WorldWideScience

Sample records for caged layer manure

  1. Efficacy and nontarget effects of Larvadex as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtell, R C; Edwards, T D

    1983-12-01

    The insect growth regulator N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6 triamine (Larvadex, CGA 72662, cyromazine) was provided as a feed additive (.3% Premix per ton of feed) to caged laying hens under field conditions in high rise, wide span and narrow poultry houses. The chemical effectively controlled house flies (Musca domestica) and soldier flies (Hermetia illucens). The feed additive had no adverse effect on the populations of manure-inhabiting mites (Macrochelidae and Uropodidae) and histerid beetles (Carcínops pumulio), which prey on fly eggs and larvae. Satisfactory fly control was demonstrated by use of the additive 50% of the time when the interval without the additive in the feed was 4 days but not when the interval was 7 days. Use of a fly monitoring program to time the use of the feed additive is advocated.

  2. Nutrient flow and distribution in conventional cage, enriched colony, and aviary layer houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xing Jun; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiang, Shumei; Elmashad, Hamed M; Mitloehner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure the mass flow and distribution of nutrients (N, C, S, P, and K) as well as solids and moisture in conventional cage (CC), enriched colony (EC), and aviary (AV) laying-hen houses with Lohmann LSL lite hens located on a commercial laying-hen farm in Iowa. The weight of consumed feed and water, and amounts of eggs and manure production were collected weekly from each house for 2 entire flocks for a total of 28 mo. Samples of feed, egg, manure, litter, and hens were regularly taken and analyzed for total solids and nutrients (N, C, S, P, and K). The nutrient losses to the atmosphere were calculated using a mass balance approach. The losses of nutrients were calculated by subtracting the nutrient contents in eggs, manure, and layer body weight gain from the nutrients intake. The research results showed that the feed intake and manure production rates were similar in the 3 houses. The average nutrient intake in feed, in g d(-1) hen(-1), for the 3 houses was 42.0 C, 2.96 N, 0.36 S, 0.55 P, and 0.79 K. The nutrient intake was partitioned as follow: C - 18% in eggs, 28% in manure, and 54% in air losses; N - 34% in eggs, 58% in manure, and 8% in air losses; S - 26% in eggs, 68% in manure, and 6% in air losses; P - 17% in eggs, 79% in manure, and 3.1% in air losses; and K - 9% in eggs, 89% in manure, and 1.6% in air losses. Manure removed from the EC house was drier than manure from the CC or AV house. Among the 3 hen houses studied, the EC house had the lowest nutrient losses and the AV house had the highest losses. Nutrient loss in CC was statistically similar to EC. But loss of N, C, and S in AV differed from CC and EC. Furthermore, the loss of P and K in the 3 housing systems was statistically similar. The AV had a doubled mortality rate compared to CC and EC. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. KINETICS OF THIN LAYER DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Ghaly; MacDonald, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure has become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by ...

  5. Assessment of long-term gas sampling design at two commercial manure-belt layer barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Long; Ni, Ji-Qin; Chen, Yan; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng T

    2010-06-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial variations of aerial pollutant concentrations is important for designing air quality monitoring systems. In long-term and continuous air quality monitoring in large livestock and poultry barns, these systems usually use location-shared analyzers and sensors and can only sample air at limited number of locations. To assess the validity of the gas sampling design at a commercial layer farm, a new methodology was developed to map pollutant gas concentrations using portable sensors under steady-state or quasi-steady-state barn conditions. Three assessment tests were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two manure-belt layer barns. Each barn was 140.2 m long and 19.5 m wide and had 250,000 birds. Each test included four measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations at 20 locations that covered all operating fans, including six of the fans used in the long-term sampling that represented three zones along the lengths of the barns, to generate data for complete-barn monitoring. To simulate the long-term monitoring, gas concentrations from the six long-term sampling locations were extracted from the 20 assessment locations. Statistical analyses were performed to test the variances (F-test) and sample means (t test) between the 6- and 20-sample data. The study clearly demonstrated ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration gradients that were characterized by increasing concentrations from the west to east ends of the barns following the under-cage manure-belt travel direction. Mean concentrations increased from 7.1 to 47.7 parts per million (ppm) for ammonia and from 2303 to 3454 ppm for carbon dioxide from the west to east of the barns. Variations of mean gas concentrations were much less apparent between the south and north sides of the barns, because they were 21.2 and 20.9 ppm for ammonia and 2979 and 2951 ppm for carbon dioxide, respectively. The null hypotheses that the variances and means between the 6- and 20

  6. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Reportable diseases, such as avian influenza, spread rapidly among poultry, resulting in the death of a large number of birds. Once such a disease has been diagnosed at a farm, infected and susceptible birds are rapidly killed to prevent the spread of the disease. The methods to eliminate infected caged laying hens are limited. An experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of foam made from compressed air, water, and soap to kill laying hens in cages. The study found that stress levels of the hens killed using compressed air foam in cages to be similar to the hens killed by carbon dioxide or the negative control. Hens exposed to carbon dioxide died earlier as compared to the foam methods. The authors conclude that application of compressed air foam in cages is an alternative to methods such as gas inhalation and ventilation shutdown to rapidly and humanely kill laying hens during epidemics. Abstract During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly

  7. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2 inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT and time to cessation of movement (COM of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO2 inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO2 in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  8. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory; Farnell, Morgan

    2018-01-11

    During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO₂ added to a chamber, a CO₂ pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO₂ added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO₂ inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO₂ in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  9. Semi-quantitative assessment of the distribution of Salmonella in the environment of caged layer flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, Andrew; Breslin, M; Davies, R

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate a semi-quantitative technique for the enumeration of Salmonella in the environment of layer flocks, and to compare findings with those of a standard qualitative technique Methods and Results: Samples were taken from faeces, floor dust, dust on cages, feeders and egg belts. After mixing with buffered peptone water, serial dilutions were prepared and culture was performed using pre-enrichment, then plating on semi-solid selective and solid isolation media. Co...

  10. EFFECTS OF STRAIN, CAGE DENSITY AND POSITION ON IMMUNE RESPONSE TO VACCINES AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN LAYER PULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. BOZKURT

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Two thousand 1-day-old layer chicks were used in the study from Lohman Brown, Isa Brown, Lohman White and Bowans White breeds. The chicks were placed in the at 3 cage densities (211.8, 274.5 and 370.6 cm2 per bird and on 3 positions (as top, middle and bottom tiers. All birds were kept under standard management policy and a commercial vaccination program was practiced. Total specific antibody titres to Infectious Brochitis Virus (IBV, Infectious Bursal Desease Virus (IBDV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and Egg Drop Syndrome Virus (EDSV vaccines at the ages of 5, 10 and 20 weeks were serologically determined by ELISA. Cellmediated immune response was also evaluated. In commercial white egg laying strains specific antibody titres to IBV, IBDV, NDV and EDSV vaccines were greater than in Brown egg layer strains. Keeping in cage created more stress in Brown egg laying chicks than those in white egg laying chicks. As cage density increased, the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L ratio slightly increased. Cage position had no influence on the titres of antibodies to IBV and IBDV vaccines but the position of cage in pullets where chicks were stocked, from top to bottom, NDV and EDSV antibody titre decreased and percentage of heterophils, H/L ratio and basophil rates were low. These findings suggest that cage-related stress could be decreased, resistance to diseases and finally well-being of hens may be improved if hens are kept under proper position and density within cage systems with respect to their physiological and behavioral characteristics that controlled by genes.

  11. Viscosity dependent dual-permeability modeling of liquid manure movement in layered, macroporous, tile drained soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven K.; Rudolph, David L.; Lapen, David R.; Ball Coelho, Bonnie R.

    2012-06-01

    A scarcity of information exists on how physical processes govern the movement of liquid manure, or other viscous fluids, through layered macroporous soils. To elucidate these complex flow and transport phenomena, a viscosity dependent, two-dimensional dual-permeability model that considers macropore anisotropy is employed to simulate field experiments where liquid swine manure (LSM) was applied to silt loam with both a soil crust and plowpan layer present. Using data from the field experiment as a benchmark, the model was used to predict nutrient (NH4-N and total P) breakthrough to tile drains; and to assess the influence of reduced permeability crust and plowpan layers, and fluid viscosity, on solute movement within 48 h of LSM application. Results demonstrate the importance of viscosity on flow and transport in macroporous soils. By increasing LSM viscosity, nutrient breakthrough to tile drains can be greatly reduced, and near surface nutrient retention can increase. The presence of a nonmacroporous soil crust layer can also lead to reduced nutrient concentrations in tile discharge by reducing pressure heads in the underlying A-horizon soil matrix, resulting in reduced macropore flow; whereas a low permeability plowpan layer at the base of the A horizon can increase pressure heads in the A-horizon soil matrix and lead to increased macropore flow. Multiple target point parameter sensitivity analysis revealed that relative parameter sensitivity can be a transient characteristic, and that hydraulic properties of the A and B horizon tend to exhibit their greatest influence over the respective early and late time solute breakthrough characteristics.

  12. Semiquantitative assessment of the distribution of Salmonella in the environment of caged layer flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, A; Breslin, M; Davies, R

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate a semiquantitative technique for the enumeration of Salmonella in the environment of layer flocks and to compare findings with those of a standard qualitative technique. Samples were taken from faeces, floor dust, dust on cages, feeders and egg belts. After mixing with buffered peptone water, serial dilutions were prepared and culture was performed using pre-enrichment, then plating on semisolid selective and solid isolation media. Comparison with a qualitative pre-enrichment technique indicated a similar sensitivity for both methods despite smaller sample sizes. The numbers of Salmonella detected for a site or sample type did not correlate closely with the prevalence of positive samples. The sensitive detection and quantification of Salmonella in the flock environment is practicable with the technique described. Quantitative data in many cases do not correlate with qualitative findings. The significance of certain environmental factors and interventions in the maintenance and dissemination of Salmonella in poultry houses may be over- or under-represented by prevalence data alone. The technique described allows the issue of poultry house contamination to be examined from a new perspective.

  13. Comparisons of management practices and farm design on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Cage, barn and free range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Bullanday Scott

    Full Text Available There are few published studies describing the unique management practices, farm design and housing characteristics of commercial meat chicken and layer farms in Australia. In particular, there has been a large expansion of free range poultry production in Australia in recent years, but limited information about this enterprise exists. This study aimed to describe features of Australian commercial chicken farms, with particular interest in free range farms, by conducting on-farm interviews of 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. Comparisons between the different enterprises (cage, barn and free range were explored, including stocking densities, depopulation procedures, environmental control methods and sources of information for farmers. Additional information collected for free range farms include range size, range characteristics and range access. The median number of chickens per shed was greatest in free range meat chicken farms (31,058, followed by barn meat chicken (20,817, free range layer (10,713, barn layer (9,300 and cage layer farms (9,000. Sheds had cooling pads and tunnel ventilation in just over half of both barn and free range meat chicken farms (53%, n = 8 and was least common in free range layer farms (16%, n = 4. Range access in free range meat chicken farms was from sunrise to dark in the majority (93%, n = 14 of free range meat chicken farms. Over half of free range layer farms (56%, n = 14 granted range access at a set time each morning; most commonly between 9:00 to 10.00am (86%, n = 12, and chickens were placed back inside sheds when it was dusk.

  14. Effects of different types of biochar on methane and ammonia mitigation during layer manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liao, Xindi; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Mi, Jiandui; Huang, Jinjie; Zhang, Heng; Wu, Yu; Qiao, Zhifen; Li, Xi; Wang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, because of its unique physiochemical properties and sorption capacity, may be an ideal amendment in reducing gaseous emissions during composting process but there has been little information on the potential effects of different types of biochar on undesired gaseous emissions. The objective of this study was to examine the ability and mechanism of different types of biochar, as co-substrate, in mitigating gaseous emission from composting of layer hen manure. The study was conducted in small-scale laboratory composters with the addition of 10% of one of the following biochars: cornstalk biochar, bamboo biochar, woody biochar, layer manure biochar and coir biochar. The results showed that the cumulative NH3 production was significantly reduced by 24.8±2.9, 9.2±1.3, 20.1±2.6, 14.2±1.6, 11.8±1.7% (corrected for initial total N) in the cornstalk biochar, bamboo biochar, woody biochar, layer manure biochar and coir biochar treatments, respectively, compared to the control. Total CH4 emissions was significantly reduced by 26.1±2.3, 15.5±2.1, 22.4±3.1, 17.1±2.1% (corrected for the initial total carbon) for cornstalk biochar, bamboo biochar, woody biochar and coir biochar treatments than the control. Moreover, addition of cornstalk biochar increased the temperature and NO3(-)-N concentration and decreased the pH, NH4(+)-N and organic matter content throughout the composting process. The results suggested that total volatilization of NH3 and CH4 in cornstalk biochar treatment was lower than the other treatments; which could be due to (i) decrease of pH and higher nitrification, (ii) high sorption capacity for gases and their precursors, such as ammonium nitrogen from composting mixtures, because of the higher surface area, pore volumes, total acidic functional groups and CEC of cornstalk biochar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  16. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  17. Fatal skull trauma in caged layer chickens associated with a moving feed hopper: diagnosis based on autopsy examination, forensic computed tomography and farm visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Chris J; Noormohammadi, Amir H; O'Donnell, Chris J

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of unexpected mortality in caged layer chickens led to the discovery of a consistent traumatic injury to the heads of affected hens. Initial post-mortem examination found linear skin lacerations and associated fractures in the dorsal cranium of all birds examined, and 5 to 10 mm deep trauma in the underlying brain tissue. Post-mortem multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanning of two affected birds demonstrated similar obliquely orientated, linear, depressed fractures of the skulls consistent with a single, severe impact force to the head. Both skull fractures had a pattern of rounded, rostral expansion measuring approximately 3 mm in width. On inspection of the cages during a farm visit, this CT pattern corresponded with the size and shape of sheet metal lugs holding feed troughs onto the cages (on which blood stains were subsequently observed). Based on this analysis and hypothesizing that hunger was a triggering factor, a recommendation was made to reverse the shed "lights on" and feed hopper operation times with instant reduction in mortality. This case highlights the value of post-mortem CT imaging in bird death investigation where trauma is a postulated cause.

  18. Use of a subsurface plankton layer to benefit a cage-culture fishery in Lake Phewa, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda F.; Gurung, Tek B.; Shrestha, Bikash; Jones, Susan B.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Perkins, Bruce D.; Jones, John R.

    1998-01-01

    The Nepalese government and some 225 families in the private sector are engaged in an expanding aquaculture program in lakes Phewa, Begnas and Rupa in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal (Swar & Pradhan 1992). Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix) are propagated in hatchery ponds and are raised to market size in mesh enclosures (having sides, tops and bottoms) suspended to a depth of 2 m. Some 300 cages are presently in use, with annual production varying from 3.4 kg/m3 Lake Phewa to about 5 kg/m3 in lakes Begnas and Rupa (Swar & Pradhan 1992). These cage-reared fish are an important source of animal protein and revenue (Swar 1981). Tourism in the region provides growers a continuous market for their fish.

  19. Factors and characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter emissions from two manure-belt layer hen houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Chai, Lilong; Chen, Yan; Heber, Albert J.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Bogan, Bill W.

    2017-05-01

    Manure-belt layer hen houses are a relatively newer design and are replacing the old high-rise layer hen houses for egg production in USA. However, reliable aerial pollutant emission data from comprehensive and long-term on-farm monitoring at manure-belt houses are scarce. This paper reports the emission factors and characteristics of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM10) from two 250,000-bird capacity manure-belt layer hen houses (B-A and B-B) in northern Indiana, USA. The 2-year continuous field monitoring followed the Quality Assurance Project Plan of the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Only days with more than 18 h (or 75%) of valid data were reported to avoid biased emission calculation. The results of 2-year average daily mean (ADM) gas emissions per hen from the two houses, excluding emissions from their manure shed, were 0.280 g for NH3, 1.952 mg for H2S, and 103.2 g for CO2. They were 67% lower for NH3, 77% higher for H2S, and 10% higher for CO2 compared with reported emissions from high-rise layer hen houses. Emissions of NH3 and CO2 exhibited evident seasonal variations. They were higher in winter than in summer and followed the NH3 and CO2 concentration seasonal patterns. Annual emission differences were observed for all the four pollutants. Reduced emissions of the three gases were shown during periods of layer hen molting and flock replacement. The 2-year ADM PM10 emission from B-B was 25.2 mg d-1 hen-1. A unique weekly PM10 emission pattern was identified for both houses. It was characterized with much lower Sunday emissions compared with the other single-day emissions of the week and was related to the weekly schedule of in-house production operations, including maintenance and cleaning.

  20. Biological cages

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, M. E.; NGUYEN, C; Beckham, R.; Larson, A.

    2000-01-01

    Restoring a stable anterior column is essential to achieve normal spinal biomechanics. A variety of mechanical spacers have been developed and advocated for both anterior and posterior approaches. The ability to radiographically assess the “biology” of bone incorporation in these mechanical (metal) spacers is an inherent limitation. The femoral ring allograft (FRA) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) spacers have been developed as biological cages that permit restoration of the anter...

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles within the Cages of MIL-101: A Mild and Recyclable Hydrogenation Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the in situ synthesis of Pt nanoparticles within MIL-101-Cr (MIL = Materials Institute Lavoisier by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD. The obtained Pt@MIL-101 materials were characterized by means of N2 adsorption and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD measurements, showing that the structure of the metal organic framework was well preserved during the ALD deposition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis confirmed the deposition of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with sizes determined by the MIL-101-Cr pore sizes and with an increased Pt loading for an increasing number of ALD cycles. The Pt@MIL-101 material was examined as catalyst in the hydrogenation of different linear and cyclic olefins at room temperature, showing full conversion for each substrate. Moreover, even under solvent free conditions, full conversion of the substrate was observed. A high concentration test has been performed showing that the Pt@MIL-101 is stable for a long reaction time without loss of activity, crystallinity and with very low Pt leaching.

  2. Dielectric anomaly and relaxation natures in a Zn-Cr pillar−layered metal−organic framework with cages and channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chen; Yao, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Shao-Xian; Luo, Hong-Bin [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zou, Yang, E-mail: zouyang@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Li [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ren, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xmren@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A bimetallic metal–organic framework (MOF) with the formula [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8} (H{sub 3}btc=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid; isonic=isonicotinicate) shows a pillar-layered structure. The monolayer consists of hexagon-like rings formed by the [Zn(isonic){sub 2}(btc){sub 2}] tetrahedral and the consecutive monolayers are pillared by trigonal–prismatic clusters of [Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH)]through the remaining binding sites of the Zn{sup 2+} ions. DMF and water molecules are confined in the cages and channels. TGA indicates that the lattice DMF and water molecules begin to be released at temperatures above 363 K. Dielectric measurements were carried out in the range of 173–363 K and 1–10{sup 7} Hz for three successive thermal cycles. The dielectric spectroscopy obtained in the first thermal cycle was different from that observed in the next two thermal cycles, while the dielectric spectra in the last two thermal cycles were almost identical. The dielectric nature of this MOF is discussed in detail for each thermal cycle. Since MOFs are unique host–guest systems in which the structure of the host framework is designable and the guests are exchangeable, it is no doubt those MOFs are materials with a variety of dielectric natures. This study gives a fresh impetus to achieve MOFs–based dielectric materials. - Graphical abstract: The bimetallic MOF [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}1, shows a pillar-layered open-framework structure. The dielectric spectra of 1 are almost identical in the last two thermal cycles, whereas significantly different from that observed in the first thermal cycle. The novel dielectric anomaly associated with a stacked structure transformation of the disordered guests. - Highlights: • A bimetallic metal-organic framework shows a pillar-layered structure.

  3. Poultry farm hygiene: microbiological quality assessment of drinking water used in layer chickens managed under the battery cage and deep litter systems at three poultry farms in southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folorunso, O R; Kayode, Sule; Onibon, V O

    2014-01-01

    Water troughs from deep litter and caged chicken water troughs (drinkers) fixed to each of the different 3-tier cages containing layer chickens in Farms A, B and C were subjected to a 7-day study which involved the monitoring of poultry farm hygiene. Drinkers were washed before filling with water on Day 1. For Days 3, 5 and 7 water was served without prior washing. The occurrence and characterization of the bacteria isolates were investigated and data obtained were analyzed and compared. For the bacterial count on Day 1, for layer chickens on cage system, no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the farms and between the farms tier interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Day 5, there was significant difference (p0.05) among the tiers nor between the interactions of the farms and tiers. The bacterial count in water troughs of layer chickens in deep litter system, on Day 1, had no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the farms, water troughs and their interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Days 5 and 7, there were significant difference (pwater troughs and between the interaction of the farms and the water troughs. Farm A isolates contained Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus salivarius and Corynebacterium sp. Farm B had Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium sp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Klebsiella sp. while for Farm C, apart from the prevalent bacteria isolates obtained in Farms A and B, additional 2 bacterial isolates, Lactobacillus salivarius and Pseudomonas aeuriginosa were found. In conclusion, water troughs when cleaned on daily basis carry minimum bacterial load. Those left for 3, 5 and 7 days uncleaned had progressively high bacterial loads, suggesting that the flock of

  4. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus in Manure Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus in Manure Production dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus manure produced and...

  5. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen in Manure Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen in Manure Production dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen manure produced and...

  6. Octanuclear cubic coordination cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidmarsh, Ian S; Faust, Thomas B; Adams, Harry; Harding, Lindsay P; Russo, Luca; Clegg, William; Ward, Michael D

    2008-11-12

    Two new bis-bidentate bridging ligands have been prepared, L (naph) and L (anth), which contain two chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine units connected to an aromatic spacer (naphthalene-1,5-diyl and anthracene-9,10-diyl respectively) via methylene connectors. Each of these reacts with transition metal dications having a preference for octahedral coordination geometry to afford {M 8L 12} (16+) cages (for L (anth), M = Cu, Zn; for L (naph), M = Co, Ni, Cd) which have an approximately cubic arrangement of metal ions with a bridging ligand spanning each of the twelve edges, and a large central cavity containing a mixture of anions and/or solvent molecules. The cages based on L (anth) have two cyclic helical {M 4L 4} faces, of opposite chirality, connected by four additional L (anth) ligands as "pillars"; all metal centers have a meridional tris-chelate configuration. In contrast the cages based on L (naph) have (noncrystallographic) S 6 symmetry, with a diagonally opposite pair of corners having a facial tris-chelate configuration with the other six being meridional. An additional significant difference between the two types of structure is that the cubes containing L (anth) do not show significant interligand aromatic stacking interactions. However, in the cages based on L (naph), there are six five-membered stacks of aromatic ligand fragments around the periphery, each based on an alternating array of electron-rich (naphthyl) and electron-deficient (pyrazolyl-pyridine, coordinated to M (2+)) aromatic units. A consequence of this is that the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) retain their structural integrity in polar solvents, in contrast to the cages {M 8(L (anth)) 12} (16+) which dissociate in polar solvents. Consequently, the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) give NMR spectra in agreement with the symmetry observed in the solid state, and their fluorescence spectra (for M = Cd) display (in addition to the normal naphthalene-based pi-pi* fluorescence) a lower-energy exciplex

  7. Commercial cage fish culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aigbadon, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing emphasis in Nigeria on aquaculture as an alternative to dwindling artisanal fishing and scarce foreign exchange for fish import, cage fish culture, is a more profitable aquaculture practice than pond culture. It appears to be one of the most viable business ventures with minimum risks. It is a highly recommendable project

  8. John Cage Discusses Fluxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ellsworth

    1992-01-01

    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  9. Rope Caging and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, T.H.; Wan, W.; Pan, J.; Wang, C.C.; Yuan, J.; Harada, K; Chen, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for caging grasps in this paper by stretching ropes on the surface of a 3D object. Both topology and shape of a model to be grasped has been
    considered in our approach. Our algorithm can guarantee generating local minimal rings on every topological branches of a given

  10. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  11. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  12. BIO-ENERGY FROM PIG'S MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available After settling, in the sample of pig’s manure, before and after anaerobic fermentation different layers appear: foam, fine colloids, floating particle-colloids and sediment-rude particles. During the anaerobic treatment it being favourable for maintaining the anaerobic fermentation was examined. It was shown that the layer from the bottom, sediment-rude particles, achieved the best results. During the anaerobic fermentation pig’s manure was stabilized and its quality improved. Produced biogas contained more than 88 vol.% of methane. The degradation of organic matter was 50 % at pH value 6.5 and temperature 35 ºC during the anaerobic fermentation that lasted 7 days.

  13. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  14. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  15. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  16. utilization of ensiled metabolizable mixture of cassava peel and caged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toluwande

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... El Jalil MH, Faid M and M Elyachioui A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient. Biomass and Bioenergy 2001; 21(4): 301 – 309. 20. Adeyemi OA and FO Familade Replacement of maize by rumen filtrate fermented corn-cob in layer diets. Bioresource ...

  17. Laying hens in furnished cages

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Helena

    2003-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of laying hens housed in conventional cages has led to a change of the Animal Welfare Legislation in Sweden, implying that cages must provide possibilities for hens to lay eggs in a nest, to rest on a perch and to use litter. Such requirements are also being considered within the whole European Union. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the general knowledge of, and further development of, furnished cages, both as regards birds’ use of facilities and their w...

  18. Lumbar interbody fusion: a parametric investigation of a novel cage design with and without posterior instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Fabio; Schmidt, Hendrik; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2012-03-01

    A finite element model of the L4-L5 human segment was employed to carry out a parametric biomechanical investigation of lumbar interbody fusion with a novel "sandwich" cage having an inner stiff core and two softer layers in the areas close to the endplates, with and without posterior fixation. Considered cage designs included: (a) cage in a homogeneous material with variable elastic modulus (19-2,000 MPa), (b) "sandwich" cage having an inner core (E=2,000 MPa) and softer layers (E=19 MPa) with variable thickness (1-2.5 mm). The latter cage was also considered in combination with posterior rods made with a material having variable elastic modulus (19-210,000 MPa). All the models were loaded with 500 N compression and moments of 7.5 Nm in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. The homogeneous cage stabilized the segment in flexion, lateral bending and axial rotation; in extension there was a destabilization up to 60% and remarkable cage movement (1 mm). The "sandwich" cage limited this phenomenon (cage movement<0.6 mm), effectively stabilized the segment in the other directions and lowered the maximal contact pressure on the endplates, reducing the risk of subsidence. Posterior fixation reduced spinal flexibility and cage movement. The soft layers of the "sandwich" cage had the potential to limit the risk of cage subsidence and to preserve a significant loading of the structure even in combination with flexible posterior instrumentation, which may have a beneficial effect in promoting bony fusion.

  19. Effect of cage tier and age on performance, egg quality and stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cage tier and age on performance characteristics of layer hybrids, egg quality and some stress parameters. Ninety laying hens (hybrid ATAK-S) of similar bodyweights were used in the experiment. They were housed in three-tier conventional battery cages (bottom, ...

  20. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  1. Prediction model for manure zinc excretion in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K M; Vargas-Jurado, N; Purdum, S E

    2017-10-25

    The objective of this research trial was to compare 2 sources of zinc and different levels of supplementation on manure zinc excretion in laying hens. Bovan White Leghorn hens were used in this study and fed one of 6 dietary treatments. Treatments were in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 sources of zinc (zinc sulfate or Availa®Zn) and 3 levels (40, 80, or 120 ppm) and were randomly assigned to 48 cages with 5 hens/cage and 8 replicates/treatment. Hens were housed in a tiered manure-belt housing system providing 627.1 cm2/hen and were given access to 110 g/hen/d of feed. Manure samples were collected, and manure zinc content was calculated at 10-week intervals. Data were analyzed using the Glimmix procedure in SAS. There was a significant overall effect of source (P < 0.0001) for zinc content, such that hens fed zinc sulfate had lower amounts of zinc excretion. There was also a significant level effect (P < 0.0001) in which hens fed 120 ppm zinc excreted the greatest amount of zinc. A significant source by level interaction was observed (P < 0.0001) for both the overall and individual analyses, such that 120 ppm Availa®Zn showed the highest zinc excretion, and both 40 ppm zinc sulfate and Availa®Zn showed the lowest zinc excretion. Based on these results, a prediction equation was written for an estimated amount of zinc excretion based on the amount of zinc provided in the diet. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Effects of cattle and poultry manures on organic matter content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    ferrallitic soils amended with cattle and poultry manures under cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation. ... Research studies about the cattle manure, aiming the soils fertility .... Table 1. Initial soil physical and chemical (carbon, nitrogen and organic matter content) properties at 0 - 22 and 22 - 55 cm soil layers in the.

  3. The Cage; Framing Dad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Unfolding his story very gradually and arousing the viewer’s curiosity, Sitaru invites the audience to investigate the parents’ and the boy’s mutual positions in their small flat, as well as the various layers of their conversations, through such means as framing, editing style, and the use...

  4. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  5. [Effects of organic manure application on dry land soil organic matter and water stable aggregates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Zhi-Kuan, Jia; Lian-You, Liang; Qing-Fang, Han; Rui-Xia, Ding; Bao-Ping, Yang

    2012-01-01

    A four-year (2007-2010) field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different amounts (7500, 15000, and 22500 kg x hm(-2)) of organic manure on the organic matter content, aggregate particle size distribution, and aggregate stability in different soil layers in a continuously cropped maize field on the Weibei Dry Land, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the organic matter content in treatment 22500 kg x hm(-2) of organic manure was 4.1%-4.6% higher than that in treatment 7500 kg x hm(-2) of organic manure (P soil layer was 4.7%-6.3% higher than that of CK (P soil layer, all treatments with organic manure application had an increased amount of soil water stable aggregates (> 5 mm), and the amount of the aggregates increased significantly with the increasing application rate of organic manure. Applying organic manure increased the amount of soil water stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm), aggregate mean mass diameter, and aggregate stability in 0-30 cm soil layer, as compared with CK, and these three indices increased significantly with increasing organic manure application rate.

  6. Agronomic effects of bovine manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattaro, Laura; Bechini, Luca; Grignani, Carlo; Evert, van Frits K.; Mallast, Janine; Spiegel, Heide; Sandén, Taru; Pecio, Alicja; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Hose, D' Tommy; Ruysschaert, Greet; Berge, ten Hein F.M.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the agronomic value of animal manure, we quantified the effects of pedo-climatic, crop and management factors on crop productivity, N use efficiency, and soil organic matter, described with simple indicators that compare manures with mineral fertilizers. We selected 80 European

  7. Comparative assessment of different poultry manures and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. M.B. Adewole

    stones prior to analyses. Fresh droppings of cockerel, broiler and layer birds from a private poultry farm were separately collected, heaped under a shed and ..... of goat manure on soil nutrients and okra yield in a rain forest of Nigeria. Appl Trop. Agric. 5:20-23. Otitoju OM (2014). Comparative effects of organic and inorganic.

