WorldWideScience

Sample records for caged neuron mea

  1. Optimised PDMS Tunnel Devices on MEAs Increase the Probability of Detecting Electrical Activity from Human Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Maria; Pelkonen, Anssi; Mäkinen, Meeri; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Sukki, Lassi; Kallio, Pasi; Ristola, Mervi; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the activity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neuronal networks with microelectrode arrays (MEAs) plays an important role in functional in vitro brain modelling and in neurotoxicological screening. The previously reported hPSC-derived neuronal networks do not, however, exhibit repeatable, stable functional network characteristics similar to rodent cortical cultures, making the interpretation of results difficult. In earlier studies, microtunnels have been used both to control and guide cell growth and amplify the axonal signals of rodent neurons. The aim of the current study was to develop tunnel devices that would facilitate signalling and/or signal detection in entire hPSC-derived neuronal networks containing not only axons, but also somata and dendrites. Therefore, MEA-compatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tunnel devices with 8 different dimensions were created. The hPSC-derived neurons were cultured in the tunnel devices on MEAs, and the spontaneous electrical activity of the networks was measured for 5 weeks. Although the tunnel devices improved the signal-to-noise ratio only by 1.3-fold at best, they significantly increased the percentage of electrodes detecting neuronal activity (52-100%) compared with the controls (27%). Significantly higher spike and burst counts were also obtained using the tunnel devices. Neuronal networks inside the tunnels were amenable to pharmacological manipulation. The results suggest that tunnel devices encompassing the entire neuronal network can increase the measured spontaneous activity in hPSC-derived neuronal networks on MEAs. Therefore, they can increase the efficiency of functional studies of hPSC-derived networks on MEAs.

  2. Optimised PDMS Tunnel Devices on MEAs Increase the Probability of Detecting Electrical Activity from Human Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Toivanen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the activity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived neuronal networks with microelectrode arrays (MEAs plays an important role in functional in vitro brain modelling and in neurotoxicological screening. The previously reported hPSC-derived neuronal networks do not, however, exhibit repeatable, stable functional network characteristics similar to rodent cortical cultures, making the interpretation of results difficult. In earlier studies, microtunnels have been used both to control and guide cell growth and amplify the axonal signals of rodent neurons. The aim of the current study was to develop tunnel devices that would facilitate signalling and/or signal detection in entire hPSC-derived neuronal networks containing not only axons, but also somata and dendrites. Therefore, MEA-compatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS tunnel devices with 8 different dimensions were created. The hPSC-derived neurons were cultured in the tunnel devices on MEAs, and the spontaneous electrical activity of the networks was measured for 5 weeks. Although the tunnel devices improved the signal-to-noise ratio only by 1.3-fold at best, they significantly increased the percentage of electrodes detecting neuronal activity (52–100% compared with the controls (27%. Significantly higher spike and burst counts were also obtained using the tunnel devices. Neuronal networks inside the tunnels were amenable to pharmacological manipulation. The results suggest that tunnel devices encompassing the entire neuronal network can increase the measured spontaneous activity in hPSC-derived neuronal networks on MEAs. Therefore, they can increase the efficiency of functional studies of hPSC-derived networks on MEAs.

  3. Novel modulatory effects of neurosteroids and benzodiazepines on excitatory and inhibitory neurons excitability: a multi-electrode array (MEA recording study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePuia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The balance between glutamate- and GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the brain is fundamental in the nervous system, but it is regulated by the ‘tonic’ release of a variety of endogenous factors. One such important group of molecules are the neurosteroids (NSs which, similarly to benzodiazepines (BDZs, enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. The purpose of our work was to investigate, at in-vivo physiologically relevant concentrations, the effects of NSs and BDZs as GABA modulators on dissociated neocortical neuron networks grown in long-term culture. We used a multi-electrode array (MEA recording technique and a novel analysis that was able to both identify the action potentials of engaged excitatory and inhibitory neurons and to detect drug-induced network up-states (burst. We found that the NSs tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC and allopregnanolone (ALLO applied at low nM concentrations, produced different modulatory effects on the two neuronal clusters. Conversely, at high concentrations (1 µM, both NSs, decreased excitatory and inhibitory neuron cluster excitability; however, even several hours after washout, the excitability of inhibitory neurons continued to be depressed, leading to a network long term depression (LTD. The BDZs clonazepam (CLZ and midazolam (MDZ also decreased the network excitability, but only MDZ caused LTD of inhibitory neuron cluster. To investigate the origin of the LTD after MDZ application, we tested finasteride (FIN, an inhibitor of endogenous NSs synthesis. FIN did not prevent the LTD induced by MDZ, but surprisingly induced it after application of CLZ. The significance and possible mechanisms underlying these LTD effects of NSs and BDZs are discussed. Taken together, our results not only demonstrate that ex-vivo networks show a sensitivity to NSs and BDZs comparable to that expressed in vivo, but also provide a new global in-vitro description that can help in understanding their activity in more complex

  4. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  5. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D2-Receptor Expressing Neurons Control Behavioral Flexibility in a Place Discrimination Task in the IntelliCage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Wang, Yanyan; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the acquisition and flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs). Here we used the IntelliCage, an automated…

  6. Burst and Principal Components Analyses of MEA Data Separates Chemicals by Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) detect drug and chemical induced changes in action potential "spikes" in neuronal networks and can be used to screen chemicals for neurotoxicity. Analytical "fingerprinting," using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) on spike trains recorded from prim...

  7. Integrated Manufacturing for Advanced MEAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emory S. De Castro; Yu-Min Tsou; Mark G. Roelofs; Olga Polevaya

    2007-03-30

    This program addressed a two-pronged goal for developing fuel cell components: lowering of precious metal content in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), thereby reducing the fuel cell cost, and creating MEAs that can operate at 120oC and 25% RH whereby the system efficiency and effectiveness is greatly improved. In completing this program, we have demonstrated a significant reduction in precious metal while at the same time increasing the power output (achieved 2005 goal of 0.6g/Kw). We have also identified a technology that allows for one step fabrication of MEAs and appears to be a feasible path toward achieving DOE’s 2010 targets for precious metal and power (approaches 0.2g/Kw). Our team partner Du Pont invented a new class of polymer electrolyte membrane that has sufficient stability and conductivity to demonstrate feasibility for operation at 120 oC and low relative humidity. Through the course of this project, the public has benefited greatly from numerous presentations and publications on the technical understanding necessary to achieve these goals.

  8. Photolysis of Postsynaptic Caged Ca2+ Can Potentiate and Depress Mossy Fiber Synaptic Responses in Rat Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yeckel, Mark F.; Johnston, Daniel; Zucker, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    The induction of mossy fiber-CA3 long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) has been variously described as being dependent on either pre- or postsynaptic factors. Some of the postsynaptic factors for LTP induction include ephrin-B receptor tyrosine kinases and a rise in postsynaptic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Ca2+ is also believed to be involved in the induction of the various forms of LTD at this synapse. We used photolysis of caged Ca2+ compounds to test whether a postsynaptic rise in [Ca2+]i is sufficient to induce changes in synaptic transmission at mossy fiber synapses onto rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. We were able to elevate postsynaptic [Ca2+]i to approximately 1 μm for a few seconds in pyramidal cell somata and dendrites. We estimate that CA3 pyramidal neurons have approximately fivefold greater endogenous Ca2+ buffer capacity than CA1 neurons, limiting the rise in [Ca2+]i achievable by photolysis. This [Ca2+]i rise induced either a potentiation or a depression at mossy fiber synapses in different preparations. Neither the potentiation nor the depression was accompanied by consistent changes in paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting that these forms of plasticity may be distinct from synaptically induced LTP and LTD at this synapse. Our results are consistent with a postsynaptic locus for the induction of at least some forms of synaptic plasticity at mossy fiber synapses. PMID:14645386

  9. Optogenetic stimulation of multiwell MEA plates for neural and cardiac applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Isaac P.; Millard, Daniel C.; Nicolini, Anthony M.; Preyer, Amanda J.; Grier, Robert; Heckerling, Andrew; Blum, Richard A.; Tyler, Phillip; McSweeney, K. M.; Lu, Yi-Fan; Hall, Diana; Ross, James D.

    2016-03-01

    Microelectrode array (MEA) technology enables advanced drug screening and "disease-in-a-dish" modeling by measuring the electrical activity of cultured networks of neural or cardiac cells. Recent developments in human stem cell technologies, advancements in genetic models, and regulatory initiatives for drug screening have increased the demand for MEA-based assays. In response, Axion Biosystems previously developed a multiwell MEA platform, providing up to 96 MEA culture wells arrayed into a standard microplate format. Multiwell MEA-based assays would be further enhanced by optogenetic stimulation, which enables selective excitation and inhibition of targeted cell types. This capability for selective control over cell culture states would allow finer pacing and probing of cell networks for more reliable and complete characterization of complex network dynamics. Here we describe a system for independent optogenetic stimulation of each well of a 48-well MEA plate. The system enables finely graded control of light delivery during simultaneous recording of network activity in each well. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes and rodent primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrate high channel-count light-based excitation and suppression in several proof-of-concept experimental models. Our findings demonstrate advantages of combining multiwell optical stimulation and MEA recording for applications including cardiac safety screening, neural toxicity assessment, and advanced characterization of complex neuronal diseases.

  10. High performance MEAs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present project is through modeling, material and process development to obtain significantly better MEA performance and to attain the technology necessary to fabricate stable catalyst materials thereby providing a viable alternative to current industry standard. This project primarily focused on the development and characterization of novel catalyst materials for the use in high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). New catalysts are needed in order to improve fuel cell performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems. Additional tasks were the development of new, durable sealing materials to be used in PEMFC as well as the computational modeling of heat and mass transfer processes, predominantly in LT PEMFC, in order to improve fundamental understanding of the multi-phase flow issues and liquid water management in fuel cells. An improved fundamental understanding of these processes will lead to improved fuel cell performance and hence will also result in a reduced catalyst loading to achieve the same performance. The consortium have obtained significant research results and progress for new catalyst materials and substrates with promising enhanced performance and fabrication of the materials using novel methods. However, the new materials and synthesis methods explored are still in the early research and development phase. The project has contributed to improved MEA performance using less precious metal and has been demonstrated for both LT-PEM, DMFC and HT-PEM applications. New novel approach and progress of the modelling activities has been extremely satisfactory with numerous conference and journal publications along with two potential inventions concerning the catalyst layer. (LN)

  11. Black boxes on wheels: research challenges and ethical problems in MEA-based robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    Robotic systems consisting of a neuron culture grown on a multielectrode array (MEA) which is connected to a virtual or mechanical robot have been studied for approximately 15 years. It is hoped that these MEA-based robots will be able to address the problem that robots based on conventional...... and that they are not likely to be solved within the field. After that, I discuss whether MEA-based robotics should be considered pop science. Finally, I investigate the ethical aspects of this research....... computer technology are not very good at adapting to surprising or unusual situations, at least not when compared to biological organisms. It is also hoped that insights gained from MEA-based robotics can have applications within human enhancement and medicine. In this paper, I argue that researchers...

  12. A device to facilitate preparation of high-density neural cell cultures in MEAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, S Y; Lim, Y M; Goh, S Y

    2009-05-15

    A device to facilitate high-density seeding of dissociated neural cells on planar multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) is presented in this paper. The device comprises a metal cover with two concentric cylinders-the outer cylinder fits tightly on to the external diameter of a MEA to hold it in place and an inner cylinder holds a central glass tube for introducing a cell suspension over the electrode area of the MEA. An O-ring is placed at the bottom of the inner cylinder and the glass tube to provide a fluid-tight seal between the glass tube and the MEA electrode surface. The volume of cell suspension in the glass tube is varied according to the desired plating density. After plating, the device can be lifted from the MEA without leaving any residue on the contact surface. The device has enabled us to increase and control the plating density of neural cell suspension with low viability, and to prepare successful primary cultures from cryopreserved neurons and glia. The cultures of cryopreserved dissociated cortical neurons that we have grown in this manner remained spontaneously active over months, exhibited stable development and similar network characteristics as reported by other researchers.

  13. Biological cages

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, M. E.; NGUYEN, C; Beckham, R.; Larson, A.

    2000-01-01

    Restoring a stable anterior column is essential to achieve normal spinal biomechanics. A variety of mechanical spacers have been developed and advocated for both anterior and posterior approaches. The ability to radiographically assess the “biology” of bone incorporation in these mechanical (metal) spacers is an inherent limitation. The femoral ring allograft (FRA) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) spacers have been developed as biological cages that permit restoration of the anter...

  14. Bursting and synaptic plasticity in neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Networks of neonatal cortical neurons, cultured on multi electrode arrays (MEAs) exhibit spontaneous action potential firings. The electrodes embedded in the glass surface of a MEA can be used to record and stimulate activity at 60 sites in a network of ~50.000 neurons. Such in-vitro networks enable

  15. Monitoring neural stem cell differentiation using PEDOT-PSS based MEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuriko; Shimada, Akiyoshi; Kato, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroo; Torimitsu, Keiichi

    2013-09-01

    Transplantation is one potential clinical application of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, it is very difficult to monitor/control NSCs after transplantation and so provide effective treatment. Electrical measurement using a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) modified microelectrode array (MEA) is a biocompatible, non-invasive, non-destructive approach to understanding cell conditions. This property makes continuous monitoring available for the evaluation/assessment of the development of cells such as NSCs. A PEDOT-PSS modified MEA was used to monitor electrical signals during NSC development in a culture derived from rat embryo striatum in order to understand the NSC differentiation conditions. Electrical data indicated that NSCs with nerve growth factor (NGF) generate a cultured cortical neuron-like burst pattern while a random noise pattern was measured with epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 4days in vitro (DIV) and a burst pattern was observed in both cases at 11 DIV indicating the successful monitoring of differentiation differences and developmental changes. The electrical analysis of cell activity using a PEDOT-PSS modified MEA could indicate neural network formation by differentiated neurons. Changes in NSC differentiation could be monitored. The method is based on non-invasive continuous measurement and so could prove a useful tool for the primary/preliminary evaluation of a pharmaceutical analysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organic Bioelectronics-Novel Applications in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced ion chromatograph detects low MEA levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, S. (Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc., Anacortes, WA (US)); Palladino, D. (Beckmann Instruments Inc., Westbury, N.Y. (US))

    1990-01-22

    Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. is using an advanced method of ion chromatography at its Puget Sound refinery in Anacortes, Wash., to detect and measure monoethanolamine (MEA) in process effluent water at low-ppm levels. The method reported in this article is electronically suppressed, single-column, ion chromatography (SCIC). The method was selected for use in this service subsequent to successful use to improve titrimetric analysis of wash water, where low-ppm ranges of chlorides needed to be measured. SCIC was also able to detect halides of other constituents, such as bromides and iodides. The advanced method can measure precisely very low levels of both monoethanolamine and ammonia, and it assists in locating the sources that allow the contaminants to escape into the wastewater stream. In these analyses, the SCIC unit operated in less than one third the time of automatic titrimetry and other wet chemistry methods available in the laboratory. It also proved to be more economical than conventional chemically suppressed ion chromatography (CSIC).

  17. Feasibility assessment of Micro electrode chip assay (MEA as a method of detecting neurotoxicity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eDefranchi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection and characterization of chemically-induced toxic effects in the nervous system represent a challenge for the hazard assessment of chemicals. In vivo, neurotoxicological assessments exploit the fact that the activity of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system has functional consequences. And so far, no in vitro method for evaluating the neurotoxic hazard has yet been validated and accepted for regulatory purpose.The microelectrode array (MEA assay consists of a culture chamber into which an integrated array of microelectrodes is capable of measuring extracellular electrophysiology (spikes and bursts from electro-active tissues. A wide variety of electrically excitable biological tissues may be placed onto the chips including primary cultures of nervous system tissue. Recordings from this type of in vitro cultured system are non invasive, give label free evaluations and provide a higher throughput than conventional electrophysiological techniques. In this paper, twenty substances were tested in a blinded study for their toxicity and dose-response curves were obtained from foetal rat cortical neuronal networks coupled to MEAs. The experimental procedure consisted of evaluating the firing activity (spiking rate and modification/reduction in response to chemical administration. Native/reference activity, 30 minutes of activity recording per dilution, plus the recovery points (after 24 hours were recorded. The preliminary data, using a set of chemicals with different mode-of-actions (13 known to be neurotoxic, 2 non-neuroactive and not toxic and 5 non-neuroactive but toxic show good predictivity (sensitivity: 0.77; specificity: 0.86; accuracy: 0.85. Thus, the MEA with a neuronal network has the potency to become an effective tool to evaluate the neurotoxicity of substances in vitro.

  18. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN MEA DAN REACT PADA MATERI REAKSI REDOKS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitriya Karima; Kasmadi Imam Supardi

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap adanya perbedaan hasil belajar siswa yang diberi pembelajaran MEA dan REACT pada materi reaksi oksidasi reduksi, dan hasil belajar mana yang lebih baik di antara keduanya...

  19. New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J. [University of North Florida

    2013-09-16

    Abstract Project Title: New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost The University of North Florida (UNF)--with project partners the University of Florida, Northeastern University, and Johnson Matthey--has recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell MEA technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a passive water recovery MEA (membrane electrode assembly). Developers at the University of North Florida identified water management components as an insurmountable barrier to achieving the required system size and weight necessary to achieve the energy density requirements of small portable power applications. UNF developed an innovative “passive water recovery” MEA for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) which provides a path to system simplification and optimization. The passive water recovery MEA incorporates a hydrophobic, porous, barrier layer within the cathode electrode, so that capillary pressure forces the water produced at the cathode through holes in the membrane and back to the anode. By directly transferring the water from the cathode to the anode, the balance of plant is very much simplified and the need for heavy, bulky water recovery components is eliminated. At the heart of the passive water recovery MEA is the UNF DM-1 membrane that utilizes a hydrocarbon structure to optimize performance in a DMFC system. The membrane has inherent performance advantages, such as a low methanol crossover (high overall efficiency), while maintaining a high proton conductivity (good electrochemical efficiency) when compared to perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes such as Nafion. Critically, the membrane provides an extremely low electro-osmotic drag coefficient of approximately one water molecule per proton (versus the 2-3 for

  20. Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.

    1988-08-01

    The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).

  1. Functional connectivity in in vitro neuronal assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Daniele; Pastore, Vito P.; Massobrio, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Complex network topologies represent the necessary substrate to support complex brain functions. In this work, we reviewed in vitro neuronal networks coupled to Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) as biological substrate. Networks of dissociated neurons developing in vitro and coupled to MEAs, represent a valid experimental model for studying the mechanisms governing the formation, organization and conservation of neuronal cell assemblies. In this review, we present some examples of the use of statistical Cluster Coefficients and Small World indices to infer topological rules underlying the dynamics exhibited by homogeneous and engineered neuronal networks. PMID:26500505

  2. Octanuclear cubic coordination cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidmarsh, Ian S; Faust, Thomas B; Adams, Harry; Harding, Lindsay P; Russo, Luca; Clegg, William; Ward, Michael D

    2008-11-12

    Two new bis-bidentate bridging ligands have been prepared, L (naph) and L (anth), which contain two chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine units connected to an aromatic spacer (naphthalene-1,5-diyl and anthracene-9,10-diyl respectively) via methylene connectors. Each of these reacts with transition metal dications having a preference for octahedral coordination geometry to afford {M 8L 12} (16+) cages (for L (anth), M = Cu, Zn; for L (naph), M = Co, Ni, Cd) which have an approximately cubic arrangement of metal ions with a bridging ligand spanning each of the twelve edges, and a large central cavity containing a mixture of anions and/or solvent molecules. The cages based on L (anth) have two cyclic helical {M 4L 4} faces, of opposite chirality, connected by four additional L (anth) ligands as "pillars"; all metal centers have a meridional tris-chelate configuration. In contrast the cages based on L (naph) have (noncrystallographic) S 6 symmetry, with a diagonally opposite pair of corners having a facial tris-chelate configuration with the other six being meridional. An additional significant difference between the two types of structure is that the cubes containing L (anth) do not show significant interligand aromatic stacking interactions. However, in the cages based on L (naph), there are six five-membered stacks of aromatic ligand fragments around the periphery, each based on an alternating array of electron-rich (naphthyl) and electron-deficient (pyrazolyl-pyridine, coordinated to M (2+)) aromatic units. A consequence of this is that the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) retain their structural integrity in polar solvents, in contrast to the cages {M 8(L (anth)) 12} (16+) which dissociate in polar solvents. Consequently, the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) give NMR spectra in agreement with the symmetry observed in the solid state, and their fluorescence spectra (for M = Cd) display (in addition to the normal naphthalene-based pi-pi* fluorescence) a lower-energy exciplex

  3. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOE’s 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability – understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group “unzipping” is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally – the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime – the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain

  4. Commercial cage fish culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aigbadon, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing emphasis in Nigeria on aquaculture as an alternative to dwindling artisanal fishing and scarce foreign exchange for fish import, cage fish culture, is a more profitable aquaculture practice than pond culture. It appears to be one of the most viable business ventures with minimum risks. It is a highly recommendable project

  5. John Cage Discusses Fluxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ellsworth

    1992-01-01

    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  6. Rope Caging and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, T.H.; Wan, W.; Pan, J.; Wang, C.C.; Yuan, J.; Harada, K; Chen, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for caging grasps in this paper by stretching ropes on the surface of a 3D object. Both topology and shape of a model to be grasped has been
    considered in our approach. Our algorithm can guarantee generating local minimal rings on every topological branches of a given

  7. Inhibition of microRNA 128 promotes excitability of cultured cortical neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, K Melodi; Gussow, Ayal B; Bradrick, Shelton S; Dugger, Sarah A; Gelfman, Sahar; Wang, Quanli; Petrovski, Slavé; Frankel, Wayne N; Boland, Michael J; Goldstein, David B

    2016-10-01

    Cultured neuronal networks monitored with microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have been used widely to evaluate pharmaceutical compounds for potential neurotoxic effects. A newer application of MEAs has been in the development of in vitro models of neurological disease. Here, we directly evaluated the utility of MEAs to recapitulate in vivo phenotypes of mature microRNA-128 (miR-128) deficiency, which causes fatal seizures in mice. We show that inhibition of miR-128 results in significantly increased neuronal activity in cultured neuronal networks derived from primary mouse cortical neurons. These results support the utility of MEAs in developing in vitro models of neuroexcitability disorders, such as epilepsy, and further suggest that MEAs provide an effective tool for the rapid identification of microRNAs that promote seizures when dysregulated. © 2016 McSweeney et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Develpment of Higher Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assembly (MEA) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Agro, Anthony DeCarmine, Shari Williams

    2005-12-30

    Our work will fucus on developing higher temperature MEAs based on SPEKK polymer blends. Thse MEAs will be designed to operatre at 120 degrees C Higher temperatures, up to 200 degrees C will also be explored. This project will develop Nafion-free MEAs using only SPEKK blends in both membrane and catalytic layers.

  9. 76 FR 35110 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Miscellaneous Expense Allowance (MEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ17 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Miscellaneous Expense Allowance (MEA) AGENCY: Office of... miscellaneous expenses allowance (MEA), when the employee chooses not to provide documentation of miscellaneous... miscellaneous expenses. The purpose of the miscellaneous expense allowance (MEA) is to defray various contingent...

  10. Method of making MEA for PEM/SPE fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulett, Jay S.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making a membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) for a PEM/SPE fuel cell comprising applying a slurry of electrode-forming material directly onto a membrane-electrolyte film. The slurry comprises a liquid vehicle carrying catalyst particles and a binder for the catalyst particles. The membrane-electrolyte is preswollen by contact with the vehicle before the electrode-forming slurry is applied to the membrane-electrolyte. The swollen membrane-electrolyte is constrained against shrinking in the "x" and "y" directions during drying. Following assembly of the fuel cell, the MEA is rehydrated inside the fuel cell such that it swells in the "z" direction for enhanced electrical contact with contiguous electrically conductive components of the fuel cell.

  11. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stacks with Advent TPS Meas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neophytides Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High power/high energy applications are expected to greatly benefit from high temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs. In this work, a combinatorial approach is presented, in which separately developed and evaluated MEAs, design and engineering are employed to result in reliable and effective stacks operating above 180°C and having the characteristics well matched to applications including auxiliary power, micro combined heat and power, and telecommunication satellites.

  12. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation†

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A.; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph?P.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids—biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged...

  13. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  14. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  15. A collection of caged compounds for probing roles of local translation in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovski, Oleg; Jaikaran, Anna S I; Samanta, Subhas; Fabian, Marc R; Dowling, Ryan J O; Sonenberg, Nahum; Woolley, G Andrew

    2010-11-15

    Spatially localized translation plays a vital role in the normal functioning of neuronal systems and is widely believed to be involved in both learning and memory formation. It is of central interest to understand both the phenomenon and molecular mechanisms of local translation using new tools and approaches. Caged compounds can, in principle, be used as tools to investigate local translation since optical activation of bioactive molecules can achieve both spatial and temporal resolution on the micron scale and on the order of seconds or less, respectively. Successful caging of bioactive molecules requires the identification of key functional groups in appropriate molecules and the introduction of a suitable caging moiety. Here we present the design, synthesis and testing of a collection of three caged compounds: anisomycin caged with a diethylaminocoumarin moiety and dimethoxynitrobenzyl caged versions of 4E-BP and rapamycin. Whereas caged anisomycin can be used to control general translation, caged 4E-BP serves as a probe of cap-dependent translation initiation and caged rapamycin serves a probe of the role of mTORC1 in translation initiation. In vitro translation assays demonstrate that these caging strategies, in combination with the aforementioned compounds, are effective for optical control making it likely that such strategies can successfully employed in the study of local translation in living systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring of the Responsive Space Satellite Systems Using Magneto Elastic Active Sensors (MEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    honeycomb and realistic satellite panels, are provided. Nonlinear SHM methodologies using MEAS are considered and its use for acousto-elastic...highlighted. Examples of MEAS-enabled SHM testing in aerospace structures of simple and complex geometry, such a honeycomb and realistic satellite panels...Monitoring of the Responsive Space Satellite Systems using Magneto Elastic Active Sensors (MEAS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  17. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  18. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  19. NASA's MEaSUREs Program Serving the Earth Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Tsaoussi, L.; Olding, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. NASA has invested in the creation of consistent time series satellite data sets over decades, through both mission science team-based and measurement-based data product reprocessing and through solicitations for merged data products. The NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Program, carried out in the mid-1990's, resulted in the reprocessing of four long time-series datasets from existing archives. The Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN) Program, initiated in 2002, consisted of several projects that provided data products, information systems and services capabilities, and/or advanced data systems technologies, to address strategic needs in Earth science research, applications, and education. The Program named Making Earth System data records for Use in Research for Earth Science, or MEaSUREs has had two requests for proposals, the first in 2006 and the second in 2012. With this Program, the Earth Science Division has focused on generating datasets for particular Earth science research measurement needs, and refers to such datasets as Earth System Data Records (ESDRs). Climate Data Records (CDRs) are a particular case of ESDRs. An ESDR is defined as a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements in addressing science questions. Most of the MEaSUREs projects are five years long. They produce ESDRs using mature, peer-reviewed algorithms. The products are vetted by the user community in the respective scientific disciplines. They are made available publicly by the projects during their execution period. Before the projects end, the ESDRs are transferred to one of the NASA-assigned Distributed Active Archive Centers for longer-term archiving and distribution. Tens of millions of

  20. Laying hens in furnished cages

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Helena

    2003-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of laying hens housed in conventional cages has led to a change of the Animal Welfare Legislation in Sweden, implying that cages must provide possibilities for hens to lay eggs in a nest, to rest on a perch and to use litter. Such requirements are also being considered within the whole European Union. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the general knowledge of, and further development of, furnished cages, both as regards birds’ use of facilities and their w...

  1. Diamond microelectrode arrays for in vitro neuronal recordings

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Matthew; Monaco, Antonina; Vahidpour, Farnoosh; Haenen, Ken; Giugliano, Michele; Nesladek, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: A novel microfabrication technique for microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with a full diamondcell interface is demonstrated. Boron-doped nano-crystalline diamond (BNCD) is used as a conductive electrode material on metal tracks insulated by intrinsic NCD. MEAs successfully recorded spontaneous electrical activity in rat primary cortical neuronal cultures. Patch-clamp measurements show no alterations to cell membrane passive properties or active firing response, for cell developing ex vivo...

  2. Actinomycete integrative and conjugative pMEA-like elements of Amycolatopsis and Saccharopolyspora decoded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poele, Evelien M. Te; Samborskyy, Markiyan; Oliynyk, Markiyan; Leadlay, Peter F.; Bolhuis, Henk; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    Actinomycete integrative and conjugative elements (AICEs) are present in diverse genera of the actinomycetes, the most important bacterial producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Comparison of pMEA100 of Amycolatopsis mediterranei, pMEA300 of Amycolatopsis methanolica and pSE211 of

  3. Actinomycete integrative and conjugative pMEA-like elements of Amycolatopsis and Saccharopolyspora decoded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Poele, E.M.; Samborskyy, M.; Oliynyk, M.; Leadlay, P.F.; Bolhuis, H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycete integrative and conjugative elements (AICEs) are present in diverse genera of the actinomycetes, the most important bacterial producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Comparison of pMEA100 of Amycolatopsis mediterranei, pMEA300 of Amycolatopsis methanolica and pSE211 of

  4. Temperature distribution on the MEA surface of a PEMFC with serpentine channel flow bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maohai; Guo, Hang; Ma, Chongfang

    Knowledge of the temperature distribution on the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) surface and heat transfer processes inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is helpful to improvement of cell reliability, durability and performance. The temperature fields on the surface of MEA fixed inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with a serpentine channel flow bed were measured by infrared imaging technology under non-humidification conditions. The temperature distributions over the MEA surface under whole channel region were achieved. The experimental results show that the downstream temperatures are higher than the upstream. The hot region on the MEA surface is easy to locate from the infrared temperature image. The mean temperature on the MEA surface and the cell temperature both increase with the current density. Higher current density makes the non-uniformity of temperature distribution on the MEA surface worse. The loading time significantly affects the temperature distribution. Compared with the electrical performance of the cell, the MEA's temperatures need much more time to reach stable. The results indicate that isothermal assumption is not appropriate for a modeling of PEMFCs, and monitoring the temperature of external surface of the flow field plate or end plate cannot supply accurate reference to control the temperatures on MEA surface.

  5. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    with a membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Hoop stress calculations show that the pressure tolerances of cylinders are inversely proportional to the...will be discussed. A discussion of the electrochemistry within nanocapillaries compared to planar MEAs will be given including the charge transport... electrode assembly 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  6. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS DAN KREATIF MATEMATIK DENGAN PENDEKATAN MODEL ELICITING ACTIVITIES (MEAS PADA SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Istianah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Kemampuan berpikir siswa, baik berpikir kritis maupun berpikir kreatif merupakan kemampuan yang penting untuk dimiliki agar dapat memecahkan persoalan-persoalan yang dihadapi dalam dunia yang senantiasa berubah. Pembelajaran matematika dengan pendekatan Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs merupakan suatu alternatif pendekatan yang berupaya meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif matematik siswa agar terus terlatih dengan baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menelaah peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif matematik antara siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran matematika dengan pendekatan MEAs dan siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran dengan pembelajaran biasa baik ditinjau secara keseluruhan maupun ditinjau secara kelompok siswa (kelompok atas dan kelompok bawah. Selain itu diungkap pula sikap siswa terhadap pembelajaran matematika dengan pendekatan MEAs. Desain penelitian ini adalah pre-test post-test control group design. Penelitian ini dilakukan di SMA pada level menengah. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui tes dan angket. Analisis data dilakukan terhadap rerata gain ternormalisasi antara kedua kelompok sampel dengan menggunakan kesamaan dua rerata. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematik siswa yang belajar dengan pendekatan MEAs lebih baik secara signifikan daripada siswa yang belajar dengan pembelajaran biasa, dan peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematik siswa yang belajar dengan pembelajaran biasa secara signifikan lebih baik daripada siswa yang belajar dengan pendekatan MEAs. Selanjutnya peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kreatif matematik siswa baik kelompok atas maupun kelompok bawah yang memperoleh pembelajaran matematika dengan pendekatan MEAs lebih baik secara signifikan daripada siswa kelompok atas dan kelompok bawah yang mendapatkan pembelajaran biasa, dan peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematik siswa baik kelompok atas maupun kelompok bawah yang belajar dengan

  7. Activation procedures characterization of MEA based on phosphoric acid doped PBI membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, M.; Mendes, A. [Laboratorio de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente e Energia (LEPAE), Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims at better understanding the activation process of phosphoric acid doped PBI-based MEA. The phenomena involved in the activation of Celtec {sup registered} - P1000 MEA were studied based on polarization curves, AC impedance spectroscopy combined with equivalent circuit modelling and cyclic voltammetry analysis. It was concluded that galvanostatic activation procedure enhanced Celtec {sup registered} - P1000 MEA performance by increasing the catalyst activity and by decreasing the ohmic resistance. Also, galvanostatic and potential cycling procedures were applied to an in-house prepared MEA; for the same activation time, the galvanostatic allowed a deeper activation of the in-house prepared MEA than the potential cycling activation method. It is accepted that the humidification of the reactants is not necessary for high temperature PEMFC based on phosphoric acid doped PBI membrane, since water production at the cathode should be enough to ensure high performance of the fuel cell. In this work it is described the behavior of a PEMFC based on an in-house prepared MEA, after activation at different temperatures and relative humidities. It is shown that water has an enhanced effect on ohmic resistance during the PEMFC operation but can also have a detrimental effect on the cathode resistance due to migration of phosphoric acid outside MEA. (author)

  8. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  9. Freezing Point Depressions of Aqueous MEA, MDEA, and MEA−MDEA Measured with a New Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Pedersen, Mikkel Gielsager; Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Freezing points for aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), and MEA−MDEA solutions were measured in the concentration range from 0 to 0.4 mass fractions of the alkanolamines. For the aqueous MEA−MDEA system, freezing points for 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1 molar ratios of MEA...... and accuracy. A correlation of the freezing points as functions of the solution composition was made. Measurements of aqueous MEA and aqueous MDEA were compared to experiments found in the open literature....

  10. KONSELING KARIR RINGKAS BERFOKUS SOLUSI: KONSELING KARIR UNTUK MEMBANTU MENETAPKAN PILIHAN KARIR SISWA SMK MENGHADAPI MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available MEA be one challenge for the country of Indonesia. One way to prepare qualified human resources through education. The parties have a role to address the various challenges that arise and thrive in the world of education in Indonesia in the era of MEA is BK teacher/ counselor . Effective counseling interventions need to prepare qualified human resources in the face of the MEA , the Solution Focused Brief Career Counseling . In the counseling intervention , students are required to be able to immediately solve the problem of his career and making career choices that match their interests , talents and expertise so as to compete in the world of work.

  11. Estrogen receptor–α in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Zhu, Liangru; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Xiaofeng; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Xia, Yan; Yan, Chunling; Shu, Gang; Wu, San-Pin; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J.; DeMarchi, Richard; Khan, Sohaib A.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor–α (ERα) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERα-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels of ERα. Specific deletion of the gene encoding ERα (Esr1) from SIM1 neurons, which are mostly within the MeA, caused hypoactivity and obesity in both male and female mice fed with regular chow, increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in males but not in females, and blunted the body weight–lowering effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate. Furthermore, selective adeno-associated virus-mediated deletion of Esr1 in the MeA of adult male mice produced a rapid body weight gain that was associated with remarkable reductions in physical activity but did not alter food intake. Conversely, overexpression of ERα in the MeA markedly reduced the severity of DIO in male mice. Finally, an ERα agonist depolarized MeA SIM1 neurons and increased their firing rate, and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug–mediated (DREADD-mediated) activation of these neurons increased physical activity in mice. Collectively, our results support a model where ERα signals activate MeA neurons to stimulate physical activity, which in turn prevents body weight gain. PMID:26098212

  12. MEaSUREs Arctic Sea Ice Characterization Daily 25km EASE-Grid 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides a daily record of Arctic sea ice...

  13. MEaSUREs InSAR-Based Ice Velocity Maps of Central Antarctica: 1997 and 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, consists of two high-resolution digital mosaics...

  14. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides annual ice-sheet-wide velocity maps...

  15. MEaSUREs Antarctic Grounding Line from Differential Satellite Radar Interferometry, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides 17 years of comprehensive...

  16. MEaSUREs Antarctic Boundaries for IPY 2007-2009 from Satellite Radar, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, and provides maps of Antarctic ice shelves,...

  17. MEaSUREs Multi-year Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Mosaic, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, contains a multi-year ice-sheet-wide velocity...

  18. Durability of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) in PEM Fuel Cells Operated on Pure Hydrogen and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Vesna; Braun, James; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy sources that have the potential to replace alkaline fuel cells for space programs. Broad power ranges, high peak-to-nominal power capabilities, low maintenance costs, and the promise of increased life are the major advantages of PEM technology in comparison to alkaline technology. The probability of PEM fuel cells replacing alkaline fuel cells for space applications will increase if the promise of increased life is verified by achieving a minimum of 10,000 hours of operating life. Durability plays an important role in the process of evaluation and selection of MEAs for Teledyne s Phase I contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center entitled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell (PEMFC) Power Plant Technology Development for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). For this contract, MEAs that are typically used for H2/air operation were selected as potential candidates for H2/O2 PEM fuel cells because their catalysts have properties suitable for O2 operation. They were purchased from several well-established MEA manufacturers who are world leaders in the manufacturing of diverse products and have committed extensive resources in an attempt to develop and fully commercialize MEA technology. A total of twelve MEAs used in H2/air operation were initially identified from these manufacturers. Based on the manufacturers specifications, nine of these were selected for evaluation. Since 10,000 hours is almost equivalent to 14 months, it was not possible to perform continuous testing with each MEA selected during Phase I of the contract. Because of the lack of time, a screening test on each MEA was performed for 400 hours under accelerated test conditions. The major criterion for an MEA pass or fail of the screening test was the gas crossover rate. If the gas crossover rate was higher than the membrane intrinsic permeability after 400 hours of testing, it was considered that the MEA had failed the test. Three types of

  19. MEaSUREs Greenland Annual Ice Sheet Velocity Mosaics from SAR and Landsat, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, contains annual ice velocity mosaics for the...

  20. MEaSUREs Annual Antarctic Ice Velocity Maps 2005-2017, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides 12 annual maps of Antarctic ice...

  1. MEaSUREs Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze/Thaw Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MEaSUREs Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze/Thaw Status, Version 01 data set is derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite...

  2. MEaSUREs Antarctic Grounding Line from Differential Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides 17 years of comprehensive...

  3. MEaSUREs InSAR-Based Antarctica Ice Velocity Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides the first comprehensive,...

  4. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Velocity: Selected Glacier Site Velocity Maps from InSAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program. This data set provides maps of glacier outlet...

  5. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides annual ice-sheet-wide velocity maps...

  6. MEaSUREs Antarctic Grounding Line from Differential Satellite Radar Interferometry, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides 22 years of comprehensive...

  7. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) Land Ice and Ocean Classification Mask, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides a complete land ice and ocean...

  8. MEaSUREs Annual Antarctic Ice Velocity Maps 2005-2016, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides 11 annual maps of Antarctic ice...

  9. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, contains seasonal (winter) ice-sheet-wide...

  10. Black boxes on wheels: research challenges and ethical problems in MEA-based robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    computer technology are not very good at adapting to surprising or unusual situations, at least not when compared to biological organisms. It is also hoped that insights gained from MEA-based robotics can have applications within human enhancement and medicine. In this paper, I argue that researchers...... and that they are not likely to be solved within the field. After that, I discuss whether MEA-based robotics should be considered pop science. Finally, I investigate the ethical aspects of this research....

  11. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  12. Local degradation analysis of a real long-term operated DMFC stack MEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2012-12-01

    Understanding degradation of the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is important technically and scientifically for the advancement of this technology. In this work, we carry out a spatially resolved investigation of the degradation of an MEA, which has been degraded through its operation lifetime. The MEA has an active area of 320 cm2 and has been used in operation of a DMFC stack for more than 3000 h to power a lift truck. The analysis of degradation with respect to the local position of the flow field pattern was carried out by cutting the MEA into small pieces that are characterized in a 1 cm2 sized test cell with a reference electrode setup. The characterization techniques involved measurement of anode and cathode polarization curves, electrode potential relaxation curves after current interruption, MeOH-stripping voltammograms, cyclic voltammetry and SEM/EDX analysis. The MEA pieces were prepared by Laser ablation technique to realize the reference electrodes. The analysis yielded an independence of performance from the local position of the MEAs within the stack in terms of the anode and cathode flow fields.

  13. 50 CFR 648.75 - Cage identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cage identification. 648.75 Section 648.75... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.75 Cage identification. Except as provided in § 648.76, the following cage identification requirements apply to all vessels issued a Federal fishing permit for surf...

  14. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Chen, Wen; Hulley, Glynn; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hook, Simon

    2016-04-01

    to generate the MOD21 product. The MEaSUREs (MODIS- ASTER Global Infrared Combined Emissivity) product produced from the University of Wisconsin Global Infrared Land Surface Emissivity (UWIREMIS) and the ASTER Global Emissivity (GED) Database have been used in both methods. We will describe the two methodologies and present results of evaluation for the year 2004 against various available products, such as MOD11, and ground observations.

  15. Membrane and MEA Development in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogadas, Panagiotis; Ramani, Vijay

    catalyst layers formed with electrodeposition and vacuum deposition (sputtering). The thin-film electrodes have significantly increased performance and reduced the level of platinum loading required. Thin sputtered layers have shown promise for low catalyst loading with adequate performance. Electrodeposition methods are briefly discussed. Finally, the relationship between MEA processing and the durability of the membrane/electrode interface and hence the fuel cell as a whole is presented.

