process is also observed from immunocytochemistry analysis. The obtained data suggest this system represents a promising candidate for the development of a protein-based theranostic nanoplatform. PMID:24689973

  6. Cage rattling does not correlate with the local geometry in molecular liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Bernini, S; Leporini, D

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a liquid of short linear molecules have been performed to investigate the correlation between the particle dynamics in the cage of the neighbors and the local geometry. The latter is characterized in terms of the size and the asphericity of the Voronoi polyhedra. The correlation is found to be poor. In particular, in spite of the different Voronoi volume around the end and the inner monomers of a molecule, all the monomers exhibit coinciding displacement distribution when they are caged (as well as at longer times during the structural relaxation). It is concluded that the fast dynamics during the cage trapping is a non-local collective process involving monomers beyond the nearest neighbours.

  7. Three-Dimensional Porous Metal-Metalloporphyrin Framework Consisting of Nanoscopic Polyhedral Cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Meng, Le; Cheng, Qigan; Kim, Chungsik; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhang, X Peter; Ma, Shengqian [USF; (UC)

    2012-02-07

    An unprecedented nanoscopic polyhedral cage-containing metal-metalloporphyrin framework, MMPF-1, has been constructed from a custom-designed porphyrin ligand, 5,15-bis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)porphine, that links Cu2(carboxylate)4 moieties. A high density of 16 open copper sites confined within a nanoscopic polyhedral cage has been achieved, and the packing of the porphyrin cages via an 'ABAB' pattern affords MMPF-1 ultramicropores which render it selective toward adsorption of H2 and O2 over N2, and CO2 over CH4.

  8. Mediterranean fruit fly: interference of oviposition by radiation-sterilized females in field cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments between April and September 1984, the behaviour of nonirradiated and radiation-sterilized laboratory-adapted adults of the tephritid Ceratitis capitata was observed on apples hung on guava trees in outdoor cages in Hawaii. The numbers of nonirradiated females observed resting on fruit were reduced several times by the presence of irradiated females, either alone or with irradiated males, but not by irradiated males alone. Similarly, the number of nonirradiated females observed ovipositing and the duration of oviposition was reduced by the presence of irradiated females. In control cages (all nonirradiated flies), the duration of oviposition by females averaged 255.9±15.0 s on fruit, while most of nonirradiated and irradiated females in the mixed (treatment) cage averaged 157±19.8 s and 77.5±7.5 s on fruit, resp. Irradiated females behaved skittishly on fruit and frequently engaged in physical encounters with other flies

  9. Design Concepts of Polycarbonate-Based Intervertebral Lumbar Cages: Finite Element Analysis and Compression Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Cavazos, J Obedt; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo; Diaz-Elizondo, José A; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Rodríguez, Ciro A; Siller, Héctor R

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the viability of 3D printed intervertebral lumbar cages based on biocompatible polycarbonate (PC-ISO® material). Several design concepts are proposed for the generation of patient-specific intervertebral lumbar cages. The 3D printed material achieved compressive yield strength of 55 MPa under a specific combination of manufacturing parameters. The literature recommends a reference load of 4,000 N for design of intervertebral lumbar cages. Under compression testing conditions, the proposed design concepts withstand between 7,500 and 10,000 N of load before showing yielding. Although some stress concentration regions were found during analysis, the overall viability of the proposed design concepts was validated. PMID:27578960

  10. Environmental enrichment and development of cage stereotypy in Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, C L; Garner, J P; Mench, J A

    2004-05-01

    Stereotypies are abnormal repetitive behaviors that often develop in animals housed in impoverished environments. Stereotypy represents the interaction of several complex developmental phenomena. To characterize the temporal nature of stereotypy increase (escalation) and decrease (attenuation), we monitored changes in stereotypy performance in young Orange-winged Amazon parrots reared either in barren cages or cages provided with enrichments designed to facilitate foraging and locomotion. Unenriched parrots developed significantly more stereotypy than enriched parrots, and the mean time to stereotypy onset and the rate and magnitude of stereotypy increase also differed between the two groups. We then provided enrichment to the birds that had been reared in the barren cages. Following a 4-week delay, stereotypy was significantly reduced. These results show that stereotypy can be both prevented and reversed with appropriate environmental modification and illustrate how studying this behavior at many points over time can provide insights into its ontogeny. PMID:15103731

  11. Self-assembly of three-legged patchy particles into polyhedral cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-assembly of rigid three-legged building blocks into polyhedral cages is investigated by patchy particle simulations. A four-site anisotropic interaction potential is introduced to make pairs of overlapping legs bind in an anti-parallel fashion, thereby forming the edges of a polyhedron of pentagons and hexagons. A torsional potential, reflecting an asymmetry or polarity in the legs' binding potential, proves crucial for the successful formation of closed fullerene-like cages. Self-assembly proceeds by a nucleation-and-growth mechanism, with a high success rate of cage closure. The size distribution of the self-assembled buckyballs is largely determined by the pucker angle of the particle. Nature explores a similar building block, the clathrin triskelion, to regulate vesicle formation at the cell membrane during endocytosis.

  12. Effect of Cage Space on Behavior and Reproduction in Crl:CD(SD) and BN/Crl Laboratory Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2015-09-01

    The 2011 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals contains recommendations regarding the amount of cage space for mothers with litters. Literature on cage-space use in breeding rats is sparse. We hypothesized that, if present, differences in behavior and reproduction would be detected between the smallest and largest cages tested. BN/Crl and Crl:CD(SD) rats were assigned to a cage treatment (580 cm(2), 758 cm(2), 903 cm(2), or 1355 cm(2)) and breeding configuration (single: male removed after birth of pups; pair: 1 male, 1 female) in a factorial design for 12 wk. All cages received 20 to 25 g of nesting material, and nests were scored weekly. Pups were weaned, sexed, and weighed between postnatal days 18 and 26. Adult behavior and location in the cage were videorecorded by scan-sampling on the litter's postnatal days 0 through 8 and 14 through 21. Press posture in adults and play behavior in pups were recorded according to a 1-0 sampling method. Differences in reproductive parameters were limited to expected differences related to rat genetic background and weaning weight in pups, which was lowest in the pair-bred CD rats in the smallest cages. Press posture in adults in the smaller cages increased as the pups became mobile. Pair-housed outbred rats in the smallest commercially available cage we tested showed behavioral changes and a lower pup weaning weight. Both laboratory animal scientists and caging manufacturers should address the challenge of providing more biologically relevant cage complexity rather than merely increasing floor space. PMID:26424247

  13. Application of carbon cage (Brantigan) to lumber vertebra diseases. The examination by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Taro [Okayama National Hospital (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Recently several kinds of interlumber spacers have been used for the posterior lumber interbody fusion (PLIF). We have used Brantigan I/F cage (carbon cage) for PLIF. Here we report the results of PLIF and the postoperative MRI. We examined 10 patients (9 men and 10 women) who underwent carbon cage-used PLIF. Patients at surgery were aged from 36 to 77 years (average 61 years). The postoperative observation periods were from 6 months to 17 months (mean 8.2 months). Diseases contained 12 of lumber degenerative sliding disease, 2 of lumber-spine separate disease and 5 of lumber spine stricture complicating the unstable lumber vertebra. We observed synostosis in all cases, and we obtained the improvement rate by JOA score of 71.4%. There was no complications during surgery, except one case of transient neuroparalysis by postoperative hematoma. The carbon cage-used PLIF was effective to minimize sampling of autologous bones and to prevent the crush of bone grafts. MRI was quite effective to evaluate the position of the carbon cage and to judge synostosis. Using MRI we could judge synostosis by the contrast of grafted bones at only 3 months after surgery. The carbon cage transmits X-ray, which makes it easy to judge synostosis. It has the open window to graft autologous bones and the elasticity almost similar to the cortical bone. On the other hand it has some disadvantages; the difficulty to determine the position by the X-ray images, the biological safety, etc. (K.H.)

  14. Agricultural wetlands as potential hotspots for mercury bioaccumulation: Experimental evidence using caged fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, but also can be sources of methylmercury (MeHg) production and export. Rice agricultural wetlands in particular may be important sites for MeHg bioaccumulation due to their worldwide ubiquity, periodic flooding schedules, and high use by wildlife. We assessed MeHg bioaccumulation within agricultural and perennial wetlands common to California's Central Valley during summer, when the majority of wetland habitats are shallowly flooded rice fields. We introduced caged western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) within white rice (Oryza sativa), wild rice (Zizania palustris), and permanent wetlands at water inlets, centers, and outlets. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and body burdens in caged mosquitofish increased rapidly, exceeding baseline values at introduction by 135% to 1197% and 29% to 1566% among sites, respectively, after only 60 days. Mercury bioaccumulation in caged mosquitofish was greater in rice fields than in permanent wetlands, with THg concentrations at wetland outlets increasing by 12.1, 5.8, and 2.9 times over initial concentrations in white rice, wild rice, and permanent wetlands, respectively. In fact, mosquitofish caged at white rice outlets accumulated 721 ng Hg/fish in just 60 days. Mercury in wild mosquito fish and Mississippi silversides (Menidia audens) concurrently sampled at wetland outlets also were greater in white rice and wild rice than permanent wetlands. Within wetlands, THg concentrations and body burdens of both caged and wild fish increased from water inlets to outlets in white rice fields, and tended to not vary among sites in permanent wetlands. Fish THg concentrations in agricultural wetlands were high, exceeding 0.2 ??g/g ww in 82% of caged fish and 59% of wild fish. Our results indicate that shallowly flooded rice fields are potential hotspots for MeHg bioaccumulation and, due to their global prevalence, suggest that agricultural wetlands may be important contributors to Me

  15. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of {delta}E/E

  16. A Lightweight Field Cage for a Large TPC Prototype for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21 % of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of Delta(E)/(E) less or equal 10^-4. Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices.

  17. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of ΔE/E -4. Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices. (orig.)

  18. The Design and its Verification of the Double Rotor Double Cage Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumita; Deb, Nirmal K.; Biswas, Sujit K.

    2016-06-01

    The concept of a double rotor motor presented earlier and its equivalent circuit has been developed, showing a non-linear parameter content. The two rotors (which are recommended to be double cage type for development of high starting torque) can run with equal or unequal speed independently, depending on their individual loading. This paper presents the elaborate design procedure, step-by-step, for the double rotor double cage motor and verifies the designed data with that obtained from three separate tests (compared to two for conventional motor) on a prototype, such that optimum performance can be obtained from the motor.

  19. Status of BetaCage: an Ultra-sensitive Screener for Surface Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R.; Grant, D. R.; Kos, M.; Nelson, R. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Wang, B.

    2011-01-01

    BetaCage, a gaseous neon time-projection chamber, has been proposed as a viable screener for emitters of low-energy alphas and electrons to which commercial radioactivity counting techniques are insensitive. Using radiopure materials for construction, active and passive shielding from extrinsic backgrounds, large counting area and minimal detector mass, BetaCage will be able to achieve sensitivities of 10^(−5) counts keV^(−1) kg^(−1) day^(−1) in a few days of running time. We report on progre...

  20. Diffusive hydrogen inter-cage migration in hydrogen and hydrogen-tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrates

    OpenAIRE

    H. Cao; English, Niall J.; MacElroy, J. M. Don

    2013-01-01

    Classical equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the diffusive properties of inter-cage hydrogen migration in both pure hydrogen and mixed hydrogen-tetrahydrofuran sII hydrates at 0.05 kbar from 200 K and up to 250-260 K. For mixed H2- THF systems in which there is single H2 occupation of the small cage (labelled ‘1SC 1LC’), we found that no H2 migration occurs. However, for more densely-filled H2-THF and pure- H2 systems, in which th...

  1. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lanari; Edo D’Agaro

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth) in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C), cages with barriers (B), c...

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Diarylation of o-Carboranes By Direct Cage B-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2016-01-22

    Palladium-catalyzed intermolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics by direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of cage B(4,5)-diarylated-o-carboranes in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. Traceless directing group -COOH plays a crucial role for site- and di-selectivity of such intermolecular coupling reaction. A Pd(II)-Pd(IV)-Pd(II) catalytic cycle is proposed to be responsible for the stepwise arylation. PMID:26463595

  3. Metal ion cage complexes as imaging agents for cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cage ligands are very attractive for use in radiolabelling antibodies. Their synthesis is based around Co(III) octahedral co-ordination chemistry and they may be easily derivatised for attachment to antibodies. They are known to form kinetically inert metal complexes. Copper-64 (t1/2 = 12.7 h) has been identified as having potential value in diagnostic and therapeutic application. Its positron annihilation radiation is useful for PET imaging, while its beta (Emax 578 keV, 37.2 %) emissions may also be suitable for therapy. In the current study, the new hexa-aza-cryptand, 1 -N-(4-amino-benzyl)-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaaza-bicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane- 1,8-diamine, or SarAr, has been synthesised specifically for radiolabelling antibodies with 64Cu and a kit formulation has been produced. The resulting radiolabelled immunoconjugate (64Cu-SarArB-72.3) was injected into nude mice bearing LS174t colorectal carcinoma. Clearance of 64CuSarAr-B72.3 from the liver and kidneys was typical of a whole IgG antibody. Tumour localisation was comparable to similar radiolabelled immunoconjugates (38± 5 % ID/g at 48 hours). Biodistribution studies of 123I- and 111In- radiolabelled B72.3 were conducted in the same animal model. MIRDOSE 3 was used to compare target to non-target dose of their analogous therapeutic counterparts (90Y and 131I respectively) with 64Cu-SarAr-B72.3. Total body dose for 64Cu-SarAr-B72.3 was significantly lower (0.09 rad/mCi) than analogous products (131I-B72.3, 2.64 rad/mCi; 90Y- B72.3, 2.387 rad/mCi) while still providing enough dose to small tumours to be potentially therapeutic. In order to assess therapeutic effect of 64Cu, a biological study was conducted over a 12 month period. Nude mice bearing tumours between 3.5 - 5.5 mm in length were injected with various doses (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 MBq) of 64Cu-SarAr-B72.3. Animals were regularly monitored for tumour size, animal mass, behavioural and physical abnormalities (e.g. movement / gait, food intake and

  4. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P

    2010-12-01

    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community. PMID:21076093

  5. Spray washing, absorbent cornstarch powder, and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Allowing feces to dry is an effective but slow and logistically impractical means to kill Campylobacter in soiled transport cages. ...

  6. Do cage effects influence tumor incidence? An examination of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies utilizing Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, J K

    1988-08-01

    Approximately 125 carcinogenicity studies in Fischer 344 rats conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) were examined to determine the frequency with which cage effects were associated with observed carcinogenic responses. All studies involving groups of 50 rats housed five per cage and showing evidence of chemically-related carcinogenicity were considered. For each of these experiments, two statistical analyses were carried out for each dosed and control group: (i) a test to determine whether or not the occurrence of tumors clustered within cages; and (ii) an evaluation to determine whether or not tumor incidences differed significantly between differing cage shelf levels. These analyses showed that the numbers of statistically significant (P less than 0.05 or P less than 0.01) effects were consistent with the number expected by chance alone. Thus, cage-related factors appeared to have little or no impact upon tumor incidence in these particular studies. Experimental design protocols now used by the NTP (which include random assignment of animals to cages; random assignment of columns of cages to dosed and control groups; and periodic rotation of cage location) further reduce the likelihood that factors associated with the housing of the animals could influence tumor incidence in current studies. PMID:3183292

  7. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  8. Palladium-catalyzed regioselective intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-03-18

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of o-carborane-functionalized aromatics in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, the site selectivity can also be tuned by the substituents on cage carbon atom. PMID:25747772

  9. Effect of Cage-Wash Temperature on the Removal of Infectious Agents from Caging and the Detection of Infectious Agents on the Filters of Animal Bedding-Disposal Cabinets by PCR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Susan R; Macy, James D

    2015-11-01

    Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconverted to both agents. Soiled cages from mice harboring MPV, Helicobacter spp., Mycoplasma pulmonis, Syphacia obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages remained pathogen-free, whereas most sentinels in unwashed cages became infected with MPV and S. obvelata. Therefore washing at 110 or 180 °F is sufficient to decontaminate caging and prevent pathogen transmission. We then assessed whether PCR analysis of debris from the bedding disposal cabinet detected pathogens at the facility level. Samples were collected from the prefilter before and after the disposal of bedding from cages housing mice infected with both MPV and MHV. All samples collected before bedding disposal were negative for parvovirus and MHV, and all samples collected afterward were positive for these agents. Furthermore, all samples obtained from the prefilter before the disposal of bedding from multiply infected mice were pathogen-negative, and all those collected afterward were positive for parvovirus, M. pulmonis, S. obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus. Therefore the debris on the prefilter of bedding-disposal cabinets is useful for pathogen screening. PMID:26632784

  10. Rational disruption of the oligomerization of the mini-ferritin E. coli DPS through protein-protein interface mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Fu, Jing; Chee, Sze Y; Ang, Emmiline X W; Orner, Brendan P.

    2011-01-01

    DNA-binding protein from starved cells (DPS), a mini-ferritin capable of self-assembling into a 12-meric nano-cage, was chosen as the basis for an alanine-shaving mutagenesis study to investigate the importance of key amino acid residues, located at symmetry-related protein-protein interfaces, in controlling protein stability and self-assembly. Nine mutants were designed through simple inspection, synthesized, and subjected to transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism, size exclusi...