  8. Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    mineralizable nitrogen (N0) was higher in tilled than in no-tilled soil and was at its maximum in the 0 –. 15 cm layer of the soil. ..... the soil characteristices. Furthermore, both tillage and manure influence soil organic matter dynamics and quality. REFERENCES. Anderson JPE (1982). Soil respiration.. In Page AL ed. Methods ...

  9. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  10. 50 CFR 648.75 - Cage identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cage identification. 648.75 Section 648.75... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.75 Cage identification. Except as provided in § 648.76, the following cage identification requirements apply to all vessels issued a Federal fishing permit for surf...

  11. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader Kevin; Riedel Marco; Eichert Helmut

    2017-01-01

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure ...

  12. Cage model of polar fluids: Finite cage inertia generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, W T; Zarifakis, M; Kalmykov, Y P; Titov, S V; Dowling, W J; Titov, A S

    2017-07-21

    The itinerant oscillator model describing rotation of a dipole about a fixed axis inside a cage formed by its surrounding polar molecules is revisited in the context of modeling the dielectric relaxation of a polar fluid via the Langevin equation. The dynamical properties of the model are studied by averaging the Langevin equations describing the complex orientational dynamics of two bodies (molecule-cage) over their realizations in phase space so that the problem reduces to solving a system of three index linear differential-recurrence relations for the statistical moments. These are then solved in the frequency domain using matrix continued fractions. The linear dielectric response is then evaluated for extensive ranges of damping, dipole moment ratio, and cage-dipole inertia ratio and along with the usual inertia corrected microwave Debye absorption gives rise to significant far-infrared absorption with a comb-like structure of harmonic peaks. The model may be also regarded as an extension of Budó's [J. Chem. Phys. 17, 686 (1949)] treatment of molecules containing rotating polar groups to include inertial effects.

  13. Accumulation and mobility of zinc in soil amended with different levels of pig-manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kei; Toyota, Koki; Nishimura, Taku; Ikeda, Jun-Ichi; Hori, Kaneaki

    2010-05-01

    Applying manure compost not only results in zinc accumulation in the soil but also causes an increase in zinc mobility and enhances zinc leaching. In this study, the physical and chemical characteristics of zinc, zinc profiles, and zinc balance were investigated to characterise the fate of zinc in fields where the quality and amount of pig manure compost applied have been known for 13 years. Moreover, we determined zinc fractionation in both 0.1 mol L(-1)HCl-soluble (mobile) and -insoluble (immobile) fractions. Adsorption of zinc in the soil was enhanced with increasing total carbon content following the application of pig manure compost. The 159.6 mg ha(-1) year(-1)manure applied plot (triplicate) exceeded the Japanese regulatory level after only 6 years of applying pig manure compost, whereas the 53.2 mg ha(-1) year(-1) manure applied plot (standard) reached the regulatory level after 13 years. The zinc loads in the plots were 17.0 and 5.6 kg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. However, 5.9 % and 17.2 % of the zinc loaded in the standard and the triplicate pig manure compost applied plots, respectively, were estimated to be lost from the plough layer. Based on the vertical distribution of mobile and immobile zinc content, a higher rate of applied manure compost caused an increase in the mobile zinc fraction to a depth of 40 cm. Although the adsorption capacity of zinc was enhanced following the application of pig manure compost, a greater amount of mobile zinc could move downward through the manure amended soil than through non manure-amended soil.

  14. Effect of housing environment on laying hen meat quality: Assessing Pectoralis major pH, colour and tenderness in three strains of 80-81 week-old layers housed in conventional and furnished cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, K M; Lynch, E; Rathgeber, B M; Dixon, W T; Putman, C T; Jendral, M J

    2017-02-01

    1. Meat quality is affected by factors such as stress, genetic strain and activity and is determined in part by measures of pH, colour and tenderness. In conventional laying hen cages (CC), lack of physical space and inability to perform highly motivated behaviours leads to stress and inactivity. Furnished cages (FCs) permit expression of highly motivated behaviours, but typically house larger group sizes than CC, thereby contributing to social stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of CC and FC laying hen housing environments and strain differences on meat quality of 80-81-week-old birds. 2. Pectoralis major meat quality was assessed for two flocks of Shaver White (SH), Lohmann Lite (LL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in either 5-hen CC or 40-hen FC. Between 80 and 81 weeks, muscle samples were collected from randomly selected hens and analysed for muscle pH, colour and shear force (SF) using established methods. 3. In both flocks, the combined treatment body weights (BWs) were higher for CC than FC hens and the combined strain BWs were higher for LB than LL and SH hens. Flock 1 LB had lower initial and ultimate pH than SH and LL, and greater pH decline than SH. Muscle redness (a*) was higher for CC SH than FC SH in both flocks. Muscle a* was higher for LL than SH and LB in Flock 1, and higher than SH in Flock 2. Housing differences in muscle SF were absent. In CC, SF was higher for SH than LL and LB in Flock 1, and higher than LB in Flock 2. 4. Lack of housing differences suggests that environmental stressors present in both housing systems similarly affected meat quality. Strain differences for muscle pH, a* and SF indicate increased stress experienced by SH and LL hens. The absence of Flock 2 strain differences is consistent with the cannibalism outbreak that occurred in this flock and most severely impacted LB hens.

  15. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients

  16. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  17. Protein cages and synthetic polymers: a fruitful symbiosis for drug delivery applications, bionanotechnology and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Martin; Nussbaumer, Martin G; Renggli, Kasper; Bruns, Nico

    2016-11-07

    materials, by forming two- and three-dimensional crystals of protein cages and dendrimers, by adsorbing proteins to the surface of materials, by layer-by-layer deposition of proteins and polyelectrolytes and by encapsulating polymers into protein cages. The application of these hybrid materials in the biomedical context or as tools and building blocks for bionanotechnology, biosensing, memory devices and the synthesis of materials will be highlighted. The review aims to showcase recent developments in this field and to suggest possible future directions and opportunities for the symbiosis of protein cages and polymers.

  18. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  19. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  20. Cattle manure management in East Africa: Review of manure quality and nutrient losses and scenarios for cattle and manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Davies, O.; Wouters, A.P.; Gachimbi, L.; Zake, J.; Ergano, K.; Abduke, M.; Keulen, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Manure is an important source of nutrients for many smallholder farmers in East Africa, with cattle manure being the dominant type. Information on nutrient losses between excretion and application of manure is still limited under smallholder conditions in the tropics, due to the wide variation in

  1. (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation Data d...etail Data name (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation DOI 10.18908/l...m5_rp_exp_details#en Data acquisition method HeliScopeCAGE ( http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/protocols/heliscop...icy | Contact Us (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Listening to Cage: Nonintentional philosophy and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fleming

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening to Cage: Nonintentional Philosophy and Music threads together the writings of ordinary language philosophy and the music of John Cage, responding specifically to requests made by Cage and Stanley Cavell. While many texts downplay or ignore the philosophical demands in Cage’s music and other texts find grandiose spiritual and philosophical material tied to his work, this text rejects both efforts. It challenges the basic directions of the growing secondary source material on Cage, finding it largely contrary to what Cage himself and his music teaches. That secondary material constantly offers an intentional approach to the music which is to make Cage understandable or easier to understand. The present text makes him appropriately difficult and basically unapproachable, asking the reader for serious acknowledgment of what Cage says he does, namely, “I have nothing to say and I am saying it.” While there is little hope of stopping the Cage industry that academia and publishers have grown, this text wishes at least to try to slow it down. The footnotes of this text include direct conversation material with Cage from the 1980s and 1990s regarding many subjects—his own compositions, our life struggles, remarks on Wittgenstein, Thoreau, philosophy, and music—all with a new context for their hearing.

  3. Coastal Mudflat Saline Soil Amendment by Dairy Manure and Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yanchao; Yan, Yiyun; Zuo, Wengang; Gu, Chuanhui; Xue, Weijie; Mei, Lijuan; Shan, Yuhua; Feng, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure or green manuring has been considered as popular organic amendment to cropland in many countries. However, whether dairy manure combined with green manuring can effectively amend mudflat saline soil remains unclear. This paper was one of first studies to fill this knowledge gap by investigating impact of dairy manure combined with green manuring on soil chemical properties of mudflat saline soil. Dairy manure was used by one-time input, with the rates of 0, 30, 75, 150, and 300 t...

  4. Impact of green manure on soil organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Elfstrand, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Green manure is used as a nitrogen and carbon source in crop production, especially in organic cropping systems without access to farmyard manure. Decomposition and release of nutrients from the green manure is mediated by soil organisms. Consequently, increased understanding of how the biomass, activity and community composition of soil organisms are influenced by this resource input may contribute to improved plant nutrient management. The influence of different green manure forms and appli...

  5. Cathodic cage nitriding of samples with different dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, R.R.M. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui, Department of Mechanical, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Araujo, F.O. de [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Ribeiro, K.J.B.; Mendes, M.W.D. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica-UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, J.A.P. da [Departamento de Fisica-UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Alves, C. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica-UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: alvesjr@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2007-09-15

    A series of AISI 1020 steel cylindrical samples with different heights were simultaneously nitrided in cathodic cage plasma nitriding. In this technique, the samples are placed under a floating potential inside a cage in which the cathodic potential is applied. A systematic study of the nitriding temperature variation effects was carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of such a technique over the uniformity of the formed layers. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurement. The results were compared with those ones obtained in the ionic nitriding, and was verified that the samples nitrided by this conventional technique presents less uniformity than the ones treated through this new technique.

  6. Manure from biochar, bentonite and zeolite feed supplemented poultry: Moisture retention and granulation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Tanka P; Walsh, Kerry B; Midmore, David J; Jones, Ben E H; Bhattarai, Surya P

    2017-08-31

    Feeding treatments were imposed in two feeding trials involving Cobb broiler and Bond Brown layer birds. Three feed additives (biochar, bentonite and zeolite) were supplied at four rates (0, 1, 2 and 4% w/w) in feed, as previously considered in the context of animal production, was considered in the context of Excreta chemical and water retention properties and granulation characteristics of decomposed excreta (manure) were characterised. At field capacity (- 0.01 MPa), manure produced from control and 4% bentonite diets contained significantly (p = 0.001) more water (at 1.93 and 2.44% v/v water, respectively) than zeolite and biochar treatments. Manure mesoporosity was significantly (p = 0.015) higher in 2 and 4% bentonite treatments than other feed additives. Fresh excreta from layer birds on the control diet contained 6% w/dw N and 35% C, which was decreased to 2.6% N and 28% C after decomposition, with C:N ratio changing from 5.9 to 12.1. Ammonia loss was higher from biochar and zeolite manures than control or bentonite, associated with higher pH in the biochar and zeolite manures. More N was unaccounted from bentonite manure than other treatments, presumably lost as N2O or N2, a result linked to its higher moisture content and its enhanced rate of denitrification. The highest proportion of granules in the size class desired for fertilizer spreading was achieved using decomposed manure from the 1 and 2% w/w biochar treatments of the broiler trial, and 1 and 2% zeolite and 4% biochar treatments of the layer trial. Thus the feed amendments improved poultry manure in specific ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand

  8. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, Ruud; Zhang, Xi; Schultz-Ela, Dan

    2013-06-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called `fracture cages' around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain the fracture caging mechanism and pinpoint the physical parameters and conditions for its control. This new insight has great practical relevance for the effectiveness and safety of drilling operations in general, and hydraulic fracturing in particular. Fracture caging runaway poses a hazard for drilling operations in overpressured formations. Recognition of the fracture caging mechanism also opens up new opportunities for controlled engineering of its effects by the manipulation of the Frac number in wells in order to bring more precision in the fracking process of tight formations.

  9. Innovations in composting pig manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudrum, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    Composting manure on farm can emit large quantities of ammonia and smell. This thesis focuses on improving the compost process by analysis of the process control, the feed composition and the bed structure. A low cost solution to the ammonia emission was developed. By composting at low oxygen

  10. Environmental concerns about animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Lenis, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of swine production has changed dramatically in the last four decades. Raw materials for swine feeds are often grown in regions other than where swine production takes place. Swine manure is mostly spread in the neighborhood of the facilities, which may lead to soil accumulation of

  11. Purifying manure effluents with duckweed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.; Hoving, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to

  12. Does impaction of titanium-coated interbody fusion cages into the disc space cause wear debris or delamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Annette; Graf, Nicolas; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2016-02-01

    A large number of interbody fusion cages are made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To improve bone on-growth, some are coated with a thin layer of titanium. This coating may fail when subjected to shear loading. The purpose of this testing was to investigate whether impaction of titanium-coated PEEK cages into the disc space can result in wear or delamination of the coating, and whether titanium cages with subtractive surface etching (no coating) are less susceptible to such failure. A biomechanical study was carried out to simulate the impaction process in clinical practice and to evaluate if wear or delamination may result from impaction. Two groups of posterior lumbar interbody fusion cages with a similar geometry were tested: n=6 titanium-coated PEEK and n=6 surface-etched titanium cages. The cages were impacted into the space in between two vertebral body substitutes (polyurethane foam blocks). The two vertebral body substitutes were fixed in a device, through which a standardized axial preload of 390 N was applied. The anterior tip of the cage was positioned at the posterior border of the space between the two vertebral body substitutes. The cages were then inserted using a drop weight with a mass representative of a surgical hammer. The drop weight impacted the insertion instrument at a maximum speed of about 2.6 m/s, which is in the range of the impaction speed in vivo. This was repeated until the cages were fully inserted. The wear particles were captured and analyzed according to the pertinent standards. The surface-etched titanium cages did not show any signs of wear debris or surface damage. In contrast, the titanium-coated PEEK cages resulted in detached wear particles of different sizes (1-191 µm). Over 50% of these particles had a size debris. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and synthesis of photolabile caged cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Ando, Kazuki; Mitsui, Taichi; Aoyama, Takashi; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that regulate diverse developmental processes throughout the life of a plant. trans-Zeatin, kinetin, benzyladenine and dihydrozeatin are adenine-type cytokinins that are perceived by the AHK cytokinin receptors. Endogenous cytokinin levels are critical for regulating plant development. To manipulate intracellular cytokinin levels, caged cytokinins were designed on the basis of the crystal structure of the AHK4 cytokinin receptor. The caged cytokinin was photolyzed to release the cytokinin molecule inside the cells and induce cytokinin-responsive gene expression. The uncaging of intracellular caged cytokinins demonstrated that cytokinin-induced root growth inhibition can be manipulated with photo-irradiation. This caged cytokinin system could be a powerful tool for cytokinin biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Kim

    Full Text Available Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4 production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009, fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1 and swine (460 g kg-1 manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered.

  15. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  16. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.
    2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.

    The goal of the first mentioned research w...

  17. Vermicomposting: Tool for Sustainable Ruminant Manure Management

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nasiru; Ismail, N; Ibrahim, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ruminants are important sources of meat and milk. Their production is associated with manure excretion. Estimates of over 3,900,000 million metric tonnes of manure are produced daily from ruminants worldwide. Storage and spread of this waste on land pose health risks and environmental problems. Efficient and sustainable way of handling ruminant manure is required. Composting and vermicomposting are considered two of the best techniques for solid biomass waste management. This paper presents v...

  18. Global asessment of manure management policies and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teenstra, E.D.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Aktasaeng, N.; Amatayaku, W.; Ndambi, A.; Pelster, D.; Germer, L.; Jenet, A.; Opio, C.; Andeweg, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Livestock and Manure Management Component (LMMC) of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative supports integrated manure management practices by increasing knowledge and awareness, removing barriers to action and enhancing practice change. This Global Assessment report provides an overview of manure

  19. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  20. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 )

  1. HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation Data detail Data name Heliscope...thod - Data analysis method HeliScopeCAGE ( http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/protocols/heliscope.html ) Delve (Ali...Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us HeliscopeCAGE

  2. Furnished cage system and hen well-being: Comparative effects of furnished cages and battery cages on behavioral exhibitions in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-08-01

    The battery cage system is being banned in the European Union before or by 2012, and the furnished cage system will be the only cage system allowed after 2012. This study was conducted to examine the different effects of caging systems, furnished cages vs. battery cages, on bird behaviors. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 White Leghorn chicks were reared using standard management practices in raised wire cages. At 19 wk of age, the birds were randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm(2) of floor space per birds. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with a concealment curtain. Based on the company recommendations, 10 birds were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm(2) of floor space per bird. Behavioral observations were conducted using the Noldus Observer software package. The birds were observed at 5-min intervals for the entire light period. The birds housed in battery cages had higher posture and behavioral transitions and increased time spent walking and performing exploratory behavior (P < 0.05, 0.01, respectively), which may indicate they were stressed, resulting in restlessness, whereas the birds housed in furnished cages had higher levels of preening (P < 0.05). Preening has been considered as a comfort behavior in birds. These results may suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative system for housing birds by allowing them to perform certain natural behaviors.

  3. Remedies for a high incidence of broken eggs in furnished cages: effectiveness of increasing nest attractiveness and lowering perch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Struelens, E; Ampe, B

    2013-01-01

    Two remedial treatments to reduce the high incidence of broken eggs in the furnished cages of our experimental layer farm were investigated: lining the nest floor with artificial turf (to increase nest acceptance) and lowering perch height (to reduce the chance of egg breakage of outside-nest eggs). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with low (7 cm) or high (24 cm) perches, and with nest floors lined with artificial turf or plastic mesh. Eight cages, each housing 8 hens initially (aged 40 to 56 wk), were used per treatment. Egg location and percentage of broken eggs were recorded. Hen position (cage floor, nest, or perch) was recorded by direct scan-sampling observations. In addition, 8 cages (4 high + 4 low) each containing 8 hens (aged 54 to 56 wk) were videorecorded to determine perch use and behavior during the light period. Data were mainly analyzed using logistic regression and mixed models with cage as the experimental unit. Nest floor material did not influence the percentage of eggs broken or laid outside the nest. The proportion of outside-nest eggs (2.6 vs. 10.6%, P = 0.004), and consequently also of total eggs (2 vs. 4.6%, P = 0.016) broken, was lower for low than high cages. Perch use increased during the observation period, more so for the high cages during the light period and the low cages during the dark period. Perch bout duration (P nest floor lining with artificial turf was not an effective remedy for the already-high rate of broken eggs, but the prevalence of broken outside-nest eggs was lower in cages with low versus high perches. However, perching behavior during the light period was more disturbed in cages with low perches.

  4. Manure and tillage use in remediation of eroded land and impacts on soil chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikha, Maysoon M; Benjamin, Joseph G; Vigil, Merle F; Poss, David J

    2017-01-01

    Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls). Tillage treatments were no-tillage, shallow tillage (sweeps operations with V-blade) and deep tillage (DT; moldboard plow operations). In one set of plots, DT was implemented biannually (DT-2); and in another set the DT was done once at the initiation of the experiment in 2006. Amendments consisted of beef manure and urea (46-0-0), N fertilizer. Both amendments were added at low and high rates. A control treatment, with no fertilizer or manure added, was included with no-tillage and shallow tillage only. Six years of manure addition and tillage significantly altered soil chemical properties compared with fertilizer and grass legume mixtures. Across all the tillage treatments, at the 0-30 cm depth, soil pH from 2006 to 2012, was reduced 1.8 fold with high-manure compared with high-fertilizer treatment. Soil EC, Na, and SAR increased by 2.7 fold while soil P increase by 3.5 fold with high-manure treatment compared with low-manure from 2006 to 2012 across all the tillage treatments at the surface 0-30 cm. Soil organic carbon associated with high-manure was 71% higher than low-manure and 230% higher than high-fertilizer treatments in the 0-60 cm depth. Similar patterns were observed with soil total N. Overall, manure amendments greatly improved the soil nutrient status on this eroded site. However, the legume grass mixtures showed little effect on improving soils chemical properties. The micronutrients supplied by manure improved the soil

  5. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  6. Changes in physical properties and organic carbon of a Kandiudox fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patricia Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Successive applications of pig slurry and poultry manure can improve the soil structure, according to the land use conditions and amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of manure fertilization on the physical properties and organic carbon of a Rhodic Kandiudox. Treatments included land use and management and time of pig slurry and poultry litter application, namely: native forest (NF; yerba mate after 20 years of animal waste application (YM20; pasture after 15 years of application (P15; grassland after 20 years of manuring (PP20; grassland after 3 years of manuring (P3; pasture without application (P0, maize after 20 years of application (M20; and maize after 7 years of application (M7. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm layers, in which density, porosity, aggregate stability, flocculation, penetration resistance, available water, and total clay content, total and particulate organic carbon, and C:N ratio were analyzed. The total organic carbon is sensitive to management and was not related to waste application, except in the 10-20cm layer of ryegrass pasture after three years of manuring. Reponses to waste application and land use and management systems were observed in the variables soil density and penetration resistance.

  7. Efficacy of anterior cervical fusion: comparison of titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Der-Cherng; Hsieh, Wanhua Annie; Chen, Wu-Fu; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Harnod, Tomor; Chiou, Tsung-Lang; Chang, Yuh-Lin; Su, Chain-Fa; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chen, Shin-Yuan

    2008-11-01

    This retrospective study was designed to analyze and compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical fusion using titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous tricortical bone grafts. Fifty-five patients who underwent segmental anterior discectomy with a follow-up period up to 12 months enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups: titanium cage with biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (Triosite; Zimmer, Berlin, Germany) in group A (n=27); PEEK cage with Triosite in group B (n=9); and autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft in group C (n=19). The fusion rates after 6 months were 37.21% in group A , 93.3% in group B, and 84.85% in group C. The fusion rates after 1 year in groups A, B, and C were 46.51%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The PEEK cage is a viable alternative to autogenous tricortical bone grafts in anterior cervical fusion.

  8. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL MANURES ON SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    for crop production. Most studies on utilization of animal manure in Tanzania have largely focused on crop yield responses of field crops with very little effort to relate ..... Colombia, Canada. In: Managing Livestock Wastes. pp. 611-617. Gabriel, B.L.M. 1998. Utilization and management of animal manures for crop production.

  9. Green manures and plant disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of green manures, which involves the incorporation of fresh plant material, has traditionally been primarily for the purpose of soil enrichment through the addition of plant organic matter and nutrients. However, green manures produce many changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological p...

  10. DESIGN OF SANITARY DISPOSAL OF POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1979-03-01

    Mar 1, 1979 ... by. NNAMDI EGBUNIWE. Department of Civil Engineering. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ABSTRACT. The physical and biological characteristics of the chicken manure from the University of. Nigeria Poultry Farm are presented. Different methods of manure processing and disposal are reviewed.

  11. Patterns of dairy manure management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chen Yan; Qiao, Wei; Melse, Roland W.; Li, Lu Jun; Buisonjé, De Fridtjof E.; Wang, Ya Jing; Dong, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    The dairy industry in China is rapidly developing, particularly in terms of the upscaling of dairy farms. However, nutrient-rich manure brings challenges to the sustainability of the dairy industry. This study investigated and reviewed the patterns of dairy manure management in China, and the

  12. DESIGN OF SANITARY DISPOSAL OF POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1979-03-01

    Mar 1, 1979 ... major plant-food constituents of chicken manure compared well with those of low- grade fertilizers. The pH of fresh manure ranges between 7.0 – 7.8. Fig.2: Slump Test Values. 4. .... The release of objectionable odours from anaerobic ponds ... prevented or controlled and the embankment slopes must be ...

  13. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  14. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  15. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  16. The effect of the water/methane interface on methane hydrate cages: the potential of mean force and cage lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastny, Ethan A; Miller, Clark A; de Pablo, Juan J

    2008-07-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the influence of a methane-water interface on the position and stability of methane hydrate cages. A potential of mean force was calculated as a function of the separation of a methane hydrate cage and a methane-water interface. The hydrate cages are found to be strongly repelled from the methane gas into the water phase. At low enough temperatures, however, the most favorable location for the hydrate cage is at the interface on the water side. Cage lifetime simulations were performed in bulk water and near a methane-water interface. The methane-water interface increases the cage lifetime by almost a factor of 2 compared to cage lifetimes of cages in bulk water. The potential of mean force and the cage lifetime results give additional explanations for the proposed nucleation of gas hydrates at gas-water interfaces.

  17. The Edinburgh modified cage for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Hughes, B O

    1995-12-01

    1. Behaviour, production and welfare of ISA Brown medium hybrids were assessed in 2 trials (each from 20 to 44 weeks of age) of a novel design of cage for laying hens: the Edinburgh Modified Cage (EMC). 2. The EMC was 600 mm wide, 450 mm deep and 450 mm high at the rear; it had a softwood perch and at one side a 250 mm wide nest box (containing litter or artificial turf) with a dust bath directly above. It housed 4 birds and provided 675 cm2/bird in the main cage with an additional 281 cm2/bird in the nest box. The nest box and dust bath had automatically controlled doors which were closed at night. There were 18 EMC; in the first trial these were compared with 6 control cages with perch but without next box or dust bath. 3. Hens spent 32 to 37% of day time on the perch, 5 to 7% in the dust bath and 5 to 6% in the nest. At night 92 to 98% roosted on the perch. 4. Initially only 55 to 70% of eggs were laid in the nest box partly because some eggs were laid before dawn. Once the door was retimed to open 3h before lights-on the proportion rose to 91 to 96%. Very few eggs were laid in the dust bath. Pre-laying behaviour lasted longer in treatments with nest boxes (55 to 76min) than in control cages (48min); disturbance was slight in all treatments, but lowest in control cages. 5. Dust baths were well used, with on average 61% of hens dust bathing during a 3-h afternoon observation period compared with only 17% in control cages. Two birds could use the dust bath simultaneously. 6. It was concluded that although a number of minor design features still required attention the EMC has potential to reduce the disadvantages of conventional cages for welfare while retaining their advantages and has possible commercial application.

  18. Laboratory rodent welfare: thinking outside the cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcombe, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.

  19. Growth of bacterial phytopathogens in animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Zoledowska, Sabina; Motyka, Agata; Kadziński, Leszek; Banecki, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) and Dickeya sp. (Dsp). All of the tested animal fertilizers were free of these pathogens. Subsequently, the growth dynamics of Pba, Pcc, Rsol, and Xcc in cattle, horse, swine, sheep and chicken manures sterilized either by autoclaving or filtration was evaluated. The investigated phytopathogens did not exhibit any growth in the poultry manure. However, the manure filtrates originating from other animals were suitable for microbial growth, which resulted in the optical density change of 0.03-0.22 reached within 26 h (48 h Rsol, 120 h Xcc), depending on bacterial species and the manure source. Pcc and Pba multiplied most efficiently in the cattle manure filtrate. These bacteria grew faster than Rsol and Xcc in all the tested manure samples, both the filtrates and the autoclaved semi-solid ones. Though the growth dynamics of investigated strains in different animal fertilizers was unequal, all of the tested bacterial plant pathogens were proven to use cattle, horse, swine and sheep manures as the sources of nutrients. These findings may contribute to further research on the alternative routes of spread of bacterial phytopathogens, especially because of the fact that the control of pectionolytic bacteria is only based on preventive methods.

  20. Transport of Manure Constituents in Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, D.; Guber, A.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Sikora, L. M.; Nemes, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2005-12-01

    Fecal coliforms (FC) are often used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria contamination of surface water from surface-applied manure. Manure constituents other than FC may serve as natural tracers of bacterial contamination provided the rates of release from manure and surface transport mechanisms are similar. The objective of this work was to compare fecal coliforms (FC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble phosphorus (P) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes with different soil texture and surface cover conditions under simulated rainfall. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils at the ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Fresh bovine manure was applied at the top 30-cm wide strip, and at 50 cm x 30 cm miniplots in the immediate vicinity of runoff plots. Rainfall (ca. 6 cm per hour) was simulated for 1 hour on bare plots and for 1.5 hours on vegetated plots. Runoff was collected from gutters at the edge of runoff plots and miniplots at five-min intervals. In general, the volume of runoff was less from vegetated plots than from bare plots, and was less from sandy loam plots than from clay loam plots. Partitioning of fecal coliforms between runoff and suspended sediment was quantified using the partitioning coefficient Kd. The Kd values were greater for the sandy loam plot than the clay loam soil. The value of the partitioning coefficient increased from spring to fall at all plots. Release kinetics of FC and soluble P were similar. The fast release stage of about 20 minutes was followed by aa relatively slow release stage. Both soil texture and vegetation significantly affected transport of the manure constituents. More than 70% of manure FC and OC were transported with runoff over bare plots, and less than 15% over vegetation plots. Overall, manure-borne P appears to be a promising potential tracer for assessing of manure-borne bacteria transport.

  1. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    petroleum industry as it plugs the oil flow.12 Restric- tion of hydrate plug ... Interaction energy ( E) for cluster formation has been determined using .... Interaction energies are mentioned in table 2 for all three 1CH4@512 cage, 1CH4@512-methanol clus- ter and 1CH4@512-methanol-Na. + cluster systems. Formation of ...

  2. Resonance spectra of caged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that confined scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region x{sub m} ≡ (r{sub m} - r{sub +})/r{sub +} << τ ≡ (r{sub +} - r{sub -})/r{sub +} (here r{sub m} is the radius of the confining mirror and r{sub ±} are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled blackhole- field-cage system: ω{sub n} = -2πT{sub BH}.n [1 + O(x{sub m}{sup n}/τ{sup n})], where T{sub BH} is the temperature of the caged black hole and n = 1, 2, 3,.. is the resonance parameter. (orig.)

  3. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  4. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    This study aimed to determine bio-ethanol potential of poultry manure. The manure was hydrolyzed by dilute H2SO4 (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 M) at temperature of 100 and 130°C for 30 min. Maximum glucose. (115.6 g/l) was obtained from hydrolysis of 100 g poultry manure by 0.8 M H2SO4 at 100°C for 30 min. The study ...

  5. High-throughput Transcriptome analysis, CAGE and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2008-11-25

    1. Current research - PhD work on discovery of new allergens - Postdoctoral work on Transcriptional Start Sites a) Tag based technologies allow higher throughput b) CAGE technology to define promoters c) CAGE data analysis to understand Transcription - Wo

  6. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  7. Power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The wind turbine is to be tied mechanically to the rotor of a squirrel cage induction which is fed with grid powerthat the generator supplies. ... Keywords: Wind Power systems, Self-excited squirrel cage induction generator, squirrel cage induction motor, backto- back converter, simulation ...