  16. Passaged neural stem cell-derived neuronal networks for a portable biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Liu, Jinny L; Ma, Wu

    2009-04-15

    We have previously demonstrated a portable biosensor that utilizes networks of mammalian neurons on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) as the sensing element. These neuronal cultures on MEAs are derived from primary neuronal tissues and are short-lived. In order to extend the shelf life of neuronal networks for use in a fieldable sensor technology, a renewable source of networks is needed. Neural stem and progenitor cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into functional neuronal networks. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for growing passaged neural stem and progenitor cells on MEAs under controlled conditions to produce differentiated neurons and glia comprising functional neuronal networks. Primary and passaged neuroepithelial stem and progenitor cells dissociated from embryonic day 13 rat cortex were seeded on MEAs and maintained with serum-free medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) combined with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These culture conditions lead to abundant neurons, with astrocytes as supportive cells, forming synaptically linked networks of neurons. Spontaneous action potentials were best recorded from networks derived from primary or passaged progenitor cells 4-5 weeks after initial culture. The passaged progenitor cell-derived networks on MEAs responded to the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline, the NMDA glutamate inhibitor APV, and the non-NMDA glutamate antagonist CNQX indicating active synapses were present. Passaged neural stem and progenitor cell-derived networks on MEAs have properties similar to networks derived from primary neuronal cultures and can serve as a renewable supply of sensor elements for detection of environmental threats.

  17. Cage model of polar fluids: Finite cage inertia generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, W T; Zarifakis, M; Kalmykov, Y P; Titov, S V; Dowling, W J; Titov, A S

    2017-07-21

    The itinerant oscillator model describing rotation of a dipole about a fixed axis inside a cage formed by its surrounding polar molecules is revisited in the context of modeling the dielectric relaxation of a polar fluid via the Langevin equation. The dynamical properties of the model are studied by averaging the Langevin equations describing the complex orientational dynamics of two bodies (molecule-cage) over their realizations in phase space so that the problem reduces to solving a system of three index linear differential-recurrence relations for the statistical moments. These are then solved in the frequency domain using matrix continued fractions. The linear dielectric response is then evaluated for extensive ranges of damping, dipole moment ratio, and cage-dipole inertia ratio and along with the usual inertia corrected microwave Debye absorption gives rise to significant far-infrared absorption with a comb-like structure of harmonic peaks. The model may be also regarded as an extension of Budó's [J. Chem. Phys. 17, 686 (1949)] treatment of molecules containing rotating polar groups to include inertial effects.

  18. A Simple and Reliable PDMS and SU-8 Irreversible Bonding Method and Its Application on a Microfluidic-MEA Device for Neuroscience Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and SU-8 are currently two very commonly used polymeric materials in the microfluidics field for biological applications. However; there is a pressing need to find a simple, reliable, irreversible bonding method between these two materials for their combined use in innovative integrated microsystems. In this paper, we attempt to investigate the aminosilane-mediated irreversible bonding method for PDMS and SU-8 with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS surface analysis and bonding strength tests. Additionally, the selected bonding method was applied in fabricating a microelectrode array (MEA device, including microfluidic features, which allows electrophysiological observations on compartmentalized neuronal cultures. As there is a growing trend towards microfluidic devices for neuroscience research, this type of integrated microdevice, which can observe functional alterations on compartmentalized neuronal culture, can potentially be used for neurodegenerative disease research and pharmaceutical development.

  19. GABA-A receptor antagonists increase firing, bursting and synchrony of spontaneous activity in neuronal networks grown on microelectrode arrays: a step towards chemical "fingerprinting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of effects on spontaneous network activity in neurons grown on MEAs is a proposed method to screen chemicals for potential neurotoxicity. In addition, differential effects on network activity (chemical "fingerprints") could be used to classify chemical modes of action....

  20. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  1. Controllability and flexibility analysis of CO2 post-combustion capture using piperazine and MEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    -points in the presence of disturbances in the flue gas flow and heat duty is larger using PZ compared to MEA. The settling time for the PZ plant is generally larger than for MEA. However, the PZ plant rejects the disturbances faster and with less variability in the load of the power plant. Furthermore, this study...... indicates that the proposed PI-based control structure can handle large changes in the load provided that the manipulated variables, i.e. lean solvent flow or reboiler duty, do not reach their saturation limit. Additionally, we observed that shortage in the steam supply (reboiler duty) may represent...... a critical operational bottleneck, especially when PZ is being used. The MEA plant controllers drive the system towards drying out/flooding while the CO2 capture rate performance of the PZ plant reduces drastically in the presence of constraints in the availability of steam. These findings suggest the need...

  2. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  3. (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation Data d...etail Data name (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation DOI 10.18908/l...m5_rp_exp_details#en Data acquisition method HeliScopeCAGE ( http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/protocols/heliscop...icy | Contact Us (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Listening to Cage: Nonintentional philosophy and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fleming

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening to Cage: Nonintentional Philosophy and Music threads together the writings of ordinary language philosophy and the music of John Cage, responding specifically to requests made by Cage and Stanley Cavell. While many texts downplay or ignore the philosophical demands in Cage’s music and other texts find grandiose spiritual and philosophical material tied to his work, this text rejects both efforts. It challenges the basic directions of the growing secondary source material on Cage, finding it largely contrary to what Cage himself and his music teaches. That secondary material constantly offers an intentional approach to the music which is to make Cage understandable or easier to understand. The present text makes him appropriately difficult and basically unapproachable, asking the reader for serious acknowledgment of what Cage says he does, namely, “I have nothing to say and I am saying it.” While there is little hope of stopping the Cage industry that academia and publishers have grown, this text wishes at least to try to slow it down. The footnotes of this text include direct conversation material with Cage from the 1980s and 1990s regarding many subjects—his own compositions, our life struggles, remarks on Wittgenstein, Thoreau, philosophy, and music—all with a new context for their hearing.

  5. Identification of the minimal replicon of plasmid pMEA300 of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijbloed, J.W.; Jelínková, M.; Hessels, G.I.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica contains a 13.3 kb plasmid (pMEA300), capable of enhancing the spontaneous mutation frequency of its host. Depending on the growth medium pMEA300 is not only maintained as an integrated element but can additionally be present as a multicopy, autonomously

  6. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Transfer Region of Plasmid pMEA300 of the Methylotrophic Actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijbloed, J.W.; Put, N.M.J. van der; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1995-01-01

    Amycolatopsis methanolica contains a 13.3-kb plasmid (pMEA300) that is present either as an integrated element or as an autonomously replicating plasmid. Conjugational transfer of pMEA300 results in pock formation, zones of growth inhibition that become apparent when plasmid-carrying donor cells

  7. Mea6 controls VLDL transport through the coordinated regulation of COPII assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqing; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Fan, Junwan; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Mei; Shi, Lei; Yang, Lin; Lam, Sin Man; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Yingchun; Gao, Fei; Shui, Guanghou; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-01-01

    Lipid accumulation, which may be caused by the disturbance in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion in the liver, can lead to fatty liver disease. VLDL is synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to Golgi apparatus for secretion into plasma. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for VLDL transport is still poorly understood. Here we show that hepatocyte-specific deletion of meningioma-expressed antigen 6 (Mea6)/cutaneous T cell lymphoma-associated antigen 5C (cTAGE5C) leads to severe fatty liver and hypolipemia in mice. Quantitative lipidomic and proteomic analyses indicate that Mea6/cTAGE5 deletion impairs the secretion of different types of lipids and proteins, including VLDL, from the liver. Moreover, we demonstrate that Mea6/cTAGE5 interacts with components of the ER coat protein complex II (COPII) which, when depleted, also cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Our findings not only reveal several novel factors that regulate lipid transport, but also provide evidence that Mea6 plays a critical role in lipid transportation through the coordinated regulation of the COPII machinery. PMID:27311593

  8. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the

  9. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand

  10. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, Ruud; Zhang, Xi; Schultz-Ela, Dan

    2013-06-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called `fracture cages' around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain the fracture caging mechanism and pinpoint the physical parameters and conditions for its control. This new insight has great practical relevance for the effectiveness and safety of drilling operations in general, and hydraulic fracturing in particular. Fracture caging runaway poses a hazard for drilling operations in overpressured formations. Recognition of the fracture caging mechanism also opens up new opportunities for controlled engineering of its effects by the manipulation of the Frac number in wells in order to bring more precision in the fracking process of tight formations.

  12. Simulation of developing human neuronal cell networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kerstin; Priwitzer, Barbara; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Tietz, Lukas H B; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2016-08-30

    Microelectrode array (MEA) is a widely used technique to study for example the functional properties of neuronal networks derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-NN). With hESC-NN, we can investigate the earliest developmental stages of neuronal network formation in the human brain. In this paper, we propose an in silico model of maturating hESC-NNs based on a phenomenological model called INEX. We focus on simulations of the development of bursts in hESC-NNs, which are the main feature of neuronal activation patterns. The model was developed with data from developing hESC-NN recordings on MEAs which showed increase in the neuronal activity during the investigated six measurement time points in the experimental and simulated data. Our simulations suggest that the maturation process of hESC-NN, resulting in the formation of bursts, can be explained by the development of synapses. Moreover, spike and burst rate both decreased at the last measurement time point suggesting a pruning of synapses as the weak ones are removed. To conclude, our model reflects the assumption that the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory neurons during the maturation of a neuronal network and the spontaneous emergence of bursts are due to increased connectivity caused by the forming of new synapses.

  13. Stress and plastic deformation of MEA in fuel cells. Stresses generated during cell assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bograchev, Daniil [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Elecrtrochemistry RAN, Leninski prospekt 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation); Gueguen, Mikael; Grandidier, Jean-Claude [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, LMPM UMR CNRS 6617, ENSMA, Teleport 2, 1 av. Clement Ader, BP 40109 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Martemianov, Serguei [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, LET UMR CNRS 6608, ESIP-University of Poitiers, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2008-05-15

    A linear elastic-plastic 2D model of fuel cell with hardening is developed for analysis of mechanical stresses in MEA arising in cell assembly procedure. The model includes the main components of real fuel cell (membrane, gas diffusion layers, graphite plates, and seal joints) and clamping elements (steel plates, bolts, nuts). The stress and plastic deformation in MEA are simulated with ABAQUS code taking into account the realistic clamping conditions. The stress distributions are obtained on the local and the global scales. The first one corresponds to the single tooth/channel structure. The global scale deals with features of the entire cell (the seal joint and the bolts). Experimental measurements of the residual membrane deformations have been provided at different bolts torques. The experimental data are in a good agreement with numerical predictions concerning the beginning of the plastic deformation. (author)

  14. A Low-Noise, Modular, and Versatile Analog Front-End Intended for Processing In Vitro Neuronal Signals Detected by Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Regalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of good quality extracellular neuronal spikes from neuronal cultures coupled to Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs is a binding requirement to gather reliable data. Due to physical constraints, low power requirement, or the need of customizability, commercial recording platforms are not fully adequate for the development of experimental setups integrating MEA technology with other equipment needed to perform experiments under climate controlled conditions, like environmental chambers or cell culture incubators. To address this issue, we developed a custom MEA interfacing system featuring low noise, low power, and the capability to be readily integrated inside an incubator-like environment. Two stages, a preamplifier and a filter amplifier, were designed, implemented on printed circuit boards, and tested. The system is characterized by a low input-referred noise (70 dB, and signal-to-noise ratio values of neuronal recordings comparable to those obtained with the benchmark commercial MEA system. In addition, the system was successfully integrated with an environmental MEA chamber, without harming cell cultures during experiments and without being damaged by the high humidity level. The devised system is of practical value in the development of in vitro platforms to study temporally extended neuronal network dynamics by means of MEAs.

  15. Modeling and simulation of lab-scale anaerobic co-digestion of MEA waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion model No.1 (ADM1 was applied and expanded in this study to model and simulate anaerobic digestion (AD of an industrial carbon capture reclaimer MEA (monoethanolamine waste (MEAw together with easily degradable organics. The general structure of ADM1 was not changed except for introducing state variables of MEA and complex organics (CO in the waste and biochemical reactions of MEA uptake and CO hydrolysis in the model ADM1_MEAw. Experimental batch test results were used for calibrating kinetics variables. The obtained kinetics were employed in the ADM1_MEAw to simulate semi-continuously fed experimental test for 486 days at room temperature (22 +/- 2oC. The validation results show that the ADM1_MEAw was able to predict the process performance with reasonable accuracy, including process pH, biogas generation and inorganic nitrogen concentrations, for a wide range of feed scenarios. Free ammonia inhibition, was observed to be the main inhibitory effects on acetoclastic methanogenesis, leading to volatile fatty acids (VFA accumulation at high loads. Inhibition assumed to be caused by potentially toxic constituents of MEAw appears to be much less important than ammonia, suggesting that such constituents were broken down by AD.

  16. Performance of an Active Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Reduced Catalyst Loading MEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Falcão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The micro direct methanol fuel cell (MicroDMFC is an emergent technology due to its special interest for portable applications. This work presents the results of a set of experiments conducted at room temperature using an active metallic MicroDMFC with an active area of 2.25 cm2. The MicroDMFC uses available commercial materials with low platinum content in order to reduce the overall fuel cell cost. The main goal of this work is to provide useful information to easily design an active MicroDMFC with a good performance recurring to cheaper commercial Membrane Electrode Assemblies MEAs. A performance/cost analysis for each MEA tested is provided. The maximum power output obtained was 18.1 mW/cm2 for a hot-pressed MEA with materials purchased from Quintech with very low catalyst loading (3 mg/cm2 Pt–Ru at anode side and 0.5 mg/cm2 PtB at the cathode side costing around 15 euros. Similar power values are reported in literature for the same type of micro fuel cells working at higher operating temperatures and substantially higher cathode catalyst loadings. Experimental studies using metallic active micro direct methanol fuel cells operating at room temperature are very scarce. The results presented in this work are, therefore, very useful for the scientific community.

  17. Detailed H2 and CO Electrochemistry for a MEA Model Fueled by Syngas

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, W. Y.

    2015-07-17

    © The Electrochemical Society. SOFCs can directly oxidize CO in addition to H2, which allows them to be coupled to a gasifier. Many membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) models neglect CO electrochemistry due to sluggish kinetics and the water-gas-shift reaction, but CO oxidation may be important for high CO-content syngas. The 1D-MEA model presented here incorporates detailed mechanisms for both H2 and CO oxidation, individually fitted to experimental data. These mechanisms are then combined into a single model, which provides a good fit to experimental data for H2/CO mixtures. Furthermore, the model fits H2/CO data best when a single chargetransfer step in the H2 mechanism is assumed to be rate-limiting for all current densities. This differs from the result for H2/H2O mixtures, where H2 adsorption becomes rate-limiting at high current densities. These results indicate that CO oxidation cannot be neglected in MEA models running on CO-rich syngas, and that CO oxidation can alter the H2 oxidation mechanism.

  18. Design and synthesis of photolabile caged cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Ando, Kazuki; Mitsui, Taichi; Aoyama, Takashi; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that regulate diverse developmental processes throughout the life of a plant. trans-Zeatin, kinetin, benzyladenine and dihydrozeatin are adenine-type cytokinins that are perceived by the AHK cytokinin receptors. Endogenous cytokinin levels are critical for regulating plant development. To manipulate intracellular cytokinin levels, caged cytokinins were designed on the basis of the crystal structure of the AHK4 cytokinin receptor. The caged cytokinin was photolyzed to release the cytokinin molecule inside the cells and induce cytokinin-responsive gene expression. The uncaging of intracellular caged cytokinins demonstrated that cytokinin-induced root growth inhibition can be manipulated with photo-irradiation. This caged cytokinin system could be a powerful tool for cytokinin biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MEaSUREs InSAR-Based Ice Velocity of the Amundsen Sea Embayment, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program, provides high-resolution, digital mosaics of...

  20. MEaSUREs InSAR-Based Ice Velocity of the Amundsen Sea Embayment, Antarctica V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program, provides high-resolution, digital mosaics of...

  1. PENGAWASAN, EVALUASI, DAN PENILAIAN SISTEM PENGENDALIAN INTERNAL TERKAIT BILLING SYSTEM PADA RSUD UNGARAN BERDASARKAN KERANGKA KERJA COBIT 5 (MEA02)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marthania Firmadita; Wellia Shinta Sari

    2016-01-01

    ... keefektifan implementasi layanan. Dari hasil observasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner berdasarkan COBIT 5 dihasilkan level kapabilitas tata kelola proses pengawasan, evaluasi, dan penilaian pengendalian internal terkait billing system (MEA02...

  2. MEaSUREs Arctic Sea Ice Characterization Daily 25km EASE-Grid 2.0 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides a daily record of Arctic sea ice...

  3. Integrating MEA Regeneration with CO2 Compression and Peaking to Reduce CO2 Capture Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin S. Fisher; Carrie Beitler; Curtis Rueter; Katherine Searcy; Dr. Gary Rochelle; Dr. Majeed Jassim

    2005-06-09

    Capturing CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants is a necessary component of any large-scale effort to reduce anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. Conventional absorption/stripping with monoethanolamine (MEA) or similar solvents is the most likely current process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the flue gas at these facilities. However, one of the largest problems with MEA absorption/stripping is that conventional process configurations have energy requirements that result in large reductions in the net power plant output. Several alternative process configurations for reducing these parasitic energy requirements were investigated in this research with the assistance of the Platte River Power Authority, based on recovering energy from the CO{sub 2} compression train and using that energy in the MEA regeneration step. In addition, the feasibility of selective operation of the amine system at a higher CO{sub 2} removal efficiency during non-peak electricity demand periods was also evaluated. Four process configurations were evaluated: A generic base case MEA system with no compression heat recovery, CO{sub 2} vapor recompression heat recovery, and multipressure stripping with and without vapor recompression heat recovery. These configurations were simulated using a rigorous rate-based model, and the results were used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. CO{sub 2} capture economics are presented, and the cost of CO{sub 2} capture (cost per tonne avoided) is compared among the base case and the alternative process configurations. Cost savings per tonne of CO{sub 2} avoided ranged from 4.3 to 9.8 percent. Energy savings of the improved configurations (8-10%, freeing up 13 to 17 MW of power for sale to the grid based on 500 MW unit ) clearly outweighed the modest increases in capital cost to implement them; it is therefore likely that one of these improved configurations would be used whenever MEA-based (or similar) scrubbing technologies are implemented. In fact

  4. HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation Data detail Data name Heliscope...thod - Data analysis method HeliScopeCAGE ( http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/protocols/heliscope.html ) Delve (Ali...Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us HeliscopeCAGE

  5. Furnished cage system and hen well-being: Comparative effects of furnished cages and battery cages on behavioral exhibitions in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-08-01

    The battery cage system is being banned in the European Union before or by 2012, and the furnished cage system will be the only cage system allowed after 2012. This study was conducted to examine the different effects of caging systems, furnished cages vs. battery cages, on bird behaviors. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 White Leghorn chicks were reared using standard management practices in raised wire cages. At 19 wk of age, the birds were randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm(2) of floor space per birds. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with a concealment curtain. Based on the company recommendations, 10 birds were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm(2) of floor space per bird. Behavioral observations were conducted using the Noldus Observer software package. The birds were observed at 5-min intervals for the entire light period. The birds housed in battery cages had higher posture and behavioral transitions and increased time spent walking and performing exploratory behavior (P < 0.05, 0.01, respectively), which may indicate they were stressed, resulting in restlessness, whereas the birds housed in furnished cages had higher levels of preening (P < 0.05). Preening has been considered as a comfort behavior in birds. These results may suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative system for housing birds by allowing them to perform certain natural behaviors.

  6. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph P Y

    2006-04-18

    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a nonselective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids: biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged vanilloids, Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA, are photoreleased with quantum efficiency of 0.13 and 0.041, respectively. Under flash photolysis conditions, photorelease of Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA is 95% complete in approximately 40 micros and approximately 125 micros, respectively. Through 1-photon excitation with ultraviolet light (360 nm), or 2-photon excitation with red light (720 nm), the caged vanilloids can be photoreleased in situ to activate TRPV1 receptors on nociceptive neurons. The consequent increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) can be visualized by laser-scanning confocal imaging of neurons loaded with the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator, fluo-3. Stimulation results from TRPV1 receptor activation, because the response is blocked by capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. In Ca(2+)-free extracellular medium, photoreleased vanilloid can still elevate [Ca(2+)](i), which suggests that TRPV1 receptors also reside on endomembranes in neurons and can mediate Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Notably, whole-cell voltage clamp measurements showed that flash photorelease of vanilloid can activate TRPV1 channels in probing morphologically distinct structures of nociceptive sensory neurons with high spatial and temporal precision.

  7. Efficacy of anterior cervical fusion: comparison of titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Der-Cherng; Hsieh, Wanhua Annie; Chen, Wu-Fu; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Harnod, Tomor; Chiou, Tsung-Lang; Chang, Yuh-Lin; Su, Chain-Fa; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chen, Shin-Yuan

    2008-11-01

    This retrospective study was designed to analyze and compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical fusion using titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous tricortical bone grafts. Fifty-five patients who underwent segmental anterior discectomy with a follow-up period up to 12 months enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups: titanium cage with biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (Triosite; Zimmer, Berlin, Germany) in group A (n=27); PEEK cage with Triosite in group B (n=9); and autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft in group C (n=19). The fusion rates after 6 months were 37.21% in group A , 93.3% in group B, and 84.85% in group C. The fusion rates after 1 year in groups A, B, and C were 46.51%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The PEEK cage is a viable alternative to autogenous tricortical bone grafts in anterior cervical fusion.

  8. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  9. PEMFC performance of MEAS based on Nafion{sup R} and sPSEBS hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Carretero, F.J.; Compan, V. [Univ, Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Dept. Termodinamica Aplicada; Suarez, K.; Solorza, O. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Riande, E. [Inst. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Important scientific, technical and economic problems must be solved before widespread commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The main issues facing the development of commercial low temperature fuel cells are the synthesis of efficient solid electrolytes separating the anode from the cathode as well as the development of cheaper catalysts for fuel oxidation. This study involved the preparation of hybrid membranes based on Nafion 117 and sulfonated Calprene H6120 containing partially sulfonated inorganic fillers such as silica, SBA-15 and sepiolite. The feasibility of using the membranes as polyelectrolytes for low temperature fuel cells was then evaluated. The water uptake of Nafion hybrid membranes is 1/3 to 1/4 of that in composite membranes based on sulfonated Calprene H6120. The proton conductivity of Nafion 117 hybrid membranes-electrode assemblies is nearly 1/5 of the pristine Nafion membrane assembly. Sulfonated Calprene H6120 hybrid membranes typically have better proton conductivity than the Nafion 117 composites. The performance of fuel cells containing different MEAs was examined by measuring their polarization curves in different operating conditions. The kinetic parameters governing the voltage dependence on current density were also estimated. It was concluded that the superior performance of the fuel cells with MEAs of NAF-SEP, sPSEBS-SIL and sPSEBS-SBA is not due to the membranes themselves, but to the kinetic processes that occur at the electrodes, which in this study were less efficient for fuel cells with the Nafion MEA. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  11. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  12. Creation of defined single cell resolution neuronal circuits on microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlo, Russell Kirk

    2009-12-01

    The way cell-cell organization of neuronal networks influences activity and facilitates function is not well understood. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) and advancing cell patterning technologies have enabled access to and control of in vitro neuronal networks spawning much new research in neuroscience and neuroengineering. We propose that small, simple networks of neurons with defined circuitry may serve as valuable research models where every connection can be analyzed, controlled and manipulated. Towards the goal of creating such neuronal networks we have applied microfabricated elastomeric membranes, surface modification and our unique laser cell patterning system to create defined neuronal circuits with single-cell precision on MEAs. Definition of synaptic connectivity was imposed by the 3D physical constraints of polydimethylsiloxane elastomeric membranes. The membranes had 20mum clear-through holes and 2-3mum deep channels which when applied to the surface of the MEA formed microwells to confine neurons to electrodes connected via shallow tunnels to direct neurite outgrowth. Tapering and turning of channels was used to influence neurite polarity. Biocompatibility of the membranes was increased by vacuum baking, oligomer extraction, and autoclaving. Membranes were bound to the MEA by oxygen plasma treatment and heated pressure. The MEA/membrane surface was treated with oxygen plasma, poly-D-lysine and laminin to improve neuron attachment, survival and neurite outgrowth. Prior to cell patterning the outer edge of culture area was seeded with 5x10 5 cells per cm and incubated for 2 days. Single embryonic day 7 chick forebrain neurons were then patterned into the microwells and onto the electrodes using our laser cell patterning system. Patterned neurons successfully attached to and were confined to the electrodes. Neurites extended through the interconnecting channels and connected with adjacent neurons. These results demonstrate that neuronal circuits can be

  13. The effect of the water/methane interface on methane hydrate cages: the potential of mean force and cage lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastny, Ethan A; Miller, Clark A; de Pablo, Juan J

    2008-07-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the influence of a methane-water interface on the position and stability of methane hydrate cages. A potential of mean force was calculated as a function of the separation of a methane hydrate cage and a methane-water interface. The hydrate cages are found to be strongly repelled from the methane gas into the water phase. At low enough temperatures, however, the most favorable location for the hydrate cage is at the interface on the water side. Cage lifetime simulations were performed in bulk water and near a methane-water interface. The methane-water interface increases the cage lifetime by almost a factor of 2 compared to cage lifetimes of cages in bulk water. The potential of mean force and the cage lifetime results give additional explanations for the proposed nucleation of gas hydrates at gas-water interfaces.

  14. The Edinburgh modified cage for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Hughes, B O

    1995-12-01

    1. Behaviour, production and welfare of ISA Brown medium hybrids were assessed in 2 trials (each from 20 to 44 weeks of age) of a novel design of cage for laying hens: the Edinburgh Modified Cage (EMC). 2. The EMC was 600 mm wide, 450 mm deep and 450 mm high at the rear; it had a softwood perch and at one side a 250 mm wide nest box (containing litter or artificial turf) with a dust bath directly above. It housed 4 birds and provided 675 cm2/bird in the main cage with an additional 281 cm2/bird in the nest box. The nest box and dust bath had automatically controlled doors which were closed at night. There were 18 EMC; in the first trial these were compared with 6 control cages with perch but without next box or dust bath. 3. Hens spent 32 to 37% of day time on the perch, 5 to 7% in the dust bath and 5 to 6% in the nest. At night 92 to 98% roosted on the perch. 4. Initially only 55 to 70% of eggs were laid in the nest box partly because some eggs were laid before dawn. Once the door was retimed to open 3h before lights-on the proportion rose to 91 to 96%. Very few eggs were laid in the dust bath. Pre-laying behaviour lasted longer in treatments with nest boxes (55 to 76min) than in control cages (48min); disturbance was slight in all treatments, but lowest in control cages. 5. Dust baths were well used, with on average 61% of hens dust bathing during a 3-h afternoon observation period compared with only 17% in control cages. Two birds could use the dust bath simultaneously. 6. It was concluded that although a number of minor design features still required attention the EMC has potential to reduce the disadvantages of conventional cages for welfare while retaining their advantages and has possible commercial application.

  15. Laboratory rodent welfare: thinking outside the cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcombe, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.

  16. Biofilm dynamics characterization using a novel DO-MEA sensor: mass transport and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimerà, Xavier; Moya, Ana; Dorado, Antonio David; Villa, Rosa; Gabriel, David; Gabriel, Gemma; Gamisans, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradation process modeling is an essential tool for the optimization of biotechnologies related to gaseous pollutant treatment. In these technologies, the predominant role of biofilm, particularly under conditions of no mass transfer limitations, results in a need to determine what processes are occurring within the same. By measuring the interior of the biofilms, an increased knowledge of mass transport and biodegradation processes may be attained. This information is useful in order to develop more reliable models that take biofilm heterogeneity into account. In this study, a new methodology, based on a novel dissolved oxygen (DO) and mass transport microelectronic array (MEA) sensor, is presented in order to characterize a biofilm. Utilizing the MEA sensor, designed to obtain DO and diffusivity profiles with a single measurement, it was possible to obtain distributions of oxygen diffusivity and biokinetic parameters along a biofilm grown in a flat plate bioreactor (FPB). The results obtained for oxygen diffusivity, estimated from oxygenation profiles and direct measurements, revealed that changes in its distribution were reduced when increasing the liquid flow rate. It was also possible to observe the effect of biofilm heterogeneity through biokinetic parameters, estimated using the DO profiles. Biokinetic parameters, including maximum specific growth rate, the Monod half-saturation coefficient of oxygen, and the maintenance coefficient for oxygen which showed a marked variation across the biofilm, suggest that a tool that considers the heterogeneity of biofilms is essential for the optimization of biotechnologies.

  17. ANALISIS TINGKAT KAPABILITAS SISTEM INFORMASI RUMAH SAKIT BERDASARKAN COBIT 5 (MEA01 PADA RSUD TUGUREJO SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Bagus Nugroho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RSUD Tugurejo Semarang merupakan Rumah Sakit kelas B milik pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Tengah yang menyediakan pelayanan jasa untuk masyarakat. Dalam manajemen pengolahan data, RSUD Tugurejo Semarang telah menggunakan sistem informasi rumah sakit. Untuk mengetahui apakah sistem informasi telah berjalan seperti yang diharapkan, maka perlu dilakukan analisis tatakelola teknologi informasi. Pada penelitian ini analisis tatakelola teknologi informasi berfokus pada proses pengawasan, evaluasi dan penilaian kinerja, dan kesesuaian kinerja teknologi informasi, yaitu domain MEA01 pada framework COBIT 5.Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui tingkat kapabilitas dan strategi perbaikan untuk proses pengawasan, evaluasi dan penilaian kinerja dan kesesuaian TI. Metode pengumpulan  data penelitian ini dengan menggunakan studi dokumen, kuesioner dan wawancara kemudian dianalisis tingkat kapabilitas dan kesenjangan. Tingkat kapabilitas yang didapat dari hasil penelitian yaitu berada level 2 (managed. Untuk menaikkan tingkat kapabilitas pada level 3 maka maka perlu dilakukan secara bertahap strategi perbaikan pada PA 2.1, PA2.2, PA 3.1, dan 3.2. Kata kunci: Analisis Tata Kelola TI, COBIT 5, MEA01, Tingkat Kapabilitas, Rumah Sakit.

  18. Fabrication of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell MEAs utilizing inkjet print technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Silas; Viswanathan, Vish; Holbery, James; Rieke, Peter

    Utilizing drop-on-demand technology, we have successfully fabricated hydrogen-air polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), demonstrated some of the processing advantages of this technology and have demonstrated that the performance is comparable to conventionally fabricated membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). Commercial desktop inkjet printers were used to deposit the active catalyst electrode layer directly from print cartridges onto Nafion ® polymer membranes in the hydrogen form. The layers were well-adhered and withstood simple tape peel, bending and abrasion tests and did so without any post-deposition hot press step. The elimination of this processing step suggests that inkjet-based fabrication or similar processing technologies may provide a route to less expensive large-scale fabrication of PEMFCs. When tested in our experimental apparatus, open circuit voltages up to 0.87 V and power densities of up to 155 mW cm -2 were obtained with a catalyst loading of 0.20 mg Pt cm -2. A commercially available membrane under identical, albeit not optimized test conditions, showed about 7% greater power density. The objective of this work was to demonstrate some of the processing advantages of drop-on-demand technology for fabrication of MEAs. It remains to be determined if inkjet fabrication offers performance advantages or leads to more efficient utilization of expensive catalyst materials.

  19. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    petroleum industry as it plugs the oil flow.12 Restric- tion of hydrate plug ... Interaction energy ( E) for cluster formation has been determined using .... Interaction energies are mentioned in table 2 for all three 1CH4@512 cage, 1CH4@512-methanol clus- ter and 1CH4@512-methanol-Na. + cluster systems. Formation of ...

  20. Resonance spectra of caged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that confined scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region x{sub m} ≡ (r{sub m} - r{sub +})/r{sub +} << τ ≡ (r{sub +} - r{sub -})/r{sub +} (here r{sub m} is the radius of the confining mirror and r{sub ±} are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled blackhole- field-cage system: ω{sub n} = -2πT{sub BH}.n [1 + O(x{sub m}{sup n}/τ{sup n})], where T{sub BH} is the temperature of the caged black hole and n = 1, 2, 3,.. is the resonance parameter. (orig.)

  1. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  2. High-throughput Transcriptome analysis, CAGE and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2008-11-25

    1. Current research - PhD work on discovery of new allergens - Postdoctoral work on Transcriptional Start Sites a) Tag based technologies allow higher throughput b) CAGE technology to define promoters c) CAGE data analysis to understand Transcription - Wo

  3. Power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The wind turbine is to be tied mechanically to the rotor of a squirrel cage induction which is fed with grid powerthat the generator supplies. ... Keywords: Wind Power systems, Self-excited squirrel cage induction generator, squirrel cage induction motor, backto- back converter, simulation ...

  4. Bacterial eggshell contamination in conventional cages, furnished cages and aviary housing systems for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, K; Grijspeerdt, K; Heyndrickx, M; Zoons, J; De Baere, K; Uyttendaele, M; Debevere, J; Herman, L

    2005-04-01

    The influence of housing system on the initial bacterial contamination of the eggshell was studied. Two long-term experiments were performed. Bacterial eggshell contamination, as expressed by total count of aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria, was periodically analysed for eggs from a conventional cage, a furnished cage with nest boxes containing artificial turf or grids as nest-floor material and an aviary housing system. Results were log-transformed prior to statistical analyses. For both experiments no systematic differences were found between the conventional cage and furnished cage. The type of nest-floor material in the nest boxes of the furnished cages also did not systematically influence the bacterial contamination. A possible seasonal influence on contamination with a decrease in the winter period (up to > 0.5 log cfu/eggshell) of total count of aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria was observed in the first experiment. The contamination with total aerobic flora was higher (more than 1.0 log) on eggs from the aviary housing system compared to the conventional and the furnished cage systems. For Gram-negative bacteria this was not the case. During the entire period of both experiments, independent of housing system, shell contamination was not influenced by age of hens or period since placing the birds in the houses. For the total count of aerobic bacteria a restricted positive correlation (r2 = 0.66) was found between the concentration of total bacteria in the air of the poultry houses and initial shell contamination.

  5. A new pilot absorber for CO2 capture from flue gases: Measuring and modelling capture with MEA solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Tim L.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2013-01-01

    A pilot absorber column for CO2 recovery from flue gases was constructed and tested with aqueous 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA), a primary amine, as capture solvent. The pilot plant data were compared with a mathematical rate based packed-column model. The simulation results compared well with the ......A pilot absorber column for CO2 recovery from flue gases was constructed and tested with aqueous 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA), a primary amine, as capture solvent. The pilot plant data were compared with a mathematical rate based packed-column model. The simulation results compared well...

  6. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation Scenarios of Mea Fah Luang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laingoen Onn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, quantity of the educational institutes building shared one fourth of commercial building. Among the energy consumption and conservation in the building in Thailand are mostly study in typical office and resident building. Mea Fah Luang University (MFU was selected to represent the educational institutes building where located in the northern part of Thailand. The average temperature in the northern is lower than other parts of Thailand. This study was firstly collected the data about quantity and behaviour of energy consumption in MFU based on the energy audit handbook. Although MFU is located in the northern of Thailand. The highest energy consumption is in the part of air condition. When the energy efficiency appliances and energy conservation building are implemented, the cost of energy will be saved around 15,867,960 Baht. Furthermore, the greenhouse gas emission is also reduced about 72.01 kg CO2, equivalent/m2/year.

  7. Proper Estimation of the Energy Consumption in A Carbon Dioxide-MEA Stripper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeddu, Claudio; Errico, Massimiliano; Baratti, Roberto

    In the field of CCS, the chemical absorption/desorption using amines represents one of the most easily implemented process for the reduction of the carbon dioxide generated by combustion plants. The high energy consumption in the solvent regeneration section represents the major concern for its...... fully industrial application. In the design of a carbon dioxide-MEA stripper, once the process targets are fixed, the estimation of the reboiler duty represents a crucial point for what concerns the quantification of the energy requirement. Furthermore, the vapor flow produced in the reboiler influences...... in simultaneous multicomponent material transfer, energy transfer and chemical reactions, is fundamental for an accurate design of the system. In this work the solvent regeneration section of a pilot-plant post-combustion CO2 capture facility was modeled using a rate-based approach, focusing on some key...

  8. Study on MEA preparation with CoTETA/C catalysts as ORR catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, T.; Zhang, H.J.; Jiang, Q.Z.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although carbon platinum is the most common cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and zinc-air fuel cells, platinum is rare and costly. As such, there is a need to substitute platinum with a new and inexpensive catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This paper presented a study in which a new non-platinum ORR catalysts was developed, notably the CoTETA/C. Although it demonstrated good performance, it had lower current density. Because of the conductivity and surface wetting properties of CoTETA/C, there was a poor contact between the catalyst layer and membrane of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared by the traditional method, which resulted in higher contact resistance and lower current density. The study showed that the performance of a single cell can be improved by adjusting the ratio of Nafion and catalyst in ink and adding a specified amount of additives to the ink. 1 ref.

  9. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godøl, Olav Rune

    2014-07-22

    Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.

  10. Social Isolation During Postweaning Development Causes Hypoactivity of Neurons in the Medial Nucleus of the Male Rat Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-06-01

    Children exposed to neglect or social deprivation are at heightened risk for psychiatric disorders and abnormal social patterns as adults. There is also evidence that prepubertal neglect in children causes abnormal metabolic activity in several brain regions, including the amygdala area. The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) is a key region for performance of social behaviors and still undergoes maturation during the periadolescent period. As such, the normal development of this region may be disrupted by social deprivation. In rodents, postweaning social isolation causes a range of deficits in sexual and agonistic behaviors that normally rely on the posterior MeA (MeAp). However, little is known about the effects of social isolation on the function of MeA neurons. In this study, we tested whether postweaning social isolation caused abnormal activity of MeA neurons. We found that postweaning social isolation caused a decrease of in vivo firing activity of MeAp neurons, and reduced drive from excitatory afferents. In vitro electrophysiological studies found that postweaning social isolation caused a presynaptic impairment of excitatory input to the dorsal MeAp, but a progressive postsynaptic reduction of membrane excitability in the ventral MeAp. These results demonstrate discrete, subnucleus-specific effects of social deprivation on the physiology of MeAp neurons. This pathophysiology may contribute to the disruption of social behavior after developmental social deprivation, and may be a novel target to facilitate the treatment of social disorders.

  11. Nicotine Modulates Multiple Regions in the Limbic Stress Network Regulating Activation of Hypophysiotrophic Neurons in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Sharp, Burt M.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine intake affects CNS responses to stressors. We reported that nicotine self-administration (SA) augmented the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response, in part due to altered neurotransmission and neuropeptide expression within hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Limbic-PVN interactions involving medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) greatly impact the HPA stress response. Therefore, we investigated the effects of nicotine SA on stress-induced neuronal activation in limbic-PVN network, using c-Fos protein immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing. Nicotine decreased stress-induced c-Fos in prelimbic cortex (PrL), anteroventral BST (avBST), and peri-PVN; but increased c-Fos induction in medial amygdala (MeA), locus coeruleus, and PVN. Fluoro-gold (FG) was injected into avBST or PVN, since GABAergic neurons in avBST projecting to PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons relay information from both PrL glutamatergic and MeA GABAergic neurons. The stress-induced c-Fos expression in retrograde-labeled FG+ neurons was decreased in PrL by nicotine, but increased in MeA, and also reduced in avBST. Therefore, within limbic-PVN network, nicotine SA exerts selective regional effects on neuronal activation by stress. These findings expand the mechanistic framework by demonstrating altered limbic-BST-PVN interactions underlying the disinhibition of PVN CRF neurons, an essential component of the amplified HPA response to stress by nicotine. PMID:22578217

  12. A Visible-Light-Sensitive Caged Serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, R.; Filevich, O; Garcia-Acosta, B; Athilingam, J; Bender, KJ; Poskanzer, KE; R. Etchenique

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Deficits in 5HT signaling are responsible for many disabling psychiatric conditions, and its molecular machinery is the target of many pharmaceuticals. We present a new 5HT phototrigger, the compound [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)]2+, where PMe3 is trimethylphosphine. As with other ruthenium-bipyridyl based caged compounds, [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)]2+ presents activity in t...

  13. Electron-beam reduction method for preparing electrocatalytic particles for membrane electrode assemblies (MEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yi-Hao; Huang, Hsin-Fu; Chang, Yu-Chen; Chou, Chih-Cheng; Shieu, Fuh-Sheng

    A new method, the electron-beam (e-beam) reduction method, is presented for fuel cell electrocatalytic particle preparation. The method utilizes the idea of reducing ions of the catalyst species right on the carbon cloth fibers and the multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWNTs) via direct electron-beam bombardment. The morphology of the electron-beam reduced catalyst particles is presented to show that the catalyst particles were dispersed in an equal and homogeneous manner within the MWNTs/carbon cloth electrode carriers, and imply that the electroactive surface area of the e-beam reduced catalysts should assume a larger value than those from currently reported methods. With the Pt (catalyst) loadings being controlled, data obtained from electrochemical and polarization tests show that the electrodes and membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) prepared from the e-beam reduction have larger active surface areas and better working performances than those prepared from the sputtering method; the quantitative results show good consistency with the qualitative morphology images.

  14. Development of Nafion/tin oxide composite MEA for DMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.; Mecheri, B.; D' Epifanio, A. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Traversa, E. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Licoccia, S.

