Sample records for cage bulk negative-index

  1. The split cube in a cage: bulk negative-index material for infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.


    are obtained by two different numerical techniques: the Fourier modal method and the finite integrals method, thus ensuring their validity. The SCiC exhibits a refractive index of −0.6 for frequencies close to the telecommunication bands. The fast convergence of effective parameters allows consideration...... of the SCiC as a bulk (effectively homogeneous) negative-index metamaterial even for a single layer. The bulk-like nature together with the cubic symmetry of the unit cell make the SCiC a promising candidate for potential applications at telecommunication frequencies....

  2. Bulk isotropic negative-index material design for infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    Responding to the strong call for isotropic bulk negative index material we propose a Split Cube in Car-cass design. It shows negative refractive index -1.5, figure-of-merit 2 and transmittivity 30% for one layer at the telecommunication wavelength 1.6 μm. Effective parameters converge fast...

  3. Nested structures approach for bulk 3D negative index materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    constitutive elements possess cubic symmetry, thus we preserve it for the whole unit cell. The concept can be applied for any frequencies; however, we are targeting optical and THz ranges. We report on numerical characterization of two particular designs, called as “split-cube-in-cage” and “split......-cube-in-carcass”, revealing negative index behaviour. Two approaches are applied – effective parameters approximation and phenomenological one, showing excellent correlation in results. The designs show good results in isotropy of effective properties and their convergence with the thickness of a sample. Apart from design...

  4. Acetabular Reconstruction with the Burch-Schneider Antiprotrusio Cage and Bulk Allografts: Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Regis


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of severe pelvic bone loss is a challenging problem in hip revision surgery. Between January 1992 and December 2000, 97 hips with periprosthetic osteolysis underwent acetabular revision using bulk allografts and the Burch-Schneider antiprotrusio cage (APC. Twenty-nine patients (32 implants died for unrelated causes without additional surgery. Sixty-five hips were available for clinical and radiographic assessment at an average follow-up of 14.6 years (range, 10.0 to 18.9 years. There were 16 male and 49 female patients, aged from 29 to 83 (median, 60 years, with Paprosky IIIA (27 cases and IIIB (38 cases acetabular bone defects. Nine cages required rerevision because of infection (3, aseptic loosening (5, and flange breakage (1. The average Harris hip score improved from 33.1 points preoperatively to 75.6 points at follow-up (P<0.001. Radiographically, graft incorporation and cage stability were detected in 48 and 52 hips, respectively. The cumulative survival rates at 18.9 years with removal for any reason or X-ray migration of the cage and aseptic or radiographic loosening as the end points were 80.0% and 84.6%, respectively. The use of the Burch-Schneider APC and massive allografts is an effective technique for the reconstructive treatment of extensive acetabular bone loss with long-lasting survival.

  5. Interferometric characterization of a sub-wavelength near-infrared negative index metamaterial. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuhuai; Davanço, Marcelo; Maller, Kara; Jarvis, Thomas W; Wu, Chihhui; Fietz, Chris; Korobkin, Dmitriy; Li, Xiaoqin; Shvets, Gennady; Forrest, Stephen R


    Negative phase advance through a single layer of near-IR negative index metamaterial (NIM) is identified through interferometric measurements. The NIM unit cell, sub-wavelength in both the lateral and light propagation directions, is comprised of a pair of Au strips separated by two dielectric and one Au film. Numerical simulations show that the negative phase advance through the single-layer sample is consistent with the negative index exhibited by a bulk material comprised of multiple layers of the same structure. We also numerically demonstrate that the negative index band persists in the lossless limit.

  6. Negative-Index Media for Matter Waves (United States)

    Perales, F.; Bocvarski, V.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.


    One reviews the recently introduced field of matter-wave "meta-optics", i.e. the extension of optical negative-index media (NIM) to atom optics. After emphasizing the differences with light meta-optics and particularly the necessary transient character of NIM's in atom optics, we present the way of generating matter-wave NIM's and their general properties: negative refraction, atom meta-lenses. Finally their specific features are reviewed: longitudinal wave packet narrowing associated to a time-reversal effect, transient revivals of evanescent matter waves and atom reflection echoes at a potential barrier.

  7. Structures with negative index of refraction (United States)

    Soukoulis, Costas M [Ames, IA; Zhou, Jiangfeng [Ames, IA; Koschny, Thomas [Ames, IA; Zhang, Lei [Ames, IA; Tuttle, Gary [Ames, IA


    The invention provides simplified negative index materials (NIMs) using wire-pair structures, 4-gap single ring split-ring resonator (SRR), fishnet structures and overleaf capacitor SRR. In the wire-pair arrangement, a pair of short parallel wires and continuous wires are used. In the 4-gap single-ring SRR, the SRRs are centered on the faces of a cubic unit cell combined with a continuous wire type resonator. Combining both elements creates a frequency band where the metamaterial is transparent with simultaneously negative .di-elect cons. and .mu.. In the fishnet structure, a metallic mesh on both sides of the dielectric spacer is used. The overleaf capacitor SRR changes the gap capacities to small plate capacitors by making the sections of the SRR ring overlap at the gaps separated by a thin dielectric film. This technique is applicable to conventional SRR gaps but it best deploys for the 4-gap single-ring structures.

  8. Nested structures approach in designing an isotropic negative-index material for infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We propose a new generic approach for designing isotropic metamaterial with nested cubic structures. As an example, a three-dimensional isotropic unit cell design "Split Cube in Cage" (SCiC) is shown to exhibit an effective negative refractive index on infrared wavelengths. We report...... on the refractive index reaching -2.3 and the figure of merit as high as 2.7. The structure exhibits potential for application as a building block of isotropic negative-index materials....

  9. Microscopic mirrorless negative-index optical parametric oscillator


    Popov, Alexander K; Myslivets, Sergey A; Shalaev, V. M.


    The feasibility and extraordinary properties of mirrorless optical parametric oscillations in a microscopic strongly absorbing slab of negative-index metamaterial are shown. They stem from the backwardness of electromagnetic waves inherent with this type of metamaterial.

  10. Dynamics of evanescent matter waves in negative-index media (United States)

    Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.


    Semi-evanescent and evanescent matter waves produced by an atom wave packet impinging on a repulsive barrier can be back-refracted and reconstructed by the application of negative-index 'comoving' potential pulses. One shows that those collapses and revivals generate a matter wave confined on both sides of the barrier border ('surface matter wave') and should be observable via the retardation of atom reflection from the barrier interface. This property, joined to the possibility recently demonstrated of inducing negative refraction of atom waves, makes such potentials a matter-wave counterpart of negative-index materials or 'meta materials' well known in light optics.

  11. Negative-index metamaterials: looking into the unit cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burresi, M.; Diessel, D.; van Oosten, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269286470; Linden, Stefan; Wegener, M.; Kuipers, L.


    With their potential for spectacular applications, like superlensing and cloaking, metamaterials are a powerful class of nanostructured materials. All these applications rely on the metamaterials acting as a homogeneous material. We investigate a negative index metamaterial with a phase-sensitive

  12. Dynamics of evanescent matter waves in negative-index media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamda, M; Bocvarski, V; Perales, F; Baudon, J; Dutier, G; Mainos, C; Boustimi, M; Ducloy, M, E-mail: jacques.baudon@univ-paris13.f [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, CNRS-UMR 7538, Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J B Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France)


    Semi-evanescent and evanescent matter waves produced by an atom wave packet impinging on a repulsive barrier can be back-refracted and reconstructed by the application of negative-index 'comoving' potential pulses. One shows that those collapses and revivals generate a matter wave confined on both sides of the barrier border ('surface matter wave') and should be observable via the retardation of atom reflection from the barrier interface. This property, joined to the possibility recently demonstrated of inducing negative refraction of atom waves, makes such potentials a matter-wave counterpart of negative-index materials or 'meta materials' well known in light optics.

  13. Active microwave negative-index metamaterial transmission line with gain. (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Chang, Kihun; Si, Li-Ming; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao


    We studied the active metamaterial transmission line at microwave frequency. The active composite right-handed or left-handed transmission line was designed to incorporate a germanium tunnel diode with a negative differential resistance property as the gain device at the unit cell level. Measurements of the fabricated planar transmission line structures with one-, two-, and three-unit cells showed that the addition of the dc pumped tunnel diodes not only provided gain but also maintained the left handedness of the transmission line metamaterial. Simulation results agree well with experimental observation. This work demonstrated that negative index material can be obtained with a net gain when an external source is incorporated.

  14. Negative Index Materials and Plasmonic Antennas Based Nanocouplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei

    negative index material. The wave propagation retrieval method for metamaterials with linear and circular eigenpolarizations and the field averaging of the restored Bloch mode method are proposed for metamaterials effective properties characterization. The methods are based on observation of the wave...... propagation in the metamaterial slab. The methods are unambiguous, simple, can be applied to lossy and lossless metamaterials with negative and positive refractive index, permittivity and permeability. The technology of silver nanometallization of complex 3D dielectric structures is developed....... The metallization is based on silver reduction from the silver-ammonia complex with formaldehyde. Continuous and smooth silver layer can be deposited starting from 30 nm. The technology can be used for the complex photonic structures fabrication for the infrared frequencies. The coupling effects between...

  15. Synthesizing low loss negative index metamaterial stacks for the mid-infrared using genetic algorithms. (United States)

    Bossard, Jeremy A; Yun, Seokho; Werner, Douglas H; Mayer, Theresa S


    Negative index metamaterial designs for the mid-infrared with low absorption and impedance mismatch losses are presented. A robust genetic algorithm is employed to optimize the flexible metamaterial structure for targeted refractive index and impedance values. A new figure of merit is introduced to evaluate the impedance match of the metamaterial to free space. Two designs are presented demonstrating low-loss characteristics for a thin metamaterial with two metal screens and a thick metamaterial stack with five screens. The device performance is analyzed when adding more screens to the structure, revealing that optimizing a thick stack produces a metamaterial with properties approaching those of a bulk material. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  16. Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dani, Keshav M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Upadhya, Prashant C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zahyum, Ku [CHTM-UNM


    Development of all-optical signal processing, eliminating the performance and cost penalties of optical-electrical-optical conversion, is important for continu,ing advances in Terabits/sec (Tb/s) communications.' Optical nonlinearities are generally weak, traditionally requiring long-path, large-area devicesl,2 or very high-Q, narrow-band resonator structures.3 Optical metamaterials offer unique capabilities for optical-optical interactions. Here we report 600 femtosecond (fs) all-optical modulation using a fIShnet (2D-perforated metallamorphous-Si (a-Si)/metal film stack) negative-index meta material with a structurally tunable broad-band response near 1.2 {micro}m. Over 20% modulation (experimentally limited) is achieved in a path length of only 116 nm by photo-excitation of carriers in the a-Si layer. This has the potential for Tb/s aU-optical communication and will lead to other novel, compact, tunable sub-picosecond (ps) photonic devices.

  17. The effect of the water/methane interface on methane hydrate cages: the potential of mean force and cage lifetimes. (United States)

    Mastny, Ethan A; Miller, Clark A; de Pablo, Juan J


    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the influence of a methane-water interface on the position and stability of methane hydrate cages. A potential of mean force was calculated as a function of the separation of a methane hydrate cage and a methane-water interface. The hydrate cages are found to be strongly repelled from the methane gas into the water phase. At low enough temperatures, however, the most favorable location for the hydrate cage is at the interface on the water side. Cage lifetime simulations were performed in bulk water and near a methane-water interface. The methane-water interface increases the cage lifetime by almost a factor of 2 compared to cage lifetimes of cages in bulk water. The potential of mean force and the cage lifetime results give additional explanations for the proposed nucleation of gas hydrates at gas-water interfaces.

  18. Biological cages


    Janssen, M. E.; NGUYEN, C; Beckham, R.; Larson, A.


    Restoring a stable anterior column is essential to achieve normal spinal biomechanics. A variety of mechanical spacers have been developed and advocated for both anterior and posterior approaches. The ability to radiographically assess the “biology” of bone incorporation in these mechanical (metal) spacers is an inherent limitation. The femoral ring allograft (FRA) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) spacers have been developed as biological cages that permit restoration of the anter...

  19. Low-loss negative index metamaterials for X, Ku, and K microwave bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lee


    Full Text Available Low-loss, negative-index of refraction metamaterials were designed and tested for X, Ku, and K microwave frequency bands. An S-shaped, split-ring resonator was used as a unit cell to design homogeneous slabs of negative-index metamaterials. Then, the slabs of metamaterials were cut unto prisms to measure experimentally the negative index of refraction of a plane electromagnetic wave. Theoretical simulations using High-Frequency Structural Simulator, a finite element equation solver, were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The negative index of refraction was retrieved from the angle- and frequency-dependence of the transmitted intensity of the microwave beam through the metamaterial prism and compared well to simulations; in addition, near-field electromagnetic intensity mapping was conducted with an infrared camera, and there was also a good match with the simulations for expected frequency ranges for the negative index of refraction.

  20. Plasmon-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Negative Index Materials for Superlensing Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Negative index materials (NIMs) offer tremendous potential for the formation of highly compact as well as large-area deployable thin-film optical components. Omega...

  1. Modulation instability of structured-light beams in negative-index metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Silahli, Salih Z; Litchinitser, Natalia M


    One of the most fundamental properties of isotropic negative-index metamaterials, namely opposite directionality of the Poynting vector and the wavevector, enable many novel linear and nonlinear regimes of light-matter interactions. Here, we predict distinct characteristics of azimuthal modulation instability of optical vortices with different topological charges in negative-index metamaterials with Kerr-type and saturable nonlinearity. We derive an analytical expression for the spatial modulation-instability gain for the Kerr-nonlinearity case and show that a specific condition relating the diffraction and the nonlinear lengths must be fulfilled for the azimuthal modulation instability to occur. Finally, we investigate the rotation of the necklace beams due to the transfer of orbital angular momentum of the generating vortex onto the movement of solitary necklace beams. We show that the direction of rotation is opposite in the positive- and negative-index materials.

  2. Experimental measurement of negative index in an all-dielectric metamaterial (United States)

    Lepetit, T.; Akmansoy, É.; Ganne, J.-P.


    We designed and fabricated an all-dielectric metamaterial which exhibits negative index of refraction. This metamaterial consists of one layer made up of two sets of high permittivity resonators. We experimentally showed that this metamaterial exhibits resonant effective permeability and permittivity issued from the first two modes of Mie resonances, respectively, and that matching both these parameters results in negative effective index.

  3. Lateral beam shift at transmission through layered structures with negative index material (United States)

    Vuković, Slobodan M.; Aleksić, Najdan B.; Timotijević, Dejan V.; Belic, Milivoj R.


    We studied electromagnetic wave transmission through layered structures that include negative index materials. The excitation of leaky guided modes leads to the formation of anomalous lateral shifts in the reflected beam with a double-peak structure and in the transmitted beam with a single-peak structure. In the absence of losses, we demonstrate that the total transparency (i.e. zero reflection) of the slab waveguide with the negative index material can be achieved under conditions in which high reflectivity is normally expected. We demonstrate the trade-off effect between the high transmission and the high lateral shift. This peculiar effect exists not only for the pure TE or the pure TM polarization of the obliquely incident radiation, but also under certain circumstances for both of them simultaneously i.e. for the nonpolarized radiation.

  4. Wide-angle infrared absorber based on negative index plasmonic metamaterial


    Avitzour, Yoav; Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.; Shvets, Gennady


    A metamaterials-based approach to making a wide-angle absorber of infrared radiation is described. The technique is based on an anisotropic Perfectly Impedance Matched Negative Index Material (PIMNIM). It is shown analytically that a sub-wavelength in all three dimensions PIMNIM enables absorption of close to 100% for incidence angles up to $45\\deg$ to the normal. A specific implementation of such frequency-tunable PIMNIM based on plasmonic metamaterials is presented. Applications to infrared...

  5. A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies (United States)

    Burgos, Stanley P.; de Waele, Rene; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry A.


    Metamaterials are materials with artificial electromagnetic properties defined by their sub-wavelength structure rather than their chemical composition. Negative-index materials (NIMs) are a special class of metamaterials characterized by an effective negative index that gives rise to such unusual wave behaviour as backwards phase propagation and negative refraction. These extraordinary properties lead to many interesting functions such as sub-diffraction imaging and invisibility cloaking. So far, NIMs have been realized through layering of resonant structures, such as split-ring resonators, and have been demonstrated at microwave to infrared frequencies over a narrow range of angles-of-incidence and polarization. However, resonant-element NIM designs suffer from the limitations of not being scalable to operate at visible frequencies because of intrinsic fabrication limitations, require multiple functional layers to achieve strong scattering and have refractive indices that are highly dependent on angle of incidence and polarization. Here we report a metamaterial composed of a single layer of coupled plasmonic coaxial waveguides that exhibits an effective refractive index of -2 in the blue spectral region with a figure-of-merit larger than 8. The resulting NIM refractive index is insensitive to both polarization and angle-of-incidence over a +/-50∘ angular range, yielding a wide-angle NIM at visible frequencies.

  6. A Negative Index Metamaterial to Enhance the Performance of Miniaturized UWB Antenna for Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfiker Mahmud


    Full Text Available A new, compact planar wideband negative index metamaterial based on a modified split ring resonator (SRR is studied to enhance performance of ultrawideband antenna. A compact, metamaterial (MTM-inspired microstrip antenna is presented for microwave imaging system (MIS application. Two layers of left-handed metamaterial array (2 × 4 of the unit cell are placed on the radiating patch and the ground plane, respectively. Each left-handed metamaterial (LHM unit cell was constructed by modifying a square split ring resonator (SRR, resulting in negative permeability and permittivity with a stable negative refractive index. The results shows that it has a significant impact on the performance of conventional patch antenna in terms of transmission co-efficient, efficiency and low loss. Compared to antenna without LHM, it is shown that the bandwidth is significantly broadened up to a few megahertz and becomes more convergent leading to the achievement of desired properties for ultra-wideband (UWB applications leading to microwave imaging. The proposed MTM antenna structure is fabricated on commercially-available, flame-retardant material of size 26 × 22 × 1.6 mm3 with 4.6 dielectric constants, due to its low cost and convenience for making multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs. The antenna achieves 3.1 GHz to 10.71 GHz of impedance bandwidth (−10 dB, which covers the full UWB band. The use of double-layer negative index MTM unit cells enhances UWB performance, and the improved radiation efficiency, nearly directional radiation pattern, acceptable gain, stable surface current and negative refractive index make this MTM antenna a suitable candidate for UWB applications.

  7. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro


    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  8. New design of multi-band negative-index metamaterial and absorber at visible frequencies (United States)

    Gong, Boyi; Guo, Fan; Zou, Wenkang; Chen, Lin; Song, Kun; Zhao, Xiaopeng


    A new negative-index metamaterial (NIM) structure is proposed by designing the metallic holes of traditional double-fishnet (DF) structures from uniform sizes to several different sizes. Numerical results demonstrate that the new metamaterial, as an improved variant of the DF structure, achieved a multi-band negative refractive index across a wide range of visible frequencies from 470 THz to 540 THz, which covers the red, orange, yellow, and green regions of the visible spectra. Meanwhile, a low-profile nanostrctured absorber was obtained when one side of the perforated metal layer of this multi-band NIM was substituted with a continuous metal film with the same thickness. The absorber showed the high absorption of more than 95% at multiple frequencies of 511, 520, 523, 525, and 527 THz. The behavior of multi-frequency response effectively broadened the working bandwidth. Finally, the physical mechanism of the multi-band operating characteristics of NIM and absorber was analyzed with the distributions of current intensity at different resonant frequencies.