  8. Bacterial eggshell contamination in conventional cages, furnished cages and aviary housing systems for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, K; Grijspeerdt, K; Heyndrickx, M; Zoons, J; De Baere, K; Uyttendaele, M; Debevere, J; Herman, L

    2005-04-01

    The influence of housing system on the initial bacterial contamination of the eggshell was studied. Two long-term experiments were performed. Bacterial eggshell contamination, as expressed by total count of aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria, was periodically analysed for eggs from a conventional cage, a furnished cage with nest boxes containing artificial turf or grids as nest-floor material and an aviary housing system. Results were log-transformed prior to statistical analyses. For both experiments no systematic differences were found between the conventional cage and furnished cage. The type of nest-floor material in the nest boxes of the furnished cages also did not systematically influence the bacterial contamination. A possible seasonal influence on contamination with a decrease in the winter period (up to > 0.5 log cfu/eggshell) of total count of aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria was observed in the first experiment. The contamination with total aerobic flora was higher (more than 1.0 log) on eggs from the aviary housing system compared to the conventional and the furnished cage systems. For Gram-negative bacteria this was not the case. During the entire period of both experiments, independent of housing system, shell contamination was not influenced by age of hens or period since placing the birds in the houses. For the total count of aerobic bacteria a restricted positive correlation (r2 = 0.66) was found between the concentration of total bacteria in the air of the poultry houses and initial shell contamination.

  9. The influence of the cage system and colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis on the microbial gut flora of laying hens studied by T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Mølbak, Lars; Bjerrum, Lotte Bjerrum

    2011-01-01

    , while differences in the microbiota between cages may be caused by environmental or individual bird factors. Although the cages type had influence on composition of the microbiota in the layers by promoting higher diversity in furnished and aviary systems, we did not observe differences in colonization...... and excretion pattern of Salmonella from these groups. We suggest, that differences in group size and exposure to a more faecally contaminated environment in the alternative systems may explain the observed differences in diversity of the caecal microbiota.......BACKGROUND: In the EU conventional cages for laying hens are forbidden beginning in January 2012, however concerns about a higher transmission rate of Salmonella in alternative cages systems have been raised. The extent to which cage systems may affect the intestinal microbiota of laying hens...

  10. Semiparametric Modeling of Daily Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Gutiérrez-Zapata

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentration (AMC in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America. The objective of this study was to model daily AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on a daily basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001. The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. Temperatures above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the daily variations observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material.

  11. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS......, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full...

  12. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m(3)). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of Escherichia coli in cultivated cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Z G; Szakacs, G; Chen, Y; Pinto, R; Bernstein, S; Konya, B; Sela Saldinger, S

    2014-05-01

    A common practice on Israeli dairy barns comprises daily cultivation of the manure. Cultivation is a mechanical process used to break up and till the manure bedding and it results in a drier and aerated bedding and cleaner cows, which consequently reduces the incidence of mastitis. Cultivation was associated with a shorter survival of Escherichia coli in cultivated manure as compared with noncultivated manure. The objective of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the shorter survival duration of E. coli in the cultivated manure. We hypothesized that microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, developing in the cultivated manure, are responsible for this phenomenon. A cow manure derived E. coli strain expressing the green fluorescence protein and antibiotic resistance markers was used to inoculate cow manure in 1.5-L jars. Manure treatments included cultivated and noncultivated manure. Half the jars of each cultivation treatment were autoclave sterilized at 121°C for 1 h on 3 successive days to eliminate from the manure antagonistic microorganisms. Each cultivation-sterilization treatment was performed in triplicate jars. Following sterilization, E. coli numbers in the cultivated and noncultivated manure were comparable, while in the nonsterilized manure the numbers were lower in the cultivated compared with the noncultivated manure. Several fungi isolated from the cultivated manure samples displayed inhibition effect on the tagged E. coli. Antagonistic fungi were also isolated from large-scale cultivated manure samples collected on several dairy farms in Israel. These findings support the notion that manure cultivation might facilitate the development of microorganisms that are antagonistic to E. coli, thus contributing to the general hygiene of the cattle. Identifying the mechanisms by which the antagonistic fungi affect the survival of E. coli in manure could be exploited for improvement of the animal health and for limiting the

  14. Enhancing the biomethane potential of liquid dairy cow manure by addition of solid manure fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Israel; Figueroa-González, Ivonne; Miguel, José Ángel; Bonilla-Morte, Luis; Quijano, Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effect of adding solid manure fractions on the biomethane potential (BMP) of liquid dairy cow manure and on the biokinetic parameters of the process. The methanogenic potential of liquid dairy cow manure was strongly effected by adding a solid manure fraction. The 90/10 % (w/w) liquid/solid manure fraction mixture was the best substrate for CH 4 production. This substrate mixture improved by 50 % the final CH 4 production per g substrate and decreased the lag time by 220 % relative to the reference BMP test without the addition. Moreover, the addition of 20 % solid manure fraction adversely affected both the final CH 4 production and the maximum methane production rate, while increased the lag time by 400 % compared to the reference BMP test without addition. Liquid dairy cow manure should be supplemented with no more than 10 % of solid manure fraction in order to improve the biomethane potential of this important agro-industrial residue.

  15. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  16. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract 1. Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. 2. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 ?m) from cage and alternative system henhouses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experiment...

  17. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present...... study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  18. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  19. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  20. Vermicomposting: Tool for Sustainable Ruminant Manure Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nasiru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants are important sources of meat and milk. Their production is associated with manure excretion. Estimates of over 3,900,000 million metric tonnes of manure are produced daily from ruminants worldwide. Storage and spread of this waste on land pose health risks and environmental problems. Efficient and sustainable way of handling ruminant manure is required. Composting and vermicomposting are considered two of the best techniques for solid biomass waste management. This paper presents vermicomposting as an effective tool for ruminant manure management. Vermicomposting is a mesophilic biooxidation and stabilisation process of organic materials that involves the joint action of earthworm and microorganism. Compared with composting, vermicomposting has higher rate of stabilisation and it is greatly modifying its physical and biochemical properties, with low C : N ratio and homogenous end product. It is also costeffective and ecofriendly waste management. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physicochemical properties, vermicomposting can be used to promote sustainable ruminant manure management. Vermicomposts are excellent sources of biofertiliser and their addition improves the physiochemical and biological properties of agricultural soils. In addition, earthworms from the vermicomposting can be used as source of protein to fishes and monogastric animals. Vermicompost can also be used as raw materials for bioindustries.

  1. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns.

  2. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...... of the manure for all main stages of the manure continuum (e.g. ex-animal, ex-housing, ex-storage). This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing Sustainability of Manure Technology Chains....

  3. Field-scale evaluation of water fluxes and manure solution leaching in feedlot pen soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana R; Maisonnave, Roberto; Massobrio, Marcelo J; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia R

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of beef cattle manure on feedlot pen surfaces generates large amounts of dissolved solutes that can be mobilized by water fluxes, affecting surface and groundwater quality. Our objective was to examine the long-term impacts of a beef cattle feeding operation on water fluxes and manure leaching in feedlot pens located on sandy loam soils of the subhumid Sandy Pampa region in Argentina. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture content, and chloride concentration were quantified. Rain simulation trials were performed to estimate infiltration and runoff rates. Using chloride ion as a tracer, profile analysis techniques were applied to estimate the soil moisture flux and manure conservative chemical components leaching rates. An organic stratum was found over the surface of the pen soil, separated from the underlying soil by a highly compacted thin layer (the manure-soil interface). The soil beneath the organic layer showed greater bulk density in the A horizon than in the control soil and had greater moisture content. Greater concentrations of chloride were found as a consequence of the partial sealing of the manure-soil interface. Surface runoff was the dominant process in the feedlot pen soil, whereas infiltration was the main process in control soil. Soil moisture flux beneath pens decreased substantially after 15 yr of activity. The estimated minimum leaching rate of chloride was 13 times faster than the estimated soil moisture flux. This difference suggests that chloride ions are not exclusively transported by advective flow under our conditions but also by solute diffusion and preferential flow. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. John Cage's Aria viewed through the prism of contextual determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysis the three contextual layers of creating John Cage's Aria for solo voice performed by Cathy Berberia at the 'big stage' of musical neo-avant-garde in Darmstadt. The layers in question are: (1 the socio-political context of Germany after World War II, where the denazification process was started at the time, (2 the artistic context of neo-avant-garde musical milieu which was being formed in Darmstadt in that period, and (3 the context of a new epoch in the history of vocal art. The thesis presented here is that an encounter occurred between American experimental and European avant-garde musical practice during the accelerated denazification and liberalisation of German society and the establishment of the Cold War relationship between the East and the West. The piece Aria represents an example of a collaborative work between American and European artists, which turned to be an important step in the history of extended vocal techniques in musical performing and composing.

  5. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animal manures applied had positive effect on mouldiness of silage and, this was more pronounced in cattle manure at 90 days of ensiling. The silage produced from poultry–manure fertilized grass had desirable crude protein value, but at 90 days of ensiling, the best performance was observed with a considerable low ...

  6. Effects of organic manure and cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design of a split plot fashion in three replications with the varieties of cowpea on the main plots while the organic manures and a control (no-treatment) plot constituted the subplots. The organic manure was incorporated into the soil by pulverizing the manure ...

  7. Poultry Manure Effect on Growth and Yield of Maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The effect of poultry manure application on maize (Zea mays) growth and yields was studied on a Ferric Acrisol in the semi-deciduous ... Poultry manure application registered over 53% increases of N levels ..... control, however, indicated the relative advantage of applying poultry manure and that an application rate of 2.

  8. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response from the use of some green manures (Wortmann et al, 1994; Fischer, 1997). The usual source of bulky organic manures is the dung and bedding of domestic animals. In Uganda, the pa11ly decomposed accumulations of animal manures were usually used. In very few cases was this supply sufficient to meet.

  9. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  10. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  11. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  12. Residual effects of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer residues on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous application of poultry manure increased soil organic matter and N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The values of soil components due to application of poultry manure were higher than those of chemical fertilizer treatments. The plots previously treated with poultry manure especially at 30-50t/ha enhanced yield parameters such ...

  13. Recovery of amino acids and phosphorus from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background & Objectives: The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively....

  14. A Visible-Light-Sensitive Caged Serotonin

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, R.; Filevich, O; Garcia-Acosta, B; Athilingam, J; Bender, KJ; Poskanzer, KE; R. Etchenique

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Deficits in 5HT signaling are responsible for many disabling psychiatric conditions, and its molecular machinery is the target of many pharmaceuticals. We present a new 5HT phototrigger, the compound [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)]2+, where PMe3 is trimethylphosphine. As with other ruthenium-bipyridyl based caged compounds, [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)]2+ presents activity in t...

  15. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    that the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour is due to a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). This can also explain the observed behaviour when flocculated manure is filtered. The filtration data can be simulated if cake creep is adopted in the filtration...... model. The calculation shows that the specific filter-cake resistance increases by a factor of 3 during the filtration. Thus, the impact of cake creep is significant when organic materials such as manure are filtered....

  16. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed...... of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts...

  17. Clays Can Decrease Gaseous Nutrient Losses from Soil-Applied Livestock Manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Brown, Grant; Westermann, Maren

    2016-03-01

    Clays could underpin a viable agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technology given their affinity for nitrogen and carbon compounds. We provide the first investigation into the efficacy of clays to decrease agricultural nitrogen GHG emissions (i.e., NO and NH). Via laboratory experiments using an automated closed-vessel analysis system, we tested the capacity of two clays (vermiculite and bentonite) to decrease NO and NH emissions and organic carbon losses from livestock manures (beef, pig, poultry, and egg layer) incorporated into an agricultural soil. Clay addition levels varied, with a maximum of 1:1 to manure (dry weight). Cumulative gas emissions were modeled using the biological logistic function, with 15 of 16 treatments successfully fitted ( clay addition level compared with no clay addition, but this difference was not significant ( = 0.17). Nitrous oxide emissions were significantly lower (×3; clay addition level compared with no clay addition. When assessing manures individually, we observed generally decreasing trends in NH and NO emissions with increasing clay addition, albeit with widely varying statistical significance between manure types. Most of the treatments also showed strong evidence of increased C retention with increasing clay additions, with up to 10 times more carbon retained in treatments containing clay compared with treatments containing no clay. This preliminary assessment of the efficacy of clays to mitigate agricultural GHG emissions indicates strong promise. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Bulletproof Love : Luke Cage (2016 and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to think about religion and popular culture. One method is to ask where and when we see what might be commonly understood as “religious tradition(s” explicitly on display. Another is to think about superhero narratives themselves as “religious”, using this term as a conceptual tool for categorizing and thereby better understanding particular dimensions of human experience. This article takes a variety of approaches to understanding religion in relation to the recent television series LUKE CAGE (Netflix, US 2016. These approaches take their hermeneutical cues from a range of disciplines, including studies of the Bible; Hip Hop; gender; Black Theology; African American religion; and philosophy. The results of this analysis highlight the polysemic nature of popular culture in general, and of superhero stories in particular. Like religious traditions themselves, the show is complex and contradictory: it is both progressive and reactionary; emphasizes community and valorizes an individual; critiques and endorses Christianity; subverts and promotes violence. Depending on the questions asked, LUKE CAGE (2016 provides a range of very different answers.

  19. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  20. Hybrid uranyl-carboxyphosphonate cage clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelani, Pius O; Ozga, Michael; Wallace, Christine M; Qiu, Jie; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Sigmon, Ginger E; Burns, Peter C

    2013-07-01

    Two new hybrid uranyl-carboxyphosphonate cage clusters built from uranyl peroxide units were crystallized from aqueous solution under ambient conditions in approximately two months. The clusters are built from uranyl hexagonal bipyramids and are connected by employing a secondary metal linker, the 2-carboxyphenylphosphonate ligand. The structure of cluster A is composed of a ten-membered uranyl polyhedral belt that is capped on either end of an elongated cage by five-membered rings of uranyl polyhedra. The structure of cluster B consists of 24 uranyl cations that are arranged into 6 four-membered rings of uranyl polyhedra. Four of the corresponding topological squares are fused together to form a sixteen-membered double uranyl pseudobelt that is capped on either end by 2 topological squares. Cluster A crystallizes over a wide pH range of 4.6-6.8, while cluster B was isolated under narrower pH range of 6.9-7.8. Studies of their fate in aqueous solution upon dissolution of crystals by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provide evidence for their persistence in solution. The well-established characteristic fingerprint from the absorption spectra of the uranium(VI) cations disappears and becomes a nearly featureless peak; nonetheless, the two compounds fluoresce at room temperature.

  1. 'Snorkel' lice barrier technology reduced two co- occurring parasites, the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and the amoebic gill disease causing agent (Neoparamoeba perurans), in commercial salmon sea-cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D W; Stien, L H; Dempster, T; Vågseth, T; Nola, V; Fosseidengen, J-E; Oppedal, F

    2017-05-01

    Diverse chemical-free parasite controls are gaining status in Atlantic salmon sea-cage farming. Yet, the intricacies of their use at commercial scale, including effects on co-occurring parasites, are seldom reported. A new salmon lice prevention method involves installing a deep net roof and 'snorkel' lice barrier in cages to shelter salmon from free-living infective larvae which concentrate at shallow depths, and allows salmon to jump and re- inflate their buoyancy-regulating swim bladder by swallowing air. We document use of snorkel cages (10m deep barrier) in commercial farms, where their effects on salmon lice levels, amoebic gill disease (AGD)-related gill scores, the cage environment, fish welfare and farm management practices were compared to standard cages. During an autumn-winter study involving only snorkel cages, high AGD-related gill scores were observed to decline when freshwater was pumped into snorkels, creating a freshwater surface layer for salmon to enter for self-treatment. In a spring-summer study incorporating snorkel and standard cages, snorkel cages were found to reduce new lice infestations by 84%. The deployment of snorkels and intermittent oxygen depletion detected within them in the spring-summer study did not alter fish welfare parameters. Overall, the results suggest snorkel technology has a place in the toolkit of commercial salmon sea-cage farmers co-managing salmon lice and amoebic gill disease outbreaks - two principal parasite issues facing the industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  3. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    and applying the material to the cereals in the rotation, possibly after digestion in a biogas reactor. Cereal grain protein content was increased more by the N in the grass-clover than from manure application, probably due to different timing ofN availability. Green-manure crops or manures with a relatively......The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... left on the soil as mulch. Animal manure was applied as slurry to the cereal crops in the rotation in rates corresponding to 40% of the N demand of the cereal crops. Application of 50 kg NH4-N ha-' in manure increased average wheatgrain yield by 0.4-0.9 Mg DM ha-1, whereas the use of catch crops did...

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  5. MINERALS AND NITROGEN IN POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    excreta from birds kept in batteries. broiler excreta on deep litter systems and pullet and breeder excreta on deep litter systans. Large ... to investigate the concentralion of c@per and zinc in manure fronr broilers fed rations containing various levels of these minerals. ... which substantially increases the price of the product.

  6. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  7. Manure Management, Quality and Mineralization for Sustaining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the Upper East region of Ghana to seek information on the fertility status of the soils, manure production, its management options and nutrient concentration that could be associated with quality. Analysis of soils from farmers' fields showed that the soils are coarse textured, with low exchange ...

  8. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, the simple biogas digesters installed underground without heating or stirring are seen as a 'green' technology to convert animal waste into biogas, a source of bio-energy. However, quantitative estimates of biogas production of manures from steers fed local feed diets...

  9. (effective microorganisms) and parthenium green manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is rapidly spreading in many countries around the world and has become a serious threat to nature as well as managed ecosystems. The present pot experiment was conducted in 2005 -2006 to study the effect of parthenium green manure (1, 2, 3 and 4% on fresh weight ...

  10. MINERALS AND NITROGEN IN POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ported cases of copper toxicity in sheep on rations high in poultry manure. Chronic copper t

  11. Rheological properties of dairy cattle manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mashad, H.M.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2005-01-01

    Rheological properties are important for the design and modelling of handling and treating fluids. In the present study, the viscosity of liquid manure (about 10% total solids) was measured at different shear rates (2.38¿238 s¿1). The effect of temperature on the viscosity at different shear rates

  12. INFLUENCE OF WEED CONTROL METHODS, POULTRY MANURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    INFLUENCE OF WEED CONTROL METHODS, POULTRY MANURE AND PLANTING. PATTERN ON GROWTH AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) IN THE. NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNAH ZONE OF NIGERIA. Bature, M.S.,1 Ishaya, D.B.,2 2Mahadi, M.A2, Sharifai, A.I2; Muhammed, A.A2; Hassan, A. H1;.

  13. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  14. Novel caged clusters of silicon: Fullerenes, Frank–Kasper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We review recent findings of metal (M) encapsulated caged clusters of Si and Ge obtained from computer experiments based on an ab initio pseudopotential method. It is shown that one M atom changes drastically the properties of Si and Ge clusters and that depending upon the size of the M atom, cages of 14,.

  15. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A [Raymore, MO

    2012-06-05

    Polymers comprising residues of borane and/or carborane cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Methods of making and applications for using such polymers are also disclosed.

  16. A New Vertebral Body Replacement Strategy Using Expandable Polymeric Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Paulsen, Alex; Giambini, Hugo; Guo, Ji; Miller, A Lee; Lin, Po-Chun; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel polymeric expandable cage that can be delivered via a posterior-only surgical approach for the treatment of noncontained vertebral defects. This approach is less invasive than an anterior-only or combined approach and much more cost-effective than currently used expandable metal cages. The polymeric expandable cage is composed of oligo poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF), a hydrogel that has been previously shown to have excellent nerve and bone tissue biocompatibility. OPF hydrogel cages can expand to twice their original diameter and length within a surgical time frame following hydration. Modulation of parameters such as polymeric network crosslink density or the introduction of charge to the network allowed for precise expansion kinetics. To meet specific requirements due to size variations in patient vertebral bodies, we fabricated a series of molds with varied diameters and explored the expansion kinetics of the OPF cages. Results showed a stable expansion ratio of approximately twofold to the original size within 20 min, regardless of the absolute value of the cage size. Following implantation of a dried OPF cage into a noncontained vertebral defect and its in situ expansion with normal saline, other augmentation biomaterials, such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), can be injected to the lumen of the OPF cage and allowed to crosslink in situ. The OPF/PPF composite scaffold can provide the necessary rigidity and stability to the augmented spine.

  17. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CD ROM that contains the H-4/H-8 CAGE master file issued by DLIS (Their address is: Customer Service... assignments to DLIS Customer Service: toll-free (888) 227-2423 or (888) 352-9333; DSN 932-4725; or commercial....39-M, Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual, prescribe use of CAGE codes. (b...

  18. Influence of Clarias gariepinus (Teugels) cage cultures on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality, periphyton and phytoplankton growing as a function Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cage cultures have rarely been investigated. Physical and chemical factors associated with cage culture of Clarias gariepinus in relation to phytoplankton and periphyton were examined fortnightly from May to June 2009 ...

  19. Object grasping by combining caging and force closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Q.; Wisse, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current research trends of object grasping can be summarized as caging grasping and force closure grasping. The motivation of this paper is to combine the advantage of caging grasping and force closure grasping to enable under-actuated grippers like the Lacquey gripper and the parallel

  20. Rapid determination of natural and synthetic hormones in biosolids and poultry manure by isotope dilution GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

    2014-04-01

    The release of hormones into the environment due to land application of biosolids and manure is a cause of concern for their potential impacts. This paper presents the development of a rapid and sensitive method, based on extraction, for the analysis of 13 hormones in biosolids and poultry manure. A simultaneous derivatization of hydroxyl and ketone groups was carried out for the determination of hormones by GC–MS/MS. The method was validated in three matrices (sewage sludge, manure, and broiler litter). Recoveries from spiked samples at three concentration levels (50, 25, and 10 ng/g) ranged from 76 to 124% with relative SDs ≤ 16%. Method detection limits for the three matrices were in the range of 0.5–3.0 ng/g dry weight. The optimized method was applied to biosolid and poultry manure samples collected in Spain. Only seven of the 13 studied hormones were detected in the different samples. trans-Androsterone was detected at high levels (up to 3.1 μg/g in biosolid samples). Estrone and estradiol were the two hormones detected at higher levels in layer manure, whereas estrone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione presented the highest levels in broiler litter.

  1. Morphometrical structure evaluation of long-term manured Ukrainian chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, M.; Słowińska-Jurkiewicz, A.; Medvedev, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    There was performed an image analysis of the structure of Ukrainian chernozem, which (I) by standard crop rotation was fertilized for 78 years with farm yard manure and (II) by continuous cultivation of sugar beet was not organically fertilized. For the both soils the largest differences were stated in the values of morphometrical parameters related to the soil solid phase element cross-sections. The differences in the parameters for pore cross-sections were much smaller. The soil I was characterized on average with larger macroporosity, larger relative and absolute number of solid phase element cross-sections, and larger relative length of border line between pore and solid phase element cross-sections than the soil II. For the both pedons the pore and solid phase element cross-sections were in general randomly oriented in the soil body. Due to the kneading the pore cross-sections in the superficial layer of the soil after monoculture of sugar beet were oriented horizontally. The soil structure in the corresponding layers of both pedons was to a high degree dissimilar. The largest differences in the arrangement of the soil solid phase and void space occurred in the upper layers.

  2. Generation of Multicomponent Molecular Cages using Simultaneous Dynamic Covalent Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Wojciech; Bouillon, Camille; Kotras, Clément; Richeter, Sébastien; Barboiu, Mihail; Clément, Sébastien; Stefankiewicz, Artur R; Ulrich, Sébastien

    2017-12-19

    Cage compounds are very attractive structures for a wide range of applications and there is ongoing interest in finding effective ways to access such kinds of complex structures, particularly those possessing dynamic adaptive features. Here we report the accessible synthesis of new type of organic cage architectures, possessing two different dynamic bonds within one structure: hydrazones and disulfides. Implementation of three distinct functional groups (thiols, aldehydes and hydrazides) in the structure of two simple building blocks resulted in their spontaneous and selective self-assembly into aromatic cage-type architectures. These organic cages contain up to ten components linked together by twelve reversible covalent bonds. The advantage provided by the presented approach is that these cage structures can adaptively self-sort from a complex virtual mixture of polymers or macrocycles and that dynamic covalent chemistry enables their deliberate disassembly through controlled component exchange. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Entropic cages for trapping DNA near a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Skanata, Mirna Mihovilovic; Stein, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Nanopores can probe the structure of biopolymers in solution; however, diffusion makes it difficult to study the same molecule for extended periods. Here we report devices that entropically trap single DNA molecules in a 6.2-femtolitre cage near a solid-state nanopore. We electrophoretically inject DNA molecules into the cage through the nanopore, pause for preset times and then drive the DNA back out through the nanopore. The saturating recapture time and high recapture probability after long pauses, their agreement with a convection-diffusion model and the observation of trapped DNA under fluorescence microscopy all confirm that the cage stably traps DNA. Meanwhile, the cages have 200 nm openings that make them permeable to small molecules, like the restriction endonuclease we use to sequence-specifically cut trapped DNA into fragments whose number and sizes are analysed upon exiting through the nanopore. Entropic cages thus serve as reactors for chemically modifying single DNA molecules.

  4. Photocatalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolite cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Oxidation of hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen is a key process in chemical industry. But reactions that use O{sub 2} as the primary oxidant often produce large amounts of unwanted byproducts. One major reason that selectivities are low is that the desired products (such as alcohols or carbonyls) are more easily oxidized by O{sub 2} than the parent hydrocarbon. The authors recently discovered a simple method that gives partial oxidation of small alkenes, alkanes, and alkyl-substituted benzenes by O{sub 2} at unprecedented selectivity, even at high conversion of the hydrocarbon. The approach is based on visible light-induced chemistry of hydrocarbon-O{sub 2} collisional pairs in the cages of large-pore zeolites. Reactions are conducted at ambient temperature in the absence of solvent or photosensitizer. Here the authors describe the most interesting reactions established thus far and define issues that pertain to scale-up of the method.

  5. Transcription regulatory networks analysis using CAGE

    KAUST Repository

    Tegnér, Jesper N.

    2009-10-01

    Mapping out cellular networks in general and transcriptional networks in particular has proved to be a bottle-neck hampering our understanding of biological processes. Integrative approaches fusing computational and experimental technologies for decoding transcriptional networks at a high level of resolution is therefore of uttermost importance. Yet, this is challenging since the control of gene expression in eukaryotes is a complex multi-level process influenced by several epigenetic factors and the fine interplay between regulatory proteins and the promoter structure governing the combinatorial regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we review how the CAGE data can be integrated with other measurements such as expression, physical interactions and computational prediction of regulatory motifs, which together can provide a genome-wide picture of eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks at a new level of resolution. © 2010 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...... out in the cage and tended to be more often on the platform compared to in the upper cage. It is concluded that the climbing cage worked well for females with kits and that the upper cage can offer a refuge for females when kits get older....

  7. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  8. Wet Oxidation of Crude Manure and Manure Fibers: Substrate Characteristics Influencing the Pretreatment Efficiency for Increasing the Biogas Yield of Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    structure with subsequent higher degradation efficiencies and methane yields. A screening of crude manure and the separated fiber fraction shows that wet oxidation is more adequate for treatment of high concentrated solid fraction than for crude manure and an increase of 35% in biogas yield can be gained...

  9. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  10. Outcomes of interbody fusion cages used in 1 and 2-levels anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: titanium cages versus polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Chien; Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Wen-Jer; Chen, Lih-Huei

    2010-07-01

    A prospective study was performed in case with cervical spondylosis who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with titanium or polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. To find out which fusion cage yielded better clinical and radiographic results. Although use of autogenous iliac-bone grafts in ACDF for cervical disc diseases remain standard surgical procedure, donor site morbidity and graft collapse or breakage are concerns. Cage technology was developed to prevent these complications. However, there is no comparison regarding the efficacy between titanium and PEEK cage. January 2005 to January 2006, 53 patients who had 1 and 2-levels ACDF with titanium or PEEK cages were evaluated. We measured the rate and amount of interspace collapse, segmental sagittal angulations, and the radiographic fusion success rate. Odom criteria were used to assess the clinical results. The fusion rate was higher in the PEEK group (100% vs. 86.5%, P=0.0335). There was no significant difference between both groups in loss of cervical lordosis (3.2 + or - 2.4 vs. 2.8 + or - 3.4, P=0.166). The mean anterior interspace collapse (1.6 + or - 1.0 mm) in the titanium group was significantly higher than the collapse of the PEEK group (0.5 + or - 0.6 mm) (PPEEK group (PPEEK group achieved an 80% rate of successful clinical outcomes, compared with 75% in the titanium group (P=0.6642). The PEEK cage is superior to the titanium cage in maintaining cervical interspace height and radiographic fusion after 1 and 2-levels anterior cervical decompression procedures.

  11. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal for Liquid Dairy Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yanjuan

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been widely used in municipal wastewater treatment, but no previous studies have examined the application of EBPR to treat dairy manure. This study was conducted to evaluate the (i) performance of pilot-scale EBPR systems treating liquid dairy manure, to balance the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in manure to meet crop nutrient requirements, (ii) effects of dissolved oxygen and solids retention time on the efficiency of EBPR, and (iii) effect...

  12. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure.

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic Nikolina; Andrew Sheila; Handelsman Jo

    2014-01-01

    Application of manure from antibiotic treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However our knowledge of the identity diversity and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to be...

  13. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  14. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  15. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  16. Weed suppression by green manure in an agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Garicoix Recalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manure promotes efficient suppression of weeds, but green manure species can exhibit distinct behaviors, depending on the environmental conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of soil mulching and weed suppression by spring/summer green manure species grown in the spring/summer season, at different growth stages and after management (cut, for 90 days during the cassava crop cycle. The study was carried out in the 2010/2011 season, in a system managed under agroecological principles. The treatments consisted of different green manure species and arrangements: Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia brasiliensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum intercropped; Mucuna aterrima, Sorghum bicolor, a mixture of all the green manures in study and a control plot under fallow. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The evaluations of the soil cover either by the green manures or weeds were performed at 45, 90 and 105 days after the emergence of the green manures. The cassava crop was planted under reduced tillage system at 11 days after the cut of the green manures. The percentage of soil covered by weeds and the dry matter produced were evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that the green manures had a suppressive effect on weeds during their life cycle, as well as during the first months after its management (cut, composing the mulch.