    2010-10-15

    Nafion composite membranes containing either hydrated tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}. nH{sub 2}O) or sulphated tin oxide (S-SnO{sub 2}) at 5 and 10 wt.-% were prepared and characterised. The structural and electrochemical features of the samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, methanol crossover and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) tests. Highest conductivity values were obtained by using S-SnO{sub 2} as filler (0.094 S cm{sup -1} at T = 110 C and RH = 100%). The presence of the inorganic compound resulted in lower methanol crossover and improved DMFC performance with respect to a reference unfilled membrane. To improve the interface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), a layer of the composite electrolyte (i.e. the Nafion membrane containing 5 wt.-% S-SnO{sub 2}) was brushed on the electrodes, obtaining a DMFC operating at 110 C with a power density (PD) of 100 mW cm{sup -2} which corresponds to a PD improvement of 52% with respect to the unfilled Nafion membrane. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Experimental characterization and modeling of commercial polybenzimidazole-based MEA performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Anders; Refshauge, R. H.; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    High temperature polymer fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI) operated at 100-200 °C are currently receiving much attention in relation to fuel cell reforming systems due to two main reasons. At first they have proven to have excellent resistance to high CO concentrations, which...... are currently published to enable good system design and modeling. In this paper the influence of operation on synthesis gas and the variation of the cathode stoichiometry are investigated based on a generic commercial membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The CO content in the anode gas was varied from 0 to 5......%, with CO2 contents ranging from 25 to 20% at temperatures ranging from 160 to 200 °C. The influence of the cathode stoichiometry was investigated in the interval of 2-5 at temperatures from 120 to 180 °C with pure hydrogen on the anode. A novel semi empirical model of the fuel cell voltage versus current...

  16. Data Curation for the Exploitation of Large Earth Observation Products Databases - The MEA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Simone; Natali, Stefano; Barboni, Damiano; Cavicchi, Mario; Della Vecchia, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    National Space Agencies under the umbrella of the European Space Agency are performing a strong activity to handle and provide solutions to Big Data and related knowledge (metadata, software tools and services) management and exploitation. The continuously increasing amount of long-term and of historic data in EO facilities in the form of online datasets and archives, the incoming satellite observation platforms that will generate an impressive amount of new data and the new EU approach on the data distribution policy make necessary to address technologies for the long-term management of these data sets, including their consolidation, preservation, distribution, continuation and curation across multiple missions. The management of long EO data time series of continuing or historic missions - with more than 20 years of data available already today - requires technical solutions and technologies which differ considerably from the ones exploited by existing systems. Several tools, both open source and commercial, are already providing technologies to handle data and metadata preparation, access and visualization via OGC standard interfaces. This study aims at describing the Multi-sensor Evolution Analysis (MEA) system and the Data Curation concept as approached and implemented within the ASIM and EarthServer projects, funded by the European Space Agency and the European Commission, respectively.

  17. MultiElec: A MATLAB Based Application for MEA Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Vassilis; Stephanou, Anastasis; Townsend, Paul A; Jackson, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    We present MultiElec, an open source MATLAB based application for data analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. MultiElec displays an extremely user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) that allows the simultaneous display and analysis of voltage traces for 60 electrodes and includes functions for activation-time determination, the production of activation-time heat maps with activation time and isoline display. Furthermore, local conduction velocities are semi-automatically calculated along with their corresponding vector plots. MultiElec allows ad hoc signal suppression, enabling the user to easily and efficiently handle signal artefacts and for incomplete data sets to be analysed. Voltage traces and heat maps can be simply exported for figure production and presentation. In addition, our platform is able to produce 3D videos of signal progression over all 60 electrodes. Functions are controlled entirely by a single GUI with no need for command line input or any understanding of MATLAB code. MultiElec is open source under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, version 3. Both the program and source code are available to download from http://www.cancer.manchester.ac.uk/MultiElec/.

  18. Temperature control of a PEM fuel cell test bench for experimental MEA assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, J.J.; Puleston, P.F.; Kunusch, C. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia, N 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Visintin, A. [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia, N 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisico-Quimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64 s/n, 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents the design, implementation and testing of a temperature control for a laboratory PEM fuel cell stack work bench intended for evaluation of experimental MEAs. The controller design is based on a thermal model of the fuel cell stack developed by the authors. The model is extended to the complete temperature range by considering a nonlinear description of the heating resistances. Its parameters are experimentally adjusted and its accuracy is validated in all the temperature operating range. Then, the temperature control is developed, using a proportional-integral structure with anti-windup features. It is implemented in a PC connected to an ad-hoc equipment of acquisition and control, that drives distributed cycles actuators to energize two heating resistances. The controller proved to be capable of regulating the stack temperature in a wide operating range, while eliminating the ripple typical of ON-OFF actuators. Finally, experimental results of closed loop operation are presented, demonstrating the good performance of the proposed control set up and thermal model. (author)

  19. Bulletproof Love : Luke Cage (2016 and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to think about religion and popular culture. One method is to ask where and when we see what might be commonly understood as “religious tradition(s” explicitly on display. Another is to think about superhero narratives themselves as “religious”, using this term as a conceptual tool for categorizing and thereby better understanding particular dimensions of human experience. This article takes a variety of approaches to understanding religion in relation to the recent television series LUKE CAGE (Netflix, US 2016. These approaches take their hermeneutical cues from a range of disciplines, including studies of the Bible; Hip Hop; gender; Black Theology; African American religion; and philosophy. The results of this analysis highlight the polysemic nature of popular culture in general, and of superhero stories in particular. Like religious traditions themselves, the show is complex and contradictory: it is both progressive and reactionary; emphasizes community and valorizes an individual; critiques and endorses Christianity; subverts and promotes violence. Depending on the questions asked, LUKE CAGE (2016 provides a range of very different answers.

  20. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  1. Hybrid uranyl-carboxyphosphonate cage clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelani, Pius O; Ozga, Michael; Wallace, Christine M; Qiu, Jie; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Sigmon, Ginger E; Burns, Peter C

    2013-07-01

    Two new hybrid uranyl-carboxyphosphonate cage clusters built from uranyl peroxide units were crystallized from aqueous solution under ambient conditions in approximately two months. The clusters are built from uranyl hexagonal bipyramids and are connected by employing a secondary metal linker, the 2-carboxyphenylphosphonate ligand. The structure of cluster A is composed of a ten-membered uranyl polyhedral belt that is capped on either end of an elongated cage by five-membered rings of uranyl polyhedra. The structure of cluster B consists of 24 uranyl cations that are arranged into 6 four-membered rings of uranyl polyhedra. Four of the corresponding topological squares are fused together to form a sixteen-membered double uranyl pseudobelt that is capped on either end by 2 topological squares. Cluster A crystallizes over a wide pH range of 4.6-6.8, while cluster B was isolated under narrower pH range of 6.9-7.8. Studies of their fate in aqueous solution upon dissolution of crystals by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provide evidence for their persistence in solution. The well-established characteristic fingerprint from the absorption spectra of the uranium(VI) cations disappears and becomes a nearly featureless peak; nonetheless, the two compounds fluoresce at room temperature.

  2. Cardiomyocyte MEA data analysis (CardioMDA)--a novel field potential data analysis software for pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhapan, Paruthi; Kuusela, Jukka; Viik, Jari; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Hyttinen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac safety pharmacology requires in-vitro testing of all drug candidates before clinical trials in order to ensure they are screened for cardio-toxic effects which may result in severe arrhythmias. Micro-electrode arrays (MEA) serve as a complement to current in-vitro methods for drug safety testing. However, MEA recordings produce huge volumes of data and manual analysis forms a bottleneck for high-throughput screening. To overcome this issue, we have developed an offline, semi-automatic data analysis software, 'Cardiomyocyte MEA Data Analysis (CardioMDA)', equipped with correlation analysis and ensemble averaging techniques to improve the accuracy, reliability and throughput rate of analysing human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocyte (CM) field potentials. With the program, true field potential and arrhythmogenic complexes can be distinguished from one another. The averaged field potential complexes, analysed using our software to determine the field potential duration, were compared with the analogous values obtained from manual analysis. The reliability of the correlation analysis algorithm, evaluated using various arrhythmogenic and morphology changing signals, revealed a mean sensitivity and specificity of 99.27% and 94.49% respectively, in determining true field potential complexes. The field potential duration of the averaged waveforms corresponded well to the manually analysed data, thus demonstrating the reliability of the software. The software has also the capability to create overlay plots for signals recorded under different drug concentrations in order to visualize and compare the magnitude of response on different ion channels as a result of drug treatment. Our novel field potential analysis platform will facilitate the analysis of CM MEA signals in semi-automated way and provide a reliable means of efficient and swift analysis for cardiomyocyte drug or disease model studies.

  3. Approach to Managing MeaSURES Data at the GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steven J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2009-01-01

    A major need stated by the NASA Earth science research strategy is to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. (NASA Solicitation for Making Earth System data records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) 2006-2010) Selected projects create long term records of a given parameter, called Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), based on mature algorithms that bring together continuous multi-sensor data. ESDRs, associated algorithms, vetted by the appropriate community, are archived at a NASA affiliated data center for archive, stewardship, and distribution. See http://measures-projects.gsfc.nasa.gov/ for more details. This presentation describes the NASA GSFC Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) approach to managing the MEaSUREs ESDR datasets assigned to GES DISC. (Energy/water cycle related and atmospheric composition ESDRs) GES DISC will utilize its experience to integrate existing and proven reusable data management components to accommodate the new ESDRs. Components include a data archive system (S4PA), a data discovery and access system (Mirador), and various web services for data access. In addition, if determined to be useful to the user community, the Giovanni data exploration tool will be made available to ESDRs. The GES DISC data integration methodology to be used for the MEaSUREs datasets is presented. The goals of this presentation are to share an approach to ESDR integration, and initiate discussions amongst the data centers, data managers and data providers for the purpose of gaining efficiencies in data management for MEaSUREs projects.

  4. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  5. Direct methanol fuel cells: The effect of electrode fabrication procedure on MEAs structural properties and cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S. Q.; Liang, Z. X.; Zhou, W. J.; Sun, G. Q.; Xin, Q.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Tsiakaras, P.

    In the present paper, the effect of electrode preparation procedure on the structural properties of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and consequently on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) was investigated. Commercial PtRu black anode catalyst and Pt black cathode catalyst were characterized by XRD in their initial form and in their intermediate and final states after each step involved in catalyst-coated membrane electrode preparation procedure by a decal transfer method (DTM). XRD results demonstrated that the DTM process has a significant effect on the catalyst structural properties, especially on the particle size of Pt black cathode catalyst. It is also discussed that among all the steps involved in the electrode fabrication procedure, catalyst ink preparation and high temperature transfer process are key factors affecting the particle size of Pt black catalyst. Furthermore, it was found that the maximum power density of the single DMFC using a MEA fabricated by the DTM, when air is used as oxidant, is more than two times greater than that of the cell using conventionally prepared MEA, and more than three times greater when pure oxygen is used as oxidant. This could be attributed to the easier mass transportation due to the thinner catalyst layer and the better contact between the catalyst layer and the electrolyte membrane in the former case, even if, according to in situ CO stripping voltammetry results in the fuel cell anode environment, the surface composition of PtRu anode has been changed.

  6. Novel caged clusters of silicon: Fullerenes, Frank–Kasper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We review recent findings of metal (M) encapsulated caged clusters of Si and Ge obtained from computer experiments based on an ab initio pseudopotential method. It is shown that one M atom changes drastically the properties of Si and Ge clusters and that depending upon the size of the M atom, cages of 14,.

  7. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A [Raymore, MO

    2012-06-05

    Polymers comprising residues of borane and/or carborane cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Methods of making and applications for using such polymers are also disclosed.

  8. A New Vertebral Body Replacement Strategy Using Expandable Polymeric Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Paulsen, Alex; Giambini, Hugo; Guo, Ji; Miller, A Lee; Lin, Po-Chun; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel polymeric expandable cage that can be delivered via a posterior-only surgical approach for the treatment of noncontained vertebral defects. This approach is less invasive than an anterior-only or combined approach and much more cost-effective than currently used expandable metal cages. The polymeric expandable cage is composed of oligo poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF), a hydrogel that has been previously shown to have excellent nerve and bone tissue biocompatibility. OPF hydrogel cages can expand to twice their original diameter and length within a surgical time frame following hydration. Modulation of parameters such as polymeric network crosslink density or the introduction of charge to the network allowed for precise expansion kinetics. To meet specific requirements due to size variations in patient vertebral bodies, we fabricated a series of molds with varied diameters and explored the expansion kinetics of the OPF cages. Results showed a stable expansion ratio of approximately twofold to the original size within 20 min, regardless of the absolute value of the cage size. Following implantation of a dried OPF cage into a noncontained vertebral defect and its in situ expansion with normal saline, other augmentation biomaterials, such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), can be injected to the lumen of the OPF cage and allowed to crosslink in situ. The OPF/PPF composite scaffold can provide the necessary rigidity and stability to the augmented spine.

  9. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CD ROM that contains the H-4/H-8 CAGE master file issued by DLIS (Their address is: Customer Service... assignments to DLIS Customer Service: toll-free (888) 227-2423 or (888) 352-9333; DSN 932-4725; or commercial....39-M, Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual, prescribe use of CAGE codes. (b...

  10. Influence of Clarias gariepinus (Teugels) cage cultures on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality, periphyton and phytoplankton growing as a function Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cage cultures have rarely been investigated. Physical and chemical factors associated with cage culture of Clarias gariepinus in relation to phytoplankton and periphyton were examined fortnightly from May to June 2009 ...

  11. Object grasping by combining caging and force closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Q.; Wisse, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current research trends of object grasping can be summarized as caging grasping and force closure grasping. The motivation of this paper is to combine the advantage of caging grasping and force closure grasping to enable under-actuated grippers like the Lacquey gripper and the parallel

  12. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  13. Generation of Multicomponent Molecular Cages using Simultaneous Dynamic Covalent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Wojciech; Bouillon, Camille; Kotras, Clément; Richeter, Sébastien; Barboiu, Mihail; Clément, Sébastien; Stefankiewicz, Artur R; Ulrich, Sébastien

    2017-12-19

    Cage compounds are very attractive structures for a wide range of applications and there is ongoing interest in finding effective ways to access such kinds of complex structures, particularly those possessing dynamic adaptive features. Here we report the accessible synthesis of new type of organic cage architectures, possessing two different dynamic bonds within one structure: hydrazones and disulfides. Implementation of three distinct functional groups (thiols, aldehydes and hydrazides) in the structure of two simple building blocks resulted in their spontaneous and selective self-assembly into aromatic cage-type architectures. These organic cages contain up to ten components linked together by twelve reversible covalent bonds. The advantage provided by the presented approach is that these cage structures can adaptively self-sort from a complex virtual mixture of polymers or macrocycles and that dynamic covalent chemistry enables their deliberate disassembly through controlled component exchange. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Entropic cages for trapping DNA near a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Skanata, Mirna Mihovilovic; Stein, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Nanopores can probe the structure of biopolymers in solution; however, diffusion makes it difficult to study the same molecule for extended periods. Here we report devices that entropically trap single DNA molecules in a 6.2-femtolitre cage near a solid-state nanopore. We electrophoretically inject DNA molecules into the cage through the nanopore, pause for preset times and then drive the DNA back out through the nanopore. The saturating recapture time and high recapture probability after long pauses, their agreement with a convection-diffusion model and the observation of trapped DNA under fluorescence microscopy all confirm that the cage stably traps DNA. Meanwhile, the cages have 200 nm openings that make them permeable to small molecules, like the restriction endonuclease we use to sequence-specifically cut trapped DNA into fragments whose number and sizes are analysed upon exiting through the nanopore. Entropic cages thus serve as reactors for chemically modifying single DNA molecules.

  15. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  16. Photocatalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolite cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Oxidation of hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen is a key process in chemical industry. But reactions that use O{sub 2} as the primary oxidant often produce large amounts of unwanted byproducts. One major reason that selectivities are low is that the desired products (such as alcohols or carbonyls) are more easily oxidized by O{sub 2} than the parent hydrocarbon. The authors recently discovered a simple method that gives partial oxidation of small alkenes, alkanes, and alkyl-substituted benzenes by O{sub 2} at unprecedented selectivity, even at high conversion of the hydrocarbon. The approach is based on visible light-induced chemistry of hydrocarbon-O{sub 2} collisional pairs in the cages of large-pore zeolites. Reactions are conducted at ambient temperature in the absence of solvent or photosensitizer. Here the authors describe the most interesting reactions established thus far and define issues that pertain to scale-up of the method.

  17. Transcription regulatory networks analysis using CAGE

    KAUST Repository

    Tegnér, Jesper N.

    2009-10-01

    Mapping out cellular networks in general and transcriptional networks in particular has proved to be a bottle-neck hampering our understanding of biological processes. Integrative approaches fusing computational and experimental technologies for decoding transcriptional networks at a high level of resolution is therefore of uttermost importance. Yet, this is challenging since the control of gene expression in eukaryotes is a complex multi-level process influenced by several epigenetic factors and the fine interplay between regulatory proteins and the promoter structure governing the combinatorial regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we review how the CAGE data can be integrated with other measurements such as expression, physical interactions and computational prediction of regulatory motifs, which together can provide a genome-wide picture of eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks at a new level of resolution. © 2010 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...... out in the cage and tended to be more often on the platform compared to in the upper cage. It is concluded that the climbing cage worked well for females with kits and that the upper cage can offer a refuge for females when kits get older....

  19. Microelectrode array-induced neuronal alignment directs neurite outgrowth: analysis using a fast Fourier transform (FFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radotić, Viktorija; Braeken, Dries; Kovačić, Damir

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have shown that the topography of the substrate on which neurons are cultured can promote neuronal adhesion and guide neurite outgrowth in the same direction as the underlying topography. To investigate this effect, isotropic substrate-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips were used as one example of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for directing neurite growth of spiral ganglion neurons. Neurons were isolated from 5 to 7-day-old rat pups, cultured 1 day in vitro (DIV) and 4 DIV, and then fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. For analysis of neurite alignment and orientation, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) was used. Results revealed that on the micro-patterned surface of a CMOS chip, neurons orient their neurites along three directional axes at 30, 90, and 150° and that neurites aligned in straight lines between adjacent pillars and mostly followed a single direction while occasionally branching perpendicularly. We conclude that the CMOS substrate guides neurites towards electrodes by means of their structured pillar organization and can produce electrical stimulation of aligned neurons as well as monitoring their neural activities once neurites are in the vicinity of electrodes. These findings are of particular interest for neural tissue engineering with the ultimate goal of developing a new generation of MEA essential for improved electrical stimulation of auditory neurons.

  20. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  1. Outcomes of interbody fusion cages used in 1 and 2-levels anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: titanium cages versus polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Chien; Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Wen-Jer; Chen, Lih-Huei

    2010-07-01

    A prospective study was performed in case with cervical spondylosis who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with titanium or polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. To find out which fusion cage yielded better clinical and radiographic results. Although use of autogenous iliac-bone grafts in ACDF for cervical disc diseases remain standard surgical procedure, donor site morbidity and graft collapse or breakage are concerns. Cage technology was developed to prevent these complications. However, there is no comparison regarding the efficacy between titanium and PEEK cage. January 2005 to January 2006, 53 patients who had 1 and 2-levels ACDF with titanium or PEEK cages were evaluated. We measured the rate and amount of interspace collapse, segmental sagittal angulations, and the radiographic fusion success rate. Odom criteria were used to assess the clinical results. The fusion rate was higher in the PEEK group (100% vs. 86.5%, P=0.0335). There was no significant difference between both groups in loss of cervical lordosis (3.2 + or - 2.4 vs. 2.8 + or - 3.4, P=0.166). The mean anterior interspace collapse (1.6 + or - 1.0 mm) in the titanium group was significantly higher than the collapse of the PEEK group (0.5 + or - 0.6 mm) (PPEEK group (PPEEK group achieved an 80% rate of successful clinical outcomes, compared with 75% in the titanium group (P=0.6642). The PEEK cage is superior to the titanium cage in maintaining cervical interspace height and radiographic fusion after 1 and 2-levels anterior cervical decompression procedures.

  2. Noisy Neurons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Nerves are fibres that conduct electrical signals and hence pass on information from and to the brain. Nerves are made of nerve cells called neurons (Figure 1). Instructions in our body are sent via electrical signals that present themselves as variations in the potential across neuronal membranes. These potential differences ...

  3. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...

  4. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  5. Simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S using MEA solution in a packed column absorber for biogas upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Kasikamphaiboon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production and utilization is an emerging alternative energy technology that has gained importance since the price of oil and gas has increased steadily over the last two decades. Biogas primarily consists of methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 with smaller amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and ammonia (NH3. For many applications the quality of biogas has to be improved. The main parameters that may require removal in upgrading systems are CO2 and H2S. This work presents the study of simultaneous absorption of CO2 and H2S by Monoethanolamine (MEA solution in a packed column. Simulated biogas containing 40% CO2 and 60% N2 and biogas generated from an anaerobic digestion plant were used as feed gas streams. The effects of gas flow rate, L/G ratio and absorbent concentration were investigated. The performance of the system was found to vary with process parameters. Increasing L/G ratio and MEA concentration causes the system efficiency to increase whereas increasing gas flow rate results in lower efficiency. An operating condition of L/G ratio of 83.3 ml/L, gas flow rate of 3 L/min and MEA concentration of 3 mol/L was found to remove more than 99.5% of CO2 and H2S from biogas. The volumetric overall mass-transfer coefficient (KGav for CO2 removal initially increases with increasing gas flow rate up to a certain value beyond which the coefficient becomes essentially constant. The KGav also increases with increasing L/G ratio throughout the range tested in this study.

  6. Pendidikan Islam Menuju Masyarakat Madani di Era Globalisasi (Suatu Ikhtiar Menghadapi Tantangan Masyarakat Ekonomi Asean/MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Nursalim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is a human effort to buil his personality based on community values and culture. Even the simplest community has education process. Islam education concept building and increasing human quality and moeslim community in globalization era refer to Al-Quran and As-sunnah as the true resources. So that, Islam education should be able to deliver human as madani community whose has hard skill and soft skill packaged by Islamic values that ready to face all the chllanges in ASEAN Econimic community (MEA with strategic steps to actualize relevant islam identity in every era.

  7. Dynamic simulation and analysis of a pilot-scale CO2 post-combustion capture unit using piperazine and MEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    Post-combustion capture is a promising technology-for developing CO2 neutral power plants. However, to make it economically and technically feasible, capture plants must follow the fast and large load changes of the power plants without decreasing the overall performance of the plant. Dynamic......'s temperature reduces using PZ solvent. Thus, we demonstrate that the dynamics of the MEA system cannot be extrapolated to other solvents. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting, by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. NeuroMap: A spline-based interactive open-source software for spatiotemporal mapping of 2D and 3D MEA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama eAbdoun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major characteristic of neural networks is the complexity of their organization at various spatial scales, from microscopic local circuits to macroscopic brain-scale areas. Understanding how neural information is processed thus entails the ability to study them at multiple scales simultaneously. This is made possible using microelectrodes array (MEA technology. Indeed, high-density MEAs provide large-scale covering (several mm² of whole neural structures combined with microscopic resolution (about 50µm of unit activity. Yet, current options for spatiotemporal representation of MEA-collected data remain limited. Here we present NeuroMap, a new interactive Matlab-based software for spatiotemporal mapping of MEA data. NeuroMap uses thin plate spline interpolation, which provides several assets with respect to conventional mapping methods used currently. First, any MEA design can be considered, including 2D or 3D, regular or irregular, arrangements of electrodes. Second, spline interpolation allows the estimation of activity across the tissue with local extrema not necessarily at recording sites. Finally, this interpolation approach provides a straightforward analytical estimation of the spatial Laplacian for better current sources localization. In this software, coregistration of 2D MEA data on the anatomy of the neural tissue is made possible by fine matching of anatomical data with electrode positions using rigid deformation based correction of anatomical pictures. Overall, NeuroMap provides substantial material for detailed spatiotemporal analysis of MEA data. The package is distributed under GNU General Public License (GPL and available at http://sites.google.com/site/neuromapsoftware.

  9. Microfabricated device for co-culture of sympathetic neuron and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akimasa; Shimba, Kenta; Takayama, Yuzo; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Noshiro, Makoto; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) has been expected as a cell source for therapy of serious heart failure. However, it is unclear whether the function of iPS-CMs is modulated by the host sympathetic nervous system. Here we developed a device for co-culture of sympathetic neurons and iPS-CMs using microfabrication technique. The device consisted of a culture chamber and a microelectrode-array (MEA) substrate. The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons were co-cultured with iPS-CMs in a microfabricated device, which had multiple compartments. Several days after seeding, synapses were formed between SCG neurons and iPS-CMs, as confirmed by immunostaining. Spontaneous electrical activities of the SCG neurons and the iPS-CMs were observed from the electrode of the MEA substrate. The beat rate of iPS-CMs increased after electrical stimulation of the co-cultured SCG neurons. Such changes in the beat rate were prevented in the presence of propranolol, a β-adrenoreceptor antagonist. These results suggest that the microfabricated device will be utilized for studying the functional modulation of iPS-CMs by connected sympathetic neurons.

  10. Biomechanics of Nested Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; de Tranaltes, Kaylee; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Reyes, Phillip M; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Tumialán, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Arthrodesis is optimized when the structural graft occupies most of the surface area within a disc space. The transforaminal corridor inherently limits interbody size. To evaluate the biomechanical implications of nested interbody spacers (ie, a second curved cage placed behind a first) to increase disc space coverage in transforaminal approaches. Seven lumbar human cadaveric specimens (L3-S1) underwent nondestructive flexibility and axial compression testing intact and after transforaminal instrumentation at L4-L5. Specimens were tested in 5 conditions: (1) intact, (2) interbody, (3) interbody plus bilateral pedicle screws and rods (PSR), (4) 2 nested interbodies, and (5) 2 nested interbodies plus PSR. Mean range of motion (ROM) with 1 interbody vs 2 nested interbodies, respectively, was: flexion, 101% vs 85%; extension, 97% vs 92%; lateral bending, 127% vs 132%; and axial rotation, 145% vs 154%. One interbody and 2 nested interbodies did not differ significantly by loading mode (P > .10). With PSR, ROM decreased significantly compared with intact, but not between interbody and interbody plus PSR or 2 interbodies plus PSR (P > .80). Mean vertical height during compressive loading (ie, axial compressive stiffness) was significantly different with 2 nested interbodies vs 1 interbody alone (P < .001) (compressive stiffness, 89% of intact vs 67% of intact, respectively). Inserting a second interbody using a transforaminal approach is anatomically feasible and nearly doubles the disc space covered without affecting ROM. Compressive stiffness significantly increased with 2 nested interbodies, and foraminal height increased. Evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of nested interbodies is underway.

  11. Linear diffusion into a Faraday cage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lin, Yau Tang; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2011-11-01

    Linear lightning diffusion into a Faraday cage is studied. An early-time integral valid for large ratios of enclosure size to enclosure thickness and small relative permeability ({mu}/{mu}{sub 0} {le} 10) is used for this study. Existing solutions for nearby lightning impulse responses of electrically thick-wall enclosures are refined and extended to calculate the nearby lightning magnetic field (H) and time-derivative magnetic field (HDOT) inside enclosures of varying thickness caused by a decaying exponential excitation. For a direct strike scenario, the early-time integral for a worst-case line source outside the enclosure caused by an impulse is simplified and numerically integrated to give the interior H and HDOT at the location closest to the source as well as a function of distance from the source. H and HDOT enclosure response functions for decaying exponentials are considered for an enclosure wall of any thickness. Simple formulas are derived to provide a description of enclosure interior H and HDOT as well. Direct strike voltage and current bounds for a single-turn optimally-coupled loop for all three waveforms are also given.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in native and caged mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, M T; Coradeghini, R; Valerio, F

    2001-10-01

    During 1999, a biological monitoring study was conducted at four sites along the Ligurian coast (Cornigliano, Voltri, Vado Ligure and Sanremo). At each site the concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in native and caged mussels. The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), sampled in the Spring and the Autumn, showed different accumulation patterns according to the source of pollution they were exposed to. The PAH concentrations were higher in the native than in the caged mussels. The coastal sites were classified according to PAH concentrations found in mussel tissue samples: Native mussels: Vado Ligure San-remo San-remo < Cornigliano. The different classification is explained by the different location of the organisms: native mussels were located near the air-water interface, while caged mussels were situated at -3 m from the water surface. The PAH concentrations in the native and caged mussels showed a similar seasonal variability, and can provide the same information about the sources of PAHs.

  13. Fish cage culture catches on in Nepal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    making has been strengthened. Women take part alongside the men in all activities, from cleaning and repairing the fish cages to participating in meetings of farmers'' associations, attending workshops, and marketing the catch.

  14. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  15. CubeSat Attitude Determination and Helmholtz Cage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Effects of Electrical and Ferromagnetic Objects . . . . . . . . 57 4.1.2 Room Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.2...the theory and knowledge that was incorporated into the design of the cage and the implementation of the attitude determination algorithm in this...example of a 3U CubeSat. Control for Delfi-C3 is composed of hysteresis rods which were tested via a Helmholtz cage similar to the one described in this

  16. Musica come divenire. Il paesaggio sonoro secondo John cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Aste

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available John Cage ha dedicato tutta la sua vita all’indagine delle possibilità di relazione dell’uomo con i suoni che lo circondano, allargando il campo dell’arte musicale a quello dell’etica e dell’ecologia. Cage non si è occupato di soundscape come un genere compositivo specifico, come forse oggi potremmo identificarlo, tuttavia l’ambiente occupa un ruolo centrale in relazione al suo modo di comporre.

  17. Nitrogen Rings and Cages Stabilized by Metallic Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-18

    1 UNIVERSIDAD DE GUANAJUATO DEPARTAMENTO DE QUIMICA DIVISION DE CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS Dr. Gabriel Merino NORIA ALTA s/n...CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS Principal Investigator: Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química Universidad de Guanajuato Noria Alta...Final Report 1 Sep 06-31 Aug 09 NITROGEN RINGS AND CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS FA9550-06-1-0555 Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química

  18. Integrated microfluidic platforms for investigating neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Joon

    This dissertation describes the development and application of integrated microfluidics-based assay platforms to study neuronal activities in the nervous system in-vitro. The assay platforms were fabricated using soft lithography and micro/nano fabrication including microfluidics, surface patterning, and nanomaterial synthesis. The use of integrated microfluidics-based assay platform allows culturing and manipulating many types of neuronal tissues in precisely controlled microenvironment. Furthermore, they provide organized multi-cellular in-vitro model, long-term monitoring with live cell imaging, and compatibility with molecular biology techniques and electrophysiology experiment. In this dissertation, the integrated microfluidics-based assay platforms are developed for investigation of neuronal activities such as local protein synthesis, impairment of axonal transport by chemical/physical variants, growth cone path finding under chemical/physical cues, and synaptic transmission in neuronal circuit. Chapter 1 describes the motivation, objectives, and scope for developing in-vitro platform to study various neuronal activities. Chapter 2 introduces microfluidic culture platform for biochemical assay with large-scale neuronal tissues that are utilized as model system in neuroscience research. Chapter 3 focuses on the investigation of impaired axonal transport by beta-Amyloid and oxidative stress. The platform allows to control neuronal processes and to quantify mitochondrial movement in various regions of axons away from applied drugs. Chapter 4 demonstrates the development of microfluidics-based growth cone turning assay to elucidate the mechanism underlying axon guidance under soluble factors and shear flow. Using this platform, the behaviors of growth cone of mammalian neurons are verified under the gradient of inhibitory molecules and also shear flow in well-controlled manner. In Chapter 5, I combine in-vitro multicellular model with microfabricated MEA

  19. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Caged Protein Prenyltransferase Substrates: Tools for Understanding Protein Prenylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGraw, Amanda J.; Hast, Michael A.; Xu, Juhua; Mullen, Daniel; Beese, Lorena S.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D. (Duke); (UMM)

    2010-11-15

    Originally designed to block the prenylation of oncogenic Ras, inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase currently in preclinical and clinical trials are showing efficacy in cancers with normal Ras. Blocking protein prenylation has also shown promise in the treatment of malaria, Chagas disease and progeria syndrome. A better understanding of the mechanism, targets and in vivo consequences of protein prenylation are needed to elucidate the mode of action of current PFTase (Protein Farnesyltransferase) inhibitors and to create more potent and selective compounds. Caged enzyme substrates are useful tools for understanding enzyme mechanism and biological function. Reported here is the synthesis and characterization of caged substrates of PFTase. The caged isoprenoid diphosphates are poor substrates prior to photolysis. The caged CAAX peptide is a true catalytically caged substrate of PFTase in that it is to not a substrate, yet is able to bind to the enzyme as established by inhibition studies and X-ray crystallography. Irradiation of the caged molecules with 350 nm light readily releases their cognate substrate and their photolysis products are benign. These properties highlight the utility of those analogs towards a variety of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  1. Enhanced MEA Performance for PEMFCs under Low Relative Humidity and Low Oxygen Content Conditions via Catalyst Functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Le; Yang, Fan; Xie, Jian; Yang, Zhiwei; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Myers, Deborah J.; Peng, Jui-Kun; Wang, Xiaohua; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Yu, Kang; Ferreira, Paulo J.; Bonastre, Alex Martinez; Fongalland, Dash; Sharman, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates that functionalizing annealed-Pt/Ketjen black EC300j (a-Pt/KB) and dealloyed-PtNi/Ketjen black EC300j (d-PtNi/KB) catalysts using p-phenyl sulfonic acid can effectively enhance performance in the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The functionalization increased the size of both Pt and PtNi catalyst particles and resulted in the further leaching of Ni from the PtNi catalyst while promoting the formation of nanoporous PtNi nanoparticles. The size of the SO3H-Pt/KB and SO3H-PtNi/KB carbon-based aggregates decreased dramatically, leading to the formation of catalyst layers with narrower pore size distributions.MEA tests highlighted the benefits of the surface functionalization, in which the cells with SO3H-Pt/KB and SO3H-PtNi/KB cathode catalysts showed superior high current density performance under reduced RH conditions, in comparison with cells containing annealed Pt/KB (a-Pt/KB) and de-alloyed PtNi/KB (d-PtNi/KB) catalysts. The performance improvement was particularly evident when using reactant gases with low relative humidity, indicating that the hydrophilic functional groups on the carbon improved the water retention in the cathode catalyst layer. These results show a new avenue for enhancing catalyst performance for the next generation of catalytic materials for PEMFCs.

  2. CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 CAGE peaks Data detail Data name CAGE peaks DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-002.V002 Ve... of data contents Data about CAGE peak regions and RNA transcriptional initiation activities measured by CAG...E Data file File name: CAGE_peaks File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fa...ntom5/datafiles/LATEST/extra/CAGE_peaks/ File size: 4.1 GB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method - Dat...a analysis method CAGE DPI (Decomposition-based peak identification) Number of data entries 28 files - About

  3. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  4. Pore space partition and charge separation in cage-within-cage indium-organic frameworks with high CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Bu, Julia T; Li, Yufei; Wu, Tao; Zuo, Fan; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2010-12-08

    The integration of negatively charged single-metal building blocks {In(CO2)4} and positively charged trimeric clusters {In3O} leads to three unique cage-within-cage-based porous materials, which exhibit not only high hydrothermal, thermal, and photochemical stability but also attractive structural features contributing to a very high CO2 uptake capacity of up to 119.8 L/L at 273 K and 1 atm.

  5. CO2 absorption into aqueous amine blended solutions containing monoethanolamine (MEA), N,N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEEA) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) for post-combustion capture processes

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, William; Bruggink, Stefan; Beyad, Yaser; Luo, Weiliang; Melián-Cabrera, Ignacio; Puxty, Graeme; Feron, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Presently monoethanolamine (MEA) remains the industrial standard solvent for CO2 capture processes. Operating issues relating to corrosion and degradation of MEA at high temperatures and concentrations, and in the presence of oxygen, in a traditional PCC process, have introduced the requisite for higher quality and costly stainless steels in the construction of capture equipment and the use of oxygen scavengers and corrosion inhibitors. While capture processes employing MEA have improved sign...

  6. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  7. COMMUNICATION: Multielectrode arrays with elastomeric microstructured overlays for extracellular recordings from patterned neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverol-Tinturé, E.; Ghirardi, M.; Fiumara, F.; Rosell, X.; Cabestany, J.

    2005-06-01

    Multielectrode array technology constitutes a promising approach for the characterization of the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity underlying information processing in the nervous system. For this purpose, long-term monitoring and stimulation of cultured neuronal networks with one-to-one neuron-sensor interfacing is advantageous. Existing neurochips that meet these specifications have made use of custom 3D structures requiring clean-room intensive microfabrication techniques. Low-cost fabrication procedures with potential for mass production would facilitate progress in the area. To this end, we have developed a sandwich structure comprising an elastomeric film, microstructured by replica moulding and microhole punching, for neuronal patterning, and a standard planar microelectrode array (MEA), for stimulation and recording. The elastomeric film includes microwells for cell body confinement, and microchannels capable of guiding neurites for network topology specification. The device is formed by overlaying the elastomeric structures on planar arrays. The combination of replica moulding, rapid prototyping and planar MEAs results in low-cost neurochips accessible to most neurophysiology labs. Single neuron patterning and recordings of extracellular potentials are demonstrated.

  8. Long-term electrophysiological activity and pharmacological response of a human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odawara, A; Saitoh, Y; Alhebshi, A H; Gotoh, M; Suzuki, I

    2014-01-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons may be effectively used for drug discovery and cell-based therapy. However, the immaturity of cultured human iPSC-derived neurons and the lack of established functional evaluation methods are problematic. We here used a multi-electrode array (MEA) system to investigate the effects of the co-culture of rat astrocytes with hiPSC-derived neurons on the long-term culture, spontaneous firing activity, and drug responsiveness effects. The co-culture facilitated the long-term culture of hiPSC-derived neurons for >3 months and long-term spontaneous firing activity was also observed. After >3 months of culture, we observed synchronous burst firing activity due to synapse transmission within neuronal networks. Compared with rat neurons, hiPSC-derived neurons required longer time to mature functionally. Furthermore, addition of the synapse antagonists bicuculline and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione induced significant changes in the firing rate. In conclusion, we used a MEA system to demonstrate that the co-culture of hiPSC-derived neurons with rat astrocytes is an effective method for studying the function of human neuronal cells, which could be used for drug screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Home-cage odors spatial cues elicit theta phase/gamma amplitude coupling between olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Roberta Ribas; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; Guarnieri, Leonardo de Oliveira; Guerra, Julio Boriollo; Carvalho, Vinícius Rezende; Mendes, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra

    2017-11-05

    The brain oscillations may play a critical role in synchronizing neuronal assemblies in order to establish appropriate sensory-motor integration. In fact, studies have demonstrated phase-amplitude coupling of distinct oscillatory rhythms during cognitive processes. Here we investigated whether olfacto-hippocampal coupling occurs when mice are detecting familiar odors located in a spatially restricted area of a new context. The spatial olfactory task (SOT) was designed to expose mice to a new environment in which only one quadrant (target) contains odors provided by its own home-cage bedding. As predicted, mice showed a significant higher exploration preference to the target quadrant; which was impaired by olfactory epithelium lesion (ZnSO4). Furthermore, mice were able to discriminate odors from a different cage and avoided the quadrant with predator odor 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), reinforcing the specificity of the SOT. The local field potential (LFP) analysis of non-lesioned mice revealed higher gamma activity (35-100Hz) in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and a significant theta phase/gamma amplitude coupling between MOB and dorsal hippocampus, only during exploration of home-cage odors (i.e. in the target quadrant). Our results suggest that exploration of familiar odors in a new context involves dynamic coupling between the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CO2 Capture Dynamic and Steady-State Model Development, Optimization and Control: Applied to Piperazine and Enzyme Promoted MEA/MDEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef

    , cement production, and bio-chemical industry. However, to make CO2 capture economically attractive, design of innovative solvents, optimization of operation conditions/process configuration and operational flexibility are of crucial importance. This thesis aims to contribute to the development...... in Matlab. The developed model is used to investigate the transient behavior of a post-combustion plant using MEA and PZ. Moreover, a proportional-integral control structure is developed to investigate the controllability of the PZ based post-combustion plant compared to the MEA plant. The results reveal...

  11. High levitation pressures with cage-cooled superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Komori, Mochimitsu [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    We present an analysis of and experimental results from a levitational system comprising a stationary, bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and a levitated component (rotor) that consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet surrounded by an annular HTS. The rotor is cooled below the critical temperature of the HTS while surrounded by a ferromagnetic cage. When the ferromagnetic cage is removed, the flux from the permanent magnet is essentially excluded from the interior of the HTS. When brought into proximity with the HTS stator, the cage-cooled rotor experiences a levitational force. The levitational force may be calculated by applying magnetic circuit theory. Such calculations indicate that for a sufficiently high critical current density, the levitational pressure may exceed that between the permanent magnet and its mirror image. We constructed a rotor from an NdFeB permanent magnet and YBCO bulk HTS with a critical current density of {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. A soft ferromagnetic steel cage was constructed in segments. The critical current density of the stator HTS was also {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. Experimental results obtained with the cage-cooled rotor and stationary HTS show a significant increase in force over that of an equivalent PM rotor and stationary HTS. (author)

  12. Use of carbon fiber cages for treatment of cervical myeloradiculopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonino; Delfini, Roberto; Fiume, Dario; Frati, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Alessandro

    2004-03-01

    Different types of intersomatic fixation systems are available for use in the treatment of cervical disc pathologies. In this paper, we report our experience using carbon fiber cages (Brantigan I/F cage, De Puy Acromed, Raynham, MA; Mikai distrib.) for acute and chronic cervical disc pathologies. Between 1997 and 2001, 97 patients underwent surgical treatment for cervical disc pathologies. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 60 months. In all cases a microdiscectomy according to Caspar was performed; anterior stabilization was performed in cases with evidence of instability and in post-traumatic disc herniations. A total number of 119 carbon fiber cages, ranging in height from 4 to 8 mm, were employed as well as 10 anterior plates with screws. The type of material used to fill the cages was homologous bone (50.5%), heterologous bone (22.3%), hydroxyapatite (21.1%), and autologous bone (6%). In all cases, follow-up radiograms performed after at least 6 months demonstrated bone fusion. None of the patients had either spontaneous displacement of the implant or symptoms from nerve compression. These preliminary results suggest that anterior cervical fusion with carbon fiber cages are valid to restore intervertebral disc height and to promote bone fusion with low complications rate.