  9. Nanoimprinting techniques for large-area three-dimensional negative index metamaterials with operation in the visible and telecom bands. (United States)

    Gao, Li; Shigeta, Kazuki; Vazquez-Guardado, Abraham; Progler, Christopher J; Bogart, Gregory R; Rogers, John A; Chanda, Debashis


    We report advances in materials, designs, and fabrication schemes for large-area negative index metamaterials (NIMs) in multilayer "fishnet" layouts that offer negative index behavior at wavelengths into the visible regime. A simple nanoimprinting scheme capable of implementation using standard, widely available tools followed by a subtractive, physical liftoff step provides an enabling route for the fabrication. Computational analysis of reflection and transmission measurements suggests that the resulting structures offer negative index of refraction that spans both the visible wavelength range (529-720 nm) and the telecommunication band (1.35-1.6 μm). The data reveal that these large (>75 cm(2)) imprinted NIMs have predictable behaviors, good spatial uniformity in properties, and figures of merit as high as 4.3 in the visible range.

  10. Octanuclear cubic coordination cages. (United States)

    Tidmarsh, Ian S; Faust, Thomas B; Adams, Harry; Harding, Lindsay P; Russo, Luca; Clegg, William; Ward, Michael D


    Two new bis-bidentate bridging ligands have been prepared, L (naph) and L (anth), which contain two chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine units connected to an aromatic spacer (naphthalene-1,5-diyl and anthracene-9,10-diyl respectively) via methylene connectors. Each of these reacts with transition metal dications having a preference for octahedral coordination geometry to afford {M 8L 12} (16+) cages (for L (anth), M = Cu, Zn; for L (naph), M = Co, Ni, Cd) which have an approximately cubic arrangement of metal ions with a bridging ligand spanning each of the twelve edges, and a large central cavity containing a mixture of anions and/or solvent molecules. The cages based on L (anth) have two cyclic helical {M 4L 4} faces, of opposite chirality, connected by four additional L (anth) ligands as "pillars"; all metal centers have a meridional tris-chelate configuration. In contrast the cages based on L (naph) have (noncrystallographic) S 6 symmetry, with a diagonally opposite pair of corners having a facial tris-chelate configuration with the other six being meridional. An additional significant difference between the two types of structure is that the cubes containing L (anth) do not show significant interligand aromatic stacking interactions. However, in the cages based on L (naph), there are six five-membered stacks of aromatic ligand fragments around the periphery, each based on an alternating array of electron-rich (naphthyl) and electron-deficient (pyrazolyl-pyridine, coordinated to M (2+)) aromatic units. A consequence of this is that the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) retain their structural integrity in polar solvents, in contrast to the cages {M 8(L (anth)) 12} (16+) which dissociate in polar solvents. Consequently, the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) give NMR spectra in agreement with the symmetry observed in the solid state, and their fluorescence spectra (for M = Cd) display (in addition to the normal naphthalene-based pi-pi* fluorescence) a lower-energy exciplex

  11. Commercial cage fish culture


    Aigbadon, B.V.


    With increasing emphasis in Nigeria on aquaculture as an alternative to dwindling artisanal fishing and scarce foreign exchange for fish import, cage fish culture, is a more profitable aquaculture practice than pond culture. It appears to be one of the most viable business ventures with minimum risks. It is a highly recommendable project

  12. John Cage Discusses Fluxus. (United States)

    Snyder, Ellsworth


    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  13. Rope Caging and Grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, T.H.; Wan, W.; Pan, J.; Wang, C.C.; Yuan, J.; Harada, K; Chen, Y.


    We present a novel method for caging grasps in this paper by stretching ropes on the surface of a 3D object. Both topology and shape of a model to be grasped has been
    considered in our approach. Our algorithm can guarantee generating local minimal rings on every topological branches of a given

  14. Demonstration of a Three-dimensional Negative Index Medium Operated at Multiple-angle Incidences by Monolithic Metallic Hemispherical Shells. (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Tso; Huang, Tsung-Yu; Tanaka, Takuo; Yen, Ta-Jen


    We design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) negative index medium (NIM) composed of gold hemispherical shells to supplant an integration of a split-ring resonator and a discrete plasmonic wire for both negative permeability and permittivity at THz gap. With the proposed highly symmetric gold hemispherical shells, the negative index is preserved at multiple incident angles ranging from 0° to 85° for both TE and TM waves, which is further evidenced by negative phase flows in animated field distributions and outweighs conventional fishnet structures with operating frequency shifts when varying incident angles. Finally, the fabrication of the gold hemispherical shells is facilitated via standard UV lithographic and isotropic wet etching processes and characterized by μ-FTIR. The measurement results agree the simulated ones very well.

  15. High levitation pressures with cage-cooled superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Komori, Mochimitsu [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan)


    We present an analysis of and experimental results from a levitational system comprising a stationary, bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and a levitated component (rotor) that consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet surrounded by an annular HTS. The rotor is cooled below the critical temperature of the HTS while surrounded by a ferromagnetic cage. When the ferromagnetic cage is removed, the flux from the permanent magnet is essentially excluded from the interior of the HTS. When brought into proximity with the HTS stator, the cage-cooled rotor experiences a levitational force. The levitational force may be calculated by applying magnetic circuit theory. Such calculations indicate that for a sufficiently high critical current density, the levitational pressure may exceed that between the permanent magnet and its mirror image. We constructed a rotor from an NdFeB permanent magnet and YBCO bulk HTS with a critical current density of {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. A soft ferromagnetic steel cage was constructed in segments. The critical current density of the stator HTS was also {approx}5 kA cm{sup -2}. Experimental results obtained with the cage-cooled rotor and stationary HTS show a significant increase in force over that of an equivalent PM rotor and stationary HTS. (author)

  16. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.


    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  17. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning (United States)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.


    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  18. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann


    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  19. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications. (United States)

    Islam, Md Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Samsuzzaman, Md; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah; Mansor, Mohd Fais


    A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB) microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH) metamaterial (MTM) unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR) with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm³, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4-12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  20. The use of negative indexes of health to evaluate quality of care in a primary-care group practice. (United States)

    Heineken, P A; Charles, G; Stimson, D H; Wenell, C; Stimson, R H


    A quality assessment method using negative indexes of health as a measure of the quality of medical care was applied in a hospital-based primary-care group practice. During a 5-year period, records of 1,147 patients were analyzed. The study led to several observations regarding the use of this method in this setting: 1) The negative indexes of health method encourages physicians to include both primary and secondary preventive measures in their practice of medicine and to see their role as a broad one, from providing good care to individual patients to influencing public policy. 2) Most medical records do not now contain all the data required for use of this method. 3) In cases where this method identifies only a few instances of possibly preventable disease or untimely death, it is impossible to know whether the care is good and the method of evaluation is sensitive, or whether the care is poor and the method is insensitive to deficiencies in care.

  1. Laying hens in furnished cages


    Wall, Helena


    Concern for the welfare of laying hens housed in conventional cages has led to a change of the Animal Welfare Legislation in Sweden, implying that cages must provide possibilities for hens to lay eggs in a nest, to rest on a perch and to use litter. Such requirements are also being considered within the whole European Union. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the general knowledge of, and further development of, furnished cages, both as regards birds’ use of facilities and their w...

  2. A Mobile Phone Faraday Cage (United States)

    French, M. M. J.


    A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…

  3. 50 CFR 648.75 - Cage identification. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cage identification. 648.75 Section 648.75... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.75 Cage identification. Except as provided in § 648.76, the following cage identification requirements apply to all vessels issued a Federal fishing permit for surf...

  4. Cage model of polar fluids: Finite cage inertia generalization. (United States)

    Coffey, W T; Zarifakis, M; Kalmykov, Y P; Titov, S V; Dowling, W J; Titov, A S


    The itinerant oscillator model describing rotation of a dipole about a fixed axis inside a cage formed by its surrounding polar molecules is revisited in the context of modeling the dielectric relaxation of a polar fluid via the Langevin equation. The dynamical properties of the model are studied by averaging the Langevin equations describing the complex orientational dynamics of two bodies (molecule-cage) over their realizations in phase space so that the problem reduces to solving a system of three index linear differential-recurrence relations for the statistical moments. These are then solved in the frequency domain using matrix continued fractions. The linear dielectric response is then evaluated for extensive ranges of damping, dipole moment ratio, and cage-dipole inertia ratio and along with the usual inertia corrected microwave Debye absorption gives rise to significant far-infrared absorption with a comb-like structure of harmonic peaks. The model may be also regarded as an extension of Budó's [J. Chem. Phys. 17, 686 (1949)] treatment of molecules containing rotating polar groups to include inertial effects.

  5. Protein cages and synthetic polymers: a fruitful symbiosis for drug delivery applications, bionanotechnology and materials science. (United States)

    Rother, Martin; Nussbaumer, Martin G; Renggli, Kasper; Bruns, Nico


    Protein cages are hollow protein nanoparticles, such as viral capsids, virus-like particles, ferritin, heat-shock proteins and chaperonins. They have well-defined capsule-like structures with a monodisperse size. Their protein subunits can be modified by genetic engineering at predetermined positions, allowing for example site-selective introduction of attachment points for functional groups, catalysts or targeting ligands on their outer surface, in their interior and between subunits. Therefore, protein cages have been extensively explored as functional entities in bionanotechnology, as drug-delivery or gene-delivery vehicles, as nanoreactors or as templates for the synthesis of organic and inorganic nanomaterials. The scope of functionalities and applications of protein cages can be significantly broadened if they are combined with synthetic polymers on their surface or within their interior. For example, PEGylation reduces the immunogenicity of protein cage-based delivery systems and active targeting ligands can be attached via polymer chains to favour their accumulation in diseased tissue. Polymers within protein cages offer the possibility of increasing the loading density of drug molecules, nucleic acids, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents or catalysts. Moreover, the interaction of protein cages and polymers can be used to modulate the size and shape of some viral capsids to generate structures that do not occur with native viruses. Another possibility is to use the interior of polymer cages as a confined reaction space for polymerization reactions such as atom transfer radical polymerization or rhodium-catalysed polymerization of phenylacetylene. The protein nanoreactors facilitate a higher degree of control over polymer synthesis. This review will summarize the hybrid structures that have been synthesized by polymerizing from protein cage-bound initiators, by conjugating polymers to protein cages, by embedding protein cages into bulk polymeric

  6. Development of furnished cages for laying hens. (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A


    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  7. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A


    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  8. (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation Data d...etail Data name (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation DOI 10.18908/l...m5_rp_exp_details#en Data acquisition method HeliScopeCAGE ( | Contact Us (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  9. Listening to Cage: Nonintentional philosophy and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fleming


    Full Text Available Listening to Cage: Nonintentional Philosophy and Music threads together the writings of ordinary language philosophy and the music of John Cage, responding specifically to requests made by Cage and Stanley Cavell. While many texts downplay or ignore the philosophical demands in Cage’s music and other texts find grandiose spiritual and philosophical material tied to his work, this text rejects both efforts. It challenges the basic directions of the growing secondary source material on Cage, finding it largely contrary to what Cage himself and his music teaches. That secondary material constantly offers an intentional approach to the music which is to make Cage understandable or easier to understand. The present text makes him appropriately difficult and basically unapproachable, asking the reader for serious acknowledgment of what Cage says he does, namely, “I have nothing to say and I am saying it.” While there is little hope of stopping the Cage industry that academia and publishers have grown, this text wishes at least to try to slow it down. The footnotes of this text include direct conversation material with Cage from the 1980s and 1990s regarding many subjects—his own compositions, our life struggles, remarks on Wittgenstein, Thoreau, philosophy, and music—all with a new context for their hearing.

  10. A Negative Index Metamaterial-Inspired UWB Antenna with an Integration of Complementary SRR and CLS Unit Cells for Microwave Imaging Sensor Applications. (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Islam, Md Moinul; Samsuzzaman, Md; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah


    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial incorporated UWB antenna with an integration of complementary SRR (split-ring resonator) and CLS (capacitive loaded strip) unit cells for microwave imaging sensor applications. This metamaterial UWB antenna sensor consists of four unit cells along one axis, where each unit cell incorporates a complementary SRR and CLS pair. This integration enables a design layout that allows both a negative value of permittivity and a negative value of permeability simultaneous, resulting in a durable negative index to enhance the antenna sensor performance for microwave imaging sensor applications. The proposed MTM antenna sensor was designed and fabricated on an FR4 substrate having a thickness of 1.6 mm and a dielectric constant of 4.6. The electrical dimensions of this antenna sensor are 0.20 λ × 0.29 λ at a lower frequency of 3.1 GHz. This antenna sensor achieves a 131.5% bandwidth (VSWR < 2) covering the frequency bands from 3.1 GHz to more than 15 GHz with a maximum gain of 6.57 dBi. High fidelity factor and gain, smooth surface-current distribution and nearly omni-directional radiation patterns with low cross-polarization confirm that the proposed negative index UWB antenna is a promising entrant in the field of microwave imaging sensors.

  11. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.


    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand

  12. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores (United States)

    Weijermars, Ruud; Zhang, Xi; Schultz-Ela, Dan


    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called `fracture cages' around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain the fracture caging mechanism and pinpoint the physical parameters and conditions for its control. This new insight has great practical relevance for the effectiveness and safety of drilling operations in general, and hydraulic fracturing in particular. Fracture caging runaway poses a hazard for drilling operations in overpressured formations. Recognition of the fracture caging mechanism also opens up new opportunities for controlled engineering of its effects by the manipulation of the Frac number in wells in order to bring more precision in the fracking process of tight formations.

  13. Reactions inside nanoscale protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, Saskia A.; Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria


    Chemical reactions are traditionally carried out in bulk solution, but in nature confined spaces, like cell organelles, are used to obtain control in time and space of conversion. One way of studying these reactions in confinement is the development and use of small reaction vessels dispersed in

  14. Design and synthesis of photolabile caged cytokinin. (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kusaka, Naoyuki; Ando, Kazuki; Mitsui, Taichi; Aoyama, Takashi; Nozaki, Hiroshi


    Cytokinins are phytohormones that regulate diverse developmental processes throughout the life of a plant. trans-Zeatin, kinetin, benzyladenine and dihydrozeatin are adenine-type cytokinins that are perceived by the AHK cytokinin receptors. Endogenous cytokinin levels are critical for regulating plant development. To manipulate intracellular cytokinin levels, caged cytokinins were designed on the basis of the crystal structure of the AHK4 cytokinin receptor. The caged cytokinin was photolyzed to release the cytokinin molecule inside the cells and induce cytokinin-responsive gene expression. The uncaging of intracellular caged cytokinins demonstrated that cytokinin-induced root growth inhibition can be manipulated with photo-irradiation. This caged cytokinin system could be a powerful tool for cytokinin biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation Data detail Data name Heliscope...thod - Data analysis method HeliScopeCAGE ( ) Delve (Ali...Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us HeliscopeCAGE

  16. Furnished cage system and hen well-being: Comparative effects of furnished cages and battery cages on behavioral exhibitions in White Leghorn chickens. (United States)

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W


    The battery cage system is being banned in the European Union before or by 2012, and the furnished cage system will be the only cage system allowed after 2012. This study was conducted to examine the different effects of caging systems, furnished cages vs. battery cages, on bird behaviors. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 White Leghorn chicks were reared using standard management practices in raised wire cages. At 19 wk of age, the birds were randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm(2) of floor space per birds. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with a concealment curtain. Based on the company recommendations, 10 birds were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm(2) of floor space per bird. Behavioral observations were conducted using the Noldus Observer software package. The birds were observed at 5-min intervals for the entire light period. The birds housed in battery cages had higher posture and behavioral transitions and increased time spent walking and performing exploratory behavior (P < 0.05, 0.01, respectively), which may indicate they were stressed, resulting in restlessness, whereas the birds housed in furnished cages had higher levels of preening (P < 0.05). Preening has been considered as a comfort behavior in birds. These results may suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative system for housing birds by allowing them to perform certain natural behaviors.

  17. Optical isotropic negative index metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Christoph; Paul, Thomas; Rockstuhl, Carsten


    Towards isotropic metamaterials, we analyze isofrequency surfaces of the dispersion relation of high symmetry metamaterials and show that they are optically not isotropic. We achieve instead isotropic metamaterials that consist of carefully designed multiple layers....

  18. Efficacy of anterior cervical fusion: comparison of titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous bone grafts. (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Der-Cherng; Hsieh, Wanhua Annie; Chen, Wu-Fu; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Harnod, Tomor; Chiou, Tsung-Lang; Chang, Yuh-Lin; Su, Chain-Fa; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chen, Shin-Yuan


    This retrospective study was designed to analyze and compare the efficacy and outcomes of anterior cervical fusion using titanium cages, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages and autogenous tricortical bone grafts. Fifty-five patients who underwent segmental anterior discectomy with a follow-up period up to 12 months enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups: titanium cage with biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (Triosite; Zimmer, Berlin, Germany) in group A (n=27); PEEK cage with Triosite in group B (n=9); and autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft in group C (n=19). The fusion rates after 6 months were 37.21% in group A , 93.3% in group B, and 84.85% in group C. The fusion rates after 1 year in groups A, B, and C were 46.51%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The PEEK cage is a viable alternative to autogenous tricortical bone grafts in anterior cervical fusion.

  19. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang


    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  20. The Edinburgh modified cage for laying hens. (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Hughes, B O


    1. Behaviour, production and welfare of ISA Brown medium hybrids were assessed in 2 trials (each from 20 to 44 weeks of age) of a novel design of cage for laying hens: the Edinburgh Modified Cage (EMC). 2. The EMC was 600 mm wide, 450 mm deep and 450 mm high at the rear; it had a softwood perch and at one side a 250 mm wide nest box (containing litter or artificial turf) with a dust bath directly above. It housed 4 birds and provided 675 cm2/bird in the main cage with an additional 281 cm2/bird in the nest box. The nest box and dust bath had automatically controlled doors which were closed at night. There were 18 EMC; in the first trial these were compared with 6 control cages with perch but without next box or dust bath. 3. Hens spent 32 to 37% of day time on the perch, 5 to 7% in the dust bath and 5 to 6% in the nest. At night 92 to 98% roosted on the perch. 4. Initially only 55 to 70% of eggs were laid in the nest box partly because some eggs were laid before dawn. Once the door was retimed to open 3h before lights-on the proportion rose to 91 to 96%. Very few eggs were laid in the dust bath. Pre-laying behaviour lasted longer in treatments with nest boxes (55 to 76min) than in control cages (48min); disturbance was slight in all treatments, but lowest in control cages. 5. Dust baths were well used, with on average 61% of hens dust bathing during a 3-h afternoon observation period compared with only 17% in control cages. Two birds could use the dust bath simultaneously. 6. It was concluded that although a number of minor design features still required attention the EMC has potential to reduce the disadvantages of conventional cages for welfare while retaining their advantages and has possible commercial application.