  17. Characterization of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Kedar

    Emission of gases, odor, and particulate matters from livestock manure is a major concern because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. For example, ammonia in the air has the potential to: negatively affect animal, human health and environment. Mitigation of ammonia emissions from livestock manure to protect animal and human health, and the environment, in general, is thus an important agenda for livestock producers, engineers, and environmental scientists. Proper understanding of the mechanisms or process of its volatilization from manure is the first step towards designing or formulating appropriate emissions mitigation strategies. This research investigated the effects of suspended solids, anaerobic digestion, and ionic strength on the ammonia (NH3) volatilization mechanism from liquid dairy manure. Experiments were conducted to: (i) assess the role of suspended solids characteristics on ammonia volatilization, (ii) evaluate the impacts of anaerobic digestion on the process governing NH 3 volatilization, and (iii) delineate the influences of suspended solids (SS) and ionic strength (IS) on the ammonia volatilization process from dairy manure. Two key parameters (the ammonia dissociation and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KoL)) that govern ammonia volatilization were evaluated to achieve these objectives. The physical and chemical properties of manure were also evaluated to further elucidate the respective processes. The suspended solids ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption properties did not significantly affect either the ammonium dissociation or the K oL; suggesting that the characteristics of manure suspended solids did not play a significant role in ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure. The dissociation of ammonium in anaerobically digested (AD) manure was significantly higher than in the undigested (UD) manure. However, KoL was less in AD manure than in UD manure, while an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was observed

  18. Biomechanics of Nested Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; de Tranaltes, Kaylee; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Reyes, Phillip M; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Tumialán, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Arthrodesis is optimized when the structural graft occupies most of the surface area within a disc space. The transforaminal corridor inherently limits interbody size. To evaluate the biomechanical implications of nested interbody spacers (ie, a second curved cage placed behind a first) to increase disc space coverage in transforaminal approaches. Seven lumbar human cadaveric specimens (L3-S1) underwent nondestructive flexibility and axial compression testing intact and after transforaminal instrumentation at L4-L5. Specimens were tested in 5 conditions: (1) intact, (2) interbody, (3) interbody plus bilateral pedicle screws and rods (PSR), (4) 2 nested interbodies, and (5) 2 nested interbodies plus PSR. Mean range of motion (ROM) with 1 interbody vs 2 nested interbodies, respectively, was: flexion, 101% vs 85%; extension, 97% vs 92%; lateral bending, 127% vs 132%; and axial rotation, 145% vs 154%. One interbody and 2 nested interbodies did not differ significantly by loading mode (P > .10). With PSR, ROM decreased significantly compared with intact, but not between interbody and interbody plus PSR or 2 interbodies plus PSR (P > .80). Mean vertical height during compressive loading (ie, axial compressive stiffness) was significantly different with 2 nested interbodies vs 1 interbody alone (P < .001) (compressive stiffness, 89% of intact vs 67% of intact, respectively). Inserting a second interbody using a transforaminal approach is anatomically feasible and nearly doubles the disc space covered without affecting ROM. Compressive stiffness significantly increased with 2 nested interbodies, and foraminal height increased. Evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of nested interbodies is underway.

  19. Linear diffusion into a Faraday cage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lin, Yau Tang; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2011-11-01

    Linear lightning diffusion into a Faraday cage is studied. An early-time integral valid for large ratios of enclosure size to enclosure thickness and small relative permeability ({mu}/{mu}{sub 0} {le} 10) is used for this study. Existing solutions for nearby lightning impulse responses of electrically thick-wall enclosures are refined and extended to calculate the nearby lightning magnetic field (H) and time-derivative magnetic field (HDOT) inside enclosures of varying thickness caused by a decaying exponential excitation. For a direct strike scenario, the early-time integral for a worst-case line source outside the enclosure caused by an impulse is simplified and numerically integrated to give the interior H and HDOT at the location closest to the source as well as a function of distance from the source. H and HDOT enclosure response functions for decaying exponentials are considered for an enclosure wall of any thickness. Simple formulas are derived to provide a description of enclosure interior H and HDOT as well. Direct strike voltage and current bounds for a single-turn optimally-coupled loop for all three waveforms are also given.

  20. Effects of sheep kraal manure on growth, dry matter yield and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous vegetables that supply abundant amounts of protein, vitamins, ... Keywords: Amaranthus accession, sheep manure, dry matter yield, nutrient ..... manure and fertiliser applications, though no specific trend was .... formulation.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in native and caged mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, M T; Coradeghini, R; Valerio, F

    2001-10-01

    During 1999, a biological monitoring study was conducted at four sites along the Ligurian coast (Cornigliano, Voltri, Vado Ligure and Sanremo). At each site the concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in native and caged mussels. The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), sampled in the Spring and the Autumn, showed different accumulation patterns according to the source of pollution they were exposed to. The PAH concentrations were higher in the native than in the caged mussels. The coastal sites were classified according to PAH concentrations found in mussel tissue samples: Native mussels: Vado Ligure San-remo San-remo < Cornigliano. The different classification is explained by the different location of the organisms: native mussels were located near the air-water interface, while caged mussels were situated at -3 m from the water surface. The PAH concentrations in the native and caged mussels showed a similar seasonal variability, and can provide the same information about the sources of PAHs.

  2. Fish cage culture catches on in Nepal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    making has been strengthened. Women take part alongside the men in all activities, from cleaning and repairing the fish cages to participating in meetings of farmers'' associations, attending workshops, and marketing the catch.

  3. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  4. Reduction of volatile fatty acids and odor offensiveness by anaerobic digestion and solid separation of dairy manure during manure storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Laura H; Ni, Ji-Qin; Zhang, Hao; Heber, Albert J; Mosier, Nathan S; Liu, Xingya; Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M; Harrison, Joseph H

    2015-04-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) play an important role in the biodegradation of organic wastes and production of bioenergy under anaerobic digestion, and are related to malodors. However, little is known about the dynamics of VFA during dairy manure storage. This study evaluated the characteristics of VFA in dairy manure before and after anaerobic co-digestion in a laboratory experiment using eight lab-scale reactors. The reactors were loaded with four different types of dairy manure: (1) liquid dairy manure from a freestall barn, (2) mixture of dairy manure and co-digestion food processing wastes at the inlet of an anaerobic digester, (3) effluent from the digester outlet, and (4) the liquid fraction of effluent from a solid separator. Four VFA (acetic, propionic, butyric, and 2-methylbutyric acids) were identified and quantified in weekly manure samples from all reactors. Results showed that the dominant VFA was acetic acid in all four manure sources. The off-farm co-digestion wastes significantly increased the total VFA concentrations and the proportions of individual VFA in the influent. The dairy manure under storage demonstrated high temporal and spatial variations in pH and VFA concentrations. Anaerobic digestion reduced the total VFA by 86%-96%; but solid-liquid separation did not demonstrate a significant reduction in total VFA in this study. Using VFA as an indicator, anaerobic digestion exhibited an effective reduction of dairy manure odor offensiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CubeSat Attitude Determination and Helmholtz Cage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Effects of Electrical and Ferromagnetic Objects . . . . . . . . 57 4.1.2 Room Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.2...the theory and knowledge that was incorporated into the design of the cage and the implementation of the attitude determination algorithm in this...example of a 3U CubeSat. Control for Delfi-C3 is composed of hysteresis rods which were tested via a Helmholtz cage similar to the one described in this

  6. Musica come divenire. Il paesaggio sonoro secondo John cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Aste

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available John Cage ha dedicato tutta la sua vita all’indagine delle possibilità di relazione dell’uomo con i suoni che lo circondano, allargando il campo dell’arte musicale a quello dell’etica e dell’ecologia. Cage non si è occupato di soundscape come un genere compositivo specifico, come forse oggi potremmo identificarlo, tuttavia l’ambiente occupa un ruolo centrale in relazione al suo modo di comporre.

  7. Nitrogen Rings and Cages Stabilized by Metallic Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-18

    1 UNIVERSIDAD DE GUANAJUATO DEPARTAMENTO DE QUIMICA DIVISION DE CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS Dr. Gabriel Merino NORIA ALTA s/n...CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS Principal Investigator: Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química Universidad de Guanajuato Noria Alta...Final Report 1 Sep 06-31 Aug 09 NITROGEN RINGS AND CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS FA9550-06-1-0555 Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química

  8. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Caged Protein Prenyltransferase Substrates: Tools for Understanding Protein Prenylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGraw, Amanda J.; Hast, Michael A.; Xu, Juhua; Mullen, Daniel; Beese, Lorena S.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D. (Duke); (UMM)

    2010-11-15

    Originally designed to block the prenylation of oncogenic Ras, inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase currently in preclinical and clinical trials are showing efficacy in cancers with normal Ras. Blocking protein prenylation has also shown promise in the treatment of malaria, Chagas disease and progeria syndrome. A better understanding of the mechanism, targets and in vivo consequences of protein prenylation are needed to elucidate the mode of action of current PFTase (Protein Farnesyltransferase) inhibitors and to create more potent and selective compounds. Caged enzyme substrates are useful tools for understanding enzyme mechanism and biological function. Reported here is the synthesis and characterization of caged substrates of PFTase. The caged isoprenoid diphosphates are poor substrates prior to photolysis. The caged CAAX peptide is a true catalytically caged substrate of PFTase in that it is to not a substrate, yet is able to bind to the enzyme as established by inhibition studies and X-ray crystallography. Irradiation of the caged molecules with 350 nm light readily releases their cognate substrate and their photolysis products are benign. These properties highlight the utility of those analogs towards a variety of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  10. CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 CAGE peaks Data detail Data name CAGE peaks DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-002.V002 Ve... of data contents Data about CAGE peak regions and RNA transcriptional initiation activities measured by CAG...E Data file File name: CAGE_peaks File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fa...ntom5/datafiles/LATEST/extra/CAGE_peaks/ File size: 4.1 GB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method - Dat...a analysis method CAGE DPI (Decomposition-based peak identification) Number of data entries 28 files - About

  11. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Rosa Couto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maize (Zea mays/black oat (Avena strigosa crop succession. The carbon of the microbial biomass (MB‑C and the basal respiration (C‑CO2 were analyzed, and the metabolic (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qmic were calculated with the obtained data. Organic matter, pH in water, available P and K, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were also determined. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the MB‑C and C‑CO2 values. The qmic and qCO2 are little affected by the application of swine manure. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the values of pH in water and the contents of available P and of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil.

  12. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  13. Pore space partition and charge separation in cage-within-cage indium-organic frameworks with high CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Bu, Julia T; Li, Yufei; Wu, Tao; Zuo, Fan; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2010-12-08

    The integration of negatively charged single-metal building blocks {In(CO2)4} and positively charged trimeric clusters {In3O} leads to three unique cage-within-cage-based porous materials, which exhibit not only high hydrothermal, thermal, and photochemical stability but also attractive structural features contributing to a very high CO2 uptake capacity of up to 119.8 L/L at 273 K and 1 atm.

  14. The effect of sheep-manure vermicompost on quantitative and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sheep-manure vermicompost on quantitative and qualitative properties of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) grown in the greenhouse. ... This experiment aims to evaluate the effects of vermicompost produced from sheep manure on growth, yield and quality of 2 fruit cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties (cv.

  15. Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of tillage and liquid manure applications on some physical and chemical properties and also on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential from a meadow soil. Our results indicated that tillage and manure applications had no effect on the concentration of Cu, Mn, total ...

  16. Kinetics and energetics of producing animal-manure-based biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of animal manure produce biochar with multiple beneficial use potentials for improving soil quality and the environment. The kinetics and energetics of pyrolysis in producing manure-based biochar char were reviewed and analyzed. Kinetic analysis of pyrolysis showed that the higher the temp...

  17. Effects of composting swine manure on nutrients and estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct application of raw manure to fields as a soil amendment can contribute ammonia, pathogens, and volatile organic compounds at concentrations that may give rise to adverse odors and environmental concerns. In addition, raw manures can contain concentrations of reproductive hormones that could i...

  18. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  19. Nitrous Oxide Emissions after Application of Manure-Derived Fertiliseres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun

    Livestock manure is widely used as nitrogen (N) fertiliser and its application contributes a substantial proportion of N inputs to cropland. One of the major concerns with application of livestock manure is the loss of N through emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the subsequent impact on global...

  20. Influence Of Different Types Of Organic Manure On Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result shows that application of poultry manure increased fruit yield, the leaf yield and nitrogen content of the leaves significantly (p=0.05). Poultry manure gave the best result followed by pig slurry while plants without any treatment gave the least yield and mineral composition. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences Vol.

  1. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... between sensor array readings and the lab results. The sensor array was able to estimate manure N, P, and K with correlation coefficients of 0.80, 0.76 and 0.70, respectively. Key words: Waste management, animal manure, crop nutrient, gas sensors. INTRODUCTION. Livestock production is a major ...

  2. Impact of fish pond manuring on microbial water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mlejnková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish pond manuring is often used in fish farming for intensification of fish production by balancing the ratio between carbon and other nutrients. However, the using of manure, classified as hazardous organic matter originating from animal faeces, poses a risk to the water environment.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of semi-liquid pig manure application on faecal pollution and related potential health risk of fish pond utilization.The evaluation of faecal pollution was made during 6 years; the microbiological monitoring was completed with the water chemistry data. Our results showed that a better situation was in ponds, processes of which can be regulated by changes in nutrient contents, i.e., by controlled manure application. The absolute counts of microbial indicators were not significantly different in the control non-manured and manured fish ponds, but sporadically detected high faecal indicators counts in summer can represent a potential health risk. According to our results, the water quality of fish ponds is influenced due to manuring but the immediate impact of manuring in fish ponds and recipients in our study proved neither in deterioration of microbiological quality and health risk enhancement nor in the water quality assessed by chemical analyses.

  3. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  4. Comparative effectiveness of different levels of poultry manure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil type of the trial site was lowly fertile loamy sand. Application of poultry manure, and combinations of poultry manure with NPK fertilizer gave high residual effects on soil chemical composition and increased plant height, leaf area, dry matter yield, plant nutrient uptake and grain yield of maize significantly. Residual ...

  5. An assessment of the adoption of compost manure by smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compost manure seems to be a viable option to be promoted. This study was designed to assess the adoption of compost manure making and utilization by smallholder farmers. The study was conducted through a combination of individual interviews and observation of 150 smallholder farmers as well as through focus ...

  6. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tillage and manure effect on soil microbial biomass and respiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of both tillage and liquid pig manure application on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial respiration in a meadow soil. The results obtained did not show any significant effect of tillage and manure on microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ...

  8. Effects of some Local Liming Materials and Organic Manure on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some Local Liming Materials and Organic Manure on some Soil Chemical Properties and Growth of Maize. ... Nigerian Journal of Soil Science ... Abstract. Experiments were carried out to find out the influence of some local liming materials, namely: woodash, flue dust and carbide waste and manure on soil pH, ...

  9. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... increased soil pH with POM and SWM having the greatest effect followed by RBM, GTM and lastly COM. Animal manures also reduced exchangeable acidity and increased exchangeable Ca and Mg. With the exception of GTM, all the other manures did not improve soil organic carbon. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science Vol ...

  10. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of chilli pepper, Capsicum annum vars. tartashi and tarugu and Capsicum frutescens var. Birds eye chilli, and three Poultry Manure (PM) rates: 0, 20, and 40 t ha-1, in all possible combinations. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Poultry manure (PM) used ...

  11. Influence of pig manure, urea and combinations of their reduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of sole and combined application of pig manure and urea on the performance of Amaranthus cruentus at Umudike in a rainforest Ultisol was investigated for two years. The study was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were six treatments consisting of pig manure ...

  12. Design of Sanitary Disposal of Poultry Manure | Egbuniwe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and biological characteristics of the chicken manure from the University of Nigeria Poultry Farm are presented. Different methods of manure processing and disposal are reviewed. Stabilisation ponds are recommended as the most convenient and economical way of destroying poultry wastes. A design of a ...

  13. Solubility of manure phosphorus characterized by selective and sequential extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing awareness of the severity of the problem of phosphorus (P) derived from agricultural production moving off-farm and threatening water quality has led to the search for methods to characterize the forms and potential solubilities of phosphorus in food animal manures and manure products...

  14. Response of cowpea, okra and tomato sawdust ash manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at Akure and Obaile in Southwest Nigeria to test effect of sawdust ash manure treatments on cowpea (var. 1T82D – 716), okra (var. NAAe – 47 – 4) and Roma variety of tomato. The nutrient analysis of leaf and pod of okra given by different sawdust ash manure treatments was done.

  15. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of various levels of poultry manure application on the nutritional value and functional properties of Dioscorea bulbifera. The experiment was a ... Crude fibre, ash and crude protein contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Ash content ranged from ...

  16. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  17. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej OSSOWSKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge nitriding is being used increasingly more often for modifying the properties of titanium and its alloys with the aim to increase their frictional wear resistance, fatigue strength, and, in the case of medical applications, to eliminate the metallosis effect. Unlike PVD methods, ion nitriding ensures the formation of diffusive layers with very good adhesion to the substrate, but which still have some disadvanteges such as the “edge effect” or “hollow cathode effect” which hinders treatment of complex workpieces. The paper compares nitrided layers produced on Ti6Al4V alloy using two different types of nitriding processes. The first process is conventional dc plasma nitriding (DCPN where the samples were placed at the cathode potential, while the second one is a new method of cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN process, where the substrate is insulated from the cathode and anode. The experiments have shown that the treatment conducted in a cathodic cage can be alternative for conventional ion nitriding, especially when used for small parts with complicated shapes used in the space or medical industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7343

  18. Agriculture Organic Matter and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Undo ubtedly organic matter content of soils is one of theim portant factor for high quality and abundant crop production. In addition to improve the physical properties ofsoil, organic matter contributest ocrop production viabeing energy source formicro-organisms in soiland contained plantnutrients. Fiftypercent of theagri cultures oil contains 1-2 % organicmatter in Turkey.In addition to being a sourceof organic matter, organic poultry manurefertilizer isricherthan other organic fertilizerse specially nitrogen content. It is possible to eliminate poultry manure based salt stress and disease factors with composting process in proper conditions.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2018-01-01

    The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more......, and use of treatment technologies. Also, effects of treatment and handling on the properties of field-applied manure must be taken into account. Storage conditions and manure composition importantly define carbon and nitrogen transformations, and the resulting emissions of CH4 and N2O, as well as CO2...... prediction and mitigation. Although more representative emission factors may be determined at country level, this is both challenging and costly, and effects of management changes for GHG mitigation are not easily quantified. An empirical model of CH4 emissions during storage is discussed that is based...

  20. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  1. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...... the surplus load of phosphorous. In the present work we investigated the distribution of 9 steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol) in raw manure and manure separates from 10 to 15...

  2. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  4. Effect of green manure amendment on herbicide pendimethalin on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2018-01-02

    Manure amendment in agricultural practice can have a large effect on herbicide dissipation because the period of manure plowing is close to the period of herbicide application. In addition, manure amendment is among the frequently encountered options in ameliorating pesticide pollution. In this research, the dissipation of the herbicide pendimethalin was examined after amendment with two common green manures, Lupinus luteus (L) or Cosmos bipinnatus (C), for 110 days in pH 5.2 and 7.7 soils (Sankengtzu [Sk] and Erhlin [Eh] soil, respectively). The microbial activity and ecology changes were examined by using Biolog EcoPlate and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In Sk soil, the half-lives of pendimethalin with L, C, and blank treatment were 49.0, 54.9, and 62.2 days, respectively, whereas that in Eh soil they were 46.3, 52.6, and 34.8 days, respectively. Pendimethalin dissipated quickly in more neutral soil (Eh soil), but the addition of manure can only increase the dissipation rate in acidic soil (Sk soil), indicating that the amendment of manures exerted different effect in pendimethalin dissipation rates in different pH soils. The application of pendimethalin and/or manure altered the microbial community activity after 24 h of incubation. After 110 days, the microbial community activities in green manure-amended soil were more similar to that with blank than pendimethalin treatment in both types of soils. In comparison with treatment C, microbial communities were more similar between treatment L and blank, indicating the superior effect over pendimethalin on microbial communities when applying Lupinus luteus. The research showed that the application of herbicide pendimethalin changed soil microbial community, and the amendment of manures exerted different effect in pendimethalin dissipation rates in different pH soils. It is assumed that the change in dissipation rates was originated from the microbial community change after different manure

  5. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS...... pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1...... contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and a higher removal of VS than the reactor treating manure. Microbial population analysis done by cultivation - most probable number (MPN) test and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) measurement, revealed higher MPN and increased SMA of methanogenic populations of biomass from the reactor codigesting manure...

  7. Effects of Manure Compost Application on Soil Microbial Community Diversity and Soil Microenvironments in a Temperate Cropland in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Na; Guo, Liyue; Meng, Jie; Ding, Na; Wu, Guanglei; Jiang, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (pcompost plus bacterial fertilizers can immediately improve the microbial community structure and diversity of degraded cropland soils. PMID:25302996

  8. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Na; Guo, Liyue; Meng, Jie; Ding, Na; Wu, Guanglei; Jiang, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (pcompost plus bacterial fertilizers can immediately improve the microbial community structure and diversity of degraded cropland soils.

  9. {sup 15}N-labeled nitrogen from green manure and ammonium sulfate utilization by the sugarcane ratoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio, E-mail: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicapa, SP (Brazil). Polo Rigional Centro Sul; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto Agronomico de Campinas. Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/FOP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Dept. de Odontologia Social, Bioestatistica; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do solo

    2011-05-15

    Legumes as green manure are alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for crops and can supplement or even replace mineral nitrogen fertilization due to their potential for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The utilization of nitrogen by sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and ammonium sulfate (AS) was evaluated using the {sup 15}N tracer technique. N was added at the rate of 196 and 70 kg ha{sup -1} as {sup 15}N-labeled sunn hemp green manure (SH) and as ammonium sulfate (AS), respectively. Treatments were: (I) Control; (II) AS{sup 15}N; (III) SH{sup 15}N + AS; (IV) SH{sup 15}N; and (V) AS{sup 15}N + SH. Sugarcane was cultivated for five years and was harvested three times. {sup 15}N recovery was evaluated in the two first harvests. In the sum of the three harvests, the highest stalk yields were obtained with a combination of green manure and inorganic N fertilizer; however, in the second cutting the yields were higher where SH was used than in plots with AS. The recovery of N by the first two consecutive harvests accounted for 19 to 21% of the N applied as leguminous green manure and 46 to 49% of the N applied as AS. The amounts of inorganic N, derived from both N sources, present in the 0-0.4 m layer of soil in the first season after N application and were below 1 kg ha{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Changes in chemical and microbiological properties of rabbit manure in a continuous-feeding vermicomposting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to process large amounts of waste was evaluated through continuous feeding reactors in which new layers of rabbit manure were added sequentially to form an age gradient inside the reactors. An optimal moisture level, ranging from 66% to 76%, was maintained throughout the process using an automatic watering system. The pH was close to 8.3, but decreased to 7.6 after 200 d of vermicomposting. No changes in electrical conductivity through the profile of layers were detected. Based on comparisons of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and microbial activity measurements (basal respiration), a decrease in the levels of bacteria and fungi in layers corresponding to vermicomposting times of more than 200 d occurred. This points to a higher degree of stabilisation in the final product, which is of utmost importance for its safe use as an organic amendment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECTS OF HOUSING SYSTEMS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL LAYERS FOLLOWING INDUCED MOLTING BY ALUMINIUM OXIDE SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. YOUSAF AND N. AHMAD1

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The project was carried out to compare the performance of molted layers by aluminium oxide supplementation in cages and on litter floor system. Seventy two Single Comb White Leghorn commercial layers (60 weeks old were divided into six experimental units of 12 layers each. These experimental units were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of three experimental units, one group was reared on litter floor and the other in cages. The layers were provided with 35 gm feed containing 4 gm aluminium oxide/kg of feed for first 14 days of molting period (66-67 weeks of age. The layers showed significant reduction in body weight following induced molting by aluminium oxide under both housing systems. Body weight loss was higher, while feed consumption was lower, in the cages as compared to litter floor system. The layers molted by aluminium oxide showed significantly higher egg production in the cages (P≤0.05 than in litter floor system (P≤0.05. The layers in the subsequent production cycle showed improvement in egg weight, egg shell thickness and Haugh Unit Score. The egg weight and egg shell thickness were higher in the birds kept on litter floor system than those kept in cages (P≥0.05. However, Haugh unit score was higher in the cage system. It was concluded that aluminium oxide can be effectively supplemented for better production performance and improved egg quality in the second production cycle preferably in the cages.

  13. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during the management of solid manures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J; Sommer, Sven Gjedde; Kupper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    manure tends to be small. Average unabated NH3 emissions following application of manure were 0.79, 0.63 and 0.40 of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) from cattle, pig and poultry manure respectively. The smaller emission from poultry manure is expected as hydrolysis of uric acid to urea may take many months...

  14. Evaluation of Four Farm-scale Systems for the Treatment of Liquid Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Verdoes, N.

    2005-01-01

    In some regions in the Netherlands, high pig concentrations and limited availability of arable land have led to a surplus of manure which results in high off-farm manure disposal costs. The aim of manure treatment is to lower manure transport costs by reducing the volume and to improve market

  15. High levitation pressures with cage-cooled superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Komori, Mochimitsu [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    We present an analysis of and experimental results from a levitational system comprising a stationary, bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and a levitated component (rotor) that consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet surrounded by an annular HTS. The rotor is cooled below the critical temperature of the HTS while surrounded by a ferromagnetic cage. When the ferromagnetic cage is removed, the flux from the permanent magnet is essentially excluded from the interior of the HTS. When brought into proximity with the HTS stator, the cage-cooled rotor experiences a levitational force. The levitational force may be calculated by applying magnetic circuit theory. Such calculations indicate that for a sufficiently high critical current density, the levitational pressure may exceed that between the permanent magnet and its mirror image. We constructed a rotor from an NdFeB permanent magnet and YBCO bulk HTS with a critical current density of {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. A soft ferromagnetic steel cage was constructed in segments. The critical current density of the stator HTS was also {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. Experimental results obtained with the cage-cooled rotor and stationary HTS show a significant increase in force over that of an equivalent PM rotor and stationary HTS. (author)

  16. Use of carbon fiber cages for treatment of cervical myeloradiculopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonino; Delfini, Roberto; Fiume, Dario; Frati, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Alessandro

    2004-03-01

    Different types of intersomatic fixation systems are available for use in the treatment of cervical disc pathologies. In this paper, we report our experience using carbon fiber cages (Brantigan I/F cage, De Puy Acromed, Raynham, MA; Mikai distrib.) for acute and chronic cervical disc pathologies. Between 1997 and 2001, 97 patients underwent surgical treatment for cervical disc pathologies. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 60 months. In all cases a microdiscectomy according to Caspar was performed; anterior stabilization was performed in cases with evidence of instability and in post-traumatic disc herniations. A total number of 119 carbon fiber cages, ranging in height from 4 to 8 mm, were employed as well as 10 anterior plates with screws. The type of material used to fill the cages was homologous bone (50.5%), heterologous bone (22.3%), hydroxyapatite (21.1%), and autologous bone (6%). In all cases, follow-up radiograms performed after at least 6 months demonstrated bone fusion. None of the patients had either spontaneous displacement of the implant or symptoms from nerve compression. These preliminary results suggest that anterior cervical fusion with carbon fiber cages are valid to restore intervertebral disc height and to promote bone fusion with low complications rate.

  17. Performance and External Egg Quality of Layers under Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and External Egg Quality of Layers under Varying Stocking ... Study determined the performance and external egg quality of layers in locally fabricated metal-type battery cage at different stocking density. ... Birds stocked at 2/cell gained 15g/birds in weight while birds stocked 3 and 4 ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  18. Finite element analysis of the lumbar spine with a new cage using a topology optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Wang, Jung-Pin; Feng, Chi-Kuang; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Yu, Chung-huang

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, degenerative spinal instability has been effectively treated with a cage. However, little attention is focused on the design concept of the cage. The purpose of this study was to develop a new cage and evaluate its biomechanical function using a finite element method (FEM). This study employed topology optimization to design a new cage and analyze stress distribution of the lumbar spine from L1 to L3 with a new cage by using the commercial software ANSYS 6.0. A total of three finite element models, namely the intact lumbar spine, the spine with double RF cages, and with double new cages, were established. The loading conditions were that 10Nm flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion, respectively, were imposed on the superior surface of the L1 vertebral body. The bottom of the L3 vertebral body was constrained completely. The FEM estimated that the new cage not only could be reduced to 36% of the volume of the present RF cage but was also similar in biomechanical performance such as range of motion, stress of adjacent disc, and lower subsidence to the RF cage. The advantage of the new cage was that the increased space allowed more bone graft to be placed and the cage saved material. The disadvantage was that stress of the new cage was greater than that of the RF cage.

  19. The effects of manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a high-input cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure.

  20. Prefermentation of liquid dairy manure to support biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Kerem; Müftügil, Mert B; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F; Love, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    A continuously operated, intermittently fed reactor (fermenter) system with a 2-d solids retention time was proposed for supporting biological nutrient removal from liquid dairy manure. The first objective of this study was to select a material with high fermentation potential to be used as the fermenter feed. Primary sludge, liquid separated dairy manure, and flushed dairy manure were investigated for their fermentation potential. Liquid separated dairy manure had the highest fermentation potential, 0.73mg volatile fatty acid as chemical oxygen demand/mg of initial volatile suspended solids (VSS). The second objective was to investigate the performance of a pilot-scale fermenter operated under an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 3 kg-VSS/m(3)/d. The reactor utilized 18% of the manure fermentation potential. Performance comparison of the pilot-scale fermenter and a lab-scale fermenter with an average OLR of 7 kg-VSS/m(3)/d highlighted the need to increase the OLR of the pilot-scale fermenter so that it can exploit a higher fraction of the manure fermentation potential. A continuously operated, intermittently fed fermenter with 2-d SRT can utilize the majority of the manure fermentation potential and support a downstream BNR reactor provided that it receives a sufficiently high OLR.

  1. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin

    2013-01-01

    in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall......The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs...... of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites...

  2. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  3. Field experiment with liquid manure and enhanced biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Field experiments with low amounts of various liquid manure enhanced biochars. In 2016 a new machine was developed to inject liquid biochar based fertilizer directly into the crop root zone. A large-scale field experiment with corn and oil seed pumpkin was set-up on 42 hectares on 15 different fields in the south East of Austria. Three treatments were compared: (1) surface spreading of liquid manure as control (common practice), (2) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure, and (3) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure mixed with 1 to 2 tons of various nutrient enhanced biochars. The biochar were quenched with the liquid phase from a separated digestate from a biogas plant (feedstock: cow manure). From May to October nitrate and ammonium content was analyzed monthly from 0-30cm and 30-60cm soil horizons. At the end of the growing season the yield was determined. The root zone injection of the liquid manure reduced the nitrate content during the first two months at 13-16% compared to the control. When the liquid manure was blended with biochar, Nitrate soil content was lowest (reduction 40-47%). On average the root zone injection of manure-biochar increased the yield by 7% compared to the surface applied control and 3% compared to the root zone injected manure without biochar. The results shows, that biochar is able to reduce the Nitrate load in soils and increase the yield of corn at the same time. The nutrient efficiency of organic liquid fertilizers can be increased.