  13. Analysis for impedance electrochemistry 'on-line' of membrane/electrode assemble (MEA) of protons exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC); Analise por impedancia eletroquimica 'on-line' de conjuntos eletrodos/membrana (MEA) de celulas a combustivel a membrana polimetrica (PEMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Rodolfo dos

    2007-07-01

    This work reports results of studies and characterization on membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Some cell operation conditions and different processes of MEA production were investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS) (in situ - 0 to 16 A) was used 'on-line' as a tool for diagnosis, concerning the cell performance. The EIS measurements were carried out with a FC350 Fuel Cell EIS System (GAMRY), coupled to a PC4 potentiostat/galvanostat and connected to the electronic load (TDI) for 'on-line' EIS experiments (100 mHz - 10 kHz, dU = 5 mV). MEAs with 25 cm{sup 2} surface area, using PtM/C 20% (M Ru, Sn or Ni) electrocatalysts were manufactured using the alcohol reduction process (ARP). The catalytic ink was applied directly into the carbon cloth (GDL) and pressed in the Nafion membrane (105). MEAs using Pt/C and Pt Ru/C 20% from E-TEK electrocatalysts were manufactured by comparison. All the cathodes were sprayed with Pt/C 20% from E-TEK. The noble metal concentrations used were set to 0.4 mg Pt.cm{sup -2} at the anode and 0.6 mg Pt.cm{sup -2} at the cathode (E-TEK). Nyquist diagrams of the MEAs with Pt/C and PtRu/C from E-TEK or PtM/C (M = Ru, Sn or Ni) ARP showed essentially the same ohmic resistances for the MEAs. This fact can be explained by suppression of agglomerates during the MEA preparation process or by the homogeneity of the anchored electrocatalysts at the carbon surface. It could also be observed, at low current densities, that there was a significant performance difference between the electrocatalysts from E-TEK and those prepared with the alcohol reduction process. The polarization curves results confirmed that the Pt M/C (M = Ru, Sn or Ni) ARP showed an activity increase for the methanol and ethanol fed cells. The technique of EIE was shown efficient for the evaluation of the method preparation of MEAs and the acting of the cell, the results of EIE

  14. Finite element analysis of the lumbar spine with a new cage using a topology optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Wang, Jung-Pin; Feng, Chi-Kuang; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Yu, Chung-huang

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, degenerative spinal instability has been effectively treated with a cage. However, little attention is focused on the design concept of the cage. The purpose of this study was to develop a new cage and evaluate its biomechanical function using a finite element method (FEM). This study employed topology optimization to design a new cage and analyze stress distribution of the lumbar spine from L1 to L3 with a new cage by using the commercial software ANSYS 6.0. A total of three finite element models, namely the intact lumbar spine, the spine with double RF cages, and with double new cages, were established. The loading conditions were that 10Nm flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion, respectively, were imposed on the superior surface of the L1 vertebral body. The bottom of the L3 vertebral body was constrained completely. The FEM estimated that the new cage not only could be reduced to 36% of the volume of the present RF cage but was also similar in biomechanical performance such as range of motion, stress of adjacent disc, and lower subsidence to the RF cage. The advantage of the new cage was that the increased space allowed more bone graft to be placed and the cage saved material. The disadvantage was that stress of the new cage was greater than that of the RF cage.

  15. Experimental validation of the ''EasyTest Cell'' operational principle for autonomous MEA characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, I. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 10, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Topalov, G.; Slavcheva, E.; Lefterova, E. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 10, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tsotridis, G. [European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schnakenberg, U. [Institute of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1, RWTH-Aachen University, Sommerfeld Str. 24, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The paper presents the experimental validation of the ''EasyTest Cell'' operational principle via comparative electrochemical tests on MEAs carried out in three types of electrochemical hydrogen energy conversion (EHEC) testing cells: conventional polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWE), properly equipped with all the required auxiliaries (products conditioning and supplying, reagents removal, etc.), and the simple, autonomous EasyTest Cell. Along with EasyTest Cell validation and demonstration of its advantages, the influence of argon pressure during sputtering on the electrode characteristics, including gas diffusion limitations was investigated. The electrodes under investigation were magnetron sputtered C/Ti/IrO{sub x} (IrO{sub x} loading in the range 0.12-0.4 mg cm{sup -2}), C/Ti/IrO{sub x}/Pt/IrO{sub x} (IrO{sub x} 0.08/Pt 0.06/IrO{sub x} 0.08 mg cm{sup -2}), sputtered at various argon pressure C/Ti/Pt (0.15 and 0.25 mg cm{sup -2}), and commercial ELAT electrode (V.21, Lot MB030105-1, Pt loading 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}, E-TEK). The results obtained proved the reliability, simplicity (running-periphery-free) and broadened experimental possibilities of EasyTest Cell over PEMFC and PEMWE single cell testing. Thus, significant cost reduction and resource saving in R and D laboratory can be achieved. Moreover, validation of EasyTest Cell contributes not only to testing facilitations, but potentially to standardization of MEA testing since it gives possibilities for precise control and more uniform distribution of the working parameters applied to the testing object, which are both compulsory for performance comparison and qualifying. (author)

  16. Entrapment of Viral Capsids in Nuclear PML Cages Is an Intrinsic Antiviral Host Defense against Varicella-Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Mike; Wang, Li; Sommer, Marvin; Perrino, John; Nour, Adel M.; Sen, Nandini; Baiker, Armin; Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The herpesviruses, like most other DNA viruses, replicate in the host cell nucleus. Subnuclear domains known as promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), or ND10 bodies, have been implicated in restricting early herpesviral gene expression. These viruses have evolved countermeasures to disperse PML-NBs, as shown in cells infected in vitro, but information about the fate of PML-NBs and their functions in herpesvirus infected cells in vivo is limited. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus with tropism for skin, lymphocytes and sensory ganglia, where it establishes latency. Here, we identify large PML-NBs that sequester newly assembled nucleocapsids (NC) in neurons and satellite cells of human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and skin cells infected with VZV in vivo. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopy revealed that these distinctive nuclear bodies consisted of PML fibers forming spherical cages that enclosed mature and immature VZV NCs. Of six PML isoforms, only PML IV promoted the sequestration of NCs. PML IV significantly inhibited viral infection and interacted with the ORF23 capsid surface protein, which was identified as a target for PML-mediated NC sequestration. The unique PML IV C-terminal domain was required for both capsid entrapment and antiviral activity. Similar large PML-NBs, termed clastosomes, sequester aberrant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, such as Huntingtin (Htt), in several neurodegenerative disorders. We found that PML IV cages co-sequester HttQ72 and ORF23 protein in VZV infected cells. Our data show that PML cages contribute to the intrinsic antiviral defense by sensing and entrapping VZV nucleocapsids, thereby preventing their nuclear egress and inhibiting formation of infectious virus particles. The efficient sequestration of virion capsids in PML cages appears to be the outcome of a basic cytoprotective function of this distinctive category of PML-NBs in sensing and safely containing nuclear aggregates of aberrant

  17. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin

    2013-01-01

    in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall......The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs...... of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites...

  18. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  19. The rib cage stabilizes the human thoracic spine: An in vitro study using stepwise reduction of rib cage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Christian; Graf, Nicolas; Appelt, Konrad; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of the rib cage on the human thoracic spine is still not sufficiently analyzed. For a better understanding of this effect as well as the calibration and validation of numerical models of the thoracic spine, experimental biomechanics data is required. This study aimed to determine (1) the stabilizing effect of the single rib cage structures on the human thoracic spine as well as the effect of the rib cage on (2) the flexibility of the single motion segments and (3) coupled motion behavior of the thoracic spine. Six human thoracic spine specimens including the entire rib cage were loaded quasi-statically with pure moments of ± 2 Nm in flexion/extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) using a custom-built spine tester. Motion analysis was performed using an optical motion tracking system during load application to determine range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ). Specimens were tested (1) in intact condition, (2) after removal of the intercostal muscles, (3) after median sternotomy, after removal of (4) the anterior rib cage up to the rib stumps, (5) the right sixth to eighth rib head, and (6) all rib heads. Significant (p spine rigidity, especially in axial rotation by a factor of more than two, and should therefore be considered in clinical scenarios, in vitro, and in silico.

  20. Noisy Neurons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 1. Noisy Neurons: Hodgkin-Huxley Model and Stochastic Variants. Shurti Paranjape. General Article Volume 20 Issue 1 January 2015 pp 34-43. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in cervical applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Roel Frederik Mark Raymond; van Gaalen, Steven M; de Gast, Arthur; Öner, F Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used during the past decade in patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Their radiolucency and low elastic modulus make them attractive attributes for spinal fusion compared with titanium and bone graft. Still, limitations are seen such as pseudoarthrosis, subsidence, and migration of the cages. Limited evidence on the clinical outcome of PEEK cages is found in the literature other than noncomparative cohort studies with only a few randomized controlled trials. To assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of PEEK cages in the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and/or spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine. Systematic review of all randomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective nonrandomized comparative studies with a minimum follow-up of 6 months and all noncomparative cohort studies with a long-term follow-up of more than 5 years. The primary outcome variable was clinical performance. Secondary outcome variables consisted of radiographic scores. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. No conflict of interest reported. No funding received. A total of 223 studies were identified, of which 10 studies were included. These comprised two randomized controlled trials, five prospective comparative trials, and three retrospective comparative trials. Minimal evidence for better clinical and radiographic outcome is found for PEEK cages compared with bone grafts in the cervical spine. No differences were found between PEEK, titanium, and carbon fiber cages. Future studies are needed to improve methodology to minimize bias. Publication of lumbar interbody fusion studies needs to be promoted because differences in clinical and/or radiographic scores are more likely to be demonstrated in this part

  2. Long-term optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons to study network plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignani, Gabriele; Ferrea, Enrico; Difato, Francesco; Amarù, Jessica; Ferroni, Eleonora; Lugarà, Eleonora; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity produces changes in excitability, synaptic transmission, and network architecture in response to external stimuli. Network adaptation to environmental conditions takes place in time scales ranging from few seconds to days, and modulates the entire network dynamics. To study the network response to defined long-term experimental protocols, we setup a system that combines optical and electrophysiological tools embedded in a cell incubator. Primary hippocampal neurons transduced with lentiviruses expressing channelrhodopsin-2/H134R were subjected to various photostimulation protocols in a time window in the order of days. To monitor the effects of light-induced gating of network activity, stimulated transduced neurons were simultaneously recorded using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The developed experimental model allows discerning short-term, long-lasting, and adaptive plasticity responses of the same neuronal network to distinct stimulation frequencies applied over different temporal windows. PMID:23970852

  3. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_exp... (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression (Homo sapiens) File URL: ftp://ftp.bio...sciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_expression/ File size: 3.3 GB File name: (reprocess...tp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/mm10_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_expression/ File size...f This Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  4. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_ann...rence sequences (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Homo sapiens) File URL...: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotation/ ...File size: 16 MB File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Mus musculus) Fil...e URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/mm10_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotat

  5. (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE peaks Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE peaks DOI 10.18908/l...g38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks (Homo sapiens) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/...archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks/ File size: 11 MB File name: (reprocessed...)CAGE_peaks (Mus musculus) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocess...his Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Identification of metabolites in urine and feces from rats dosed with the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Frandsen, H

    2004-01-01

    2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA alpha C) is a proximate mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ordinary cooking. In model systems, MeA alpha C can be formed by pyrolyses of either tryptophan or proteins of animal or vegetable origin. In the present study...

  7. CO2 absorption into aqueous amine blended solutions containing monoethanolamine (MEA), N,N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEEA) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) for post-combustion capture processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conway, William; Bruggink, Stefan; Beyad, Yaser; Luo, Weiliang; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio; Puxty, Graeme; Feron, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Presently monoethanolamine (MEA) remains the industrial standard solvent for CO2 capture processes. Operating issues relating to corrosion and degradation of MEA at high temperatures and concentrations, and in the presence of oxygen, in a traditional PCC process, have introduced the requisite for

  8. Utilizing Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to engage middle school teachers and students in storm water management practices to mitigate human impacts of land development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaz, A.; Wilson, R. M.; Schoen, R.; Blumsack, S.; King, L.; Dyehouse, M.

    2013-12-01

    'The Integrating STEM Project' engaged 6-8 grade teachers through activities incorporating mathematics, science and technology incorporating both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Common Core State Standards-Mathematics (CCSS-Math). A group of researchers from Oceanography, Mathematics, and Education set out to provide middle school teachers with a 2 year intensive STEM integration professional development with a focus on environmental topics and to monitor the achievement outcomes in their students. Over the course of 2 years the researchers created challenging professional development sessions to expand teacher knowledge and teachers were tasked to transform the information gained during the professional development sessions for classroom use. One lesson resource kit presented to the teachers, which was directly applicable to the classroom, included Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to explore the positive and negative effects land development has on climate and the environment, and how land development impacts storm water management. MEA's were developed to encourage students to create models to solve complex problems and to allow teachers to investigate students thinking. MEA's are a great curriculum technique used in engineering fields to help engage students by providing hands on activities using real world data and problems. We wish to present the Storm Water Management Resource toolkit including the MEA and present the outcomes observed from student engagement in this activity.

  9. A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source–independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ΔmeaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20639450

  10. Spectral Entropy Based Neuronal Network Synchronization Analysis Based on Microelectrode Array Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Välkki, Inkeri; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Leone, Chiara; Lenk, Kerstin; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2016-01-01

    Synchrony and asynchrony are essential aspects of the functioning of interconnected neuronal cells and networks. New information on neuronal synchronization can be expected to aid in understanding these systems. Synchronization provides insight in the functional connectivity and the spatial distribution of the information processing in the networks. Synchronization is generally studied with time domain analysis of neuronal events, or using direct frequency spectrum analysis, e.g., in specific frequency bands. However, these methods have their pitfalls. Thus, we have previously proposed a method to analyze temporal changes in the complexity of the frequency of signals originating from different network regions. The method is based on the correlation of time varying spectral entropies (SEs). SE assesses the regularity, or complexity, of a time series by quantifying the uniformity of the frequency spectrum distribution. It has been previously employed, e.g., in electroencephalogram analysis. Here, we revisit our correlated spectral entropy method (CorSE), providing evidence of its justification, usability, and benefits. Here, CorSE is assessed with simulations and in vitro microelectrode array (MEA) data. CorSE is first demonstrated with a specifically tailored toy simulation to illustrate how it can identify synchronized populations. To provide a form of validation, the method was tested with simulated data from integrate-and-fire model based computational neuronal networks. To demonstrate the analysis of real data, CorSE was applied on in vitro MEA data measured from rat cortical cell cultures, and the results were compared with three known event based synchronization measures. Finally, we show the usability by tracking the development of networks in dissociated mouse cortical cell cultures. The results show that temporal correlations in frequency spectrum distributions reflect the network relations of neuronal populations. In the simulated data, CorSE unraveled the

  11. Electrophoresis simulated with the cage model for reptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelum, A. van; Beljaars, H.R.W.

    2000-01-01

    The cage model for polymer reptation is extended to simulate gel electrophoresis. With increasing electric field strength E, the drift velocity v of a long polymer with length L shows three different regimes: (a) the linear regime where v~E/ L; (b) the quadratic regime where v~E^2 ,

  12. Red light activated "caged" reagents for microRNA research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Schikora, M; Starkuviene, V; Mokhir, A

    2016-08-31

    "Caged" reagents for miRNA research (siRNA targeting EGFR, involved in miRNA maturation, and mimics of miR-20a, playing a key role in tumor formation and metastasis) were prepared. It was demonstrated that these reagents can be activated by non-toxic to cells red light both in cells and in cell free settings.

  13. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (wherein polynitration is a serious handicap to selective nitration) in zeolite environment is not explored. With these goals in mind, we have reported17 recently regioselective nitration of phenol inside the cages/channels of zeolite media using fuming nitric acid. In our attempts to delineate the mechanism in detail and also to ...

  14. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.

    2011-01-01

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  15. Impacts of cage culture on physico-chemical and bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cage fish farming on physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality in Lake Volta, Ghana, were investigated in 2013–2014. Farmed and unfarmed (control) areas of the lake were selected for monitoring. Nutrients, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, pH, total coliforms, Pseudomonas and ...

  16. Thoracic cage injury imaging in rugby players | de Villiers | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby players often sustain high-impact collisions and are therefore at risk of significant traumatic thoracic injuries. Injury to the thoracic cage may be associated with potentially life-threatening sequelae. Player management is often based on the accuracy of the imaging report. The author suggests a combination of ...

  17. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coe JD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Coe,1 James F Zucherman,2 Donald W Kucharzyk,3 Kornelis A Poelstra,4 Larry E Miller,5 Sandeep Kunwar,6 1Silicon Valley Spine Institute, Campbell, 2San Francisco Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, CA, 3Orthopaedic Pediatric and Spine, Crown Point, IN, 4Department of Surgery, Sacred Heart Hospital on the Emerald Coast, Miramar Beach, FL, 5Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 6Bell Neuroscience Institute, Washington Hospital Healthcare System, Fremont, CA, USA Abstract: The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. Keywords: degenerative disc disease, expandable, low back pain, Luna

  18. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenol is nitrated regioselectively by fuming nitric acid inside the cages of faujasite zeolites (dependent on the loading level) and a remarkable orthoselectivity is observed in solid state nitration. Toluene and chlorobenzene also containing ortho-/para-orienting substituents, undergo faster nitration, though the ...

  19. power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    generator. The possibility of using a capacitor bank connected across the stator terminals of a squirrel cage induction motor to supply the reactive power requirement for power generation was discovered by. Basset and Potter in the 1930s It is more attractive than a conventional synchronous generator in micro- hydro and ...

  20. Business plan Tilapia cage farming in Tete Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Magnus; Brouwer, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Tete province offers great opportunities for cage farming of tilapia in Lake Cahora Bassa. The climate and water quality are favourable for fish production, and the fast economic developments in the region will facilitate fish sales. In Tete tilapia (pende) is highly valued food. Major markets for

  1. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguchi, Shuhei; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Furuno, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Hori, Fumi; Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kojima, Miki; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Saijyo, Eri; Saka, Akiko; Sakai, Mizuho; Simon, Christophe; Suzuki, Naoko; Tagami, Michihira; Watanabe, Shoko; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Arner, Peter; Axton, Richard A.; Babina, Magda; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Barnett, Timothy C.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Carlisle, Ailsa J.; Clevers, Hans C.; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ehrlund, Anna; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Eslami, Afsaneh; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Forrester, Lesley M.; Fujita, Rie; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Hasegawa, Yuki; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Hume, David A.; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Kai, Chieko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klein, Sarah; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Soichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Mackay-sim, Alan; Mejhert, Niklas; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Morris, Kelly J.; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Pombo, Ana; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Qin, Xian-Yang; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roy, Sugata; Sajantila, Antti; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sheng, Guojun; Shin, Jay W.; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim M.; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tomoiu, Andru; Toyoda, Hiroo; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Zhang, Peter G.; Zucchelli, Silvia; Abugessaisa, Imad; Arner, Erik; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lassmann, Timo; Lizio, Marina; Sahin, Serkan; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Shimoji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawai, Jun; Kondo, Naoto; Itoh, Masayoshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples,

  2. variations in dimensions and shape of thoracic cage with aging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The thoracic cage variations in dimensions and proportions are influenced by age, sex and race. The objective of the present review was to describe the age related changes occurring in thoracic wall and its influence on the pattern of respiration in infants, adult and elderly. We had systematically reviewed, ...

  3. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  4. Whole-tree canopy enclosures: why cage a tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome F. Grant; Abdul Hakeem; Paris L. Lambdin; Gregory J. Wiggins; Rusty J. Rhea

    2011-01-01

    The use of whole-tree canopy enclosures (i.e., cages) is not a typical approach to assessing biological parameters and interactions in a forest setting. However, the successful application of this technology may enable researchers to better understand certain types of tree/organismal interactions.

  5. Clathrates-An Exploration of the Chemistry of Caged Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Clathrates – An Exploration of the Chemistry of Caged Compounds. Srivathsa Vaidya. General Article Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    KAUST Repository

    Noguchi, Shuhei

    2017-08-29

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples, consisting of a variety of primary cells, tissues, cell lines, and time series samples during cell activation and development, were subjected to a uniform pipeline of CAGE data production. The analysis pipeline started by measuring RNA extracts to assess their quality, and continued to CAGE library production by using a robotic or a manual workflow, single molecule sequencing, and computational processing to generate frequencies of transcription initiation. Resulting data represents the consequence of transcriptional regulation in each analyzed state of mammalian cells. Non-overlapping peaks over the CAGE profiles, approximately 200,000 and 150,000 peaks for the human and mouse genomes, were identified and annotated to provide precise location of known promoters as well as novel ones, and to quantify their activities.

  7. Intraoperative antepulsion of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion cage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal fusion surgery techniques develop together with technologic advancements. New complications are seen as the result of new techniques and these may be very severe due to spinal cord and vascular structures in the lumbar region. The posterior lumbar interbody fusion cage (PLIFC) was shown to enhance spinal ...

  8. Diet manipulation and post-moulting responses in caged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty caged commercial laying hens were induced to moult through a 15-day feed and water withdrawal programme. Immediate and subsequent effects on egg production and follicular developments were monitored. Results showed that moulted hens attained over 60% egg production after 6 weeks of ...

  9. Selective photostimulation of genetically chARGed neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, Boris V; Lee, Georgia A; Ng, Minna; Miesenböck, Gero

    2002-01-03

    To permit direct functional analyses of neural circuits, we have developed a method for stimulating groups of genetically designated neurons optically. Coexpression of the Drosophila photoreceptor genes encoding arrestin-2, rhodopsin (formed by liganding opsin with retinal), and the alpha subunit of the cognate heterotrimeric G protein--an explosive combination we term "chARGe"--sensitizes generalist vertebrate neurons to light. Illumination of a mixed population of neurons elicits action potentials selectively and cell-autonomously in its genetically chARGed members. In contrast to bath-applied photostimulants or caged neurotransmitters, which act indiscriminately throughout the illuminated volume, chARGe localizes the responsiveness to light. Distributed activity may thus be fed directly into a circumscribed population of neurons in intact tissue, irrespective of the spatial arrangement of its elements.

  10. Laser Induced C60 Cage Opening Studied by Semiclassical Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Dou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced opening of the C60 cage is studied by a semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics technique. The simulation results indicate that the C60 cage is abruptly opened immediately after laser excitation. The opening of the C60 cage induces a quick increase in kinetic energy and a sharp decrease in electronic energy, suggesting that the breaking of the C60 cage efficiently heats up the cluster and enhances the thermal fragmentation of C60 fullerene.

  11. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  12. Impaired fear extinction as displayed by serotonin transporter knockout rats housed in open cages is disrupted by IVC cage housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shan

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. A well-known example for gene x environment interactions in psychiatry is the low activity (s allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR that in the context of stress increases risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Previously, we observed robust anxiety-related phenotypes, such as an impairment in fear extinction, in 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT-/- versus wild-type (5-HTT+/+ rats housed in open cages. Recently, housing conditions were changed from open cages to individually ventilated cages (IVC, which are associated with a high ventilation fold and noise. This switch in housing conditions prompted an unplanned 5-HTT gene x environment interaction study in our rats. The current study shows that lifetime stress by means of IVC cage housing abolished genotype differences in fear extinction between 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Although this effect was not attributed specifically to either the 5-HTT+/+ or the 5-HTT-/- genotype, the findings are in agreement with the modulatory role of serotonin in the processing of environmental stimuli. Our findings also underline the possibility that housing conditions confound the interpretation of anxiety-related behaviours in rodents.

  13. Can forced hot air quickly dry feces on transport cage flooring and eliminate campylobacter before cage re-use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allowing feces left on transport coops to dry is an effective way to reduce numbers of viable Campylobacter left by positive flocks. The problem with this approach is that poultry processors do not have the time, space or resources to maintain several times the minimum number of transport cages that...

  14. Cage fish farming in the Volta lake and the lower Volta : Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns have been raised about the proliferation of cage fish farming in the Volta lake and the potential water quality impacts. The study was undertaken to determine current cage fish farming practices on the lake, and to assess their impacts on water quality of the lake. Forty cage fish farm operators were interviewed for ...

  15. the benefits of the cage as a screening tool for alcoholism in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (age, gender, literacy level, employment statu, marriage and number of people sharing a house with the re pondent) and the four-que tion CAGE interview. Re pondents who answered positively to two or more que tions of the CAGE were rated as abusing/dependent on alcohol (the 'positive' group). In addition to the CAGE, ...

  16. Selective occupancy of methane by cage symmetry in TBAB ionic clathrate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muromachi, Sanehiro; Udachin, Konstantin A; Alavi, Saman; Ohmura, Ryo; Ripmeester, John A

    2016-04-25

    Methane trapped in the two distinct dodecahedral cages of the ionic clathrate hydrate of TBAB was studied by single crystal XRD and MD simulation. The relative CH4 occupancies over the cage types were opposite to those of CO2, which illustrates the interplay between the cage symmetry and guest shape and dynamics, and thus the gas selectivity.

  17. Behavioral and pharmacological evaluation of a selectively bred mouse model of home cage hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdak, Petra; Bucko, Paula J.; Holloway, Ashley L.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; DeYoung, Erin K.; Kilby, Chessa N.; Zombeck, Jonathan A.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Daily levels of physical activity vary greatly across individuals and are strongly influenced by genetic background. While moderate levels of physical activity are associated with improved physical and mental health, extremely high levels of physical activity are associated with behavioral disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms relating hyperactivity to ADHD or other behavioral disorders remain unclear. Therefore, we conducted a selective breeding experiment for increased home cage activity starting with a highly genetically variable population of house mice and evaluated the line for correlated responses in other relevant phenotypes. Here we report results through Generation 10. Relative to the Control line, the High-Active line traveled approximately 4 times as far in the home cage (on days 5 and 6 of a 6-day test), displayed reduced body mass at maturity, reduced reproductive success, increased wheel running and open field behavior, decreased performance on the rotarod, decreased performance on the Morris water maze that was not rescued by acute administration of d-amphetamine, reduced hyperactivity from chronically administered low clinical doses of d-amphetamine, and increased numbers of new cells and neuronal activation of the dentate gyrus. Standardized phenotypic differences between the lines were compared to estimates expected from genetic drift to evaluate whether the line differences could have resulted from random effects as opposed to correlated responses to selection. Results indicated line differences in body mass and locomotor responses to low doses of amphetamine were more likely due to selection than drift. The efficacy of low doses of d-amphetamine in ameliorating hyperactivity support the High-Active line as a useful model for exploring the etiology of hyperactivity-associated comorbid behavioral disorders. PMID:25108455

  18. Comparison Between Acrylic Cage and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage in Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Majid R; Nikoo, Zahra; Gholami, Mehrnaz; Hosseini, Khadijeh

    2017-02-01

    Prospective, single-blind randomized-controlled clinical study. To compare polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage with a novel Acrylic cage to find out which fusion cage yielded better clinical outcomes following single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). ACDF is considered a standard neurosurgical treatment for degenerative diseases of cervical intervertebral disks. There are many options, including bone grafts, bone cement, and spacers made of titanium, carbon fiber, and synthetic materials, used to restore physiological disk height and enhance spinal fusion, but the ideal device, which would provide immediate structural support and subsequent osteointegration and stability, has not been identified yet. To overcome this, we designed a new, inexpensive Acrylic cage. A total of 64 patients were eligible to participate and were randomly allocated to undergo ACDF either with Acrylic interbody fusion cage filled with bone substitute (n=32) or PEEK cage (n=32). Nurick's grading was used for quantifying the neurological deficit. Clinical and radiologic outcome was assessed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and subsequently at 2, 6, and 12 months of follow-up using Odom's criteria and dynamic radiographs (flexion-extension) and computed tomography scans, respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in the clinical outcomes of the Acrylic cage group compared with the PEEK cage group (mean difference: -0.438; 95% confidence interval, -0.807 to -0.068; P=0.016). There was a statistically significant difference in disk space height increase between the 2 groups at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. The Acrylic cage achieved higher fusion rate (good fusion) than the PEEK cage (96.9% vs. 93.8%). Intervertebral angle demonstrated a significant difference among the 2 treated groups throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that the use of Acrylic cage is associated with good clinical and radiologic outcomes and it can be therefore a

  19. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner,André Rafael; Mendes,Marcelo Ribeiro; Queruz,Jean Carlo Frigotto; Dambrós,Jean Marcel; Suárez,Álvaro Diego Heredia; Spinelli,Leandro de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo comparativo entre dois grupos de pacientes operados pela técnica de discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 70 pacientes, 35 operados com o método de fixação com placas associadas a cages - denominado Grupo...

  20. PENGAWASAN, EVALUASI, DAN PENILAIAN SISTEM PENGENDALIAN INTERNAL TERKAIT BILLING SYSTEM PADA RSUD UNGARAN BERDASARKAN KERANGKA KERJA COBIT 5 (MEA02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthania Firmadita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RSUD Ungaran Kabupaten Semarang ini memiliki sejumlah layanan kesehatan yang melayani masyarakat umum, layanan kesehatan dinamakan dengan Billing System yang dibuat dengan tujuan mempercepat pelayanan kesehatan terhadap pelanggan. Melihat banyaknya kebutuhan setiap bagian yang terkait sehingga semakin besar pengelolaan data yang ada menyebabkan keterlambatan sistem dan kesalahan dalam pengelolaan data. Berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk memberikan layanan operasional terbaik dan meminimalisasi kesalahan. Salah satunya dilakukan penilaian kinerja pengelolaan layanan yang diberikan, penilaian kinerja ini merupakan pengendalian kontrol internal secara sistematik, untuk melihat tingkat kesesuaian dan keefektifan implementasi layanan. Dari hasil observasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner berdasarkan COBIT 5 dihasilkan level kapabilitas tata kelola proses pengawasan, evaluasi, dan penilaian pengendalian internal terkait billing system (MEA02 pada RSUD Ungaran saat ini adalah Level 2 dengan status Largely Achieved sebesar 71,56% setara 2,71 dimana Level 1 dan Level 0 tercapai Fully Achieved.Hal ini menunjukan sudah dilakukan komunikasi perencanaan kedepan dari hasil penilaian kinerja tetapi belum diimplementasikan. Dan untuk mencapai level kapabilitas, RSUD Ungaran dapat melakukan strategi perbaikan yang dilakukan secara bertahap dari proses atribut level 1 sampai 3. Kata Kunci: Analisis Tata Kelola TI, Sistem Informasi Kesehatan, COBIT 5, Analisis Tingkat Kapabilitas, Analisis Kesenjangan

  1. The BetaCage: Ultrasensitive Screener for Radioactive Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; BetaCage Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Rare event searches, such as dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay, require screening of materials for backgrounds such as beta emission and alpha decaying isotopes. The BetaCage is a proposed ultra-sensitive time-projection chamber to screen for alpha-emitting and low energy beta-emitting (10-200 keV) contaminants. The expected sensitivity is 0.1 beta particles (perkeV -m2 - day) and 0.1 alpha particles (perm2 - day) , where the former will be limited by Compton scattering of external photons in the screening samples and the latter is expected to be signal-limited. The prototype BetaCage under commissioning at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology is filled with P10 gas (10% methane, 90% argon) in place of neon and is 40×40×20 cm in size. Details on design, construction and characterization will be presented.

  2. Batting cage performance of wood and nonwood youth baseball bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Rainbow, Michael J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (PBBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length.

  3. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J. [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Otter, Wouter K. den, E-mail: w.k.denotter@utwente.nl [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Multi Scale Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  4. Cathodic cage nitriding of samples with different dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, R.R.M. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui, Department of Mechanical, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Araujo, F.O. de [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Ribeiro, K.J.B.; Mendes, M.W.D. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica-UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, J.A.P. da [Departamento de Fisica-UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Alves, C. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica-UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: alvesjr@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2007-09-15

    A series of AISI 1020 steel cylindrical samples with different heights were simultaneously nitrided in cathodic cage plasma nitriding. In this technique, the samples are placed under a floating potential inside a cage in which the cathodic potential is applied. A systematic study of the nitriding temperature variation effects was carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of such a technique over the uniformity of the formed layers. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurement. The results were compared with those ones obtained in the ionic nitriding, and was verified that the samples nitrided by this conventional technique presents less uniformity than the ones treated through this new technique.

  5. Colloidal glasses and gels: The interplay of bonding and caging

    OpenAIRE

    Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Poon, Wilson C K

    2009-01-01

    We report simulations of glassy arrest in hard-core particles with short-range interparticle attraction. Previous experiments, theory, and simulations suggest that in this kind of system, two qualitatively distinct kinds of glasses exist, dominated respectively by repulsion and attraction. It is thought that in the former, particles are trapped “topologically,” by nearest-neighbor cages, whereas in the latter, nonergodicity is due to interparticle “bonds.” Subsequent experiments and simulatio...

  6. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block

    OpenAIRE

    Y.S.Kapnichor; Patil, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system ...

  7. Improved damper cage design for salient-pole synchronous generators

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzo, Stefano; Degano, Michele; Galea, Michael; Gerada, C.; Gerada, David; Brown, N.L.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of implementing a damper winding in salient-pole, synchronous generators are widely known and well consolidated. It is also well known that such a winding incurs extra losses in the machine due to a number of reasons. In order to improve the overall efficiency and performance of classical salient-pole, wound field, synchronous generators that employ the traditional damper cage, an improved amortisseur winding topology that reduces the inherent loss is proposed and investigated in...

  8. Effect of Physical Exercise and Acute Escitalopram on the Excitability of Brain Monoamine Neurons: In Vivo Electrophysiological Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Csatlósová, Kristína; Durišová, Barbora; Moravcíková, Lucia; Lacinová, Lubica; Ježováv, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) rats were housed in individual cages with free access to a running wheel, while control animals were housed in standard laboratory cages. After three weeks, the rats were anesthetized, and in vivo electrophysiological recordings were taken from dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons, locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons, and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. VWR stimulated activity in serotonin, but not in norepinephrine or dopamine neurons. Subsequently, acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in control rats led to complete suppression of serotonin neurons; this suppression was reversed by subsequent administration of selective antagonist of serotonin-1A receptors, WAY100135. Escitalopram induced only partial inhibition of serotonin neurons in the VWR rats while WAY100135 increased the firing activity of serotonin neurons above the baseline value. The beneficial effect of physical exercise on mood is mediated, at least in part, via activation of serotonin neurons. Physical exercise can potentiate the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by increasing the basal firing activity and diminishing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced inhibition of serotonin neurons.

  9. Brain extracellular matrix retains connectivity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbaev, Arthur; Frischknecht, Renato; Heine, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of connectivity are critically important for the processing and storage of information in neuronal networks. The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) appears during postnatal development and surrounds most neurons in the adult mammalian brain. Importantly, the removal of the ECM was shown to improve plasticity and post-traumatic recovery in the CNS, but little is known about the mechanisms. Here, we investigated the role of the ECM in the regulation of the network activity in dissociated hippocampal cultures grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). We found that enzymatic removal of the ECM in mature cultures led to transient enhancement of neuronal activity, but prevented disinhibition-induced hyperexcitability that was evident in age-matched control cultures with intact ECM. Furthermore, the ECM degradation followed by disinhibition strongly affected the network interaction so that it strongly resembled the juvenile pattern seen in naïve developing cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the ECM plays an important role in retention of existing connectivity in mature neuronal networks that can be exerted through synaptic confinement of glutamate. On the other hand, removal of the ECM can play a permissive role in modification of connectivity and adaptive exploration of novel network architecture. PMID:26417723

  10. Segmental kyphosis after cervical interbody fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a comparative study on 2 different PEEK cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae; Sohn, Seil; Lee, Sungjoon

    2015-02-01

    Retrospective comparative study. Two polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages of different designs were compared in terms of the postoperative segmental kyphosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Segmental kyphosis occasionally occurs after the use of a stand-alone cage for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Although PEEK material seems to have less risk of segmental kyphosis compared with other materials, the occurrence of segmental kyphosis for PEEK cages has been reported to be from 0% to 29%. There have been a few reports that addressed the issue of PEEK cage design. A total of 41 consecutive patients who underwent single-level anterior discectomy and fusion with a stand-alone cage were included. Either a round tube-type (Solis; 18 patients, S-group) or a trapezoidal tube-type (MC+; 23 patients, M-group) cage was used. The contact area between the cage and the vertebral body is larger in MC+ than in Solis, and anchoring pins were present in the Solis cage. The effect of the cage type on the segmental angle (SA) (lordosis vs. kyphosis) at postoperative month 24 was analyzed. Preoperatively, segmental lordosis was present in 12/18 S-group and 16/23 M-group patients (P=0.84). The SA was more lordotic than the preoperative angle in both groups just after surgery, with no difference between groups (P=0.39). At 24 months, segmental lordosis was observed in 9/18 S-group and 20/23 M-group patients (P=0.01). The patients in M-group were 7.83 times more likely than patients in S-group (P=0.04; odds ratio, 7.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-56.28) not to develop segmental kyphosis. The design of the PEEK cage used may influence the SA, and this association needs to be considered when using stand-alone PEEK cages.

  11. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  12. Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Projects Data and Services at the GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Bruce E.; Ostrenga, D.; Savtchenko, A.; Johnson, J.; Wei, J.; Teng, W.; Gerasimov, I.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Program is dedicated to advancing Earth remote sensing and pioneering the scientific use of satellite measurements to improve human understanding of our home planet. Through the MEaSUREs Program, NASA is continuing its commitment to expand understanding of the Earth system using consistent data records. Emphasis is on linking together multiple data sources to form coherent time-series, and facilitating the use of extensive data in the development of comprehensive Earth system models. A primary focus of the MEaSUREs Program is the creation of Earth System Data Records (ESDRs). An ESDR is defined as a unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements for addressing science questions. These records are critical for understanding Earth System processes; for the assessment of variability, long-term trends, and change in the Earth System; and for providing input and validation means to modeling efforts. Seven MEaSUREs projects will be archived and distributed through services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC).

  13. Dynamic modeling of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine; Modelisation dynamique d'une machine asynchrone a cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerette, D.

    2009-07-01

    This document presented a detailed mathematical explanation and validation of the steps leading to the development of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine. The MatLab/Simulink software was used to model a wind turbine at variable high speeds. The asynchronous squirrel-cage machine is an electromechanical system coupled to a magnetic circuit. The resulting electromagnetic circuit can be represented as a set of resistances, leakage inductances and mutual inductances. Different models were used for a comparison study, including the Munteanu, Boldea, Wind Turbine Blockset, and SimPowerSystem. MatLab/Simulink modeling results were in good agreement with the results from other comparable models. Simulation results were in good agreement with analytical calculations. 6 refs, 2 tabs, 9 figs.

  14. Cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions.

  15. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2–15 years old...

  16. Cage drying and the application of a dry treatment (absorbent cornstarch powder) as a means to diminish Campylobacter on transport cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages soiled with Campylobacter-positive feces have been shown to facilitate cross contamination of broilers. Campylobacter organisms are sensitive to dry stress. Allowing feces left on transport cage flooring to dry during extended periods of nonuse would be an effective method ...

  17. Structure and energetic characteristics of methane hydrates. From single cage to triple cage: A DFT-D study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricheva, N. I.; Ischenko, A. A.; Yusupov, V. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Girichev, G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Electronic, geometrical, vibrational and energetic characteristics of the ice I TDT fragment consisted of dodecahedron H2O[512] (D) fused with two tetrakaidecahedrons H2O[51262] (T) and of the TDT cluster with three encapsulated CH4 molecules (3CH4·TDT) were calculated using a DFT/B97-D/6-311++G(2d,2p) approach. Binding energies, hydrogen bonding energies, energies of encapsulation of methane molecules into small D- and large T-cages of the TDT fragment, energies of frontier orbitals, the translational and librational frequencies, as well as the intramolecular vibrations of methane within the cages of different sizes were studied. Similar characteristics of isolated D- and T-cages and clathrates CH4·D and CH4·T were studied as function of compression/expansion of their oxygen skeletons using DFT/B97-D, LC-B3LYP, B3LYP-D2 methods.

  18. Trp-cage: Folding free energy landscape in explicit water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruhong

    2003-01-01

    Trp-cage is a 20-residue miniprotein, which is believed to be the fastest folder known so far. In this study, the folding free energy landscape of Trp-cage has been explored in explicit solvent by using an OPLSAA force field with periodic boundary condition. A highly parallel replica exchange molecular dynamics method is used for the conformation space sampling, with the help of a recently developed efficient molecular dynamics algorithm P3ME/RESPA (particle–particle particle–mesh Ewald/reference system propagator algorithm). A two-step folding mechanism is proposed that involves an intermediate state where two correctly formed partial hydrophobic cores are separated by an essential salt-bridge between residues Asp-9 and Arg-16 near the center of the peptide. This metastable intermediate state provides an explanation for the superfast folding process. The free energy landscape is found to be rugged at low temperatures, and then becomes smooth and funnel-like above 340 K. The lowest free energy structure at 300 K is only 1.50 Å Cα-RMSD (Cα-rms deviation) from the NMR structures. The simulated nuclear Overhauser effect pair distances are in excellent agreement with the raw NMR data. The temperature dependence of the Trp-cage population, however, is found to be significantly different from experiment, with a much higher melting transition temperature above 400 K (experimental 315 K), indicating that the current force fields, parameterized at room temperature, need to be improved to correctly predict the temperature dependence. PMID:14581616

  19. Crossover from reptation to Rouse dynamics in the cage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiński, A; van Leeuwen, J M J

    2006-12-01

    The two-dimensional cage model for polymer motion is discussed with an emphasis on the effect of sideways motions, which cross the barriers imposed by the lattice. Using the density matrix method as a solver of the master equation, the renewal time and the diffusion coefficient are calculated as a function of the strength of the barrier crossings. A strong crossover influence of the barrier crossings is found and it is analyzed in terms of effective exponents for a given chain length. The crossover scaling functions and the crossover scaling exponents are calculated.