  1. Laboratory rodent welfare: thinking outside the cage. (United States)

    Balcombe, Jonathan


    This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.

  2. Knotting and unknotting proteins in the chaperonin cage: Effects of the excluded volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Niewieczerzal

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the effects of chaperonin-like cages on knotted proteins with very low sequence similarity, different depths of a knot but with a similar fold, and the same type of topology. The investigated proteins are VirC2, DndE and MJ0366 with two depths of a knot. A comprehensive picture how encapsulation influences folding rates is provided based on the analysis of different cage sizes and temperature conditions. Neither of these two effects with regard to knotted proteins has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained structure-based models before. We show that encapsulation in a chaperonin is sufficient to self-tie and untie small knotted proteins (VirC2, DndE, for which the equilibrium process is not accessible in the bulk solvent. Furthermore, we find that encapsulation reduces backtracking that arises from the destabilisation of nucleation sites, smoothing the free energy landscape. However, this effect can also be coupled with temperature rise. Encapsulation facilitates knotting at the early stage of folding and can enhance an alternative folding route. Comparison to unknotted proteins with the same fold shows directly how encapsulation influences the free energy landscape. In addition, we find that as the size of the cage decreases, folding times increase almost exponentially in a certain range of cage sizes, in accordance with confinement theory and experimental data for unknotted proteins.

  3. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  4. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    petroleum industry as it plugs the oil flow.12 Restric- tion of hydrate plug ... Interaction energy ( E) for cluster formation has been determined using .... Interaction energies are mentioned in table 2 for all three 1CH4@512 cage, 1CH4@512-methanol clus- ter and 1CH4@512-methanol-Na. + cluster systems. Formation of ...

  5. Resonance spectra of caged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)


    Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that confined scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region x{sub m} ≡ (r{sub m} - r{sub +})/r{sub +} << τ ≡ (r{sub +} - r{sub -})/r{sub +} (here r{sub m} is the radius of the confining mirror and r{sub ±} are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled blackhole- field-cage system: ω{sub n} = -2πT{sub BH}.n [1 + O(x{sub m}{sup n}/τ{sup n})], where T{sub BH} is the temperature of the caged black hole and n = 1, 2, 3,.. is the resonance parameter. (orig.)

  6. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.


    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  7. High-throughput Transcriptome analysis, CAGE and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas


    1. Current research - PhD work on discovery of new allergens - Postdoctoral work on Transcriptional Start Sites a) Tag based technologies allow higher throughput b) CAGE technology to define promoters c) CAGE data analysis to understand Transcription - Wo

  8. Power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The wind turbine is to be tied mechanically to the rotor of a squirrel cage induction which is fed with grid powerthat the generator supplies. ... Keywords: Wind Power systems, Self-excited squirrel cage induction generator, squirrel cage induction motor, backto- back converter, simulation ...

  9. Bacterial eggshell contamination in conventional cages, furnished cages and aviary housing systems for laying hens. (United States)

    De Reu, K; Grijspeerdt, K; Heyndrickx, M; Zoons, J; De Baere, K; Uyttendaele, M; Debevere, J; Herman, L


    The influence of housing system on the initial bacterial contamination of the eggshell was studied. Two long-term experiments were performed. Bacterial eggshell contamination, as expressed by total count of aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria, was periodically analysed for eggs from a conventional cage, a furnished cage with nest boxes containing artificial turf or grids as nest-floor material and an aviary housing system. Results were log-transformed prior to statistical analyses. For both experiments no systematic differences were found between the conventional cage and furnished cage. The type of nest-floor material in the nest boxes of the furnished cages also did not systematically influence the bacterial contamination. A possible seasonal influence on contamination with a decrease in the winter period (up to > 0.5 log cfu/eggshell) of total count of aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria was observed in the first experiment. The contamination with total aerobic flora was higher (more than 1.0 log) on eggs from the aviary housing system compared to the conventional and the furnished cage systems. For Gram-negative bacteria this was not the case. During the entire period of both experiments, independent of housing system, shell contamination was not influenced by age of hens or period since placing the birds in the houses. For the total count of aerobic bacteria a restricted positive correlation (r2 = 0.66) was found between the concentration of total bacteria in the air of the poultry houses and initial shell contamination.

  10. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems. (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J Anibal


    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  11. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D.; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M.; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal


    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  12. Bulk Nanostructured Materials (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.


    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  13. A Visible-Light-Sensitive Caged Serotonin


    Cabrera, R.; Filevich, O; Garcia-Acosta, B; Athilingam, J; Bender, KJ; Poskanzer, KE; R. Etchenique


    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Deficits in 5HT signaling are responsible for many disabling psychiatric conditions, and its molecular machinery is the target of many pharmaceuticals. We present a new 5HT phototrigger, the compound [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)]2+, where PMe3 is trimethylphosphine. As with other ruthenium-bipyridyl based caged compounds, [Ru(bpy)2(PMe3)(5HT)]2+ presents activity in t...

  14. Bulletproof Love : Luke Cage (2016 and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry, Ken


    Full Text Available There are many ways to think about religion and popular culture. One method is to ask where and when we see what might be commonly understood as “religious tradition(s” explicitly on display. Another is to think about superhero narratives themselves as “religious”, using this term as a conceptual tool for categorizing and thereby better understanding particular dimensions of human experience. This article takes a variety of approaches to understanding religion in relation to the recent television series LUKE CAGE (Netflix, US 2016. These approaches take their hermeneutical cues from a range of disciplines, including studies of the Bible; Hip Hop; gender; Black Theology; African American religion; and philosophy. The results of this analysis highlight the polysemic nature of popular culture in general, and of superhero stories in particular. Like religious traditions themselves, the show is complex and contradictory: it is both progressive and reactionary; emphasizes community and valorizes an individual; critiques and endorses Christianity; subverts and promotes violence. Depending on the questions asked, LUKE CAGE (2016 provides a range of very different answers.

  15. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia


    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  16. Hybrid uranyl-carboxyphosphonate cage clusters. (United States)

    Adelani, Pius O; Ozga, Michael; Wallace, Christine M; Qiu, Jie; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Sigmon, Ginger E; Burns, Peter C


    Two new hybrid uranyl-carboxyphosphonate cage clusters built from uranyl peroxide units were crystallized from aqueous solution under ambient conditions in approximately two months. The clusters are built from uranyl hexagonal bipyramids and are connected by employing a secondary metal linker, the 2-carboxyphenylphosphonate ligand. The structure of cluster A is composed of a ten-membered uranyl polyhedral belt that is capped on either end of an elongated cage by five-membered rings of uranyl polyhedra. The structure of cluster B consists of 24 uranyl cations that are arranged into 6 four-membered rings of uranyl polyhedra. Four of the corresponding topological squares are fused together to form a sixteen-membered double uranyl pseudobelt that is capped on either end by 2 topological squares. Cluster A crystallizes over a wide pH range of 4.6-6.8, while cluster B was isolated under narrower pH range of 6.9-7.8. Studies of their fate in aqueous solution upon dissolution of crystals by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provide evidence for their persistence in solution. The well-established characteristic fingerprint from the absorption spectra of the uranium(VI) cations disappears and becomes a nearly featureless peak; nonetheless, the two compounds fluoresce at room temperature.

  17. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  18. Novel caged clusters of silicon: Fullerenes, Frank–Kasper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. We review recent findings of metal (M) encapsulated caged clusters of Si and Ge obtained from computer experiments based on an ab initio pseudopotential method. It is shown that one M atom changes drastically the properties of Si and Ge clusters and that depending upon the size of the M atom, cages of 14,.

  19. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E.; Eastwood, Eric A [Raymore, MO


    Polymers comprising residues of borane and/or carborane cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Methods of making and applications for using such polymers are also disclosed.

  20. A New Vertebral Body Replacement Strategy Using Expandable Polymeric Cages. (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Paulsen, Alex; Giambini, Hugo; Guo, Ji; Miller, A Lee; Lin, Po-Chun; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun


    We have developed a novel polymeric expandable cage that can be delivered via a posterior-only surgical approach for the treatment of noncontained vertebral defects. This approach is less invasive than an anterior-only or combined approach and much more cost-effective than currently used expandable metal cages. The polymeric expandable cage is composed of oligo poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF), a hydrogel that has been previously shown to have excellent nerve and bone tissue biocompatibility. OPF hydrogel cages can expand to twice their original diameter and length within a surgical time frame following hydration. Modulation of parameters such as polymeric network crosslink density or the introduction of charge to the network allowed for precise expansion kinetics. To meet specific requirements due to size variations in patient vertebral bodies, we fabricated a series of molds with varied diameters and explored the expansion kinetics of the OPF cages. Results showed a stable expansion ratio of approximately twofold to the original size within 20 min, regardless of the absolute value of the cage size. Following implantation of a dried OPF cage into a noncontained vertebral defect and its in situ expansion with normal saline, other augmentation biomaterials, such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), can be injected to the lumen of the OPF cage and allowed to crosslink in situ. The OPF/PPF composite scaffold can provide the necessary rigidity and stability to the augmented spine.

  1. 48 CFR 204.7202-1 - CAGE codes. (United States)


    ... CD ROM that contains the H-4/H-8 CAGE master file issued by DLIS (Their address is: Customer Service... assignments to DLIS Customer Service: toll-free (888) 227-2423 or (888) 352-9333; DSN 932-4725; or commercial....39-M, Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual, prescribe use of CAGE codes. (b...

  2. Influence of Clarias gariepinus (Teugels) cage cultures on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality, periphyton and phytoplankton growing as a function Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cage cultures have rarely been investigated. Physical and chemical factors associated with cage culture of Clarias gariepinus in relation to phytoplankton and periphyton were examined fortnightly from May to June 2009 ...

  3. Object grasping by combining caging and force closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Q.; Wisse, M.


    The current research trends of object grasping can be summarized as caging grasping and force closure grasping. The motivation of this paper is to combine the advantage of caging grasping and force closure grasping to enable under-actuated grippers like the Lacquey gripper and the parallel

  4. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  5. Generation of Multicomponent Molecular Cages using Simultaneous Dynamic Covalent Reactions. (United States)

    Drożdż, Wojciech; Bouillon, Camille; Kotras, Clément; Richeter, Sébastien; Barboiu, Mihail; Clément, Sébastien; Stefankiewicz, Artur R; Ulrich, Sébastien


    Cage compounds are very attractive structures for a wide range of applications and there is ongoing interest in finding effective ways to access such kinds of complex structures, particularly those possessing dynamic adaptive features. Here we report the accessible synthesis of new type of organic cage architectures, possessing two different dynamic bonds within one structure: hydrazones and disulfides. Implementation of three distinct functional groups (thiols, aldehydes and hydrazides) in the structure of two simple building blocks resulted in their spontaneous and selective self-assembly into aromatic cage-type architectures. These organic cages contain up to ten components linked together by twelve reversible covalent bonds. The advantage provided by the presented approach is that these cage structures can adaptively self-sort from a complex virtual mixture of polymers or macrocycles and that dynamic covalent chemistry enables their deliberate disassembly through controlled component exchange. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Entropic cages for trapping DNA near a nanopore (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Skanata, Mirna Mihovilovic; Stein, Derek


    Nanopores can probe the structure of biopolymers in solution; however, diffusion makes it difficult to study the same molecule for extended periods. Here we report devices that entropically trap single DNA molecules in a 6.2-femtolitre cage near a solid-state nanopore. We electrophoretically inject DNA molecules into the cage through the nanopore, pause for preset times and then drive the DNA back out through the nanopore. The saturating recapture time and high recapture probability after long pauses, their agreement with a convection-diffusion model and the observation of trapped DNA under fluorescence microscopy all confirm that the cage stably traps DNA. Meanwhile, the cages have 200 nm openings that make them permeable to small molecules, like the restriction endonuclease we use to sequence-specifically cut trapped DNA into fragments whose number and sizes are analysed upon exiting through the nanopore. Entropic cages thus serve as reactors for chemically modifying single DNA molecules.

  7. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. M. de Sousa


    Full Text Available Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN, in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and consequently, a smaller variation of the thickness/height relation can be obtained. The compound layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness test profile. The results were compared with the properties of samples obtained with the conventional nitriding, for the three steel types. It was verified that samples treated by CCPN process presented, at the same temperature, a better uniformity in the thickness and absence of the edge effect.

  8. Photocatalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolite cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    Oxidation of hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen is a key process in chemical industry. But reactions that use O{sub 2} as the primary oxidant often produce large amounts of unwanted byproducts. One major reason that selectivities are low is that the desired products (such as alcohols or carbonyls) are more easily oxidized by O{sub 2} than the parent hydrocarbon. The authors recently discovered a simple method that gives partial oxidation of small alkenes, alkanes, and alkyl-substituted benzenes by O{sub 2} at unprecedented selectivity, even at high conversion of the hydrocarbon. The approach is based on visible light-induced chemistry of hydrocarbon-O{sub 2} collisional pairs in the cages of large-pore zeolites. Reactions are conducted at ambient temperature in the absence of solvent or photosensitizer. Here the authors describe the most interesting reactions established thus far and define issues that pertain to scale-up of the method.

  9. Transcription regulatory networks analysis using CAGE

    KAUST Repository

    Tegnér, Jesper N.


    Mapping out cellular networks in general and transcriptional networks in particular has proved to be a bottle-neck hampering our understanding of biological processes. Integrative approaches fusing computational and experimental technologies for decoding transcriptional networks at a high level of resolution is therefore of uttermost importance. Yet, this is challenging since the control of gene expression in eukaryotes is a complex multi-level process influenced by several epigenetic factors and the fine interplay between regulatory proteins and the promoter structure governing the combinatorial regulation of gene expression. In this chapter we review how the CAGE data can be integrated with other measurements such as expression, physical interactions and computational prediction of regulatory motifs, which together can provide a genome-wide picture of eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory networks at a new level of resolution. © 2010 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.


    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...... out in the cage and tended to be more often on the platform compared to in the upper cage. It is concluded that the climbing cage worked well for females with kits and that the upper cage can offer a refuge for females when kits get older....

  11. "Understanding" cosmological bulk viscosity


    Zimdahl, Winfried


    A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

  12. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.


    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  13. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  14. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander


    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  15. Micromegas in a bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Aune, S; Charpak, Georges; Colas, P; Giganon, Arnaud; Rebourgeard, P C; Salin, P; Rebourgeard, Ph.


    In this paper we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it extremely attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  16. Micromegas in a bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)]. E-mail:; De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Andriamonje, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Aune, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Charpak, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colas, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physcis, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Ferrer, E. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Giganon, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Rebourgeard, Ph. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Salin, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)


    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine.

  17. Outcomes of interbody fusion cages used in 1 and 2-levels anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: titanium cages versus polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Chien; Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Wen-Jer; Chen, Lih-Huei


    A prospective study was performed in case with cervical spondylosis who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with titanium or polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. To find out which fusion cage yielded better clinical and radiographic results. Although use of autogenous iliac-bone grafts in ACDF for cervical disc diseases remain standard surgical procedure, donor site morbidity and graft collapse or breakage are concerns. Cage technology was developed to prevent these complications. However, there is no comparison regarding the efficacy between titanium and PEEK cage. January 2005 to January 2006, 53 patients who had 1 and 2-levels ACDF with titanium or PEEK cages were evaluated. We measured the rate and amount of interspace collapse, segmental sagittal angulations, and the radiographic fusion success rate. Odom criteria were used to assess the clinical results. The fusion rate was higher in the PEEK group (100% vs. 86.5%, P=0.0335). There was no significant difference between both groups in loss of cervical lordosis (3.2 + or - 2.4 vs. 2.8 + or - 3.4, P=0.166). The mean anterior interspace collapse (1.6 + or - 1.0 mm) in the titanium group was significantly higher than the collapse of the PEEK group (0.5 + or - 0.6 mm) (PPEEK group (PPEEK group achieved an 80% rate of successful clinical outcomes, compared with 75% in the titanium group (P=0.6642). The PEEK cage is superior to the titanium cage in maintaining cervical interspace height and radiographic fusion after 1 and 2-levels anterior cervical decompression procedures.

  18. Biomechanics of Nested Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Cages. (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; de Tranaltes, Kaylee; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Reyes, Phillip M; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Tumialán, Luis M


    Arthrodesis is optimized when the structural graft occupies most of the surface area within a disc space. The transforaminal corridor inherently limits interbody size. To evaluate the biomechanical implications of nested interbody spacers (ie, a second curved cage placed behind a first) to increase disc space coverage in transforaminal approaches. Seven lumbar human cadaveric specimens (L3-S1) underwent nondestructive flexibility and axial compression testing intact and after transforaminal instrumentation at L4-L5. Specimens were tested in 5 conditions: (1) intact, (2) interbody, (3) interbody plus bilateral pedicle screws and rods (PSR), (4) 2 nested interbodies, and (5) 2 nested interbodies plus PSR. Mean range of motion (ROM) with 1 interbody vs 2 nested interbodies, respectively, was: flexion, 101% vs 85%; extension, 97% vs 92%; lateral bending, 127% vs 132%; and axial rotation, 145% vs 154%. One interbody and 2 nested interbodies did not differ significantly by loading mode (P > .10). With PSR, ROM decreased significantly compared with intact, but not between interbody and interbody plus PSR or 2 interbodies plus PSR (P > .80). Mean vertical height during compressive loading (ie, axial compressive stiffness) was significantly different with 2 nested interbodies vs 1 interbody alone (P < .001) (compressive stiffness, 89% of intact vs 67% of intact, respectively). Inserting a second interbody using a transforaminal approach is anatomically feasible and nearly doubles the disc space covered without affecting ROM. Compressive stiffness significantly increased with 2 nested interbodies, and foraminal height increased. Evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of nested interbodies is underway.

  19. Linear diffusion into a Faraday cage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lin, Yau Tang; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.


    Linear lightning diffusion into a Faraday cage is studied. An early-time integral valid for large ratios of enclosure size to enclosure thickness and small relative permeability ({mu}/{mu}{sub 0} {le} 10) is used for this study. Existing solutions for nearby lightning impulse responses of electrically thick-wall enclosures are refined and extended to calculate the nearby lightning magnetic field (H) and time-derivative magnetic field (HDOT) inside enclosures of varying thickness caused by a decaying exponential excitation. For a direct strike scenario, the early-time integral for a worst-case line source outside the enclosure caused by an impulse is simplified and numerically integrated to give the interior H and HDOT at the location closest to the source as well as a function of distance from the source. H and HDOT enclosure response functions for decaying exponentials are considered for an enclosure wall of any thickness. Simple formulas are derived to provide a description of enclosure interior H and HDOT as well. Direct strike voltage and current bounds for a single-turn optimally-coupled loop for all three waveforms are also given.

  20. Novel field cage design for the PandaX III double beta decay experiment (United States)

    Chaiyabin, P.; Giboni, K. L.; Han, K.; Ji, X.; Juyal, P.; Kobdaj, C.; Liu, J.; Lomon, J.; Pasaja, N.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Rujirawat, S.; Songsiriritthigul, P.; Yan, Y.; Zhao, L.