  4. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. The rib cage stabilizes the human thoracic spine: An in vitro study using stepwise reduction of rib cage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Christian; Graf, Nicolas; Appelt, Konrad; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of the rib cage on the human thoracic spine is still not sufficiently analyzed. For a better understanding of this effect as well as the calibration and validation of numerical models of the thoracic spine, experimental biomechanics data is required. This study aimed to determine (1) the stabilizing effect of the single rib cage structures on the human thoracic spine as well as the effect of the rib cage on (2) the flexibility of the single motion segments and (3) coupled motion behavior of the thoracic spine. Six human thoracic spine specimens including the entire rib cage were loaded quasi-statically with pure moments of ± 2 Nm in flexion/extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) using a custom-built spine tester. Motion analysis was performed using an optical motion tracking system during load application to determine range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ). Specimens were tested (1) in intact condition, (2) after removal of the intercostal muscles, (3) after median sternotomy, after removal of (4) the anterior rib cage up to the rib stumps, (5) the right sixth to eighth rib head, and (6) all rib heads. Significant (p spine rigidity, especially in axial rotation by a factor of more than two, and should therefore be considered in clinical scenarios, in vitro, and in silico.

  6. Yields and quality of some vegetables and strawberries fertilized with composted horse or cattle manure

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Päivi; Airaksinen, Sanna; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa

    2004-01-01

    The yield of carrots by horse manure was 66 % higher than the yield with artificial fertilizer. The yields of other plants fertilized with composted horse manure or artificial fertilizer were equal. The yields of plants fertilized with cattle manure were clearly lesser. The taste of lettuces fertilized with artificial fertilizer was assessed to be the sweetest and the cattle manure fertilization the less sweet. Potato fertilized with horse manure was assessed significantly tenderer at struct...

  7. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretrea...

  8. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in cervical applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Roel Frederik Mark Raymond; van Gaalen, Steven M; de Gast, Arthur; Öner, F Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used during the past decade in patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Their radiolucency and low elastic modulus make them attractive attributes for spinal fusion compared with titanium and bone graft. Still, limitations are seen such as pseudoarthrosis, subsidence, and migration of the cages. Limited evidence on the clinical outcome of PEEK cages is found in the literature other than noncomparative cohort studies with only a few randomized controlled trials. To assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of PEEK cages in the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and/or spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine. Systematic review of all randomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective nonrandomized comparative studies with a minimum follow-up of 6 months and all noncomparative cohort studies with a long-term follow-up of more than 5 years. The primary outcome variable was clinical performance. Secondary outcome variables consisted of radiographic scores. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. No conflict of interest reported. No funding received. A total of 223 studies were identified, of which 10 studies were included. These comprised two randomized controlled trials, five prospective comparative trials, and three retrospective comparative trials. Minimal evidence for better clinical and radiographic outcome is found for PEEK cages compared with bone grafts in the cervical spine. No differences were found between PEEK, titanium, and carbon fiber cages. Future studies are needed to improve methodology to minimize bias. Publication of lumbar interbody fusion studies needs to be promoted because differences in clinical and/or radiographic scores are more likely to be demonstrated in this part

  9. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_exp... (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression (Homo sapiens) File URL: ftp://ftp.bio...sciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_expression/ File size: 3.3 GB File name: (reprocess...tp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/mm10_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_expression/ File size...f This Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  10. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_ann...rence sequences (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Homo sapiens) File URL...: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotation/ ...File size: 16 MB File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Mus musculus) Fil...e URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/mm10_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks_annotat

  11. (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE peaks Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE peaks DOI 10.18908/l...g38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks (Homo sapiens) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/...archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocessed/hg38_latest/extra/CAGE_peaks/ File size: 11 MB File name: (reprocessed...)CAGE_peaks (Mus musculus) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/reprocess...his Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  12. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  13. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  14. anaerobic co-digestion with animal manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of this research is to determine the ratio of the combination of cow manure and bagasse (F/I to the volume of biogas production, chemical pretreatment effect of raw material bagasse on biogas production volume and the effect of co-digester on biogas production. The results showed a decrease in total solid occurs when the increase of 2%, 5% to 10%, and this contributes to decreasing the production of biogas. Chemical pretreatment influences on the production of biogas through pretreatment with 2% NaOH solution with surface morphology bagasse seen with SEM image and its chemical structure changes with FTIR instrument. The highest biogas yield of 51.04 L/Kg substrate was obtained from a combination bagasse treated with 2% NaOH solution for 24 hours and as much as 20% cow’s rumen.

  15. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  16. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H.W.; Hoberg, H.; Hirsch, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1996-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  17. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilisers on micronutrient density (iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium) and seed yields of solanium villosum (black nightshade) and cleome gynandra (cat whiskers) on uetric nitisol.

  18. Green manuring and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNAAB), Nigeria to screen three green manure crops in the 1997 cropping season for biomass production. The most promising legume was selected, grown and incorporated insitu along with varying levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer.

  19. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  20. Electrophoresis simulated with the cage model for reptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelum, A. van; Beljaars, H.R.W.

    2000-01-01

    The cage model for polymer reptation is extended to simulate gel electrophoresis. With increasing electric field strength E, the drift velocity v of a long polymer with length L shows three different regimes: (a) the linear regime where v~E/ L; (b) the quadratic regime where v~E^2 ,

  1. Red light activated "caged" reagents for microRNA research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Schikora, M; Starkuviene, V; Mokhir, A

    2016-08-31

    "Caged" reagents for miRNA research (siRNA targeting EGFR, involved in miRNA maturation, and mimics of miR-20a, playing a key role in tumor formation and metastasis) were prepared. It was demonstrated that these reagents can be activated by non-toxic to cells red light both in cells and in cell free settings.

  2. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (wherein polynitration is a serious handicap to selective nitration) in zeolite environment is not explored. With these goals in mind, we have reported17 recently regioselective nitration of phenol inside the cages/channels of zeolite media using fuming nitric acid. In our attempts to delineate the mechanism in detail and also to ...

  3. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.

    2011-01-01

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  4. Impacts of cage culture on physico-chemical and bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cage fish farming on physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality in Lake Volta, Ghana, were investigated in 2013–2014. Farmed and unfarmed (control) areas of the lake were selected for monitoring. Nutrients, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, pH, total coliforms, Pseudomonas and ...

  5. Thoracic cage injury imaging in rugby players | de Villiers | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby players often sustain high-impact collisions and are therefore at risk of significant traumatic thoracic injuries. Injury to the thoracic cage may be associated with potentially life-threatening sequelae. Player management is often based on the accuracy of the imaging report. The author suggests a combination of ...

  6. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coe JD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Coe,1 James F Zucherman,2 Donald W Kucharzyk,3 Kornelis A Poelstra,4 Larry E Miller,5 Sandeep Kunwar,6 1Silicon Valley Spine Institute, Campbell, 2San Francisco Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, CA, 3Orthopaedic Pediatric and Spine, Crown Point, IN, 4Department of Surgery, Sacred Heart Hospital on the Emerald Coast, Miramar Beach, FL, 5Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 6Bell Neuroscience Institute, Washington Hospital Healthcare System, Fremont, CA, USA Abstract: The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. Keywords: degenerative disc disease, expandable, low back pain, Luna

  7. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenol is nitrated regioselectively by fuming nitric acid inside the cages of faujasite zeolites (dependent on the loading level) and a remarkable orthoselectivity is observed in solid state nitration. Toluene and chlorobenzene also containing ortho-/para-orienting substituents, undergo faster nitration, though the ...

  8. power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    generator. The possibility of using a capacitor bank connected across the stator terminals of a squirrel cage induction motor to supply the reactive power requirement for power generation was discovered by. Basset and Potter in the 1930s It is more attractive than a conventional synchronous generator in micro- hydro and ...

  9. Business plan Tilapia cage farming in Tete Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Magnus; Brouwer, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Tete province offers great opportunities for cage farming of tilapia in Lake Cahora Bassa. The climate and water quality are favourable for fish production, and the fast economic developments in the region will facilitate fish sales. In Tete tilapia (pende) is highly valued food. Major markets for

  10. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguchi, Shuhei; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Furuno, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Hori, Fumi; Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kojima, Miki; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Saijyo, Eri; Saka, Akiko; Sakai, Mizuho; Simon, Christophe; Suzuki, Naoko; Tagami, Michihira; Watanabe, Shoko; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Arner, Peter; Axton, Richard A.; Babina, Magda; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Barnett, Timothy C.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Carlisle, Ailsa J.; Clevers, Hans C.; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ehrlund, Anna; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Eslami, Afsaneh; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Forrester, Lesley M.; Fujita, Rie; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Hasegawa, Yuki; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Hume, David A.; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Kai, Chieko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klein, Sarah; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Soichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Mackay-sim, Alan; Mejhert, Niklas; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Morris, Kelly J.; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Pombo, Ana; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Qin, Xian-Yang; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roy, Sugata; Sajantila, Antti; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sheng, Guojun; Shin, Jay W.; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim M.; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tomoiu, Andru; Toyoda, Hiroo; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Zhang, Peter G.; Zucchelli, Silvia; Abugessaisa, Imad; Arner, Erik; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lassmann, Timo; Lizio, Marina; Sahin, Serkan; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Shimoji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawai, Jun; Kondo, Naoto; Itoh, Masayoshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples,

  11. variations in dimensions and shape of thoracic cage with aging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The thoracic cage variations in dimensions and proportions are influenced by age, sex and race. The objective of the present review was to describe the age related changes occurring in thoracic wall and its influence on the pattern of respiration in infants, adult and elderly. We had systematically reviewed, ...

  12. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  13. Whole-tree canopy enclosures: why cage a tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome F. Grant; Abdul Hakeem; Paris L. Lambdin; Gregory J. Wiggins; Rusty J. Rhea

    2011-01-01

    The use of whole-tree canopy enclosures (i.e., cages) is not a typical approach to assessing biological parameters and interactions in a forest setting. However, the successful application of this technology may enable researchers to better understand certain types of tree/organismal interactions.

  14. Clathrates-An Exploration of the Chemistry of Caged Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Clathrates – An Exploration of the Chemistry of Caged Compounds. Srivathsa Vaidya. General Article Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    KAUST Repository

    Noguchi, Shuhei

    2017-08-29

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples, consisting of a variety of primary cells, tissues, cell lines, and time series samples during cell activation and development, were subjected to a uniform pipeline of CAGE data production. The analysis pipeline started by measuring RNA extracts to assess their quality, and continued to CAGE library production by using a robotic or a manual workflow, single molecule sequencing, and computational processing to generate frequencies of transcription initiation. Resulting data represents the consequence of transcriptional regulation in each analyzed state of mammalian cells. Non-overlapping peaks over the CAGE profiles, approximately 200,000 and 150,000 peaks for the human and mouse genomes, were identified and annotated to provide precise location of known promoters as well as novel ones, and to quantify their activities.

  16. Intraoperative antepulsion of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion cage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal fusion surgery techniques develop together with technologic advancements. New complications are seen as the result of new techniques and these may be very severe due to spinal cord and vascular structures in the lumbar region. The posterior lumbar interbody fusion cage (PLIFC) was shown to enhance spinal ...

  17. Diet manipulation and post-moulting responses in caged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty caged commercial laying hens were induced to moult through a 15-day feed and water withdrawal programme. Immediate and subsequent effects on egg production and follicular developments were monitored. Results showed that moulted hens attained over 60% egg production after 6 weeks of ...

  18. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science

  19. Valorization of horse manure through catalytic supercritical water gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sonil; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2016-06-01

    The organic wastes such as lignocellulosic biomass, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure have attracted attention as alternative sources of energy. Cattle manure, a waste generated in surplus amounts from the feedlot, has always been a chief environmental concern. This study is focused on identifying the candidacy of horse manure as a next generation feedstock for biofuel production through supercritical water gasification. The horse manure was gasified in supercritical water to examine the effects of temperature (400-600°C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15-45min) at a pressure range of 23-25MPa. The horse manure and resulting biochar were characterized through carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of alkali catalysts such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 at variable concentrations (1-2wt%) were investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields. Supercritical water gasification of horse manure with 2wt% Na2CO3 at 600°C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45min revealed maximum hydrogen yields (5.31mmol/g), total gas yields (20.8mmol/g) with greater carbon conversion efficiency (43.1%) and enhanced lower heating value of gas products (2920kJ/Nm(3)). The manure-derived biochars generated at temperatures higher than 500°C also demonstrated higher thermal stability (weight loss 70wt%) suggesting their application in enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The results propose that supercritical water gasification could be a proficient remediation technology for horse manure to generate hydrogen-rich gas products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rainier Biogas Manure Management and Renewable Energy Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, John [King County, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The Rainier Biogas project is a community manure processing and renewable energy generation facility. Construction was completed and operation initiated in 2012. It is owned and operated by Rainier Biogas, LLC in collaboration with local dairy farmers, Washington State University, and the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. The project receives manure from three to four partner dairy farms mostly by underground pipe. The project is located at 43218 208th Ave SE; Enumclaw, WA 98022.

  1. Risk assessment of plant health and manure from slaughterhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) requests the Norwegian Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to perform a risk assessment of plant health and manure from slaughterhouses. NFSA asks VKM to assess to what extent feces from livestock and manure from slaughterhouses poses a risk of introduction and spread of pests and weeds when dispersed on untreated agricultural soil. VKM has received a preliminary request from NFSA. The VKM Panel on Plant Health will be res...

  2. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    that the AAS had on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion of manure. Kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting of the model to data from manure fed digesters. The model was able to satisfactorily simulate the behaviour of digesters fed with manure. However, the model predictions were poorer......Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure...... fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) was used for the prediction of the effect...

  3. The Evaluation of the Fertilizing and Yield Potential of Straw and Cellulose Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słobodzian-Ksenicz, Oryna; Bojarski, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the physicochemical properties as well as the fertilizing and crop-yielding value of straw and cellulose manure after a 6-month storage period. Before field application pH value and contents of dry matter, TC, Corg. and N in cellulose manure were higher than in straw manure. The application of cellulose manure caused an increase in pH and the contents of P and K in the soil. The contents of DM, TC, Corg., as well as N and P in the rye grain collected from a field with cellulose manure were higher than in the rye grain collected from a field with straw manure. It follows that the soil fertilized with the cellulose manure was more conducive to the mineralization and sorption of macroelements assimilable by plants. The cellulose manure demonstrated better fertilizing value than the straw manure and increased the yield potential of the soil.

  4. Spatially explicit methodology for coordinated manure management in shared watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud; Sampat, Apoorva; Good, Laura W; Smith, Amanda S; Porter, Pamela; Zavala, Victor M; Larson, Rebecca; Runge, Troy

    2017-05-01

    Increased clustering and consolidation of livestock production systems has been linked to adverse impacts on water quality. This study presents a methodology to optimize manure management within a hydrologic region to minimize agricultural phosphorus (P) loss associated with winter manure application. Spatial and non-spatial data representing livestock, crop, soil, terrain and hydrography were compiled to determine manure P production rates, crop P uptake, existing manure storage capabilities, and transportation distances. Field slope, hydrologic soil group (HSG), and proximity to waterbodies were used to classify crop fields according to their runoff risk for winter-applied manure. We use these data to construct a comprehensive optimization model that identifies optimal location, size, and transportation strategy to achieve environmental and economic goals. The environmental goal was the minimization of daily hauling of manure to environmentally sensitive crop fields, i.e., those classified as high P-loss fields, whereas the economic goal was the minimization of the transportation costs across the entire study area. A case study encompassing two contiguous 10-digit hydrologic unit subwatersheds (HUC-10) in South Central Wisconsin, USA was developed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. Additionally, scenarios representing different management decisions (storage facility maximum volume, and project capital) and production conditions (increased milk production and 20-year future projection) were analyzed to determine their impact on optimal decisions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  6. Soil microbiota respond to green manure in organic vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longa, C M O; Nicola, L; Antonielli, L; Mescalchin, E; Zanzotti, R; Turco, E; Pertot, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of biodynamic management with and without the addition of green manure, in comparison with organic management, on the microbiota in vineyards soil. High throughput sequencing was used to compare the taxonomic structure of the soil bacterial and fungal communities from vineyards managed with different methods (organic, biodynamic or biodynamic with green manure). Our results showed that microbial communities associated with biodynamic and organic farming systems were very similar, while green manure was the greatest source of soil microbial biodiversity and significantly changed microbial richness and community composition compared with other soils. Green manure also significantly enriched bacterial taxa involved in the soil nitrogen cycle (e.g. Microvirga sp., Pontibacter sp. and Nitrospira sp.). Our results showed that the diversity and composition of the microbial communities associated with biodynamic and organic farming systems were similar, indicating that the use of biodynamic preparations 500 and 501 did not cause any significant detectable changes to the soil microbial community in the short term, while the effects of green manure were significant in soil microbiota. The microbiological richness and structure of soil are used as a sensitive indicator of soil quality. The extension of organic/biodynamic farming, associated with green manure application, could contribute to increase the abundance of functional groups of biological and agronomical relevance and maintaining microbial biodiversity in vineyard soils. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Biodiesel synthesis using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Jechan; Lee, Taewoo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-11-01

    This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of chicken manure to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO2), chicken manure biochar generated from 350°C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350°C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40-60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350°C was highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimizing the Logistics of Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C.

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.

  9. Ecosystem impacts of compost and manure applications to California grazed grassland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Silver, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    Organic matter amendments, such as compost and manure, are often applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance net primary productivity. It has been proposed that this land management strategy can sequester carbon (C) in soils and may therefore contribute to climate change mitigation. However, the net mitigation potential of organic amendments depends in part on the ecosystem response following land-application, which is likely to vary with the amendment chemical quality (C, N, C:N). To investigate the differences in ecosystem response to soil amendments of various qualities, we established research plots on three grazed annual grasslands in northern California. The study sites were sampled for soil chemical and physical properties (bulk density, temperature, and moisture), plant community composition, and peak season net primary productivity prior to and following treatment applications. In October 2011, before the rainy season, we applied a thin layer of organic amendments to the study plots. At each site, three replicate plots were treated with fresh manure (1.2 % N, 15.8 % C, C:N = 13.5), three plots were treated with a commercial plant-waste compost (2.4 % N, 26.6 % C, C:N = 11.1), and three plots were left untreated as controls. At one site, 3 additional plots received a thin layer of compost with a lower N concentration and a higher C:N ratio (1.9 % N, 27.4 % C, C:N = 14.5). All plots were sampled for greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2, n=3 per plot) using vented chambers shortly after the organic matter was applied, and then intensively following three rain events throughout the rainy season. Results showed that dry amendments were associated with negligible trace gas fluxes, but that these fluxes increased after rain events. Nitrous oxide emissions increased slightly after the first rain event and reached peak levels (approximately 20 ng N cm-1 h-1 for the manure and high N compost only) after three days, following second rain event

  10. Laser Induced C60 Cage Opening Studied by Semiclassical Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Dou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced opening of the C60 cage is studied by a semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics technique. The simulation results indicate that the C60 cage is abruptly opened immediately after laser excitation. The opening of the C60 cage induces a quick increase in kinetic energy and a sharp decrease in electronic energy, suggesting that the breaking of the C60 cage efficiently heats up the cluster and enhances the thermal fragmentation of C60 fullerene.

  11. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  12. Impaired fear extinction as displayed by serotonin transporter knockout rats housed in open cages is disrupted by IVC cage housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shan

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. A well-known example for gene x environment interactions in psychiatry is the low activity (s allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR that in the context of stress increases risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Previously, we observed robust anxiety-related phenotypes, such as an impairment in fear extinction, in 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT-/- versus wild-type (5-HTT+/+ rats housed in open cages. Recently, housing conditions were changed from open cages to individually ventilated cages (IVC, which are associated with a high ventilation fold and noise. This switch in housing conditions prompted an unplanned 5-HTT gene x environment interaction study in our rats. The current study shows that lifetime stress by means of IVC cage housing abolished genotype differences in fear extinction between 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Although this effect was not attributed specifically to either the 5-HTT+/+ or the 5-HTT-/- genotype, the findings are in agreement with the modulatory role of serotonin in the processing of environmental stimuli. Our findings also underline the possibility that housing conditions confound the interpretation of anxiety-related behaviours in rodents.

  13. Can forced hot air quickly dry feces on transport cage flooring and eliminate campylobacter before cage re-use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allowing feces left on transport coops to dry is an effective way to reduce numbers of viable Campylobacter left by positive flocks. The problem with this approach is that poultry processors do not have the time, space or resources to maintain several times the minimum number of transport cages that...

  14. Cellulose decomposition and larval biomass production from the co-digestion of dairy manure and chicken manure by mini-livestock (Hermetia illucens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Kashif Ur; Cai, Minmin; Xiao, Xiaopeng; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Hui; Soomro, Abdul Aziz; Zhou, Yusha; Li, Wu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2017-07-01

    World trends toward the modern dairies intensification on large production units cause massive animal manure production and accumulation. Improper handling of manure produced by industrial farm operation greatly deteriorates the major environmental media including air, water and soil. The black soldier fly utilizes organic waste and converts it into larvae biomass to be used as livestock feed and into residues to be used as bio-fertilizer. However, due to the high ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in dairy manure, this conversion is difficult. Therefore, dairy manure treated with chicken manure was digested by Hermetia illucens. In this paper, we found that the co-digestion process significantly enhanced the larval production, waste mass reduction, rate of larvae conversion, feed conversion ratio, nutrient reduction and fibers utilization. Whereas 40% dairy manure and 60% chicken manure group show better results than other manure mixtures and had a significantly increased the cellulose consumption by 61.19%, hemicellulose consumption by 53.22% and lignin consumption by 42.23% compared with 49.89%, 49.77% and 31.95%, respectively, in the dairy-only manure group. Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the structural changes of dairy manure, chicken manure and their co-digestion mixtures. The scan electron microscopy showed the deterioration in the structure of dairy and chicken manure fibers by Hermetia illucens. Moreover, the carbon-nitrogen ratio was decreased in all end products of post vermicomposting. The results suggest that the co-digestion of 40% dairy manure with 60% chicken manure is an appropriate proportion for dairy manure management with the black soldier fly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cage fish farming in the Volta lake and the lower Volta : Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns have been raised about the proliferation of cage fish farming in the Volta lake and the potential water quality impacts. The study was undertaken to determine current cage fish farming practices on the lake, and to assess their impacts on water quality of the lake. Forty cage fish farm operators were interviewed for ...

  16. the benefits of the cage as a screening tool for alcoholism in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (age, gender, literacy level, employment statu, marriage and number of people sharing a house with the re pondent) and the four-que tion CAGE interview. Re pondents who answered positively to two or more que tions of the CAGE were rated as abusing/dependent on alcohol (the 'positive' group). In addition to the CAGE, ...

  17. Selective occupancy of methane by cage symmetry in TBAB ionic clathrate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muromachi, Sanehiro; Udachin, Konstantin A; Alavi, Saman; Ohmura, Ryo; Ripmeester, John A

    2016-04-25

    Methane trapped in the two distinct dodecahedral cages of the ionic clathrate hydrate of TBAB was studied by single crystal XRD and MD simulation. The relative CH4 occupancies over the cage types were opposite to those of CO2, which illustrates the interplay between the cage symmetry and guest shape and dynamics, and thus the gas selectivity.

  18. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  19. Comparison Between Acrylic Cage and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage in Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Majid R; Nikoo, Zahra; Gholami, Mehrnaz; Hosseini, Khadijeh

    2017-02-01

    Prospective, single-blind randomized-controlled clinical study. To compare polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage with a novel Acrylic cage to find out which fusion cage yielded better clinical outcomes following single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). ACDF is considered a standard neurosurgical treatment for degenerative diseases of cervical intervertebral disks. There are many options, including bone grafts, bone cement, and spacers made of titanium, carbon fiber, and synthetic materials, used to restore physiological disk height and enhance spinal fusion, but the ideal device, which would provide immediate structural support and subsequent osteointegration and stability, has not been identified yet. To overcome this, we designed a new, inexpensive Acrylic cage. A total of 64 patients were eligible to participate and were randomly allocated to undergo ACDF either with Acrylic interbody fusion cage filled with bone substitute (n=32) or PEEK cage (n=32). Nurick's grading was used for quantifying the neurological deficit. Clinical and radiologic outcome was assessed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and subsequently at 2, 6, and 12 months of follow-up using Odom's criteria and dynamic radiographs (flexion-extension) and computed tomography scans, respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in the clinical outcomes of the Acrylic cage group compared with the PEEK cage group (mean difference: -0.438; 95% confidence interval, -0.807 to -0.068; P=0.016). There was a statistically significant difference in disk space height increase between the 2 groups at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. The Acrylic cage achieved higher fusion rate (good fusion) than the PEEK cage (96.9% vs. 93.8%). Intervertebral angle demonstrated a significant difference among the 2 treated groups throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that the use of Acrylic cage is associated with good clinical and radiologic outcomes and it can be therefore a

  20. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner,André Rafael; Mendes,Marcelo Ribeiro; Queruz,Jean Carlo Frigotto; Dambrós,Jean Marcel; Suárez,Álvaro Diego Heredia; Spinelli,Leandro de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo comparativo entre dois grupos de pacientes operados pela técnica de discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 70 pacientes, 35 operados com o método de fixação com placas associadas a cages - denominado Grupo...

  1. Manure and nitrogen application enhances soil phosphorus mobility in calcareous soil in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Chen, Shuo; Li, Junliang; Alva, Ashok; Chen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Over many years, high phosphorus (P) loading for intensive vegetable cropping in greenhouses of North China has contributed to excessive P accumulation, resulting in environmental risk. In this study, the influences of manure and nitrogen (N) application on the transformation and transport of soil P were investigated after nine years in a greenhouse tomato double cropping system (winter-spring and autumn-winter seasons). High loading of manure significantly increased the soil inorganic P (Pi), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), mobile P and P saturation ratio (PSR, >0.7 in 0-30 cm depth soil; PSR was estimated from P/(Fe + Al) in an oxalate extract of the soil). The high rate of N fertilizer application to the studied calcareous soil with heavy loading of manure increased the following: (i) mobile organic P (Po) and Pi fractions, as evidenced by the decrease in the ratio of monoesters to diesters and the proportion of stable Pi (i.e., HCl-Pi) in total P (Pt) in 0-30 cm depth soil; (ii) relative distribution of Po in the subsoil layer; and (iii) P leaching to soil depths below 90 cm and the proportion of Po in Pt in the leachate. More acidic soil due to excessive N application increased P mobility and leaching. The increase in Ox-Al (oxalate-extractable Al) and the proportion of microbe-associated Po related to N application at soil depths of 0-30 cm suggested decrease in the net Po mineralization, which may contribute to downward transport of Po in the soil profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure......We are challenged to date to fully understand mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) mobilization in soil. In this study we evaluated physical properties, chemical reactivity, and potential bioavailability of P mobilized in soil during a leaching event and examined how the amounts and properties...... of leached P were influenced by surface application of cattle manure. Leaching experiments on manure itself, and on intact soil columns (14.1 cm inner dia., 25 cm height) before and after manure application, were carried out at an irrigation rate of 1 mm h−1 for 48 h. High concentrations of dissolved...

  3. DDT degradation potential of cattle manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Koyama, Futoshi; Mori, Toshio; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of cattle manure compost (CMC) to degrade 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT). DDT was degraded during composting and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) was detected as a metabolic product. Degradation of DDT at 60 degrees C was the most effective of all the stages of composting. Fourteen strains of fungi were isolated and identified from CMC, and most of them were closely related to Mucor circinelloides and Galactomyces geotrichum. These fungi demonstrated a high ability to degrade DDT both at 30 and 60 degrees C in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. DDD and 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were detected as metabolic products. Degradation of DDT-contaminated soil was also investigated. Composting materials in the mesophilic stage exhibited the highest ability to degrade DDT in un-sterilized (USL) contaminated soil during a 28d incubation period. The isolated fungi possessed the ability to degrade DDT in sterilized (SL) and un-sterilized (USL) soils. These results indicated that CMC contains fungi that can be potentially used for bioremediation in DDT-contaminated environments. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen Infused Compressed Air Foam for Depopulation of Caged Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; White, Dima; Archer, Gregory; Styles, Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Farnell, Yuhua; Byrd, James; Farnell, Morgan

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Compressed air, detergent, and water make up compressed air foam. Our laboratory has previously reported that compressed air foam may be an effective method for mass depopulation of caged layer hens. Gases, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, have also been used for poultry euthanasia and depopulation. The objective of this study was to produce compressed air foam infused with carbon dioxide or nitrogen to compare its efficacy against foam with air and gas inhalation methods (carbon dioxide or nitrogen) for depopulation of caged laying hens. The study showed that a carbon dioxide-air mixture or 100% nitrogen can replace air to make compressed air foam. However, the foam with carbon dioxide had poor foam quality compared to the foam with air or nitrogen. The physiological stress response of hens subjected to foam treatments with and without gas infusion did not differ significantly. Hens exposed to foam with nitrogen died earlier as compared to methods such as foam with air and carbon dioxide. The authors conclude that infusion of nitrogen into compressed air foam results in better foam quality and shortened time to death as compared to the addition of carbon dioxide. Abstract Depopulation of infected poultry flocks is a key strategy to control and contain reportable diseases. Water-based foam, carbon dioxide inhalation, and ventilation shutdown are depopulation methods available to the poultry industry. Unfortunately, these methods have limited usage in caged layer hen operations. Personnel safety and welfare of birds are equally important factors to consider during emergency depopulation procedures. We have previously reported that compressed air foam (CAF) is an alternative method for depopulation of caged layer hens. We hypothesized that infusion of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2), into the CAF would reduce physiological stress and shorten time to cessation of movement. The study had six treatments, namely a negative control

  5. The BetaCage: Ultrasensitive Screener for Radioactive Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; BetaCage Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Rare event searches, such as dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay, require screening of materials for backgrounds such as beta emission and alpha decaying isotopes. The BetaCage is a proposed ultra-sensitive time-projection chamber to screen for alpha-emitting and low energy beta-emitting (10-200 keV) contaminants. The expected sensitivity is 0.1 beta particles (perkeV -m2 - day) and 0.1 alpha particles (perm2 - day) , where the former will be limited by Compton scattering of external photons in the screening samples and the latter is expected to be signal-limited. The prototype BetaCage under commissioning at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology is filled with P10 gas (10% methane, 90% argon) in place of neon and is 40×40×20 cm in size. Details on design, construction and characterization will be presented.