  11. Structural characterisation of protein-caged iron minerals in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, K; Bleloch, A L [SuperSTEM (United Kingdom); Pan, Y; Brydson, R; Brown, A [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper we have collected multiple high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images of purified horse spleen ferritin mineral cores with an aberration corrected STEM (SuperSTEM). The images of individual cores have been separated into groups to determine characteristic views, and averaged to reduce the noise. We have found that these isolated cores do not have the same clear substructure as ferritin cores in plastic-embedded human liver sections (from a patient with haemochromatosis). There is a clear discrepancy between the in situ human liver and purified horse spleen ferritin, but also between Massover's observation of regular substructure in purified horse spleen ferritin by cryo-electron microscopy [1] and these results. A possible basis for this discrepancy is the difference in purification methods used between the two horse spleen ferritin preparations, with the one here purified using CdSO{sub 4} precipitation, and the one used by Massover purified without the use of CdSO{sub 4}.

  12. Stabilization of a protein nanocage through the plugging of a protein-protein interfacial water pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardejani, Maziar S; Li, Noel X; Orner, Brendan P

    2011-05-17

    The unique structural properties of the ferritin protein cages have provided impetus to focus on the methodical study of these self-assembling nanosystems. Among these proteins, Escherichia coli bacterioferritin (EcBfr), although architecturally very similar to other members of the family, shows structural instability and an incomplete self-assembly behavior by populating two oligomerization states. Through computational analysis and comparison to its homologues, we have found that this protein has a smaller than average dimeric interface on its 2-fold symmetry axis mainly because of the existence of an interfacial water pocket centered around two water-bridged asparagine residues. To investigate the possibility of engineering EcBfr for modified structural stability, we have used a semiempirical computational method to virtually explore the energy differences of the 480 possible mutants at the dimeric interface relative to that of wild-type EcBfr. This computational study also converged on the water-bridged asparagines. Replacing these two asparagines with hydrophobic amino acids resulted in proteins that folded into α-helical monomers and assembled into cages as evidenced by circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy. Both thermal and chemical denaturation confirmed that, in all cases, these proteins, in agreement with the calculations, possessed increased stability. One of the three mutations shifts the population in favor of the higher-order oligomerization state in solution as evidenced by both size exclusion chromatography and native gel electrophoresis. These results taken together suggest that our low-level design was successful and that it may be possible to apply the strategy of targeting water pockets at protein--protein interfaces to other protein cage and self-assembling systems. More generally, this study further demonstrates the power of jointly employing in silico and in vitro techniques to understand and enhance biostructural

  13. Protein-Based Nanomedicine Platforms for Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Ham, Aihui; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-08-03

    Drug delivery systems have been developed for many years, however some limitations still hurdle the pace of going to clinical phase, for example, poor biodistribution, drug molecule cytotoxicity, tissue damage, quick clearance from the circulation system, solubility and stability of drug molecules. To overcome the limitations of drug delivery, biomaterials have to be developed and applied to drug delivery to protect the drug molecules and to enhance the drug’s efficacy. Protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery are platforms comprised of naturally self-assembled protein subunits of the same protein or a combination of proteins making up a complete system. They are ideal for drug delivery platforms due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability coupled with low toxicity. A variety of proteins have been used and characterized for drug delivery systems including the ferritin/apoferritin protein cage, plant derived viral capsids, the small Heat shock protein (sHsp) cage, albumin, soy and whey protein, collagen, and gelatin. There are many different types and shapes that have been prepared to deliver drug molecules using protein-based platforms including the various protein cages, microspheres, nanoparticles, hydrogels, films, minirods and minipellets. There are over 30 therapeutic compounds that have been investigated with protein-based drug delivery platforms for the potential treatment of various cancers, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases. In protein-based drug delivery platforms, protein cage is the most newly developed biomaterials for drug delivery and therapeutic applications. Their uniform sizes, multifunctions, and biodegradability push them to the frontier for drug delivery. In this review, the recent strategic development of drug delivery has been discussed with a special emphasis upon the polymer based, especially protein-based nanomedicine platforms for drug delivery. The advantages and disadvantages are also

  14. Vergleich klinischer und radiologischer Parameter nach anteriorer Diskektomie und Fusion der Halswirbelsäule mit Polyetheretherketon- und Titan-Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Soner

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compared with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) titanium (TTN) cages have a higher modulus of elasticity and are reported to show a higher loss of correction and more frequent cage subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Direct comparison of both cage types appears to favour PEEK cages to maintain cervical interspace height and achieve better fusion in patients with a degenerative disc disease (DDD), but clinical studies on this subject are very rare. Metho...

  15. Disparities in Ammonia, Temperature, Humidity, and Airborne Particulate Matter between the Micro-and Macroenvironments of Mice in Individually Ventilated Caging

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Matthew D.; VandeWoude, Susan; Volckens, John; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Animal room environmental parameters typically are monitored with the assumption that the environment within the cage closely mirrors the room environment. This study evaluated that premise by examining macro- (room) and microenvironmental (cage) parameters in individually ventilated cages housing mice with variable amounts of bedding over a period of 17 d without cage changes. Intracage ammonia levels remained within recommended human guidelines but were higher than room levels, confirming t...

  16. Gene expression in caged fish as indicators of contaminants exposure in tropical karstic water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Luna-Ramírez, Karen S; Soto, Mélina; Richardson, Kristine L

    2012-04-01

    Karstic areas in Yucatan are very permeable, which allows contaminants to move rapidly into the aquifer. In the present study, we evaluated gene expression of vitellogenin (VTG) and cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) in caged juvenile zebrafish deployed for 15 days in 13 different water bodies, cenotes and aguadas, throughout karstic region of the Yucatan peninsula. Gene expression was evaluated using qRT-PCR. Results indicated induction of VTG in 7 water bodies with respect to reference cage. The highest relative VTG expression, about 3000 times higher than reference cage, was found in an aguada close to a cattle farm. CYP1A induction with respect to reference cage was observed in 3 water bodies, all of them located near villages or used for tourist activities. Pollutants and biomarkers of effect should be monitored in these water bodies in order to have a better understanding of the actual levels of pollutants that are present at Yucatan's aquifer and the potential risk to human and environmental health. PMID:22014761

  17. A new cytotoxic caged polyprenylated xanthone from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li Wang; Zhan Lin Li; Yong Peng Xu; Xiao Qiu Liu; Yue Hu Pei; Yong Kui Jing; Hui Ming Hua

    2008-01-01

    A new caged polyprenylated xanthone,gambogic aldehyde(1),was isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR data.In addition.the antiproliferative ability of compound 1 was determined in mouse leukemia P388 and P388/ADR ceils.

  18. Trace elements in two marine fish cultured in fish cages in Fujian province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Ke Caihuan; Wang Xinhong; Wang Kejian [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Two cultured marine fish, the Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and red seabream (Pagrus major) were collected from eight fish cage sites along the coast of Fujian province in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn in their muscle, stomach and liver tissue were quantified. The risk of these trace elements to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The highest concentrations of As, Cd, Se and Zn in fish feed from fish cages were found in Dongshan Station. Moreover, the As levels in the muscles of both species at all sites were generally higher than China's national standard (>1.0 mug/g). Trace element concentrations in two marine fish followed the order of livers > stomachs > muscles. Although the As levels in two marine caged fish exceeded the permissible standards, the estimated daily intake of As did not exceed the reference dose guideline established by US EPA. For other trace elements examined in this study, their concentrations did not exceed the permissible concentrations of the international standards. - As levels in two marine caged fish from China exceeded the permissible standards, whereas the levels of others trace elements did not exceed the permissible concentrations.

  19. Stereoselective recognition of the Ac-Glu-Tyr-OH dipeptide by pseudopeptidic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, Enrico; Vicent, Cristian; Luis, Santiago V; Alfonso, Ignacio

    2015-12-28

    Pseudopeptidic molecular cages are appealing receptors since they can display different polar and non-polar interaction sites in a modular framework and a controlled disposition. Inspired by previous host-guest knowledge, two pseudopeptidic molecular cages based on serine and threonine (CySer and CyThr, respectively) were designed and synthesized as hosts for the binding of the four possible stereoisomers of the Ac-Glu-Tyr-OH dipeptide, a target sequence of tyrosine kinases. The careful NMR titration experiments in aqueous acetonitrile allowed the determination of the binding constants and reflected a difference in the stability of the corresponding diastereomeric host-guest complexes. The CySer cage proved to be slightly more efficient than the CyThr counterpart, although both showed similar stereoselectivity trends: LL > DD ≥ LD > DL. This stereoselective binding was retained in the gas phase, as shown by ESI-MS competition experiments using the enantiomer-labelled method (EL), as well as CID experiments. Thus, the MS-determined discriminations follow the same trends observed by NMR, suggesting that the stereoselectivity observed for these systems must be mainly dictated by the polar host-guest interactions. Despite the stereoselective binding of short peptide sequences in competitive media being a challenging issue in supramolecular chemistry, our results demonstrate the power of pseudopeptidic cages in molecular recognition with foreseen implications in chemical biology. PMID:26481115

  20. Photo-control of nitric oxide synthase activity using a caged isoform specific inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather J; Perdicakis, Basil; Fishlock, Dan; Lajoie, Gilles A; Jervis, Eric; Guy Guillemette, J

    2002-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in a number of physiological processes and is produced in mammalian cells by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes. Because of the diverse functions of NO, pharmaceutical interventions which seek to abrogate adverse effects of excess NOS activity must not interfere with the normal regulation of NO levels in the body. A method has been developed for the control of NOS enzyme activity using the localized photochemical release of a caged isoform-specific NOS inhibitor. The caged form of an iNOS inhibitor has been synthesized and tested for photosensitivity and potency. UV and multiphoton uncaging were verified using a hemoglobin-based assay. IC(50) values were determined for the inhibitor (70+/-11 nM), the caged inhibitor (1098+/-172 nM), the UV uncaged inhibitor (67+/-26 nM) and the multiphoton uncaged inhibitor (73+/-11 nM). UV irradiation of the caged inhibitor resulted in a 86% reduction in iNOS activity after 5 min. Multiphoton uncaging had an apparent first order time constant of 0.007+/-0.001 min(-1). A therapeutic range exists, with molar excess of inhibitor to enzyme from 3- to 7-fold, over which the full dynamic range of the inhibition can be exploited. PMID:11937350

  1. Photoactivatable Drug-Caged Fluorophore Conjugate Allows Direct Quantification of Intracellular Drug Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Agasti, Sarit S.; Laughney, Ashley M.; Kohler, Rainer H.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We report here a method that utilizes photoactivatable drug-caged fluorophore conjugate to quantify intracellular drug trafficking processes at single cell resolution. Photoactivation is performed in labeled cellular compartments to visualize intracellular drug exchange at physiologic conditions, without the need for washing, facilitating its translation to in vivo cancer models.

  2. That Entertainment Called a Discussion: The Critical Arts Pedagogy of John Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Just as John Cage used chance techniques to relinquish control in his practice as a composer, he used pedagogical techniques that facilitated shared learning and experimentation. The tenets of Critical Pedagogy, as laid out by Paulo Freire in "The Pedagogy of the Oppressed," offer insights into the structures and strategies implicit in…

  3. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shaona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyroscope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  4. PRODUCTIVITY OF LAYERS AND EGG QUALITY IN FREE RANGE AND CAGE SYSTEM OF HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đ. Senčić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with two groups of Lohmann Brown hybrid layers. Production of eggs lasted for 52 weeks. A control group of layers was kept in the conventional housing system, that is, in cages, while experimental group was kept in the free range system. Layers from the free range system, compared to those kept in cages, laid fewer eggs, (266:295, they consumed more feed on daily basis (129 g : 115 g, more feed per kilogram of egg weight (2.83 kg : 2.35 kg, they had higher mortality rate (6.80 % : 5.50 % and lower end of lay body weight (1.95 kg : 2.10 kg. Eggs from free range layers, compared to those from the cages system, had significantly (P0.05 were determined between the free range and the cages system of housing hens. Considering somewhat lower productivity and higher mortality rate of hens, higher feed consumption per kilogram of egg mass, but also better quality of eggs, profitability of egg production in the free range system will depend, to the maximum extent, on market evaluation of the production.

  5. Examination of Free Choice of Rabbits among Different Cage-floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Matics

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits were placed in a block of cages with a floor-area of 2 m2. The animals could move freely among the cages, through swing doors. All the four cages were totally equal, they only differed in the floor (planked by OSB panel, plastic-slat, plastic-mesh or wire-mesh. 24 or 32 rabbits, weaned at 21 days of age were placed into the block. During the experiment (until 10 weeks of age the free choice of rabbits among the cage-floors was studied weekly with the help of 24-hour video recordings. The soiled and wet (by urine planked-floor was chosen by fewer and fewer rearing rabbits after the first week. Placing both 24 or 32 rabbits into the block, the plastic mesh floor was preferred. With the increase of age the choice of plastic-mesh, wire-mesh and plastic-slat floor became similar. The increase of both number and weight of rabbits in 1 m2 influenced the acceptance of different floors. Rearing 32 rabbits together, the choice of the 3 preferred floor types became similar at 7.5 weeks of age, while rearing 24 rabbits in a group, it became similar only at 9.5 weeks of age.

  6. Examination of Free Choice of Rabbits among Different Cage-floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Matics

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits were placed in a block of cages with a floor-area of 2 m2. The animals could move freely among the cages, through swing doors. All the four cages were totally equal, they only differed in the floor (planked by OSB panel, plastic-slat, plastic-mesh or wire-mesh. 24 or 32 rabbits, weaned at 21 days of age were placed into the block. During the experiment (until 10 weeks of age the free choice of rabbits among the cage-floors was studied weekly with the help of 24-hour video recordings. The soiled and wet (by urine planked-floor was chosen by fewer and fewer rearing rabbits after the first week. Placing both 24 or 32 rabbits into the block, the plastic mesh floor was preferred. With the increase of age the choice ofplastic-mesh, wire-mesh and plastic-slat floor became similar. The increase of both number and weight of rabbits in 1 m2 influenced the acceptance of different floors. Rearing 32 rabbits together, the choice of the 3 preferred floor types became similar at 7.5 weeks of age, while rearing 24 rabbits in a group, it became similar only at 9.5 weeks of age.

  7. Effect of rib cage and abdominal restriction on total respiratory resistance and reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noord, J A; Demedts, M; Clément, J; Cauberghs, M; Van de Woestijne, K P

    1986-11-01

    In 14 healthy male subjects we studied the effects of rib cage and abdominal strapping on lung volumes, airway resistance (Raw), and total respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). Rib cage, as well as abdominal, strapping caused a significant decrease in vital capacity (respectively, -36 and -34%), total lung capacity (TLC) (-31 and -27%), functional residual capacity (FRC) (-28 and -28%), and expiratory reserve volume (-40 and -48%) and an increase in specific airway conductance (+24 and +30%) and in maximal expiratory flow at 50% of control TLC (+47 and +42%). The decrease of residual volume (RV) was significant (-12%) with rib cage strapping only. Abdominal strapping resulted in a minor overall increase in Rrs, whereas rib cage strapping produced a more marked increase at low frequencies; thus a frequency dependence of Rrs was induced. A similar pattern, but with lower absolute values, of Rrs was obtained by thoracic strapping when the subject was breathing at control FRC. Xrs was decreased, especially at low frequencies, with abdominal strapping and even more with thoracic strapping; thus the resonant frequency of the respiratory system was shifted toward higher frequencies. Partitioning Rrs and Xrs into resistance and reactance of lungs and chest wall demonstrated that the different effects of chest wall and abdominal strapping on Rrs and Xrs reflect changes mainly of chest wall mechanics. PMID:3781983

  8. The split cube in a cage: bulk negative-index material for infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.;

    2009-01-01

    We propose the split cube in a cage (SCiC) design for application in producing a bulk metamaterial. Applying realistic material data for thin silver films, we observe an immediate convergence of the effective parameters obtained with a number of layers towards the bulk properties. Results are obt...

  9. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Oliveira, R.; McDonough, S.; Matser, A.; Khatikarn, J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Domingues, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxy

  10. Urea and Guanidinium Induced Denaturation of a Trp-Cage Miniprotein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyda, Jan; Kožíšek, Milan; Bednárová, Lucie; Thompson, G.; Konvalinka, Jan; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 28 (2011), s. 8910-8924. ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/08/0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : trp-cage denaturation * urea * guanidinium * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  11. Maternal Obesity, Cage Density, and Age Contribute to Prostate Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Emily C; Gill, Jeff; Lamb, Laura E; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors is gravely needed to prevent adverse prostate health outcomes. We previously developed a murine precancer model in which exposure to maternal obesity stimulated prostate hyperplasia in offspring. Here, we used generalized linear modeling to evaluate the influence of additional environmental covariates on prostate hyperplasia. As expected from our previous work, the model revealed that aging and maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) each correlated with prostate hyperplasia. However, prostate hyperplasia was not correlated with the length of maternal DIO. Cage density positively associated with both prostate hyperplasia and offspring body weight. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in prostates also positively correlated with cage density and negatively correlated with age of the animal. Together, these findings suggest that prostate tissue was adversely patterned during early life by maternal overnutrition and was susceptible to alteration by environmental factors such as cage density. Additionally, prostate hyperplasia may be acutely influenced by exposure to DIO, rather than occurring as a response to worsening obesity and comorbidities experienced by the mother. Finally, cage density correlated with both corticosteroid receptor abundance and prostate hyperplasia, suggesting that overcrowding influenced offspring prostate hyperplasia. These results emphasize the need for multivariate regression models to evaluate the influence of coordinated variables in complicated animal systems. PMID:26243546

  12. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen trapped inside an open-cage fullerene

    OpenAIRE

    Carravetta, M.; Murata, Y; Murata, M.; Heinmaa, I.; Stern, R.; Tontcheva, A.; Samoson, A.; Y. Rubin; Komatsu, K.; Levitt, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state 1H experiments were performed an open-cage fullerene hosting molecular hydrogen. The anisotropy of the molecular hydrogen rotation was studied by double-quantum magic-angle-spinning NMR. The time scale of the molecular hydrogen rotation was estimated by spin-lattice relaxation measurements as a function of temperature.