    PandaX III is a High Pressure gaseous xenon Time Projection Chamber for Double Beta Decay detection. It will be installed deep underground in the JinPing Laboratory in Szechuan province, China. During its first phase the detector will operate with 200 kg of enriched 136Xe. The detector consists of a mesh cathode in the center of a cylindrical vessel and Micro-Bulk Micro-Megas at both ends to read out the drifting charges. The active volume is surrounded by an array of electrodes to shape the homogeneous drift field, the so called field cage. Gaseous xenon, however, is a poor dielectric. It would require in excess of 10 cm to safely stand off the HV between these electrodes and the grounded detector walls. Nearly a quarter of our available xenon would be wasted in this dead space. In a new design the electric field outside the field shaping is totally contained in a cylinder 1.6 m diameter and 2 m long. For manufacturing two 50 mm thick Acrylic plates are bend into half cylinders and bonded together. The outside surface of the cylinder is covered with a copper mesh as ground plane. The gap between field cage and detector vessel can be now reduced to 1 mm, and this gap is field free. The amount of wasted xenon is reduced by a factor 100. The field shaping electrodes and the resistive divider network are mounted on 5 mm thick Acrylic panels suspended on the inside of the field cage. This design is realized with low radioactivity materials.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in native and caged mussels. (United States)

    Piccardo, M T; Coradeghini, R; Valerio, F


    During 1999, a biological monitoring study was conducted at four sites along the Ligurian coast (Cornigliano, Voltri, Vado Ligure and Sanremo). At each site the concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in native and caged mussels. The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), sampled in the Spring and the Autumn, showed different accumulation patterns according to the source of pollution they were exposed to. The PAH concentrations were higher in the native than in the caged mussels. The coastal sites were classified according to PAH concentrations found in mussel tissue samples: Native mussels: Vado Ligure San-remo San-remo < Cornigliano. The different classification is explained by the different location of the organisms: native mussels were located near the air-water interface, while caged mussels were situated at -3 m from the water surface. The PAH concentrations in the native and caged mussels showed a similar seasonal variability, and can provide the same information about the sources of PAHs.

  2. Fish cage culture catches on in Nepal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    making has been strengthened. Women take part alongside the men in all activities, from cleaning and repairing the fish cages to participating in meetings of farmers'' associations, attending workshops, and marketing the catch.

  3. Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact analysis of aquaculture in net cages in a Brazilian water reservoir, based in zooplankton communities. Maria Cristina Crispim, Karla Patrícia Ponte Araújo, Hênio do Nascimento Melo Júnior ...

  4. CubeSat Attitude Determination and Helmholtz Cage Design (United States)


    Effects of Electrical and Ferromagnetic Objects . . . . . . . . 57 4.1.2 Room Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 4.2...the theory and knowledge that was incorporated into the design of the cage and the implementation of the attitude determination algorithm in this...example of a 3U CubeSat. Control for Delfi-C3 is composed of hysteresis rods which were tested via a Helmholtz cage similar to the one described in this

  5. Musica come divenire. Il paesaggio sonoro secondo John cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Aste


    Full Text Available John Cage ha dedicato tutta la sua vita all’indagine delle possibilità di relazione dell’uomo con i suoni che lo circondano, allargando il campo dell’arte musicale a quello dell’etica e dell’ecologia. Cage non si è occupato di soundscape come un genere compositivo specifico, come forse oggi potremmo identificarlo, tuttavia l’ambiente occupa un ruolo centrale in relazione al suo modo di comporre.

  6. Nitrogen Rings and Cages Stabilized by Metallic Atoms (United States)


    1 UNIVERSIDAD DE GUANAJUATO DEPARTAMENTO DE QUIMICA DIVISION DE CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS Dr. Gabriel Merino NORIA ALTA s/n...CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS Principal Investigator: Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química Universidad de Guanajuato Noria Alta...Final Report 1 Sep 06-31 Aug 09 NITROGEN RINGS AND CAGES STABILIZED BY METALLIC ATOMS FA9550-06-1-0555 Dr. Gabriel Merino Departamento de Química

  7. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella. (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge


    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. Caged Protein Prenyltransferase Substrates: Tools for Understanding Protein Prenylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGraw, Amanda J.; Hast, Michael A.; Xu, Juhua; Mullen, Daniel; Beese, Lorena S.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D. (Duke); (UMM)


    Originally designed to block the prenylation of oncogenic Ras, inhibitors of protein farnesyltransferase currently in preclinical and clinical trials are showing efficacy in cancers with normal Ras. Blocking protein prenylation has also shown promise in the treatment of malaria, Chagas disease and progeria syndrome. A better understanding of the mechanism, targets and in vivo consequences of protein prenylation are needed to elucidate the mode of action of current PFTase (Protein Farnesyltransferase) inhibitors and to create more potent and selective compounds. Caged enzyme substrates are useful tools for understanding enzyme mechanism and biological function. Reported here is the synthesis and characterization of caged substrates of PFTase. The caged isoprenoid diphosphates are poor substrates prior to photolysis. The caged CAAX peptide is a true catalytically caged substrate of PFTase in that it is to not a substrate, yet is able to bind to the enzyme as established by inhibition studies and X-ray crystallography. Irradiation of the caged molecules with 350 nm light readily releases their cognate substrate and their photolysis products are benign. These properties highlight the utility of those analogs towards a variety of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  9. CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 CAGE peaks Data detail Data name CAGE peaks DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-002.V002 Ve... of data contents Data about CAGE peak regions and RNA transcriptional initiation activities measured by CAG...E Data file File name: CAGE_peaks File URL: File size: 4.1 GB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method - Dat...a analysis method CAGE DPI (Decomposition-based peak identification) Number of data entries 28 files - About

  10. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)


    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  11. Pore space partition and charge separation in cage-within-cage indium-organic frameworks with high CO2 uptake. (United States)

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Bu, Julia T; Li, Yufei; Wu, Tao; Zuo, Fan; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui


    The integration of negatively charged single-metal building blocks {In(CO2)4} and positively charged trimeric clusters {In3O} leads to three unique cage-within-cage-based porous materials, which exhibit not only high hydrothermal, thermal, and photochemical stability but also attractive structural features contributing to a very high CO2 uptake capacity of up to 119.8 L/L at 273 K and 1 atm.

  12. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel


    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  13. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin


    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner


    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  15. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  16. Use of carbon fiber cages for treatment of cervical myeloradiculopathies. (United States)

    Tancredi, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonino; Delfini, Roberto; Fiume, Dario; Frati, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Alessandro


    Different types of intersomatic fixation systems are available for use in the treatment of cervical disc pathologies. In this paper, we report our experience using carbon fiber cages (Brantigan I/F cage, De Puy Acromed, Raynham, MA; Mikai distrib.) for acute and chronic cervical disc pathologies. Between 1997 and 2001, 97 patients underwent surgical treatment for cervical disc pathologies. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 60 months. In all cases a microdiscectomy according to Caspar was performed; anterior stabilization was performed in cases with evidence of instability and in post-traumatic disc herniations. A total number of 119 carbon fiber cages, ranging in height from 4 to 8 mm, were employed as well as 10 anterior plates with screws. The type of material used to fill the cages was homologous bone (50.5%), heterologous bone (22.3%), hydroxyapatite (21.1%), and autologous bone (6%). In all cases, follow-up radiograms performed after at least 6 months demonstrated bone fusion. None of the patients had either spontaneous displacement of the implant or symptoms from nerve compression. These preliminary results suggest that anterior cervical fusion with carbon fiber cages are valid to restore intervertebral disc height and to promote bone fusion with low complications rate.

  17. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  18. Finite element analysis of the lumbar spine with a new cage using a topology optimization method. (United States)

    Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Wang, Jung-Pin; Feng, Chi-Kuang; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Yu, Chung-huang


    In recent years, degenerative spinal instability has been effectively treated with a cage. However, little attention is focused on the design concept of the cage. The purpose of this study was to develop a new cage and evaluate its biomechanical function using a finite element method (FEM). This study employed topology optimization to design a new cage and analyze stress distribution of the lumbar spine from L1 to L3 with a new cage by using the commercial software ANSYS 6.0. A total of three finite element models, namely the intact lumbar spine, the spine with double RF cages, and with double new cages, were established. The loading conditions were that 10Nm flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion, respectively, were imposed on the superior surface of the L1 vertebral body. The bottom of the L3 vertebral body was constrained completely. The FEM estimated that the new cage not only could be reduced to 36% of the volume of the present RF cage but was also similar in biomechanical performance such as range of motion, stress of adjacent disc, and lower subsidence to the RF cage. The advantage of the new cage was that the increased space allowed more bone graft to be placed and the cage saved material. The disadvantage was that stress of the new cage was greater than that of the RF cage.

  19. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin


    in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall......The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs...... of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites...

  20. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail:


    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  1. The rib cage stabilizes the human thoracic spine: An in vitro study using stepwise reduction of rib cage structures. (United States)

    Liebsch, Christian; Graf, Nicolas; Appelt, Konrad; Wilke, Hans-Joachim


    The stabilizing effect of the rib cage on the human thoracic spine is still not sufficiently analyzed. For a better understanding of this effect as well as the calibration and validation of numerical models of the thoracic spine, experimental biomechanics data is required. This study aimed to determine (1) the stabilizing effect of the single rib cage structures on the human thoracic spine as well as the effect of the rib cage on (2) the flexibility of the single motion segments and (3) coupled motion behavior of the thoracic spine. Six human thoracic spine specimens including the entire rib cage were loaded quasi-statically with pure moments of ± 2 Nm in flexion/extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) using a custom-built spine tester. Motion analysis was performed using an optical motion tracking system during load application to determine range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ). Specimens were tested (1) in intact condition, (2) after removal of the intercostal muscles, (3) after median sternotomy, after removal of (4) the anterior rib cage up to the rib stumps, (5) the right sixth to eighth rib head, and (6) all rib heads. Significant (p spine rigidity, especially in axial rotation by a factor of more than two, and should therefore be considered in clinical scenarios, in vitro, and in silico.

  2. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in cervical applications: a systematic review. (United States)

    Kersten, Roel Frederik Mark Raymond; van Gaalen, Steven M; de Gast, Arthur; Öner, F Cumhur


    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used during the past decade in patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Their radiolucency and low elastic modulus make them attractive attributes for spinal fusion compared with titanium and bone graft. Still, limitations are seen such as pseudoarthrosis, subsidence, and migration of the cages. Limited evidence on the clinical outcome of PEEK cages is found in the literature other than noncomparative cohort studies with only a few randomized controlled trials. To assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of PEEK cages in the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and/or spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine. Systematic review of all randomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective nonrandomized comparative studies with a minimum follow-up of 6 months and all noncomparative cohort studies with a long-term follow-up of more than 5 years. The primary outcome variable was clinical performance. Secondary outcome variables consisted of radiographic scores. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. No conflict of interest reported. No funding received. A total of 223 studies were identified, of which 10 studies were included. These comprised two randomized controlled trials, five prospective comparative trials, and three retrospective comparative trials. Minimal evidence for better clinical and radiographic outcome is found for PEEK cages compared with bone grafts in the cervical spine. No differences were found between PEEK, titanium, and carbon fiber cages. Future studies are needed to improve methodology to minimize bias. Publication of lumbar interbody fusion studies needs to be promoted because differences in clinical and/or radiographic scores are more likely to be demonstrated in this part

  3. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_exp... (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression (Homo sapiens) File URL: File size: 3.3 GB File name: ( File size...f This Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_expression - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  4. (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_ann...rence sequences (hg38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Homo sapiens) File URL...: ...File size: 16 MB File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks_annotation (Mus musculus) Fil...e URL:

  5. (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 (reprocessed)CAGE peaks Data detail Data name (reprocessed)CAGE peaks DOI 10.18908/l...g38/mm10). Data file File name: (reprocessed)CAGE_peaks (Homo sapiens) File URL: File size: 11 MB File name: (reprocessed...)CAGE_peaks (Mus musculus) File URL: Database Site Policy | Contact Us (reprocessed)CAGE peaks - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Electrophoresis simulated with the cage model for reptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelum, A. van; Beljaars, H.R.W.


    The cage model for polymer reptation is extended to simulate gel electrophoresis. With increasing electric field strength E, the drift velocity v of a long polymer with length L shows three different regimes: (a) the linear regime where v~E/ L; (b) the quadratic regime where v~E^2 ,

  7. Red light activated "caged" reagents for microRNA research. (United States)

    Meyer, A; Schikora, M; Starkuviene, V; Mokhir, A


    "Caged" reagents for miRNA research (siRNA targeting EGFR, involved in miRNA maturation, and mimics of miR-20a, playing a key role in tumor formation and metastasis) were prepared. It was demonstrated that these reagents can be activated by non-toxic to cells red light both in cells and in cell free settings.

  8. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    (wherein polynitration is a serious handicap to selective nitration) in zeolite environment is not explored. With these goals in mind, we have reported17 recently regioselective nitration of phenol inside the cages/channels of zeolite media using fuming nitric acid. In our attempts to delineate the mechanism in detail and also to ...

  9. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.


    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  10. Impacts of cage culture on physico-chemical and bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cage fish farming on physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality in Lake Volta, Ghana, were investigated in 2013–2014. Farmed and unfarmed (control) areas of the lake were selected for monitoring. Nutrients, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, pH, total coliforms, Pseudomonas and ...

  11. Thoracic cage injury imaging in rugby players | de Villiers | SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby players often sustain high-impact collisions and are therefore at risk of significant traumatic thoracic injuries. Injury to the thoracic cage may be associated with potentially life-threatening sequelae. Player management is often based on the accuracy of the imaging report. The author suggests a combination of ...

  12. Multiexpandable cage for minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coe JD


    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Coe,1 James F Zucherman,2 Donald W Kucharzyk,3 Kornelis A Poelstra,4 Larry E Miller,5 Sandeep Kunwar,6 1Silicon Valley Spine Institute, Campbell, 2San Francisco Orthopaedic Surgeons, San Francisco, CA, 3Orthopaedic Pediatric and Spine, Crown Point, IN, 4Department of Surgery, Sacred Heart Hospital on the Emerald Coast, Miramar Beach, FL, 5Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 6Bell Neuroscience Institute, Washington Hospital Healthcare System, Fremont, CA, USA Abstract: The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience. Results to date suggest that the multiexpandable cage allows a less invasive approach to posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery by minimizing iatrogenic risks associated with static or vertically expanding interbody prostheses while providing immediate vertebral height restoration, restoration of anatomic alignment, and excellent early-term clinical results. Keywords: degenerative disc disease, expandable, low back pain, Luna

  13. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenol is nitrated regioselectively by fuming nitric acid inside the cages of faujasite zeolites (dependent on the loading level) and a remarkable orthoselectivity is observed in solid state nitration. Toluene and chlorobenzene also containing ortho-/para-orienting substituents, undergo faster nitration, though the ...

  14. power generation and control of a self excited squirrel cage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    generator. The possibility of using a capacitor bank connected across the stator terminals of a squirrel cage induction motor to supply the reactive power requirement for power generation was discovered by. Basset and Potter in the 1930s It is more attractive than a conventional synchronous generator in micro- hydro and ...

  15. Business plan Tilapia cage farming in Tete Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Magnus; Brouwer, Herman


    Tete province offers great opportunities for cage farming of tilapia in Lake Cahora Bassa. The climate and water quality are favourable for fish production, and the fast economic developments in the region will facilitate fish sales. In Tete tilapia (pende) is highly valued food. Major markets for

  16. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguchi, Shuhei; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Furuno, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Hori, Fumi; Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kojima, Miki; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Saijyo, Eri; Saka, Akiko; Sakai, Mizuho; Simon, Christophe; Suzuki, Naoko; Tagami, Michihira; Watanabe, Shoko; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Arner, Peter; Axton, Richard A.; Babina, Magda; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Barnett, Timothy C.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Carlisle, Ailsa J.; Clevers, Hans C.; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ehrlund, Anna; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Eslami, Afsaneh; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Forrester, Lesley M.; Fujita, Rie; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Hasegawa, Yuki; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Hume, David A.; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Kai, Chieko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klein, Sarah; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Soichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Mackay-sim, Alan; Mejhert, Niklas; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Morris, Kelly J.; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Pombo, Ana; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Qin, Xian-Yang; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roy, Sugata; Sajantila, Antti; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sheng, Guojun; Shin, Jay W.; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim M.; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tomoiu, Andru; Toyoda, Hiroo; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Zhang, Peter G.; Zucchelli, Silvia; Abugessaisa, Imad; Arner, Erik; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lassmann, Timo; Lizio, Marina; Sahin, Serkan; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Shimoji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawai, Jun; Kondo, Naoto; Itoh, Masayoshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide


    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples,

  17. variations in dimensions and shape of thoracic cage with aging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The thoracic cage variations in dimensions and proportions are influenced by age, sex and race. The objective of the present review was to describe the age related changes occurring in thoracic wall and its influence on the pattern of respiration in infants, adult and elderly. We had systematically reviewed, ...

  18. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi


    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  19. Whole-tree canopy enclosures: why cage a tree? (United States)

    Jerome F. Grant; Abdul Hakeem; Paris L. Lambdin; Gregory J. Wiggins; Rusty J. Rhea


    The use of whole-tree canopy enclosures (i.e., cages) is not a typical approach to assessing biological parameters and interactions in a forest setting. However, the successful application of this technology may enable researchers to better understand certain types of tree/organismal interactions.

  20. Clathrates-An Exploration of the Chemistry of Caged Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Clathrates – An Exploration of the Chemistry of Caged Compounds. Srivathsa Vaidya. General Article Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    KAUST Repository

    Noguchi, Shuhei


    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples, consisting of a variety of primary cells, tissues, cell lines, and time series samples during cell activation and development, were subjected to a uniform pipeline of CAGE data production. The analysis pipeline started by measuring RNA extracts to assess their quality, and continued to CAGE library production by using a robotic or a manual workflow, single molecule sequencing, and computational processing to generate frequencies of transcription initiation. Resulting data represents the consequence of transcriptional regulation in each analyzed state of mammalian cells. Non-overlapping peaks over the CAGE profiles, approximately 200,000 and 150,000 peaks for the human and mouse genomes, were identified and annotated to provide precise location of known promoters as well as novel ones, and to quantify their activities.

  2. Intraoperative antepulsion of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion cage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal fusion surgery techniques develop together with technologic advancements. New complications are seen as the result of new techniques and these may be very severe due to spinal cord and vascular structures in the lumbar region. The posterior lumbar interbody fusion cage (PLIFC) was shown to enhance spinal ...

  3. Diet manipulation and post-moulting responses in caged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and fifty caged commercial laying hens were induced to moult through a 15-day feed and water withdrawal programme. Immediate and subsequent effects on egg production and follicular developments were monitored. Results showed that moulted hens attained over 60% egg production after 6 weeks of ...

  4. Radiation effects in bulk silicon (United States)

    Claeys, Cor; Vanhellemont, Jan


    This paper highlights important aspects related to irradiation effects in bulk silicon. Some basic principles related to the interaction of radiation with material, i.e. ionization and atomic displacement, are briefly reviewed. A physical understanding of radiation effects strongly depends on the availability of appropriate analytical tools. These tools are critically accessed from a silicon bulk viewpoint. More detailed information, related to the properties of the bulk damage and some dedicated application aspects, is given for both electron and proton irradiations. Emphasis is placed on radiation environments encountered during space missions and on their influence on the electrical performance of devices such as memories and image sensors.