  20. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  1. Standard test method for using atmospheric pressure rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a generally accepted procedure to conduct the rotating cage (RC) experiment under atmospheric pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Correction of Spray Concentration and Bioassay Cage Penetration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Tulle). Colony-reared Culex quinquefascia- tus Say and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were used, with 1 cage of each per location. Twenty-five mosquitos...concentration (ml etofenprox/ cm2); a, b, c, d 5 0.39, 0.11, 137.7, and 0.22 for Ae. albopictus , corrected data; DECEMBER 2012 SCIENTIFIC NOTE 321 a, b, c, d...5 0.37, 0.09, 151.5, and 0.22 for Ae. albopictus , uncorrected data; a, b, c, d 5 22.1, 0.00013, 95.8, and 1.26 for Cx. quinquefasciatus, corrected

  3. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S.Kapnichor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system involved all the mechanical components along with the sensors used to restrict the rotating operations, stop and go operations etc.

  4. Lumbar interbody fusion: a parametric investigation of a novel cage design with and without posterior instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Fabio; Schmidt, Hendrik; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2012-03-01

    A finite element model of the L4-L5 human segment was employed to carry out a parametric biomechanical investigation of lumbar interbody fusion with a novel "sandwich" cage having an inner stiff core and two softer layers in the areas close to the endplates, with and without posterior fixation. Considered cage designs included: (a) cage in a homogeneous material with variable elastic modulus (19-2,000 MPa), (b) "sandwich" cage having an inner core (E=2,000 MPa) and softer layers (E=19 MPa) with variable thickness (1-2.5 mm). The latter cage was also considered in combination with posterior rods made with a material having variable elastic modulus (19-210,000 MPa). All the models were loaded with 500 N compression and moments of 7.5 Nm in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. The homogeneous cage stabilized the segment in flexion, lateral bending and axial rotation; in extension there was a destabilization up to 60% and remarkable cage movement (1 mm). The "sandwich" cage limited this phenomenon (cage movement<0.6 mm), effectively stabilized the segment in the other directions and lowered the maximal contact pressure on the endplates, reducing the risk of subsidence. Posterior fixation reduced spinal flexibility and cage movement. The soft layers of the "sandwich" cage had the potential to limit the risk of cage subsidence and to preserve a significant loading of the structure even in combination with flexible posterior instrumentation, which may have a beneficial effect in promoting bony fusion.

  5. Cell culture chamber with gas supply for prolonged recording of human neuronal cells on microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Joose; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Mäki, Antti-Juhana; Ristola, Mervi; Narkilahti, Susanna; Kallio, Pasi

    2017-03-15

    Typically, live cell analyses are performed outside an incubator in an ambient air, where the lack of sufficient CO2 supply results in a fast change of pH and the high evaporation causes concentration drifts in the culture medium. That limits the experiment time for tens of minutes. In many applications, e.g. in neurotoxicity studies, a prolonged measurement of extracellular activity is, however, essential. We demonstrate a simple cell culture chamber that enables stable culture conditions during prolonged extracellular recordings on a microelectrode array (MEA) outside an incubator. The proposed chamber consists of a gas permeable silicone structure that enables gas transfer into the chamber. We show that the culture chamber supports the growth of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons both inside and outside an incubator. The structure provides very low evaporation, stable pH and osmolarity, and maintains strong signaling of hESC-derived neuronal networks over three-day MEA experiments. Existing systems are typically complex including continuous perfusion of medium or relatively large amount of gas to supply. The proposed chamber requires only a supply of very low flow rate (1.5ml/min) of non-humidified 5% CO2 gas. Utilizing dry gas supply makes the proposed chamber simple to use. Using the proposed culture structure on top of MEA, we can maintain hESC-derived neural networks over three days outside an incubator. Technically, the structure requires very low flow rate of dry gas supporting, however, low evaporation and maintaining the pH of the culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulus induced high frequency oscillations are present in neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick M Hales

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathological high frequency oscillations (250-600Hz are present in the brains of epileptic animals and humans. The etiology of these oscillations and how they contribute to the diseased state remains unclear. This work identifies the presence of microstimulation-evoked high frequency oscillations (250-400Hz in dissociated neuronal networks cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs. Oscillations are more apparent with higher stimulus voltages. As with in vivo studies, activity is isolated to a single electrode, however the MEA provides improved spatial resolution with no spread of the oscillation to adjacent electrodes 200µm away. Oscillations develop across 4 weeks in vitro. Oscillations still occur in the presence of tetrodotoxin and synaptic blockers, and they cause no apparent disruption in the ability of oscillation-presenting electrodes to elicit directly evoked action potentials (dAPs or promote the spread of synaptic activity throughout the culture. Chelating calcium with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA causes a temporal prolongation of the oscillation. Finally, carbenoxolone significantly reduces or eliminates the high frequency oscillations. Gap junctions may play a significant role in maintaining the oscillation given the inhibitory effect of carbenoxolone, the propagating effect of reduced calcium conditions and the isolated nature of the activity as demonstrated in previous studies. This is the first demonstration of stimulus evoked high frequency oscillations in dissociated cultures. Unlike current models that rely on complex in vivo recording conditions, this work presents a simple controllable model in neuronal cultures on MEAs to further investigate how the oscillations occur at the molecular level and how they may contribute to the pathophysiology of disease.

  7. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production.

  8. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  9. Nitriding using cathodic cage technique of martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 with addition of CH4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Sousa, R.R.M; De Araújo, F.O; Da Costa, J.A.P; De Sousa, R.S; Alves JR, C

    2008-01-01

    AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel samples were nitrided by cathodic cage technique with addition of methane in the atmosphere aiming to reduce chromium nitride precipitation, to increase hardness...

  10. REINVENTING THE WHEEL: Comparison of Two Wheel Cage Styles for Assessing Mouse Voluntary Running Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Tanya; Harfmann, Brianna D; Esser, Karyn A; Schroder, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-21

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different labs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differs depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to higher greater running distance/day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus, investigators need to report wheel cage type/ wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies.

  11. Effects of Nominal Differences in Cage Height and Floor Space on the Wellbeing of Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kay L; Suckow, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits. Groups of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were housed in cages that provided either 15 in. of interior cage height (720 in(2) of floor space) or 18 in. of interior height (784 in(2) of floor space). The rabbits were observed during 25 periods (1 h each) over 7 wk, and various behavioral parameters were scored. In addition, rabbits were weighed weekly, and general clinical health was assessed. After 4 wk, the groups were switched to the alternate housing. No significant differences in body weight gain or behavioral parameters were detected between groups housed in cages with different heights and amounts of floor space, nor were significant behavioral differences noted in individual rabbits when moved from one cage type to the other. In addition, all rabbits remained clinically healthy throughout the study. These results demonstrate that these differences in interior cage height neither benefit nor harm rabbits.

  12. Sensitivity of BN nano-cages to caffeine and nicotine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Alireza; Baei, Mohammad T.; Tazikeh Lemeski, E.; Shahini, Malihe

    2014-12-01

    Adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules over B12N12 and B16N16 nano-cages were investigated by using first-principles calculations to define whether BN nano-cages are applicable for filtering or sensing caffeine and nicotine molecules. The chemisorption energy of nicotine molecule on BN nano-cages is very stronger than caffeine molecule. Upon the adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules, the electronic properties of the BN nano-cages can be significantly changed, being too much sensitized on the caffeine and nicotine adsorptions.

  13. Photo-dependent protein biosynthesis using a caged aminoacyl-tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Akiya; Doi, Yoshio; Sisido, Masahiko; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ohtsuki, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Translation systems with four-base codons provide a powerful strategy for protein engineering and protein studies because they enable site-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids into proteins. In this study, a caged aminoacyl-tRNA with a four-base anticodon was synthesized. The caged aminoacyl-tRNA contains a photocleavable nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC) group. This study showed that the caged aminoacyl-tRNA was not deacylated, did not bind to EF-Tu, and was activated by light. Photo-dependent translation of an mRNA containing the four-base codon was demonstrated using the caged aminoacyl-tRNA.

  14. Onset of magnetism in supported transition metal encapsulated silicon cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Roberto; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2009-03-01

    In the past few years, silicon based clusters have attracted a lot of attention as building blocks of nanomaterials. Some of the most promising candidates are the transition metal encapsulated silicon cages, which have been shown to be specially stable, both experimentally and theoretically. However, for the use of these materials in fields like spintronics, it is not only necessary to be semiconductor based, but also that they present a finite magnetic moment. However, it has been shown that the magnetic moment of the transition metal atom encapsulated in silicon cages is quenched due to the hybridization with silicon. By performing density functional calculations in the generalized gradient approximation, we show that the magnetic moment of these clusters can be recovered by depositing then on a surface. Using CrSi12 on Si(111) as an example, we have deposited the cluster in different orientations. The studies show that, for most of them, a finite magnetic moment is preserved in the system after a geometrical relaxation. The origin of this behavior is discussed in terms of hybridization, comparing to the unsupported situation.

  15. [Rib cage ostheosynthesis. Literature review and case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quijano, Andrés; Varón-Cotés, Juan Carlos; García-Herreros-Hellal, Luis Gerardo; Espinosa-Moya, Beatriz; Rivero-Rapalino, Oscar; Salazar-Marulanda, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the chest wall include sternum and rib fractures. Traditionally they are managed conservatively due to the anatomy of the rib cage that allows most of them to remain stable and to form a callus that unites the fractured segments. In spite of this management, some patients present with chronic pain or instability of the wall which makes them require some type of fixation. The present article performs a literature review based on 4 cases. The first case was a 61 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, with a great deformity of the chest wall associated with subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax. The second case was a 51 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, initially managed at another institution, who despite treatment, had persistent pain and dyspnoea. The third case was a 30 year-old man that suffered a motor vehicle accident, with resulting pain and crepitation of the rib cage and with diagnostic images showing multiple rib fractures. The last case is a 62 year-old man that fell down the stairs, with blunt chest trauma with high intensity pain, dyspnoea and basal ipsilateral hypoventilation. Rib fracture fixation offers a good alternative in selected patients to decrease associated morbidity, leading to a patient's fast return to his or her working life. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of a phage endolysin by disulfide caging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuty, Gabriel F; Xu, Min; Struck, Douglas K; Summer, Elizabeth J; Young, Ry

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to canonical phage endolysins, which require holin-mediated disruption of the membrane to gain access to attack the cell wall, signal anchor release (SAR) endolysins are secreted by the host sec system, where they accumulate in an inactive form tethered to the membrane by their N-terminal SAR domains. SAR endolysins become activated by various mechanisms upon release from the membrane. In its inactive form, the prototype SAR endolysin, Lyz(P1), of coliphage P1, has an active-site Cys covalently blocked by a disulfide bond; activation involves a disulfide bond isomerization driven by a thiol in the newly released SAR domain, unblocking the active-site Cys. Here, we report that Lyz(103), the endolysin of Erwinia phage ERA103, is also a SAR endolysin. Although Lyz(103) does not have a catalytic Cys, genetic evidence suggests that it also is activated by a thiol-disulfide isomerization triggered by a thiol in the SAR domain. In this case, the inhibitory disulfide in nascent Lyz(103) is formed between cysteine residues flanking a catalytic glutamate, caging the active site. Thus, Lyz(P1) and Lyz(103) define subclasses of SAR endolysins that differ in the nature of their inhibitory disulfide, and Lyz(103) is the first enzyme found to be regulated by disulfide bond caging of its active site.

  17. Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Timo P.; Tenhunen, Asmo; Arkkio, Antero

    2005-06-01

    Eccentric rotor motion induces an unbalanced magnetic pull between the rotor and stator of cage induction motors. Recently, a linear parametric model of this eccentricity force due to the arbitrary rotor motion was presented. The purpose of this study is to combine this electromagnetic force model with a simple mechanical rotor model, and further, to demonstrate the rotordynamic response induced by this electromechanical interaction. An electromechanical rotor model is derived on the basis of the Jeffcott rotor with two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The electromechanical parameters of these motors were estimated from the numerical simulations carried out separately. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the natural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in motors operating at or near the first bending critical speed. Excluding the potential rotordynamic instability, the numerical results indicate that the electromechanical interaction reduces effectively the unbalance response close to the first bending critical speed.

  18. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  19. Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-11-01

    Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Peterman, Paul H.; Judy, Barbara M.; Taylor, Julia A.; Orazio, Carl E.; Ruhlen, Rachel L.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We examined whether new and used polycarbonate animal cages passively release bioactive levels of BPA into water at room temperature and neutral pH. Purified water was incubated at room temperature in new polycarbonate and polysulfone cages and used (discolored) polycarbonate cages, as well as control (glass and used polypropylene) containers. The resulting water samples were characterized with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tested for estrogenic activity using an MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Significant estrogenic activity, identifiable as BPA by GC/MS (up to 310 micro g/L), was released from used polycarbonate animal cages. Detectable levels of BPA were released from new polycarbonate cages (up to 0.3 micro g/L) as well as new polysulfone cages (1.5 micro g/L), whereas no BPA was detected in water incubated in glass and used polypropylene cages. Finally, BPA exposure as a result of being housed in used polycarbonate cages produced a 16% increase in uterine weight in prepubertal female mice relative to females housed in used polypropylene cages, although the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that laboratory animals maintained in polycarbonate and polysulfone cages are exposed to BPA via leaching, with exposure reaching the highest levels in old cages.

  1. Risk factors for cage retropulsion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion: analysis of 1070 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Odate, Seiichi; Soeda, Tsunemitsu; Yamamura, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Single-center retrospective study. We examined the risk factors for cage retropulsion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) performed for patients with degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. Although PLIF is a widely accepted procedure, problems remain regarding perioperative and postoperative complications. There are few reported studies identifying specific risk factors for cage retropulsion, one of the implant-related complications after PLIF, although several case reports have been published. Between April 2006 and July 2010, 1070 patients with various degenerative lumbar spinal diseases underwent single- or multilevel PLIF combined with posterolateral fusion, using posterior pedicle screw fixation and box-type cages. Their medical records and preoperative radiographs were reviewed and the factors influencing the incidence of cage retropulsion were analyzed. There were 9 cases of cage retropulsion (7 men and 2 women; mean age, 68.2 yr), and it developed within 2 months after surgery in all cases. Five patients had low back pain or leg pain, 3 of whom required revision surgery. The mean fusion level was 3.9 (range, 2-5); in 6 of the 9 patients, the cage had migrated at L5/S, 2 at L4/5, and 1 at L3/4. All of the cages were inserted at the end disc level of multilevel fusion procedures. The disc heights and ranges of motion were significantly greater in patients with cage retropulsion, and patients with a pear-shaped disc space also showed a higher rate of cage retropulsion. These results indicate that PLIF at L5/S, a wide disc space with instability, multilevel fusion surgery, and a pear-shaped disc space on lateral radiographs are risk factors for cage retropulsion. The identification of these risk factors should allow us to avoid this complication, and the use of expandable cages is an effective option for such cases.

  2. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  3. Effect of cage tier and age on performance, egg quality and stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cage tier and age on performance characteristics of layer hybrids, egg quality and some stress parameters. Ninety laying hens (hybrid ATAK-S) of similar bodyweights were used in the experiment. They were housed in three-tier conventional battery cages (bottom, ...

  4. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  5. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  6. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  7. Validity of the CAGE in Screening for Problem Drinking in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Edward J.; Lichtenberg, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Examined the ability of CAGE, an established screening test for alcoholism, to identify accurately problem drinkers among college students (N=582). Found that the CAGE did not perform well enough to serve as a screening tool for problem drinking within the college student population. (Author/ABL)

  8. Forced Hot Air to Dry Feces and Kill Bacteria on Transport Cage Flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to fecal shedding from positive birds, broiler transport cages can be contaminated with human bacterial pathogens leading to cross contamination of previously negative broilers during live haul. Earlier work has shown that drying soiled or washed cages for 24 to 48 hours can lower or even elimi...

  9. Development of an integrated CAD-FEA system for patient-specific design of spinal cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzheng; Pu, Fang; Xu, Liqiang; Zhang, Linlin; Liang, Hang; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo

    2017-03-01

    Spinal cages are used to create a suitable mechanical environment for interbody fusion in cases of degenerative spinal instability. Due to individual variations in bone structures and pathological conditions, patient-specific cages can provide optimal biomechanical conditions for fusion, strengthening patient recovery. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a valuable tool in the biomechanical evaluation of patient-specific cage designs, but the time- and labor-intensive process of modeling limits its clinical application. In an effort to facilitate the design and analysis of patient-specific spinal cages, an integrated CAD-FEA system (CASCaDeS, comprehensive analytical spinal cage design system) was developed. This system produces a biomechanical-based patient-specific design of spinal cages and is capable of rapid implementation of finite element modeling. By comparison with commercial software, this system was validated and proven to be both accurate and efficient. CASCaDeS can be used to design patient-specific cages with a superior biomechanical performance to commercial spinal cages.

  10. The Effects of Caging on the Colonization of Fouling Organisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of caging on the colonization and development of the fouling community in the upper Bonny estuary was studied. The experimental design was such that sets of wooden panels (20x20 cm) were screened with cages constructed with plastic netting while another set was left uncaged. Both sets of panels were ...

  11. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  12. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Theo H.; Thomas, Kevin A.; Hoogendoorn, Roel J. W.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Helder, Marco N.; Wuisman, Paul I. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during

  13. Design and synthesis of novel bis-annulated caged polycycles via ring-closing metathesis: pushpakenediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intricate caged molecular frameworks are assembled by an atom economical process via a Diels–Alder (DA reaction, a Claisen rearrangement, a ring-closing metathesis (RCM and an alkenyl Grignard addition. The introduction of olefinic moieties in the pentacycloundecane (PCUD framework at appropriate positions followed by RCM led to the formation of novel heptacyclic cage systems.

  14. Genome-wide detection and analysis of hippocampus core promoters using DeepCAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Pascarella, Giovanni; Chalk, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    in a given tissue. Here, we present a new method for high-throughput sequencing of 5' cDNA tags-DeepCAGE: merging the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression method with ultra-high-throughput sequence technology. We apply DeepCAGE to characterize 1.4 million sequenced TSS from mouse hippocampus and reveal a wealth...

  15. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  16. Self-Assembly, Guest Capture, and NMR Spectroscopy of a Metal-Organic Cage in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Eun Bin; Srisuknimit, Veerasak; Cheng, Stephanie L.; Vosburg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A green organic-inorganic laboratory experiment has been developed in which students prepare a self-assembling iron cage in D[subscript 2]O at room temperature. The tetrahedral cage captures a small, neutral molecule such as cyclohexane or tetrahydrofuran. [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis distinguishes captured and free guests through diagnostic…

  17. ANALISIS IT GOVERNANCE DENGAN DOMAIN MEA01 DALAM PELAKSANAAN E-HEALTH MENGGUNAKAN KERANGKA KERJA COBIT 5 PADA DINAS KESEHATAN PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusyida Baniya Savira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Informasi memiliki peran yang sangat penting untuk mendukung tujuan pencapaian suatu kegiatan dalam organisasi mupun instansi. Apabila pemanfaatan TI sudah berjalan dan mampu berintegrasi dengan baik dengan organisasi, maka TI mampu mendorong terjadinya peningkatan kinerja organisasi. Untuk mendukungnya, dibutuhkan suatu kegiatan monitoring, evaluasi, dan penilaian kinerja suatu organisasi. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Tengah merupakan suatu instansi pemerintahan yang bertindak sebagai penyelenggara untuk penyediaan layanan kesehatan kepada masyarakat di daerah Jawa Tengah. Permasalahan yang pada Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Tengah adalah dalam pelaksanaan kegiatan pengawasan dan evaluasi masih ditemukan beberapa kekurangan seperti kurang lengkapnya Standart Operational Procedure (SOP mengenai detail proses pengawasan dan penilaian kinerja, proses tata kelola TI yang belum dilakukan secara menyeluruh, serta kurangnya pengawasan dalam peningkatan kebutuhan pemakaian e-health. Dari hasil studi dokumen, wawancara dan kuesioner berdasarkan COBIT 5 dihasilkan level kapabilitas tata kelola proses monitoring, evaluasi, dan penilaian kinerja dan kesesuaian (MEA01 saat ini adalah level 1 yaitu Performed, dengan tingkat pencapaian Largely Achieved sebesar 83,33% atau setara dengan 1,83 yang menunjukkan bahwa proses monitoring kinerja dan kesesuaian yang telah diimplementasikan berhasil mencapai tujuan instansi tetapi masih belum sepenuhnya dikelola dengan baik. Untuk mencapai level kapabilitas 2, dapat dilakukan strategi perbaikan secara bertahap dari proses atribut level 1 sampai 2. Kata kunci: COBIT 5, Analisis Tata Kelola TI, E-health, Proses Monitoring Evaluate and Assess Performance and Conformance (MEA01, Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

  18. PerFlexMEA: a thin microporous microelectrode array for in vitro cardiac electrophysiological studies on hetero-cellular bilayers with controlled gap junction communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, A; Baker, B; Harvey, I R; Moreno, A P

    2015-05-07

    The new microelectrode array device presented is called PerFlexMEA and it enables controlled coupling between myocytes and nonmyocytes used in cardiovascular conduction studies. The device consists of an 8 μm thin parylene microporous membrane with a 4 × 5 microelectrode array patterned on one side. Myocytes and nonmyocytes can be plated on either side of the parylene membrane to create a tissue bilayer. The 3-3.5 μm diameter pores allow inter-layer dye and electrical coupling without transmembrane cell migration. Cell migration was found to vary with cell-type and micropore diameter. Pore density can be varied based on desired coupling ratio. The flexible parylene membrane is packaged between two rigid thermoplastic layers, such that the microelectrode array region is exposed, while the rest of the device remains insulated. The packaged PerFlexMEA fits in a 60 mm culture dish. Recording experiments are performed by simply plugging it into a commercially available multielectrode amplifier system. Recorded signals were processed and analysed using scripts generated in MATLAB. Our experimental results provide evidence of the reliability of this device, as conduction velocity was observed to decrease after inducing lateral hetero-cellular controlled coupling between myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43.

  19. Juvenil neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, J R; Hertz, Jens Michael

    1998-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis is a group of neurodegenerative diseases which are characterized by an abnormal accumulation of lipopigment in neuronal and extraneuronal cells. The diseases can be differentiated into several subgroups according to age of onset, the clinical picture...

  20. Effects of manual rib cage compressions on expiratory flow and mucus clearance during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joan Daniel; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Rigol, Montserrat; Saucedo, Lina; Ranzani, Otavio Tavares; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Nestor; Ferrer, Miquel; Vilaro, Jordi; Kolobow, Theodor; Torres, Antoni

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the effects of two different types of manual rib cage compression on expiratory flow and mucus clearance during prolonged mechanical ventilation in pigs. Prospective randomized animal study. Animal research facility, University of Barcelona, Spain. Nine healthy pigs. Pigs were tracheally intubated, sedated, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The animals were prone on a surgical bed in the anti-Trendelenburg position. The experiments were carried out at approximately 60 and 80 hrs from the beginning of mechanical ventilation. Two types of manual rib cage compressions were tested: Hard and brief rib cage compressions synchronized with early expiratory phase (hard manual rib cage compression) and soft and gradual rib cage compressions applied during the late expiratory phase (soft manual rib cage compression). The interventions were randomly applied for 15min with a 15-min interval between treatments. Respiratory flow and mucus movement were assessed during the interventions. Respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics were assessed prior to and after the interventions. Peak expiratory flow increased to 60.1±7.1L/min in comparison to 51.2±4.6L/min without treatment (p < 0.0015) and 48.7±4.3L/min with soft manual rib cage compression (p = 0.0002). Similarly, mean expiratory flow increased to 28.4±5.2L/min during hard manual rib cage compression vs. 15.9±2.2 and 16.6±2.8L/min without treatment and soft manual rib cage compression, respectively (p = 0.0006). During hard manual rib cage compression, mucus moved toward the glottis (1.01 ± 2.37mm/min); conversely, mucus moved toward the lungs during no treatment and soft manual rib cage compression, -0.28 ± 0.61 and -0.15±0.95mm/min, respectively (p = 0.0283). Soft manual rib cage compression slightly worsened static lung elastance and cardiac output (p = 0.0391). Hard manual rib cage compression improved mucus clearance in animals positioned in the anti-Trendelenburg position. The technique

  1. The effect of hyperbaric air on the electric activity of neuronal in vitro networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Marco; Nissen, Matthias; Schroeder, Jessica; Gimsa, Jan

    2015-11-15

    Breathing hyperbaric air or gas mixtures, for example during diving or when working underwater is known to alter the electrophysiological behavior of neuronal cells, which may lead to restricted cognition. During the last few decades, only very few studies into hyperbaric effects have been published, especially for the most relevant pressure range of up to 10 bar. We designed a pressurized measuring chamber to record pressure effects on the electrical activity of neuronal networks formed by primary cells of the frontal cortex of NMRI mice. Electrical activity was recorded with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) of glass neuro chips while subjected to a step-by-step pressure increase from atmospheric pressure (1 bar) to 2 and 4 bar, followed by a decompression to 1 bar, in order to record recovery effects. The effects of pressure on the total spike rates (TSRs), which were averaged from at least 45 chips, were detected in two cell culture media with different compositions. In a DMEM medium with 6% horse serum, the TSR was increased by 19% after a pressure increase to 2 bar and remained stable at 4 bar. In NMEM medium with 2% B27, the TSR was not altered by a pressure increase to 2 bar but increased by 9% at 4 bar. After decompression to 1 bar, the activities decreased to 76% and 101% of their respective control levels in the two media. MEA recordings from neuronal networks in miniaturized hyperbaric measuring chambers provide new access for exploring the neuronal effects of hyperbaric breathing gases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of cage size on play and aggression between dogs in purpose-bred beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebak, J; Beck, A M

    1993-10-01

    One intent of the proposed changes to USDA 9, CFR Part 3 was to give kennel dogs an opportunity for exercise and play (socialization). Increasing cage size was proposed as a means to encourage exercise and play, thus enhancing the well-being of kennel dogs. Eleven-month-old, female, purpose-bred Beagles, housed four to a cage, were videotaped for 15 hours on 10 different dates, resulting in five videotapes recorded for a smaller cage size and five videotapes recorded for a larger cage size. A total of 40 dogs were videotaped. For each videotape, aggression, play, and distance between dogs were recorded and analyzed. There were no differences in aggression or play, but the dogs did put significantly more distance between themselves in the larger cage.

  3. Parameters estimation of squirrel-cage induction motors using ANN and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi Jirdehi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the transient behavior analysis of a squirrel-cage induction motor, the parameters of the single-cage and double-cage models are studied. These parameters are usually hard to obtain. This paper presents two new methods to predict the induction motor parameters in the single-cage and double-cage models based on artificial neural network (ANN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. For this purpose, the experimental data (manufacturer data of 20 induction motors with the different power are used. The experimental data are including of the starting torque and current, maximum torque, full load sleep, efficiency, rated active power and reactive power. The obtained results from the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are compared with each other and with the experimental data, which show a good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data. But the proposed ANFIS model is more accurate than the proposed ANN model.

  4. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2016-07-27

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  5. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  6. Performance Analysis of a Brushless Double Fed Cage Induction Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruencos, F. [WEG S.A., Jaragua do Sul (Brazil); Carlson, R.; Oliveira, A.M.; Kuo-Peng, P.; Sadowski, N. [GRUCAD-UFSC, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses design and performance aspects of a brushless double fed cage induction generator as an economic and technical alternative to the classical wound rotor induction generator used in wind power generation. It focuses firstly on the machine operational characteristics and main design criteria and secondly on steady state and dynamic analytical and numerical models for efficient prediction of machine behavior. The analytical dynamic model is obtained by transforming the equations written in machine variables into equations written in an arbitrary reference frame. In the finite element approach the electrical machine is modeled in a 2D domain, using the Maxwell equations to formulate the field behavior and the FE method to discretize the domain of study. A prototype was built and tested to validate the simulation models and to verify the design criteria.

  7. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns.

  8. Cationic P-S-X cages (X=Br, I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Marcin; Krossing, Ingo; Matern, Eberhard

    2006-02-08

    The first condensed-phase preparation of ternary P-Ch-X cations (Ch=O-Te, X=F-I) is reported: [P5S3X2]+, [P5S2X2]+, and [P4S4X]+ (X=Br, I). [P5S3X2]+ is formed from the reaction of the Ag+/PX3 reagent with P4S3. The [P5S3X2]+ ions have a structure that is related to P4S5 by replacing P=S by P+--X and S in the four-membered ring by P(X). We provide evidence that the active ingredient of the Ag+/PX3 reagent is the (H2CCl2)Ag-X-PX2+ cation. The latter likely reacts with the HOMO of P4S3 in a concerted HOMO-LUMO addition to give the P5S3X2+ ion as the first species visible in situ in the low-temperature 31P NMR spectrum. The [P5S3X2]+ ions are metastable at -78 degrees C and disproportionate at slightly higher temperatures to give [P5S2X2]+ and [P4S4X]+, probably with the extrusion of 1/n (PX)n (X=Br, I). All six new cage compounds have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and, in part, by IR or Raman spectroscopy. The [P5S2X2]+ salts have a nortricyclane skeleton and were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the [P4S4X]+ ion is related to that of P4S5 in that the exo-cage P=S bond is replaced by an isoelectronic P+--X moiety.

  9. Specific Internalisation of Gold Nanoparticles into Engineered Porous Protein Cages via Affinity Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Paramelle

    Full Text Available Porous protein cages are supramolecular protein self-assemblies presenting pores that allow the access of surrounding molecules and ions into their core in order to store and transport them in biological environments. Protein cages' pores are attractive channels for the internalisation of inorganic nanoparticles and an alternative for the preparation of hybrid bioinspired nanoparticles. However, strategies based on nanoparticle transport through the pores are largely unexplored, due to the difficulty of tailoring nanoparticles that have diameters commensurate with the pores size and simultaneously displaying specific affinity to the cages' core and low non-specific binding to the cages' outer surface. We evaluated the specific internalisation of single small gold nanoparticles, 3.9 nm in diameter, into porous protein cages via affinity binding. The E2 protein cage derived from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus presents 12 pores, 6 nm in diameter, and an empty core of 13 nm in diameter. We engineered the E2 protein by site-directed mutagenesis with oligohistidine sequences exposing them into the cage's core. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy analysis show that the structures of E2 protein cages mutated with bis- or penta-histidine sequences are well conserved. The surface of the gold nanoparticles was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer made of a mixture of short peptidols and thiolated alkane ethylene glycol ligands. Such monolayers are found to provide thin coatings preventing non-specific binding to proteins. Further functionalisation of the peptide coated gold nanoparticles with Ni2+ nitrilotriacetic moieties enabled the specific binding to oligohistidine tagged cages. The internalisation via affinity binding was evaluated by electron microscopy analysis. From the various mutations tested, only the penta-histidine mutated E2 protein cage showed repeatable and stable internalisation. The present work overcomes the

  10. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Theo H; Thomas, Kevin A; Hoogendoorn, Roel J W; Strijkers, Gustav J; Helder, Marco N; Wuisman, Paul I J M

    2007-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during degradation studies in vitro. Yet failure of the cages was observed after only 3 months in vivo. We hypothesized that degradation characteristics and mechanical strength could be improved by sterilizing the cages through ethylene oxide (EtO) instead of e-beam. PLDLLA cages were sterilized either by e-beam or EtO, and degraded in phosphate-buffered saline. Each month, cages were compressed until failure. Inherent viscosity was determined as a measure of degradation. For the in vivo evaluation, e-beam- or EtO-sterilized cages were implanted at L3-L4 in a standardized goat model. After 3 or 6 months, retrieved segments were scanned by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Also, inherent viscosity of the polymer was measured. e-beam sterilization strongly decreased inherent viscosity of PLDLLA compared with EtO sterilization, but initial strength was only affected marginally. After 6 months, the strength of the e-beam-sterilized cages dropped, while that of EtO-sterilized cages was maintained. Degradation in vivo was slightly faster than in vitro. In both groups, however, mechanical failure occurred at 3 months after implantation. Inherent viscosity decreases with degradation time, but strength only decreases when inherent viscosity is below a certain threshold. Above this threshold, mechanical strength is a property of the polymer and independent of inherent viscosity. e-beam sterilization strongly decreases inherent viscosity and thus advances mechanical degradation. EtO sterilization delays degradation but does not increase initial strength. Early failure of PLDLLA cages in the goat model thus is unrelated to sterilization method and requires further study.

  11. Protein cages and synthetic polymers: a fruitful symbiosis for drug delivery applications, bionanotechnology and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Martin; Nussbaumer, Martin G; Renggli, Kasper; Bruns, Nico

    2016-11-07

    Protein cages are hollow protein nanoparticles, such as viral capsids, virus-like particles, ferritin, heat-shock proteins and chaperonins. They have well-defined capsule-like structures with a monodisperse size. Their protein subunits can be modified by genetic engineering at predetermined positions, allowing for example site-selective introduction of attachment points for functional groups, catalysts or targeting ligands on their outer surface, in their interior and between subunits. Therefore, protein cages have been extensively explored as functional entities in bionanotechnology, as drug-delivery or gene-delivery vehicles, as nanoreactors or as templates for the synthesis of organic and inorganic nanomaterials. The scope of functionalities and applications of protein cages can be significantly broadened if they are combined with synthetic polymers on their surface or within their interior. For example, PEGylation reduces the immunogenicity of protein cage-based delivery systems and active targeting ligands can be attached via polymer chains to favour their accumulation in diseased tissue. Polymers within protein cages offer the possibility of increasing the loading density of drug molecules, nucleic acids, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents or catalysts. Moreover, the interaction of protein cages and polymers can be used to modulate the size and shape of some viral capsids to generate structures that do not occur with native viruses. Another possibility is to use the interior of polymer cages as a confined reaction space for polymerization reactions such as atom transfer radical polymerization or rhodium-catalysed polymerization of phenylacetylene. The protein nanoreactors facilitate a higher degree of control over polymer synthesis. This review will summarize the hybrid structures that have been synthesized by polymerizing from protein cage-bound initiators, by conjugating polymers to protein cages, by embedding protein cages into bulk polymeric

  12. In-vitro exposure of neuronal networks to the GSM-1800 signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Daniela; Garenne, André; Haro, Emmanuelle; Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Lagroye, Isabelle; Lévêque, Philippe; Veyret, Bernard; Lewis, Noëlle

    2013-12-01

    The central nervous system is the most likely target of mobile telephony radiofrequency (RF) field exposure in terms of biological effects. Several electroencephalography (EEG) studies have reported variations in the alpha-band power spectrum during and/or after RF exposure, in resting EEG and during sleep. In this context, the observation of the spontaneous electrical activity of neuronal networks under RF exposure can be an efficient tool to detect the occurrence of low-level RF effects on the nervous system. Our research group has developed a dedicated experimental setup in the GHz range for the simultaneous exposure of neuronal networks and monitoring of electrical activity. A transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell was used to expose the neuronal networks to GSM-1800 signals at a SAR level of 3.2 W/kg. Recording of the neuronal electrical activity and detection of the extracellular spikes and bursts under exposure were performed using microelectrode arrays (MEAs). This work provides the proof of feasibility and preliminary results of the integrated investigation regarding exposure setup, culture of the neuronal network, recording of the electrical activity, and analysis of the signals obtained under RF exposure. In this pilot study on 16 cultures, there was a 30% reversible decrease in firing rate (FR) and bursting rate (BR) during a 3 min exposure to RF. Additional experiments are needed to further characterize this effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Action potential-based MEA platform for in vitro screening of drug-induced cardiotoxicity using human iPSCs and rat neonatal myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Danny; Callewaert, Geert; Krylychkina, Olga; Hoffman, Luis; Gullo, Francesco; Prodanov, Dimiter; Braeken, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Drug-induced cardiotoxicity poses a negative impact on public health and drug development. Cardiac safety pharmacology issues urged for the preclinical assessment of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmia leading to the design of several in vitro electrophysiological screening assays. In general, patch clamp systems allow for intracellular recordings, while multi-electrode array (MEA) technology detect extracellular activity. Here, we demonstrate a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based MEA system as a reliable platform for non-invasive, long-term intracellular recording of cardiac action potentials at high resolution. Quinidine (8 concentrations from 10 -7 to 2.10 -5 M) and verapamil (7 concentrations from 10 -11 to 10 -5 M) were tested for dose-dependent responses in a network of cardiomyocytes. Electrophysiological parameters, such as the action potential duration (APD), rates of depolarization and repolarization and beating frequency were assessed. In hiPSC, quinidine prolonged APD with EC 50 of 2.2·10 -6 M. Further analysis indicated a multifactorial action potential prolongation by quinidine: (1) decreasing fast repolarization with IC 50 of 1.1·10 -6 M; (2) reducing maximum upstroke velocity with IC 50 of 2.6·10 -6 M; and (3) suppressing spontaneous activity with EC 50 of 3.8·10 -6 M. In rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, verapamil blocked spontaneous activity with EC 50 of 5.3·10 -8 M and prolonged the APD with EC 50 of 2.5·10 -8 M. Verapamil reduced rates of fast depolarization and repolarization with IC 50 s of 1.8 and 2.2·10 -7 M, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed action potential-based MEA platform offers high quality and stable long-term recordings with high information content allowing to characterize multi-ion channel blocking drugs. We anticipate application of the system as a screening platform to efficiently and cost-effectively test drugs for cardiac safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individually ventilated cages cause chronic low-grade hypoxia impacting mice hematologically and behaviorally

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jason M.; McDaniel, Allison W.; Blevins, Neil A.; Guillet, Riley R.; Allison, Sarah O.; Cengel, Keith A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    Use of individually ventilated caging (IVC) systems for mouse-based laboratory investigation has dramatically increased. We found that without mice present, intra-cage oxygen concentration was comparable (21%) between IVC housing and ambient environment caging (AEC) that used wire top lids. However, when mice were housed 4-to-a-cage for 1 week, intra-cage oxygen dropped to 20.5% in IVC housing as compared to 21% for AEC housing. IVC intra-cage humidity was also elevated relative to AEC housing. Mice raised in IVC housing as compared to mice raised in AEC housing had higher RBC mass, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations. They also had elevated platelet counts but lower white blood cell counts. IVC mice relative to AEC mice had increased saccharin preference and increased fluid consumption but similar locomotion, food intake, social exploration and novel object recognition when tested in an AEC environment. Taken together, these data indicate that ventilated caging systems can have a 0.5% reduction from ambient oxygen concentration that is coupled to mouse red blood cell indices indicative of chronic exposure to a hypoxia. Importantly, IVC housing can impact behavioral testing for depressive-like behavior. PMID:22561683

  15. Suitability of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone cages for use as anterior struts following corpectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heary, Robert F; Parvathreddy, Naresh K; Qayumi, Zainab S; Ali, Naiim S; Agarwal, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Fibular allograft remains a widely used strut for corpectomy surgeries. The amount of graft material that can be packed into an allograft strut has not been quantified. Cages are an alternative to fibular allograft for fusion surgeries. The authors of this study assessed the suitability of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRP) cages for anterior corpectomy surgeries. They further explored the parameters known to affect fusion rates in clinical practice. METHODS Six fibular allografts were tested at standard lengths. Three sets of carbon fiber cages (Bengal, DePuy Spine), each with a different footprint size but the same lengths, were tested. The allografts and cages were wrapped in adhesive, fluid-tight transparent barriers and filled with oil. The volume and weight of the oil instilled as well as the implant footprints were measured. The fibular allografts and cages were tested at 20-, 40-, and 50-mm lengths. Two investigators independently performed all measurements 5 times. Five CFRP cubes (1 × 1 × 1 cm) were tested under pure compression, and load versus displacement curves were plotted to determine the modulus of elasticity. RESULTS Significantly more oil fit in the CFRP cages than in the fibular allografts (p Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone cages can accommodate much more graft material than can fibular allografts. In clinical practice, the ability to deliver greater amounts of graft material following a corpectomy may improve fusion rates.