  13. Parameters identification of the compound cage rotor induction machine based on linearized Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁成; 李伟力; 孙建伟

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model has been built up for compound cage rotor induction machine with the rotor re-sistance and leakage inductance in the model identified through Kalman filtering method. Using the identifiedparameters, simulation studies are performed, and simulation results are compared with testing results.

  14. Disorder of Hydrofluorocarbon Molecules Entrapped in the Water Cages of Structure I Clathrate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Satoshi; Udachin, Konstantin A; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Ohmura, Ryo; Ripmeester, John A

    2016-05-23

    Water versus fluorine: Clathrate hydrates encaging hydrofluorocarbons as guests show both isotropic and anisotropic distributions within host water cages, depending on the number of fluorine atoms in the guest molecule; this is caused by changes in intermolecular interactions to host water molecules in the hydrates. PMID:27105807

  15. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... balance of all customer cash deposits that are in the cage/vault inventory or accountability; and (iii... shall comply with procedures for the receipt, inventory, storage, and destruction of gaming chips and... reconciled to the general ledger each month. The reconciliation and any follow-up performed shall...

  16. Novel approach to the behavioural characterization of inbred mice : automated home cage observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, L; van den Bos, R; Kuurman, W W; Kas, M J H; Spruijt, B M

    2006-01-01

    Here we present a newly developed tool for continuous recordings and analysis of novelty-induced and baseline behaviour of mice in a home cage-like environment. Aim of this study was to demonstrate the strength of this method by characterizing four inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6, DBA/2, C3H and 129

  17. Nicolas Cage otsib kadunud tütart naistesaarelt / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Õudusfilm "Ohvripidu" : režissöör Neil LaBute : peaosas Nicholas Cage : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Film on uusversioon briti 1973.a. filmist, mille režissöör oli Robin Hardy ja ühes peaosadest Christopher Lee

  18. Alternatives for the battery cage system: a comparison of economic, environmental and societal performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.; Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ban on the battery cage system in the European Union after 2012, mainly due to impaired hen welfare, forces farmers to change to alternative housing systems for laying hens. Large-scale introduction of more hen-friendly systems, however, requires a comparison of these systems on their economic,

  19. Energy loss caused by shielding effect of steel cage outside source tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The energy loss, produced by shielding effect of steel cage outside the source tube, is quite considerable.With PENELOPE software package, MC results have been obtained based on the simulation of different source conformations. The result illustrates that the naked source tubes can improve the utilization ratio of the cobalt facilities. It demonstrates the applied value of the naked source tube in engineering.

  20. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

  1. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Shaona; Chen Xiaoyang; Gu Jiaming; Shen Xuejin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyro-scope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  2. Antibody caging of a nuclear-targeting signal.

    OpenAIRE

    Halleck, M S; Rechsteiner, M

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a technique for reversibly masking a peptide-targeting signal. A fluoresceinated derivative of the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen nuclear-targeting signal was synthesized and cross-linked to bovine serum albumin. The conjugated protein was efficiently transported into rat liver nuclei unless the peptide-targeting signal was sterically hindered by binding of an anti-fluorescein antibody. Addition of free 5-aminofluorescein competed for antibody binding and rapidly restor...

  3. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENR), were monitored in river water and sediment samples. Moreover, we assessed the toxicity of OTC and ENR on tropical freshwater invertebrates and performed a risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems. All interviewed tilapia farmers reported to routinely use antibiotics. Peak water concentrations for OTC and ENR were 49 and 1.6 μg/L, respectively. Antibiotics were most frequently detected in sediments with concentrations up to 6908 μg/kg d.w. for OTC, and 2339 μg/kg d.w. for ENR. The results of this study indicate insignificant short-term risks for primary producers and invertebrates, but suggest that the studied aquaculture farms constitute an important source of antibiotic pollution. - Highlights: • First study assessing the risks of antibiotics applied in freshwater tilapia cages. • Ten antibiotics were reported to be used by tilapia cage farmers in two Thai rivers. • Peak oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin concentrations were in the order of μg/L. • Antibiotic concentrations in river sediments next to cages were up to several mg/kg. • Antibiotics are not posing a short-term risk for pelagic aquatic organisms. - Antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems and constitute an important source of environmental pollution

  4. Molecular Cage Impregnated Palladium Nanoparticles: Efficient, Additive-Free Heterogeneous Catalysts for Cyanation of Aryl Halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bijnaneswar; Acharyya, Koushik; Howlader, Prodip; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2016-02-10

    Two shape-persistent covalent cages (CC1(r) and CC2(r)) have been devised from triphenyl amine-based trialdehydes and cyclohexane diamine building blocks utilizing the dynamic imine chemistry followed by imine bond reduction. The cage compounds have been characterized by several spectroscopic techniques which suggest that CC1(r) and CC2(r) are [2+3] and [8+12] self-assembled architectures, respectively. These state-of-the-art molecules have a porous interior and stable aromatic backbone with multiple palladium binding sites to engineer the controlled synthesis and stabilization of ultrafine palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs). As-synthesized cage-embedded PdNPs have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry reveals that Pd@CC1(r) and Pd@CC2(r) have 40 and 25 wt% palladium loading, respectively. On the basis of TEM analysis, it has been estimated that as small as ∼1.8 nm PdNPs could be stabilized inside the CC1(r), while larger CC2(r) could stabilize ∼3.7 nm NPs. In contrast, reduction of palladium salts in the absence of the cages form structure less agglomerates. The well-dispersed cage-embedded NPs exhibit efficient catalytic performance in the cyanation of aryl halides under heterogeneous, additive-free condition. Moreover, these materials have excellent stability and recyclability without any agglomeration of PdNPs after several cycles. PMID:26771385

  5. High-temperature in situ crystallographic observation of reversible gas sorption in impermeable organic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Bin; Moon, Dohyun; Graf, Robert; Cho, Woo Jong; Park, Sung Woo; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Cho, Seung Joo; Hwang, In-Chul; Bae, Youn-Sang; Spiess, Hans W; Lee, Hee Cheon; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-11-17

    Crystallographic observation of adsorbed gas molecules is a highly difficult task due to their rapid motion. Here, we report the in situ single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray observations of reversible CO2 sorption processes in an apparently nonporous organic crystal under varying pressures at high temperatures. The host material is formed by hydrogen bond network between 1,3,5-tris-(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene (H3BTB) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and by π-π stacking between the H3BTB moieties. The material can be viewed as a well-ordered array of cages, which are tight packed with each other so that the cages are inaccessible from outside. Thus, the host is practically nonporous. Despite the absence of permanent pathways connecting the empty cages, they are permeable to CO2 at high temperatures due to thermally activated molecular gating, and the weakly confined CO2 molecules in the cages allow direct detection by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 323 K. Variable-temperature in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies also show that the CO2 sorption is reversible and driven by temperature increase. Solid-state magic angle spinning NMR defines the interactions of CO2 with the organic framework and dynamic motion of CO2 in cages. The reversible sorption is attributed to the dynamic motion of the DMF molecules combined with the axial motions/angular fluctuations of CO2 (a series of transient opening/closing of compartments enabling CO2 molecule passage), as revealed from NMR and simulations. This temperature-driven transient molecular gating can store gaseous molecules in ordered arrays toward unique collective properties and release them for ready use. PMID:26578758

  6. Impact of wastewater on fish health: a case study at the Neckar River (Southern Germany) using biomarkers in caged brown trout as assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Krisztina; Scheil, Volker; Kuch, Bertram; Köhler, Heinz R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes a field survey aiming at assessing the impact of a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on fish health by means of biomarkers. Indigenous fish were absent downstream of the STP. To elucidate the reason behind this, brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) were exposed in floating steel cages up- and downstream of a STP located at the Neckar River near Tübingen (Southern Germany), for 10 and 30 days. A combination of biomarker methods (histopathological investigations, analysis of the stress protein Hsp70, micronucleus test, B-esterase assays) offered the possibility to investigate endocrine, geno-, proteo- and neurotoxic effects in fish organs. Biological results were complemented with chemical analyses on 20 accumulative substances in fish tissue. Even after short-term exposure, biomarkers revealed clear evidence of water contamination at both Neckar River sites; however, physiological responses of caged brown trout were more severe downstream of the STP. According to this, similar bioaccumulation levels (low μg/kg range) of DDE and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at both sampling sites, while up to fourfold higher concentrations of four PAHs, methyl-triclosan and two synthetic musks occurred in the tissues of downstream-exposed fish. The results obtained in this study suggest a constitutive background pollution at both sites investigated at the Neckar River and provided evidence for the additional negative impact of the STP Tübingen on water quality and the health condition of fish. PMID:25860546

  7. Population size, cage area, and dominance rank effects on productivity and well-being of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D L; van Tienhoven, A; Gvaryahu, G

    1988-03-01

    The effect of two cage population sizes (four vs. six/cage) and two cage area treatments (316 cm2 vs. 406 cm2/bird) were compared in a nonconfounded design while maintaining feeder space constant (8.9 cm/bird) for egg production performances and behavioral and physiological indicators of well-being of laying hens. Egg production rates were determined for all members of each cage group (palpations at 48 to 50 wk) and on a cage group basis (20 to 60 wk). Heart weights, plasma corticosterone levels, durations of tonic immobility (TI), and plumage conditions were compared for top and bottom birds in the dominance ranks. Significant reductions in egg production were observed for low ranking hens in the high density (4 and 6/316-cm2) treatments. In addition, high ranking hens of the 6/316-cm2 treatment produced fewer eggs than high ranking hens in the 4/316-cm2 treatment. When high and low ranking individuals were housed in single-hen cages, egg production was improved relative to performances in the social environments. Heart weights of hens, as a percentage of body weight, were increased in the low ranking hens and for hens in the smaller cage size. Plasma corticosterone did not prove to be a useful indicator of well-being. Low ranking individuals had greater durations of TI but differences in feather condition were not detected. The results support the contention that appropriate population sizes and cage space allocations can be determined that will optimize the performance and welfare of layers in cage environments. PMID:3405919

  8. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  9. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 {mu}g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 {mu}g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 {mu}g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 {mu}g/g THg and 0.13 {mu}g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 {mu}g/g THg and 0.01 {mu}g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope {delta}{sup 15}N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that {delta}{sup 15}N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  10. Production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of two strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbaşılar, E E; Ünal, N; Erdem, E; Kocakaya, A; Yaranoğlu, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in production performance, use of nest box, and external appearance of 2 strains of laying hens kept in conventional and enriched cages. Lohmann Brown Classic (LB, n=532) and Lohmann LSL Classic (LW, n=532) hens were housed from 16 to 73 wk in either conventional cages or enriched cages. Enriched cages had a nesting area, scratch pad, perch, and nail shortener. Body weight (BW), hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cracked and dirty eggs, use of nest box for lay, and external appearance were determined. Laying period influenced the hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Cage type affected the hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, while strain affected the egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Laying period×cage type and laying period×strain interactions affected egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. Both strains preferred to lay in the nest box. Percentages of cracked and dirty eggs of LW hens in enriched cages were higher than that in conventional cages. Most of the dirty eggs laid by both strains were found outside of the nest box. The LW hens laid more dirty eggs than the LB hens. Cage type and cage type×strain interaction were important for total feather score. Final claw length was affected by cage type, strain, and cage type×strain interaction. This study suggests that cage type, strain, and also cage type×strain and period×strain interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are used. PMID:25667426

  11. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. Mark; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-01

    The separation of molecules with similar size and shape is an important technological challenge. For example, rare gases can pose either an economic opportunity or an environmental hazard and there is a need to separate these spherical molecules selectively at low concentrations in air. Likewise, chiral molecules are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, but chiral enantiomers, by definition, have identical size and shape, and their separation can be challenging. Here we show that a porous organic cage molecule has unprecedented performance in the solid state for the separation of rare gases, such as krypton and xenon. The selectivity arises from a precise size match between the rare gas and the organic cage cavity, as predicted by molecular simulations. Breakthrough experiments demonstrate real practical potential for the separation of krypton, xenon and radon from air at concentrations of only a few parts per million. We also demonstrate selective binding of chiral organic molecules such as 1-phenylethanol, suggesting applications in enantioselective separation.

  12. Trapping of atomic hydrogen in octasilsesquioxane cages by glow discharge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen atoms are trapped in octasilsesquioxane ((RSiO3/2)8, R = H, CH3, i-butyl, etc.) cages by electric discharge treatment. The yield of the trapped hydrogen was evaluated to be 1.3 x 10-4 of cage unit by using ESR spectroscopy for (CH3SiO3/2)8 discharged for 4 minutes at room temperature. To obtain a comparable yield of the trapped hydrogen by γ-rays (60Co) irradiation, an absorbed dose of ca. 300 kGy is required, taking two days or more in general. The discharge technique is simple and extremely efficient compared to the conventional method of γ-ray radiolysis. (author)

  13. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  14. Cyclic Water Clusters in Tape-Like and Cage-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhou Lei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the ratio of 2,2′-bpy to benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid produces two interesting complexes, namely [Co(2,2′-bpy3] (SO4 8.5H2O (1 and [Cu2(BTCA (2,2′-bpy4] (OH (2,2′-bpy0.5·14H2O (2 (H3BTCA = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine. We report the structural evidence in the solid state of discrete lamellar water cluster conformations. These units are found to act as supramolecular glue in the aggregation of cobalt (II or copper (II complexes to give three dimensional cage-like networks through hydrogen-bonding. It is interesting that the structure of complex 1 contains a 3D negatively charged cage.

  15. Performance of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in Cages, under Different Percentage of Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. B. Pereira; P. R. Moeller; N. T. Vanderline; L. C. Q. Moura; P.S.A. Moreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different rate in percentage feeding of the productivity (Body weight (BW) and feed conversion (FC)) of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), with a total of 13500 animals, distributed in nine cages, with n = 1500 fish/cage, with three replicates in a period of four weeks. The animals were feed with   three treatments: treatment 1 (2% BW); treatment 2 ( 3% BW) and treatment 3 (4% BW), divided in two meals,  and feed  with commercial...

  16. Control System for Producing Electricity with Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Nicolae Tutelea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present the key design equations and control design model of the Dual Stator Winding Cage-Rotor Induction Generator (DSWIG to achieve wide-speed-range operation with reduced capacity of the static power controller for low power wind or hydro applications. The proposed induction generator consists of a standard squirrel-cage rotor and a stator with two separate windings wound for a similar number of poles. Moreover, the system control strategy using the stator flux orientation is consequently proposed. The aim of the paper is to emphasize that the low speed induction generators with power electronic converters represent a realistic and useful solution for direct drive power applications.

  17. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol system—An ab initio study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snehanshu Pal; T K Kundu

    2013-03-01

    Density functional theory based studies have been performed to elucidate the role of methanol as an methane hydrate inhibitor. A methane hydrate pentagonal dodecahedron cage’s geometry optimization, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, Mullikan charge determination, electrostatic potential evaluation and vibrational frequency calculation with and without the presence of methanol using WB97XD/6-31++G(d,p) have been carried out. Calculated geometrical parameters and interaction energies indicate that methanol destabilizes pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage (1CH4@512) with and without the presence of sodium ion. NBO analysis and red shift of vibrational frequency reveal that hydrogen bond formation between methanol and water molecules of 1CH4@512 cage is favourable subsequently after breaking its original hydrogen bonded network.

  18. Introduced, Captive, Caged and Escaped Exotic and Native Bird Species in the Littoral Area of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some introduced exotic bird species may cause damages to the ecosystem they are introduced to; others may have no effect or can be beneficial to humans and ecosystems.Whatever the case is, the exotic bird species remain an issue in Lebanon, especially that they are not given the appropriate priority at the national level. With the recent intentional or accidental introduction of exotic species,the problem is increasing and therefore necessitating comprehensive evaluation of the status and origin of these species in Lebanon.Since many of the introduced species are escapes from cages, it was necessary to also evaluate both status and origin of all caged birds in order to see whether they are introduced or native to the country. (author)

  19. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Response of A Net Cage for Flatfish in Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂福坤; 赵云鹏; 许条建; 关长涛

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model of flatfish cage is built based on the lumped mass method and the principle of rigid body kinematics. To validate the numerical model, a series of physical model tests are conducted in the wave flume. The numerical results correspond well with the data sets from physical model test. The effect of weight of bottom frame, height of fish net and net shape on motion responses of fish cage and tension force on mooring lines is then analyzed. The results indicate that the vertical displacements of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increase in the weight of bottom frame; the maximum tension force on mooring lines increases with the increasing weight of bottom frame. The inclination angles of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increasing net height; the maximum tension force increases obviously with the increase of net height.

  20. Effect of Caging and Swimmer Bars on Flexural Response of RC Deep Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathy S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beams with shear span to depth ratio (a/d less than or equal to 2 are considered as deep beams. They have wide applications in pile caps, water tanks, shear walls, corbels etc. Their strength is controlled by shear. Swimmer bars are small inclined bars, whose both ends are bent horizontally and welded to both top and bottom flexural reinforcement. Swimmer bars forming a plane crack interceptor system is effective in carrying shear. Also, a reinforcement caging provided at the centre of a simply supported beam is supposed to enhance its flexural capacity. In this study, an experimental investigation on the flexural response of deep beams reinforced with caging and swimmer bars is done. Various parameters like ultimate load, deflection and failure modes of different reinforcement patterns are studied.