  5. Laser Induced C60 Cage Opening Studied by Semiclassical Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Dou


    Full Text Available Laser induced opening of the C60 cage is studied by a semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics technique. The simulation results indicate that the C60 cage is abruptly opened immediately after laser excitation. The opening of the C60 cage induces a quick increase in kinetic energy and a sharp decrease in electronic energy, suggesting that the breaking of the C60 cage efficiently heats up the cluster and enhances the thermal fragmentation of C60 fullerene.

  6. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health. (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc


    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  7. Impaired fear extinction as displayed by serotonin transporter knockout rats housed in open cages is disrupted by IVC cage housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Shan

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. A well-known example for gene x environment interactions in psychiatry is the low activity (s allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR that in the context of stress increases risk for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Previously, we observed robust anxiety-related phenotypes, such as an impairment in fear extinction, in 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT-/- versus wild-type (5-HTT+/+ rats housed in open cages. Recently, housing conditions were changed from open cages to individually ventilated cages (IVC, which are associated with a high ventilation fold and noise. This switch in housing conditions prompted an unplanned 5-HTT gene x environment interaction study in our rats. The current study shows that lifetime stress by means of IVC cage housing abolished genotype differences in fear extinction between 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Although this effect was not attributed specifically to either the 5-HTT+/+ or the 5-HTT-/- genotype, the findings are in agreement with the modulatory role of serotonin in the processing of environmental stimuli. Our findings also underline the possibility that housing conditions confound the interpretation of anxiety-related behaviours in rodents.

  8. Can forced hot air quickly dry feces on transport cage flooring and eliminate campylobacter before cage re-use? (United States)

    Allowing feces left on transport coops to dry is an effective way to reduce numbers of viable Campylobacter left by positive flocks. The problem with this approach is that poultry processors do not have the time, space or resources to maintain several times the minimum number of transport cages that...

  9. Cage fish farming in the Volta lake and the lower Volta : Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns have been raised about the proliferation of cage fish farming in the Volta lake and the potential water quality impacts. The study was undertaken to determine current cage fish farming practices on the lake, and to assess their impacts on water quality of the lake. Forty cage fish farm operators were interviewed for ...

  10. the benefits of the cage as a screening tool for alcoholism in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (age, gender, literacy level, employment statu, marriage and number of people sharing a house with the re pondent) and the four-que tion CAGE interview. Re pondents who answered positively to two or more que tions of the CAGE were rated as abusing/dependent on alcohol (the 'positive' group). In addition to the CAGE, ...

  11. Selective occupancy of methane by cage symmetry in TBAB ionic clathrate hydrate. (United States)

    Muromachi, Sanehiro; Udachin, Konstantin A; Alavi, Saman; Ohmura, Ryo; Ripmeester, John A


    Methane trapped in the two distinct dodecahedral cages of the ionic clathrate hydrate of TBAB was studied by single crystal XRD and MD simulation. The relative CH4 occupancies over the cage types were opposite to those of CO2, which illustrates the interplay between the cage symmetry and guest shape and dynamics, and thus the gas selectivity.

  12. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope (United States)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.


    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  13. Proceedings of BulkTrans '89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Papers were presented on bulk commodity demand; steel industry bulk trades; grains and the world food economy; steam coal and cement demand; shipping profitability; bulk carrier design and economics; bulk ports and terminals; ship unloading; computers in bulk terminals; and conveyors and stockyard equipment.

  14. Combatting bulking sludge with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, B.; Heine, W.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering


    Bulking and floating sludge cause great problems in many waste water treatment plants with biological nutrient removal. The purification as well as the sludge digestion process can be affected. These problems are due to the interlaced structure of filamentous microorganisms, which have an impact on the sludge's settling behaviour. Foam is able to build up a stable layer, which does not settle in the secondary clarifier. Foam in digestion causes a reduction of the degree of stabilisation and of the biogas production. We use low-frequency ultrasound to combat filamentous organisms in bulking sludge. Low-frequency ultrasound is suitable to create high local shear stresses, which are capable of breaking the filamentous structures of the sludge. After preliminary lab-scale tests now a full-scale new ultrasound equipment is operating at Reinfeld sewage treatment plant, Germany. The objective of this study is to explore the best ultrasound configuration to destroy the filamentous structure of bulking and foaming sludge in a substainable way. Later this study will also look into the effects of ultrasound treated bulking sludge on the anaerobic digestion process. Up to now results show that the settling behaviour of bulking sludge is improved. The minimal ultrasound energy input for destruction of bulking structure was determined. (orig.)

  15. Comparison Between Acrylic Cage and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage in Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Farrokhi, Majid R; Nikoo, Zahra; Gholami, Mehrnaz; Hosseini, Khadijeh


    Prospective, single-blind randomized-controlled clinical study. To compare polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage with a novel Acrylic cage to find out which fusion cage yielded better clinical outcomes following single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). ACDF is considered a standard neurosurgical treatment for degenerative diseases of cervical intervertebral disks. There are many options, including bone grafts, bone cement, and spacers made of titanium, carbon fiber, and synthetic materials, used to restore physiological disk height and enhance spinal fusion, but the ideal device, which would provide immediate structural support and subsequent osteointegration and stability, has not been identified yet. To overcome this, we designed a new, inexpensive Acrylic cage. A total of 64 patients were eligible to participate and were randomly allocated to undergo ACDF either with Acrylic interbody fusion cage filled with bone substitute (n=32) or PEEK cage (n=32). Nurick's grading was used for quantifying the neurological deficit. Clinical and radiologic outcome was assessed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and subsequently at 2, 6, and 12 months of follow-up using Odom's criteria and dynamic radiographs (flexion-extension) and computed tomography scans, respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in the clinical outcomes of the Acrylic cage group compared with the PEEK cage group (mean difference: -0.438; 95% confidence interval, -0.807 to -0.068; P=0.016). There was a statistically significant difference in disk space height increase between the 2 groups at the 6- and 12-month follow-up. The Acrylic cage achieved higher fusion rate (good fusion) than the PEEK cage (96.9% vs. 93.8%). Intervertebral angle demonstrated a significant difference among the 2 treated groups throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that the use of Acrylic cage is associated with good clinical and radiologic outcomes and it can be therefore a

  16. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente


    Hübner,André Rafael; Mendes,Marcelo Ribeiro; Queruz,Jean Carlo Frigotto; Dambrós,Jean Marcel; Suárez,Álvaro Diego Heredia; Spinelli,Leandro de Freitas


    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo comparativo entre dois grupos de pacientes operados pela técnica de discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 70 pacientes, 35 operados com o método de fixação com placas associadas a cages - denominado Grupo...

  17. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.


    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  18. The BetaCage: Ultrasensitive Screener for Radioactive Backgrounds (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; BetaCage Collaboration


    Rare event searches, such as dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay, require screening of materials for backgrounds such as beta emission and alpha decaying isotopes. The BetaCage is a proposed ultra-sensitive time-projection chamber to screen for alpha-emitting and low energy beta-emitting (10-200 keV) contaminants. The expected sensitivity is 0.1 beta particles (perkeV -m2 - day) and 0.1 alpha particles (perm2 - day) , where the former will be limited by Compton scattering of external photons in the screening samples and the latter is expected to be signal-limited. The prototype BetaCage under commissioning at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology is filled with P10 gas (10% methane, 90% argon) in place of neon and is 40×40×20 cm in size. Details on design, construction and characterization will be presented.

  19. Batting cage performance of wood and nonwood youth baseball bats. (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Rainbow, Michael J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (PBBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length.

  20. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J. [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Otter, Wouter K. den, E-mail: [Computational BioPhysics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Multi Scale Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)


    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  1. Cathodic cage nitriding of samples with different dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, R.R.M. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui, Department of Mechanical, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Araujo, F.O. de [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Ribeiro, K.J.B.; Mendes, M.W.D. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica-UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, J.A.P. da [Departamento de Fisica-UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Alves, C. [Labplasma, Departamento de Fisica-UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail:


    A series of AISI 1020 steel cylindrical samples with different heights were simultaneously nitrided in cathodic cage plasma nitriding. In this technique, the samples are placed under a floating potential inside a cage in which the cathodic potential is applied. A systematic study of the nitriding temperature variation effects was carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of such a technique over the uniformity of the formed layers. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurement. The results were compared with those ones obtained in the ionic nitriding, and was verified that the samples nitrided by this conventional technique presents less uniformity than the ones treated through this new technique.

  2. Colloidal glasses and gels: The interplay of bonding and caging


    Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Poon, Wilson C K


    We report simulations of glassy arrest in hard-core particles with short-range interparticle attraction. Previous experiments, theory, and simulations suggest that in this kind of system, two qualitatively distinct kinds of glasses exist, dominated respectively by repulsion and attraction. It is thought that in the former, particles are trapped “topologically,” by nearest-neighbor cages, whereas in the latter, nonergodicity is due to interparticle “bonds.” Subsequent experiments and simulatio...

  3. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block


    Y.S.Kapnichor; Patil, V. V.


    Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system ...

  4. Improved damper cage design for salient-pole synchronous generators


    Nuzzo, Stefano; Degano, Michele; Galea, Michael; Gerada, C.; Gerada, David; Brown, N.L.


    The benefits of implementing a damper winding in salient-pole, synchronous generators are widely known and well consolidated. It is also well known that such a winding incurs extra losses in the machine due to a number of reasons. In order to improve the overall efficiency and performance of classical salient-pole, wound field, synchronous generators that employ the traditional damper cage, an improved amortisseur winding topology that reduces the inherent loss is proposed and investigated in...

  5. Segmental kyphosis after cervical interbody fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a comparative study on 2 different PEEK cages. (United States)

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae; Sohn, Seil; Lee, Sungjoon


    Retrospective comparative study. Two polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages of different designs were compared in terms of the postoperative segmental kyphosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Segmental kyphosis occasionally occurs after the use of a stand-alone cage for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Although PEEK material seems to have less risk of segmental kyphosis compared with other materials, the occurrence of segmental kyphosis for PEEK cages has been reported to be from 0% to 29%. There have been a few reports that addressed the issue of PEEK cage design. A total of 41 consecutive patients who underwent single-level anterior discectomy and fusion with a stand-alone cage were included. Either a round tube-type (Solis; 18 patients, S-group) or a trapezoidal tube-type (MC+; 23 patients, M-group) cage was used. The contact area between the cage and the vertebral body is larger in MC+ than in Solis, and anchoring pins were present in the Solis cage. The effect of the cage type on the segmental angle (SA) (lordosis vs. kyphosis) at postoperative month 24 was analyzed. Preoperatively, segmental lordosis was present in 12/18 S-group and 16/23 M-group patients (P=0.84). The SA was more lordotic than the preoperative angle in both groups just after surgery, with no difference between groups (P=0.39). At 24 months, segmental lordosis was observed in 9/18 S-group and 20/23 M-group patients (P=0.01). The patients in M-group were 7.83 times more likely than patients in S-group (P=0.04; odds ratio, 7.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-56.28) not to develop segmental kyphosis. The design of the PEEK cage used may influence the SA, and this association needs to be considered when using stand-alone PEEK cages.

  6. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael


    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  7. Dynamic modeling of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine; Modelisation dynamique d'une machine asynchrone a cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerette, D.


    This document presented a detailed mathematical explanation and validation of the steps leading to the development of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine. The MatLab/Simulink software was used to model a wind turbine at variable high speeds. The asynchronous squirrel-cage machine is an electromechanical system coupled to a magnetic circuit. The resulting electromagnetic circuit can be represented as a set of resistances, leakage inductances and mutual inductances. Different models were used for a comparison study, including the Munteanu, Boldea, Wind Turbine Blockset, and SimPowerSystem. MatLab/Simulink modeling results were in good agreement with the results from other comparable models. Simulation results were in good agreement with analytical calculations. 6 refs, 2 tabs, 9 figs.

  8. Cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens. (United States)

    Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V


    This study investigates the influence of litter provision and linings used for nests and pecking and scratching areas on cage hygiene, laying location, and egg quality. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf vs. plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment, using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks), was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. We observed laying location, the number of dirty and broken eggs, the microbiological contamination of eggshells according to laying location, and general cage hygiene. The use of nests for laying decreased when they were lined with plastic mesh. Eggs laid outside the nest were of lower quality than those laid inside it, and this was particularly true for eggs laid in the PSA. Although hygiene was low on artificial turf mats, eggs laid on PSA covered with a rubber mat were dirtier and had a higher count of mesophilic bacteria on the eggshell than those laid on PSA covered with an artificial turf mat. Rubber mats in PSA were rapidly destroyed and proved to be unsuitable. The provision of litter had no effect on cage hygiene but substantially increased wear on mats. This study shows nest lining and litter provision methods to be key factors that need to be taken into account to encourage the use of nest boxes for laying, and hence, to ensure good egg quality. Further research into new linings for PSA is needed for the future improvement of egg-laying conditions.

  9. Effects of single caging and cage size on behavior and stress level of domestic neutered cats housed in an animal shelter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uetake, Katsuji; Goto, Akihiro; Koyama, Rumi; Kikuchi, Rieko; Tanaka, Toshio


    Cats need a minimum amount of space even in animal shelters. In this study the effects of single caging and cage size on the behavior and stress level of domestic cats were investigated. Six neutered cats (2–15 years old...

  10. Cage drying and the application of a dry treatment (absorbent cornstarch powder) as a means to diminish Campylobacter on transport cages. (United States)

    Broiler transport cages soiled with Campylobacter-positive feces have been shown to facilitate cross contamination of broilers. Campylobacter organisms are sensitive to dry stress. Allowing feces left on transport cage flooring to dry during extended periods of nonuse would be an effective method ...

  11. Structure and energetic characteristics of methane hydrates. From single cage to triple cage: A DFT-D study (United States)

    Giricheva, N. I.; Ischenko, A. A.; Yusupov, V. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Girichev, G. V.


    Electronic, geometrical, vibrational and energetic characteristics of the ice I TDT fragment consisted of dodecahedron H2O[512] (D) fused with two tetrakaidecahedrons H2O[51262] (T) and of the TDT cluster with three encapsulated CH4 molecules (3CH4·TDT) were calculated using a DFT/B97-D/6-311++G(2d,2p) approach. Binding energies, hydrogen bonding energies, energies of encapsulation of methane molecules into small D- and large T-cages of the TDT fragment, energies of frontier orbitals, the translational and librational frequencies, as well as the intramolecular vibrations of methane within the cages of different sizes were studied. Similar characteristics of isolated D- and T-cages and clathrates CH4·D and CH4·T were studied as function of compression/expansion of their oxygen skeletons using DFT/B97-D, LC-B3LYP, B3LYP-D2 methods.

  12. A collection of caged compounds for probing roles of local translation in neurobiology. (United States)

    Sadovski, Oleg; Jaikaran, Anna S I; Samanta, Subhas; Fabian, Marc R; Dowling, Ryan J O; Sonenberg, Nahum; Woolley, G Andrew


    Spatially localized translation plays a vital role in the normal functioning of neuronal systems and is widely believed to be involved in both learning and memory formation. It is of central interest to understand both the phenomenon and molecular mechanisms of local translation using new tools and approaches. Caged compounds can, in principle, be used as tools to investigate local translation since optical activation of bioactive molecules can achieve both spatial and temporal resolution on the micron scale and on the order of seconds or less, respectively. Successful caging of bioactive molecules requires the identification of key functional groups in appropriate molecules and the introduction of a suitable caging moiety. Here we present the design, synthesis and testing of a collection of three caged compounds: anisomycin caged with a diethylaminocoumarin moiety and dimethoxynitrobenzyl caged versions of 4E-BP and rapamycin. Whereas caged anisomycin can be used to control general translation, caged 4E-BP serves as a probe of cap-dependent translation initiation and caged rapamycin serves a probe of the role of mTORC1 in translation initiation. In vitro translation assays demonstrate that these caging strategies, in combination with the aforementioned compounds, are effective for optical control making it likely that such strategies can successfully employed in the study of local translation in living systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of copper and zinc sulfide nanocrystals via thermolysis of the polymetallic thiolate cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Kuzuya, Yutaka Tai, Saeki Yamamuro and Kenji Sumiyama


    Full Text Available In this paper report on the synthesis of copper and zinc sulfide nanocrystals (NCs via the formation of polymetallic thiolate cages. Cu2S NCs derived from Cu–dodecanethiol complex formed well-defined spherers, which were sufficiently monodisperse (with a size distribution of ~10% standard deviation of approximately 4.7 nm diameter on average to generate ordered self-assemblies. An electron diffraction pattern and UV–vis spectrum of Cu2S NCs indicate that this process can provide pure β-chalcocite (Cu2S. Nearly monodisperse ZnS NCs with a size ranging from 3 to 7 nm were obtained by thermolysis of the S–Zn–dodecanethiol precursor. The electron diffraction pattern indicates that zinc sulfide NCs are either wurtzite or a mixture of wurtzite and zincblende. TEM observation and UV–vis spectra revealed that the growth rate of ZnS NCs depends strongly on the annealing temperature. UV–vis spectra of 3 nm ZnS NCs show sharp excitonic features and a large blue shift from the bulk material. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit a large red shift from the absorption band edges. These shifts could be attributed to recombination from the surface traps. The narrow size distribution of Cu2S and ZnS NCs led to the formation of ordered self-assemblies with various well-defined but nonclosed-packing.

  14. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja


    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  15. Bulk fields with brane terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, F. del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales (CAFPE), Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Perez-Victoria, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Santiago, J. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    In theories with branes, bulk fields get in general divergent corrections localized on these defects. Hence, the corresponding brane terms are renormalized and should be included in the effective theory from the very beginning. We review the phenomenology associated to brane kinetic terms for different spins and backgrounds, and point out that renormalization is required already at the classical level. (orig.)

  16. Trp-cage: Folding free energy landscape in explicit water (United States)

    Zhou, Ruhong


    Trp-cage is a 20-residue miniprotein, which is believed to be the fastest folder known so far. In this study, the folding free energy landscape of Trp-cage has been explored in explicit solvent by using an OPLSAA force field with periodic boundary condition. A highly parallel replica exchange molecular dynamics method is used for the conformation space sampling, with the help of a recently developed efficient molecular dynamics algorithm P3ME/RESPA (particle–particle particle–mesh Ewald/reference system propagator algorithm). A two-step folding mechanism is proposed that involves an intermediate state where two correctly formed partial hydrophobic cores are separated by an essential salt-bridge between residues Asp-9 and Arg-16 near the center of the peptide. This metastable intermediate state provides an explanation for the superfast folding process. The free energy landscape is found to be rugged at low temperatures, and then becomes smooth and funnel-like above 340 K. The lowest free energy structure at 300 K is only 1.50 Å Cα-RMSD (Cα-rms deviation) from the NMR structures. The simulated nuclear Overhauser effect pair distances are in excellent agreement with the raw NMR data. The temperature dependence of the Trp-cage population, however, is found to be significantly different from experiment, with a much higher melting transition temperature above 400 K (experimental 315 K), indicating that the current force fields, parameterized at room temperature, need to be improved to correctly predict the temperature dependence. PMID:14581616

  17. Crossover from reptation to Rouse dynamics in the cage model. (United States)

    Drzewiński, A; van Leeuwen, J M J


    The two-dimensional cage model for polymer motion is discussed with an emphasis on the effect of sideways motions, which cross the barriers imposed by the lattice. Using the density matrix method as a solver of the master equation, the renewal time and the diffusion coefficient are calculated as a function of the strength of the barrier crossings. A strong crossover influence of the barrier crossings is found and it is analyzed in terms of effective exponents for a given chain length. The crossover scaling functions and the crossover scaling exponents are calculated.