  16. Computational design and fabrication of a novel bioresorbable cage for tibial tuberosity advancement application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Vorndran, Elke; Gbureck, Uwe; Quental, Carlos; Folgado, João; Fernandes, Paulo R

    2017-01-01

    Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is a promising method for the treatment of cruciate ligament rupture in dogs that usually implies the implantation of a titanium cage as bone implant. This cage is non-biodegradable and fails in providing adequate implant-bone tissue integration. The objective of this work is to propose a new process chain for designing and manufacturing an alternative biodegradable cage that can fulfill specific patient requirements. A three-dimensional finite element model (3D FEM) of the TTA system was first created to evaluate the mechanical environment at cage domain during different stages of the dog walk. The cage microstructure was then optimized using a topology optimization tool, which addresses the accessed local mechanical requirements, and at same time ensures the maximum permeability to allow nutrient and oxygen supply to the implant core. The designed cage was then biofabricated by a 3D powder printing of tricalcium phosphate cement. This work demonstrates that the combination of a 3D FEM with a topology optimization approach enabled the design of a novel cage for TTA application with tailored permeability and mechanical properties, that can be successfully 3D printed in a biodegradable bioceramic material. These results support the potential of the design optimization strategy and fabrication method to the development of customized and bioresorbable implants for bone repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Caging, but not air deprivation, slows tadpole growth and development in the amphibian Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Christopher S

    2014-08-01

    Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised in submerged cages in normoxic water develop more slowly than tadpoles raised with access to air. This study distinguishes between the effects of being caged and being deprived access to air on development and growth. Tadpoles were raised in high and low density control tanks and in cages in the same tank that were either completely submerged or with the top exposed to air. Experiments were repeated with the cages in different positions relative to the air stones and with and without the water flow from air stones supplemented with a pump. Whereas caging tadpoles has a large effect on their development and growth, additionally depriving them of air has a small effect and this effect can be removed by optimizing water flow through the cage. The effect of caging, though significant in this study, is small compared to the variation in growth and developmental rates that is commonly encountered within and among controls in lab studies. Caging effects can also be diminished by optimizing rearing conditions and/or having exceptionally vigorous tadpoles. The effects of air deprivation and caging thus pose less of a problem for experimenting on air-deprived (AD) and air-restored Xenopus tadpoles than their inherent variability in growth and developmental rates and their susceptibility to growth and developmental arrest. Further, the effect of air deprivation in this air-breathing amphibian does not pose a conflict with evolutionary hypotheses for lung loss involving lengthening of the larval period and delay in the onset of air breathing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effects of design and positioning of carbon fiber lumbar interbody cages and their subsidence in vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Fred C; Alkalay, Ron; Groff, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    A biomechanical study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. To determine the strength and stiffness of 3 carbon fiber cage designs in axial compression. To assess the effects of bone mineral density (BMD) on vertebral endplate failure with respect to the different cage patterns. Unilateral transforaminal approaches are gaining popularity compared with posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion. With differences in the inherent strengths of each quadrant of the endplate, the effect of different cage designs and their location on the endplate may affect subsidence and fusion success. BMD measurements were obtained from 30 human spinal segments from L3 to L5. Discectomies were performed and cages were placed on the cephalad endplate of each vertebra in 3 configurations: 2 small posterolateral rectangular cages; 1 small anterior banana cage; and 1 small central rectangular cage. Each segment was tested under compression until endplate failure was recorded. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for the effects of cage design on cage subsidence and endplate failure. Analysis of covariance was conducted to test for the effects of age, BMD, and vertebral levels on the failure load and stiffness for each cage design. Cage design was not significant in affecting failure force across the endplate. There were insignificant differences comparing stiffness in compression for the 3 different cage placements patterns. Low BMD adversely affected failure force and construct stiffness across all 3 cage patterns. Cage design and position do not significantly affect failure of the construct or stiffness in compression across the endplate. BMD significantly affects both failure forces and stiffness but is not dependent on the positioning or design of the cage.

  19. Interbody fusion cage design using integrated global layout and local microstructure topology optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ying; Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Chen, Po-Quan; Hollister, Scott J

    2004-08-15

    An approach combining global layout and local microstructure topology optimization was used to create a new interbody fusion cage design that concurrently enhanced stability, biofactor delivery, and mechanical tissue stimulation for improved arthrodesis. To develop a new interbody fusion cage design by topology optimization with porous internal architecture. To compare the performance of this new design to conventional threaded cage designs regarding early stability and long-term stress shielding effects on ingrown bone. Conventional interbody cage designs mainly fall into categories of cylindrical or rectangular shell shapes. The designs contribute to rigid stability and maintain disc height for successful arthrodesis but may also suffer mechanically mediated failures of dislocation or subsidence, as well as the possibility of bone resorption. The new optimization approach created a cage having designed microstructure that achieved desired mechanical performance while providing interconnected channels for biofactor delivery. The topology optimization algorithm determines the material layout under desirable volume fraction (50%) and displacement constraints favorable to bone formation. A local microstructural topology optimization method was used to generate periodic microstructures for porous isotropic materials. Final topology was generated by the integration of the two-scaled structures according to segmented regions and the corresponding material density. Image-base finite element analysis was used to compare the mechanical performance of the topology-optimized cage and conventional threaded cage. The final design can be fabricated by a variety of Solid Free-Form systems directly from the image output. The new design exhibited a narrower, more uniform displacement range than the threaded cage design and lower stress at the cage-vertebra interface, suggesting a reduced risk of subsidence. Strain energy density analysis also indicated that a higher portion of

  20. Reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa maintained in different cage sizes in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Magalhães Borges Battel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of cage sizes on the survival and reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen. Size of breeding cages significantly affected the reproductive potential of C. externa . Our results indicated that in cages smaller (7.5cm of diameter than those usually recommended for the rearing of this insect (10cm diameter, females showed higher rates of oviposition. Reduction of space for rearing natural enemies in the laboratory is very important for developing biological control programs.

  1. Guest-cage atomic interactions in a clathrate-based phase-change material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M; Law, Leong-Tat; Wang, Wei-Jie; Li, Ming-Hua; Song, Wen-Dong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Elliott, Stephen R

    2014-03-19

    New clathrate-based phase-change materials with cage-like structures incorporating Cs and Ba guest atoms, are reported as a means of altering crystallization and amorphization behavior by controlling 'guest-cage' interactions via intra-complex guest vibrational effects. Both a high resistance to spontaneous crystallization, and long retention of the amorphous phase are achieved, as well as a low melting energy. This approach provides a route for achieving cage-controlled semiconductor devices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chiral Organic Cages with a Triple-Stranded Helical Structure Derived from Helicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abaid Ullah; Gan, Fuwei; Shen, Chengshuo; Yu, Na; Wang, Ruibin; Crassous, Jeanne; Shu, Mouhai; Qiu, Huibin

    2018-02-28

    We report the use of helicene with an intrinsic helical molecular structure to prepare covalent organic cages via imine condensation. The organic cages revealed a [3+2]-type architecture containing a triple-stranded helical structure with three helicene units arranged in a propeller-like fashion with the framework integrally twisted. Such structural chirality was retained upon dissolution in organic solvents, as indicated by a strong diastereotopy effect in proton NMR and unique Cotton effects in circular dichroism spectra. Further study on chiral adsorption showed that the chiral organic cages possess considerable enantioselectivity toward a series of aromatic racemates.

  3. Effects of declawing and cage shape on productivity, feathering, and fearfulness of egg-type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanskike, K P; Adams, A W

    1983-04-01

    Declawing day-old egg-type chicks did not significantly (P less than .05) alter 20-week body weight. However, declawed hens tended to mature earlier and lay more eggs than the intact hens. Hens housed in shallow cages tended to be better feathered than those housed in deep cages. Neither declawing nor cage shape had a significant effect on the time required for birds to return to feeding after exposure to a noise stimulus, which was used as an indicator of fearfulness.

  4. Spiro annulation of cage polycycles via Grignard reaction and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic strategy to C2-symmetric bis-spiro-pyrano cage compound 7 involving ring-closing metathesis is reported. The hexacyclic dione 10 was prepared from simple and readily available starting materials such as 1,4-naphthoquinone and cyclopentadiene. The synthesis of an unprecedented octacyclic cage compound through intramolecular Diels–Alder (DA reaction as a key step is described. The structures of three new cage compounds 7, 12 and 18 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  5. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Emre eKapucu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates interspike interval thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  6. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI) histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates ISI thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average (CMA) and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA) data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  7. CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier Data detail Data name CAGE peaks...dc01389-007.V002 No Update V1 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-007.V001 - Description of data contents Evaluation of CAGE peak...s It shows that the sequence close to CAGE peak has TSS-like or not. TS...ase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Colloidal glasses and gels: The interplay of bonding and caging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Poon, Wilson C K

    2009-09-08

    We report simulations of glassy arrest in hard-core particles with short-range interparticle attraction. Previous experiments, theory, and simulations suggest that in this kind of system, two qualitatively distinct kinds of glasses exist, dominated respectively by repulsion and attraction. It is thought that in the former, particles are trapped "topologically," by nearest-neighbor cages, whereas in the latter, nonergodicity is due to interparticle "bonds." Subsequent experiments and simulations have suggested that bond breaking destabilizes attractive glasses, but the long-term fate of these arrested states remains unknown. By running simulations to times a few orders of magnitude longer than those reached by previous experiments or simulations, we show that arrest in an attractive glass is, in the long run, also topological. Nevertheless, it is still possible to distinguish between "nonbonded" and "bonded" repulsive glassy states. We study the melting of bonded repulsive glasses into a hitherto unknown "dense gel" state, which is distinct from dense, ergodic fluids. We propose a "modified state diagram" for concentrated attractive particles, and discuss the relevance of our results in the light of recent rheological measurements in colloid-polymer mixtures.

  9. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  10. Structure and assembly of scalable porous protein cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Eita; Böhringer, Daniel; van de Waterbeemd, Michiel; Leibundgut, Marc; Zschoche, Reinhard; Heck, Albert J. R.; Ban, Nenad; Hilvert, Donald

    2017-03-01

    Proteins that self-assemble into regular shell-like polyhedra are useful, both in nature and in the laboratory, as molecular containers. Here we describe cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of two versatile encapsulation systems that exploit engineered electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. We show that increasing the number of negative charges on the lumenal surface of lumazine synthase, a protein that naturally assembles into a ~1-MDa dodecahedron composed of 12 pentamers, induces stepwise expansion of the native protein shell, giving rise to thermostable ~3-MDa and ~6-MDa assemblies containing 180 and 360 subunits, respectively. Remarkably, these expanded particles assume unprecedented tetrahedrally and icosahedrally symmetric structures constructed entirely from pentameric units. Large keyhole-shaped pores in the shell, not present in the wild-type capsid, enable diffusion-limited encapsulation of complementarily charged guests. The structures of these supercharged assemblies demonstrate how programmed electrostatic effects can be effectively harnessed to tailor the architecture and properties of protein cages.

  11. Porous organic cage membranes for water desalination: a simulation exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xian; Jiang, Jianwen

    2017-07-19

    Porous organic cages (POCs) have emerged as a new class of porous materials and received considerable interest for their potential applications. Herein we report the first proof-of-concept simulation study on POC membranes for water desalination. Five [4+6] POCs (CC1, CC2, CC3, CC16, and CC17) are considered with similar crystal structures, but different periphery groups and pore morphologies. CC1 is found to be impermeable to water due to disconnected pores. With an interconnected tetrahedral pore network, CC3 and CC16 have an intermediate water permeability of 1-5 × 10-7 kg m (m2 h bar)-1. CC2 and CC17 contain straight pores and a widely open pore network, respectively, thus exhibit a high water permeability of 2-3 × 10-6 kg m (m2 h bar)-1; nevertheless, salt rejection in CC17 is only 89%. Among the five POC membranes, CC2 is the best for water desalination with performance superior to other membranes reported in the literature. The membrane flexibility is revealed to have a weak effect on water permeation. To provide further microscopic understanding, the permeation duration, diffusion and hydrogen bonding of water in the POC membranes are quantitatively analyzed. From this simulation study, the key factors governing water permeation in the POC membranes are unraveled and CC2 is identified to be an interesting candidate for water desalination.

  12. [Use of the PEEK cage in cervical spondylosis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachin-Hernández, Pedro; Alpízar-Aguirre, Armando; Zárate-Kalfópulus, Barón; Rosales-Olivares, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Decompression and fusion with autograft is the gold standard technique in the treatment of cervical canal strait. Using PEEK cages or boxes of non-absorbable polymer with elasticity similar to bone, radiolucent, reduces morbidity and same degree of fusion. A case series, prospective, longitudinal, deliberate intervention, evaluation panel before and after 2 years follow-up. Discectomy and PEEK housing placement with autologous graft. Arthrodesis were evaluated, cervical lordosis, intervertebral space height, pain evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale, Neck Disability Index, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay and complications. Statistical analysis with t Sudent, Wilcoxon and Fisher's exact text. Of 17 patients studied, 9 (53%) were female. Average age 62 years. The most affected level was C5-6, C6-7 with 5 patients. Melting was found at 100%. There was no sag or migration of the box, space height was conserved, but segmental lordosis was not retained. Clinical improvement in all patients as well as disability index was seen. Bleeding was on average 187 mL. With regard to symptom improvement, conservation of interspace height and back, no segmental lordosis conservation and fusion using PEEK box is consistent with the literature. We suggest using anterior plate to maintain cervical lordosis. We found a melt index of 100%. We found clinical improvement of symptoms, pain and disability, and a global loss of cervical lordosis.

  13. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA detection in the faeces of cage birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareyyupoglu, B; Cantekin, Z; Bas, B

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the shedding of Chlamydophila psittaci in faecal samples from cage birds using PCR testing. A total of 47 faeces samples were collected from four different aviaries. Main symptoms determined after clinical investigation and owner histories of the birds showed that the birds had respiratory system problems changing from mild to severe. They also showed conjunctivitis, diarrhoea or no symptoms at all. DNA extractions from faeces were performed with the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. Following PCR with Cp. psittaci specific primers, 43 (91.5%) samples were determined to harbour-specific DNA. Only one bird from each aviary was found to be negative by PCR. As all the samples from birds showing clinical signs were PCR positive, these signs could be correlated to psittacosis in these birds. Cp. psittaci shedding in faeces was detected in all the aviaries. After restriction analysis of PCR amplicons with AluI enzyme, all the isolates showed the same RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) patterns with the control Cp. psittaci DNA. PCR following QIAamp DNA stool mini kit extraction of faecal samples was found to be a rapid, specific, sensitive, reproducible test, which did not need additional nested PCR of samples.

  14. Uranyl peroxide pyrophosphate cage clusters with oxalate and nitrate bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jie; Ozga, Michael; Stoffer, Megan; Burns, Peter C

    2012-06-28

    Two complex cage clusters built from uranyl hexagonal bipyramids and multiple types of bridges between uranyl ions, U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) and U(38)Py(10)Nt(4), were crystallized from aqueous solution under ambient conditions. These are built from 30 uranyl hexagonal bipyramids, 10 pyrophosphate groups, and five oxalate bridges in one case, and 38 uranyl hexagonal bipyramids, 10 pyrophosphate groups, and four nitrate groups in the other. The crystal compositions are (H(3)O)(10)Li(18)K(22)[(UO(2))(30)(O(2))(30)(P(2)O(7))(10)(C(2)O(4))(5)](H(2)O)(22) and Li(24)K(36)[(UO(2))(38)(O(2))(40)(OH)(8)(P(2)O(7))(10)(NO(3))(4)](NO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(n) for U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) and U(38)Py(10)Nt(4), respectively. Cluster U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) crystallizes over a narrow range of solution pH that encourages incorporation of both oxalate and pyrophosphate, with incorporation of oxalate only being favored under more acidic conditions, and pyrophosphate only under more alkaline conditions. Cluster U(38)Py(10)Nt(4) contains two identical lobes consisting of uranyl polyhedra and pyrophosphate groups, with these lobes linked into the larger cluster through four nitrate groups. The synthesis conditions appear to have prevented closure of these lobes, and a relatively high nitrate concentration in solution favored formation of the larger cluster.

  15. John Cage's Aria viewed through the prism of contextual determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysis the three contextual layers of creating John Cage's Aria for solo voice performed by Cathy Berberia at the 'big stage' of musical neo-avant-garde in Darmstadt. The layers in question are: (1 the socio-political context of Germany after World War II, where the denazification process was started at the time, (2 the artistic context of neo-avant-garde musical milieu which was being formed in Darmstadt in that period, and (3 the context of a new epoch in the history of vocal art. The thesis presented here is that an encounter occurred between American experimental and European avant-garde musical practice during the accelerated denazification and liberalisation of German society and the establishment of the Cold War relationship between the East and the West. The piece Aria represents an example of a collaborative work between American and European artists, which turned to be an important step in the history of extended vocal techniques in musical performing and composing.

  16. Stabilization of Small Boron Cage by Transition Metal Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of chemically stable fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon has been long-standing desired. On this aspect significant efforts have centered around boron, only one electron deficient compared with carbon. However, during the past decade a large number of experimental and theoretical studies have established that small boron clusters are either planar/quasi-planar or forming double-ring tubular structures. Until recently, two all-boron fullerenes have been independently discovered: B38 proposed by our structure searching calculations and B40 observed in a joint experimental and theoretical study. Here we extend our work to the even smaller boron clusters and propose an effective routine to stabilize them by transition metal encapsulation. By combining swarm-intelligence structure searching and first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the energy landscapes of transition-metal-doped MB24 clusters (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Cr, Mo, W, Fe, Ru and Os). Two stable symmetric endohedral boron cages, MoB24 and WB24 are identified. The stability of them can be rationalized in terms of their unique 18-electron closed-shell electronic structures. Funded by Recruitment Program of Global Experts of China and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  17. Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological communities in northern Lake Victoria, Uganda. L Mwebaza-Ndawula, V Kiggundu, G Magezi, J Naluwayiro, W Gandhi-Pabire, H Ocaya ...

  18. Reducing organic contamination of shallow areas in brackish lagoons during rearing fish in cages in polyculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the technology of the controlled rearing of marine fish remains one of the priority strategic trends of development of national mariculture. A study of the possibility of using polyculture for cage culture has a particular interest. Joint cultivation of several species of fish in the same cage, as practice of fish farming has demonstrated, does not have a tangible positive effect. At the same time, the use of cages of special design can provide significant additional fish products through the use of additional aquaculture objects. The ecological state of water areas, where the cages are located, is of great importance. High fish stocking density and the use of artificial feeds can serve as a source of powerful biogenic and organic pollution, which is especially important for shallow water areas with weak water exchange. The purpose of the study is to develop the methods for joint fish production in cage mariculture capable to provide high fish production and to weaken organic pollution of shallow water areas where cage farms are located. Methodology. The studies were conducted in 1999 and 2004. Cages of special design (internal 10 m3 and external 18.75 m3 installed in the brackish Shabolat Lagoon were used for rearing, steelhead trout, haarder, grass goby and round goby in polyculture. The standard aquaculture research methods were used. For express-analysis of environment hydrochemical parameters in cage location area the following devices were used: "ECOTEST-2000 T" (О2, NO2, NO3, NH4, CO2, phosphates, pH; termooksimetr "АJА-101М" (Т; О2; "pH meter-150 M; Refractometer "ATAGO-100" (salinity and water density. Findings. The results of marine fish cultivation in cages in polyculture in the shallow Shabolat lagoon are presented. It has been shown that joint cultivation of salmon, mullet and gobies in specially designed cages in shallow marine lagoons allows using artificial and natural feeds more fully and

  19. Direct gravimetric sensing of GBL by a molecular recognition process in organic cage compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutschy, Malte; Schneider, Markus W; Mastalerz, Michael; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2013-09-28

    Organic cages were identified as highly potent affinity materials for the tracing of γ-butyrolactone. The selectivity over ethanol and water is based on the interior functional groups which allow preferential hydrogen bonding to the target analyte.

  20. The influence of fish culture in floating net cages on microbial indicators of water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorlach-Lira, K; Pacheco, C; Carvalho, L C T; Melo Júnior, H N; Crispim, M C

    2013-01-01

    ... (Oreochromis niloticus) in floating net cages. The physico-chemical parameters, counts of mesophilic total aerobic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms and fecal streptococci, and the presence of Escherichia coli in samples of water...

  1. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  2. Principles of Designing Extra-Large Pore Openings and Cages in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Liu, Qi; Trickett, Christopher A; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles; Cong, Hengjiang; Aldossary, Abdulrahman; Deng, Hexiang; Yaghi, Omar M

    2017-05-10

    We report three design principles for obtaining extra-large pore openings and cages in the metal-organic analogues of inorganic zeolites, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). Accordingly, we prepared a series of 15 ZIFs, members of which have the largest pore opening (22.5 Å) and the largest cage size (45.8 Å) known for all porous tetrahedral structures. The key parameter allowing us to access these exceptional ZIFs is what we define as the steric index (δ), which is related to the size and shape of the imidazolate linkers employed in the synthesis. The three principles are based on using multiple linkers with specific range and ratios of δ to control the size of rings and cages from small to large, and therefore are universally applicable to all existing ZIFs. The ZIF with the largest cage size (ZIF-412) shows the best selectivity of porous materials tested toward removal of octane and p-xylene from humid air.

  3. ZnO cages with tunable shell thickness and photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jie; Wu Dapeng; Guo Huajie; Liu Ning; Xiao Ying [Chemistry and Environmental College, Henan Normal University, Jianshe Road No. 47, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Jiang Kai, E-mail: jiangkai6898@126.com [Chemistry and Environmental College, Henan Normal University, Jianshe Road No. 47, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Uniform ZnO cages were fabricated via using colloidal carbon spheres as sacrificing template. ZnO precursor could be easily coated on the carbon spheres by soaking the template into Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} aqueous solution. After calcination, the average diameter of the cages was 200 nm which experienced a large shrinkage from the initial carbon template (600 nm). The shell thickness of the cages could be manipulated from 20 nm to 40 nm by adjusting the concentration of Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2.} The correlation between the shell thickness and photoluminescence (PL) performances of these cages was also investigated. Moreover, this facile method could be potentially adopted as a general way to fabricate hollow structures of other metal oxides.

  4. Structure of Coatomer Cage Proteins and the Relationship among COPI, COPII, and Clathrin Vesicle Coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changwook; Goldberg, Jonathan (MSKCC)

    2010-09-13

    COPI-coated vesicles form at the Golgi apparatus from two cytosolic components, ARF G protein and coatomer, a heptameric complex that can polymerize into a cage to deform the membrane into a bud. Although coatomer shares a common evolutionary origin with COPII and clathrin vesicle coat proteins, the architectural relationship among the three cages is unclear. Strikingly, the {alpha}{beta}-COP core of coatomer crystallizes as a triskelion in which three copies of a {beta}-COP {beta}-propeller domain converge through their axial ends. We infer that the trimer constitutes the vertex of the COPI cage. Our model proposes that the COPI cage is intermediate in design between COPII and clathrin: COPI shares with clathrin an arrangement of three curved {alpha}-solenoid legs radiating from a common center, and COPI shares with COPII highly similar vertex interactions involving the axial ends of {beta}-propeller domains.

  5. Validation of a self-administered modified CAGE test (CAGE-C) in a somatic hospital ward: Comparison with biochemical markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Finn; Hardt, Finn; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The time frame for the original CAGE questionnaire is lifetime and it does not quantify drinking frequency and may be less suitable in a population with very few teetotalers. The purpose of this study was to validate a variant of the CAGE questionnaire and compare it with the outcome...... of a thorough interview according to DSM-III and ICD-10 criteria and to the outcome of biochemical markers in inpatients in a somatic hospital setting. Material and methods. The questionnaire and biochemical markers were tested on a random sample of 130 patients admitted to a department of orthopedic surgery...

  6. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  7. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brodschneider

    Full Text Available We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis. Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80% intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5 or 45

  8. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  9. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease: results of MEA (methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin) as first-line chemotherapy in high risk disease and EA (etoposide and dactinomycin) as second-line therapy for low risk disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, L S; Lorigan, P C; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B W

    2000-01-01

    Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is potentially fatal, but the majority of patients are cured with chemotherapy. Any developments in treatment are therefore being directed towards maintaining efficacy and reducing toxicity. We evaluated efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin (MEA) as first-line therapy for high risk disease and etoposide and dactinomycin (EA) as second-line therapy for methotrexate-refractory low risk disease in a retrospective analysis of 73 patients (38 MEA, 35 EA) treated since 1986 at a supra-regional centre. The median follow-up period was 5.5 years and the median number of cycles received was 7. The overall complete response rate was 85% (97% for EA, 75% for MEA). Of eight patients who failed to respond, four have since died and four were cured with platinum-based chemotherapy. Alopecia was universal. Grade II or worse nausea, emesis, or stomatitis was observed in 29%, 30% and 37% respectively. Fifty-one per cent experienced grade II/III anaemia, 8% grade II or higher thrombocytopenia and 64% grade III or IV neutropenia; in six cases this was complicated by sepsis. Fifty-four per cent of patients went on to have a normal pregnancy. No patient has developed a second malignancy. In conclusion, the MEA and EA chemotherapy regimens for persistent trophoblastic disease are very well tolerated, do not appear to affect future fertility and are associated with excellent, sustained complete response rates. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10789722

  10. Functional innervation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by co-culture with sympathetic neurons developed using a microtunnel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji; Shimba, Kenta; Ishizuka, Kazuma; Yang, Zhuonan; Oiwa, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Akimasa; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-14

    Microelectrode array (MEA) based-drug screening with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSCM) is a potent pre-clinical assay for efficiently assessing proarrhythmic risks in new candidates. Furthermore, predicting sympathetic modulation of the proarrhythmic side-effects is an important issue. Although we have previously developed a MEA-based co-culture system of rat primary cardiomyocyte and sympathetic neurons (rSNs), it is unclear if this co-culture approach is applicable to develop and investigate sympathetic innervation of hiPSCMs. In this study, we developed a co-culture of rSNs and hiPSCMs on MEA substrate, and assessed functional connections. The inter-beat interval of hiPSCM was significantly shortened by stimulation in SNs depending on frequency and pulse number, indicating functional connections between rSNs and hiPSCM and the dependency of chronotropic effects on rSN activity pattern. These results suggest that our co-culture approach can evaluate sympathetic effects on hiPSCMs and would be a useful tool for assessing sympathetic modulated-cardiotoxicity in human cardiac tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Characteristics Of Smoked Catfish (Hemibagrus Nemurus) Prepared Frompond Culture, Cage And Wild Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Maskilin, Jippo; Hasan, Bustari; Leksono, Tjipto

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of smoked catfish prepared from pond, cage culture and wild fish. Catfish samples 300-350 grams in weight wastaken respectualy from wild (Kampar river), pond and cage culture in Sungai Paku, Kampar. The fish was smoked using hot smoking method, and the smoked fish was evaluated for smoking yield, sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile.The smoking...

  12. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  13. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168 Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC, medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I, medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II, and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III. Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III. Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01 in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01. The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01. The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  14. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs. PMID:28231694

  15. RESULTS OF TREATMENT OF CERVICAL DISCOPATHY WITH PEEK INTERBODY CAGES AT THREE LEVELS WITHOUT PLATE FIXATION

    OpenAIRE

    González Moga, Amado; Guzmán Carranza, Enrique; Álvarez Vázquez, Leonardo; Huerta Hernández, Gabriel; Galicia Luna, Víctor; Anaya Contreras, Víctor Hugo; Isais Gómez, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To present the results of treatment of patients with cervical discopathy by anterior cervical approach, discectomy and placement of a PEEK interbody cage without anterior plate fixation. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study from March 2013 to March 2015. Sixteen patients with radiculopathy or clinical signs of myelopathy were included; all patients underwent cervical surgery through anterior approach, discectomy, and placement of PEEK cages on three levels. Deco...

  16. Morphological analysis of interbody fusion following posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Kwang; Kim, Myeong Jong; Roh, Sung Woo; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2017-08-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using cages in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disorders due to its biomechanical stability and high fusion rate. However, research regarding patterns of fusion in the interbody space during the early postoperative period is lacking.Sixty consecutive patients were recruited from May 2013 to June 2015. All patients underwent PLIF using 2 titanium cages filled with local bone chips from decompressed lamina and facet bone in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation. Computed tomography scans were obtained 3 to 6 months following surgery in order to evaluate the partial fusion state. Computed tomography (CT) classification of fusion morphology was divided into 8 groups and then into compartments according to fusion space, and the rate of fusion for each was calculated. Further follow-up was conducted to confirm fusion state and assess outcomes.The most frequent pattern of interbody fusion was bilateral intra-cage fusion with unilateral lateral bridging of extra-cage areas (N = 36, 43.4%); the least frequent was interspace bridging of the 2 cages alone (N = 0, 0%). The fusion rate for the intra-cage area (Compartment 1) reached 100%. However, the fusion in the lateral space outside of cages (Compartment 2) was not satisfactory, though reasonable (72.3%). All patients were confirmed as achieving adequate fusion at the final follow-up, with improved clinical outcomes.Widening of the contact area between the vertebral body and cages is recommended to promote increased interbody fusion during the early postoperative period.

  17. Economic analysis of the environmental impact on marine cage lobster aquaculture in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Nguyen Thi Y

    2009-01-01

    In Vietnam, marine cage lobster aquaculture has been expanding significantly over the last years. Besides the economic contribution for locals living in the coastal areas in Central of Vietnam, this industry has created some problems that are relating to the marine environmental protection where trash fish feed is predominant. This paper investigates the environmental impact on cage marine lobster aquaculture in Vietnam by using the Change of Productivity method in which nitrogen releasing fr...

  18. [The finite element analysis of polyetheretherketone/hydroxyapatite/carbon fiber cage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyong; Zhu, Hongxin; Jing, Yanfeng; Sui, Guoxin; Zhang, Zongfu

    2013-08-01

    To compare the bio-mechanical characteristics of cages of two types, i. e., polyetheretherketone/ hydroxyapatite/carbon fiber (PEEK/HA/CF) and titanium combined with internal pedicle screw fixation in lumbar model, and to provide experimental evidences for clinical application, we constructed a three-dimensional finite element model of an intact L2-L4 segment by using computer tomography scans of a healthy male. The three-dimensional finite element models of an intact L2-L4 segment and single cage plus bilateral vertebral pedicle screw fixation were established. The angular motion of fused segment and stress distribution in the bone graft and cage and L3 inferior endplate under different loads were recorded. The result showed that the peak Von Mises stresses of the bone graft of PEEK/HA/CF group were at least 2.2 time as that of titanium group. The peak Von Mises stresses of L3 inferior endplate of the titanium group were at least 2. 3 times as that of PEEK/HA/CF group. These stresses were concentrated at places where the cage interfaced with the endplate. The angular variation of the titanium group showed similarity to PEEK/HA/CF group. The PEEK/HA/CF cage could provide stability similar to that of titanium cage in the presence of posterior instrumentation. It could increase the load transfer through the bone graft and promote the bone fusion. It could also reduce the stresses in endplates adjacent to the cage and reduce the subsidence of the cage.

  19. Model of a generator end-winding cage; Modelisation d`une cage de developpantes d`alternateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, A.C.; Fanton, J.P.; Davies, C.

    1994-09-01

    This document presents some studies concerning the vibratory characterization of particular structures called: generator end-winding cages. These structures are mainly made up of the endings of armature windings. The question of their good mechanical behaviour is of prime importance, since they are submitted to high electromagnetic efforts during the different electrical ratings encountered during operation. The designer (GEC-Alsthom) and the user (EDF) have both undertaken numerical calculations in order to characterize a given machine, in this case a 600 MW bipolar generator; it appeared interesting to compare such calculations. The models realized respectively by GEC-Alsthom and EDF make use of different techniques and hypotheses. GEC-Alsthom represents the sets of rods and spacers by plates, which properties are determined by a pre-processor. The model is simplified to take into account the existing symmetries. It takes profit of previous experience and aims at a fast utilisation. The EDF model tends to allow a further comprehensive calculation, form the electromagnetic efforts to the determination of local stresses. The whole set of the constituting elements of the structure is modelled by beams, which leads to an important size for the model (21 000 degrees of freedom). The validation performed on the two models has been focused on the comparison between respective results and also with experimental results. Each model provides values for the first eigenfrequencies and the associated modes shapes. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Photostimulation of sensory neurons of the rat vagus nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Albert Y.; Li, Gong; Wells, Jonathon; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2008-02-01

    We studied the effect of infrared (IR) stimulation on rat sensory neurons. Primary sensory neurons were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of the inferior (or "nodose") ganglia from the vagus nerves of rats. The 1.85-μm output of a diode laser, delivered through a 200-μm silica fiber, was used for photostimulation. Nodose neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, which is a non-selective cation channel that opens in response to significant temperature jumps above 37 C. Opening TRPV1 channels allows entry of cations, including calcium (Ca 2+), into the cell to cause membrane depolarization. Therefore, to monitor TRPV1 activation consequent to photostimulation, we used fura-2, a fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator, to monitor the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+]i). Brief trains of 2-msec IR pulses activated TRPV1 rapidly and reversibly, as evidenced by transient rises in [Ca 2+]i (referred to as Ca 2+ transients). Consistent with the Ca 2+ transients arising from influx of Ca 2+, identical photostimulation failed to evoke Ca 2+ responses in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+. Furthermore, the photo-induced Ca 2+ signals were abolished by capsazepine, a specific blocker of TRPV1, indicating that the responses were indeed mediated by TRPV1. We discuss the feasibility of using focal IR stimulation to probe neuronal circuit properties in intact neural tissue, and compare IR stimulation with another photostimulation technique-focal photolytic release of "caged" molecules.

  1. Substrate Arrays of Iridium Oxide Microelectrodes for in Vitro Neuronal Interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawad, Shady; Giugliano, Michele; Heuschkel, Marc; Wessling, Börge; Markram, Henry; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Renaud, Philippe; Morgan, Hywel

    2008-01-01

    The design of novel bidirectional interfaces for in vivo and in vitro nervous systems is an important step towards future functional neuroprosthetics. Small electrodes, structures and devices are necessary to achieve high-resolution and target-selectivity during stimulation and recording of neuronal networks, while significant charge transfer and large signal-to-noise ratio are required for accurate time resolution. In addition, the physical properties of the interface should remain stable across time, especially when chronic in vivo applications or in vitro long-term studies are considered, unless a procedure to actively compensate for degradation is provided. In this short report, we describe the use and fabrication of arrays of 120 planar microelectrodes (MEAs) of sputtered Iridium Oxide (IrOx). The effective surface area of individual microelectrodes is significantly increased using electrochemical activation, a procedure that may also be employed to restore the properties of the electrodes as required. The electrode activation results in a very low interface impedance, especially in the lower frequency domain, which was characterized by impedance spectroscopy. The increase in the roughness of the microelectrodes surface was imaged using digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy. Aging of the activated electrodes was also investigated, comparing storage in saline with storage in air. Demonstration of concept was achieved by recording multiple single-unit spike activity in acute brain slice preparations of rat neocortex. Data suggests that extracellular recording of action potentials can be achieved with planar IrOx MEAs with good signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:19194527

  2. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  3. Provision Of Carbon Nanotube Bucky Paper Cages For Immune Shielding Of Cells, Tissues, and Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, David J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method for enclosing cells and/or tissue, for purposes of growth, cell differentiation, suppression of cell differentiation, biological processing and/or transplantation of cells and tissues (biological inserts), and for secretion, sensing and monitoring of selected chemical substances and activation of gene expression of biological inserts implanted into a human body. Selected cells and/or tissue are enveloped in a "cage" that is primarily carbon nanotube Bucky paper, with a selected thickness and porosity. Optionally, selected functional groups, proteins and/or peptides are attached to the carbon nanotube cage, or included within the cage, to enhance the growth and/or differentiation of the cells and/or tissue, to select for certain cellular sub-populations, to optimize certain functions of the cells and/or tissue and/or to optimize the passage of chemicals across the cage surface(s). A cage system is also used as an immuns shield and to control operation of a nano-device or macroscopic device, located within the cage, to provide or transform a selected chemical and/or a selected signal.

  4. Evaluation of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao Kang; Csaki, Tamas; Doublet, Vincent; Dussaubat, Claudia; Evans, Jay D; Gajda, Anna M; Gregorc, Alex; Hamilton, Michele C; Kamler, Martin; Lecocq, Antoine; Muz, Mustafa N; Neumann, Peter; Ozkirim, Asli; Schiesser, Aygün; Sohr, Alex R; Tanner, Gina; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Williams, Geoffrey R; Wu, Lyman; Zheng, Huoqing; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Prevention of honey bee COlony LOSSes), on the physiology and survival of honey bees. We identified three cages that promoted good survival of honey bees. The bees from cages that exhibited greater survival had relatively lower titers of deformed wing virus, suggesting that deformed wing virus is a significant marker reflecting stress level and health status of the host. We also determined that a leak- and drip-proof feeder was an integral part of a cage system and a feeder modified from a 20-ml plastic syringe displayed the best result in providing steady food supply to bees. Finally, we also demonstrated that the addition of protein to the bees' diet could significantly increase the level ofvitellogenin gene expression and improve bees' survival. This international collaborative study represents a critical step toward improvement of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee laboratory experiments.

  5. A carbon fiber reinforced polymer cage for vertebral body replacement: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappetta, P; Boriani, S; Fava, G P

    1997-11-01

    We analyzed the surgical technique used for the replacement of damaged vertebral bodies of the thoracolumbar spine and the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages that are used to replace the pathological vertebral bodies. We also evaluated the biomechanical properties of carbon composite materials used in spinal surgery. The surgical technique of CFRP implants may be divided into two distinct steps, i.e., assembling the components that will replace the pathological vertebral bodies and connecting the cage to an osteosynthetic system to immobilize the cage. The CFRP cages, made of Ultrapek polymer and AS-4 pyrolytic carbon fiber (AcroMed, Rotterdam, The Netherlands), are of different sizes and may be placed one on top of the other and fixed together with a titanium rod. These components are hollow to allow fragments of bone to be pressed manually into them and present threaded holes at 15, 30, and 90 degrees on the external surface, permitting the insertion of screws to connect the cage to an anterior or posterior osteosynthetic system. To date, we have used CFRP cages in 13 patients undergoing corporectomies and 10 patients undergoing spondylectomies. None of our patients have reported complications. CFRP implants offer several advantages compared with titanium or surgical grade stainless steel implants, demonstrating high versatility and outstanding biological and mechanical properties. Furthermore, CFRP implants are radiolucent and do not hinder radiographic evaluation of bone fusion, allowing for better follow-up studies.

  6. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being.

  7. Atomistic simulations of CO2 and N2 within cage-type silica zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Lindsey; Heitzer, Henry; Russell, Colin; Kohen, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of CO(2) and N(2), both as single components and as binary mixtures, in two cage-type silica zeolites was studied using atomistic simulations. The zeolites considered, ITQ-3 and paradigm cage-type zeolite ZK4 (the all-silica analog of LTA), were chosen so that the principles illustrated can be generalized to other adsorbent/adsorbate systems with similar topology and types of interactions. N(2) was chosen both because of the potential uses of N(2)/CO(2) separations and because it differs from CO(2) most significantly in the magnitude of its Coulombic interactions with zeolites. Despite similarities between N(2) and CO(2) diffusion in other materials, we show here that the diffusion of CO(2) within cage-type zeolites is dominated by an energy barrier to diffusion located at the entrance to the narrow channels connecting larger cages. This barrier originates in Coulombic interactions between zeolites and CO(2)'s quadrupole and results in well-defined orientations for the diffusing molecules. Furthermore, CO(2)'s favorable electrostatic interactions with the zeolite framework result in preferential binding in the windows between cages. N(2)'s behavior, in contrast, is more consistent with that of molecules previously studied. Our analysis suggests that CO(2)'s behavior might be common for adsorbates with quadrupoles that interact strongly with a material that has narrow windows between cages.

  8. Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ruf Kasim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5 kg was growth to 22.5 ± 1.40 kg and 38.8 ± 1.6 kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50 g was 107.8 ± 7.0 g and 152.5 ± 7.9 g during April, and 132.0 ± 8.0 g and 218.8 ± 8.6 g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43% day−1 and 3.69% day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

  9. Impact of sea waves on underwater fish-breeding cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of sea objects is of great importance while solving the problems of providing the constantly growing requirements of the national economy with sea products. Cultivation of sea objects uses special hydrobiotechnical constructions. As the practice showed, cultivation of seafood is commercially impossible without solving the questions of calculating and designing such constructions. In special literature these questions are poorly covered or not considered at all. In the article the results of theoretical and pilot studies of waves influence on hydrobiotechnical constructions is provided, in particular on underwater fish-breeding cages.This article offers the theoretical solution to the problem of determining the efforts of the ropes holding the fish tank under wave influences. In order to solve this problem, the equations of hard drives movements were set up and the differential equations of free oscillations of buzz were obtained.When determining the horizontal movements, the four different configurations of connections and the system motion directions in general are possible in case of waveoscillations. Next step is the solution of the differential equations and determination of natural oscillation frequency in the direction of the vertical axis. Defining efforts in the ropes from their own weight (static calculation is self-explanatory, it should be noted that accounting for the weighing influence of water on such structures does not have significant influence.Further the authors defined loading and efforts from the regular waves’ impacts.Modeling of the waves influence on submersible fish tank was carried by Fraud method. The studies were conducted with two models with large and small mesh. The signals of strain gauge sensors were registered by electronic measuring equipment.When comparing the theoretical and experimental data, satisfactory results have been obtained. It was determined that in order to improve the calculation

  10. RuBi-Glutamate: Two-photon and visible-light photoactivation of neurons and dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Fino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe neurobiological applications of RuBi-Glutamate, a novel caged-glutamate compound based on ruthenium photochemistry. RuBi-Glutamate can be excited with visible wavelengths and releases glutamate after one- or two-photon excitation. It has high quantum efficiency and can be used at low concentrations, partly avoiding the blockade of GABAergic transmission present with other caged compounds. Two-photon uncaging of RuBi-glutamate has a high spatial resolution and generates excitatory responses in individual dendritic spines with physiological kinetics. With laser beam multiplexing, RuBi-Glutamate uncaging can also be used to depolarize and fire pyramidal neurons with single-cell resolution. RuBi-Glutamate therefore enables the photo-activation of neuronal dendrites and circuits with visible or two-photon light sources, achieving single spine, or single cell, precision.