  1. Fabrication of CuO nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian HuYong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHere we report a very simple method to convert conventional CuO powders to nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method. CuO is dissolved into aqueous ammonia, and the solution is diluted by alcohol and dip coating onto a glass substrate. Drying at 80 °C, the nanostructures with bunchy nanoparticles of Cu(OH2can be formed. After the substrate immerges into the solution and we vaporize the solution, hollow microspheres can be formed onto the substrate. There are three phases in the as-prepared samples, monoclinic tenorite CuO, orthorhombic Cu(OH2, and monoclinic carbonatodiamminecopper(II (Cu(NH32CO3. After annealing at 150 °C, the products convert to CuO completely. At annealing temperature above 350 °C, the hollow microspheres became nanoparticle interlinked cages.

  2. Parasitic diseases in marine cage culture--an example of experimental evolution of parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Barbara F

    2007-05-01

    Rapid development of fish culture in marine cages has been associated with an emergence of parasitic diseases. There is a general trend to an increase in infections with ectoparasites with direct life cycles and a reduced diversity of parasites in aquaculture. Some mariculture creates conditions that are similar to serial passage experiments, which are used to study adaptation during experimental evolution of pathogens. In particular, increased density of fish, repeated introduction of naive hosts, homogenous host populations, fast growth and a potential decrease in genetic diversity are attributes of both aquaculture and serial passage experiments. Some free-living organisms, for example Neoparamoeba spp. and Uronema spp. parasitise fish in culture, but have not been reported from wild populations. Farming fish in marine cages can increase the risk of outbreaks of parasitic diseases, including those caused by opportunistic parasites. However, aquaculture has the potential to control parasitic diseases through selective breeding, vaccination and general fish health management. PMID:17316650

  3. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere

    2009-05-01

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  4. Novel rotating characteristics of a squirrel-cage-type HTS induction/synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T; Ogama, Y; Miyake, H; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura 1, Nishikyo-Ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    This paper describes the rotating characteristics of a high-T{sub c} superconducting induction/synchronous motor, which possesses both asynchronous and synchronous torques even though its structure is exactly the same as the squirrel-cage-type induction motor. Two kinds of Bi-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes were utilized for the secondary windings. A commercialized motor (1.5 kW) was subjected to this study. A conventional (normal conducting) stator (three-phase, four-pole) was directly utilized, and only the squirrel-cage windings were replaced with the superconducting tapes. The tests were performed after the fabricated motor was immersed in liquid nitrogen. The operating temperature was also varied by pumping out the liquid nitrogen. It is shown that the motor is successfully synchronized for the temperature range from 65 to 77 K. Detailed discussions for such novel rotating characteristics are reported based on the electrical equivalent circuit.

  5. Theoretical prediction for the (AlN)12 fullerene-like cage-based nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed ab initio calculations on the stability and structural and electronic properties of the fullerene-like cage (AlN)n (n = 12) and the polymerized dimers and nanowires obtained from it. We found that the (AlN)12-(AlN)12 dimers and aluminum nitride (AlN)12-based nanowires polymerized from the (AlN)12 cage are more stable than (AlN)12. The optimized configurations of the nanowires are especially regular and exhibit an interesting dumbbell-shaped chain structure. We also calculated the electronic structures of all the constructed nanostructures. The two novel (AlN)12-based aluminum nitride nanowires have band gaps of 2.844 and 3.085 eV, respectively, implying that they are both wide-gap semiconductors and may be promising candidates for nanotechnology

  6. Novel rotating characteristics of a squirrel-cage-type HTS induction/synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the rotating characteristics of a high-Tc superconducting induction/synchronous motor, which possesses both asynchronous and synchronous torques even though its structure is exactly the same as the squirrel-cage-type induction motor. Two kinds of Bi-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes were utilized for the secondary windings. A commercialized motor (1.5 kW) was subjected to this study. A conventional (normal conducting) stator (three-phase, four-pole) was directly utilized, and only the squirrel-cage windings were replaced with the superconducting tapes. The tests were performed after the fabricated motor was immersed in liquid nitrogen. The operating temperature was also varied by pumping out the liquid nitrogen. It is shown that the motor is successfully synchronized for the temperature range from 65 to 77 K. Detailed discussions for such novel rotating characteristics are reported based on the electrical equivalent circuit

  7. Theoretical study of methanol as inhibitor and cyclopentane as stabilizer of dodecahedron methane hydrate cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Snehanshu; Kundu, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based simulations have been performed to explain the role of methanol as an inhibitor and the role of cyclopentane as a promoter for methane hydrate. Interaction energy, Mullikan charges and electrostatic potential parameters for combined system of methanol and dodecahedron methane hydrate as well as cyclopentane and dodecahedron (512) methane hydrate cage are calculated using B3LYP functional (with and without dispersion function) and 6-31G(d) basis set. Methane hydrate formation inhibition by methanol and methane hydrate stabilization by cyclopentane is critically analyzed based on electrostatic potential and Mullikan charge. It is observed that hydrogen bond between water molecules of clathrate 512 cages become stronger in presence of cyclopentane and weaker in presence of methanol. It is also found that methanol breaks some hydrogen bonds of water molecules.

  8. Exposure of the superior gluteal neurovascular bundle for the safe application of acetabular reinforcement cages in complex revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitham, Peter J; Kosuge, Dennis; Howie, Donald W; Solomon, Lucian B

    2016-05-16

    The posterior approach to the hip is the most common extensile approach used, however exposure is limited superiorly by the superior gluteal neurovascular bundle (SGNB). The extra-pelvic course of the SGNB demonstrates variability between individuals, occasionally located only 1 cm from the acetabular rim. In complex acetabular reconstructions where the application of a reinforcement cage maybe required protecting the SGNB is challenging. The flanges of these cages are designed to sit on the ilium superior to the acetabular rim and to receive screws for fixation. The application of such cages may result in iatrogenic injury to the SGNB by way of forceful retraction or entrapment. We describe a technique that involves exposure and release of the SGNB such that the flanges of cage constructs may be safely applied. PMID:27079287

  9. Flash and smash: rapid freezing of muscle fibers activated by photolysis of caged ATP.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, K.; Lenart, T D; Murray, J.M.; Franzini-Armstrong, C; Goldman, Y E

    1993-01-01

    A new approach was used to study transient structural states of cross-bridges during activation of muscle fibers. Rabbit skinned muscle fibers were rapidly and synchronously activated from the rigor state by photolysis of caged ATP in the presence of Ca2+. At several different times during the switch from rigor to fully active tension development, the fibers were rapidly frozen on a liquid helium-cooled metal block, freeze-substituted, and examined in an electron microscope. The limits of str...

  10. Small Cages with Insect Couples Provide a Simple Method for a Preliminary Assessment of Mating Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Briand; Guerin, Patrick M.; Pierre-Joseph Charmillot; Patrik Kehrli

    2012-01-01

    Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density). The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia ...

  11. Cathodic cage nitriding of AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel with the addition of CH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel samples were nitrided using the cathodic cage plasma nitriding technique (CCPN, with the addition of methane to reduce chromium precipitation, increase hardness and wear resistance and reduce the presence of nitrides when compared to plasma carbonitriding. Microhardness profiles and X-Ray analysis confirm the formation of a very hard layer containing mainly ε-Fe3N and expanded ferrite phases.

  12. Cathodic cage nitriding of AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel with the addition of CH4

    OpenAIRE

    Rômulo Ribeiro Magalhães de Sousa; Francisco Odolberto de Araújo; José Alzamir Pereira da Costa; Antonio Maia de Oliveira; Mineia Sampaio Melo; Clodomiro Alves Junior

    2012-01-01

    AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel samples were nitrided using the cathodic cage plasma nitriding technique (CCPN), with the addition of methane to reduce chromium precipitation, increase hardness and wear resistance and reduce the presence of nitrides when compared to plasma carbonitriding. Microhardness profiles and X-Ray analysis confirm the formation of a very hard layer containing mainly ε-Fe3N and expanded ferrite phases.

  13. Template-directed synthesis of nets based upon octahemioctahedral cages that encapsulate catalytically active metalloporphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-01-18

    meso-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) templates the synthesis of six new metal-organic materials by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate with transition metals, five of which exhibit HKUST-1 or tbo topology (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg). The resulting materials, porph@MOMs, selectively encapsulate the corresponding metalloporphyrins in octahemioctahedral cages and can serve as size-selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of olefins. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. ‘Clickable’ Polymer-Caged Nanobins as a Modular Drug Delivery Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Min; Chen, Haimei; O'Halloran, Thomas V.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2009-01-01

    Modularly clickable polymer-caged nanobins (PCNs) were prepared from liposome templates using a drop-in cholesterol-modified poly(acrylic acid) reagent followed by crosslinking with alkyne-functionalized diamine linker that can allow for the conjugation of azido-modified targeting ligands via click ligation. These PCNs possess pH-responsive characteristics that can be used to trigger the release of encapsulated doxorubicin (DXR) payload inside the liposomal core under mild acidic conditions. ...

  15. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Bex-Capelle, Valérie; Huonnic, Didier; Balaine, Loïc; Guillam, Marie-Thérèse; Squizani, Fabrice; Ségala, Claire; Michel, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract 1. Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. 2. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 ?m) from cage and alternative system henhouses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experiment...

  16. Cage rattling does not correlate with the local geometry in molecular liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Bernini, S.; Puosi, F.; Leporini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a liquid of short linear molecules have been performed to investigate the correlation between the particle dynamics in the cage of the neighbors and the local geometry. The latter is characterized in terms of the size and the asphericity of the Voronoi polyhedra. The correlation is found to be poor. In particular, in spite of the different Voronoi volume around the end and the inner monomers of a molecule, all the monomers exhibit coinciding displacement dist...

  17. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages

    OpenAIRE

    Mul, Monique; van Riel, Johan; Meerburg, Bastiaan; Dicke, Marcel; George, David; Groot Koerkamp, Peter

    2015-01-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an “automated mite counter”) was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This va...

  18. Foraging and nesting behavior of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the presence of fungicides: cage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, E; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P; Maini, S

    2008-06-01

    During orchard pollination studies in California, we observed dramatic changes in nesting and foraging behavior of Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) after sprays with tank mixtures containing fungicides. A characteristic pattern of postspray events observed includes erratic behavior and interrupted foraging and nesting activity for several days. In an effort to determine whether fungicidal sprays were disruptive to bee foraging and thus to pollination, we exposed O. lignaria females nesting in field cages planted with lacy scorpionweed, Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth (Hydrophyllaceae), to selected spray mixtures normally encountered in California orchard production systems: iprodione (Rovral), propiconazole (Orbit), benomyl (Benlate), and captan (Captan 50 WP); the surfactant Dyne-Amic, alone and mixed with Rovral; and the tank mixture IDB (Rovral + Dyne-Amic + the foliar fertilizer Bayfolan Plus). An additional cage sprayed with an equal volume of water acted as control, and a cage sprayed with the insecticide dimethoate as a toxic standard. For each female O. lignaria, we recorded time spent inside the nest depositing pollen-nectar loads, foraging time, cell production rate, and survival. All females in the dimethoate treatment died postspray + 1 d. Before death, some of these females behaved similarly to our previous orchard observations. A high proportion of females in the IDB cage were inactive for a few hours before resuming normal foraging and nesting activity. No lethal or behavioral effects were found for any of the other compounds or mixtures tested. Our results indicate that the fungicide applications that we tested are compatible with the use of O. lignaria as an orchard pollinator. PMID:18613561

  19. Aharonov-Bohm photonic cages in waveguide and coupled resonator lattices by synthetic magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a method for trapping photons in quasi one-dimensional waveguide or coupled-resonator lattices, which is based on an optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm cages for charged particles. Light trapping results from a destructive interference of Aharonov-Bohm type induced by a synthetic magnetic field, which is realized by periodic modulation of the waveguide/resonator propagation constants/resonances.

  20. Aharonov-Bohm photonic cages in waveguide and coupled resonator lattices by synthetic magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-10-15

    We suggest a method for trapping photons in quasi-one-dimensional waveguide or coupled-resonator lattices, which is based on an optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm cages for charged particles. Light trapping results from a destructive interference of Aharonov-Bohm type induced by a synthetic magnetic field, which is realized by periodic modulation of the waveguide/resonator propagation constants/resonances. PMID:25361112

  1. Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Peterman, Paul H; Judy, Barbara M.; Taylor, Julia A.; Orazio, Carl E; Rachel L. Ruhlen; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We examined whether new and used polycarbonate animal cages passively release bioactive levels of BPA into water at room temperature and neutr...

  2. Confocal Bioluminescence Imaging for Living Tissues with a Caged Substrate of Luciferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Mitsuru; Kawamura, Genki; Kojima, Ryosuke; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2016-06-21

    Fluorescence imaging can elucidate morphological organization and coordinal networks, but its background luminescence degrades the image contrast. Our confocal bioluminescence imaging system uses a luciferase caged substrate, with light passing through multipinhole arrays, causing bioluminescence at a focal plane. After a charge-coupled device camera captures luminescence, the imaging system acquires confocal images of multilayered cells with depth information, supporting quantitative analysis of spatial cellular localization in living tissues. PMID:27216493

  3. Modeling and control of squirrel cage induction generator with full power converter applied to windmills

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Garcia, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    The project aims to develop a dynamic model, of a generation system of electrical energy with a variable speed wind turbine using a squirrel cage induction generator which is connected to the grid by a back to back frequency converter, for testing purposes. In the project has been done an analysis of the mathematical equations of the whole system, separating the mechanical system (turbine and gearbox) and the electrical (generator and converter). We study the control design ...

  4. Diagnosis of Wind Energy System Faults Part I : Modeling of the Squirrel Cage Induction Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Lahcène Noureddine; Omar Touhami

    2015-01-01

    Generating electrical power from wind energy is becoming increasingly important throughout the world. This fast development has attracted many researchers and electrical engineers to work on this field. The authors develop a dynamic model of the squirrel cage induction generator exists usually on wind energy systems, for the diagnosis of broken rotor bars defects from an approach of magnetically coupled multiple circuits. The generalized model is established on the base of mathematical recurr...

  5. An environmental study of the use of steel slag aggregate in gabion cages

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Tanya Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The growing tendency of sustainable building and development is transforming the way in which construction projects are faced. These changes are saving the natural environment, as well as, minimising the quantity of industrial waste. In line with this initiative, the following project studies the potential recovery of Electric Arc Furnace Slag and its use as material fill in gabion cages. From a sustainability point of view, the recovery of steel slag is positive from all perspectives. (a) E...

  6. A chemist and biologist talk to each other about caged neurotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Davies, Graham C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Caged compounds are small organic molecules that can be photoactivated with brief pulses of light. They are widely used to study a great variety of biological processes by physiologists, cell biologists and neuroscientists. Initially made and invented by biologists in the late 1970s, they are now made mostly by chemists, often without any dialogue with the end users, the biologists. The idea for this review is to stimulate interaction between the two communities to further the creative develo...

  7. The Effect of the PEEK Cage on the Cervical Lordosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gulsen

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: We achieved better cervical lordotic angles at the postoperative period by implanting one-level, two-level, three-level or four-level PEEK cage filled with demineralized bone matrix. Also, the causes of cervical root and or medulla spinalis impingement were different in group1 and 2. While extruded cervical disc impingement was the first pathology in group 1, osteophyte formation was the first pathology in group 2.

  8. Population genetic structure of Ascaridia galli re-emerging in non-caged laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Höglund Johan; Morrison David A; Engström Annie; Nejsum Peter; Jansson Désirée S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli has reappeared in hens kept for egg production in Sweden after having been almost absent a decade ago. Today this is a frequent intestinal nematode parasite in non-caged laying hens. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity (Fst) in A. galli collected from different poultry production sites in southern Sweden, to identify possible common routes of colonization. Methods Adult parasites (n = 153) from 10 farms, incl...

  9. Experimental practices of music and philosophy in John Cage and Gilles Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Iain

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we construct a critical encounter between the composer John Cage and the philosopher Gilles Deleuze. This encounter circulates through a constellation of problems found across and between mid-twentieth century musical, artistic, and philosophical practices, the central focus for our line of enquiry being the concept of experimentation. We emphasize the production of a method of experimentation through a practice historically situated with regards to the traditions of the respec...

  10. "Caged calcium" in Aplysia pacemaker neurons. Characterization of calcium-activated potassium and nonspecific cation currents

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    We have studied calcium-activated potassium current, IK(Ca), and calcium-activated nonspecific cation current, INS(Ca), in Aplysia bursting pacemaker neurons, using photolysis of a calcium chelator (nitr-5 or nitr-7) to release "caged calcium" intracellularly. A computer model of nitr photolysis, multiple buffer equilibration, and active calcium extrusion was developed to predict volume-average and front-surface calcium concentration transients. Changes in arsenazo III absorbance were used to...

  11. cagE as a biomarker of the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Bastos Ramis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastro-duodenal diseases. Genes related to pathogenicity have been described for H. pylori and some of them appear to be associated with more severe clinical outcomes of the infection. The present study investigates the role of cagE as a pathogenicity biomarker of H. pylori compare it to cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2 genes and correlate with endoscopic diagnoses. Methods Were collected biopsy samples of 144 dyspeptic patients at the Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After collection, the samples were sent for histological examination, DNA extraction and detection of all putative pathogenicity genes by PCR. Results Of the 144 patients undergoing endoscopy, 57 (39.6% presented H. pylori by histological examination and PCR by detection of the ureA gene. Based on the endoscopic diagnoses, 45.6% (26/57 of the patients had erosive gastritis, while 54.4% (31/57 had enanthematous gastritis. The genes cagA, cagE, vacAs1/m1, vacAs1/m2 and iceA1 were related to erosive gastritis, while the genes vacAs2/m2, iceA2 and babA2 were associated to enanthematous gastritis. We found a statistically significant association between the presence of cagE and the endoscopic diagnosis. However, we detect no statistically significant association between the endoscopic diagnosis and the presence of cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2, although a biological association has been suggested. Conclusions Thus, cagE could be a risk biomarker for gastric lesions and may contribute to a better evaluation of the H. pylori pathogenic potential and to the prognosis of infection evolution in the gastric mucosa.