  18. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia


    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  19. Standard test method for using atmospheric pressure rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a generally accepted procedure to conduct the rotating cage (RC) experiment under atmospheric pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Correction of Spray Concentration and Bioassay Cage Penetration Data (United States)


    Tulle). Colony-reared Culex quinquefascia- tus Say and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were used, with 1 cage of each per location. Twenty-five mosquitos...concentration (ml etofenprox/ cm2); a, b, c, d 5 0.39, 0.11, 137.7, and 0.22 for Ae. albopictus , corrected data; DECEMBER 2012 SCIENTIFIC NOTE 321 a, b, c, d...5 0.37, 0.09, 151.5, and 0.22 for Ae. albopictus , uncorrected data; a, b, c, d 5 22.1, 0.00013, 95.8, and 1.26 for Cx. quinquefasciatus, corrected

  1. Design of Automated Rotory Cage Type Fixture for Cylinder Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Project gives feasible solution to move and rotate the component with full proofing fixturing for special purpose operations like drilling, Tapping, deburring, washing, drying involve in manufacturing and assembly unit of industry. Rotary cage type fixture is made for handling the cylinder head inside the cleaning machine use for making fully ready component before assembly operation .System is useful to save time manpower and deliver perfect cleaned and dry component .system involved all the mechanical components along with the sensors used to restrict the rotating operations, stop and go operations etc.

  2. Lumbar interbody fusion: a parametric investigation of a novel cage design with and without posterior instrumentation. (United States)

    Galbusera, Fabio; Schmidt, Hendrik; Wilke, Hans-Joachim


    A finite element model of the L4-L5 human segment was employed to carry out a parametric biomechanical investigation of lumbar interbody fusion with a novel "sandwich" cage having an inner stiff core and two softer layers in the areas close to the endplates, with and without posterior fixation. Considered cage designs included: (a) cage in a homogeneous material with variable elastic modulus (19-2,000 MPa), (b) "sandwich" cage having an inner core (E=2,000 MPa) and softer layers (E=19 MPa) with variable thickness (1-2.5 mm). The latter cage was also considered in combination with posterior rods made with a material having variable elastic modulus (19-210,000 MPa). All the models were loaded with 500 N compression and moments of 7.5 Nm in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. The homogeneous cage stabilized the segment in flexion, lateral bending and axial rotation; in extension there was a destabilization up to 60% and remarkable cage movement (1 mm). The "sandwich" cage limited this phenomenon (cage movement<0.6 mm), effectively stabilized the segment in the other directions and lowered the maximal contact pressure on the endplates, reducing the risk of subsidence. Posterior fixation reduced spinal flexibility and cage movement. The soft layers of the "sandwich" cage had the potential to limit the risk of cage subsidence and to preserve a significant loading of the structure even in combination with flexible posterior instrumentation, which may have a beneficial effect in promoting bony fusion.

  3. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh


    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production.

  4. Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Reduces Fearfulness following Transfer to Furnished Cages (United States)

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Moe, Randi O.; Hansen, Tone B.; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Janczak, Andrew M.


    Appropriate rearing is essential for ensuring the welfare and productivity of laying hens. Early experience has the potential to affect the development of fearfulness. This study tested whether rearing in aviaries, as opposed to cages, reduces the fearfulness of laying hens after transfer to furnished cages. Fear responses were recorded as avoidance of a novel object in the home cage. Lohmann Selected Leghorns were reared in an aviary system or conventional rearing cages and then transported to furnished cages at 16 weeks, before the onset of lay. Observations of a selection of birds were conducted at 19 (N = 50 independent cages) and 21 (N = 48 independent cages) weeks of age. At 19 and 21 weeks, cage-reared birds showed higher levels of fearfulness indicated by spending more time away from the novel object compared to aviary-reared birds. These results suggest that rearing in an enriched aviary environment reduces fearfulness up to the fifth week after transfer to a new housing system, compared to rearing in cages. PMID:26955634

  5. Nitriding using cathodic cage technique of martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 with addition of CH4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Sousa, R.R.M; De Araújo, F.O; Da Costa, J.A.P; De Sousa, R.S; Alves JR, C


    AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel samples were nitrided by cathodic cage technique with addition of methane in the atmosphere aiming to reduce chromium nitride precipitation, to increase hardness...

  6. REINVENTING THE WHEEL: Comparison of Two Wheel Cage Styles for Assessing Mouse Voluntary Running Activity. (United States)

    Seward, Tanya; Harfmann, Brianna D; Esser, Karyn A; Schroder, Elizabeth A


    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different labs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differs depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to higher greater running distance/day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus, investigators need to report wheel cage type/ wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies.

  7. Effects of Nominal Differences in Cage Height and Floor Space on the Wellbeing of Rabbits. (United States)

    Stewart, Kay L; Suckow, Mark A


    The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits. Groups of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were housed in cages that provided either 15 in. of interior cage height (720 in(2) of floor space) or 18 in. of interior height (784 in(2) of floor space). The rabbits were observed during 25 periods (1 h each) over 7 wk, and various behavioral parameters were scored. In addition, rabbits were weighed weekly, and general clinical health was assessed. After 4 wk, the groups were switched to the alternate housing. No significant differences in body weight gain or behavioral parameters were detected between groups housed in cages with different heights and amounts of floor space, nor were significant behavioral differences noted in individual rabbits when moved from one cage type to the other. In addition, all rabbits remained clinically healthy throughout the study. These results demonstrate that these differences in interior cage height neither benefit nor harm rabbits.

  8. Sensitivity of BN nano-cages to caffeine and nicotine molecules (United States)

    Soltani, Alireza; Baei, Mohammad T.; Tazikeh Lemeski, E.; Shahini, Malihe


    Adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules over B12N12 and B16N16 nano-cages were investigated by using first-principles calculations to define whether BN nano-cages are applicable for filtering or sensing caffeine and nicotine molecules. The chemisorption energy of nicotine molecule on BN nano-cages is very stronger than caffeine molecule. Upon the adsorption of caffeine and nicotine molecules, the electronic properties of the BN nano-cages can be significantly changed, being too much sensitized on the caffeine and nicotine adsorptions.

  9. Photo-dependent protein biosynthesis using a caged aminoacyl-tRNA. (United States)

    Akahoshi, Akiya; Doi, Yoshio; Sisido, Masahiko; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ohtsuki, Takashi


    Translation systems with four-base codons provide a powerful strategy for protein engineering and protein studies because they enable site-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids into proteins. In this study, a caged aminoacyl-tRNA with a four-base anticodon was synthesized. The caged aminoacyl-tRNA contains a photocleavable nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC) group. This study showed that the caged aminoacyl-tRNA was not deacylated, did not bind to EF-Tu, and was activated by light. Photo-dependent translation of an mRNA containing the four-base codon was demonstrated using the caged aminoacyl-tRNA.

  10. Bulk density of small meteoroids (United States)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.


    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  11. Onset of magnetism in supported transition metal encapsulated silicon cages (United States)

    Robles, Roberto; Khanna, Shiv N.


    In the past few years, silicon based clusters have attracted a lot of attention as building blocks of nanomaterials. Some of the most promising candidates are the transition metal encapsulated silicon cages, which have been shown to be specially stable, both experimentally and theoretically. However, for the use of these materials in fields like spintronics, it is not only necessary to be semiconductor based, but also that they present a finite magnetic moment. However, it has been shown that the magnetic moment of the transition metal atom encapsulated in silicon cages is quenched due to the hybridization with silicon. By performing density functional calculations in the generalized gradient approximation, we show that the magnetic moment of these clusters can be recovered by depositing then on a surface. Using CrSi12 on Si(111) as an example, we have deposited the cluster in different orientations. The studies show that, for most of them, a finite magnetic moment is preserved in the system after a geometrical relaxation. The origin of this behavior is discussed in terms of hybridization, comparing to the unsupported situation.

  12. [Rib cage ostheosynthesis. Literature review and case reports]. (United States)

    Jiménez-Quijano, Andrés; Varón-Cotés, Juan Carlos; García-Herreros-Hellal, Luis Gerardo; Espinosa-Moya, Beatriz; Rivero-Rapalino, Oscar; Salazar-Marulanda, Michelle


    Fractures of the chest wall include sternum and rib fractures. Traditionally they are managed conservatively due to the anatomy of the rib cage that allows most of them to remain stable and to form a callus that unites the fractured segments. In spite of this management, some patients present with chronic pain or instability of the wall which makes them require some type of fixation. The present article performs a literature review based on 4 cases. The first case was a 61 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, with a great deformity of the chest wall associated with subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax. The second case was a 51 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, initially managed at another institution, who despite treatment, had persistent pain and dyspnoea. The third case was a 30 year-old man that suffered a motor vehicle accident, with resulting pain and crepitation of the rib cage and with diagnostic images showing multiple rib fractures. The last case is a 62 year-old man that fell down the stairs, with blunt chest trauma with high intensity pain, dyspnoea and basal ipsilateral hypoventilation. Rib fracture fixation offers a good alternative in selected patients to decrease associated morbidity, leading to a patient's fast return to his or her working life. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of a phage endolysin by disulfide caging. (United States)

    Kuty, Gabriel F; Xu, Min; Struck, Douglas K; Summer, Elizabeth J; Young, Ry


    In contrast to canonical phage endolysins, which require holin-mediated disruption of the membrane to gain access to attack the cell wall, signal anchor release (SAR) endolysins are secreted by the host sec system, where they accumulate in an inactive form tethered to the membrane by their N-terminal SAR domains. SAR endolysins become activated by various mechanisms upon release from the membrane. In its inactive form, the prototype SAR endolysin, Lyz(P1), of coliphage P1, has an active-site Cys covalently blocked by a disulfide bond; activation involves a disulfide bond isomerization driven by a thiol in the newly released SAR domain, unblocking the active-site Cys. Here, we report that Lyz(103), the endolysin of Erwinia phage ERA103, is also a SAR endolysin. Although Lyz(103) does not have a catalytic Cys, genetic evidence suggests that it also is activated by a thiol-disulfide isomerization triggered by a thiol in the SAR domain. In this case, the inhibitory disulfide in nascent Lyz(103) is formed between cysteine residues flanking a catalytic glutamate, caging the active site. Thus, Lyz(P1) and Lyz(103) define subclasses of SAR endolysins that differ in the nature of their inhibitory disulfide, and Lyz(103) is the first enzyme found to be regulated by disulfide bond caging of its active site.

  14. Electromechanical interaction in rotordynamics of cage induction motors (United States)

    Holopainen, Timo P.; Tenhunen, Asmo; Arkkio, Antero


    Eccentric rotor motion induces an unbalanced magnetic pull between the rotor and stator of cage induction motors. Recently, a linear parametric model of this eccentricity force due to the arbitrary rotor motion was presented. The purpose of this study is to combine this electromagnetic force model with a simple mechanical rotor model, and further, to demonstrate the rotordynamic response induced by this electromechanical interaction. An electromechanical rotor model is derived on the basis of the Jeffcott rotor with two additional variables for the harmonic currents of the rotor cage. Applying this model, the rotordynamic effects of electromechanical interaction were studied. Three induction motors were used in the numerical examples. The electromechanical parameters of these motors were estimated from the numerical simulations carried out separately. The results obtained show that the electromechanical interaction may decrease the natural frequencies of the rotor, induce additional damping or cause rotordynamic instability. These interaction effects are most significant in motors operating at or near the first bending critical speed. Excluding the potential rotordynamic instability, the numerical results indicate that the electromechanical interaction reduces effectively the unbalance response close to the first bending critical speed.

  15. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.


    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  16. Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature (United States)

    Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Peterman, Paul H.; Judy, Barbara M.; Taylor, Julia A.; Orazio, Carl E.; Ruhlen, Rachel L.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We examined whether new and used polycarbonate animal cages passively release bioactive levels of BPA into water at room temperature and neutral pH. Purified water was incubated at room temperature in new polycarbonate and polysulfone cages and used (discolored) polycarbonate cages, as well as control (glass and used polypropylene) containers. The resulting water samples were characterized with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tested for estrogenic activity using an MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Significant estrogenic activity, identifiable as BPA by GC/MS (up to 310 micro g/L), was released from used polycarbonate animal cages. Detectable levels of BPA were released from new polycarbonate cages (up to 0.3 micro g/L) as well as new polysulfone cages (1.5 micro g/L), whereas no BPA was detected in water incubated in glass and used polypropylene cages. Finally, BPA exposure as a result of being housed in used polycarbonate cages produced a 16% increase in uterine weight in prepubertal female mice relative to females housed in used polypropylene cages, although the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that laboratory animals maintained in polycarbonate and polysulfone cages are exposed to BPA via leaching, with exposure reaching the highest levels in old cages.

  17. Risk factors for cage retropulsion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion: analysis of 1070 cases. (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Shikata, Jitsuhiko; Odate, Seiichi; Soeda, Tsunemitsu; Yamamura, Satoru


    Single-center retrospective study. We examined the risk factors for cage retropulsion after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) performed for patients with degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. Although PLIF is a widely accepted procedure, problems remain regarding perioperative and postoperative complications. There are few reported studies identifying specific risk factors for cage retropulsion, one of the implant-related complications after PLIF, although several case reports have been published. Between April 2006 and July 2010, 1070 patients with various degenerative lumbar spinal diseases underwent single- or multilevel PLIF combined with posterolateral fusion, using posterior pedicle screw fixation and box-type cages. Their medical records and preoperative radiographs were reviewed and the factors influencing the incidence of cage retropulsion were analyzed. There were 9 cases of cage retropulsion (7 men and 2 women; mean age, 68.2 yr), and it developed within 2 months after surgery in all cases. Five patients had low back pain or leg pain, 3 of whom required revision surgery. The mean fusion level was 3.9 (range, 2-5); in 6 of the 9 patients, the cage had migrated at L5/S, 2 at L4/5, and 1 at L3/4. All of the cages were inserted at the end disc level of multilevel fusion procedures. The disc heights and ranges of motion were significantly greater in patients with cage retropulsion, and patients with a pear-shaped disc space also showed a higher rate of cage retropulsion. These results indicate that PLIF at L5/S, a wide disc space with instability, multilevel fusion surgery, and a pear-shaped disc space on lateral radiographs are risk factors for cage retropulsion. The identification of these risk factors should allow us to avoid this complication, and the use of expandable cages is an effective option for such cases.

  18. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John


    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  19. Gold based bulk metallic glass


    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan


    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  20. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  1. Effect of cage tier and age on performance, egg quality and stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cage tier and age on performance characteristics of layer hybrids, egg quality and some stress parameters. Ninety laying hens (hybrid ATAK-S) of similar bodyweights were used in the experiment. They were housed in three-tier conventional battery cages (bottom, ...

  2. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.


    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  3. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments (United States)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  4. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis


    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  5. Validity of the CAGE in Screening for Problem Drinking in College Students. (United States)

    Heck, Edward J.; Lichtenberg, James W.


    Examined the ability of CAGE, an established screening test for alcoholism, to identify accurately problem drinkers among college students (N=582). Found that the CAGE did not perform well enough to serve as a screening tool for problem drinking within the college student population. (Author/ABL)

  6. Forced Hot Air to Dry Feces and Kill Bacteria on Transport Cage Flooring (United States)

    Due to fecal shedding from positive birds, broiler transport cages can be contaminated with human bacterial pathogens leading to cross contamination of previously negative broilers during live haul. Earlier work has shown that drying soiled or washed cages for 24 to 48 hours can lower or even elimi...

  7. Development of an integrated CAD-FEA system for patient-specific design of spinal cages. (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzheng; Pu, Fang; Xu, Liqiang; Zhang, Linlin; Liang, Hang; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo


    Spinal cages are used to create a suitable mechanical environment for interbody fusion in cases of degenerative spinal instability. Due to individual variations in bone structures and pathological conditions, patient-specific cages can provide optimal biomechanical conditions for fusion, strengthening patient recovery. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a valuable tool in the biomechanical evaluation of patient-specific cage designs, but the time- and labor-intensive process of modeling limits its clinical application. In an effort to facilitate the design and analysis of patient-specific spinal cages, an integrated CAD-FEA system (CASCaDeS, comprehensive analytical spinal cage design system) was developed. This system produces a biomechanical-based patient-specific design of spinal cages and is capable of rapid implementation of finite element modeling. By comparison with commercial software, this system was validated and proven to be both accurate and efficient. CASCaDeS can be used to design patient-specific cages with a superior biomechanical performance to commercial spinal cages.

  8. The Effects of Caging on the Colonization of Fouling Organisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of caging on the colonization and development of the fouling community in the upper Bonny estuary was studied. The experimental design was such that sets of wooden panels (20x20 cm) were screened with cages constructed with plastic netting while another set was left uncaged. Both sets of panels were ...

  9. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.


    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  10. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Theo H.; Thomas, Kevin A.; Hoogendoorn, Roel J. W.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Helder, Marco N.; Wuisman, Paul I. J. M.


    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during

  11. Design and synthesis of novel bis-annulated caged polycycles via ring-closing metathesis: pushpakenediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha


    Full Text Available Intricate caged molecular frameworks are assembled by an atom economical process via a Diels–Alder (DA reaction, a Claisen rearrangement, a ring-closing metathesis (RCM and an alkenyl Grignard addition. The introduction of olefinic moieties in the pentacycloundecane (PCUD framework at appropriate positions followed by RCM led to the formation of novel heptacyclic cage systems.

  12. Genome-wide detection and analysis of hippocampus core promoters using DeepCAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Pascarella, Giovanni; Chalk, Alistair


    in a given tissue. Here, we present a new method for high-throughput sequencing of 5' cDNA tags-DeepCAGE: merging the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression method with ultra-high-throughput sequence technology. We apply DeepCAGE to characterize 1.4 million sequenced TSS from mouse hippocampus and reveal a wealth...

  13. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.


    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  14. Self-Assembly, Guest Capture, and NMR Spectroscopy of a Metal-Organic Cage in Water (United States)

    Go, Eun Bin; Srisuknimit, Veerasak; Cheng, Stephanie L.; Vosburg, David A.