  6. Batting cage performance of wood and nonwood youth baseball bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Rainbow, Michael J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (PBBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length.

  7. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J. [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Otter, Wouter K. den, E-mail: w.k.denotter@utwente.nl [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Multi Scale Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  8. The suitability of horse manure and bedding materials for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyni, S.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: sanna.tyni@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    The number of horses has increased in Finland since 1994 approximately by 2000 horse/ year and 2008 there was almost 70000 registered horses and ponies in Finland. This has derived to a considerable number of new stables at city area where the waste management, particularly of the mixture of manure and bedding material, is a challenge. These stables have disposed their residues often by land filling. The present legislation prohibits the dispose of organic material by land filling since the anaerobic decomposition emits for example methane that is a greenhouse gas. The legislation also regulates using of manure as fertilizer in fields. This leads to the situation where stable owners have urge for new ways to dispose of residues. In Finland peat, sawdust, and straw are commonly used as a bedding material for horses in stable boxes. The more important function of the bedding material is to keep the boxes dry and clean by absorbing urine. The selection of bedding material depends on the properties of the materials such as availability, price, absorption capacity, and hygiene properties. Composting of sawdust is slower than peat, therefore mixture of manure and sawdust is not preferred for utilization as fertilizer. Additionally use of the manure residues as fertilizers is limited by impurities such as plant seeds in manure. Combustion would be attractive way to solve disposal problems of the mixture of manure and bedding materials. At the moment legislation in Finland defines manure residues as a waste. Therefore the combustion is only allowed in waste combustion units. If the combustion of the manure residues would be allowed at farms or at small local boilers, it enables farms to have better degree of self-sufficiency of energy. The utilization of these new materials as a fuel demands study of combustion properties of these biomasses. It is also essential to have knowledge of chemical composition and behaviour of ashes, when the final disposing is considered e.g. as

  9. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has

  10. Colloidal glasses and gels: The interplay of bonding and caging

    OpenAIRE

    Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Poon, Wilson C K

    2009-01-01

    We report simulations of glassy arrest in hard-core particles with short-range interparticle attraction. Previous experiments, theory, and simulations suggest that in this kind of system, two qualitatively distinct kinds of glasses exist, dominated respectively by repulsion and attraction. It is thought that in the former, particles are trapped “topologically,” by nearest-neighbor cages, whereas in the latter, nonergodicity is due to interparticle “bonds.” Subsequent experiments and simulatio...

  11. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block

    OpenAIRE

    Y.S.Kapnichor; Patil, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system ...

  12. Improved damper cage design for salient-pole synchronous generators

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzo, Stefano; Degano, Michele; Galea, Michael; Gerada, C.; Gerada, David; Brown, N.L.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of implementing a damper winding in salient-pole, synchronous generators are widely known and well consolidated. It is also well known that such a winding incurs extra losses in the machine due to a number of reasons. In order to improve the overall efficiency and performance of classical salient-pole, wound field, synchronous generators that employ the traditional damper cage, an improved amortisseur winding topology that reduces the inherent loss is proposed and investigated in...

  13. A multiple criteria decision making approach to manure management systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The intensification of livestock operations in the last few decades has resulted in an increased social concern over the environmental impacts of livestock operations and thus making appropriate manure management decisions increasingly important. A socially acceptable manure management system that

  14. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental

  15. The different effects of applying fresh, composted or charred manure on soil N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    to higher N2O and CO2 emissions than heterogeneous distribution. However, the effect of different distribution modes was not significant in treatments with charred manure, since N turnover in the immature compost was much more active than that in the charred manure. By combining charred manure...... with composted manure, N2O emissions were significantly reduced by 41% at pF 2.0, but the mitigation effect of charred manure was not observed at lower soil water potentials.......New manure management strategies and technologies are currently being developed in order to reduce manure volume and odorous emissions, utilise energy potential and produce improved manure-derived fertilisers. This has accentuated the need to determine their effects on greenhouse gas emissions...

  16. Is manure an alternative to topsoil in road embankment restoration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco, Begoña; Rivera, Desirée; García-Palacios, Pablo; Jauregui, Berta M

    2017-01-01

    One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover. For this purpose, experimental plots with three treatments (Control, Topsoil and Manure) were maintained on a recently built embankment in Central Spain for 20 months. Manure was found to be an effective alternative to topsoil for the improvement of soil fertility (organic matter content and total nitrogen). The two types of organic amendment produced similar reductions in bare soil cover and erosion rates. However, plots with topsoil showed greater soil respiration and species richness and a different floristic composition in comparison to those treated with manure, which was closer to control plots. These results suggest that manure can be used to replace topsoil to enhance embankment stability during the early stages of restoration. However, if the aim of the restoration process is to promote plant diversity, topsoil is recommended.

  17. Influence of green manure fertilization on soil enzyme activities and other soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dora SAMUEL

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices that improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for brown luvic soil. Soil enzyme activities can provide information on how soil management is affecting the processes in soil such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities (actual and potential dehydrogenase, catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in the 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm layers of a brown luvic soil submitted to a complex fertilization experiment with different types of green manure. It was found that each activity decreased with increasing sampling depth. It should be emphasized that green-manuring of maize led to a significant increase in each of the five enzymatic activities determined. The enzymatic indicators of soil quality calculated from the values of enzymatic activities showed the order: lupinus + rape + oat > lupinus > vetch + oat + ryegrass > lupinus + oat + vetch > unfertilized plot. This order means that by determination of enzymatic activities valuable information can be obtained regarding fertility status of soils. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with physical properties.

  18. Segmental kyphosis after cervical interbody fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a comparative study on 2 different PEEK cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae; Sohn, Seil; Lee, Sungjoon

    2015-02-01

    Retrospective comparative study. Two polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages of different designs were compared in terms of the postoperative segmental kyphosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Segmental kyphosis occasionally occurs after the use of a stand-alone cage for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Although PEEK material seems to have less risk of segmental kyphosis compared with other materials, the occurrence of segmental kyphosis for PEEK cages has been reported to be from 0% to 29%. There have been a few reports that addressed the issue of PEEK cage design. A total of 41 consecutive patients who underwent single-level anterior discectomy and fusion with a stand-alone cage were included. Either a round tube-type (Solis; 18 patients, S-group) or a trapezoidal tube-type (MC+; 23 patients, M-group) cage was used. The contact area between the cage and the vertebral body is larger in MC+ than in Solis, and anchoring pins were present in the Solis cage. The effect of the cage type on the segmental angle (SA) (lordosis vs. kyphosis) at postoperative month 24 was analyzed. Preoperatively, segmental lordosis was present in 12/18 S-group and 16/23 M-group patients (P=0.84). The SA was more lordotic than the preoperative angle in both groups just after surgery, with no difference between groups (P=0.39). At 24 months, segmental lordosis was observed in 9/18 S-group and 20/23 M-group patients (P=0.01). The patients in M-group were 7.83 times more likely than patients in S-group (P=0.04; odds ratio, 7.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-56.28) not to develop segmental kyphosis. The design of the PEEK cage used may influence the SA, and this association needs to be considered when using stand-alone PEEK cages.

  19. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  20. Removal of Estrogens at Full and Pilot Scale Livestock Manure Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zunyang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Three experiments were conducted to 1) develop appropriate methods for livestock manure estrogen analysis; 2) determine estrogen removal in different manure treatment systems; and 3) determine estrogen removal from dairy manure in pilot scale reactors. In Experiment I, the recoveries of 17Ã -estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) were evaluated in double distilled water and dairy manure after a base extraction and analysis of estrogens by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and yeast ...

  1. Modelling the Spatial Expansion of Green Manure Considering Land Productivity and Implementing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Zhang; Meng Cao; An Xing; Zhongxiang Sun; Yuanfang Huang

    2018-01-01

    In modern sustainable agriculture, green manuring is increasingly emphasized for a reasonable land use management. However, the expansion of green manure is affected by a range of factors, such as soil geophysical properties and human intervention. This paper proposes an approach of spatial modelling to understand the mechanisms that influence green manure expansion and map the future distribution of green manure intercropped in the orchards in the Pinggu District, Beijing, China. We firstly ...

  2. Economics of Precision Conservation: The Case of Dairy Manure Management In Delaware County, Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Osei, Edward; Li, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate manure nutrient utilization is a key conservation practice for minimizing nutrient loss to downstream waters. However, the environmental impact and the farm-level economic implications of manure management can vary significantly depending upon various field attributes such as soil type and chemical properties, topography, and weather. This study highlights the variability in environmental impacts of dairy manure management and the costs entailed in managing manure at phosphorus re...

  3. Cation-Anion Arrangement Patterns in Self-Assembled Pd2L4 and Pd4L8 Coordination Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clever, Guido H; Punt, Philip

    2017-09-19

    Compounds featuring one-dimensional regular arrangements of stacked metal complexes and alternating [cation-anion]∞ sequences have raised considerable interest owing to their peculiar electronic and optical properties as well as guest inclusion capabilities. While traditional ways to realize these structural motifs rely on crystalline compounds, exclusively existing in the solid state, recent progress in the area of metal-mediated supramolecular self-assembly allows for the rational synthesis of structurally well-defined short stretches of stacked metal complexes and cation-anion arrangements. Therefore, metal cations, counteranions, and suitably designed organic bridges are allowed to self-assemble in solution. While the bridges can be designed as cross-linkers to yield extended two- or three-dimensional networks such as layered materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), or porous coordination polymers (PCPs), they can also be tailored to lead to discrete nanoscopic objects. Supramolecular helicates, grids, and knots belong to this class of compounds, and a particularly interesting subfamily are coordination cages and capsules, which possess nanosized cavities with the ability to encapsulate guest molecules. Here, we focus on coordination cages consisting of two or more square-planar Pd(II) or Pt(II) metal cations, bridged by banana-shaped bis-monodentate pyridyl ligands that encapsulate various guest molecules, usually anions, in their cavities. Monoanions as well as dianions with localized or delocalized charges can be bound with remarkable complementarity between cage and guest in terms of size and shape. We show how dimerization of the prototypical [Pd2L4] cages into their interpenetrated dimers [Pd4L8] leads to an increase in cavity number from one to three while the cavity volume decreases. Usually, all three pockets of these double cages are filled with monoanions such as BF4- or Cl-, thus leading to well-defined linear [Pd-anion]3Pd stacks, as observed

  4. Dynamic modeling of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine; Modelisation dynamique d'une machine asynchrone a cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerette, D.

    2009-07-01

    This document presented a detailed mathematical explanation and validation of the steps leading to the development of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine. The MatLab/Simulink software was used to model a wind turbine at variable high speeds. The asynchronous squirrel-cage machine is an electromechanical system coupled to a magnetic circuit. The resulting electromagnetic circuit can be represented as a set of resistances, leakage inductances and mutual inductances. Different models were used for a comparison study, including the Munteanu, Boldea, Wind Turbine Blockset, and SimPowerSystem. MatLab/Simulink modeling results were in good agreement with the results from other comparable models. Simulation results were in good agreement with analytical calculations. 6 refs, 2 tabs, 9 figs.

  5. Cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions.

  6. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR.

  7. Aeration effect on the efficiency of swine manure treatment in a trickling filter packed with organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Zúñiga, M A; Lessard, P; Aubry, G; Buelna, G

    2007-01-01

    Effect of aeration rate on the removal of organic matter and nitrogen and on the formation of NH3, N2O and N2 was studied for an extensive biofiltration system packed with an organic media, which was used to treat pig manure. The results show high removal of BOD5 and TSS (99 and > or = 98%), independently of the four aeration rate tested (3.4-34 m3/m2 x h). Aeration rate > or = 4.4 m/h resulted in high ammonia stripping during start-up (> or = 1.0 kg NH3-N/m3 of swine manure treated), while using 3.4 m/h only 0.3 kg NH3-N/m3 were stripped. Complete nitrification was achieved after day 100 of operation, except in the biofilter with the lowest aeration rate. Simultaneous denitrification established in all the biofilters. Applying an aeration rate of 9.4 m/h up to 1.2 kg nitrogen was removed in the form of N2 for each m3 of swine manure treated. Contrary to the expectations, N2 formation and release increased with the aeration rate. This particular behaviour seems to be related to the punctual accumulation of water layers inside the biofilters, caused by the air force flowing in the opposite direction to the water flux. N2O production was quite similar in all biofilters (between 0.25-0.36 kg N2O-N/m3 of swine manure treated).

  8. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects......Intensive agricultural practice leads to periodic accumulation of enormous amounts of liquid manure (slurry) from animal husbandry, and large quantities of environmentally hazardous ammonia and methane are emitted from the manure storages. Floating surface crusts have been suggested to harbour...... of the crusts. PCR targeting the unique methane and ammonia monooxygenases were applied together with FISH to detect the presence of the two bacterial groups. Potential activity was assessed by short term slurry incubations of crust samples while monitoring NO2- production or CH4 consumption. Crusts were...

  9. Anaerobic digestion of livestock manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry creates new opportunities for proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products, including a renewable fuel. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, based on estimates of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return are developed from the evaluations. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}, are provided as a reality check.

  10. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: Laboratory-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does no...

  11. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  12. NH3 dynamics in composting : assessment of the integration of composting in manure management chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch animal production sector copes with a manure problem. Their high nitrogen content makes manures popular fertilizers, but most of this nitrogen is emitted before it could be used by plants. Ammonia is the main emission form during the manure management chain of storage, transportation and

  13. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  14. Effects of sheep kraal manure on growth, dry matter yield and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low manure rates (.2.5 t/ha) resulted in plant heights and fresh matter yields which ... There was no effect of manure rate or fertiliser on residual soil N and Ca, ... that .2.5 t/ha sheep kraal manure could result in growth, nutrient uptake and yield ...

  15. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of desugared molasses with cow manure; focusingon sodium and potassium inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    dilutions with water and co-digestion with manure. Stable operation at maximum methane yield of 300 mL-CH4/gVSadded was obtained at a mixture of 5% DM in cow manure. The biogas process was inhibited at DM concentrations higher than 15%. Manure was a good base substrate for co-digestion, and a stable...

  17. Stakeholder perceptions of manure treatment technologies in Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Grignani, C.; Balsari, P.; Zavattaro, L.; Gioelli, F.; Bernal, M.P.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.; Jensen, L.S.; Oenema, O.

    2018-01-01

    Manure treatment technologies have been developed in Europe to better use animal manures and to reduce their environmental impact, but the adoption of these technologies in practice is regionally diverse and still limited. Also, little is known about the opinions of stakeholders towards manure

  18. Response of rice (Oryza Sativa) to organic and inorgainc manures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to compare the response of rice to organic and inorganic manures at Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment lasted between 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons (April-November). The organic manures were sewage sludge and poultry droppings, while the inorganic manure was Urea.

  19. Nutrient utilisation by black soldier flies fed with chicken, pig, or cow manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three

  20. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for extraction of proteins and phosphate minerals from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure storage and treatment. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively. Th...

  2. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these experiments was to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from dairy cow manure in simulated storage (Exp. 1) and from manure amended soil (Exp. 2). Manure was prep...

  3. Quantification of ant manure deposition in a tropical agroecosystem: Implications for host plant nitrogen acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkalski, Christian Alexander Stidsen; Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    of ant manure may augment the host plants’ acquisition of nitrogen. In this study, we quantified the manure deposited by colonies of the Asian weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina. We developed a method to estimate the amount of manure deposited in host trees (Mangifera indica) based on the trail activity...

  4. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2–15 years old...

  5. Cage drying and the application of a dry treatment (absorbent cornstarch powder) as a means to diminish Campylobacter on transport cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages soiled with Campylobacter-positive feces have been shown to facilitate cross contamination of broilers. Campylobacter organisms are sensitive to dry stress. Allowing feces left on transport cage flooring to dry during extended periods of nonuse would be an effective method ...

  6. Structure and energetic characteristics of methane hydrates. From single cage to triple cage: A DFT-D study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricheva, N. I.; Ischenko, A. A.; Yusupov, V. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Girichev, G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Electronic, geometrical, vibrational and energetic characteristics of the ice I TDT fragment consisted of dodecahedron H2O[512] (D) fused with two tetrakaidecahedrons H2O[51262] (T) and of the TDT cluster with three encapsulated CH4 molecules (3CH4·TDT) were calculated using a DFT/B97-D/6-311++G(2d,2p) approach. Binding energies, hydrogen bonding energies, energies of encapsulation of methane molecules into small D- and large T-cages of the TDT fragment, energies of frontier orbitals, the translational and librational frequencies, as well as the intramolecular vibrations of methane within the cages of different sizes were studied. Similar characteristics of isolated D- and T-cages and clathrates CH4·D and CH4·T were studied as function of compression/expansion of their oxygen skeletons using DFT/B97-D, LC-B3LYP, B3LYP-D2 methods.

  7. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  8. A collection of caged compounds for probing roles of local translation in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovski, Oleg; Jaikaran, Anna S I; Samanta, Subhas; Fabian, Marc R; Dowling, Ryan J O; Sonenberg, Nahum; Woolley, G Andrew

    2010-11-15

    Spatially localized translation plays a vital role in the normal functioning of neuronal systems and is widely believed to be involved in both learning and memory formation. It is of central interest to understand both the phenomenon and molecular mechanisms of local translation using new tools and approaches. Caged compounds can, in principle, be used as tools to investigate local translation since optical activation of bioactive molecules can achieve both spatial and temporal resolution on the micron scale and on the order of seconds or less, respectively. Successful caging of bioactive molecules requires the identification of key functional groups in appropriate molecules and the introduction of a suitable caging moiety. Here we present the design, synthesis and testing of a collection of three caged compounds: anisomycin caged with a diethylaminocoumarin moiety and dimethoxynitrobenzyl caged versions of 4E-BP and rapamycin. Whereas caged anisomycin can be used to control general translation, caged 4E-BP serves as a probe of cap-dependent translation initiation and caged rapamycin serves a probe of the role of mTORC1 in translation initiation. In vitro translation assays demonstrate that these caging strategies, in combination with the aforementioned compounds, are effective for optical control making it likely that such strategies can successfully employed in the study of local translation in living systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing the logistics of anaerobic digestion of manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C

    2007-04-01

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.However, for the concentrated feedlot area, pipeline transport of manure is close in cost to trucking, and the impact of truck congestion would likely lead to selection of pipeline transport. For the mixed-farming area, centralized AD is more economical than for any individual farm or feedlot unit. For the concentrated feedlot area, a centralized AD plant is less economical than a feedlot-based AD unit more than 55,000 head (digestate return) and 300,000 head (digestate processing). The study demonstrates the viability of centralized AD plants vs farm-based units in most farming environments, and that careful analysis of the cost of

  10. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of recom......Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  11. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Pommeresche, Reidun; Johansen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming systems are today dependent upon fossil energy. Another challenge are soil nutrient concentrations, which may be depleted with time even in animal husbandry systems (Løes & Øgaard 2001). Anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure may produce biogas to replace fossil fuels, and reduce...... of weed seeds and animal pathogens. A reduced proportion of easily degraded C in the AD-manure may however impact the soil fauna/microflora and humus levels. Mineralization of organic N during AD may increase nutrient availability and crop yields. Possibly, the increased levels of root and shoot residues...

  12. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  13. Optimization of the selection process of the co-substrates for chicken manure fermentation using neural modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewicki Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense development of research equipment leads directly to increasing cognitive abilities. However, along with the raising amount of data generated, the development of the techniques allowing the analysis is also essential. Currently, one of the most dynamically developing branch of computer science and mathematics are the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. Their main advantage is very high ability to solve the regression and approximation issues. This paper presents the possibility of application of artificial intelligence methods to optimize the selection of co-substrates intended for methane fermentation of chicken manure. 4-layer MLP network has proven to be the optimal structure modeling the obtained empirical data.

  14. [Variation in soil Mn fractions as affected by long-term manure amendment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in a typical grassland of inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-ming; Jiang, Yong; Bai, Yong-fei; Zhang, Yu-ge; Xu, Zhu-wen; Li, Bo

    2012-08-01

    The effect of sheep manure amendment on soil manganese fractions was conducted in a 11 year experiment at inner Mongolia grassland, using sequential extraction procedure in modified Community Bureau of Reference, and determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Five treatments with dry sheep manure addition rate 0, 50, 250, 750, and 1500 g x m(-2) x yr(-1), respectively, were carried out in this experiment. Results showed that the recovery rate for total Mn was 91.4%-105.9%, as the percentage recovered from the summation of the improved BCR results with aqua regia extractable contents, and it was 97.2%-102.9% from certified soil reference materials. Plant available exchangeable Mn could be enhanced by 47.89%, but reducible and total Mn contents decreased significantly under heavy application of manure at depth of 0-5 cm. The effect of manure amendment on Mn fractions was greater in 0-5 cm than in 5-10 cm soil layer. The results are benefit to micronutrient fractions determination and nutrient management in grassland soils.

  15. Growth and Yield Performance of Banana (Musa acuminate L. as Affected by Different Farm Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. Panelo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Integrated Sustainable Agri-Techno Demo Farm (ISATDF of the Pangasinan State University, Sta. Maria Campus, Sta. Maria, Pangasinan from October 15, 2013 to August 18, 2014 with a duration of 308 days. This study aimed to determine the growth and yield performance of banana (Musa acuminata L. as affected by different farm manures. Specifically, it attempted to: (1 determine the effect of different farm manures on the growth and yield performance of banana; and to (2 determine the cost and return of the different farm manures. The experiment was laid out using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences between treatments using F-test at 5 and 1 percent levels of significance and the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT was used to evaluate the differences among treatment means. The treatments used were the following: T1 - chicken manure, T2 - cow manure, T3 - goat manure, and T4 - hog manure. The results revealed that the application of chicken manure recorded the tallest plants (5.27 cm, most number of suckers (340. The application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly increased the mid-trunk diameter (25.63cm and (25.62 cm; finger length (14.33 cm and (13.13 cm; finger diameter (3.60 cm each; and weight of fruits (450kgs each. Net income and return on investment (ROI were also influenced by chicken manure and goat manure. Application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly enhanced the yield quality attributes and income of banana compared to the other sources of organic manure

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  17. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Cooling of Manure, Applied to Fattening Pigs Slurry, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    of heat for e.g. heating the housing units for the pigs. The environmental consequences of the technology are not straightforward: What are the environmental advantages and disadvantages of applying manure cooling in the housing units for fattening pigs? The environmental impacts has been evaluated along......The Manure Cooling Technology reduces ammonia emissions in the housing units, which leads to a higher N content in the manure (which might increase nitrate leaching). The technology is based on a heat pump, which requires electricity; however, it also produces heat that can replace other sources...... as part of Work Package 5 on Assessing Sustainability of Manure Technology Chains in the project Baltic Manure....

  18. Leaching impact assessment in liquid manure application to Tulip tree experimental site using Root Zone Water Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure recycling as a fertilizer is one of solutions for the environmental problem related with livestock manure treatment as well as the ocean dumping ban act prohibiting manure disposal to the ocean in Korea. For the manure disposal, tree plantation area is being a candidate place. However, the ma...

  19. Nitriding using cathodic cage technique of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 with addition of CH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, R.R.M. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui, Departamento de Mecanica, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Araujo, F.O. de [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Departamento de Ciencias Ambientais, Mossoro, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: odolbert@yahoo.com.br; Barbosa, J.C.P.; Ribeiro, K.J.B. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica - UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, J.A.P. da [Departamento de Fisica - UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Alves, C. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica - UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-25

    Samples of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316 were nitrided using the cathodic cage technique with the addition of methane in the nitriding atmosphere. The aim was to study the influence of this technique in reducing the precipitation of chromium nitrite and in improving the wear resistance. The results show that there was a significant improvement in such properties when compared to the results of ionic plasma nitriding. Formation of a double layer, one more internal composed of carbon and another with high nitrogen content, was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The microhardness profile of the layer showed an increase in hardness values and a larger uniformity, while X-ray analysis showed less chromium nitriding precipitation when compared with results obtained for samples treated using ionic plasma nitriding.

  20. Trp-cage: Folding free energy landscape in explicit water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruhong

    2003-01-01

    Trp-cage is a 20-residue miniprotein, which is believed to be the fastest folder known so far. In this study, the folding free energy landscape of Trp-cage has been explored in explicit solvent by using an OPLSAA force field with periodic boundary condition. A highly parallel replica exchange molecular dynamics method is used for the conformation space sampling, with the help of a recently developed efficient molecular dynamics algorithm P3ME/RESPA (particle–particle particle–mesh Ewald/reference system propagator algorithm). A two-step folding mechanism is proposed that involves an intermediate state where two correctly formed partial hydrophobic cores are separated by an essential salt-bridge between residues Asp-9 and Arg-16 near the center of the peptide. This metastable intermediate state provides an explanation for the superfast folding process. The free energy landscape is found to be rugged at low temperatures, and then becomes smooth and funnel-like above 340 K. The lowest free energy structure at 300 K is only 1.50 Å Cα-RMSD (Cα-rms deviation) from the NMR structures. The simulated nuclear Overhauser effect pair distances are in excellent agreement with the raw NMR data. The temperature dependence of the Trp-cage population, however, is found to be significantly different from experiment, with a much higher melting transition temperature above 400 K (experimental 315 K), indicating that the current force fields, parameterized at room temperature, need to be improved to correctly predict the temperature dependence. PMID:14581616

  1. Crossover from reptation to Rouse dynamics in the cage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiński, A; van Leeuwen, J M J

    2006-12-01

    The two-dimensional cage model for polymer motion is discussed with an emphasis on the effect of sideways motions, which cross the barriers imposed by the lattice. Using the density matrix method as a solver of the master equation, the renewal time and the diffusion coefficient are calculated as a function of the strength of the barrier crossings. A strong crossover influence of the barrier crossings is found and it is analyzed in terms of effective exponents for a given chain length. The crossover scaling functions and the crossover scaling exponents are calculated.

  2. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  3. Standard test method for using atmospheric pressure rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a generally accepted procedure to conduct the rotating cage (RC) experiment under atmospheric pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Correction of Spray Concentration and Bioassay Cage Penetration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Tulle). Colony-reared Culex quinquefascia- tus Say and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were used, with 1 cage of each per location. Twenty-five mosquitos...concentration (ml etofenprox/ cm2); a, b, c, d 5 0.39, 0.11, 137.7, and 0.22 for Ae. albopictus , corrected data; DECEMBER 2012 SCIENTIFIC NOTE 321 a, b, c, d...5 0.37, 0.09, 151.5, and 0.22 for Ae. albopictus , uncorrected data; a, b, c, d 5 22.1, 0.00013, 95.8, and 1.26 for Cx. quinquefasciatus, corrected

  5. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S.Kapnichor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system involved all the mechanical components along with the sensors used to restrict the rotating operations, stop and go operations etc.

  6. Feeding Rice Husk-Poultry Manure with and without Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of thirty-six (36) rabbits of mixed sexes were used in a ten (10) week feeding trials to investigate the relative effect of dietary levels of rice husk poultry manure (RHPM) supplemented with or without β-xylanase. The rabbits were randomly allotted into six (6) dietary treatment groups of 0, 10 and 20% of RHPM with or ...

  7. Effect of animal manures on selected soil properties: II. Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of animal manures on selected soil properties: II. Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus. AO Ano, JA Agwu. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science Vol. 16 (1) 2006: pp. 145-150. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  8. Influence of poultry manure and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer on grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the influence of poultry manure and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and proximate composition of two cultivars of cowpea (Ife Brown and IT86D - 719) was carried out at the Teaching and Research (T&R) Farm of the Obafemi Awolowo University, (O.A.U.) Ile - Ife, Nigeria. The two cultivars of cowpea ...

  9. Effect of organic manure application on yield distribution over time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temporal distribution of yield over harvests and yield in various truss positions on the main stem in three West African eggplants were studied in the field under five poultry manure rates. Fruit yields were spread over 12-15 weeks, unless where the life of the crop was cut short due to insect pest or disease attack. Two peaks ...

  10. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the splitplot design, ...

  11. Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Heaton, Tim

    2011-01-01

    experiments and areas where ‘traditional’ farming is practised. Our aim is to ground-truth interpretation of δ15N values in archaeobotanical crop remains as evidence of past growing conditions and husbandry practices. The results confirm the potentially radical impact of manuring on δ15N values in cereals...

  12. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: broadcasting before rice harvesting (BBRH), partial tillage seeding (PTS), group seeding (GS) and drill seeding (DS). The overall results ...

  13. green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    GREEN MANURE AND INORGANIC FERTILISER AS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR. WITCHWEED AND UPLAND ... smallholder resource-poor farmers as a strategy for control of Striga infestation in rice fields. Additionally, crop rotation using rice ... continuous cultivation of the land and change of farming practices like ...

  14. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Organic Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Szanto, G.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study pig manure from organic farming systems is composted with passive aeration. Effectiveness of the composting process strongly depended on the density of the compost. Best results were observed at a density of 700 kg/m3, where both aerobic degradation and drying were adequate and

  15. Cultivation of aquatic plants on cow manure digestate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurman, S.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Dijk, van W.

    2017-01-01

    Turning animal manure into energy generates a leftover product: digester bio slurry. Generally this bio slurry is separated in a solid and a liquid fraction. The use of the liquid fraction bio slurry (LFBS) in combination with residual heat and flu gas from the CHP unit could proof an interesting

  16. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Sangrador, M. P.; Garcia Gonzalez, M. C.; Leon Cofreces, M. C.; Acitores Benavente, M.

    2009-07-01

    Most of the organic nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon compounds (COD) in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles. Flocculation treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) followed by screening if on the best methods to separate the liquid fraction.

  17. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J.; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems

  18. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  19. Comparative assessment of different poultry manures and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated soil physicochemical properties and nutrient uptake of a drought-tolerant maize variety (DT-SR-WC2) in a derived savanna zone of Southwestern Nigeria when different composted poultry manures (CPM) and inorganic fertilizer (IF) were applied. This was with a view to determining the essential trace ...

  20. Technical note: stress analysis of cellulosic-manure composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.H. Ro; J.F. Hunt; R.E. Rowlands

    2017-01-01

    Ability to determine stresses in loaded, perforated cellulosic-manure composites from recorded temperature information was demonstrated. Being able to stress analyze such green materials addresses several societal issues. These include providing engineering members fabricated from materials that are suitable for developed and developing nations, relieving a troubling...

  1. Emissions of gaseous nitrogen species from manure management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Hutchings, Nick

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for the assessment of emissions of nitrogen (N) species (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, di-nitrogen) from the manure management system is developed, which treats N pools and flows including emissions strictly according to conservation of mass criteria. As all relevant flows...