  12. Check list of the parasitofauna in Adriatic sea cage-reared fish

    OpenAIRE

    Mladineo Ivona

    2006-01-01

    Along with the fast development of aquaculture in the Mediterranean, a number of emerging parasitic diseases was observed in cage-reared fish, which in confined rearing conditions induced mortality or/and indirect economical losses related to suppressed growth. The trend of diversification of aquaculture products and the introduction of new fish species in the rearing system, helped the introduction of new parasitic pathogens along with their host in the new environment. The process resulted ...

  13. Enhanced cooperativity below the caging temperature of glass-forming liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, B. M.; Colby, R. H.; Kamath, S. Y.; Kumar, S K

    2004-01-01

    The utility of a cooperative length scale for describing the dynamics of small molecule glass-formers is shown. Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations reveal a distribution of cooperatively moving fractal events below the temperature Ta at which dynamics become caged. Guided by these results, four straightforward methods emerge to recognize Ta in experimental data and quantify the length scale that grows on cooling below Ta. This length scale is consistent with 4-D NMR experiments whi...

  14. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  15. Enhancement Effect of Sea Urchin Grow-out Cages in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celia Defrance Malay; Helen Grace Bangi; Marie Antonette Juinio-Meñez

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the environmental impact of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla Linnaeas) grow-out culture in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. It was hypothesized that the feces generated by the caged urchins (~6,000 individuals at any one time) might cause localised sediment organic enrichment and subsequent shifts in benthic faunal communities. Results from preliminary surveys conducted in April and August of 1999 indicated minimal impact of sea urchin grow-out culture on the ...

  16. The Effect of the PEEK Cage on the Cervical Lordosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Gulsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Loss of cervical lordosis is a significant factor in the development of degeneration of the spine with aging. This degenerative changings of the cervical spine would cause pressure effect on the cervical root and/or medulla spinalis. AIM: Our goal is to understand the effect of the PEEK cage on cervical lordosis in the early postoperative period. Also, to interpret the effects of one- level, two- level, three-level and four- level disc pathologies on cervical lordosis. MAT...

  17. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D.; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A.; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids—biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged vanilloids, Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA, are photoreleased with quantum efficiency of 0.13 and 0.041, respectively. Under flash photolysis conditions, photorelease of Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA is 95% complete in ∼40 μs and ∼125 μs, respectively. Through 1-photon excitation with ultraviolet light (360 nm), or 2-photon excitation with red light (720 nm), the caged vanilloids can be photoreleased in situ to activate TRPV1 receptors on nociceptive neurons. The consequent increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) can be visualized by laser-scanning confocal imaging of neurons loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fluo-3. Stimulation results from TRPV1 receptor activation, because the response is blocked by capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. In Ca2+-free extracellular medium, photoreleased vanilloid can still elevate [Ca2+]i, which suggests that TRPV1 receptors also reside on endomembranes in neurons and can mediate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Notably, whole-cell voltage clamp measurements showed that flash photorelease of vanilloid can activate TRPV1 channels in < 4 msec at 22°C. In combination with 1- or 2-photon excitation, caged vanilloids are a powerful tool for probing morphologically distinct structures of nociceptive sensory neurons with high spatial and temporal precision. PMID:16605259

  18. Sublethal effects in caged rainbow trout during remedial activities in Lake Jaernsjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, S.; Foerlin, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology; Norrgren, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Pathology

    1998-08-01

    Caging juvenile rainbow trout in the PCB polluted Lake Jaernsjoen in 1991 prior to remediation resulted in induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, liver lesions, skin lesions and fin erosions, all of which can be caused by subchronic exposure to PCB. During the remediation in 1993 and 1994, pronounced induction of the liver EROD, bile-duct proliferation and a relatively high incidence of necrotic hepatocytes were seen in the rainbow trout caged in Lake Jaernsjoen. The histopathological damage noted in the liver was reflected in changes in plasma ASAT activities. In 1996, two years after the remedial activities, the EROD activity was still slightly induced in caged rainbow trout in Jaernsjoen, but the fish showed no sign of histopathological changes. In addition, the liver EROD activity was induced in some sites downstream of Jaernsjoen. These results indicate a downstream transport of contaminants following the remedial action Special issue. The Jaernsjoen project, Sweden. Remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments. 50 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Survey of prevalence and control of ectoparasites in caged poultry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F F; Wang, M; Xu, F R; Liang, D M; Pan, B L

    2010-12-11

    To investigate the prevalence and control of ectoparasites in China, 1200 questionnaires were delivered to caged commercial layer or parent hen keepers. Of the 860 respondents, 785 (91.3 per cent) claimed they found suspected ectoparasites in their birds and 833 samples were received. Ectoparasites of the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum or Menacanthuss stramineus were found in 736 (88.4 per cent) samples. For caged commercial layers, D gallinae was the most common ectoparasite (64.1 per cent). For caged parent hens, O sylviarum was the most common ectoparasite (46.9 per cent). Most bird keepers (95.0 per cent of commercial layer keepers and 74.9 per cent of parent hen keepers) used pyrethroids, organophosphates or other insecticides or acaricides to control ectoparasites. However, 34.6 per cent of layer keepers and 25.7 per cent of parent hen keepers did not re-treat their birds with insecticides or acaricides within two weeks after the first treatment. Sanitation procedures, including cleaning, washing and disinfection, were conducted in empty houses between flocks and on most commercial layer farms and parent hen farms. However, insecticides or acaricides were used in empty houses between flocks only in 24.8 per cent of commercial layer farms and in 36.1 per cent of parent hen farms. PMID:21262694

  20. Stocking densities of juvenile Brycon orthotaenia: production parameters and economic benefits in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Assis Lago

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a rearing technology requires the determination of the optimum stocking density. This study aimed to determine the best stocking density for Brycon orthotaenia juveniles grown in net cages, during the rearing phase. The research was conducted at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, in the Três Marias Reservoir. 9,000 fingerlings were distributed into 12 net cages, 2 m3each, according to a completely randomized design with three replications and four different stocking densities (150, 300, 450, 600 fish m-3. Random samples were taken from each net cage, at the onset of the experiment and at 60 rearing days, to assess production parameters, specific growth rate and uniformity. We verified a positive linear relationship (p 0.05 for growth parameters, uniformity and final weight. It can be concluded that the density of 300 fish m-3 is the most suitable, because it provides higher net revenue, survival, and a good feed conversion.

  1. Modelling the nitrogen loadings from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) cage aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Ross, Lindsay G; Telfer, Trevor C; Wu, Changwen; Zhu, Aiyi; Zhao, Sheng; Xu, Meiying

    2016-04-01

    Large yellow croaker (LYC) cage farming is a rapidly developing industry in the coastal areas of the East China Sea. However, little is known about the environmental nutrient loadings resulting from the current aquaculture practices for this species. In this study, a nitrogenous waste model was developed for LYC based on thermal growth and bioenergetic theories. The growth model produced a good fit with the measured data of the growth trajectory of the fish. The total, dissolved and particulate nitrogen outputs were estimated to be 133, 51 and 82 kg N tonne(-1) of fish production, respectively, with daily dissolved and particulate nitrogen outputs varying from 69 to 104 and 106 to 181 mg N fish(-1), respectively, during the 2012 operational cycle. Greater than 80 % of the nitrogen input from feed was predicted to be lost to the environment, resulting in low nitrogen retention (85 %) of the dissolved nitrogen generated from cage farming. This nitrogen loading assessment model is the first to address nitrogenous output from LYC farming and could be a valuable tool to examine the effects of management and feeding practices on waste from cage farming. The application of this model could help improve the scientific understanding of offshore fish farming systems. Furthermore, the model predicts that a 63 % reduction in nitrogenous waste production could be achieved by switching from the use of trash fish for feed to the use of pelleted feed. PMID:26728289

  2. Lumbar interbody expanding cage. A preliminary study on an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, M L; Careddu, G M; Masala, G; Columbano, N; Doria, C; Crissantu, L; Sanna Passino, E

    2008-01-01

    Interbody fusion devices are used in human medicine for treating degenerative diseases of the spine. Currently, there is not a universally accepted assessment tool for determining fusion, and the definitive criteria for diagnosing a successful interbody fusion remain controversial. The aim of this study was to describe microscopic and helical computed tomography (CT) imaging in the assessment of lumbar interbody fusion using cylindrical threaded titanium expanding cage in sheep. One cylindrical threaded expanding titanium cage (Proconcept--SA, Orange, France) was inserted through a transperitoneal approach after radical discectomy and packed with cancellous bone autograft in five adult sheep. The subjects were euthanatized after three, six, 12, 18 and 24 months. CT images revealed lumbar fusion at 12 months post operation, whereas microscopic evaluations indicated the presence of lumbar fusion at 18 months. CT and histological grades were the same in 65% of the cases observed. There were not a significant difference between CT, histological and micro radiographic grades. Helical CT scanning can be considered to be a suitable method for the monitoring of lumbar fusion as it enables observation of the deposition of bony bridging within the cage. PMID:18704248

  3. Structural and electronic properties of uranium-encapsulated Au14 cage

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yang; Kang, Seung-gu; Cruz, Camilo Andres Jimenez; Xin, Minsi; Meng, Yan; Han, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2013-01-01

    The structural properties of the uranium-encapsulated nano-cage U@Au14 are predicted using density functional theory. The presence of the uranium atom makes the Au14 structure more stable than the empty Au14-cage, with a triplet ground electronic state for U@Au14. Analysis of the electronic structure shows that the two frontier single-occupied molecular orbital electrons of U@Au14 mainly originate from the 5f shell of the U atom after charge transfer. Meanwhile, the bonding orbitals have both the 5f and 6d components of the U atom, along with the 5d and 6s components of the Au atoms, indicating the covalent nature of the interaction between the U and Au atoms. Moreover, the charge population analysis shows that this nanostructure displays some unique electronic properties where the encapsulated atom gains electrons while the outer shell loses electrons. Therefore, this designed U@Au14 nano-cage structure is stabilized by ionocovalent interactions. The current findings provide theoretical basis for future synt...

  4. Distance Factors and Croatian Export Obstacles in the EU15: CAGE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Miloloža

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For long-term sustainability of any enterprise, it is required to observe each market separately and systematically modify business approach to prevailing conditions in each. However, adaptation to each market can be a complex affair that requires certain financial costs but ignoring distinguishing criteria leads to reduction in revenues and undermines long-term profitability. Time saving and cost-effectiveness can be achieved by application of The CAGE Distance Framework – a model that analysis all diversities between two or more countries. Croatia did not yet utilize the benefits that European Union membership provides nor did significantly improved its international business. It is obvious that Croatia faces difficulties in the strategic approach to prospective foreign markets. Therefore, emphasis of this article is on analysis and identification of the distinguishing factors between Croatia and the EU15 in order to facilitate and enhance cooperation among them in the future. Throughout the analysis of Croatian export from the beginning of the economic crisis, this article gives an overview of international collaboration among Croatia and the EU15 and comparative analysis by using The CAGE Distance Framework. This analysis has confirmed significant fluctuations, unexploited potential and problems of the Croatian economy in all dimensions of The CAGE model.

  5. A pecking device as an environmental enrichment for caged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroki, Yuko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    To improve the welfare of caged laying hens, a pecking device made of stones was introduced on the cage floor. Twenty-four White Leghorn hens aged 15 months were divided into four groups: single-housed hens with device, single-housed control hens, pair-housed hens with device and pair-housed control hens. Hens housed with the device pecked at various pecking objects less often than control hens. Agonistic behavior was also lower in hens with the device than in hens without the device, implied a possibility of improvement in quality of pecking stimuli with the device. Not only time spent pecking, but also quality of pecking might be important to fill their need for stimulation. Both single- and pair-housed hens more often pecked at the device in the evening. Response to various pecking objects also showed that pecking behaviors were most frequently expressed in the evening. Increased foraging at dusk is a well-known habit; therefore, the increase in pecking behavior in the evening might reflect the hens' general circadian rhythm. These results indicate that the device made of stones could promote some instinctive behavior. Enhancement of behavioral repertories and reduced agonistic behavior with the pecking device might improve the welfare of caged laying hens. PMID:27436770

  6. The Iron Cage and the Gaze: Interpreting Medical Control in the English Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Exworthy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to determine the value of theoretical ideal-types of medical control. Whilst ideal types (such as the iron cage and gaze need revision in their application to medical settings, they remain useful in describing and explaining patterns of control and autonomy in the medical profession. The apparent transition from the cage to the gaze has often been over-stated since both types are found in many contemporary health reforms. Indeed, forms of neo-bureaucracy have emerged alongside surveillance of the gaze. These types are contextualised and elaborated in terms of two empirical examples: the management of medical performance and financial incentives for senior hospital doctors in England. Findings point towards the reformulation of medical control, an on-going re-stratification of the medical profession, and the internalisation of managerial discourses. The cumulative effect involves the medical profession’s ability to re-cast and enhance its position (vis-à-vis managerial interests.Keywords: medical profession, medical control, iron cage, gaze

  7. Cage correlation and diffusion in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Masheyeva, R. U.; Ott, T.; Hartmann, P.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bonitz, M.; Donkó, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of an external homogeneous magnetic field on the quasilocalization of the particles—characterized quantitatively by cage correlation functions—in strongly coupled three-dimensional Yukawa systems is investigated via molecular dynamics computer simulations over a wide domain of the system parameters (coupling and screening strengths, and magnetic field). The caging time is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field B . The anisotropic migration of the particles in the presence of magnetic field is quantified via computing directional correlation functions, which indicate a more significant increase of localization in the direction perpendicular to B , while a moderate increase is also found along the B field lines. Associating the particles' escapes from the cages with jumps of a characteristic length, a connection is found with the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficients derived from the decay time of the directional correlation functions in both the directions perpendicular to and parallel with B are in very good agreement with respective diffusion coefficients values obtained from their usual computation based on the mean-squared displacement of the particles.

  8. Enhancement Effect of Sea Urchin Grow-out Cages in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia Defrance Malay

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted on the environmental impact of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla Linnaeas grow-out culture in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. It was hypothesized that the feces generated by the caged urchins (~6,000 individuals at any one time might cause localised sediment organic enrichment and subsequent shifts in benthic faunal communities. Results from preliminary surveys conducted in April and August of 1999 indicated minimal impact of sea urchin grow-out culture on the local reef flat community. Some enhancement of faunal abundance and sediment organic matter content in the cage area were noted; however, the impact was limited to a radius of 5-25 meters from the grow-out cages. The enhancement effects appeared to be seasonal occurrences that were dependent on local currents and degree of wave exposure. Epiphyte biomass, total suspended solids, sediment grain size, and relative water movement seemed largely unaffected by sea urchin grow-out culture. However, more frequent and thorough samplings are needed to validate these initial results. The presence of localised enrichment in sediment organic content and epibenthic faunal density suggest the possibility of converting the sea urchin grow-out area into polyculture systems that would make more efficient use of the food resources available while minimizing potential anthropogenic impacts on the environment.

  9. EnerCage: a smart experimental arena with scalable architecture for behavioral experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uei-Ming Jow; McMenamin, Peter; Kiani, Mehdi; Manns, Joseph R; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    Wireless power, when coupled with miniaturized implantable electronics, has the potential to provide a solution to several challenges facing neuroscientists during basic and preclinical studies with freely behaving animals. The EnerCage system is one such solution as it allows for uninterrupted electrophysiology experiments over extended periods of time and vast experimental arenas, while eliminating the need for bulky battery payloads or tethering. It has a scalable array of overlapping planar spiral coils (PSCs) and three-axis magnetic sensors for focused wireless power transmission to devices on freely moving subjects. In this paper, we present the first fully functional EnerCage system, in which the number of PSC drivers and magnetic sensors was reduced to one-third of the number used in our previous design via multicoil coupling. The power transfer efficiency (PTE) has been improved to 5.6% at a 120 mm coupling distance and a 48.5 mm lateral misalignment (worst case) between the transmitter (Tx) array and receiver (Rx) coils. The new EnerCage system is equipped with an Ethernet backbone, further supporting its modular/scalable architecture, which, in turn, allows experimental arenas with arbitrary shapes and dimensions. A set of experiments on a freely behaving rat were conducted by continuously delivering 20 mW to the electronics in the animal headstage for more than one hour in a powered 3538 cm(2) experimental area. PMID:23955695

  10. Efficacy of PEEK Cages and Plate Augmentation in Three-Level Anterior Cervical Fusion of Elderly Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kyung Jin; Kim, Gyu Hyung; Choi, Byeong Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the clinical efficacy of three-level anterior cervical arthrodesis with polyethyletherketone (PEEK) cages and plate fixation for aged and osteoporotic patients with degenerative cervical spinal disorders. Methods Twenty one patients, who had undergone three-level anterior cervical arthrodesis with a cage and plate construct for degenerative cervical spinal disorder from November 2001 to April 2007 and were followed up for at least two years, were enrolled in this study....

  11. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages

    OpenAIRE

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W.; van Niekerk, Thea G. C. M.; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2–3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they wer...

  12. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Carbone

    2016-03-01

    In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments.