    A green organic-inorganic laboratory experiment has been developed in which students prepare a self-assembling iron cage in D[subscript 2]O at room temperature. The tetrahedral cage captures a small, neutral molecule such as cyclohexane or tetrahydrofuran. [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis distinguishes captured and free guests through diagnostic…

  15. Effects of manual rib cage compressions on expiratory flow and mucus clearance during mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Martí, Joan Daniel; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Rigol, Montserrat; Saucedo, Lina; Ranzani, Otavio Tavares; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Nestor; Ferrer, Miquel; Vilaro, Jordi; Kolobow, Theodor; Torres, Antoni


    We investigated the effects of two different types of manual rib cage compression on expiratory flow and mucus clearance during prolonged mechanical ventilation in pigs. Prospective randomized animal study. Animal research facility, University of Barcelona, Spain. Nine healthy pigs. Pigs were tracheally intubated, sedated, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The animals were prone on a surgical bed in the anti-Trendelenburg position. The experiments were carried out at approximately 60 and 80 hrs from the beginning of mechanical ventilation. Two types of manual rib cage compressions were tested: Hard and brief rib cage compressions synchronized with early expiratory phase (hard manual rib cage compression) and soft and gradual rib cage compressions applied during the late expiratory phase (soft manual rib cage compression). The interventions were randomly applied for 15min with a 15-min interval between treatments. Respiratory flow and mucus movement were assessed during the interventions. Respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics were assessed prior to and after the interventions. Peak expiratory flow increased to 60.1±7.1L/min in comparison to 51.2±4.6L/min without treatment (p < 0.0015) and 48.7±4.3L/min with soft manual rib cage compression (p = 0.0002). Similarly, mean expiratory flow increased to 28.4±5.2L/min during hard manual rib cage compression vs. 15.9±2.2 and 16.6±2.8L/min without treatment and soft manual rib cage compression, respectively (p = 0.0006). During hard manual rib cage compression, mucus moved toward the glottis (1.01 ± 2.37mm/min); conversely, mucus moved toward the lungs during no treatment and soft manual rib cage compression, -0.28 ± 0.61 and -0.15±0.95mm/min, respectively (p = 0.0283). Soft manual rib cage compression slightly worsened static lung elastance and cardiac output (p = 0.0391). Hard manual rib cage compression improved mucus clearance in animals positioned in the anti-Trendelenburg position. The technique

  16. The effect of cage size on play and aggression between dogs in purpose-bred beagles. (United States)

    Bebak, J; Beck, A M


    One intent of the proposed changes to USDA 9, CFR Part 3 was to give kennel dogs an opportunity for exercise and play (socialization). Increasing cage size was proposed as a means to encourage exercise and play, thus enhancing the well-being of kennel dogs. Eleven-month-old, female, purpose-bred Beagles, housed four to a cage, were videotaped for 15 hours on 10 different dates, resulting in five videotapes recorded for a smaller cage size and five videotapes recorded for a larger cage size. A total of 40 dogs were videotaped. For each videotape, aggression, play, and distance between dogs were recorded and analyzed. There were no differences in aggression or play, but the dogs did put significantly more distance between themselves in the larger cage.

  17. Parameters estimation of squirrel-cage induction motors using ANN and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi Jirdehi


    Full Text Available In the transient behavior analysis of a squirrel-cage induction motor, the parameters of the single-cage and double-cage models are studied. These parameters are usually hard to obtain. This paper presents two new methods to predict the induction motor parameters in the single-cage and double-cage models based on artificial neural network (ANN and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. For this purpose, the experimental data (manufacturer data of 20 induction motors with the different power are used. The experimental data are including of the starting torque and current, maximum torque, full load sleep, efficiency, rated active power and reactive power. The obtained results from the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are compared with each other and with the experimental data, which show a good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data. But the proposed ANFIS model is more accurate than the proposed ANN model.

  18. Magnetotactic Bacterial Cages as Safe and Smart Gene Delivery Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaiari, Shahad K.


    In spite of the huge advances in the area of synthetic carriers, their efficiency still poorly compares to natural vectors. Herein, we report the use of unmodified magnetotactic bacteria as a guidable delivery vehicle for DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). High cargo loading is established under anaerobic conditions (bacteria is alive) through endocytosis where AuNPs are employed as transmembrane proteins mimics (facilitate endocytosis) as well as imaging agents to verify and quantify loading and release. The naturally bio-mineralized magnetosomes, within the bacteria, induce heat generation inside bacteria through magnetic hyperthermia. Most importantly after exposing the system to air (bacteria is dead) the cell wall stays intact providing an efficient bacterial vessel. Upon incubation with THP-1 cells, the magnetotactic bacterial cages (MBCs) adhere to the cell wall and are directly engulfed through the phagocytic activity of these cells. Applying magnetic hyperthermia leads to the dissociation of the bacterial microcarrier and eventual release of cargo.

  19. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones (United States)

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn


    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  20. Performance Analysis of a Brushless Double Fed Cage Induction Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruencos, F. [WEG S.A., Jaragua do Sul (Brazil); Carlson, R.; Oliveira, A.M.; Kuo-Peng, P.; Sadowski, N. [GRUCAD-UFSC, Florianopolis (Brazil)


    This paper analyses design and performance aspects of a brushless double fed cage induction generator as an economic and technical alternative to the classical wound rotor induction generator used in wind power generation. It focuses firstly on the machine operational characteristics and main design criteria and secondly on steady state and dynamic analytical and numerical models for efficient prediction of machine behavior. The analytical dynamic model is obtained by transforming the equations written in machine variables into equations written in an arbitrary reference frame. In the finite element approach the electrical machine is modeled in a 2D domain, using the Maxwell equations to formulate the field behavior and the FE method to discretize the domain of study. A prototype was built and tested to validate the simulation models and to verify the design criteria.

  1. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Respiratory Exposures. (United States)

    Arteaga, Veronica; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Schenker, Marc; Mitloehner, Frank


    The objective of this study was to compare the personal respiratory exposures of poultry workers in three different types of layer housing under commercial production conditions. Workers were randomly assigned to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary barns in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods over the hens' lifetime. Inhalable and fine particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin in both size fractions were assessed by personal and area samplers over the work shift. Concentrations of inhalable PM, PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and endotoxin in both size fractions were higher in aviary than either the conventional or enriched barns. Geometric means (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of inhalable PM and endotoxin for the aviary, conventional, and enriched barns were 8.9 (6.8-11.5) mg/m(3) and 7517.9 (5403.2-10,460.2) EU/m(3), 3.7 (2.8-4.8) mg/m(3) and 1655.7 (1144.6-2395.2) EU/m(3), 2.4 (1.8-3.3) mg/m(3) and 1404.8 (983.3-2007.0) EU/m(3), respectively. Area samplers recorded a lower mean inhalable PM concentration and higher PM2.5 concentration than personal samplers. Ammonia concentrations were low throughout three monitoring seasons. These findings show that the aviary barns pose higher respiratory exposures to poultry workers than either conventional or enriched barns.

  2. Cationic P-S-X cages (X=Br, I). (United States)

    Gonsior, Marcin; Krossing, Ingo; Matern, Eberhard


    The first condensed-phase preparation of ternary P-Ch-X cations (Ch=O-Te, X=F-I) is reported: [P5S3X2]+, [P5S2X2]+, and [P4S4X]+ (X=Br, I). [P5S3X2]+ is formed from the reaction of the Ag+/PX3 reagent with P4S3. The [P5S3X2]+ ions have a structure that is related to P4S5 by replacing P=S by P+--X and S in the four-membered ring by P(X). We provide evidence that the active ingredient of the Ag+/PX3 reagent is the (H2CCl2)Ag-X-PX2+ cation. The latter likely reacts with the HOMO of P4S3 in a concerted HOMO-LUMO addition to give the P5S3X2+ ion as the first species visible in situ in the low-temperature 31P NMR spectrum. The [P5S3X2]+ ions are metastable at -78 degrees C and disproportionate at slightly higher temperatures to give [P5S2X2]+ and [P4S4X]+, probably with the extrusion of 1/n (PX)n (X=Br, I). All six new cage compounds have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and, in part, by IR or Raman spectroscopy. The [P5S2X2]+ salts have a nortricyclane skeleton and were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the [P4S4X]+ ion is related to that of P4S5 in that the exo-cage P=S bond is replaced by an isoelectronic P+--X moiety.

  3. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A


    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  4. Specific Internalisation of Gold Nanoparticles into Engineered Porous Protein Cages via Affinity Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Paramelle

    Full Text Available Porous protein cages are supramolecular protein self-assemblies presenting pores that allow the access of surrounding molecules and ions into their core in order to store and transport them in biological environments. Protein cages' pores are attractive channels for the internalisation of inorganic nanoparticles and an alternative for the preparation of hybrid bioinspired nanoparticles. However, strategies based on nanoparticle transport through the pores are largely unexplored, due to the difficulty of tailoring nanoparticles that have diameters commensurate with the pores size and simultaneously displaying specific affinity to the cages' core and low non-specific binding to the cages' outer surface. We evaluated the specific internalisation of single small gold nanoparticles, 3.9 nm in diameter, into porous protein cages via affinity binding. The E2 protein cage derived from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus presents 12 pores, 6 nm in diameter, and an empty core of 13 nm in diameter. We engineered the E2 protein by site-directed mutagenesis with oligohistidine sequences exposing them into the cage's core. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy analysis show that the structures of E2 protein cages mutated with bis- or penta-histidine sequences are well conserved. The surface of the gold nanoparticles was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer made of a mixture of short peptidols and thiolated alkane ethylene glycol ligands. Such monolayers are found to provide thin coatings preventing non-specific binding to proteins. Further functionalisation of the peptide coated gold nanoparticles with Ni2+ nitrilotriacetic moieties enabled the specific binding to oligohistidine tagged cages. The internalisation via affinity binding was evaluated by electron microscopy analysis. From the various mutations tested, only the penta-histidine mutated E2 protein cage showed repeatable and stable internalisation. The present work overcomes the

  5. Sterilization and strength of 70/30 polylactide cages: e-beam versus ethylene oxide. (United States)

    Smit, Theo H; Thomas, Kevin A; Hoogendoorn, Roel J W; Strijkers, Gustav J; Helder, Marco N; Wuisman, Paul I J M


    In vitro and in vivo studies on the degradation of 70/30 poly(L,DL-lactide) (PLDLLA) cages. To evaluate the effect of e-beam and ethylene oxide sterilization on degradation and strength. e-beam-sterilized PLDLLA cages were shown to maintain mechanical strength for at least 6 months during degradation studies in vitro. Yet failure of the cages was observed after only 3 months in vivo. We hypothesized that degradation characteristics and mechanical strength could be improved by sterilizing the cages through ethylene oxide (EtO) instead of e-beam. PLDLLA cages were sterilized either by e-beam or EtO, and degraded in phosphate-buffered saline. Each month, cages were compressed until failure. Inherent viscosity was determined as a measure of degradation. For the in vivo evaluation, e-beam- or EtO-sterilized cages were implanted at L3-L4 in a standardized goat model. After 3 or 6 months, retrieved segments were scanned by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Also, inherent viscosity of the polymer was measured. e-beam sterilization strongly decreased inherent viscosity of PLDLLA compared with EtO sterilization, but initial strength was only affected marginally. After 6 months, the strength of the e-beam-sterilized cages dropped, while that of EtO-sterilized cages was maintained. Degradation in vivo was slightly faster than in vitro. In both groups, however, mechanical failure occurred at 3 months after implantation. Inherent viscosity decreases with degradation time, but strength only decreases when inherent viscosity is below a certain threshold. Above this threshold, mechanical strength is a property of the polymer and independent of inherent viscosity. e-beam sterilization strongly decreases inherent viscosity and thus advances mechanical degradation. EtO sterilization delays degradation but does not increase initial strength. Early failure of PLDLLA cages in the goat model thus is unrelated to sterilization method and requires further study.

  6. Individually ventilated cages cause chronic low-grade hypoxia impacting mice hematologically and behaviorally (United States)

    York, Jason M.; McDaniel, Allison W.; Blevins, Neil A.; Guillet, Riley R.; Allison, Sarah O.; Cengel, Keith A.; Freund, Gregory G.


    Use of individually ventilated caging (IVC) systems for mouse-based laboratory investigation has dramatically increased. We found that without mice present, intra-cage oxygen concentration was comparable (21%) between IVC housing and ambient environment caging (AEC) that used wire top lids. However, when mice were housed 4-to-a-cage for 1 week, intra-cage oxygen dropped to 20.5% in IVC housing as compared to 21% for AEC housing. IVC intra-cage humidity was also elevated relative to AEC housing. Mice raised in IVC housing as compared to mice raised in AEC housing had higher RBC mass, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations. They also had elevated platelet counts but lower white blood cell counts. IVC mice relative to AEC mice had increased saccharin preference and increased fluid consumption but similar locomotion, food intake, social exploration and novel object recognition when tested in an AEC environment. Taken together, these data indicate that ventilated caging systems can have a 0.5% reduction from ambient oxygen concentration that is coupled to mouse red blood cell indices indicative of chronic exposure to a hypoxia. Importantly, IVC housing can impact behavioral testing for depressive-like behavior. PMID:22561683

  7. Suitability of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone cages for use as anterior struts following corpectomy. (United States)

    Heary, Robert F; Parvathreddy, Naresh K; Qayumi, Zainab S; Ali, Naiim S; Agarwal, Nitin


    OBJECTIVE Fibular allograft remains a widely used strut for corpectomy surgeries. The amount of graft material that can be packed into an allograft strut has not been quantified. Cages are an alternative to fibular allograft for fusion surgeries. The authors of this study assessed the suitability of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRP) cages for anterior corpectomy surgeries. They further explored the parameters known to affect fusion rates in clinical practice. METHODS Six fibular allografts were tested at standard lengths. Three sets of carbon fiber cages (Bengal, DePuy Spine), each with a different footprint size but the same lengths, were tested. The allografts and cages were wrapped in adhesive, fluid-tight transparent barriers and filled with oil. The volume and weight of the oil instilled as well as the implant footprints were measured. The fibular allografts and cages were tested at 20-, 40-, and 50-mm lengths. Two investigators independently performed all measurements 5 times. Five CFRP cubes (1 × 1 × 1 cm) were tested under pure compression, and load versus displacement curves were plotted to determine the modulus of elasticity. RESULTS Significantly more oil fit in the CFRP cages than in the fibular allografts (p Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone cages can accommodate much more graft material than can fibular allografts. In clinical practice, the ability to deliver greater amounts of graft material following a corpectomy may improve fusion rates.

  8. Computational design and fabrication of a novel bioresorbable cage for tibial tuberosity advancement application. (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Vorndran, Elke; Gbureck, Uwe; Quental, Carlos; Folgado, João; Fernandes, Paulo R


    Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is a promising method for the treatment of cruciate ligament rupture in dogs that usually implies the implantation of a titanium cage as bone implant. This cage is non-biodegradable and fails in providing adequate implant-bone tissue integration. The objective of this work is to propose a new process chain for designing and manufacturing an alternative biodegradable cage that can fulfill specific patient requirements. A three-dimensional finite element model (3D FEM) of the TTA system was first created to evaluate the mechanical environment at cage domain during different stages of the dog walk. The cage microstructure was then optimized using a topology optimization tool, which addresses the accessed local mechanical requirements, and at same time ensures the maximum permeability to allow nutrient and oxygen supply to the implant core. The designed cage was then biofabricated by a 3D powder printing of tricalcium phosphate cement. This work demonstrates that the combination of a 3D FEM with a topology optimization approach enabled the design of a novel cage for TTA application with tailored permeability and mechanical properties, that can be successfully 3D printed in a biodegradable bioceramic material. These results support the potential of the design optimization strategy and fabrication method to the development of customized and bioresorbable implants for bone repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Caging, but not air deprivation, slows tadpole growth and development in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. (United States)

    Rose, Christopher S


    Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised in submerged cages in normoxic water develop more slowly than tadpoles raised with access to air. This study distinguishes between the effects of being caged and being deprived access to air on development and growth. Tadpoles were raised in high and low density control tanks and in cages in the same tank that were either completely submerged or with the top exposed to air. Experiments were repeated with the cages in different positions relative to the air stones and with and without the water flow from air stones supplemented with a pump. Whereas caging tadpoles has a large effect on their development and growth, additionally depriving them of air has a small effect and this effect can be removed by optimizing water flow through the cage. The effect of caging, though significant in this study, is small compared to the variation in growth and developmental rates that is commonly encountered within and among controls in lab studies. Caging effects can also be diminished by optimizing rearing conditions and/or having exceptionally vigorous tadpoles. The effects of air deprivation and caging thus pose less of a problem for experimenting on air-deprived (AD) and air-restored Xenopus tadpoles than their inherent variability in growth and developmental rates and their susceptibility to growth and developmental arrest. Further, the effect of air deprivation in this air-breathing amphibian does not pose a conflict with evolutionary hypotheses for lung loss involving lengthening of the larval period and delay in the onset of air breathing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effects of design and positioning of carbon fiber lumbar interbody cages and their subsidence in vertebral bodies. (United States)

    Lam, Fred C; Alkalay, Ron; Groff, Michael W


    A biomechanical study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. To determine the strength and stiffness of 3 carbon fiber cage designs in axial compression. To assess the effects of bone mineral density (BMD) on vertebral endplate failure with respect to the different cage patterns. Unilateral transforaminal approaches are gaining popularity compared with posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion. With differences in the inherent strengths of each quadrant of the endplate, the effect of different cage designs and their location on the endplate may affect subsidence and fusion success. BMD measurements were obtained from 30 human spinal segments from L3 to L5. Discectomies were performed and cages were placed on the cephalad endplate of each vertebra in 3 configurations: 2 small posterolateral rectangular cages; 1 small anterior banana cage; and 1 small central rectangular cage. Each segment was tested under compression until endplate failure was recorded. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for the effects of cage design on cage subsidence and endplate failure. Analysis of covariance was conducted to test for the effects of age, BMD, and vertebral levels on the failure load and stiffness for each cage design. Cage design was not significant in affecting failure force across the endplate. There were insignificant differences comparing stiffness in compression for the 3 different cage placements patterns. Low BMD adversely affected failure force and construct stiffness across all 3 cage patterns. Cage design and position do not significantly affect failure of the construct or stiffness in compression across the endplate. BMD significantly affects both failure forces and stiffness but is not dependent on the positioning or design of the cage.

  11. Interbody fusion cage design using integrated global layout and local microstructure topology optimization. (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ying; Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Chen, Po-Quan; Hollister, Scott J


    An approach combining global layout and local microstructure topology optimization was used to create a new interbody fusion cage design that concurrently enhanced stability, biofactor delivery, and mechanical tissue stimulation for improved arthrodesis. To develop a new interbody fusion cage design by topology optimization with porous internal architecture. To compare the performance of this new design to conventional threaded cage designs regarding early stability and long-term stress shielding effects on ingrown bone. Conventional interbody cage designs mainly fall into categories of cylindrical or rectangular shell shapes. The designs contribute to rigid stability and maintain disc height for successful arthrodesis but may also suffer mechanically mediated failures of dislocation or subsidence, as well as the possibility of bone resorption. The new optimization approach created a cage having designed microstructure that achieved desired mechanical performance while providing interconnected channels for biofactor delivery. The topology optimization algorithm determines the material layout under desirable volume fraction (50%) and displacement constraints favorable to bone formation. A local microstructural topology optimization method was used to generate periodic microstructures for porous isotropic materials. Final topology was generated by the integration of the two-scaled structures according to segmented regions and the corresponding material density. Image-base finite element analysis was used to compare the mechanical performance of the topology-optimized cage and conventional threaded cage. The final design can be fabricated by a variety of Solid Free-Form systems directly from the image output. The new design exhibited a narrower, more uniform displacement range than the threaded cage design and lower stress at the cage-vertebra interface, suggesting a reduced risk of subsidence. Strain energy density analysis also indicated that a higher portion of

  12. Reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa maintained in different cage sizes in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Magalhães Borges Battel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of cage sizes on the survival and reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen. Size of breeding cages significantly affected the reproductive potential of C. externa . Our results indicated that in cages smaller (7.5cm of diameter than those usually recommended for the rearing of this insect (10cm diameter, females showed higher rates of oviposition. Reduction of space for rearing natural enemies in the laboratory is very important for developing biological control programs.