  2. effect of plant biomass, manure and inorganic fertiliser on maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    maize growing zone with small land sizes ranging from 0.1 to 2 ha with an average of 1.2 ha per household. The area is ... beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Other food crops include potatoes (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam), .... to possibly user of some forms of manure or inorganic P fertiliser additions. Statistical analysis. Capturing ...

  3. Effects of rock phosphate amended with poultry manure on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of rock phosphate (Sokoto and Ogun rock phosphates) amended with poultry manure on soil available phosphate (P) and yield of maize and cowpea grown sequentially was evaluated for four cropping seasons. The results obtained showed superiority of single super phosphate (SSP) application over either ...

  4. Calorific values and combustion chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion chemistry and calorific value analyses are the fundamental information for evaluating different biomass waste-to-energy conversion operations. Specific chemical exergy of manure and other biomass feedstock will provide a measure for the theoretically maximum attainable energy. The specifi...

  5. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted during 1998 and 1999 rainy seasons at the Dry. Land Teaching and Research Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the response of roselle to farmyard manure, nitrogen and their interaction on the growth and yield of roselle. Treatment consisted of factorial ...

  6. Methane and nitrous oxide emission from livestock manure | Prusty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock contribute 18% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Apart from enteric emission, decomposition of livestock manure under anaerobic conditions is also a source of methane. The later condition arises in confined management system. There is difficulty in disposing off the excreta and wastes produced on a ...

  7. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...

  8. Response of strawberry quality and profitability to farmyard manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of strawberries in the tropics is partly limited by poor soil fertility, while profitability of different nutrient management strategies has not been established. The present study determined the effect of 0, 18, 36, and 54 t/ha farmyard manure (FYM) and triple super phosphate (TSP), equivalent to 0, 17, 34 and 68 kg/ha ...

  9. Electromagnetic survey of cornfield with repeated manure applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigenberg, R.A.; Nienaber, J.A. [Agricultural Research Service, Clay Center, NE (United States). Meat Animal Research Center

    1998-11-01

    Waste management sites are subject to nutrient buildup from storage, treatment, and repeated application of manure. Methods are needed to quickly assess a site of field location to survey nutrient levels and estimate risk potential. Electromagnetic (EM) conductivity methods have been shown to be sensitive to areas of high nutrient levels and offer promise to provide field assessments. In this report, high density electromagnetic field mapping is described as a method to isolate and detect areas of nutrient buildup in a cornfield receiving waste management research treatments. Various manure and compost rates have been applied to this research field for replacement of commercial fertilizer with the treatment assignments remaining identical over a 4-yr period. Electromagnetic conductivity measurements were able to differentiate the N check treatment (commercial application rate) vs manure applied at the recommended P rate, compost applied at the P rate, and compost applied at the N rate. The N check treatment and the manure applied at the N rate treatment resulted in nearly identical mean values for EM readings and were not statistically distinguishable. Analysis of soil cores randomly located within each treatment were compared to EM readings at the same locations. The Pearson correlation coefficients revealed strong correlations for all constituents except NH{sub 4}. Treatment effects were significant for all soil constituents except NH{sub 4} and water content.

  10. Effects of green manure crops and mulching technology on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green manure crops are primarily used in environmentally friendly agricultural practices to reduce the application of chemical fertilizer and herbicide. In this study, a two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of paper and plastic mulching with hairy vetch alone or in combination with barley on weed ...

  11. Green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed infestation, especially the Witchweed (Striga asiatica) is a serious problem in fertility-depleted soils of Tanzania. The use of urea fertiliser is known to control weed but resource-poor farmers cannot afford this technology due to high costs involved. To alleviate the problem of Striga and soil fertility, green-manure ...

  12. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial cotton varieties were introduced in the country. It was after the cotton introductions that declining soil fertility was considered a serious problem. Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial ...

  13. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  14. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BİM

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... plot design, solarization of main plots, sub-plots with fresh chicken manure and V dahliae inoculation were established as a mini parcel in experiment with three replications. .... inoculum was kept in a freezer until it was inoculated in experimental plots. Inoculation of V. dahliae, transplanting of eggplant ...

  15. Effects of rock phosphate amended with poultry manure on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, P.M.B 5029 Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Nigeria. Accepted 26 January, 2005. The effect of rock phosphate (Sokoto and Ogun rock phosphates) amended with poultry manure on soil available phosphate (P) and yield of maize and cowpea grown ...

  16. Microbial community and chemical characteristics of swine manure during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standardizing diet formulation studies that are designed to lower emission is needed for properly evaluating the impact diets have on emissions. Three groups of 12 pigs (84 kg initial BW) were feed a standard corn-soybean mean diet over a 13 wk period to determine how the length of manure storage af...

  17. ADVANCED HETEROGENEOUS REBURN FUEL FROM COAL AND HOG MANURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melanie D. Jensen; Ronald C. Timpe; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the nitrogen content inherent in hog manure and alkali used as a catalyst during processing could be combined with coal to produce a reburn fuel that would result in advanced reburning NO{sub x} control without the addition of either alkali or ammonia/urea. Fresh hog manure was processed in a cold-charge, 1-gal, batch autoclave system at 275 C under a reducing atmosphere in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Instead of the expected organic liquid, the resulting product was a waxy solid material. The waxy nature of the material made size reduction and feeding difficult as the material agglomerated and tended to melt, plugging the feeder. The material was eventually broken up and sized manually and a water-cooled feeder was designed and fabricated. Two reburn tests were performed in a pilot-scale combustor. The first test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture comprising lignite and air-dried, raw hog manure. The second test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture made of lignite and the processed hog manure. Neither reburn fuel reduced NO{sub x} levels in the combustor flue gas. Increased slagging and ash deposition were observed during both reburn tests. The material-handling and ash-fouling issues encountered during this study indicate that the use of waste-based reburn fuels could pose practical difficulties in implementation on a larger scale.

  18. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial cotton varieties were introduced in the country. It was after the cotton introductions that declining soil fertility was considered a serious problem. Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial ...

  19. Livestock farmers' attitude towards manure separation technology as future strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Lakner, D.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an ordered probit model is used to assess the factors that affect the probability of livestock farmers having plans to adopt manure separation technology in the future. A survey, based on a postal and computerized questionnaire of representative dairy and pig farms in the Netherlands

  20. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...

  1. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  2. Screening ventilation strategies for confined-space manure storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, E P; Zhao, J; Manbeck, H B; Murphy, D J

    2008-07-01

    Fatalities associated with entry into on-farm confined-space manure storage facilities occur each year. The fatalities are due to asphyxiation or poisoning by exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide. Forced ventilation has been shown to be an effective way to reduce concentrations of noxious gases to levels that are safe for human entry into these storage facilities. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was used as an indicator gas to investigate the effectiveness of forced-air ventilation strategies for eliminating the toxic and oxygen-deficient atmosphere in confined-space manure storage facilities. This article focuses on experimental methods for identifying ventilation strategies that effectively reduce toxic gas (i.e., H2S) concentrations in a fan-ventilated confined-space manure tank to the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) (H2S PEL = 10 ppm) and to 25% of the initial gas concentration. Typical H2S concentration reduction curves during forced-air ventilation were identified in the tank as well. Based on the experimental tests conducted in this research, the most promising candidate ventilation strategies were identified for this rectangular confined-space manure tank with solid, fully slotted, and partially slotted covers. In addition, based on the results of experimental tests, a field-based database was developed for future validation of computational fluid dynamics modeling protocols.

  3. Effect of Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) and farmyard manure (FYM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania to investigate the effect of Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) and farmyard manure (FYM) applied to an Oxic Haplustults on Bray I-P and the response of maize (Zea mays (L.) variety staha) to the applied MPR and FYM in a 4 factorial experiment in a completely randomized block design. MPR was applied at the rates ...

  4. Comparison of tithonia ( Tithonia diversifolia ) green manure, poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except for tithonia green manure, all the other treatments were administered at the time of transplanting. The experiment was a Completely Randomized Block Design, with five treatments in three levels, replicated three times on each site, and each site being a replica. Individual plots measured 4 m x 3 m at inter-plant and ...

  5. Immobilizing Arsenic and Copper Ions in Manure Using a Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Zhang, Guilong; Zhou, Linglin; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2017-10-18

    Livestock manure (Man) commonly contains a certain quantity of heavy metal ions, such as arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) ions, resulting in a high risk on soil contamination. To solve this problem, heavy metal of manure was immobilized into sodium carbonate/biosilica/attapulgite composite (Na 2 CO 3 /BioSi/Attp), which was developed using a nanocomposite consisting of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BioSi), and attapulgite (Attp). When Na 2 CO 3 /BioSi/Attp was mixed with Man/AsCu, the obtained nanocomposite (Na 2 CO 3 /BioSi/Attp/Man/AsCu) with a porous nano-network structure could effectively control the release of As and Cu ions from manure through adsorption and chemical reaction. Meanwhile, a pot experiment indicated that Na 2 CO 3 /BioSi/Attp/Man/AsCu could increase the pH value of acid soil, promote the growth of rice, and significantly decrease the uptake of As and Cu ions by rice. Therefore, this work provides a promising approach to immobilize heavy metal ions in manure and, thus, lower the contamination risk to the environment. Na 2 CO 3 , BioSi, and Attp powders were mixed evenly with a weight ratio of W Na 2 CO 3 /W BioSi /W Attp = 3:1:2.

  6. Effect of farmyard manure on senescence, nitrogen and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure was studied on senescence, nitrogen and protein content of the leaves and grains of cowpea. The experimental site for this study was situated at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kano Station, Nigeria. The cowpea varieties used in this experiment were Kanannado a local ...

  7. green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    GREEN MANURE AND INORGANIC FERTILISER AS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR. WITCHWEED AND UPLAND RICE. J. KAYEKE, P. K. SIBUGA1, J. J. MSAKY1 and A. MBWAGA. Agriculture Research Institute UYOLE, P.O. Box 400 Mbeya, Tanzania. 1Sokoine .... and were left in the paper bags for 4 months to.

  8. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on vegetative growth, leaf yield and nutritive quality of Cleome gynadra (Cat Whiskers) in Keiyo District, ... extension workers and farmers, are receiving renewed interest as a possible intervention to food insecurity and malnutrition among resource-poor farmers.

  9. Green manuring and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of these treatments on agronomic trait and yield of upland rice and soil chemical properties were then investigated at UNAAB and Olowo-Papa village (OP). In the first experiment three green manure crops, namely, Mucuna utilis, Canavalia ensiformis and Lablab purpureus were screened for biomass production ...

  10. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial.

  11. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  12. Extractability of Potassium from Some Organic Manures in Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH, time and concentration on the extractability of potassium from five types of organic manures (cow dung, local chickens, duck and commercial chickens, faeces on bedded and unbedded floor) were studied. Experiments were conducted in water at 40oC. Cumulative extraction curves of potassium resulting ...

  13. Characterisation of the organic matter pool in manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, R; Moreno-Caselles, J; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Rufete, B; Paredes, C

    2005-01-01

    In this research, different types of animal manure were evaluated with respect to organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (C(ot)), total N (N(t)), C(ot)/N(t) ratio, water-soluble organic carbon (C(w)), organic N (N(org)), carbohydrates, C(w)/N(org) ratio, humic acid-like carbon (C(ha)), fulvic acid-like carbon (C(fa)), humification index ((C(ha)/C(ot))x100) (HI) and the C(ha)/C(fa) and NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratios. In comparison with the limits set by the Spanish legislation for organic fertilisers, most of the manures had high OM contents, moderate N(org) concentrations (except in the case of the chicken and pig manures where this parameter was high) and C(ot)/N(t) ratios above the value stated in the legislation. The study of the different fractions of organic matter showed that the horse, pig and rabbit manures had the greatest content of C(ot). However, the fraction of easily-biodegradable organic compounds (C(w)) was significantly higher in the horse, goat and chicken manures. The study also showed that, in most cases, the percentage of fulvic acid-like C was greater than that of the humic acid-like C, indicating that the organic matter of these wastes is not completely humified. Values of HI ((C(ha)/C(ot))x100) and C(ha)/C(fa) ratio in the studied manures were not significantly different. Regarding the parameters related to the organic matter stability such as C(w), carbohydrates and the C(ot)/N(t), C(w)/N(org) and NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratios, it has been determined that the organic matter of these materials was not completely stabilised. The heterogeneity in OM composition of the studied manures did not allow the formulation of simple equations for evaluation of the composition of these wastes from easily-determined parameters.

  14. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production.

  15. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  16. Nitriding using cathodic cage technique of martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 with addition of CH4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Sousa, R.R.M; De Araújo, F.O; Da Costa, J.A.P; De Sousa, R.S; Alves JR, C

    2008-01-01

    AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel samples were nitrided by cathodic cage technique with addition of methane in the atmosphere aiming to reduce chromium nitride precipitation, to increase hardness...

  17. REINVENTING THE WHEEL: Comparison of Two Wheel Cage Styles for Assessing Mouse Voluntary Running Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Tanya; Harfmann, Brianna D; Esser, Karyn A; Schroder, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-21

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different labs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differs depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to higher greater running distance/day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus, investigators need to report wheel cage type/ wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies.

  18. Effects of Nominal Differences in Cage Height and Floor Space on the Wellbeing of Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kay L; Suckow, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits. Groups of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were housed in cages that provided either 15 in. of interior cage height (720 in(2) of floor space) or 18 in. of interior height (784 in(2) of floor space). The rabbits were observed during 25 periods (1 h each) over 7 wk, and various behavioral parameters were scored. In addition, rabbits were weighed weekly, and general clinical health was assessed. After 4 wk, the groups were switched to the alternate housing. No significant differences in body weight gain or behavioral parameters were detected between groups housed in cages with different heights and amounts of floor space, nor were significant behavioral differences noted in individual rabbits when moved from one cage type to the other. In addition, all rabbits remained clinically healthy throughout the study. These results demonstrate that these differences in interior cage height neither benefit nor harm rabbits.

  19. Sensitivity of BN nano-cages to caffeine and nicotine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Alireza; Baei, Mohammad T.; Tazikeh Lemeski, E.; Shahini, Malihe

    2014-12-01

    Adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules over B12N12 and B16N16 nano-cages were investigated by using first-principles calculations to define whether BN nano-cages are applicable for filtering or sensing caffeine and nicotine molecules. The chemisorption energy of nicotine molecule on BN nano-cages is very stronger than caffeine molecule. Upon the adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules, the electronic properties of the BN nano-cages can be significantly changed, being too much sensitized on the caffeine and nicotine adsorptions.

  20. Photo-dependent protein biosynthesis using a caged aminoacyl-tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Akiya; Doi, Yoshio; Sisido, Masahiko; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ohtsuki, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Translation systems with four-base codons provide a powerful strategy for protein engineering and protein studies because they enable site-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids into proteins. In this study, a caged aminoacyl-tRNA with a four-base anticodon was synthesized. The caged aminoacyl-tRNA contains a photocleavable nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC) group. This study showed that the caged aminoacyl-tRNA was not deacylated, did not bind to EF-Tu, and was activated by light. Photo-dependent translation of an mRNA containing the four-base codon was demonstrated using the caged aminoacyl-tRNA.

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  2. Combination of biological and physico-chemical factors in the development of manure nutrient recovery and recycling-oriented technology

    OpenAIRE

    Alitalo, Anni

    2014-01-01

    Manure serves as an important source of nutrients, but is also an environmental concern. From the sustainable agriculture point of view it is of great importance to develop manure treatment technologies to recycle manure nutrients, and to reduce the odor and hygienic problems due to manure production and use. However, the development work has been greatly hampered by the complexity of manure as a raw material and requires knowledge of various physicochemical and biological factors involved in...

  3. Integrated manure utilization system life-cycle value assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, J.; Neabel, D. [Pembina Inst. for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    A life-cycle assessment of the Alberta Research Council (ARC) and Highmark Renewables' development of an integrated manure utilization system (IMUS) were presented. The assessment focused on an evaluation of factors of primary importance to government, investors and the livestock industry. IMUS technology uses manure as a resource to produce electricity, heat, bio-based fertilizer and reusable water. Results of the assessment indicated that IMUS plants have the potential to be financially viable if a power purchase of $90 MWh on average can be purchased from a 30,000 head livestock operation. A capital cost of under $11 million is necessary, and an established biofertilizer price of $50 per tonne should be established. An IMUS plant was estimated to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 70 to 80 per cent when compared to land spreading. Reductions are accomplished through displacing electricity from the provincial grid and reducing nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from spreading of manure The IMUS plants lessen environment impacts by reducing the extraction and consumption of non-renewable resources, and by displacing an estimated 11,700 GJ of coal and natural gas per 1000 head of cattle per year. In addition, various pathogens within manure are eliminated. The plants have the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with the disposal of deadstock. The systems reduce manure odour, lessen truck traffic and are expected to contribute to rural economic diversification. Barriers to further implementation of IMUS were discussed, as well as emerging opportunities for IMUS developers. It was concluded that the initial assessments of the IMUS were positive. Further investigation is needed to determine actual life-cycle performance of the operations. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  6. Monitoring survivability and infectivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv in the infected on-farm earthen manure storages (EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Min Tun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America's swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradicating this virus. To further understand the survivability and infectivity of PEDv in the infected manure, we performed longitudinal monitoring in two open earthen manure storages (EMSs; previously referred to as lagoon from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to nine months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMSs, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMSs, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMSs. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMSs.

  7. Onset of magnetism in supported transition metal encapsulated silicon cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Roberto; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2009-03-01

    In the past few years, silicon based clusters have attracted a lot of attention as building blocks of nanomaterials. Some of the most promising candidates are the transition metal encapsulated silicon cages, which have been shown to be specially stable, both experimentally and theoretically. However, for the use of these materials in fields like spintronics, it is not only necessary to be semiconductor based, but also that they present a finite magnetic moment. However, it has been shown that the magnetic moment of the transition metal atom encapsulated in silicon cages is quenched due to the hybridization with silicon. By performing density functional calculations in the generalized gradient approximation, we show that the magnetic moment of these clusters can be recovered by depositing then on a surface. Using CrSi12 on Si(111) as an example, we have deposited the cluster in different orientations. The studies show that, for most of them, a finite magnetic moment is preserved in the system after a geometrical relaxation. The origin of this behavior is discussed in terms of hybridization, comparing to the unsupported situation.

  8. [Rib cage ostheosynthesis. Literature review and case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quijano, Andrés; Varón-Cotés, Juan Carlos; García-Herreros-Hellal, Luis Gerardo; Espinosa-Moya, Beatriz; Rivero-Rapalino, Oscar; Salazar-Marulanda, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the chest wall include sternum and rib fractures. Traditionally they are managed conservatively due to the anatomy of the rib cage that allows most of them to remain stable and to form a callus that unites the fractured segments. In spite of this management, some patients present with chronic pain or instability of the wall which makes them require some type of fixation. The present article performs a literature review based on 4 cases. The first case was a 61 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, with a great deformity of the chest wall associated with subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax. The second case was a 51 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, initially managed at another institution, who despite treatment, had persistent pain and dyspnoea. The third case was a 30 year-old man that suffered a motor vehicle accident, with resulting pain and crepitation of the rib cage and with diagnostic images showing multiple rib fractures. The last case is a 62 year-old man that fell down the stairs, with blunt chest trauma with high intensity pain, dyspnoea and basal ipsilateral hypoventilation. Rib fracture fixation offers a good alternative in selected patients to decrease associated morbidity, leading to a patient's fast return to his or her working life. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of a phage endolysin by disulfide caging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuty, Gabriel F; Xu, Min; Struck, Douglas K; Summer, Elizabeth J; Young, Ry

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to canonical phage endolysins, which require holin-mediated disruption of the membrane to gain access to attack the cell wall, signal anchor release (SAR) endolysins are secreted by the host sec system, where they accumulate in an inactive form tethered to the membrane by their N-terminal SAR domains. SAR endolysins become activated by various mechanisms upon release from the membrane. In its inactive form, the prototype SAR endolysin, Lyz(P1), of coliphage P1, has an active-site Cys covalently blocked by a disulfide bond; activation involves a disulfide bond isomerization driven by a thiol in the newly released SAR domain, unblocking the active-site Cys. Here, we report that Lyz(103), the endolysin of Erwinia phage ERA103, is also a SAR endolysin. Although Lyz(103) does not have a catalytic Cys, genetic evidence suggests that it also is activated by a thiol-disulfide isomerization triggered by a thiol in the SAR domain. In this case, the inhibitory disulfide in nascent Lyz(103) is formed between cysteine residues flanking a catalytic glutamate, caging the active site. Thus, Lyz(P1) and Lyz(103) define subclasses of SAR endolysins that differ in the nature of their inhibitory disulfide, and Lyz(103) is the first enzyme found to be regulated by disulfide bond caging of its active site.

  10. Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Timo P.; Tenhunen, Asmo; Arkkio, Antero

    2005-06-01

    Eccentric rotor motion induces an unbalanced magnetic pull between the rotor and stator of cage induction motors. Recently, a linear parametric model of this eccentricity force due to the arbitrary rotor motion was presented. The purpose of this study is to combine this electromagnetic force model with a simple mechanical rotor model, and further, to demonstrate the rotordynamic response induced by this electromechanical interaction. An electromechanical rotor model is derived on the basis of the Jeffcott rotor with two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The electromechanical parameters of these motors were estimated from the numerical simulations carried out separately. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the natural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in motors operating at or near the first bending critical speed. Excluding the potential rotordynamic instability, the numerical results indicate that the electromechanical interaction reduces effectively the unbalance response close to the first bending critical speed.

  11. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  12. Optimization of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking of manure fibers by Response Surface Methodology for unlocking the methane potential of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving the digest...

  13. Effect of farmyard manure and green manure crops on populations of mycophagous soil fauna and Rhizoctonia stem canker of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lootsma, M.; Scholte, K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of organic soil amendments on populations of mycophagous springtails and nematodes and on Rhizoctonia solani stem canker of potato were investigated in two field experiments each lasting two years. The organic amendments consisted of three green manure crops (white mustard, forage rape and

  14. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics used in animal feeding operations have been detected in the environment. There is a growing concern about the impact of these pharmaceutical compounds in the manure and the effect they may have on aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and the potential development of antibiotic resistant m...

  16. Long-Term Effect of Manure and Fertilizer on Soil Organic Carbon Pools in Dryland Farming in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enke; Yan, Changrong; Mei, Xurong; Zhang, Yanqing; Fan, Tinglu

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0–100 cm) in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK), nitrogen fertilizer (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) fertilizers (NP), straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S), farmyard manure (FYM), and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM). Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0–20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0–60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0–60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0–60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) in 0–60 cm depth were increased by 64.9–91.9%, 42.5–56.9%, and 74.7–99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization. PMID:23437161

  17. Long-term effect of manure and fertilizer on soil organic carbon pools in dryland farming in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enke; Yan, Changrong; Mei, Xurong; Zhang, Yanqing; Fan, Tinglu

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0-100 cm) in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK), nitrogen fertilizer (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) fertilizers (NP), straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S), farmyard manure (FYM), and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM). Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0-60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0-60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0-60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) in 0-60 cm depth were increased by 64.9-91.9%, 42.5-56.9%, and 74.7-99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization.

  18. Long-term effect of manure and fertilizer on soil organic carbon pools in dryland farming in northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enke Liu

    Full Text Available An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0-100 cm in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK, nitrogen fertilizer (N, nitrogen and phosphorus (P fertilizers (NP, straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S, farmyard manure (FYM, and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM. Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0-60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0-60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0-60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and microbial biomass carbon (MBC in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM in 0-60 cm depth were increased by 64.9-91.9%, 42.5-56.9%, and 74.7-99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization.

  19. Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Peterman, Paul H.; Judy, Barbara M.; Taylor, Julia A.; Orazio, Carl E.; Ruhlen, Rachel L.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We examined whether new and used polycarbonate animal cages passively release bioactive levels of BPA into water at room temperature and neutral pH. Purified water was incubated at room temperature in new polycarbonate and polysulfone cages and used (discolored) polycarbonate cages, as well as control (glass and used polypropylene) containers. The resulting water samples were characterized with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tested for estrogenic activity using an MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Significant estrogenic activity, identifiable as BPA by GC/MS (up to 310 micro g/L), was released from used polycarbonate animal cages. Detectable levels of BPA were released from new polycarbonate cages (up to 0.3 micro g/L) as well as new polysulfone cages (1.5 micro g/L), whereas no BPA was detected in water incubated in glass and used polypropylene cages. Finally, BPA exposure as a result of being housed in used polycarbonate cages produced a 16% increase in uterine weight in prepubertal female mice relative to females housed in used polypropylene cages, although the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that laboratory animals maintained in polycarbonate and polysulfone cages are exposed to BPA via leaching, with exposure reaching the highest levels in old cages.

  20. Risk factors for cage retropulsion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion: analysis of 1070 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Odate, Seiichi; Soeda, Tsunemitsu; Yamamura, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Single-center retrospective study. We examined the risk factors for cage retropulsion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) performed for patients with degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. Although PLIF is a widely accepted procedure, problems remain regarding perioperative and postoperative complications. There are few reported studies identifying specific risk factors for cage retropulsion, one of the implant-related complications after PLIF, although several case reports have been published. Between April 2006 and July 2010, 1070 patients with various degenerative lumbar spinal diseases underwent single- or multilevel PLIF combined with posterolateral fusion, using posterior pedicle screw fixation and box-type cages. Their medical records and preoperative radiographs were reviewed and the factors influencing the incidence of cage retropulsion were analyzed. There were 9 cases of cage retropulsion (7 men and 2 women; mean age, 68.2 yr), and it developed within 2 months after surgery in all cases. Five patients had low back pain or leg pain, 3 of whom required revision surgery. The mean fusion level was 3.9 (range, 2-5); in 6 of the 9 patients, the cage had migrated at L5/S, 2 at L4/5, and 1 at L3/4. All of the cages were inserted at the end disc level of multilevel fusion procedures. The disc heights and ranges of motion were significantly greater in patients with cage retropulsion, and patients with a pear-shaped disc space also showed a higher rate of cage retropulsion. These results indicate that PLIF at L5/S, a wide disc space with instability, multilevel fusion surgery, and a pear-shaped disc space on lateral radiographs are risk factors for cage retropulsion. The identification of these risk factors should allow us to avoid this complication, and the use of expandable cages is an effective option for such cases.

  1. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  2. The effect of cattle manure cultivation on moisture content and survival of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Z; Chen, Y; Khanal, P; Pinto, R; Zakin, V; Sela, S

    2011-03-01

    A new practice whereby wet slurry is added daily to the cattle manure bedding at the barn and cultivated has been developed in Israel. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of manure cultivation on the persistence of Escherichia coli in a model system. A cow manure-derived E. coli strain was tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) and antibiotic resistance markers and was used to inoculate cow manure in 10-L buckets. After 3 successive cycles of inoculation and cultivation, wet slurry was added during an additional 2 cycles. After 32 d, the cultivated and noncultivated manure contained 677 ± 14 and 505 ± 2 g·kg(-1) DM, respectively. The cultivated manure remained drier compared with the noncultivated manure after the addition of wet slurry, and its texture remained lumpy compared with the compact, cohesive, and sticky texture of the noncultivated manure. Throughout the experiment, the counts of the tagged E. coli were less (P manure. These results support the hypothesis that daily cultivation of manure may result in reduced incidence of mastitis and improves the welfare and performance of dairy cows.

  3. An Assessment of the Variation of Manure Nitrogen Efficiency Throughout Europe and an Appraisal of Means to Increase Manure N Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.; Sørensen, Peter; Velthof, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    –15%. In growing cereals, NH3 emissions can be reduced by band spreading within the canopy. Anaerobic digestion of slurry may also increase manure-N availability in the season of application by 10–20%, compared with undigested slurry. Slurry acidification may increase manure-N efficiency by 35–65% by reducing...... total NH3 losses by 70% compared with unacidified slurry stored without cover and not incorporated after spreading. To fully utilize the fertilizer value of manure-N, uptake over more than 1 year needs to be accounted for. This is particularly important for solid manures which provide less-available N...... in the season after application than slurries but release more N to crops in subsequent years. Using manure-N as a sole N source may limit overall manure-N efficiency. Applying manures at reduced rates over a larger crop area, using N fertilizer at times when crop recovery of manure-N may be limited, may give...

  4. COLIWAVE a simulation model for survival of E. coli O157 : H7 in dairy manure and manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; Franz, Eelco; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation model was developed to investigate the relative effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, substrate content and competition by autochthonous microbial community on the oscillatory behaviour and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and manure-amended soil. The overall

  5. Coliwave a simulation model for survival of E.coli 0157:H7 in dairy manure and manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Franz, E.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation model was developed to investigate the relative effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, substrate content and competition by autochthonous microbial community on the oscillatory behaviour and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and manure-amended soil. The overall

  6. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  7. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  8. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  9. Validity of the CAGE in Screening for Problem Drinking in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Edward J.; Lichtenberg, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Examined the ability of CAGE, an established screening test for alcoholism, to identify accurately problem drinkers among college students (N=582). Found that the CAGE did not perform well enough to serve as a screening tool for problem drinking within the college student population. (Author/ABL)

  10. Forced Hot Air to Dry Feces and Kill Bacteria on Transport Cage Flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to fecal shedding from positive birds, broiler transport cages can be contaminated with human bacterial pathogens leading to cross contamination of previously negative broilers during live haul. Earlier work has shown that drying soiled or washed cages for 24 to 48 hours can lower or even elimi...

  11. Development of an integrated CAD-FEA system for patient-specific design of spinal cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzheng; Pu, Fang; Xu, Liqiang; Zhang, Linlin; Liang, Hang; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo

    2017-03-01

    Spinal cages are used to create a suitable mechanical environment for interbody fusion in cases of degenerative spinal instability. Due to individual variations in bone structures and pathological conditions, patient-specific cages can provide optimal biomechanical conditions for fusion, strengthening patient recovery. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a valuable tool in the biomechanical evaluation of patient-specific cage designs, but the time- and labor-intensive process of modeling limits its clinical application. In an effort to facilitate the design and analysis of patient-specific spinal cages, an integrated CAD-FEA system (CASCaDeS, comprehensive analytical spinal cage design system) was developed. This system produces a biomechanical-based patient-specific design of spinal cages and is capable of rapid implementation of finite element modeling. By comparison with commercial software, this system was validated and proven to be both accurate and efficient. CASCaDeS can be used to design patient-specific cages with a superior biomechanical performance to commercial spinal cages.

  12. The Effects of Caging on the Colonization of Fouling Organisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of caging on the colonization and development of the fouling community in the upper Bonny estuary was studied. The experimental design was such that sets of wooden panels (20x20 cm) were screened with cages constructed with plastic netting while another set was left uncaged. Both sets of panels were ...