  13. Intracage Ammonia Levels in Static and Individually Ventilated Cages Housing C57BL/6 Mice on 4 Bedding Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrecchia, Christie E.; Jensen, Kelly; Van Andel, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The relationship among ammonia levels, cage-changing frequency, and bedding types is an important and potentially controversial topic in the laboratory animal science community. Some bedding options may not provide sufficient urine absorption and bacterial regulation to minimize ammonia production during the interval between cage changes. High intracage ammonia levels can cause subclinical degeneration and inflammation of nasal passages, rhinitis and olfactory epithelial necrosis in exposed m...

  14. Voltage control in the stator circuit of cage induction machine operating as generator in small scale hydropower plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kandyba, Andrzej; Kalus, Marian; Kurytnik, Igor Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of RMS voltage control system in the stator circuit of squirrel cage induction machine based on the linear criterion of " optimum magnitude" by C. Kessler 'a was performed. The squirrel cage induction machine was operating as a generator in autonomous (isolated) network. Induction machine is driven by an induction machine supplied from the inverter, which simulates the low pressure head water turbine. Synthesis process of the control system was supported by experimental studi...

  15. Optical and magnetic excitations of metal-encapsulating Si cages: A systematic study by time-dependent density functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Medeiros, Paulo V. C.; Sousa, José R. F.; Nogueira, Fernando; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui K.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic study of the optical and magnetic excitations of twelve MSi$_{12}$ and four MSi$_{10}$ transition metal encapsulating Si cages has been carried out by employing real time time-dependent density functional theory. Criteria for the choice of transition metals (M) are clusters' stability, synthesizability, and diversity. It was found that both the optical absorption and the spin-susceptibility spectra are mainly determined by, in decreasing order of importance: 1) the cage shape, 2) t...

  16. Report of the baseline survey undertaken on the Chinese cage site in Napoleon Gulf, Northern Lake Victoria, 12 March 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Magezi, G.; Naluwairo, J.; Ocaya, H.; Kiggundu, V.; Pabire Ghandi, W.; Wandera, S.B.; Olokotum, M.; Ndawula, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The government of the People's Republic of China through a 2007 agreement with the Government of the Republic of Uganda, has establishment of an Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center (ATDC). The first phase covering the building of aquaculture infrastructure at Kajjansi ARDC is complete and the second operation phase has started in which facilities for cage culture have been set up in the Napoleon gulf, northern Lake Victoria near Jinja. The cage facility is aimed at boosting fish far...

  17. Interactions Between Housing Density and Ambient Temperature in the Cage Environment: Effects on Mouse Physiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Linda A; Trammell, Rita A; Ilsley-Woods, Megan

    2015-01-01

    To determine how housing density and ambient temperature interact to influence the physiology and behavior of mice, we systematically varied housing density (1 to 5 mice per cage) and ambient temperature (22, 26, or 30 °C) and measured effects on body weight, food intake, diurnal patterns of locomotor activity and core temperature, fecal corticosterone, and serum cytokine and adipokine panels. Temperatures inside cages housing 5 mice were 1 to 2 °C higher than the ambient temperature. As the ...

  18. Distinct diversity of vacA, cagA, and cagE genes of Helicobacter pylori associated with peptic ulcer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shiho; Yamakawa, Akiyo; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Ohtani, Masahiro; Suto, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Yukinao; Keida, Yoshihide; Higashi, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Azuma, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    Colonization of the stomach mucosa by Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of acute and chronic gastric pathologies in humans. Several H. pylori virulence genes that may play a role in its pathogenicity have been identified. The most important determinants are vacA and cagA in the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) genes. In the present study, to consider the association of molecular genetics between vacA and the cagPAI regarding clinical outcome, we selected H. pylori strains with various genotypes of vacA in Japan and sequenced full-length vacA, cagA, and cagE genes. Sequencing of vacA and cagA genes revealed variable size, whereas the cagE gene was well conserved among strains. Each of the phylogenetic trees based on the deduced amino acid sequences of VacA, CagA, and CagE indicated that all three proteins were divided into two major groups, a Western group and an East Asian group, and the distributions of isolates exhibited similar patterns among the three proteins. The strains with s2 and s1a/m1a vacA genotypes and the Western-type 3' region cagA genotype were classified into the Western group, and the strains with the s1c/m1b vacA genotype and the East Asian-type 3' cagA genotype were included in the East Asian group. In addition, the prevalence of infection with the Western group strain was significantly higher in patients with peptic ulcer (90.0%, 9/10) than in patients with chronic gastritis (22.7%, 5/22) (chi2 = 12.64, P = 0.00057). These data suggest that the molecular genetics of vacA and cagPAI are associated and that the Western group with vacA and cagPAI genes is associated with peptic ulcer disease. PMID:16081930

  19. Assessment of the effects of cage fish-farming on damselfish-associated food chains using stable-isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Damselfishes living at sites near a cage farm bore lower δ13C and higher δ15N. • Similar trends occurred in zooplankton and detritus, major foods for damselfishes. • δ15N enrichment in fish may have arisen from the uptake of excess feed and prey. • Farm wastes were documented entering the ecosystem through the pelagic food chain. • No clear evidence of the effects of cage farming on stable isotopes in macroalgae. - Abstract: To assess the effect of cage fish-farming on the coral reef ecosystem off Xiaoliuchiu Island, southern Taiwan, geographical differences in the food chain of each of two damselfishes, Pomacentrus vaiuli and Chromis margaritifer, were examined using a stable-isotope approach. For each damselfish, individuals were found to consume similar foods at all sites. However, specimens collected at sites near the cage farm (as the experimental sites) exhibited lower δ13C and higher δ15N signatures compared to those from reference sites. Similar trends also occurred in the zooplankton and detritus, two major food sources for both damselfishes. This finding indicates that particulate organic matter released by the farm may have entered the coral reef ecosystem through the pelagic food chain. Artificial reef emplacement is recommended to provide extra habitats under cage farms to support additional pelagic-feeding fish populations, thereby reducing environmental impacts of cage farming on coral reefs

  20. The influence of the cage system and colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis on the microbial gut flora of laying hens studied by T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Mølbak, Lars; Bjerrum, Lotte Bjerrum;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the EU conventional cages for laying hens are forbidden beginning in January 2012, however concerns about a higher transmission rate of Salmonella in alternative cages systems have been raised. The extent to which cage systems may affect the intestinal microbiota of laying hens is...... not known, and different microbiota may demonstrate different resistance towards colonization with Salmonella. To investigate this, ileal and caecal samples from two experimental studies where laying hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and housed in different systems (conventional cage......, furnished cage or aviary), were compared using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). The distribution of genera in the microbiota in caecum was furthermore described by next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA libraries. RESULTS: Hens in the same cage type developed similar T...

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Caga and Cage of Helicobacter pylori Strains Recovered from Iranian Patients with Different Gastroduodenal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Douraghi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To asses the status of two representative genes of cag PAI i.e cagA and cagE of Helicobacter pylori strains infecting Iranian patients suffered from various clinical outcomes using one-step PCR. "nMethods: A total of 120 H. pylori infected patients including non-ulcer dyspepsia, NUD (n=81, peptic ulcer disease, PUD (n=17, and gastric carcinoma, GC (n= 22 referred for endoscopy or gastric resection to AmirAlam Hospital or Cancer Institute from 2005 to 2008 were assessed. The status of cagA and cagE genes was determined by gene specific PCR."nResults: 84.2% and 90.8% of the tested strains were positive for cagA and cage, respectively. 81.7% strains were positive for both cagA and cagE genes, whereas 8 (6.7% were found double negative. The prevalence of cagA in GC patients (100% was slightly higher than PUD patients (94.1%. All of GC cases were infected with cagA-positive strains. The same distribution pattern was indicated for cagE gene in GC and PUD patients. The cagA-positive strains were significantly associated with GC as compared with NUD (P< 0.05 but this association did not gain statistical significance when cagE gene was assessed."nConclusion: The concurrent detection of cagA/cagE genes allowed rapid and specific clarification of cag PAI status. The strains with cagA/cagE genotype are predominant in Iran regardless of clinical outcome and create a distinct cluster pattern from those in the West and similar to those of East Asian countries. The current study also demonstrated that cagE gene can be explored as a better indication of cag-PAI in Iranian H. pylori strains.

  2. Evaluation of anterior cervical reconstruction with titanium mesh cages versus nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cages after 1- or 2-level corpectomy for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a retrospective study of 117 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare the efficacy of the titanium mesh cage (TMC and the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 cage (n-HA/PA66 cage for 1- or 2-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF to treat multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM. METHODS: A total of 117 consecutive patients with MCSM who underwent 1- or 2-level ACCF using a TMC or an n-HA/PA66 cage were studied retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 45.28 ± 12.83 months. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of corpectomy (1- or 2-level corpectomy and cage type used (TMC or n-HA/PA66 cage. Clinical and radiological parameters were used to evaluate outcomes. RESULTS: At the one-year follow-up, the fusion rate in the n-HA/PA66 group was higher, albeit non-significantly, than that in the TMC group for both 1- and 2-level ACCF, but the fusion rates of the procedures were almost equal at the final follow-up. The incidence of cage subsidence at the final follow-up was significantly higher in the TMC group than in the n-HA/PA66 group for the 1-level ACCF (24% vs. 4%, p = 0.01, and the difference was greater for the 2-level ACCF between the TMC group and the n-HA/PA66 group (38% vs. 5%, p = 0.01. Meanwhile, a much greater loss of fused height was observed in the TMC group compared with the n-HA/PA66 group for both the 1- and 2-level ACCF. All four groups demonstrated increases in C2-C7 Cobb angle and JOA scores and decreases in VAS at the final follow-up compared with preoperative values. CONCLUSION: The lower incidence of cage subsidence, better maintenance of the height of the fused segment and similar excellent bony fusion indicate that the n-HA/PA66 cage may be a superior alternative to the TMC for cervical reconstruction after cervical corpectomy, in particular for 2-level ACCF.

  3. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Tahmasby; Sara Barati; Hassan Momtaz; Mohammad Rafiee Dolatabadi; Mohammad Ghasemi; Seied Vahid Ahmadi Salianeh; Samaneh Mehrabiyan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and metho...

  4. Effects of a 28-Day Cage-Change Interval on Intracage Ammonia Levels, Nasal Histology, and Perceived Welfare of CD1 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelweid, Catherine M; Zapien, Kathleen A; Honigford, Matthew J; Li, Linghui; Li, Hua; Marshall, Heather

    2011-01-01

    We measured daily intracage ammonia levels and performed weekly assessments of CD1 male, female, and breeder mice housed within disposable, ventilated cages that remained unchanged for 28 d. We tested housing groups comprising 1, 3, or 5 sex-matched mice per cage and breeder pairs with litters. Mice housed in cages with higher concentrations of ammonia developed degeneration and inflammatory lesions in the nasal passages. Mean ammonia exposure levels that caused rhinitis were 181 ppm for 18 d...

  5. Investigation of the parallel tempering method for protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Alexander; Herges, Thomas; Verma, Abhinav; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the suitability and efficiency of an adapted version of the parallel tempering method for all-atom protein folding. We have recently developed an all-atom free energy force field (PFF01) for protein structure prediction with stochastic optimization methods. Here we report reproducible folding of the 20-amino-acid trp-cage protein and the conserved 40-amino-acid three-helix HIV accessory protein with an adapted parallel tempering method. We find that the native state, for both proteins, is correctly predicted to 2 Å backbone root mean square deviation and analyse the efficiency of the simulation approach.

  6. Transdural retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage: Technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Hasan Aqdas; Shah, Ashish; Kakarla, Udaya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe a novel method to retrieve a herniated lumbar interbody cage. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an increasingly popular method of spinal fixation and fusion. Unexpected retropulsion of an interbody is a rare event that can result in intractable pain or motor compromise necessitating surgical retrieval of the interbody. Both anterior and posterior approaches to removing migrated cages may be associated with significant surgical morbidity and mortality. A 60-year-old woman underwent an L4-S1 TLIF coupled with pedicle screw fixation at a previous hospital 5 years prior to admission. She noted sudden-onset bilateral lower extremity weakness and right-sided foot drop. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographs were notable for purely centrally herniated interbody. A posterior, midline transdural approach was used to retrieve the interbody. Situated in between nerve rootlets to the ventral canal, this virgin corridor allowed us to easily visualize and protect neurological structures while safely retrieving the interbody. The patient experienced an immediate improvement in symptoms and was discharged on postoperative day 3. At 12-month follow-up, she had no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and had returned to normal activities of daily living. While the risk of CSF leak may be higher with a transdural approach, we maintain that avoiding unnecessary retraction of the nerve roots may outweigh this risk. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a transdural approach for the retrieval of a retropulsed lumbar interbody cage. PMID:26889290

  7. Photocontrol of nitric oxide production in cell culture using a caged isoform selective inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdicakis, Basil; Montgomery, Heather J; Abbott, Glenn L; Fishlock, Dan; Lajoie, Gilles A; Guillemette, J Guy; Jervis, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, multiphoton microscopy has progressed from a photonic novelty to a technique whose application is currently experiencing exponential growth in the biological sciences. A novel application of this technology with significant therapeutic potential is the control of drug activity by multiphoton photolysis of caged therapeutics. As an initial case study, the potent isoform selective inhibitor N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl) acetamidine (1400W) of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been conjugated to a caging molecule 6-bromo-7-hydroxy-4-hydroxyquinoline-2-ylmethyl acetyl ester (Bhc). Here we present the first report of a bulk therapeutic effect, inhibition of nitric oxide production, in mammalian cell culture by multiphoton photolysis of a caged drug, Bhc-1400W. Mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced with bacterial lipopolysaccharides to express iNOS were used to assess the therapeutic value of the conjugated inhibitor. Both 1400W and Bhc-1400W are stable in metabolically active cells and an optimal time interval for the photorelease of the inhibitor was determined. The ratios of the IC(50) values of Bhc-1400W over 1400W calculated in the presence of iNOS enzyme and in RAW 264.7 cell culture are 19 and 100, respectively, indicating that a broad therapeutic range exists in cell culture. Multiphoton uncaging protocols and therapeutic doses of inhibitors were not cytotoxic. Photocontrol of LPS induced nitric oxide production was achieved in mammalian cell culture using a single laser focal volume. This technology has the potential to control active drug concentrations in vivo, a lack of which is one of the main problems currently associated with systemic drug administration. PMID:15582451

  8. The light spot test: Measuring anxiety in mice in an automated home-cage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Emmeke; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Loos, Maarten; Koopmans, Bastijn; Kovačević, Jovana; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Sluis, Sophie van der

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral tests of animals in a controlled experimental setting provide a valuable tool to advance understanding of genotype-phenotype relations, and to study the effects of genetic and environmental manipulations. To optimally benefit from the increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice, reliable high-throughput methods for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice lines have become a necessity. Here, we describe the development and validation of an anxiety test, the light spot test, that allows for unsupervised, automated, high-throughput testing of mice in a home-cage system. This automated behavioral test circumvents bias introduced by pretest handling, and enables recording both baseline behavior and the behavioral test response over a prolonged period of time. We demonstrate that the light spot test induces a behavioral response in C57BL/6J mice. This behavior reverts to baseline when the aversive stimulus is switched off, and is blunted by treatment with the anxiolytic drug Diazepam, demonstrating predictive validity of the assay, and indicating that the observed behavioral response has a significant anxiety component. Also, we investigated the effectiveness of the light spot test as part of sequential testing for different behavioral aspects in the home-cage. Two learning tests, administered prior to the light spot test, affected the light spot test parameters. The light spot test is a novel, automated assay for anxiety-related high-throughput testing of mice in an automated home-cage environment, allowing for both comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of mice, and rapid screening of pharmacological compounds. PMID:26072393

  9. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorine M. Rommers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine, straw in a plastic bin (Straw, a compressed wooden block (Ply or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine. The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparous lactating hybrid (Hycole rabbit does. Behavioural observations were conducted in the first 4 wk of 2 successive lactations of 6 wk each, twice a week from 15:00 to 18:30 h. Once every week the consumption of gnawing materials and soiling of the cages was scored. More does were significantly occupied with Straw and Ply than with Pine (24±20, 11±9 and 4±3% of does, respectively for a longer duration (4±4, 2±2, 0.1±0.2% of observed time, respectively. In does of Straw+Pine group, the pinewood was barely touched and straw was preferred. It can be concluded that straw (loose material and wooden block are used by the animals as enrichment material to gnaw or chew on. The materials remain attractive for the 2 lactations which were measured. The pinewood stick as provided in this study was rarely used and it may be questioned whether it is sufficient as enrichment material or if it should be provided in another way than hanging on the roof of the cage. This study provides a first step towards a positive list of enrichment materials that can be used in commercial rabbit farming in The Netherlands.

  10. Unique properties of C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanions. Synthesis, structure and bonding of ruthenium monocarbollide via unprecedented cage carbon extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Da; Zhang, Jiji; Lin, Zhenyang; Xie, Zuowei

    2016-08-21

    Four reaction pathways have been found in the reaction of a C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanionic salt with [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2, leading to the isolation and structural characterization of redox, triple cage B-H oxidative addition, cage expansion and cage carbon extrusion products. Among these, the unprecedented cage carbon extrusion results in the formation of a new 6π-electron carboranyl ligand [C2B10H10](2-). The bonding interactions between this ligand and the Ru(ii) center have also been discussed on the basis of DFT calculations. PMID:27405999

  11. The Effect of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) Cage Culture on Benthic Macrofauna in Kesikköprü Dam Lake*

    OpenAIRE

    KARACA, İlknur

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of a cage farm with a capacity of about 55 t on the benthic macrofauna in Kesikköprü Dam Lake. At 3 stations (the cage and 15 m and 60 m from the cage) selected for this purpose the abundance and composition of benthic macrofauna were determined for 11 months. The abundance of benthic macrofauna (individuals/m2) between the stations was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The abundance of benthic macrofauna was higher at the cage stati...