  11. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Munić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  12. NEURON and Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael L; Davison, Andrew P; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including graphical user interface tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the xml module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  13. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Reportable diseases, such as avian influenza, spread rapidly among poultry, resulting in the death of a large number of birds. Once such a disease has been diagnosed at a farm, infected and susceptible birds are rapidly killed to prevent the spread of the disease. The methods to eliminate infected caged laying hens are limited. An experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of foam made from compressed air, water, and soap to kill laying hens in cages. The study found that stress levels of the hens killed using compressed air foam in cages to be similar to the hens killed by carbon dioxide or the negative control. Hens exposed to carbon dioxide died earlier as compared to the foam methods. The authors conclude that application of compressed air foam in cages is an alternative to methods such as gas inhalation and ventilation shutdown to rapidly and humanely kill laying hens during epidemics. Abstract During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly

  14. Effect of cage type on the behaviour patterns of rabbit does at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Alfonso-Carrillo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in commercially farmed rabbit welfare has increased in recent years. As a result, new alternativehousing systems have been developed, although they require evaluation in order to demonstrate their potential for improving welfare. The aim of this trial was to study the behavioural traits of rabbit does housed in 2 different types of cage (TC: conventional vs. alternative with an elevated platform, at different physiological stages (PS; lactation and gestation. Behavioural observations were carried out on 12 rabbit commercial does using continuous 24 h video recording. Independently of PS and TC, rabbit does spent most of their time on foot mats (on av. 57.7%. However, due to the use of platforms (on av. 23.0% of time, lactating does spent 36.6% less time on foot mats (P<0.001 and gestating does spent 27.0% less time on wire mesh (P<0.001 in alternative cages than in conventional cages. Alternative cages allowed for standing posture, but this behaviour was only observed in gestating does (on av. 4.6 times a day. Frequency of drinking was higher in conventional than in alternative cages (24.6 vs. 19.1 times a day; P<0.05. Gestating does housed in conventional cages reached the highest duration and frequency of interacting with neighbours (276 s/d and 4.6 times/d; P<0.05. The frequency of interacting with kits was lower in alternative than in conventional cages (2.4 vs. 8.6 times a day; P<0.01. Doe behaviour was influenced by the time of day, with less activity during the midday hours. During dark hours, rabbit does more frequently performed restless behaviour such as hyperactivity or nursing, matching the time at which rabbit does spent more time on the platform. The platform was frequently used by rabbit does, regardless of their physiological stage, and during late lactation phase, when mothers were not receptive to nursing, does housed in alternative cages used the platform as a mean to flee from kits trying to suckle

  15. Synthesis of 18-membered open-cage fullerenes through controlled stepwise fullerene skeleton bond cleavage processes and substituent-mediated tuning of the redox potential of open-cage fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuming; Xie, Xiang; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Shuming; Shao, Yuanhua; Gan, Liangbing; Li, Yuliang

    2011-12-16

    Oxidation of the fullerenediol C(60)(OH)(2)(O)(OAc)(OOtBu)(3) with PhI(OAc)(2) yields the open-cage fullerene derivative C(60)(O)(2)(O)(OAc)(OOtBu)(3)2 with an 11-membered orifice. Compound 2 reacts with aniline to form a new open-cage derivative with a 14-membered orifice, which yields an 18-membered open-cage fullerene derivative upon addition of another molecule of aniline. Two different types of aniline derivatives with either electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents can be added sequentially, affording an unsymmetrical moiety in the open-cage structure. Reduction potentials of the 18-membered open-cage fullerene derivatives can be fine-tuned by changing the substituents on the aniline. The results provide new insights about the mechanism of open-cage reactions of fullerene-mixed peroxide.

  16. Controllable coordination-driven self-assembly: from discrete metallocages to infinite cage-based frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian; Chen, Qihui; Wu, Mingyan; Jiang, Feilong; Hong, Maochun

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Nanosized supramolecular metallocages have a unique self-assembly process that allows chemists to both understand and control it. In addition, well-defined cavities of such supramolecular aggregates have various attractive applications including storage, separation, catalysis, recognition, drug delivery, and many others. Coordination-driven self-assembly of nanosized supramolecular metallocages is a powerful methodology to construct supramolecular metallocages with considerable size and desirable shapes. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on controllable coordination-driven assembly of supramolecular metallocages and infinite cage-based frameworks. To this end, we have chosen flexible ligands that can adopt various conformations and metal ions with suitable coordination sites for the rational design and assembly of metal-organic supramolecular ensembles. This has resulted in various types of metallocages including M3L2, M6L8, M6L4, and M12L8 with different sizes and shapes. Because the kinds of metal geometries are limited, we have found that we can replace single metal ions with metal clusters to alternatively increase molecular diversity and complexity. There are two clear-cut merits of this strategy. First, metal clusters are much bigger than single metal ions, which helps in the construction and stabilization of large metallocages, especially nanosized cages. Second, metal clusters can generate diverse assembly modes that chemists could not synthesize with single metal ions. This allows us to obtain a series of unprecedented supramolecular metallocages. The large cavities and potential unsaturated coordination sites of these discrete supramolecular cages offer opportunities to construct infinite cage-based frameworks. This in turn can offer us a new avenue to understand self-assembly and realize certain various functionalities. We introduce two types of infinite cage-based frameworks here: cage-based coordination polymers and cage

  17. Effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished cages, Part I: Performance and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowski, T M; Caston, L J; Hunniford, M E; Cooley, L; Torrey, S

    2017-09-01

    There are few published data on the effects of housing laying hens at different densities in large furnished cages (FC; a.k.a. enriched colony cages). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of housing laying hens at 2 space allowances (SA) in 2 sizes of FC on measures of production and well-being. At 18 wk of age, 1,218 LSL-Lite hens were housed in cages furnished with a curtained nesting area, perches, and scratch mat, and stocked at either 520 cm2 (Low) or 748 cm2 (High) total floor space. This resulted in 4 group sizes: 40 vs. 28 birds in smaller FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in larger FC (LFC). Data were collected from 20 to 72 wks of age. There was no effect of cage size (P = 0.21) or SA (P = 0.37) on hen day egg production, egg weight (PSize = 0.90; PSA = 0.73), or eggshell deformation (PSize = 0.14; PSA = 0.053), but feed disappearance was higher in SFC than LFC (P = 0.005). Mortality to 72 wk was not affected by cage size (P = 0.78) or SA (P = 0.55). BW (P = 0.006) and BW CV (P = 0.008) increased with age but were not affected by treatment. Feather cleanliness was poorer in FC with low SA vs. high (P allowance resulted in some measures of poorer external condition in both sizes of FC, which indicates that the welfare of hens housed at the lower space allowance may be compromised according to some welfare assessment criteria. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  18. General and simple approach for control cage and cylindrical mesopores, and thermal/hydrothermal stable frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Mizukami, Fujio; Hanaoka, Takaaki

    2005-05-19

    Highly ordered cage and cylindrical mesoporeous silica monoliths (HOM) with 2- and 3-dimensional (2D and 3D, respectively) structures, mesopore/micropore volumes, and thick-walled frameworks were successfully fabricated by instant direct templating of lyotropic phases of copolymer (EO(m)-PO(n)-EO(m)) surfactants. Large cage-like pores with uniform constriction sizes up to 10 nm and open cylindrical channel-like mesopores can be easily achieved by this simple and efficient synthesis design. Our results show that the cage-like pores could be fabricated at relatively lower copolymer concentrations used in the lyotropic phase domains at copolymer/TMOS ratios of 35 wt %. These ordered cage pore architectures underwent transition to open-cylindrical pores by increasing the copolymer concentration. High EO/PO block copolymers, in general, were crucially affected on the increase of the interior cavity sizes and on the stability of the cage mesopore characters. However, for F108 (EO(141)PO(44)EO(141)) systems, the fabrication of ordered and stable cage pore monoliths was achieved with significantly higher copolymer concentrations up to 90 wt %. Interestingly, the effective copolymer molecular nature was also observed in the ability to design various ordered mesophase geometries in large domain sizes. Our findings here show evidence that the synthetic strategy provides realistic control over a wide range of mesostructured phase geometries and their extended long-range ordering in the final replicas of the silica monolith frameworks. In addition, the HOM silica monoliths exhibited considerable structural stability against higher thermal temperature (up to 1000 degrees C) and longer hydrothermal treatment times under boiling water and steam. The remarkable structural findings of 3D frameworks, transparent monoliths, and micropores combined with large cage- and cylindrical-like mesopores are expected to find promising uses in materials chemistry.

  19. Effect of Ventilated Caging on Water Intake and Loss in 4 Strains of Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Mackenzie L; Bergdall, Valerie K; Davis, Ian C; Hickman-Davis, Judy M

    2016-01-01

    Food availability, temperature, humidity, strain, and caging type all affect water consumption by mice. Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is a new technique for the quantification of water turnover in mice. To understand water turnover in common strains of adult mice, male and female SCID, SKH, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were housed in same-sex groups of 5 animals in static cages or IVC. Body weight, TEWL, urine osmolality, and water consumption of mice and intracage temperature and humidity were measured every 48 h for comparison. Static cages were monitored for 7 d and IVC for 14 d before cage change. Female SCID, FVB, and C57 mice drank less water than did their male counterparts. Male and female SCID, SKH, and FVB mice in IVC drank less water and had higher urine osmolality than did those in static cages. In SCID and SKH mice, TEWL paralleled water consumption. C57 mice in static cages drank less water, had lower urine osmolality, and had less TEWL than did those in IVC. Temperature and humidity within the cage was higher than the macroenvironmental levels for all housing conditions, mouse strains, and sexes. Temperatures within IVC ranged from 76.6 to 81.4 °F compared with 69±0.4 °F in the room. Humidity within IVC ranged from 68% to 79% compared with 27.o%±2.7% within the room. These data demonstrate that mouse strain and housing conditions significantly influence water balance and indicate that macroenvironmental measurements do not always reflect the intracage environment.

  20. Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Gould, Fred; Walsh, Rachael K.; Bond, Guillermo; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Scott, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Background A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10–20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10∶1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. PMID:23350003

  1. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico.OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results.Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  2. The model of double-cage induction motor for the analysis of thermal fields in transient operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency motor switch-on happens occasionally while operating a doublesquirrel- cage motor at full supply voltage with the rotor blocked (e.g., in coal mills. After releasing the blockage, the by now heated motor is started up again. However, the mechanical stress caused by the increased temperature poses considerable hazards to the squirrel-cage winding. This paper presents a double-cage induction motor model for analysis of thermal fields in transient operation. The thermal field for the rotor of a doublesquirrel- cage motor of soldered or cast structure, operating in the conditions described, has been calculated in the present paper using a thermal network method. Measurement results have been presented for the double-squirrel-cage winding temperature for a soldered cage construction in the blocked rotor state.

  3. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  4. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  5. Outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with Pedicle Screw fixation using two different Types of Titan Cages

    OpenAIRE

    Abbushi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 40 patients, who had a monosegmental lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis treated by monosegmental posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using two different types of titan cages and pedicle screw fixation. The objective was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical results of these patients treated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation either by using the Prospace Titan Cage of Aesculap or the O.I.C Titan Cage of Stryker. ...

  6. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  7. Behaviour, health and integument of four hybrids of laying hens in modified and conventional cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, P; Tauson, R; Appleby, M C

    1996-07-01

    1. In 2 trials the health and behaviour of a total of 3552 caged laying hens of 4 hybrids, Dekalb XL, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Shaver 288 in trial 1 and ISA Brown and LSL in trial 2, were studied. The cage designs were Get-away cages (GA) with 15 hens per cage, a special version of the 'Edinburgh modified cage' called 'Modified and enriched cage' (ME) with 4 ISA or 5 Leghorn hens per cage, conventional metal cages with 4 hens per cage without (CO) and with a perch (PC) and conventional plastic cages (PL) with three hens per cage. GA and ME included nests, perches and sandbaths. 2. In the first trial f1p4nest models were used, artificial turf and welded wire floor. In the second trial both nest models were used in GA, while all nests in ME were equipped with artificial turf. In the second trial there were 4 sandbath treatments in ME; no sandbath, sandbath (25 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks of age, sandbath first opened at 26 weeks and double size sandbath (50 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks. Hens in GA were allowed access to the sandbaths from 26 weeks. 3. At 35 and 55 weeks the best plumage condition (feather cover) was found in PL and GA but plumage condition in ME was not significantly inferior than in GA. Hens in GA had the dirtiest plumage and most bumble foot but no toe pad hyperkeratosis. Some toe pad hyperkeratosis occurred in the other systems. Most keel bone lesions were found in systems with perches. The highest mortality was registered in GA. Hens in systems with perches, sandbaths and nests had increased strength of humerus at slaughter. 4. More eggs were laid in nests with artificial turf than in welded wire floor nests. LSL hens laid larger proportions of eggs in the nests (94% and 92% in the two trials) than the other hybrids. Less than 1% of the eggs in ME and 2% in GA were laid in the sandbaths. 5. The use of perches in ME and PC was approximately 30% in the day time. At night the use was 93% in ME and 89% in PC in trial 1 and 96% in

  8. Small Cages with Insect Couples Provide a Simple Method for a Preliminary Assessment of Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Briand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density. The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  9. PCR testing of a ventilated caging system to detect murine fur mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack.

  10. RESULTS OF THE USE OF PEEK CAGES IN THE TREATMENT OF BASILAR INVAGINATION BY GOEL TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analysis of the use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cages for atlantoaxial facet realignment and distraction for treatment of basilar invagination by Goel technique. Method: Retrospective descriptive statistical analysis of the neurological status, pain, presence of subsidence and bone fusion with the use of PEEK cages in 8 atlantoaxial joints of 4 patients with basilar invagination. All patients were treated with atlantoaxial facet distraction and realignment and subsequent arthrodesis C1-C2 by the technique of Goel modified by the use of PEEK cage. Results: All patients showed improvement in Nurick neurological assessment scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain. There were no cases of subsidence, migration, or damage to the vertebral artery during the insertion of the cage. All joints evolved with bone fusion, assessed by dynamic radiographs, and computed tomography. Two patients developed neuropathic pain in dermatome of C2 and one patient had unilateral vertebral artery injury during C2 instrumentation treated with insertion of pedicle screw to control the bleeding. Conclusion: The results of the treatment of basilar invagination by the Goel technique with the use of PEEK cages shown to be effective and safe although further studies are needed to confirm this use.

  11. The European Union ban on conventional cages for laying hens: history and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michael C

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of Animal Machines (Harrison, 1964), there has been widespread public pressure in Europe--supported by European institutions--to "ban the battery cage." The European Union (EU) and national governments (particularly in Northern Europe) funded research on noncage systems for egg production and enriched cages. In 1986, the EU passed a Directive specifying a minimum size for cages, but public opinion--again particularly in the North--continued to require more. A market sector emerged that would pay more for noncage eggs. Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland passed more stringent legislation than the rest of Europe. A 1999 Directive with details based on advice from the EU's Scientific Veterinary Committee will phase out conventional laying cages but allow enriched cages. Implementation depends on various factors, including negotiations in the World Trade Organization. In the next 10 years, however, major changes to the housing of most laying hens in Europe almost certainly will occur. Similar changes in other countries will follow. As in Europe, change probably will be piecemeal, affected both by public pressure and by all sectors of society: producers, retailers, consumers, legislators, and the media.

  12. Effect of breed, cage type, and reproductive phase on fecal corticosterone levels in doe rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prola, Liviana; Cornale, Paolo; Renna, Manuela; Macchi, Elisabetta; Perona, Giovanni; Mimosi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) is increasingly being used as a noninvasive indicator of stress in assessment of nonhuman animal welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of breed, cage type, reproductive phase, and their interactions on FCC levels in doe rabbits. A total of 252 doe rabbits were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Does were individually housed in either standard dimension cages (SC) or in cages with a volume more than double that of the SC. Bigger cages (BC) were equipped with a plastic foot mat. Breed, cage type, and reproductive phase significantly affected FCC. New Zealand hybrids showed higher FCCs (p doe FCC. The highest FCCs were detected at partum (BC: 30.40 ± 0.81 pg g(-1); SC: 33.36 ± 0.86 pg g(-1); p ≤ .05), followed by postweaning (BC: 25.09 ± 0.95 pg g(-1); SC: 27.63 ± 0.95 pg g(-1); p ≤ .05). These results support the hypothesis that measurement of FCC provides a useful indicator of chronic stress in doe rabbits.

  13. Computationally-Guided Synthetic Control over Pore Size in Isostructural Porous Organic Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Anna G; Reiss, Paul S; Pulido, Angeles; Little, Marc A; Holden, Daniel L; Chen, Linjiang; Chong, Samantha Y; Alston, Ben M; Clowes, Rob; Haranczyk, Maciej; Briggs, Michael E; Hasell, Tom; Day, Graeme M; Cooper, Andrew I

    2017-07-26

    The physical properties of 3-D porous solids are defined by their molecular geometry. Hence, precise control of pore size, pore shape, and pore connectivity are needed to tailor them for specific applications. However, for porous molecular crystals, the modification of pore size by adding pore-blocking groups can also affect crystal packing in an unpredictable way. This precludes strategies adopted for isoreticular metal-organic frameworks, where addition of a small group, such as a methyl group, does not affect the basic framework topology. Here, we narrow the pore size of a cage molecule, CC3, in a systematic way by introducing methyl groups into the cage windows. Computational crystal structure prediction was used to anticipate the packing preferences of two homochiral methylated cages, CC14-R and CC15-R, and to assess the structure-energy landscape of a CC15-R/CC3-S cocrystal, designed such that both component cages could be directed to pack with a 3-D, interconnected pore structure. The experimental gas sorption properties of these three cage systems agree well with physical properties predicted by computational energy-structure-function maps.

  14. DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum amphipods: A tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, Emilie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Devaux, Alain [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Mons, Raphael [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Bony, Sylvie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Garric, Jeanne [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Geffard, Alain [EA 2069 URVVC-SE, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Geffard, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.geffard@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to propose a tool for freshwater environmental genotoxicity assessment using Gammarus fossarum, a high ecologically relevant species. In a first part, gammarids were caged upstream and downstream wastewater treatment plant effluent output. The sensitivity of genotoxic responses of haemocytes, oocytes and spermatozoa was compared using the Comet assay. Spermatozoa appeared to be the most sensitive, suitable and relevant cell type for genotoxicity risk assessment. In a second part, a watershed-scale study was conducted over 2 years to evaluate the applicability of our caging procedure. The genotoxic impact of a contamination was followed, taking into account seasonal variability. DNA damage in spermatozoa exhibited low basal level and low variability in control upstream sites, providing a reliable discrimination of polluted sites. Finally, DNA damage in caged G. fossarum has been proved to be a sensitive and reproducible tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: > Two different contamination contexts: WWTP effluents and polymetallic contamination. > DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum is a sensitive tool for freshwater quality assessment. > Spermatozoa is the most relevant cell type for biomonitoring freshwater genotoxicity. > Combining biomarker responses with analytical chemistry provides rich ecotoxicological information. - We propose an approach to assess freshwater genotoxicity in the field based on caged Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, amphipoda).

  15. The Study of Permanent Magnets Synchronous Machine (PMSM of the Autonomous Electric Power Supply System (ASE, compatible with the Concept of a More Electric Aircraft (MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setlak Lucjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis and mathematical models of synchronous electric machines (motor/generator, basing on permanent magnets, presented in this paper, the main importance of alternator AC power sources in the form of starter/generator (for conventional aircraft and in the form of integrated unit starter (motor/AC synchronous generator S/G AC (with respect to advanced aircraft concept in terms of more electric aircraft was highlighted. Additionally, through the analysis and selected simulations of the on-board autonomous power supply system of the modern aircrafts, sources of electrical energy (synchronous motor/generator, integrated unit starter/AC generator were located in board autonomic power system ASE (EPS, PES. Main components of this system are the electro-energetic power system EPS and the energo-electronic power system PES. In addition, the analysis and exemplary simulations of main electricity sources based on mathematical models have contributed to highlighting the main practical applications in accordance with the concept of MEA.

  16. Description of the Process Model for the Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for Carbon Dioxide Removal from Stack Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dale A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-08

    This model description is supplemental to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) report LLNL-TR-642494, Technoeconomic Evaluation of MEA versus Mixed Amines for CO2 Removal at Near- Commercial Scale at Duke Energy Gibson 3 Plant. We describe the assumptions and methodology used in the Laboratory’s simulation of its understanding of Huaneng’s novel amine solvent for CO2 capture with 35% mixed amine. The results of that simulation have been described in LLNL-TR-642494. The simulation was performed using ASPEN 7.0. The composition of the Huaneng’s novel amine solvent was estimated based on information gleaned from Huaneng patents. The chemistry of the process was described using nine equations, representing reactions within the absorber and stripper columns using the ELECTNRTL property method. As a rate-based ASPEN simulation model was not available to Lawrence Livermore at the time of writing, the height of a theoretical plate was estimated using open literature for similar processes. Composition of the flue gas was estimated based on information supplied by Duke Energy for Unit 3 of the Gibson plant. The simulation was scaled at one million short tons of CO2 absorbed per year. To aid stability of the model, convergence of the main solvent recycle loop was implemented manually, as described in the Blocks section below. Automatic convergence of this loop led to instability during the model iterations. Manual convergence of the loop enabled accurate representation and maintenance of model stability.

  17. Model and Simulation of Permanent Magnets Synchronous Machine (PMSM of the Electric Power Supply System (EPS, in Accordance with the Concept of a More Electric Aircraft (MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setlak Lucjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of synchronous electric machine, basing on permanent magnets, presented in this paper, the key importance of alternator AC power sources in the form of generator (for conventional aircraft and in the form of integrated unit starter/AC synchronous generator S/G AC (with respect to advanced aircraft concept in the field of more/all electric power MEA/AEA was highlighted. In addition, through the analysis and selected simulations of the power supply system of a modern aircrafts, sources of onboard electrical energy (synchronous generator, integrated unit starter/AC generator were located in board autonomic power system ASE (EPS, PES. Key components of this system are the electro-energetic power system EPS and the energo-electronic power system PES. Additionally, the analysis and exemplary simulations of key electricity sources based on mathematical models have contributed to highlighting the main practical applications in line with the trend of a more electric aircraft.

  18. Molecular mechanism of formation of the face-sharing double cages in structure-I methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiang; Hou, Jian; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Mengyuan; Xu, Jiafang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Despite the potential applications and ubiquity of clathrate hydrates, the molecular mechanism of formation of these compounds is not yet well-understood. In this work, the formation mechanism of the face-sharing double cages in structure-I hydrate was studied by density functional theory calculations, which is responsible to the hydrate nucleation and growth. The results show that the clathrate cages favor to form one after another, and the 512 cages are thermodynamically feasible in the beginning. The water-water and water-methane interactions mostly dominate the formation of the clathrate cages, while the methane-methane interactions have little effect on the formation process.

  19. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  20. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; Schaik, André van; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems...

  1. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  2. Lumping Izhikevich neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Visser Sid; van Gils Stephan A

    2014-01-01

    We present the construction of a planar vector field that yields the firing rate of a bursting Izhikevich neuron can be read out, while leaving the sub-threshold behaviour intact. This planar vector field is used to derive lumped formulations of two complex heterogeneous networks of bursting Izhikevich neurons. In both cases, the lumped model is compared with the spiking network. There is excellent agreement in terms of duration and number of action potentials within the bursts, but there is ...

  3. The effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished cages, Part II: Behavior at the feeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowski, T M; Caston, L J; Casey-Trott, T M; Hunniford, M E

    2017-09-01

    Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat. Hens with SA of either 520 cm2 (Low; 8.9 cm feeder space/hen) or 748 cm2 (High; 12.8 cm feeder space/hen) per bird resulted in groups of 40 vs. 28 birds in small FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in large FC (LFC). Chain feeders ran at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, and 1700 with lights on at 0500 and off at 1900 hours. Digital recordings of FC were scanned at chain feeder onset and every 15 min for one h after (5 scans × 5 feeding times × 2 d) to count the number of birds with their head in the feeder. All occurrences of aggressive pecks and displacements during 2 continuous 30-minute observations at 0800 h and 1700 h also were counted. Mixed model repeated analyses tested the effects of SA, cage size, and time on the percent of hens feeding, and the frequency of aggressive pecks and displacements. Surprisingly, the percent of birds feeding simultaneously was similar regardless of cage size (LFC: 23.0 ± 0.9%; SFC: 24.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.44) or SA (Low: 23.8 ± 0.9%; High: 23.3 ± 1.0%; P = 0.62). More birds were observed feeding at 1700 h (35.3 ± 0.1%) than any at other time (P < 0.001). Feeder use differed by cage area (nest, middle, or scratch) over the d (P < 0.001). The frequency of aggressive pecks was low overall and not affected by SA or cage size. Frequency of displacements was also low but greater at Low SA (P = 0.001). There was little evidence of feeder competition at the Low SA in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by

  4. NeuronBank: A Tool for Cataloging Neuronal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Paul S.; Calin-Jageman, Robert; Dhawan, Akshaye; Frederick, Chad; Guo, Shuman; Dissanayaka, Rasanjalee; Hiremath, Naveen; Ma, Wenjun; Shen, Xiuyn; Wang, Hsui C.; Yang, Hong; Prasad, Sushil; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar; Zhu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models. PMID:20428500

  5. Self-assembly of three-legged patchy particles into polyhedral cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Otter, Wouter K.; Renes, Marten R.; Briels, W. J.

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of rigid three-legged building blocks into polyhedral cages is investigated by patchy particle simulations. A four-site anisotropic interaction potential is introduced to make pairs of overlapping legs bind in an anti-parallel fashion, thereby forming the edges of a polyhedron of pentagons and hexagons. A torsional potential, reflecting an asymmetry or polarity in the legs' binding potential, proves crucial for the successful formation of closed fullerene-like cages. Self-assembly proceeds by a nucleation-and-growth mechanism, with a high success rate of cage closure. The size distribution of the self-assembled buckyballs is largely determined by the pucker angle of the particle. Nature explores a similar building block, the clathrin triskelion, to regulate vesicle formation at the cell membrane during endocytosis.

  6. The interaction between water currents and salmon swimming behaviour in sea cages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johansson

    Full Text Available Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish.

  7. Design Concepts of Polycarbonate-Based Intervertebral Lumbar Cages: Finite Element Analysis and Compression Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Obedt Figueroa-Cavazos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the viability of 3D printed intervertebral lumbar cages based on biocompatible polycarbonate (PC-ISO® material. Several design concepts are proposed for the generation of patient-specific intervertebral lumbar cages. The 3D printed material achieved compressive yield strength of 55 MPa under a specific combination of manufacturing parameters. The literature recommends a reference load of 4,000 N for design of intervertebral lumbar cages. Under compression testing conditions, the proposed design concepts withstand between 7,500 and 10,000 N of load before showing yielding. Although some stress concentration regions were found during analysis, the overall viability of the proposed design concepts was validated.

  8. EFFICACY OF CAGE PLACEMENT WITHOUT PLATE IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL MYELOPATHY WITH SINGLE-LEVEL AFFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO ZUÑIGA-MAZÓN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the efficacy of PEEK (Poly-ether-ether-ketone cage without plate for the treatment of single-level cervical spondylosis. Methods: Ten patients with cervical myelopathy data, with a single-level root condition, seen at the outpatient clinic of the Neurosurgery Service, operated in 2016, mean age 53 years, 6 (60% female, 4 (40% obese, 3 (30% smokers. The Cloward technique was used by anterior approach, discectomy, and PEEK cage placement. Results: At six months of surgery, 100% of the patients had increased intervertebral space, with a 100% reduction in osteophytes; only one patient had dysphagia, no patient had lesion of the adjacent segment and 10% had persistent root pathology. Cervical lordosis was observed in 90% of the patients and arthrodesis in 100% of the cases. Conclusions: Anterior approach arthrodesis using PEEK cage without cervical plate is effective as a treatment of cervical myelopathy in a single level.

  9. On the Damper Cage Bar´s Currents Calculation Forsalient Pole Large Synchronous Machina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Vicol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The damper cage bars’ currents occur only when the synchronous machine operates in a dynamic regime and its rotor speed differs from the stator field speed. Basically there are two ways of calculating the damper cage currents, by using the machine equivalent circuit or by employing a 2D or 3D finite element method (FEM analysis. In this paper are discussedtwo methods to calculate the damper cage currents, one based on a coupled field-circuit approach when all the machine dimensions and winding should be known and another based on DC-decay tests conducted with the rotor on d, respectively q axis when all the transient parameters and time constants are obtained. Both methods are quite simple and offer an acceptable accuracy.

  10. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2 inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT and time to cessation of movement (COM of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO2 inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO2 in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  11. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory; Farnell, Morgan

    2018-01-11

    During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO₂ added to a chamber, a CO₂ pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO₂ added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO₂ inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO₂ in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  12. Does impaction of titanium-coated interbody fusion cages into the disc space cause wear debris or delamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Annette; Graf, Nicolas; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2016-02-01

    A large number of interbody fusion cages are made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To improve bone on-growth, some are coated with a thin layer of titanium. This coating may fail when subjected to shear loading. The purpose of this testing was to investigate whether impaction of titanium-coated PEEK cages into the disc space can result in wear or delamination of the coating, and whether titanium cages with subtractive surface etching (no coating) are less susceptible to such failure. A biomechanical study was carried out to simulate the impaction process in clinical practice and to evaluate if wear or delamination may result from impaction. Two groups of posterior lumbar interbody fusion cages with a similar geometry were tested: n=6 titanium-coated PEEK and n=6 surface-etched titanium cages. The cages were impacted into the space in between two vertebral body substitutes (polyurethane foam blocks). The two vertebral body substitutes were fixed in a device, through which a standardized axial preload of 390 N was applied. The anterior tip of the cage was positioned at the posterior border of the space between the two vertebral body substitutes. The cages were then inserted using a drop weight with a mass representative of a surgical hammer. The drop weight impacted the insertion instrument at a maximum speed of about 2.6 m/s, which is in the range of the impaction speed in vivo. This was repeated until the cages were fully inserted. The wear particles were captured and analyzed according to the pertinent standards. The surface-etched titanium cages did not show any signs of wear debris or surface damage. In contrast, the titanium-coated PEEK cages resulted in detached wear particles of different sizes (1-191 µm). Over 50% of these particles had a size debris. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P

    2010-12-01

    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community.

  14. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  15. Growth and stress of dourado cultivated in cages at different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Braun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and the stress levels of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis cultivated in cages. Fish stocked at densities of 15 (D15 and 30 (D30 fish per square meter were evaluated in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Fish were fed twice a day with extruded ration (42% crude protein. Density influenced only biomass and daily food intake, and glucose and lactate concentrations increased over time. D15 and D30 did not influence the growth of dourado. However, the increase of glucose and lactate levels over time indicates that cultivation in cages is a stressful condition for this species.

  16. Synthesis of potentially caged sphingolipids, possible precursors of cellular modulators and second messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, U

    1997-11-19

    An increasing number of sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids and some of their degradation products have been recognized in recent years as second messengers involved in signal transduction and as modulators of numerous cellular functions. These can be converted into inert, caged compounds, introduced into cells and tissues and subsequently photolysed to active compounds thus enabling the study of fast biological processes. The novel, potentially caged compounds synthesized here are substituted 2-nitrobenzyl urethans and 2-nitrobenzyl amines derived from sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, N-methylsphingosine, N-methyldihydrosphingosine, psychosine and glucosylsphingosine. Upon irradiation of the afore mentioned compounds they release, or are expected to release, the free biologically active amines.

  17. Thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM with and without a squirrel cage rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Mohammadali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM is a novel switched reluctance machine with limited information about its heat distribution and dissipation. This paper presents a two dimensional (2-D thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM to observe actual heat distribution in the parts of the machine, using Finite Element Method (FEM. Two topologies for the rotor of DSSRM are considered, Non-Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (NSC-DSSRM and Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (SC-DSSRM. The heat distribution of these two topologies is analyzed, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Finally the results are presented and compared.

  18. Direct laser writing of microstructures for the growth guidance of human pluripotent stem cell derived neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, S.; Käpylä, E.; Lähteenmäki, M.; Ylä-Outinen, L.; Narkilahti, S.; Kellomäki, M.

    2014-04-01

    Studying neural networks in vivo is very laborious due to the location and immense complexity of the central nervous system. Therefore, neuronal cell culture models have become important tools to study the development of neuronal networks in vitro. We introduce a technique called direct laser writing (DLW) by two-photon polymerization (2PP) as a feasible method for the fabrication of microstructures for studying neuronal cell growth guidance. As human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) can be differentiated into several cell types, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, they are a promising cell source for cell culture models. In this study, three novel designs of neurocage microstructures were fabricated for the first time by 2PP. As a proof of concept, two of the neurocage designs were seeded with hPSC derived neuronal cells to study cell attachment, migration and directed neurite growth. Although the fabricated neurocage structures could not confine the neurons, the preliminary cell culture tests showed that neurons had a tendency to migrate towards the microstructures. In addition, the neurite guidance properties of the structures appeared promising as the neurons inside the cages readily extended their processes along the channels.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leonard I Voronov,1,2 Krzysztof B Siemionow,3 Robert M Havey,1,2 Gerard Carandang,2 Avinash G Patwardhan1,2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, 2Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: Lateral mass screw (LMS fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct.Methods: Seven cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7 specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N in the following conditions: 1 intact (C3–C7, 2 LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3 removal of all rods (LMS retained and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods, and 5 C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted.Results: Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05. Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–­extension (P=0.001, (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3° in lateral bending (P=0.053, (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9° in axial rotation (P=0.091 for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced

  20. The Effect of Cage Space on Behavior and Reproduction in Crl:CD1(Icr and C57BL/6NCrl Laboratory Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna N Gaskill

    Full Text Available Recommendations for the amount of cage space required for female mice with litters were first made in the 2011 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We hypothesized that if a difference in mouse behavior and reproduction exists within the limits of commercially available caging, this difference would be detected between the smallest and largest cages. C57BL/6NCrl and Crl:CD1(Icr breeding mice were randomly assigned to a cage treatment: LP 18790 (226 cm2; A RC1 (305 cm2; A N10 (432 cm2; T 1291 (800 cm2 and a breeding configuration: single (male removed after birth; pair (1 male + 1 female; or trio (1 male + 2 females in a factorial design for 12 weeks. All cages received 8-10 g of nesting material and nests were scored weekly. Pups were weaned between post-natal day 18 and 26 and were weighed at weaning. Adult behavior and location in the cage were recorded by scan samples every 30 min over 48 hr of video recorded on PND 0-8 and PND 14-21 when pups were in the cage. Press posture and play behavior were recorded by 1/0 sampling method. Cage space did not significantly alter typical reproductive measures. Pups in the smallest cage played less than in the other cages. Adults in the smallest cage displayed more press posture than in the two largest cages. Mice in the largest cage spent more time under the feeder than in other areas of the cage. Nest score was also the highest in the largest cage. Housing breeding groups of mice in a range of commercially available cage sizes does not affect reproduction but behavioral measures suggest that the smallest cage tested, LP 18790, may be stressful for outbred mice when pups are present.

  1. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  2. Spray washing, absorbent cornstarch powder, and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Allowing feces to dry is an effective but slow and logistically impractical means to kill Campylobacter in soiled transport cages. ...

  3. Gender differences in exerted forces and physiological load during pushing and pulling of wheeled cages by postal workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, A. J.; Kluver, B. D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; Hoozemans, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim was to determine gender differences regarding exerted forces and physiological load during push/pull tasks simulating the daily working practice of postal workers. Eight female and four male workers handled four-wheeled cages under eight conditions corresponding to the cage weight (130, 250,

  4. On the growth of Penaeus indicus experimented in cages at different densities in a selected nursery ground

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N.; Paulinose, V.T.; Balasubramanian, T.; Menon, P.G.; Kutty, M.K.

    Effect of different densities on the growth of Penaeus indicus was studied in a higly productive nursery ground located at Ramanthuruth Island (lat. 9~'58'50"N, long. 76~'15'40"E) using cages. Eight cages of the same size were placed with prawns...

  5. Improving Prediction Accuracy of a Rate-Based Model of an MEA-Based Carbon Capture Process for Large-Scale Commercial Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Luo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS technology will play a critical role in reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emission from fossil-fired power plants and other energy-intensive processes. However, the increment of energy cost caused by equipping a carbon capture process is the main barrier to its commercial deployment. To reduce the capital and operating costs of carbon capture, great efforts have been made to achieve optimal design and operation through process modeling, simulation, and optimization. Accurate models form an essential foundation for this purpose. This paper presents a study on developing a more accurate rate-based model in Aspen Plus® for the monoethanolamine (MEA-based carbon capture process by multistage model validations. The modeling framework for this process was established first. The steady-state process model was then developed and validated at three stages, which included a thermodynamic model, physical properties calculations, and a process model at the pilot plant scale, covering a wide range of pressures, temperatures, and CO2 loadings. The calculation correlations of liquid density and interfacial area were updated by coding Fortran subroutines in Aspen Plus®. The validation results show that the correlation combination for the thermodynamic model used in this study has higher accuracy than those of three other key publications and the model prediction of the process model has a good agreement with the pilot plant experimental data. A case study was carried out for carbon capture from a 250 MWe combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT power plant. Shorter packing height and lower specific duty were achieved using this accurate model.

  6. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-02-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  7. Lumping Izhikevich neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Sid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the construction of a planar vector field that yields the firing rate of a bursting Izhikevich neuron can be read out, while leaving the sub-threshold behavior intact. This planar vector field is used to derive lumped formulations of two complex heterogeneous networks of bursting Izhikevich neurons. In both cases, the lumped model is compared with the spiking network. There is excellent agreement in terms of duration and number of action potentials within the bursts, but there is a slight mismatch of the burst frequency. The lumped model accurately accounts for both intrinsic bursting and post inhibitory rebound potentials in the neuron model, features which are absent in prevalent neural mass models.

  8. Stochastic neuron models

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...

  9. Imaging voltage in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Takahashi, Hiroto; Yuste, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, imaging membrane potential has become a fruitful approach to study neural circuits, especially in invertebrate preparations with large, resilient neurons. At the same time, particularly in mammalian preparations, voltage imaging methods suffer from poor signal to noise and secondary side effects, and they fall short of providing single-cell resolution when imaging of the activity of neuronal populations. As an introduction to these techniques, we briefly review different voltage imaging methods (including organic fluorophores, SHG chromophores, genetic indicators, hybrid, nanoparticles and intrinsic approaches), and illustrate some of their applications to neuronal biophysics and mammalian circuit analysis. We discuss their mechanisms of voltage sensitivity, from reorientation, electrochromic or electro-optical phenomena, to interaction among chromophores or membrane scattering, and highlight their advantages and shortcomings, commenting on the outlook for development of novel voltage imaging methods. PMID:21220095

  10. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Guilherme D'Aprile; Soto, Sônia de Fatima; Castro, Isac de; Rodrigues, Thiago Guimarães; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; Almeida, Francine Maria de; Pazetti, Rogerio; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) from birth until adulthood. Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs) and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8) counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages.

  11. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme D’Aprile Marchesi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20 than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4, whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0 than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22 at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3 and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3 offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0 and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0 at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4 and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6 offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8, neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1 and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8 counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages.

  12. Glutamate gated spiking Neuron Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Krisha M; Roy, Soumik

    2014-01-01

    Biological neuron models mainly analyze the behavior of neural networks. Neurons are described in terms of firing rates viz an analog signal. The Izhikevich neuron model is an efficient, powerful model of spiking neuron. This model is a reduction of Hodgkin-Huxley model to a two variable system and is capable of producing rich firing patterns for many biological neurons. In this paper, the Regular Spiking (RS) neuron firing pattern is used to simulate the spiking of Glutamate gated postsynaptic membrane. Simulation is done in MATLAB environment for excitatory action of synapses. Analogous simulation of spiking of excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential is obtained.

  13. Photosensitive neurons in mollusks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartelija Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to regular photoreceptors, some invertebrates possess simple extra ocular photoreceptors. For ex­ample, the central ganglia of mollusks contain photosensitive neurons. These neurons are located on the dorsal surface of the ganglia and based on their electrophysiological properties it has been postulated that they are internal photoreceptors. Besides the eye, transduction of light also occurs in these extra-ocular photoreceptors. In the present work, we analyze the reactivity of these nerve cells to light and describe the underlying mechanism mediating the light-induced response.

  14. From Neurons to Newtons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    proteins generate forces, to the macroscopic levels where overt arm movements are vol- untarily controlled within an unpredictable environment by legions of neurons¯ring in orderly fashion. An extensive computer simulation system has been developed for this thesis, which at present contains a neural...... network scripting language for specifying arbitrary neural architectures, de¯nition ¯les for detailed spinal networks, various biologically realistic models of neurons, and dynamic synapses. Also included are structurally accurate models of intrafusal and extra-fusal muscle ¯bers and a general body...

  15. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether......Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation...

  16. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether...... a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation...

  17. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Oliveira, R.; McDonough, S.; Matser, A.; Khatikarn, J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Domingues, I.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics,

  18. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shaona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyroscope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  19. Combining Protein Cages and Polymers: from Understanding Self-Assembly to Functional Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, Stan Joris; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2016-01-01

    Protein cages, such as viruses, are well-defined biological nanostructures which are highly symmetrical and monodisperse. They are found in various shapes and sizes and can encapsulate or template non-native materials. Furthermore, the proteins can be chemically or genetically modified giving them

  20. Cage occupancies in the high pressure structure H methane hydrate: a neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulk, C A; Klug, D D; dos Santos, A M; Karotis, G; Guthrie, M; Molaison, J J; Pradhan, N

    2012-02-07

    A neutron diffraction study was performed on the CD(4) : D(2)O structure H clathrate hydrate to refine its CD(4) fractional cage occupancies. Samples of ice VII and hexagonal (sH) methane hydrate were produced in a Paris-Edinburgh press and in situ neutron diffraction data collected. The data were analyzed with the Rietveld method and yielded average cage occupancies of 3.1 CD(4) molecules in the large 20-hedron (5(12)6(8)) cages of the hydrate unit cell. Each of the pentagonal dodecahedron (5(12)) and 12-hedron (4(3)5(6)6(3)) cages in the sH unit cell are occupied with on average 0.89 and 0.90 CD(4) molecules, respectively. This experiment avoided the co-formation of Ice VI and sH hydrate, this mixture is more difficult to analyze due to the proclivity of ice VI to form highly textured crystals, and overlapping Bragg peaks of the two phases. These results provide essential information for the refinement of intermolecular potential parameters for the water-methane hydrophobic interaction in clathrate hydrates and related dense structures.