  13. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  14. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Theo H.; Thomas, Kevin A.; Hoogendoorn, Roel J. W.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Helder, Marco N.; Wuisman, Paul I. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during

  15. Design and synthesis of novel bis-annulated caged polycycles via ring-closing metathesis: pushpakenediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intricate caged molecular frameworks are assembled by an atom economical process via a Diels–Alder (DA reaction, a Claisen rearrangement, a ring-closing metathesis (RCM and an alkenyl Grignard addition. The introduction of olefinic moieties in the pentacycloundecane (PCUD framework at appropriate positions followed by RCM led to the formation of novel heptacyclic cage systems.

  16. Genome-wide detection and analysis of hippocampus core promoters using DeepCAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Pascarella, Giovanni; Chalk, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    in a given tissue. Here, we present a new method for high-throughput sequencing of 5' cDNA tags-DeepCAGE: merging the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression method with ultra-high-throughput sequence technology. We apply DeepCAGE to characterize 1.4 million sequenced TSS from mouse hippocampus and reveal a wealth...

  17. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  18. Self-Assembly, Guest Capture, and NMR Spectroscopy of a Metal-Organic Cage in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Eun Bin; Srisuknimit, Veerasak; Cheng, Stephanie L.; Vosburg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A green organic-inorganic laboratory experiment has been developed in which students prepare a self-assembling iron cage in D[subscript 2]O at room temperature. The tetrahedral cage captures a small, neutral molecule such as cyclohexane or tetrahydrofuran. [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis distinguishes captured and free guests through diagnostic…

  19. Effects of manual rib cage compressions on expiratory flow and mucus clearance during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joan Daniel; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Rigol, Montserrat; Saucedo, Lina; Ranzani, Otavio Tavares; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Nestor; Ferrer, Miquel; Vilaro, Jordi; Kolobow, Theodor; Torres, Antoni

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the effects of two different types of manual rib cage compression on expiratory flow and mucus clearance during prolonged mechanical ventilation in pigs. Prospective randomized animal study. Animal research facility, University of Barcelona, Spain. Nine healthy pigs. Pigs were tracheally intubated, sedated, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The animals were prone on a surgical bed in the anti-Trendelenburg position. The experiments were carried out at approximately 60 and 80 hrs from the beginning of mechanical ventilation. Two types of manual rib cage compressions were tested: Hard and brief rib cage compressions synchronized with early expiratory phase (hard manual rib cage compression) and soft and gradual rib cage compressions applied during the late expiratory phase (soft manual rib cage compression). The interventions were randomly applied for 15min with a 15-min interval between treatments. Respiratory flow and mucus movement were assessed during the interventions. Respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics were assessed prior to and after the interventions. Peak expiratory flow increased to 60.1±7.1L/min in comparison to 51.2±4.6L/min without treatment (p < 0.0015) and 48.7±4.3L/min with soft manual rib cage compression (p = 0.0002). Similarly, mean expiratory flow increased to 28.4±5.2L/min during hard manual rib cage compression vs. 15.9±2.2 and 16.6±2.8L/min without treatment and soft manual rib cage compression, respectively (p = 0.0006). During hard manual rib cage compression, mucus moved toward the glottis (1.01 ± 2.37mm/min); conversely, mucus moved toward the lungs during no treatment and soft manual rib cage compression, -0.28 ± 0.61 and -0.15±0.95mm/min, respectively (p = 0.0283). Soft manual rib cage compression slightly worsened static lung elastance and cardiac output (p = 0.0391). Hard manual rib cage compression improved mucus clearance in animals positioned in the anti-Trendelenburg position. The technique

  20. Impacts of manure application on SWAT model outputs in the Xiangxi River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Qingrui; Xu, Fei; Men, Cong; Guo, Lijia

    2017-12-01

    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model has been widely used to simulate agricultural non-point source (ANPS) pollution; however, the impacts of livestock manure application on SWAT model outputs have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental effects of livestock manure application based on the SWAT model in the Xiangxi River watershed, which is one of the largest tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. Three newly-built manure databases (NB) were created and applied to different subbasins based on the actual livestock manure discharging amount. The calibration and validation values of SWAT model outputs obtained from the NB manure application and the original mixed (OM) manure were compared. The study results are as follows: (1) The livestock industry of Xingshan County developed quickly between 2005 and 2015. The downstream of the Xiangxi River (Huangliang, Shuiyuesi and Xiakou) had the largest livestock amount, and largely accounted for manure, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) production (>50%). (2) The NB manure application resulted in less phosphorus pollution (1686.35 kg for ORGP and 31.70 kg for MINP) than the OM manure application. Compared with the upstream, the downstream was influenced more by the manure application. (3) The SWAT results obtained from the NB manure had a better calibration and validation values than those from the OM manure. For ORGP, R2 and NSE values were 0.77 and 0.65 for the NB manure calibration; and the same values for the OM manure were 0.72 and 0.61, respectively. For MINP, R2 values were 0.65 and 0.62 for the NB manure and the OM manure, and the NSE values were 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The results indicated that the built-in fertilizer database in SWAT has its limitation because it is set up for the simulation in the USA. Thus, when livestock manure is considered in a SWAT simulation, a newly built fertilizer database needs to be set up to represent

  1. Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

  2. The effect of cage size on play and aggression between dogs in purpose-bred beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebak, J; Beck, A M

    1993-10-01

    One intent of the proposed changes to USDA 9, CFR Part 3 was to give kennel dogs an opportunity for exercise and play (socialization). Increasing cage size was proposed as a means to encourage exercise and play, thus enhancing the well-being of kennel dogs. Eleven-month-old, female, purpose-bred Beagles, housed four to a cage, were videotaped for 15 hours on 10 different dates, resulting in five videotapes recorded for a smaller cage size and five videotapes recorded for a larger cage size. A total of 40 dogs were videotaped. For each videotape, aggression, play, and distance between dogs were recorded and analyzed. There were no differences in aggression or play, but the dogs did put significantly more distance between themselves in the larger cage.

  3. Parameters estimation of squirrel-cage induction motors using ANN and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi Jirdehi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the transient behavior analysis of a squirrel-cage induction motor, the parameters of the single-cage and double-cage models are studied. These parameters are usually hard to obtain. This paper presents two new methods to predict the induction motor parameters in the single-cage and double-cage models based on artificial neural network (ANN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. For this purpose, the experimental data (manufacturer data of 20 induction motors with the different power are used. The experimental data are including of the starting torque and current, maximum torque, full load sleep, efficiency, rated active power and reactive power. The obtained results from the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are compared with each other and with the experimental data, which show a good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data. But the proposed ANFIS model is more accurate than the proposed ANN model.

  4. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.

    2016-07-27

    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  5. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  6. Performance Analysis of a Brushless Double Fed Cage Induction Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruencos, F. [WEG S.A., Jaragua do Sul (Brazil); Carlson, R.; Oliveira, A.M.; Kuo-Peng, P.; Sadowski, N. [GRUCAD-UFSC, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses design and performance aspects of a brushless double fed cage induction generator as an economic and technical alternative to the classical wound rotor induction generator used in wind power generation. It focuses firstly on the machine operational characteristics and main design criteria and secondly on steady state and dynamic analytical and numerical models for efficient prediction of machine behavior. The analytical dynamic model is obtained by transforming the equations written in machine variables into equations written in an arbitrary reference frame. In the finite element approach the electrical machine is modeled in a 2D domain, using the Maxwell equations to formulate the field behavior and the FE method to discretize the domain of study. A prototype was built and tested to validate the simulation models and to verify the design criteria.

  7. Cationic P-S-X cages (X=Br, I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Marcin; Krossing, Ingo; Matern, Eberhard

    2006-02-08

    The first condensed-phase preparation of ternary P-Ch-X cations (Ch=O-Te, X=F-I) is reported: [P5S3X2]+, [P5S2X2]+, and [P4S4X]+ (X=Br, I). [P5S3X2]+ is formed from the reaction of the Ag+/PX3 reagent with P4S3. The [P5S3X2]+ ions have a structure that is related to P4S5 by replacing P=S by P+--X and S in the four-membered ring by P(X). We provide evidence that the active ingredient of the Ag+/PX3 reagent is the (H2CCl2)Ag-X-PX2+ cation. The latter likely reacts with the HOMO of P4S3 in a concerted HOMO-LUMO addition to give the P5S3X2+ ion as the first species visible in situ in the low-temperature 31P NMR spectrum. The [P5S3X2]+ ions are metastable at -78 degrees C and disproportionate at slightly higher temperatures to give [P5S2X2]+ and [P4S4X]+, probably with the extrusion of 1/n (PX)n (X=Br, I). All six new cage compounds have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and, in part, by IR or Raman spectroscopy. The [P5S2X2]+ salts have a nortricyclane skeleton and were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the [P4S4X]+ ion is related to that of P4S5 in that the exo-cage P=S bond is replaced by an isoelectronic P+--X moiety.

  8. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  9. [Effects of organic manure on wheat growth under lead stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sha-sha; Zhang, Yong-qing; Yang, Li-wen; Pei, Hong-bin; Sun, Hong-shuai

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of organic manure on the wheat growth under different levels of lead stress. With increasing lead stress level, whether fertilization or not, the plant height, shoot dry mass, adventitious root number, root total length, root dry mass, root activity, root total and active absorbing area, and root SOD and POD activities decreased, and root MDA content presented an increasing trend. The decrement of the above-mentioned parameters differed with fertilization treatments. Applying organic manure mitigated the impact of lead stress on wheat growth to some extent, delayed the senescence of wheat roots, and promoted root development and growth, ultimately leading to the increase of wheat yield and the decrease of lead content in grain.

  10. Changes in the properties of pig manure slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Zygmunt; Makara, Agnieszka; Fijorek, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of analyses of samples of manure from a pig farm located near Piła, Poland performed between June 2011 and May 2012 using a single sampling system. The statistical analyses of the average content of chemical and biological oxide demands, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and dry mass in the slurry in various seasons allowed us to draw conclusions concerning the changes in the chemical composition of the manure in specific seasons and to determine the correlations between the chemical parameters. The average content of N, BOD, P, and dry mass content tended to decrease systematically from the spring until the winter. The highest correlation coefficient, which indicates significant interdependency among the variables tested, was consistently found for COD and BOD, whereas the smallest correlation coefficient was found consistently for K and Ca and once for Ca and N.

  11. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  12. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Huang

    Full Text Available Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different.

  13. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieying; Yu, Zixuan; Gao, Hongjian; Yan, Xiaoming; Chang, Jiang; Wang, Chengming; Hu, Jingwei

    2017-01-01

    Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different. PMID:28604783

  14. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Specific Internalisation of Gold Nanoparticles into Engineered Porous Protein Cages via Affinity Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Paramelle

    Full Text Available Porous protein cages are supramolecular protein self-assemblies presenting pores that allow the access of surrounding molecules and ions into their core in order to store and transport them in biological environments. Protein cages' pores are attractive channels for the internalisation of inorganic nanoparticles and an alternative for the preparation of hybrid bioinspired nanoparticles. However, strategies based on nanoparticle transport through the pores are largely unexplored, due to the difficulty of tailoring nanoparticles that have diameters commensurate with the pores size and simultaneously displaying specific affinity to the cages' core and low non-specific binding to the cages' outer surface. We evaluated the specific internalisation of single small gold nanoparticles, 3.9 nm in diameter, into porous protein cages via affinity binding. The E2 protein cage derived from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus presents 12 pores, 6 nm in diameter, and an empty core of 13 nm in diameter. We engineered the E2 protein by site-directed mutagenesis with oligohistidine sequences exposing them into the cage's core. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy analysis show that the structures of E2 protein cages mutated with bis- or penta-histidine sequences are well conserved. The surface of the gold nanoparticles was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer made of a mixture of short peptidols and thiolated alkane ethylene glycol ligands. Such monolayers are found to provide thin coatings preventing non-specific binding to proteins. Further functionalisation of the peptide coated gold nanoparticles with Ni2+ nitrilotriacetic moieties enabled the specific binding to oligohistidine tagged cages. The internalisation via affinity binding was evaluated by electron microscopy analysis. From the various mutations tested, only the penta-histidine mutated E2 protein cage showed repeatable and stable internalisation. The present work overcomes the

  16. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Theo H; Thomas, Kevin A; Hoogendoorn, Roel J W; Strijkers, Gustav J; Helder, Marco N; Wuisman, Paul I J M

    2007-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during degradation studies in vitro. Yet failure of the cages was observed after only 3 months in vivo. We hypothesized that degradation characteristics and mechanical strength could be improved by sterilizing the cages through ethylene oxide (EtO) instead of e-beam. PLDLLA cages were sterilized either by e-beam or EtO, and degraded in phosphate-buffered saline. Each month, cages were compressed until failure. Inherent viscosity was determined as a measure of degradation. For the in vivo evaluation, e-beam- or EtO-sterilized cages were implanted at L3-L4 in a standardized goat model. After 3 or 6 months, retrieved segments were scanned by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Also, inherent viscosity of the polymer was measured. e-beam sterilization strongly decreased inherent viscosity of PLDLLA compared with EtO sterilization, but initial strength was only affected marginally. After 6 months, the strength of the e-beam-sterilized cages dropped, while that of EtO-sterilized cages was maintained. Degradation in vivo was slightly faster than in vitro. In both groups, however, mechanical failure occurred at 3 months after implantation. Inherent viscosity decreases with degradation time, but strength only decreases when inherent viscosity is below a certain threshold. Above this threshold, mechanical strength is a property of the polymer and independent of inherent viscosity. e-beam sterilization strongly decreases inherent viscosity and thus advances mechanical degradation. EtO sterilization delays degradation but does not increase initial strength. Early failure of PLDLLA cages in the goat model thus is unrelated to sterilization method and requires further study.

  17. Nitrogen Removal From Dairy Manure Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Whichard, David P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize a flushed dairy manure wastewater and to develop the kinetic and stoichiometric parameters associated with nitrogen removal from the wastewater, as well as to demonstrate experimental and simulated nitrogen removal from the wastewater. The characterization showed that all the wastewaters had carbon to nitrogen ratios large enough for biological nitrogen removal. Analysis of carbon to phosphorus ratios showed that enough carbon is available fo...

  18. Dairy-manure derived biochar effectively sorbs lead and atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena; Gao, Bin; Harris, Willie

    2009-05-01

    Biochar (BC) produced from agricultural crop residues has proven effective in sorbing organic contaminants. This study evaluated the ability of dairy-manure derived biochar to sorb heavy metal Pb and organic contaminant atrazine. Two biochar samples were prepared by heating dairy manure at low temperature of 200 degrees C (BC200) and 350 degrees C (BC350). The untreated manure (BC25) and a commercial activated C (AC) were included as controls. Sorption of Pb by biochar followed a dual Langmuir-Langmuir model, attributing to Pb precipitation (84-87%) and surface sorption (13-16%). Chemical speciation, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy indicated that Pb was precipitated as beta-Pb9(PO4)6 in BC25 and BC200 treatment, and as Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 in BC350. Lead sorption by AC obeyed a single Langmuir model, attributing mainly to surface sorption probably via coordination of Pb d-electron to C==C (pi-electron) and --0--Pb bonds. The biochar was 6 times more effective in Pb sorption than AC, with BC200 being the most effective (up to 680 mmol Pb kg(-1)). The biochar also effectively sorbed atrazine where atrazine was partitioned into its organic phase, whereas atrazine uptake by AC occurred via surface sorption. When Pb and atrazine coexisted, little competition occurred between the two for sorption on biochar, while strong competition was observed on AC. Results from this study indicated that dairy manure can be converted into value-added biochar as effective sorbent for metal and/or organic contaminants.

  19. Stabilization of confined beef cattle manure: characteristics of produced fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Lorin,Higor E. F.; Costa, Mônica S. S. de M.; Luiz A. de M. Costa; Dercio C. Pereira; Carneiro, Leocir J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The growing demand for animal protein is directly related to the feedlot system of animals and their assumptions, such as the waste management. The characterization of the final products becomes an important factor in decision making by one or by other process. The objective was highlight characteristics that fertilizers present due to the used of stabilization process, by the principal component analysis. For the manure stabilization we realized three aerobic processes, composting, ...

  20. Biological and chemical phosphorus fractionalization in swine manure under aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Yao, Wanying; Zhu, Jun; Miller, Curtis

    2010-05-01

    In this work, the dynamic responses of different phosphorous factions in swine manure to aeration treatment were investigated and profiled to provide insight on potential ways to improve the biological phosphorus removal process. Batch reactors fabricated from clear acrylic columns were filled with fresh swine manure containing a 4.6 % solids content, which was aerated continuously for 15 days at an airflow rate of 2 L/min. The results indicate that the treatment can reduce soluble phosphorus (P) by about 78 % after only one-day aeration due largely to chemical precipitations. At the end of the experiment, the average soluble inorganic P level was reduced by 12 % (from 91 down to 79 %), while the average soluble organic P was increased by 13 % (from 9 to 22 %). The biomass P (DNA/RNA/poly-P) was increased by 24 % in the first three days, but only by 14 % in the rest 12 days of aeration. Also increased by aeration was the lipid P (47 %) but not the protein P. The data reveal that the current aeration rate cannot maintain a stable oxygen level [represented by the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)] in the treated manure, evidenced by the decrease in ORP from 250 mV at the beginning to almost zero at the conclusion of the experiment, which is considered the major factor hindering the growth of aerobes, including the phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs). Therefore, it may be concluded that continuous aeration of swine manure at a constant rate will not guarantee the supply of sufficient oxygen to the growth of PAOs. On another front, it was observed that too much aeration might negatively impact the overall P removal by increasing the release of soluble organic P from dead cells.

  1. (Vigna unguiculata) To Phosphorus Fertilizer And Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out to determine the growth, yield and profitability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), growth with different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and poultry manure. A randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used and the total treatments were four namely: 0.0kgP2O5/ha, 0.20kgP2O5/ha, 0.40kg ...

  2. Influence of varying manure concentrations on the productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven poultry manure concentrations of 0.05, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00 gl-1 were filtered into duckweed (Lemnaceae) culture tanks for the culture of Moina (Cladocera) and Cyclops (Copepoda). The duckweeds were allowed to grow and completely cover the surface of the culture tank. The same concentration of ...

  3. Modeling Phosphorous Losses from Seasonal Manure Application Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nutrient loading, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters is a common and significant problem throughout the United States. While pollution remediation efforts are continuously improving, the most effective treatment remains to limit the source. Appropriate timing of fertilizer application to reduce nutrient losses is currently a hotly debated topic in the Northeastern United States; winter spreading of manure is under special scrutiny. We plan to evaluate the loss of phosphorous to surface waters from agricultural systems under varying seasonal fertilization schemes in an effort to determine the impacts of fertilizers applied throughout the year. The Cayuga Lake basin, located in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is a watershed dominated by agriculture where a wide array of land management strategies can be found. The evaluation will be conducted on the Fall Creek Watershed, a large sub basin in the Cayuga Lake Watershed. The Fall Creek Watershed covers approximately 33,000 ha in central New York State with approximately 50% of this land being used for agriculture. We plan to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model a number of seasonal fertilization regimes such as summer only spreading and year round spreading (including winter applications), as well as others. We will use the model to quantify the phosphorous load to surface waters from these different fertilization schemes and determine the impacts of manure applied at different times throughout the year. More detailed knowledge about how seasonal fertilization schemes impact phosphorous losses will provide more information to stakeholders concerning the impacts of agriculture on surface water quality. Our results will help farmers and extensionists make more informed decisions about appropriate timing of manure application for reduced phosphorous losses and surface water degradation as well as aid law makers in improving policy surrounding manure application.

  4. Methane and biomass production systems for beef cattle manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Prior, R.L.; Chen, Y.R.

    1978-01-01

    The research being conducted at the US Meat Animal Research Center to convert livestock manure into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The pilot scale fermentor is 5.7 m/sup 3/ with working volume between 5.1 to 5.4 m/sup 3/. Fermentation was started by adding fresh beef manure to previously heated tap water and maintaining the pH above 7. Gas production increased dramatically within nine days after start up, demonstrating the relative ease in initiating anaerobic fermentation of livestock manures. The results showed that the total solids, volatile solids and COD reduction decreased as the retention time decreased; the fixed solids and total nitrogen were not lost during fermentation; and the total gas and methane production increased as the retention time decreased. Kinetic constants for the generalized substrate utilization model were determined and were in close agreement with previously reported results. Experimental results agreed well with values predicted by the model. High protein biomass from the fermentation is being recovered through centrifugation and by direct incorporation into the ration. Possible disadvantages are high ration moisture content and more feed production than the number of animals needed to produce manure for the fermentation. Amino acid analysis shows that the fermentor effluent compares favorably with soybeans and that the centrifuged cake compares favorably with alfalfa hay. Feeding trials using dried centrifuge cake showed that the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and nitrogen tended to decrease slightly as the amount of cake in the ration increased. Preliminary results of the feeding trial using fermentor effluent mixed with corn and hay show that the fermentor effluent is utilized as well as soybean protein.

  5. The effect of manure management regulations on competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2003-01-01

    Significant differences in the competitiveness of pig production along with growing international competition in the pigmeat market have raised concerns about the cost impact of environmental regulations on producers, particularly those regarding the management of manure. There appears to be a U...... regulations in different countries do not appear to be of a scale that could explain the general difference in pigmeat competitiveness between countries....

  6. Methane conversion factors from cattle manure in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Avalos, E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E:mail: egavalos@imp.mx; Ruiz-Suarez, L.G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    Methane emission factors from different cattle manure management systems including simulated slurry system fermentation were experimentally determined in this and a previous study (Gonzalez-Avalos and Ruiz-Suarez, 2001). Combining results from both studies, we report values for maximum CH4 yield, called B0, for manure produced by cattle under different production systems and climates, which also implies different quality of feeds and associated methane conversion factors (MCF) for distinct manure management systems. This set of data has the same functionality than that of the current IPCC methodology, but offer a wider set of key parameters to estimate methane emissions from manure, which may be of interest in other countries. In this work, we report MCF can be up to 17.3 times smaller than those suggested in the 1996 Revised IPCC Methodology Guidelines (IPCC, 1997) and Good Practice Guidance (IPCC, 2000). [Spanish] Los factores de emision de metano de diferentes sistemas de manejo de excretas, incluyendo la simulacion de la fermentacion en un sistema de lechada, fueron determinados experimentalmente en este trabajo y en otro anterior (Gonzalez-Avalos y Ruiz-Suarez, 2001). Al combinar ambos, se obtuvieron valores para la produccion maxima de metano (B0) provenientes de excretas producidas por ganado bovino de diferentes sistemas de produccion y climas, lo cual implica diversas calidades de alimento y factores de conversion de metano (MCF) dependiendo de los sistemas de manejo de excretas. Este conjunto de datos tiene la misma funcionalidad que los de la metodologia actual del IPCC, pero ofrece un conjunto de parametros mas amplio para estimar las emisiones de metano por excretas, lo cual puede ser de interes en otros paises. En este trabajo se reporta que los MCF pueden ser hasta 17.3 veces mas pequenos que los sugeridos en las Directrices de la Metodologia Revisada del IPCC de 1996 (IPCC, 1997) y en la Guia de Buenas Practicas (IPCC, 2000).

  7. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  8. Can Phosphate Salts Recovered from Manure Replace Conventional Phosphate Fertilizer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ehmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farming produces more manure than can reasonably be spread onto surrounding fields, particularly in regions with high livestock densities and limited land availability. Nutrient recycling offers an attractive solution for dealing with manure excesses and is one main objective of the European commission-funded project “BioEcoSIM”. Phosphate salts (“P-Salt” were recovered from the separated liquid manure fraction. The solid fraction was dried and carbonized to biochar. This study compared the fertilizing performance of P-Salt and conventional phosphate fertilizer and determined whether additional biochar application further increased biomass yields. The fertilizers and biochar were tested in pot experiments with spring barley and faba beans using two nutrient-poor soils. The crops were fertilized with P-Salt at three levels and biochar in two concentrations. Biomass yield was determined after six weeks. Plant and soil samples were analysed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. The P-Salt had similar or even better effects than mineral fertilizer on growth in both crops and soils. Slow release of nutrients can prevent leaching, rendering P-Salt a particularly suitable fertilizer for light sandy soils. Biochar can enhance its fertilizing effect, but the underlying mechanisms need further investigation. These novel products are concluded to be promising candidates for efficient fertilization strategies.

  9. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  10. Potential use of feedlot cattle manure for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancov, T; Schneider, R C S; Palmer, J; McIntosh, S; Stuetz, R

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on processing options for the conversion of feedlot cattle manures into composite sugars for ethanol fermentation. Small-scale anaerobic digestion trials revealed that the process significantly reduces the content of glucan and xylan (ca. 70%) without effecting lignin. Moreover, anaerobic digestate (AD) fibres were poor substrates for cellulase (Cellic® CTec 2) saccharification, generating a maximum combined sugar yield of ca. 12% per original dry weight. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzyme saccharification of raw manures significantly improved total sugar recoveries, totalling 264 mg/g (79% theoretical). This was attained when manures were pretreated with 2.5% H2SO4 for 90 min at 121°C and saccharified with 50 FPU CTec 2/g glucan. Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently fermented crude hydrolysates within 6 h, yielding 7.3 g/L ethanol, representing glucose to ethanol conversion rate of 70%. With further developments (i.e., fermentation of xylose), this process could deliver greater yields, reinforcing its potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RESPONSE OF WATER HYACINTH MANURE ON GROWTH ATTRIBUTES AND YIELD IN BRASSICA JUNCEA

    OpenAIRE

    LATA, Nuka; VEENAPANI, Dubey

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted during 2007 and 2008 to study the effect of water hyacinth manure in comparison to control on Brassica Juncea (Indian mustard). Soil mineral analysis test was carried out for soil sample types. Added organic matter, water hyacinth manure in various combinations into soil has been found to influence the performance of crop plants as a result of the increase in nutrient availability. The observations revealed positive response with 100% water hyacinth manure, 50% ...

  12. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Etesami, M.; F. Tajpour; Khosravi, M.; A. Biabani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality a...

  13. DRYING POULTRY MANURE FOR POLLUTION POTENTIAL REDUCTION AND PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Ghaly; M. Alhattab

    2013-01-01

    Disposal and storage of raw poultry manure has become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Poultry manure begins to decompose immediately after excretion giving off ammonia which, in high concentrations, can have adverse effects on the health and productivity of birds as well as the health of the farm workers. Application to land is the most common way for utilizing poultry manure as a viable source of major plant nutrients and soil conditioner to ...

  14. Effect of ISPAD Anaerobic Digestion on Ammonia Volatilization from Soil Applied Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine manure subjected to in-storage psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (ISPAD undergoes proteins degradation but limited NH3 volatilization, producing an effluent rich in plant-available nitrogen. Accordingly, ISPAD effluent can offer a higher fertilizer value during land application, as compared to manure of similar age stored in an open tank. However, this additional nitrogen can also be lost by volatilization during land application. The objective of this study was therefore to measure NH3 volatilization from both ISPAD and open tank swine manures when applied to 5 different soils, namely, washed sand, a Ste Rosalie clay, an Upland sandy loam, a St Bernard loam, and an Ormstown loam. This research was conducted using laboratory wind tunnels simulating land application. The five experimental soils offered similar pH values but different water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, cation saturation, and organic matter. After 47 h of wind tunnel monitoring, the % of total available nitrogen (TAN or NH4 + and NH3 volatilized varied with both manure and soil type. For all soil types, the ISPAD manure consistently lost less NH3 as compared to the open tank manure, averaging 53% less. Lower volatile solids content improving manure infiltration into the soil and a more complex ionic solution explain the effect of the ISPAD manure advantages. This was reinforced by the St Bernard sandy loam losing the same nitrogen mass for both manures, because of its higher pH and buffer pH coupled with an intermediate CEC resulting in more soil solution NH3. Within each manure type, % TAN volatilized was highest for washed sand and lowest for the clay soil. As a result, ISPAD manure can offer up to 21% more plant-available nitrogen fertilizer especially when the manure is not incorporated into the soil following its application.

  15. An Economic Rationality of Green Manure Cropping in Large-Scale Upland Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaka, Satoshi; Shiga, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the rationale of introduction and continuation of fallow green manure cropping in large-scale upland farming. First, the decision on the introduction of fallow green manure cropping depends on the scale of farming in terms of farming area and, if introduced, the acreage of such crops represents around 5% of the total acreage. Second, although the introduction of fallow green manure, which is a non-cash crop, causes decline in direct profitability, overall costs are reduced. Theref...

  16. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  17. Recycling nutrients from horse manure: effects of bedding type and its compostability

    OpenAIRE

    Riikka Keskinen; Markku Saastamoinen; Johanna Nikama; Susanna Särkijärvi; Marianna Myllymäki; Tapio Salo; Jaana Uusi-Kämppä

    2017-01-01

    Manure constitutes a nutrient resource that should be efficiently recycled in agriculture. We assessed the nutrient cycling properties of three bedding materials (peat, wood shavings and pelleted straw) in horse manure by comparing their compostability, ability to retain nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) under rainfall and capacity to release N when mixed with soil. Manure with pelleted straw bedding had superior composting characteristics as it lost half of its dry mass, reached temperatures >...

  18. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  19. The potential of Tithonia diversifolia green manure for improving soil quality for cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Brotrytis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hafifah; Sudiarso; Maghfoer, M D; B. Prasetya

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of Tithonia diversifolia green manure and cow manure on soil quality and yield of cauliflower. A field experiment was conducted in the village of Tegalgondo, Karangploso District of Malang Regency. Eight treatments tested were control (no added manures), T.diversifolia 8.15 t/ha, cow manure 25.85 t/ha, NPK fertilizer 1.35 t/ha, T.diversifolia 4.08 t/ha + cow manure 12.93 t/ha, T.diversifolia 4.08 t/ha + NPK fertilizer 676 kg/ha, cow manure 12.93 t/ha + N...

  20. The Potential of Tithonia Diversifolia Green Manure for Improving Soil Quality for Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea Var. Brotrytis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hafifah, H; Sudiarso, S; Maghfoer, M D; B. Prasetya

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of Tithonia diversifolia green manure and cow manure on soil quality and yield of cauliflower. A field experiment was conducted in the village of Tegalgondo, Karangploso District of Malang Regency. Eight treatments tested were control (no added manures), T.diversifolia 8.15 t/ha, cow manure 25.85 t/ha, NPK fertilizer 1.35 t/ha, T.diversifolia 4.08 t/ha + cow manure 12.93 t/ha, T.diversifolia 4.08 t/ha + NPK fertilizer 676 kg/ha, cow manure 12.93 t/ha + N...