  12. Effect of Cage Size on the Selective Conversion of Methanol to Light Olefins

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawe, Yashodhan; Moliner-Marin, Manuel; Lunn, Jonathan D.; Liu, Yu; Malek, Andrzej; Davis, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Zeolites that contain eight-membered ring pores but different cavity geometries (LEV, CHA, and AFX structure types) are synthesized at similar Si/Al ratios and crystal sizes. These materials are tested as catalysts for the selective conversion of methanol to light olefins. At 400 °C, atmospheric pressure, and 100% conversion of methanol, the ethylene selectivity decreases as the cage size increases. Variations in the Si/Al ratio of the LEV and CHA show that the maximum selectivity occurs at S...

  13. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-31

    Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

  14. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

    OpenAIRE

    Jorine M. Rommers; Bracke, Marc B.M.; Berry Reuvekamp; Henk Gunnink; Ingrid C. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C) was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine), straw in a plastic bin (Straw), a compressed wooden block (Ply) or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine). The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparo...

  16. Influence of methyl functional groups on the stability of cubane carbon cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katin, Konstantin P.; Prudkovskiy, Vladimir S.; Maslov, Mikhail M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a quantum-chemical study to elucidate the structure, energetics and stability of isolated polymethylcubane molecules C8H8-q(CH3)q. The results obtained by means of originally developed nonorthogonal tight-binding approach are in good agreement with the existed experimental data for solid octamethylcubane C8(CH3)8. The isomerization mechanisms for polymethylcubane family are studied in detail and the minimum energy barriers' heights preventing the decomposition are calculated. The temperature dependence of octamethylcubane molecule lifetime to the decomposition moment was determined by direct molecular dynamics simulation. It is shown that methyl groups destabilize the cubic carbon cage, but less than nitro groups.

  17. Diagnosis of Wind Energy System Faults Part I : Modeling of the Squirrel Cage Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcène Noureddine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating electrical power from wind energy is becoming increasingly important throughout the world. This fast development has attracted many researchers and electrical engineers to work on this field. The authors develop a dynamic model of the squirrel cage induction generator exists usually on wind energy systems, for the diagnosis of broken rotor bars defects from an approach of magnetically coupled multiple circuits. The generalized model is established on the base of mathematical recurrences. The winding function theory is used for determining the rotor resistances and the inductances in the case of n- broken bars. Simulation results, in Part. II of this paper, confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  18. Animal house stock control based on bar-coded cage labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, R

    1985-10-01

    In an animal house serving the needs of a large research institute, a regular inventory of the animals in stock is a considerable help towards effective management of the facility. In particular, advising the licence-holders of what animals are being held in their name and reminding them of the costs involved is a valuable exercise. The introduction of a computerized system of stock control, based on bar-coded cage labels, is described. The system has proved economical to operate, accurate, and can be run by persons without computer expertise. PMID:4068665

  19. Use of a rotating wire cage for retention of animal cells in a perfusion fermentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varecka, R; Scheirer, W

    1987-01-01

    Separation of cells within a perfused suspension system is still a problem. We modified the rotating steel wire cage described by other researchers (2) for separation of single cells from suspension. The system was mounted to the stirrer shaft of a circular-loop fermenter. After optimization of fermenter design experimental data showed good separation of cells at useful perfusion rates. Data of a 5 l-prototype show with a mammalian tumor cell line a retention rate of better than 95% at a perfusion rate of D = 0.05. Scaling-up studies show a good scaling-up potential and a wide range of possible applications. PMID:3582756

  20. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  1. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Shaona; Chen Xiaoyang; Gu Jiaming; Shen Xuejin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyroscope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the ...

  2. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  3. Environmental enrichment for rabbits reared in cages reduces abnormal behaviors and inactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Camila Ceballos; Karen Camille Rocha Góis; Monique Valéria de Lima Carvalhal; Franciely de Oliveira Costa; Mateus Paranhos da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment with forage (as extra food) on the time spent in inactivity and expressing self-cleaning and abnormal behaviors by rabbits kept in cages. The study was conducted in 17 New Zealand multiparous females at the rabbit facilities in Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV-UNESP). Three species of forages were offered simultaneously as environmental enrichment, sugar can...

  4. Anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion with ray titanium cage: a prospective randomized clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, J.; Kosteljanetz, M.; Bøge-Rasmussen, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND DATA: Although an interbody fusion after anterior decompressive surgery for hard or soft disc herniation is widely accepted, there is no scientific evidence that convincingly demonstrates that insertion of graft material for interbody fusion is necessary after discectomy and decompression of the...... by fusion with a Ray titanium cage (40 patients) or to discectomy alone (46 patients). Clinical and radiologic follow-up was performed 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups concerning self-reported satisfaction or severity...

  5. Behavioral Differences of Laying Hens with Fractured Keel Bones within Furnished Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Casey-Trott, Teresa M.; Widowski, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens is reported in all housing systems. Keel fractures have been associated with pain and restricted mobility in hens in loose housing. The objective was to determine whether keel fractures were associated with activity of hens in furnished cages. Thirty-six pairs of LSL-Lite hens (72 weeks) were enrolled in the study. One hen with a fractured keel and one hen without were identified by palpation in each of 36 groups of hens housed in either 3...

  6. Enhanced nonlinear optical response of an endohedral metallofullerene through metal-to-cage charge transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Heflin, J. R.; Marciu, D.; Figura, C.; Wang, S.; Burbank, P.; Stevenson, S.; Dom, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    A new mechanism for increasing the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, X-(3), is described for endohedral metallofullerenes. A two to three orders of magnitude increase in the nonlinear response is reported for degenerate four-wave mixing experiments conducted with solutions of Er-2@C-82 (isomer III) relative to empty-cage fullerenes. A value of - 8.7x 10(-32) esu is found for the molecular susceptibility, gamma(xyyx), of Er-2@C-82 compared to previously reported values of gamma(xxx...

  7. Fabrication of CuO nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method

    OpenAIRE

    Tian HuYong; Chan HelenLaiWah; Qi JianQuan; Li LongTu

    2007-01-01

    AbstractHere we report a very simple method to convert conventional CuO powders to nanoparticle interlinked microsphere cages by solution method. CuO is dissolved into aqueous ammonia, and the solution is diluted by alcohol and dip coating onto a glass substrate. Drying at 80 °C, the nanostructures with bunchy nanoparticles of Cu(OH)2can be formed. After the substrate immerges into the solution and we vaporize the solution, hollow microspheres can be formed onto the substrate. There are ...

  8. Why can water cages adsorb aqueous methane? A potential of mean force calculation on hydrate nucleation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-Jun; Li, Meng; Zhang, Yi-Gang; Wu, Chang-Hua

    2009-11-28

    By performing constrained molecular dynamics simulations in the methane-water system, we successfully calculated the potential of mean force (PMF) between a dodecahedral water cage (DWC) and dissolved methane for the first time. As a function of the distance between DWC and methane, this is characterized by a deep well at approximately 6.2 A and a shallow well at approximately 10.2 A, separated by a potential barrier at approximately 8.8 A. We investigated how the guest molecule, cage rigidity and the cage orientation affected the PMF. The most important finding is that the DWC itself strongly adsorbs methane and the adsorption interaction is independent of the guests. Moreover, the activation energy of the DWC adsorbing methane is comparable to that of hydrogen bonds, despite differing by a factor of approximately 10% when considering different water-methane interaction potentials. We explain that the cage-methane adsorption interaction is a special case of the hydrophobic interaction between methane molecules. The strong net attraction in the DWC shell with radii between 6.2 and 8.8 A may act as the inherent driving force that controls hydrate formation. A cage adsorption hypothesis for hydrate nucleation is thus proposed and discussed. PMID:19890529

  9. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles. PMID:26704719

  10. Structural and mechanical evaluations of a topology optimized titanium interbody fusion cage fabricated by selective laser melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ying; Wirtz, Tobias; LaMarca, Frank; Hollister, Scott J

    2007-11-01

    A topology optimized lumbar interbody fusion cage was made of Ti-Al6-V4 alloy by the rapid prototyping process of selective laser melting (SLM) to reproduce designed microstructure features. Radiographic characterizations and the mechanical properties were investigated to determine how the structural characteristics of the fabricated cage were reproduced from design characteristics using micro-computed tomography scanning. The mechanical modulus of the designed cage was also measured to compare with tantalum, a widely used porous metal. The designed microstructures can be clearly seen in the micrographs of the micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy examinations, showing the SLM process can reproduce intricate microscopic features from the original designs. No imaging artifacts from micro-CT were found. The average compressive modulus of the tested caged was 2.97+/-0.90 GPa, which is comparable with the reported porous tantalum modulus of 3 GPa and falls between that of cortical bone (15 GPa) and trabecular bone (0.1-0.5 GPa). The new porous Ti-6Al-4V optimal-structure cage fabricated by SLM process gave consistent mechanical properties without artifactual distortion in the imaging modalities and thus it can be a promising alternative as a porous implant for spine fusion. PMID:17415762

  11. Elevator cage

    OpenAIRE

    Boďa, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with design of a frame of a lift, whose roading capacity is 400 kg (5 people) and it olso deals with calculation of maximum distance between armatures of quides. Nominal speed is 1 m.s -1. This diploma thesis also includes final element analysis of the frame. The frame structure is analysed by software I – DEAS.

  12. Synthesis of C60(O)3: an open-cage fullerene with a ketolactone moiety on the orifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nana; Yang, Xiaobing; Zhou, Zishuo; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Showxin; Gan, Liangbing

    2013-02-01

    Four isomers are currently known for the trioxygenated fullerene derivative C(60)(O)(3), three regioisomers with all of the oxygen addends as epoxy groups and the unstable ozonide isomer with a 1,2,3-trioxlane ring. Here we report the synthesis of an open-cage isomer for C(60)(O)(3) with a ketolactone moiety embedded into the fullerene skeleton through a three-step procedure mediated by fullerene peroxide chemistry. Two fullerene skeleton carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in the process. The open-cage derivative C(60)(O)(3) can be converted back to C(60) through deoxygenation with PPh(3). Single crystal X-ray structure confirmed the open-cage structure. PMID:23311689

  13. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Proton caged compounds exhibit a characteristic behavior when directly dosed into cells or being coupled to gold nanoparticles prior to the dosing. When irradiated in the near ultraviolet region, they release protons that interact with intracellular HCO3 (-) to yield H2CO3. The dissociation of carbonic acid, then, releases CO2 that can be distinctively singled out in infrared spectra. In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS) with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments. PMID:26870760

  14. Shape optimization of 3D curved slots and its application to the squirrel-cage elastic support design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The squirrel-cage elastic support is one of the most important components of an aero-engine rotor system.A proper structural design will favor the static and dynamic performances of the system.In view of the deficiency of the current shape optimization techniques,a new mapping approach is proposed to define shape design variables based on the parametric equations of 3D curves and surfaces.It is then applied for the slot shape optimization of a squirrel-cage elastic support.To this end,an automatic design procedure that integrates the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to solve the problem.Two typical examples with different shape constraints are considered.Numerical results provide reasonable optimum designs for the improvement of stiffness and strength of the squirrel-cage elastic support.

  15. Rotor cage fault diagnosis in three-phase induction motors based on a current and virtual flux approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Dulce F. [Escola Sup. Tecnologia Setubal/Inst. Politecnico Setubal, Setubal (Portugal); Pires, V. Fernao [Escola Sup. Tecnologia Setubal/Inst. Politecnico Setubal, Setubal (Portugal)]|[LabSEI - Laboratorio de Sistemas Electricos Industriais, Setubal (Portugal); Martins, J.F. [CTS, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Lisboa (Portugal); Pires, A.J. [Escola Sup. Tecnologia Setubal/Inst. Politecnico Setubal, Setubal (Portugal)]|[LabSEI - Laboratorio de Sistemas Electricos Industriais, Setubal (Portugal)]|[CTS, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    This paper focuses on the detection of a rotor cage fault in a three-phase PWM feed induction motor. In inverter-fed machines there are some difficulties for the detection of a rotor cage fault. These difficulties are due to the fault signature that will be contained in the currents or voltages applied to the machine. In this way, a new approach based on the current and a virtual flux is proposed. The use of the virtual flux allows the improving of the signal to noise ratio. This approach also allows the identification of a rotor cage fault independently of the type of control used in the ac drive. The theoretical principle of this method is discussed. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (author)

  16. Constructions of two polycatenanes and one polypseudo-rotaxane by discrete tetrahedral cages and stool-like building units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long; Ju, Ping; Meng, Xian-Rui; Kuang, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2012-09-01

    Mechanically Interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are of great interest due to their fascinating structures and potential applications, while such molecules have been mainly restricted to comprising components of interlocked rings or polygons. The constructions of infinite polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes by discrete cages remain great challenge, and only two infinite polycatenanes fabricated by discrete cages have been reported so far, while the structures of polyrotaxanes and polypseudo-rotaxanes fabricated by discrete build units have not been documented to date. Herein we report the first example of a two-dimensional (2D) polypseudo-rotaxane fabricated by stool-like build units, the second example of a one-dimensional (1D) polycatenane, and the second example of a three-dimensional (3D) polycatenane, which were assemblied by discrete tetrahedral cages. The pores of dehydrated 3D polycatenane are dynamic, and display size-dependent adsorption/desorption behaviors of alcohols.

  17. IGRT/ART phantom with programmable independent rib cage and tumor motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Olivier C. L., E-mail: o.haas@coventry.ac.uk [Control Theory and Applications Centre, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 2TL (United Kingdom); Mills, John A.; Land, Imke; Mulholl, Pete; Menary, Paul; Crichton, Robert; Wilson, Adrian; Sage, John [Department of Clinical Physics and Bioengineering, University Hospital, Coventry CV2 2DX (United Kingdom); Anna, Morenc [University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW (United Kingdom); Depuydt, Tom [Radiotherapy, Medical Physics Group, University Hospital UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101 - 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of the Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radiation Oncology (MAESTRO) thorax phantom, a new anthropomorphic moving ribcage combined with a 3D tumor positioning system to move target inserts within static lungs. Methods: The new rib cage design is described and its motion is evaluated using Vicon Nexus, a commercial 3D motion tracking system. CT studies at inhale and exhale position are used to study the effect of rib motion and tissue equivalence. Results: The 3D target positioning system and the rib cage have millimetre accuracy. Each axis of motion can reproduce given trajectories from files or individually programmed sinusoidal motion in terms of amplitude, period, and phase shift. The maximum rib motion ranges from 7 to 20 mm SI and from 0.3 to 3.7 mm AP with LR motion less than 1 mm. The repeatability between cycles is within 0.16 mm root mean square error. The agreement between CT electron and mass density for skin, ribcage, spine hard and inner bone as well as cartilage is within 3%. Conclusions: The MAESTRO phantom is a useful research tool that produces programmable 3D rib motions which can be synchronized with 3D internal target motion. The easily accessible static lungs enable the use of a wide range of inserts or can be filled with lung tissue equivalent and deformed using the target motion system.