  1. The Effects of Caging on the Colonization of Fouling Organisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of caging on the colonization and development ofthe fouling community in the upper Bonny estuary was studied. The experimental design was such that sets of wooden ... competitively dominant species to create space and allow less competitive species to coexist in the community (Dayton 1975). However, in ...

  2. Comparison of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cage and cervical disc prostheses used in anterior cervical microscopic discectomy operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadir Alkan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: It was shown that in the cervical disc prosthesis group (Group A in the early and later postoperative period, intervertebral disk heights were preserved by a statistically significant amount compared to the PEEK cage group (Group B. However, this scenario did not create any significant difference in the clinical evaluation results. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 1-8

  3. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2006-01-01

    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  4. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S.; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J.; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible.

  5. Romantic Remediation? John Cage and Henry David Thoreau’s Walden State of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2014-01-01

    Rather than identifying Cage as a romantic soul mate of the transcendentalists exhibiting a rebellious attitude against conventions, I will investigate new ways to detect with greater exactness what Sean Wilentz described in the context of David S. Reynolds work on the American Renaissance as “the

  6. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of ...

  7. That Entertainment Called a Discussion: The Critical Arts Pedagogy of John Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Just as John Cage used chance techniques to relinquish control in his practice as a composer, he used pedagogical techniques that facilitated shared learning and experimentation. The tenets of Critical Pedagogy, as laid out by Paulo Freire in "The Pedagogy of the Oppressed," offer insights into the structures and strategies implicit in…

  8. First-principles investigations of intermetallics in the Ca-Ge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderba, H.; Djaballah, Y.; Belgacem-Bouzida, A.; Beddiaf, R.

    2011-07-01

    Ca-Ge intermetallics were studied by first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT) with the projector augmented-wave technique (PAW); both LDA and GGA were considered. Structural parameters and enthalpies of formation of observed intermetallics in the phase diagram were calculated. Other structures observed in other isoelectronic systems A-B (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; B=Si, Sn, Pb, Ge) were also investigated. GGA results are very close to available experimental data and proved to be more accurate than the LDA to describe this system. Results show that (i) Ca7Ge6 is not a ground state compound; (ii) a new polymorph of CaGe2, not yet reported experimentally, is found to be more stable than all other forms at 0 °K at this composition with the GGA; this is qualitatively in disagreement with the LDA that gives it less stable than the accepted one in the phase diagram; (iii) the new structure of Ca3Si4 reported in the Ca-Si system is very competitive energetically in the Ca-Ge system and indications suggest that it may represent a new compound in Ca-Ge; (iv) the experimentally reported cell parameters for Ca7Ge, and even Ca33Ge, are probably of some other compounds and not of the supposed ones; (v) all of the energetically competitive compounds are mechanically stable.

  9. Using Finite Element Method to Estimate the Material Properties of a Bearing Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    model for a cotton -phenolic based bearing cage. After performing a literature search, limited mechanical material property data was available. As a...UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED i CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Experimental 1 Bearing...unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 1 INTRODUCTION In the absence of mechanical material data, empirical experiments may be performed to estimate necessary

  10. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a demonstration of the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable-speed wind generation system. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to either a double-sided pulse-width modulation converte...

  11. Mathematical Modelling and Parameter Determination of Reluctance Synchronous Motor with Squirrel Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudák, Peter; Hrabovcová, Valéria

    2010-11-01

    The paper provides an analysis of reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with asymmetrical rotor cage. Its performances during its starting up is investigated. A mathematical model is created on the basis of detailed investigation of model parameters. The RSM starting up by switching it directly across the line was simulated and verified by measurements.

  12. Photomodulating Gene Expression by Using Caged siRNAs with Single-Aptamer Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Changmai; Fan, Xinli; Tang, Xinjing

    2018-02-28

    Caged siRNAs incorporating terminal modification were rationally designed for photochemical regulation of gene silencing induced by RNA interference (RNAi). Through the conjugation of a single oligonucleotide aptamer at the 5' terminus of the antisense RNA strand, enhancement of the blocking effect for RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation/processing was expected, due both/either to the aptamers themselves and/or to their interaction with large binding proteins. Two oligonucleotide aptamers (AS1411 and MUC-1) were chosen for aptamer-siRNA conjugation through a photolabile linker. This caging strategy was successfully used to photoregulate gene expression both of firefly luciferase and of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in cells. Further patterning experiments revealed that spatial regulation of GFP expression was successfully achieved by using the aptamer-modified caged siRNA and light activation. We expect that further optimized caged siRNAs featuring aptamer conjugation will be promising for practical applications to spatiotemporal photoregulation of gene expression in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Response of phytoplankton to an experimental fish culture in net cages in a subtropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartozek, E C R; Bueno, N C; Feiden, A; Rodrigues, L C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate nutrients concentration and spatial-temporal changes in phytoplankton biovolume during an experimental fish culture in net cages in a lateral arm of Salto Caxias reservoir, Brazil. Two sampling stations were placed in the affected lateral arm and other two in a cageless lateral arm. Neither abiotic variables nor phytoplankton biovolume presented significant differences between the treatments. Only temporal changes were confirmed by the analysis performed. Both lateral arms were classified as oligotrophic, reflecting low influence of the net cages. Phytoplankton growth seems to be limited by nitrogen. Biovolume values were, in general, low and five major functional groups were recognized (E, F, G, K and P). In summer higher biovolume values were observed and representatives of Chlorophyceae and Cyanobacteria belonging to the functional groups F and K, respectively, were the most important. In winter phytoplankton was mainly composed by Bacillariophyceae taxa from P group. G group was also restricted to winter and E group occurred in winter and summer. The variations recorded in phytoplankton structure appear to have been mainly influenced by seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation and nutrients availability. The effects of net cages on the abiotic variables and phytoplankton biovolume appear to have been small, probably due to the small number of net cages employed and the system dilution capacity. However, a permanent monitoring of phytoplankton is recommended, since this environment has a carrying capacity, from which the trophic state may increase.

  14. Sternum Length and Rib Cage Dimensions Compared with Bodily Proportions in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Laurin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A greater structural expansion of the rib cage in females compared with males has been described in cystic fibrosis (CF patients; however, conflicting data exist as to whether an elongation of the bony ribs and sternum contributes to this expansion.

  15. Laying Performance of Wareng Chicken under Free Choice Feeding and Different Cage Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using free choice feeding technique under different cage density for unselected native chicken. Eighty hens of laying Wareng chicken were divided into two feeding systems. Half of them were fed complete commercial diet of 17% crude protein, with 2800 kcal ME/kg and the other half were subjected to free choice diet. The diets were in mash form and placed in sufficient feed troughs in front of each cage. Each cage was occupied by four or six hens. Free choice feeding hens were served with commercial concentrate (30% crude protein, ground corn and oyster shell, placed separately in feed troughs. Observation was carried out during 24 weeks laying period, starting from 20 to 44 weeks of age. The results showed that egg production (9.35% hen day, and the intake of feed (42.74 g/day, protein (7.01 g/day, energy (116.6 kcal ME/day, calcium (1.99 g/day and phosphorus (0.22 g/day were not affected (P>0.05 by feeding system nor by cage density. The results however indicated that free choice feeding technique provided sufficient nutrients in supporting maximum egg production of unselected native chicken.

  16. Photoactivatable Drug-Caged Fluorophore Conjugate Allows Direct Quantification of Intracellular Drug Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Rainer H.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We report here a method that utilizes photoactivatable drug-caged fluorophore conjugate to quantify intracellular drug trafficking processes at single cell resolution. Photoactivation is performed in labeled cellular compartments to visualize intracellular drug exchange at physiologic conditions, without the need for washing, facilitating its translation to in vivo cancer models. PMID:24135896

  17. Economic traits and performance of Italian quails reared at different cage stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABG Faitarone

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of different cage stocking densities on the performance of Italian quails in the laying period. Two hundred and sixty four quails with 30 weeks of age and 280g mean body weight were used. Birds were randomly assigned to 96 x 33 x 16 cm cages and distributed in a randomized block design with 4 treatments (12, 15, 18 and 21 quails per cage or 264, 211, 176 and 151 cm² per quail, respectively and 4 replicates. Birds were given feed and water ad libitum and submitted to the same experimental conditions. The experimental diet was formulated based on NRC (1994 recommendations. There were no significant differences among treatments for feed conversion per egg mass (kg:kg, percentage of broken eggs and mortality. There was a linear reduction (p<0.05 in egg weight, feed consumption, percentage of production, egg mass and feed conversion per dozen with the increase in stocking density. The gain per house per day was better at the cage density of 151 cm² per bird. However, the density of 211 cm² per bird provided the best gain per bird per day, because this stocking density had better productive indexes when compared with the other treatments.

  18. Nicolas Cage otsib kadunud tütart naistesaarelt / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Õudusfilm "Ohvripidu" : režissöör Neil LaBute : peaosas Nicholas Cage : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Film on uusversioon briti 1973.a. filmist, mille režissöör oli Robin Hardy ja ühes peaosadest Christopher Lee

  19. 48 CFR 204.7206 - Using CAGE codes to identify agents and brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identify agents and brokers. 204.7206 Section 204.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... 204.7206 Using CAGE codes to identify agents and brokers. Authorized agents and brokers are entities... code will be assigned to the agent/broker establishment in addition to any codes assigned to the...

  20. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  1. Knotting and unknotting proteins in the chaperonin cage: Effects of the excluded volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Niewieczerzal

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the effects of chaperonin-like cages on knotted proteins with very low sequence similarity, different depths of a knot but with a similar fold, and the same type of topology. The investigated proteins are VirC2, DndE and MJ0366 with two depths of a knot. A comprehensive picture how encapsulation influences folding rates is provided based on the analysis of different cage sizes and temperature conditions. Neither of these two effects with regard to knotted proteins has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained structure-based models before. We show that encapsulation in a chaperonin is sufficient to self-tie and untie small knotted proteins (VirC2, DndE, for which the equilibrium process is not accessible in the bulk solvent. Furthermore, we find that encapsulation reduces backtracking that arises from the destabilisation of nucleation sites, smoothing the free energy landscape. However, this effect can also be coupled with temperature rise. Encapsulation facilitates knotting at the early stage of folding and can enhance an alternative folding route. Comparison to unknotted proteins with the same fold shows directly how encapsulation influences the free energy landscape. In addition, we find that as the size of the cage decreases, folding times increase almost exponentially in a certain range of cage sizes, in accordance with confinement theory and experimental data for unknotted proteins.

  2. Red mason bees cannot compete with honey bees for floral resources in a cage experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudewenz, Anika; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2015-11-01

    Intensive beekeeping to mitigate crop pollination deficits and habitat loss may cause interspecific competition between bees. Studies show negative correlations between flower visitation of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees, but effects on the reproduction of wild bees were not proven. Likely reasons are that honey bees can hardly be excluded from controls and wild bee nests are generally difficult to detect in field experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) compete with honey bees in cages in order to compare the reproduction of red mason bees under different honey bee densities. Three treatments were applied, each replicated in four cages of 18 m³ with 38 red mason bees in all treatments and 0, 100, and 300 honey bees per treatment with 10-20% being foragers. Within the cages, the flower visitation and interspecific displacements from flowers were observed. Niche breadths and resource overlaps of both bee species were calculated, and the reproduction of red mason bees was measured. Red mason bees visited fewer flowers when honey bees were present. Niche breadth of red mason bees decreased with increasing honey bee density while resource overlaps remained constant. The reproduction of red mason bees decreased in cages with honey bees. In conclusion, our experimental results show that in small and isolated flower patches, wild bees can temporarily suffer from competition with honey bees. Further research should aim to test for competition on small and isolated flower patches in real landscapes.

  3. Remedies for a high incidence of broken eggs in furnished cages: effectiveness of increasing nest attractiveness and lowering perch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Struelens, E; Ampe, B

    2013-01-01

    Two remedial treatments to reduce the high incidence of broken eggs in the furnished cages of our experimental layer farm were investigated: lining the nest floor with artificial turf (to increase nest acceptance) and lowering perch height (to reduce the chance of egg breakage of outside-nest eggs). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with low (7 cm) or high (24 cm) perches, and with nest floors lined with artificial turf or plastic mesh. Eight cages, each housing 8 hens initially (aged 40 to 56 wk), were used per treatment. Egg location and percentage of broken eggs were recorded. Hen position (cage floor, nest, or perch) was recorded by direct scan-sampling observations. In addition, 8 cages (4 high + 4 low) each containing 8 hens (aged 54 to 56 wk) were videorecorded to determine perch use and behavior during the light period. Data were mainly analyzed using logistic regression and mixed models with cage as the experimental unit. Nest floor material did not influence the percentage of eggs broken or laid outside the nest. The proportion of outside-nest eggs (2.6 vs. 10.6%, P = 0.004), and consequently also of total eggs (2 vs. 4.6%, P = 0.016) broken, was lower for low than high cages. Perch use increased during the observation period, more so for the high cages during the light period and the low cages during the dark period. Perch bout duration (P nest floor lining with artificial turf was not an effective remedy for the already-high rate of broken eggs, but the prevalence of broken outside-nest eggs was lower in cages with low versus high perches. However, perching behavior during the light period was more disturbed in cages with low perches.

  4. Acclimatization of mice to different cage types and social groupings with respect to fecal secretion of IgA and corticosterone metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Cathrine Juel; Kalliokoski, Otto; Abelson, Klas Sp

    2012-01-01

    Stress associated with transport and change of environment may have widespread effects on physiological parameters in laboratory animals. To investigate the time needed for mice to acclimatize to a new environment, based on fecal IgA and corticosterone excretion, eightweek-old BALB/c mice of both...... genders were housed either in groups of eight in different cage types in open conventional cages, in Individual Ventilated Cages (IVC), in open conventional cages inside a plastic isolator, or in different group sizes (8, 4, 8, 10 or 12 mice in each group) in open conventional cages. Feces were collected...... from each cage on routine cage changing. There was no significant difference in corticosterone excretion in feces between animals housed in the different cage types or between animals housed in different group sizes. IgA excretion for both males and females was found to be affected by transfer of mice...

  5. Application of biodegradable 3D-printed cage for cervical diseases via anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF): an in vitro biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofan; Jiang, Libo; Yang, Jielai; Cao, Lu; Dong, Jian

    2017-09-01

    To design and fabricate a 3D-printed cervical cage composite of polylactic acid (PLA)/nano-sized and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). CAD analysis provided a useful platform to design the preliminary cage. In vitro cell culture and in vivo animal results showed promising results in the biocompatibility of the constructs. Endplate matching evaluation showed better matching degree of 3D-printed cages than those of conventional cages. Biomechanical evaluation showed better mechanical properties of 3D-printed cages than those of conventional cages. The novel 3D printed PLA/pβ-TCP cage showed good application potential, indicating a novel, feasible, and inexpensive method to manufacture cervical fusion cages.

  6. Polar self-assembly: steric effects leading to polar mixed-ligand coordination cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Miller, Philip W; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; James, Stuart L

    2006-03-08

    We present a highly unusual example of self-assembly, specifically a polar, mixed-ligand cage which forms in preference to symmetrical homo-ligand products, and which suggests that steric effects can be exploited to obtain novel non-uniform polyhedral cages. In particular, reaction between the bulky tripodal triphosphine 2,4,6-tris(diphenylphosphino)triazine, L1, the non-bulky tripodal trinitrile 2,4,6-tris(cyanomethyl)trimethylbenzene, L2 and silver hexafluoroantimonate, AgSbF6, in a 3:1:4 ratio gives the mixed-ligand aggregate [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(SbF6)]3+, 1-SbF6, instantly as the only product in quantitative yield. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 1-SbF6 is consistent with the suspected solution-state structure. The cage derives from trigonal-pyramidal geometry, the basal vertices of which are defined by three bulky triphosphines, L1, and the apical vertex by the non-bulky trinitrile, L2. There is apical elongation amounting to 19% in comparison to the ideal uniform tetrahedron. The cage also encapsulates an SbF6 anion. 19F NMR spectra in solution for the analogous PF6 complex [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(PF6)]3+, 1-PF6, confirm that one anion is also encapsulated in solution. The synthesis of the analogous CF3SO3(-) complex, [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(OTf)]3+, 1-OTf, in solution is also described, although 1-PF6 and 1-OTf could not be isolated due to slow decomposition in solution. The selective formation of these mixed-ligand cages is discussed in terms of ligand-ligand and ligand-included anion steric repulsions, which we propose prevent the formation of the competing hypothetical homo-ligand tetrahedral structure [Ag4(L1)4(SbF6)]3+, and thus favour the mixed ligand cage. "Cage cone angles" for L1 and L2 are estimated at 115 degrees and 101 degrees, respectively. Variable-temperature 31P NMR spectroscopy shows that complex 1-SbF6 and the related previously reported partial tetrahedral complex [Ag4(L1)3(anion)]3+ undergo dynamic twisting processes in solution between enantiomeric C3

  7. Expiratory rib cage compression in mechanically ventilated adults: systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lúcia Faria; Saraiva, Mateus Sasso; Saraiva, Marcos Ariel Sasso; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Kessler, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the effects of expiratory rib cage compression on ventilatory mechanics, airway clearance, and oxygen and hemodynamic indices in mechanically ventilated adults. Methods Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PEDro, and LILACS. Studies on adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units and under mechanical ventilation that analyzed the effects of expiratory rib cage compression with respect to a control group (without expiratory rib cage compression) and evaluated the outcomes static and dynamic compliance, sputum volume, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen were included. Experimental studies with animals and those with incomplete data were excluded. Results The search strategy produced 5,816 studies, of which only three randomized crossover trials were included, totaling 93 patients. With respect to the outcome of heart rate, values were reduced in the expiratory rib cage compression group compared with the control group [-2.81 bpm (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -4.73 to 0.89; I2: 0%)]. Regarding dynamic compliance, there was no significant difference between groups [-0.58mL/cmH2O (95%CI: -2.98 to 1.82; I2: 1%)]. Regarding the variables systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, significant differences were found after descriptive evaluation. However, there was no difference between groups regarding the variables secretion volume, static compliance, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Conclusion There is a lack of evidence to support the use of expiratory rib cage compression in routine care, given that the literature on this topic offers low methodological quality and is inconclusive. PMID

  8. Folding dynamics of Trp-cage in the presence of chemical interference and macromolecular crowding. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiotakis, Antonios; Cheung, Margaret S

    2011-11-07

    Proteins fold and function in the crowded environment of the cell's interior. In the recent years it has been well established that the so-called "macromolecular crowding" effect enhances the folding stability of proteins by destabilizing their unfolded states for selected proteins. On the other hand, chemical and thermal denaturation is often used in experiments as a tool to destabilize a protein by populating the unfolded states when probing its folding landscape and thermodynamic properties. However, little is known about the complicated effects of these synergistic perturbations acting on the kinetic properties of proteins, particularly when large structural fluctuations, such as protein folding, have been involved. In this study, we have first investigated the folding mechanism of Trp-cage dependent on urea concentration by coarse-grained molecular simulations where the impact of urea is implemented into an energy function of the side chain and/or backbone interactions derived from the all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with urea through a Boltzmann inversion method. In urea solution, the folding rates of a model miniprotein Trp-cage decrease and the folded state slightly swells due to a lack of contact formation between side chains at the terminal regions. In addition, the equilibrium m-values of Trp-cage from the computer simulations are in agreement with experimental measurements. We have further investigated the combined effects of urea denaturation and macromolecular crowding on Trp-cage's folding mechanism where crowding agents are modeled as hard-spheres. The enhancement of folding rates of Trp-cage is most pronounced by macromolecular crowding effect when the extended conformations of Trp-cast dominate at high urea concentration. Our study makes quantitatively testable predictions on protein folding dynamics in a complex environment involving both chemical denaturation and macromolecular crowding effects.

  9. Individually ventilated cages impose cold stress on laboratory mice: a source of systemic experimental variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B

    2013-11-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems.

  10. Lumping Izhikevich neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.; van Gils, Stephanus A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the construction of a planar vector field that yields the firing rate of a bursting Izhikevich neuron can be read out, while leaving the sub-threshold behaviour intact. This planar vector field is used to derive lumped formulations of two complex heterogeneous networks of bursting

  11. Spiking neuron network Helmholtz machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sountsov, Pavel; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper aims to unify the two fields of probabilistic inference and synaptic plasticity by using a neuronal network of realistic model spiking neurons to implement a well-studied computational...

  12. Identifying neuronal oscillations using rhythmicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, A.M.M.; Ede, F.L. van; Maris, E.G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations are a characteristic feature of neuronal activity and are typically investigated through measures of power and coherence. However, neither of these measures directly reflects the distinctive feature of oscillations: their rhythmicity. Rhythmicity is the extent to which future

  13. Motor neuron disease in blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-19

    Aug 19, 1989 ... We reported earlier that motor neuron disease occurs more commonly among blacks than Parkinson's disease, which is relatively rare in this race group.! The hypothesis that these conditions, and other neuronal abiotrophies, are the result of previous subclinical neuronal insult and subsequent age-related.

  14. Simple model of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhikevich, E M

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented that reproduces spiking and bursting behavior of known types of cortical neurons. The model combines the biologically plausibility of Hodgkin-Huxley-type dynamics and the computational efficiency of integrate-and-fire neurons. Using this model, one can simulate tens of thousands of spiking cortical neurons in real time (1 ms resolution) using a desktop PC.

  15. Moving Neurons back into place

    OpenAIRE

    Kerjan, Geraldine; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) is a neuron migration disorder characterized by an aberrant ‘band-like’ accumulation of neurons within the neocortical white matter, frequently leading to mental retardation and epilepsy. SBH can now be regressed by reactivating neuronal migration.

  16. Neuronal substrate of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, Elena; Calvez, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are devastating and life-threatening psychiatric diseases. Although clinical and experimental investigations have significantly progressed in discovering the neuronal causes of eating disorders, the exact neuronal and molecular mechanisms of the development and maintenance of these pathologies are not fully understood. The complexity of the neuronal substrate of eating disorders hampers progress in revealing the precise mechanisms. The present re...

  17. Understanding Neuronal Mechanisms of Epilepsy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Control il ti. Human brain. Control epileptic. Mutani et al., 1994 ... of Calcium Transients Evoked in. Response to Spontaneous Epileptic ... Proof : Feed forward inhibition in subiculum. CA1. Subiculum. Stimulation artifact. -60 mV. Excitatory neuron. Inhibitory neuron. Excitatory neuron. Excitatory. Synapse. Inhibitory. Synapse.

  18. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABAA, glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABAB, as well as an adenosine A1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  19. A Geometric Principle May Guide Self-Assembly of Fullerene Cages from Clathrin Triskelia and from Carbon Atoms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stan; Sands-Kidner, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Clathrin triskelia and carbon atoms alike self-assemble into a limited selection of fullerene cages (with n three connected vertices, 3n/2 edges, 12 pentagonal faces, and (n−20)/2 hexagonal faces). We show that a geometric constraint—exclusion of head-to-tail dihedral angle discrepancies (DADs)—explains this limited selection as well as successful assembly into such closed cages in the first place. An edge running from a pentagon to a hexagon has a DAD, since the dihedral angles about the edge broaden from its pentagon (tail) end to its hexagon (head) end. Of the 21 configurations of a central face and surrounding faces, six have such DAD vectors arranged head-to-tail. Of the 5770 mathematically possible fullerene cages for n ≤ 60, excluding those with any of the six configurations leaves just 15 cages plus buckminsterfullerene (n = 60), among them the known clathrin cages. Of the 216,739 mathematically possible cages for 60 fullerenes for some n (30,34,46,48,52–58,62–68) explains the abundance of certain cages, including buckminsterfullerene. These principles also suggest a “probable roads” path to self-assembly in place of pentagon-road and fullerene-road hypotheses. PMID:17921209

  20. Selenium uptake and speciation in wild and caged fish downstream of a metal mining and milling discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phibbs, James; Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Hauck, Dominic; Pickering, Ingrid J; Liber, Karsten; Janz, David M

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the dominance of the feeding pathway with respect to selenium (Se) uptake and speciation in fish inhabiting the receiving waters downstream of a uranium processing mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The experimental design included analysis of Se in the predominant fish species located in the study area, a caging validation study using wild, naïve (i.e., collected from a reference lake) lake chub (Couesius plumbeus) and spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and a 21-day feeding cage study using wild naïve lake chub. Three exposure lakes located downstream of the uranium mill and one reference lake situated in an adjacent watershed were studied to investigate a gradient of Se exposure. Lake chub were identified as more suitable candidates for caging due to higher survival and condition factor at the completion of the 21-day trial. Analytical results indicated that lake chub caged in the exposure lakes had significantly greater whole-body Se concentrations after 21 days compared to fish caged in the reference lake. Selenium speciation results (obtained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy) from wild and caged lake chub indicated that organic Se modeled as selenomethionine was the dominant form of Se found in both wild and caged lake chub from the exposure lakes, and that selenomethionine (R-Se-R) acts as a marker of bioavailable Se exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergy of Two Assembly Languages in DNA Nanostructures: Self-Assembly of Sequence-Defined Polymers on DNA Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidchob, Pongphak; Edwardson, Thomas G W; Serpell, Christopher J; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2016-04-06

    DNA base-pairing is the central interaction in DNA assembly. However, this simple four-letter (A-T and G-C) language makes it difficult to create complex structures without using a large number of DNA strands of different sequences. Inspired by protein folding, we introduce hydrophobic interactions to expand the assembly language of DNA nanotechnology. To achieve this, DNA cages of different geometries are combined with sequence-defined polymers containing long alkyl and oligoethylene glycol repeat units. Anisotropic decoration of hydrophobic polymers on one face of the cage leads to hydrophobically driven formation of quantized aggregates of DNA cages, where polymer length determines the cage aggregation number. Hydrophobic chains decorated on both faces of the cage can undergo an intrascaffold "handshake" to generate DNA-micelle cages, which have increased structural stability and assembly cooperativity, and can encapsulate small molecules. The polymer sequence order can control the interaction between hydrophobic blocks, leading to unprecedented "doughnut-shaped" DNA cage-ring structures. We thus demonstrate that new structural and functional modes in DNA nanostructures can emerge from the synergy of two interactions, providing an attractive approach to develop protein-inspired assembly modules in DNA nanotechnology.

  2. A mechanism for cognitive dynamics: neuronal communication through neuronal coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    At any one moment, many neuronal groups in our brain are active. Microelectrode recordings have characterized the activation of single neurons and fMRI has unveiled brain-wide activation patterns. Now it is time to understand how the many active neuronal groups interact with each other and how their communication is flexibly modulated to bring about our cognitive dynamics. I hypothesize that neuronal communication is mechanistically subserved by neuronal coherence. Activated neuronal groups oscillate and thereby undergo rhythmic excitability fluctuations that produce temporal windows for communication. Only coherently oscillating neuronal groups can interact effectively, because their communication windows for input and for output are open at the same times. Thus, a flexible pattern of coherence defines a flexible communication structure, which subserves our cognitive flexibility.

  3. The Crystal Structure of a Maxi/Mini-Ferritin Chimera Reveals Guiding Principles for the Assembly of Protein Cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, Thomas A. [Department; Division; Srivastava, Yogesh [Genome; Jauch, Ralf [Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore; Genome; Fan, Rongli [Division; Orner, Brendan P. [Department; Division

    2017-07-19

    Cage proteins assemble into nanoscale structures with large central cavities. They play roles, including those as virus capsids and chaperones, and have been applied to drug delivery and nanomaterials. Furthermore, protein cages have been used as model systems to understand and design protein quaternary structure. Ferritins are ubiquitous protein cages that manage iron homeostasis and oxidative damage. Two ferritin subfamilies have strongly similar tertiary structure yet distinct quaternary structure: maxi-ferritins normally assemble into 24-meric, octahedral cages with C-terminal E-helices centered around 4-fold symmetry axes, and mini-ferritins are 12-meric, tetrahedral cages with 3-fold axes defined by C-termini lacking E-domains. To understand the role E-domains play in ferritin quaternary structure, we previously designed a chimera of a maxi-ferritin E-domain fused to the C-terminus of a mini-ferritin. The chimera is a 12-mer cage midway in size between those of the maxi- and mini-ferritin. The research described herein sets out to understand (a) whether the increase in size over a typical mini-ferritin is due to a frozen state where the E-domain is flipped out of the cage and (b) whether the symmetrical preference of the E-domain in the maxi-ferritin (4-fold axis) overrules the C-terminal preference in the mini-ferritin (3-fold axis). With a 1.99 Å resolution crystal structure, we determined that the chimera assembles into a tetrahedral cage that can be nearly superimposed with the parent mini-ferritin, and that the E-domains are flipped external to the cage at the 3-fold symmetry axes.

  4. Anterior dislodgement of a fusion cage after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeong Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Hong, Soon-Woo

    2013-08-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is commonly used procedure for spinal fusion. However, there are no reports describing anterior cage dislodgement after surgery. This report is a rare case of anterior dislodgement of fusion cage after TLIF for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 51-year-old man underwent TLIF at L4-5 with posterior instrumentation for the treatment of grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis with LSTV. At 7 weeks postoperatively, imaging studies demonstrated that banana-shaped cage migrated anteriorly and anterolisthesis recurred at the index level with pseudoarthrosis. The cage was removed and exchanged by new cage through anterior approach, and screws were replaced with larger size ones and cement augmentation was added. At postoperative 2 days of revision surgery, computed tomography (CT) showed fracture on lateral pedicle and body wall of L5 vertebra. He underwent surgery again for paraspinal decompression at L4-5 and extension of instrumentation to S1 vertebra. His back and leg pains improved significantly after final revision surgery and symptom relief was maintained during follow-up period. At 6 months follow-up, CT images showed solid fusion at L4-5 level. Careful cage selection for TLIF must be done for treatment of spondylolisthesis accompanied with deformed LSTV, especially when reduction will be attempted. Banana-shaped cage should be positioned anteriorly, but anterior dislodgement of cage and reduction failure may occur in case of a highly unstable spine. Revision surgery for the treatment of an anteriorly dislodged cage may be effectively performed using an anterior approach.

  5. Electrical responses and spontaneous activity of human iPS-derived neuronal networks characterized for three-month culture with 4096-electrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder eAmin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs. These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after three months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e. poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO, poly-l-ornithine (PLO, and polyethylenimine (PEI, that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even three-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings

  6. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging network

  7. Phosphoinositide signaling in somatosensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG) are responsible for detecting thermal and tactile stimuli. They are also the primary neurons mediating pain and itch. A large number of cell surface receptors in these neurons couple to phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes leading to the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and the generation of downstream signaling molecules. These neurons also express many different ion channels, several of which are regulated by phosphoinositides. This review will summarize the knowledge on phosphoinositide signaling in these neurons, with special focus on effects on sensory and other ion channels. PMID:26724974

  8. Emergence of population bursts from simultaneous activation of small subsets of preBötzinger complex inspiratory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kaiwen; Worrell, Jason W; Ventalon, Cathie; Emiliani, Valentina; Feldman, Jack L

    2013-02-20

    During rhythmic movements, central pattern generators (CPGs) trigger bursts of motor activity with precise timing. However, the number of neurons that must be activated within CPGs to generate motor output is unknown. In the mammalian breathing rhythm, a fundamentally important motor behavior, the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) produces synchronous population-wide bursts of activity to control inspiratory movements. We probed mechanisms underlying inspiratory burst generation in the preBötC using holographic photolysis of caged glutamate in medullary slices from neonatal mice. With stimulation parameters determined to confine photoactivation to targeted neurons, simultaneous excitation of 4-9 targeted neurons could initiate ectopic, endogenous-like bursts with delays averaging 255 ms, placing a critical and novel boundary condition on the microcircuit underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis.

  9. Analysis of the correlative factors in the selection of interbody fusion cage height in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Chen, Wenjie; Jiang, Jianyuan; Lu, Feizhou; Ma, Xiaosheng; Xia, Xinlei

    2016-01-12

    Selecting an interbody cage with appropriate height is one of the key steps in lumbar interbody fusion, and has an important impact on clinical efficacy. How to choose the appropriate height of the cage becomes one of the core problems of lumbar interbody fusion for spine surgeons. However, studies about objective selection criteria on interbody cage height was rare. One hundred fifty-seven patients with single segment lumbar degenerative diseases treated by TLIF surgery from January 2011 to July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Parameters analyzed included: gender, age, body height, clinical diagnosis, pathological segment location and the intervertebral height of pathological segment, pathological segment activity, the intervertebral height of the adjacent segments. And further to analyze the correlation between these parameters and interbody cage height. By measuring the intervertebral height of pathological segment and normal segment to calculate the regression equation of interbody cage height. The average interbody cage height of male patients (12.38 ± 1.43) mm was significantly higher than female (11.62 ± 1.45) mm (p lumbar interbody fusion for Chinese patients with lumbar degenerative diseases was: L3-4 (11.28 ± 3.29) mm ~ (12.76 ± 2.40) mm, L4-5 (11.62 ± 2.89) mm ~ (13.18 ± 1.91) mm, L5-S1 (10.52 ± 2.22) mm ~ (11.90 ± 2.80) mm. The regression equation of interbody cage height was: interbody cage height = 11.123-0.563 * (gender) + 0.149 * (the middle intervertebral height of pathological segment). The selection of interbody cage height was influenced by sex, body height, pathological segment location, the intervertebral height of pathological segment and other factors. The interbody cage height for the lower lumbar spine mostly selected 11,12,13 mm, L3-4, L4-5 segment highly selective in general should not be less than 10 mm, and L5-S1 segments height was relatively small, usually not more

  10. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  11. Substrate arrays of iridium oxide microelectrodes for in vitro neuronal interfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shady Gawad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of novel bidirectional interfaces for in vivo and in vitro nervous systems is an important step towards future functional neuroprosthetics. Small electrodes, structures and devices are necessary to achieve high-resolution and target-selectivity during stimulation and recording of neuronal networks, while significant charge transfer and large signal-to-noise ratio are required for accurate time resolution. In addition, the physical properties of the interface should remain stable across time, especially when chronic in vivo applications or in vitro long-term studies are considered, unless a procedure to actively compensate for degradation is provided. In this short report, we describe the use and fabrication of arrays of 120 planar microelectrodes (MEAs of sputtered Iridium Oxide (IrOx. The effective surface area of individual microelectrodes is significantly increased using electrochemical activation, a procedure that may also be employed to restore the properties of the electrodes as required. The electrode activation results in a very low interface impedance, especially in the lower frequency domain, which was characterized by impedance spectroscopy. The increase in the roughness of the microelectrodes surface was imaged using digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy. Aging of the activated electrodes was also investigated, comparing storage in saline with storage in air. Demonstration of concept was achieved by recording multiple single-unit spike activity in acute brain slice preparations of rat neocortex. Data suggests that extracellular recording of action potentials can be achieved with planar IrOx MEAs with good signal-to-noise ratios.

  12. Neuron-specific splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Nor Hakimah Ab; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2017-03-22

    During pre-mRNA splicing events, introns are removed from the pre-mRNA, and the remaining exons are connected together to form a single continuous molecule. Alternative splicing is a common mechanism for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. More than 90% of human genes are known to undergo alternative splicing. The most common type of alternative splicing is exon skipping, which is also known as cassette exon. Other known alternative splicing events include alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, intron retention, and mutually exclusive exons. Alternative splicing events are controlled by regulatory proteins responsible for both positive and negative regulation. In this review, we focus on neuronal splicing regulators and discuss several notable regulators in depth. In addition, we have also included an example of splicing regulation mediated by the RBFox protein family. Lastly, as previous studies have shown that a number of splicing factors are associated with neuronal diseases such as Alzheime's disease (AD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), here we consider their importance in neuronal diseases wherein the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated.

  13. Modular neuronal assemblies embodied in a closed-loop environment: toward future integration of brains and machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessadori, Jacopo; Bisio, Marta; Martinoia, Sergio; Chiappalone, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors, from simple to most complex, require a two-way interaction with the environment and the contribution of different brain areas depending on the orchestrated activation of neuronal assemblies. In this work we present a new hybrid neuro-robotic architecture based on a neural controller bi-directionally connected to a virtual robot implementing a Braitenberg vehicle aimed at avoiding obstacles. The robot is characterized by proximity sensors and wheels, allowing it to navigate into a circular arena with obstacles of different sizes. As neural controller, we used hippocampal cultures dissociated from embryonic rats and kept alive over Micro Electrode Arrays (MEAs) for 3-8 weeks. The developed software architecture guarantees a bi-directional exchange of information between the natural and the artificial part by means of simple linear coding/decoding schemes. We used two different kinds of experimental preparation: "random" and "modular" populations. In the second case, the confinement was assured by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mask placed over the surface of the MEA device, thus defining two populations interconnected via specific microchannels. The main results of our study are: (i) neuronal cultures can be successfully interfaced to an artificial agent; (ii) modular networks show a different dynamics with respect to random culture, both in terms of spontaneous and evoked electrophysiological patterns; (iii) the robot performs better if a reinforcement learning paradigm (i.e., a tetanic stimulation delivered to the network following each collision) is activated, regardless of the modularity of the culture; (iv) the robot controlled by the modular network further enhances its capabilities in avoiding obstacles during the short-term plasticity trial. The developed paradigm offers a new framework for studying, in simplified model systems, neuro-artificial bi-directional interfaces for the development of new strategies for brain-machine interaction.

  14. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J Anibal

    2017-07-17

    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  15. Influence of the absolute configuration of npe-caged cytosine on DNA single base pair stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Hannah S; Schäfer, Florian; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Heckel, Alexander; Schwalbe, Harald

    2014-01-20

    Photolabile protecting groups are a versatile tool to trigger reactions by light irradiation. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the absolute configuration of the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl (NPE) cage group on a 15-base-pair duplex DNA. Using UV melting, we determined the global stability of the unmodified and the selectively (S)- and (R)-NPE-modified DNA sequences, respectively. We observe a differently destabilizing effect for the two NPE stereoisomers on the global stability. Analysis of the temperature dependence of imino proton exchange rates measured by NMR spectroscopy reveals that this effect can be attributed to decreased base pair stabilities of the caged and the 3'-neighbouring base pair, respectively. Furthermore, our NMR based structural models of the modified duplexes provide a structural basis for the distinct effect of the (S)- and the (R)-NPE group. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Carbon Substitution on N24 Cages: Crossover between Triangular and Hexagonal Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Sanders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex forms of nitrogen are of interest for their potential as high-energy materials, but many all-nitrogen systems lack the stability for practical high-energy applications. Inclusion of carbon atoms in an otherwise all-nitrogen structure can increase stability. Nitrogen cages are known for energetically preferring cylindrical structures with triangular endcaps, but carbon cages prefer the pentagon-hexagon structure of the fullerenes. Previous calculations on N22C2 have shown that carbon inclusion narrows the gap between triangular and fullerene-like structures. In the current study, three isomers of N24 are used as frameworks for carbon substitution. Theoretical calculations are carried out on isomers of N20C4, N18C6, and N16C8, with the goal of determining what level of carbon substitution causes the carbon fullerene-like structures to become energetically preferred.

  17. Sensorless speed detection of squirrel-cage induction machines using stator neutral point voltage harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Goran; Kilic, Tomislav; Terzic, Bozo

    2009-04-01

    In this paper a sensorless speed detection method of induction squirrel-cage machines is presented. This method is based on frequency determination of the stator neutral point voltage primary slot harmonic, which is dependent on rotor speed. In order to prove method in steady state and dynamic conditions the simulation and experimental study was carried out. For theoretical investigation the mathematical model of squirrel cage induction machines, which takes into consideration actual geometry and windings layout, is used. Speed-related harmonics that arise from rotor slotting are analyzed using digital signal processing and DFT algorithm with Hanning window. The performance of the method is demonstrated over a wide range of load conditions.

  18. Cyclic Water Clusters in Tape-Like and Cage-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhou Lei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the ratio of 2,2′-bpy to benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid produces two interesting complexes, namely [Co(2,2′-bpy3] (SO4 8.5H2O (1 and [Cu2(BTCA (2,2′-bpy4] (OH (2,2′-bpy0.5·14H2O (2 (H3BTCA = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine. We report the structural evidence in the solid state of discrete lamellar water cluster conformations. These units are found to act as supramolecular glue in the aggregation of cobalt (II or copper (II complexes to give three dimensional cage-like networks through hydrogen-bonding. It is interesting that the structure of complex 1 contains a 3D negatively charged cage.

  19. Covalent Organic Frameworks and Cage Compounds: Design and Applications of Polymeric and Discrete Organic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, Florian; Gole, Bappaditya

    2017-12-05

    Porous organic materials are an emerging class of functional nanostructures with unprecedented properties. Dynamic covalent assembly of small organic building blocks under thermodynamic control is utilized for the intriguingly simple formation of complex molecular architectures in one-pot procedures. In this review, we aim to analyze the basic design principles that govern the formation of either covalent organic frameworks as crystalline porous polymers or covalent organic cage compounds as shape-persistent molecular objects. Common synthetic protocols and characterization techniques will be discussed besides more advanced strategies such as postsynthetic modification or self-sorting. When appropriate, healthy comparisons are drawn between polymeric frameworks and discrete organic cages considering their underlying properties. Furthermore, we highlight the potential of these materials for applications ranging from gas storage to catalysis or organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Possible cage motion of interstitial Fe in α-AlO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Johnston, K.; Masenda, H.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to spectral components due to Fe2 + and Fe3 +, a single line is observed in emission Mössbauer spectra following low fluence (Fe*, 57Mn and 57Co in α-Al2O3. For the 57Co and 57Mn implantations, the intensity of the single line is found to depend...... on the emission angle relative to the crystal symmetry axis. This angular dependence can be explained by a non-isotropic f-factor and/or motion of the Fe ion between sites in an interstitial cage. It is argued that interstitial cage motion is a more likely explanation, as this can account for the lack...