  18. High-throughput automated home-cage mesoscopic functional imaging of mouse cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy H.; Boyd, Jamie D.; Bolaños, Federico; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Silasi, Gergely; Haupt, Dirk; LeDue, Jeff M.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse head-fixed behaviour coupled with functional imaging has become a powerful technique in rodent systems neuroscience. However, training mice can be time consuming and is potentially stressful for animals. Here we report a fully automated, open source, self-initiated head-fixation system for mesoscopic functional imaging in mice. The system supports five mice at a time and requires minimal investigator intervention. Using genetically encoded calcium indicator transgenic mice, we longitudinally monitor cortical functional connectivity up to 24 h per day in >7,000 self-initiated and unsupervised imaging sessions up to 90 days. The procedure provides robust assessment of functional cortical maps on the basis of both spontaneous activity and brief sensory stimuli such as light flashes. The approach is scalable to a number of remotely controlled cages that can be assessed within the controlled conditions of dedicated animal facilities. We anticipate that home-cage brain imaging will permit flexible and chronic assessment of mesoscale cortical function. PMID:27291514

  19. Gene expression in caged fish as a first-tier indicator of contaminant exposure in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron P; Oris, James T; Burton, G Allen; Clements, William H

    2005-12-01

    The development of sensitive, biologically based indicators of contaminant exposure (i.e., biomarkers) is an ongoing topic of research. These indicators have been proposed as a first-tier method of identifying contaminant exposure. The primary objective of this research was to implement a biomarker-based method of exposure assessment using caged fish and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) measurements of gene expression. Primers were developed for the CYPIA, metallothionein, and vitellogenin genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchyus mykiss), cutbow trout (Oncorhynchyus clarkii x mykiss), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Each of these genes has been shown to respond specifically to planar aromatic compounds, heavy metals, and environmental estrogens, respectively. Juvenile fish were placed in cages and exposed in situ at reference and contaminated sites on the Cache la Poudre River (CO, USA), the Arkansas River (CO, USA), the St. John River (NB, Canada), and two urban creeks near Dayton (OH, USA). Quantitative gene expression was determined using rtRT-PCR. Biomarker expression profiles were obtained that demonstrated differences in CYPIA, metallothionein, and vitellogenin mRNA production unique to each site, indicating that specific types of compounds were bioavailable and present in sufficient concentrations to elicit transcriptional responses in the organism. These findings support the use of a biomarker-based approach to exposure identification and assessment. PMID:16445090

  20. Conception and synthesis of new molecular cages for xenon MRI applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive proton magnetic resonance imaging (1H MRI) is a powerful clinical tool for the detection of numerous diseases. Although MRI contrast agents are often used to improve diagnostic specificity, this technique has limited applications in molecular imaging because of its inherently low sensitivity when compared to nuclear medicine or fluorescence imaging. Laser-polarized 129Xe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool to circumvent sensitivity limitations. Indeed, optical pumping increases the nuclear spin polarization of xenon by several orders of magnitude (104 to 105), thus small amounts of gas dissolved in biological tissues (blood, lungs...) can be rapidly detected with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the high polarizability of the xenon electron cloud, which induces a very high sensitivity to its environment, makes this nucleus very attractive for molecular imaging. Detection of biomolecules can be achieved by biosensors, which encapsulate xenon atoms in molecular cages that have been functionalized to bind the desired biological target. Cage molecules such as cryptophanes have high affinity for xenon and thus appear as ideal candidates for its encapsulation. During this PhD thesis we worked on the synthesis and the functionalization of new cryptophanes. (author)

  1. Amine Molecular Cages as Supramolecular Fluorescent Explosive Sensors: A Computational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Berardo, Enrico; Peveler, William J; Jelfs, Kim E

    2016-06-01

    We investigate using a computational approach the physical and chemical processes underlying the application of organic (macro)molecules as fluorescence quenching sensors for explosives sensing. We concentrate on the use of amine molecular cages to sense nitroaromatic analytes, such as picric acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol, through fluorescence quenching. Our observations for this model system hold for many related systems. We consider the different possible mechanisms of fluorescence quenching: Förster resonance energy transfer, Dexter energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer, and show that in the case of our model system, the fluorescence quenching is driven by the latter and involves stable supramolecular sensor-analyte host-guest complexes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the experimentally observed selectivity of amine molecular cages for different explosives can be explained by the stability of these host-guest complexes and discuss how this is related to the geometry of the binding site in the sensor. Finally, we discuss what our observations mean for explosive sensing by fluorescence quenching in general and how this can help in future rational design of new supramolecular detection systems. PMID:27149567

  2. Evaluation of ULV naled applied simultaneously against caged adult Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culicoides furens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R; Parsons, R E; Winner, R A

    1988-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test application of ULV naled against adult Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culicoides furens exposed simultaneously in cages hung on poles at selected heights and distances from the spray source. ULV spray was released at 0.14 oz active ingredient/acre, droplet size 13.5 micron mmd. In both experiments, insecticide largely carried over the first poles. The greatest mortality occurred at the second pole position, 18.3 and 25.7 m, respectively, from the spray origin, and diminished progressively with increasing distance. Cages at the highest elevation (183 cm) showed the greatest mortality, while those near the ground (15 cm) were substantially less affected. Regression analysis showed that 70% control or better was attained up to a distance (beyond a line 10 m from the release point) of 23 m in the case of Ae. taeniorhynchus and 18 m in the case of C. furens. ULV naled, applied as described, was not particularly effective for control of Ae. taeniorhynchus and C. furens, and was poor for insects exposed in low vegetation. PMID:3199122

  3. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Remita, Hynd; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The pH regulation has a fundamental role in several intracellular processes and its variation via exogenous compounds is a potential tool for intervening in the intracellular processes. Proton caged compounds (PPCs) release protons upon UV irradiation and may efficiently provoke intracellular on-command acidification. Here, we explore the intracellular pH variation, when purposely synthesized PCCs are coupled to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and dosed to HEK-293 cells. We detected the acidification process caused by the UV irradiation by monitoring the intensity of the asymmetric stretching mode of the CO(2) molecule at 2343 cm(-1). The comparison between free and AuNPs functionalized proton caged compound demonstrates a highly enhanced CO(2) yield, hence pH variation, in the latter case. Finally, PCC functionalized AuNPs were marked with a purposely synthesized fluorescent marker and dosed to HEK-293 cells. The corresponding fluorescence optical images show green grains throughout the whole cytoplasm. PMID:26235337

  4. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej OSSOWSKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge nitriding is being used increasingly more often for modifying the properties of titanium and its alloys with the aim to increase their frictional wear resistance, fatigue strength, and, in the case of medical applications, to eliminate the metallosis effect. Unlike PVD methods, ion nitriding ensures the formation of diffusive layers with very good adhesion to the substrate, but which still have some disadvanteges such as the “edge effect” or “hollow cathode effect” which hinders treatment of complex workpieces. The paper compares nitrided layers produced on Ti6Al4V alloy using two different types of nitriding processes. The first process is conventional dc plasma nitriding (DCPN where the samples were placed at the cathode potential, while the second one is a new method of cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN process, where the substrate is insulated from the cathode and anode. The experiments have shown that the treatment conducted in a cathodic cage can be alternative for conventional ion nitriding, especially when used for small parts with complicated shapes used in the space or medical industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7343

  5. Semiparametric Modeling of Daily Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Gutiérrez-Zapata

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentration (AMC in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America. The objective of this study was to model daily AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on a daily basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001. The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. Temperatures above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the daily variations observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material.

  6. Integrated coastal monitoring of a gas processing plant using native and caged mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Steven, E-mail: sbr@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Harman, Christopher [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Soto, Manu; Cancio, Ibon [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain); Glette, Tormod [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Veritasveien 1, 1363 Hovik (Norway); Marigomez, Ionan [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between biomarkers for the different mussel groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IBR/n was able to differentiate between exposed and reference mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mussels closest to the PW outlet were in poorest health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical concentrations were low or undetected in all SPMD and mussel samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomarker responses could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge.

  7. Integrated coastal monitoring of a gas processing plant using native and caged mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity. - Highlights: ► Good agreement between biomarkers for the different mussel groups. ► IBR/n was able to differentiate between exposed and reference mussels. ► Mussels closest to the PW outlet were in poorest health. ► Chemical concentrations were low or undetected in all SPMD and mussel samples. ► Biomarker responses could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge.

  8. Encapsulation of Formaldehyde and Hydrogen Cyanide in an Open-Cage Fullerene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Shian; Kuo, Ting-Shen; Yeh, Wen-Yann

    2016-06-20

    Reaction of C63 NO2 (Ph)2 (Py) (1) with o-phenylenediamine and pyridine produces a mixture of C63 H4 NO2 (Ph)2 (Py)(N2 C6 H4 ) (2) and H2 O@2. Compound 2 is a new open-cage fullerene containing a 20-membered heterocyclic orifice, which has been fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. The elliptical orifice of 2 spans 7.45 Å along the major axis and 5.62 Å along the minor axis, which is large enough to trap water and small organic molecules. Thus, heating a mixture of 2 and H2 O@2 with hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde in chlorobenzene affords HCN@2 and H2 CO@2, respectively. The (1) H NMR spectroscopy reveals substantial upfield shifts for the endohedral species (δ=-1.30 to -11.30 ppm), owing to the strong shielding effect of the fullerene cage. PMID:27123778

  9. Release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged populations of Aedes aegypti: life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, René; Companioni, Ariamys; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Menéndez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

    2014-04-01

    Successful SIT trials against mosquitoes in the 1960-70s were achieved by sterilizing male mosquitoes using chemosterilants. Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues on non-target organisms, although scant evidence has been published. Irradiation is an expensive process; chemosterilization could be an affordable option for implementing SIT programs in developing countries. We compare life table parameters of three Aedes aegypti populations comprising different ratios of thiotepa-treated and non-treated males in order to identify the impact on reproductive potential of the presence of sterile males. No difference was observed in the survival of the treated and untreated males. The release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged Ae. aegypti populations had no effect on death or survival probability of the individuals in the cages but the fecundity of females was significantly reduced, as evaluated by hatch rate and stable age structure parameters. The significant decreases in net reproduction rate, finite rate of natural increase and intrinsic rate of natural increase in populations including sterile males are sufficient to indicate that such populations would not be able to proliferate in natural conditions. This suggests that release of Ae. aegypti thiotepa-treated males could be effective in reducing the reproductive capability of the target population and consequently contribute to vector control. PMID:24513037

  10. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-05-20

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  11. Visible-Light Photoexcited Electron Dynamics of Scandium Endohedral Metallofullerenes: The Cage Symmetry and Substituent Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Hu, Jiahua; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Li; Chen, Zongwei; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Chunru; Luo, Yi

    2015-07-15

    Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) have become an important class of molecular materials for optoelectronic applications. The performance of EMFs is known to be dependent on their symmetries and characters of the substituents, but the underlying electron dynamics remain unclear. Here we report a systematic study on several scandium EMFs and representative derivatives to examine the cage symmetry and substituent effects on their photoexcited electron dynamics using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Our attention is focused on the visible-light (530 nm as a demonstration) photoexcited electron dynamics, which is of broad interest to visible-light solar energy harvesting but is considered to be quite complicated as the visible-light photons would promote the system to a high-lying energy region where dense manifolds of electronic states locate. Our ultrafast spectroscopy study enables a full mapping of the photoinduced deactivation channels involved and reveals that the long-lived triplet exciton plays a decisive role in controlling the photoexcited electron dynamics under certain conditions. More importantly, it is found that the opening of the triplet channels is highly correlated to the fullerene cage symmetry as well as the electronic character of the substituents. PMID:26097975

  12. Interplay between experiments and calculations for organometallic clusters and caged clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clusters consisting of 10-1000 atoms exhibit size-dependent electronic and geometric properties. In particular, composite clusters consisting of several elements and/or components provide a promising way for a bottom-up approach for designing functional advanced materials, because the functionality of the composite clusters can be optimized not only by the cluster size but also by their compositions. In the formation of composite clusters, their geometric symmetry and dimensionality are emphasized to control the physical and chemical properties, because selective and anisotropic enhancements for optical, chemical, and magnetic properties can be expected. Organometallic clusters and caged clusters are demonstrated as a representative example of designing the functionality of the composite clusters. Organometallic vanadium-benzene forms a one dimensional sandwich structure showing ferromagnetic behaviors and anomalously large HOMO-LUMO gap differences of two spin orbitals, which can be regarded as spin-filter components for cluster-based spintronic devices. Caged clusters of aluminum (Al) are well stabilized both geometrically and electronically at Al12X, behaving as a “superatom”

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Squirrel Cage Ball Bearingsfor Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny George

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Squirrel cage ball bearings are used in recent aero engines to overcome the vibration andstability problems associated with rotor systems supported by conventional bearings. The criticaldesign feature of squirrel cage bearing is to provide flexible support to rotor system. The outerring of the bearing is configured such that it acts as a flexible bearing support, and hence, weightis minimised. The bearing is mounted directly on a rigid intermediate casing of a gas turbineengine. Finite element analysis helps to obtain a suitable geometry at the design stage. A 3-Dmodel of the bearing is created using IDEAS software. Finite element analysis using contactelement has been carried out for finding the deformation and stresses in the webs at variouslocations using ANSYS software. The deformations are compared with those of experimentalvalues for an axial load. The deformation in the webs is used to check the pressure balance inthe compressor and the load acting on the bearing. Finally, a procedure for doing the finiteelement analysis of ball bearings for combined axial and radial load is laid down.

  14. Interplay between experiments and calculations for organometallic clusters and caged clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Clusters consisting of 10-1000 atoms exhibit size-dependent electronic and geometric properties. In particular, composite clusters consisting of several elements and/or components provide a promising way for a bottom-up approach for designing functional advanced materials, because the functionality of the composite clusters can be optimized not only by the cluster size but also by their compositions. In the formation of composite clusters, their geometric symmetry and dimensionality are emphasized to control the physical and chemical properties, because selective and anisotropic enhancements for optical, chemical, and magnetic properties can be expected. Organometallic clusters and caged clusters are demonstrated as a representative example of designing the functionality of the composite clusters. Organometallic vanadium-benzene forms a one dimensional sandwich structure showing ferromagnetic behaviors and anomalously large HOMO-LUMO gap differences of two spin orbitals, which can be regarded as spin-filter components for cluster-based spintronic devices. Caged clusters of aluminum (Al) are well stabilized both geometrically and electronically at Al12X, behaving as a "superatom".

  15. Interplay between experiments and calculations for organometallic clusters and caged clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Atsushi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nakajima Designer Nanocluster Assembly Project, ERATO, JST, KSP, 3-2-1 Sakado, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Keio Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences (KiPAS), Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Clusters consisting of 10-1000 atoms exhibit size-dependent electronic and geometric properties. In particular, composite clusters consisting of several elements and/or components provide a promising way for a bottom-up approach for designing functional advanced materials, because the functionality of the composite clusters can be optimized not only by the cluster size but also by their compositions. In the formation of composite clusters, their geometric symmetry and dimensionality are emphasized to control the physical and chemical properties, because selective and anisotropic enhancements for optical, chemical, and magnetic properties can be expected. Organometallic clusters and caged clusters are demonstrated as a representative example of designing the functionality of the composite clusters. Organometallic vanadium-benzene forms a one dimensional sandwich structure showing ferromagnetic behaviors and anomalously large HOMO-LUMO gap differences of two spin orbitals, which can be regarded as spin-filter components for cluster-based spintronic devices. Caged clusters of aluminum (Al) are well stabilized both geometrically and electronically at Al{sub 12}X, behaving as a “superatom”.

  16. High-throughput automated home-cage mesoscopic functional imaging of mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy H; Boyd, Jamie D; Bolaños, Federico; Vanni, Matthieu P; Silasi, Gergely; Haupt, Dirk; LeDue, Jeff M

    2016-01-01

    Mouse head-fixed behaviour coupled with functional imaging has become a powerful technique in rodent systems neuroscience. However, training mice can be time consuming and is potentially stressful for animals. Here we report a fully automated, open source, self-initiated head-fixation system for mesoscopic functional imaging in mice. The system supports five mice at a time and requires minimal investigator intervention. Using genetically encoded calcium indicator transgenic mice, we longitudinally monitor cortical functional connectivity up to 24 h per day in >7,000 self-initiated and unsupervised imaging sessions up to 90 days. The procedure provides robust assessment of functional cortical maps on the basis of both spontaneous activity and brief sensory stimuli such as light flashes. The approach is scalable to a number of remotely controlled cages that can be assessed within the controlled conditions of dedicated animal facilities. We anticipate that home-cage brain imaging will permit flexible and chronic assessment of mesoscale cortical function. PMID:27291514

  17. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  18. Graphitic cage transformation by electron-beam-induced catalysis with alkali-halide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Jun-ichi; Tachi, Masashi; Ito, Naoto; Murakami, Katsuhisa; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    We found that alkali-halide nanocrystals, such as KCl and NaCl, have strong catalytic capability to form graphitic carbon cages from amorphous carbon shells under electron beam irradiation. In addition to the electron beam irradiation strongly inducing the decomposition of alkali-halide nanocrystals, graphene fragments were formed and linked together to form the final product of thin graphitic carbon cages after the evaporation of alkali-halide nanocrystals. The required electron dose was approximately 1 to 20 C/cm2 at 120 keV at room temperature, which was about two orders of magnitude smaller than that required for conventional beam-induced graphitization. The “knock-on” effect of primary electrons strongly induced the decomposition of the alkali-halide crystal inside the amorphous carbon shell. However, the strong ionic cohesion quickly reformed the crystal into thin layers inside the amorphous shell. The bond excitation induced by the electron beam irradiation seemed to enhance strongly the graphitization at the interface between the outer amorphous carbon shell and the inner alkali-halide crystal.

  19. Can Fluorinated Molecular Cages Be Utilized as Building Blocks of Hyperhalogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Ming; Li, Xiang-Hui; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Li, Chun-Yan; Chen, Jing-Hua; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-05-18

    Based on the density functional theory for exchange-correlation potential, fluorocarbon molecular cages are investigated as building blocks of hyperhalogens. By utilizing C8 F7 as a ligand, a series of hyperhalogen anions, that is, M(C8 F7 )2 (-) (M=Li, Na, and K) and M(C8 F7 )3 (-) (M=Be, Mg, and Ca), are modeled. Calculations show that all the C8 F7 moieties preserve their geometric and electronic integrity in these anions. These anionic molecules possess larger vertical electron detachment energies (5.11-6.45 eV) than that of C8 F7 (-) , verifying their hyperhalogen nature. Moreover, it is also revealed that using larger fluorinated cage C10 F9 as ligands can bring about hyperhalogen anions with larger vertical electron detachment energies. The stability of these studied anions is determined by their large HOMO-LUMO gaps and positive dissociation energies of predetermined possible fragmentation pathways. It is hoped this study will provide an approach for the construction of new types of hyperhalogens and stimulate more research in superatom chemistry. PMID:26923480

  20. Novel caged clusters of silicon: Fullerenes, Frank–Kasper polyhedron and cubic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kumar

    2003-01-01

    We review recent findings of metal (M) encapsulated caged clusters of Si and Ge obtained from computer experiments based on an ab initio pseudopotential method. It is shown that one M atom changes drastically the properties of Si and Ge clusters and that depending upon the size of the M atom, cages of 14, 15, and 16 Si as well as Ge atoms are formed. In particular M@Si16 silicon fullerene has been obtained for M = Zr and Hf, while a Frank–Kasper polyhedron has been obtained for M@X16, X = Si and Ge. These clusters show high stability and large highest occupied–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO) gaps which are likely to make these species strongly abundant. A regular icosahedral M@X12 cluster has also been obtained for X = Ge and Sn by doping a divalent M atom. Interactions between clusters are rather weak. This is attractive for developing self-assembled cluster materials.