  13. Guest-cage atomic interactions in a clathrate-based phase-change material. (United States)

    Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M; Law, Leong-Tat; Wang, Wei-Jie; Li, Ming-Hua; Song, Wen-Dong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Elliott, Stephen R


    New clathrate-based phase-change materials with cage-like structures incorporating Cs and Ba guest atoms, are reported as a means of altering crystallization and amorphization behavior by controlling 'guest-cage' interactions via intra-complex guest vibrational effects. Both a high resistance to spontaneous crystallization, and long retention of the amorphous phase are achieved, as well as a low melting energy. This approach provides a route for achieving cage-controlled semiconductor devices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Chiral Organic Cages with a Triple-Stranded Helical Structure Derived from Helicene. (United States)

    Malik, Abaid Ullah; Gan, Fuwei; Shen, Chengshuo; Yu, Na; Wang, Ruibin; Crassous, Jeanne; Shu, Mouhai; Qiu, Huibin


    We report the use of helicene with an intrinsic helical molecular structure to prepare covalent organic cages via imine condensation. The organic cages revealed a [3+2]-type architecture containing a triple-stranded helical structure with three helicene units arranged in a propeller-like fashion with the framework integrally twisted. Such structural chirality was retained upon dissolution in organic solvents, as indicated by a strong diastereotopy effect in proton NMR and unique Cotton effects in circular dichroism spectra. Further study on chiral adsorption showed that the chiral organic cages possess considerable enantioselectivity toward a series of aromatic racemates.

  15. Effects of declawing and cage shape on productivity, feathering, and fearfulness of egg-type chickens. (United States)

    Vanskike, K P; Adams, A W


    Declawing day-old egg-type chicks did not significantly (P less than .05) alter 20-week body weight. However, declawed hens tended to mature earlier and lay more eggs than the intact hens. Hens housed in shallow cages tended to be better feathered than those housed in deep cages. Neither declawing nor cage shape had a significant effect on the time required for birds to return to feeding after exposure to a noise stimulus, which was used as an indicator of fearfulness.

  16. Spiro annulation of cage polycycles via Grignard reaction and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha


    Full Text Available A simple synthetic strategy to C2-symmetric bis-spiro-pyrano cage compound 7 involving ring-closing metathesis is reported. The hexacyclic dione 10 was prepared from simple and readily available starting materials such as 1,4-naphthoquinone and cyclopentadiene. The synthesis of an unprecedented octacyclic cage compound through intramolecular Diels–Alder (DA reaction as a key step is described. The structures of three new cage compounds 7, 12 and 18 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  17. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  18. CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us FANTOM5 CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier Data detail Data name CAGE peaks...dc01389-007.V002 No Update V1 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01389-007.V001 - Description of data contents Evaluation of CAGE peak...s It shows that the sequence close to CAGE peak has TSS-like or not. TS...ase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Colloidal glasses and gels: The interplay of bonding and caging. (United States)

    Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Poon, Wilson C K


    We report simulations of glassy arrest in hard-core particles with short-range interparticle attraction. Previous experiments, theory, and simulations suggest that in this kind of system, two qualitatively distinct kinds of glasses exist, dominated respectively by repulsion and attraction. It is thought that in the former, particles are trapped "topologically," by nearest-neighbor cages, whereas in the latter, nonergodicity is due to interparticle "bonds." Subsequent experiments and simulations have suggested that bond breaking destabilizes attractive glasses, but the long-term fate of these arrested states remains unknown. By running simulations to times a few orders of magnitude longer than those reached by previous experiments or simulations, we show that arrest in an attractive glass is, in the long run, also topological. Nevertheless, it is still possible to distinguish between "nonbonded" and "bonded" repulsive glassy states. We study the melting of bonded repulsive glasses into a hitherto unknown "dense gel" state, which is distinct from dense, ergodic fluids. We propose a "modified state diagram" for concentrated attractive particles, and discuss the relevance of our results in the light of recent rheological measurements in colloid-polymer mixtures.

  20. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  1. Structure and assembly of scalable porous protein cages (United States)

    Sasaki, Eita; Böhringer, Daniel; van de Waterbeemd, Michiel; Leibundgut, Marc; Zschoche, Reinhard; Heck, Albert J. R.; Ban, Nenad; Hilvert, Donald


    Proteins that self-assemble into regular shell-like polyhedra are useful, both in nature and in the laboratory, as molecular containers. Here we describe cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of two versatile encapsulation systems that exploit engineered electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. We show that increasing the number of negative charges on the lumenal surface of lumazine synthase, a protein that naturally assembles into a ~1-MDa dodecahedron composed of 12 pentamers, induces stepwise expansion of the native protein shell, giving rise to thermostable ~3-MDa and ~6-MDa assemblies containing 180 and 360 subunits, respectively. Remarkably, these expanded particles assume unprecedented tetrahedrally and icosahedrally symmetric structures constructed entirely from pentameric units. Large keyhole-shaped pores in the shell, not present in the wild-type capsid, enable diffusion-limited encapsulation of complementarily charged guests. The structures of these supercharged assemblies demonstrate how programmed electrostatic effects can be effectively harnessed to tailor the architecture and properties of protein cages.

  2. Porous organic cage membranes for water desalination: a simulation exploration. (United States)

    Kong, Xian; Jiang, Jianwen


    Porous organic cages (POCs) have emerged as a new class of porous materials and received considerable interest for their potential applications. Herein we report the first proof-of-concept simulation study on POC membranes for water desalination. Five [4+6] POCs (CC1, CC2, CC3, CC16, and CC17) are considered with similar crystal structures, but different periphery groups and pore morphologies. CC1 is found to be impermeable to water due to disconnected pores. With an interconnected tetrahedral pore network, CC3 and CC16 have an intermediate water permeability of 1-5 × 10-7 kg m (m2 h bar)-1. CC2 and CC17 contain straight pores and a widely open pore network, respectively, thus exhibit a high water permeability of 2-3 × 10-6 kg m (m2 h bar)-1; nevertheless, salt rejection in CC17 is only 89%. Among the five POC membranes, CC2 is the best for water desalination with performance superior to other membranes reported in the literature. The membrane flexibility is revealed to have a weak effect on water permeation. To provide further microscopic understanding, the permeation duration, diffusion and hydrogen bonding of water in the POC membranes are quantitatively analyzed. From this simulation study, the key factors governing water permeation in the POC membranes are unraveled and CC2 is identified to be an interesting candidate for water desalination.

  3. [Use of the PEEK cage in cervical spondylosis treatment]. (United States)

    Joachin-Hernández, Pedro; Alpízar-Aguirre, Armando; Zárate-Kalfópulus, Barón; Rosales-Olivares, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro Antonio


    Decompression and fusion with autograft is the gold standard technique in the treatment of cervical canal strait. Using PEEK cages or boxes of non-absorbable polymer with elasticity similar to bone, radiolucent, reduces morbidity and same degree of fusion. A case series, prospective, longitudinal, deliberate intervention, evaluation panel before and after 2 years follow-up. Discectomy and PEEK housing placement with autologous graft. Arthrodesis were evaluated, cervical lordosis, intervertebral space height, pain evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale, Neck Disability Index, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay and complications. Statistical analysis with t Sudent, Wilcoxon and Fisher's exact text. Of 17 patients studied, 9 (53%) were female. Average age 62 years. The most affected level was C5-6, C6-7 with 5 patients. Melting was found at 100%. There was no sag or migration of the box, space height was conserved, but segmental lordosis was not retained. Clinical improvement in all patients as well as disability index was seen. Bleeding was on average 187 mL. With regard to symptom improvement, conservation of interspace height and back, no segmental lordosis conservation and fusion using PEEK box is consistent with the literature. We suggest using anterior plate to maintain cervical lordosis. We found a melt index of 100%. We found clinical improvement of symptoms, pain and disability, and a global loss of cervical lordosis.

  4. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA detection in the faeces of cage birds. (United States)

    Sareyyupoglu, B; Cantekin, Z; Bas, B


    In this study, we investigated the shedding of Chlamydophila psittaci in faecal samples from cage birds using PCR testing. A total of 47 faeces samples were collected from four different aviaries. Main symptoms determined after clinical investigation and owner histories of the birds showed that the birds had respiratory system problems changing from mild to severe. They also showed conjunctivitis, diarrhoea or no symptoms at all. DNA extractions from faeces were performed with the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. Following PCR with Cp. psittaci specific primers, 43 (91.5%) samples were determined to harbour-specific DNA. Only one bird from each aviary was found to be negative by PCR. As all the samples from birds showing clinical signs were PCR positive, these signs could be correlated to psittacosis in these birds. Cp. psittaci shedding in faeces was detected in all the aviaries. After restriction analysis of PCR amplicons with AluI enzyme, all the isolates showed the same RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) patterns with the control Cp. psittaci DNA. PCR following QIAamp DNA stool mini kit extraction of faecal samples was found to be a rapid, specific, sensitive, reproducible test, which did not need additional nested PCR of samples.

  5. Uranyl peroxide pyrophosphate cage clusters with oxalate and nitrate bridges. (United States)

    Ling, Jie; Ozga, Michael; Stoffer, Megan; Burns, Peter C


    Two complex cage clusters built from uranyl hexagonal bipyramids and multiple types of bridges between uranyl ions, U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) and U(38)Py(10)Nt(4), were crystallized from aqueous solution under ambient conditions. These are built from 30 uranyl hexagonal bipyramids, 10 pyrophosphate groups, and five oxalate bridges in one case, and 38 uranyl hexagonal bipyramids, 10 pyrophosphate groups, and four nitrate groups in the other. The crystal compositions are (H(3)O)(10)Li(18)K(22)[(UO(2))(30)(O(2))(30)(P(2)O(7))(10)(C(2)O(4))(5)](H(2)O)(22) and Li(24)K(36)[(UO(2))(38)(O(2))(40)(OH)(8)(P(2)O(7))(10)(NO(3))(4)](NO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(n) for U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) and U(38)Py(10)Nt(4), respectively. Cluster U(30)Py(10)Ox(5) crystallizes over a narrow range of solution pH that encourages incorporation of both oxalate and pyrophosphate, with incorporation of oxalate only being favored under more acidic conditions, and pyrophosphate only under more alkaline conditions. Cluster U(38)Py(10)Nt(4) contains two identical lobes consisting of uranyl polyhedra and pyrophosphate groups, with these lobes linked into the larger cluster through four nitrate groups. The synthesis conditions appear to have prevented closure of these lobes, and a relatively high nitrate concentration in solution favored formation of the larger cluster.

  6. John Cage's Aria viewed through the prism of contextual determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana


    Full Text Available The paper analysis the three contextual layers of creating John Cage's Aria for solo voice performed by Cathy Berberia at the 'big stage' of musical neo-avant-garde in Darmstadt. The layers in question are: (1 the socio-political context of Germany after World War II, where the denazification process was started at the time, (2 the artistic context of neo-avant-garde musical milieu which was being formed in Darmstadt in that period, and (3 the context of a new epoch in the history of vocal art. The thesis presented here is that an encounter occurred between American experimental and European avant-garde musical practice during the accelerated denazification and liberalisation of German society and the establishment of the Cold War relationship between the East and the West. The piece Aria represents an example of a collaborative work between American and European artists, which turned to be an important step in the history of extended vocal techniques in musical performing and composing.

  7. Stabilization of Small Boron Cage by Transition Metal Encapsulation (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming


    The discovery of chemically stable fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon has been long-standing desired. On this aspect significant efforts have centered around boron, only one electron deficient compared with carbon. However, during the past decade a large number of experimental and theoretical studies have established that small boron clusters are either planar/quasi-planar or forming double-ring tubular structures. Until recently, two all-boron fullerenes have been independently discovered: B38 proposed by our structure searching calculations and B40 observed in a joint experimental and theoretical study. Here we extend our work to the even smaller boron clusters and propose an effective routine to stabilize them by transition metal encapsulation. By combining swarm-intelligence structure searching and first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the energy landscapes of transition-metal-doped MB24 clusters (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Cr, Mo, W, Fe, Ru and Os). Two stable symmetric endohedral boron cages, MoB24 and WB24 are identified. The stability of them can be rationalized in terms of their unique 18-electron closed-shell electronic structures. Funded by Recruitment Program of Global Experts of China and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  8. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.


    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  9. Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological communities in northern Lake Victoria, Uganda. L Mwebaza-Ndawula, V Kiggundu, G Magezi, J Naluwayiro, W Gandhi-Pabire, H Ocaya ...

  10. Reducing organic contamination of shallow areas in brackish lagoons during rearing fish in cages in polyculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk


    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the technology of the controlled rearing of marine fish remains one of the priority strategic trends of development of national mariculture. A study of the possibility of using polyculture for cage culture has a particular interest. Joint cultivation of several species of fish in the same cage, as practice of fish farming has demonstrated, does not have a tangible positive effect. At the same time, the use of cages of special design can provide significant additional fish products through the use of additional aquaculture objects. The ecological state of water areas, where the cages are located, is of great importance. High fish stocking density and the use of artificial feeds can serve as a source of powerful biogenic and organic pollution, which is especially important for shallow water areas with weak water exchange. The purpose of the study is to develop the methods for joint fish production in cage mariculture capable to provide high fish production and to weaken organic pollution of shallow water areas where cage farms are located. Methodology. The studies were conducted in 1999 and 2004. Cages of special design (internal 10 m3 and external 18.75 m3 installed in the brackish Shabolat Lagoon were used for rearing, steelhead trout, haarder, grass goby and round goby in polyculture. The standard aquaculture research methods were used. For express-analysis of environment hydrochemical parameters in cage location area the following devices were used: "ECOTEST-2000 T" (О2, NO2, NO3, NH4, CO2, phosphates, pH; termooksimetr "АJА-101М" (Т; О2; "pH meter-150 M; Refractometer "ATAGO-100" (salinity and water density. Findings. The results of marine fish cultivation in cages in polyculture in the shallow Shabolat lagoon are presented. It has been shown that joint cultivation of salmon, mullet and gobies in specially designed cages in shallow marine lagoons allows using artificial and natural feeds more fully and

  11. Direct gravimetric sensing of GBL by a molecular recognition process in organic cage compounds. (United States)

    Brutschy, Malte; Schneider, Markus W; Mastalerz, Michael; Waldvogel, Siegfried R


    Organic cages were identified as highly potent affinity materials for the tracing of γ-butyrolactone. The selectivity over ethanol and water is based on the interior functional groups which allow preferential hydrogen bonding to the target analyte.

  12. The influence of fish culture in floating net cages on microbial indicators of water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorlach-Lira, K; Pacheco, C; Carvalho, L C T; Melo Júnior, H N; Crispim, M C


    ... (Oreochromis niloticus) in floating net cages. The physico-chemical parameters, counts of mesophilic total aerobic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms and fecal streptococci, and the presence of Escherichia coli in samples of water...

  13. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  14. Principles of Designing Extra-Large Pore Openings and Cages in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks. (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Liu, Qi; Trickett, Christopher A; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles; Cong, Hengjiang; Aldossary, Abdulrahman; Deng, Hexiang; Yaghi, Omar M


    We report three design principles for obtaining extra-large pore openings and cages in the metal-organic analogues of inorganic zeolites, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). Accordingly, we prepared a series of 15 ZIFs, members of which have the largest pore opening (22.5 Å) and the largest cage size (45.8 Å) known for all porous tetrahedral structures. The key parameter allowing us to access these exceptional ZIFs is what we define as the steric index (δ), which is related to the size and shape of the imidazolate linkers employed in the synthesis. The three principles are based on using multiple linkers with specific range and ratios of δ to control the size of rings and cages from small to large, and therefore are universally applicable to all existing ZIFs. The ZIF with the largest cage size (ZIF-412) shows the best selectivity of porous materials tested toward removal of octane and p-xylene from humid air.

  15. ZnO cages with tunable shell thickness and photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jie; Wu Dapeng; Guo Huajie; Liu Ning; Xiao Ying [Chemistry and Environmental College, Henan Normal University, Jianshe Road No. 47, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Jiang Kai, E-mail: [Chemistry and Environmental College, Henan Normal University, Jianshe Road No. 47, Xinxiang 453007 (China)


    Uniform ZnO cages were fabricated via using colloidal carbon spheres as sacrificing template. ZnO precursor could be easily coated on the carbon spheres by soaking the template into Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} aqueous solution. After calcination, the average diameter of the cages was 200 nm which experienced a large shrinkage from the initial carbon template (600 nm). The shell thickness of the cages could be manipulated from 20 nm to 40 nm by adjusting the concentration of Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2.} The correlation between the shell thickness and photoluminescence (PL) performances of these cages was also investigated. Moreover, this facile method could be potentially adopted as a general way to fabricate hollow structures of other metal oxides.

  16. Structure of Coatomer Cage Proteins and the Relationship among COPI, COPII, and Clathrin Vesicle Coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changwook; Goldberg, Jonathan (MSKCC)


    COPI-coated vesicles form at the Golgi apparatus from two cytosolic components, ARF G protein and coatomer, a heptameric complex that can polymerize into a cage to deform the membrane into a bud. Although coatomer shares a common evolutionary origin with COPII and clathrin vesicle coat proteins, the architectural relationship among the three cages is unclear. Strikingly, the {alpha}{beta}-COP core of coatomer crystallizes as a triskelion in which three copies of a {beta}-COP {beta}-propeller domain converge through their axial ends. We infer that the trimer constitutes the vertex of the COPI cage. Our model proposes that the COPI cage is intermediate in design between COPII and clathrin: COPI shares with clathrin an arrangement of three curved {alpha}-solenoid legs radiating from a common center, and COPI shares with COPII highly similar vertex interactions involving the axial ends of {beta}-propeller domains.

  17. Validation of a self-administered modified CAGE test (CAGE-C) in a somatic hospital ward: Comparison with biochemical markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Finn; Hardt, Finn; Henriksen, Jens Henrik


    Objective. The time frame for the original CAGE questionnaire is lifetime and it does not quantify drinking frequency and may be less suitable in a population with very few teetotalers. The purpose of this study was to validate a variant of the CAGE questionnaire and compare it with the outcome...... of a thorough interview according to DSM-III and ICD-10 criteria and to the outcome of biochemical markers in inpatients in a somatic hospital setting. Material and methods. The questionnaire and biochemical markers were tested on a random sample of 130 patients admitted to a department of orthopedic surgery...

  18. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution (United States)

    Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl


    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  19. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brodschneider

    Full Text Available We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis. Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80% intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5 or 45

  20. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution. (United States)

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl


    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  1. Characteristics Of Smoked Catfish (Hemibagrus Nemurus) Prepared Frompond Culture, Cage And Wild Fish


    Maskilin, Jippo; Hasan, Bustari; Leksono, Tjipto


    This study was aimed to evaluate the sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of smoked catfish prepared from pond, cage culture and wild fish. Catfish samples 300-350 grams in weight wastaken respectualy from wild (Kampar river), pond and cage culture in Sungai Paku, Kampar. The fish was smoked using hot smoking method, and the smoked fish was evaluated for smoking yield, sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile.The smoking...

  2. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation†


    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A.; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph?P.Y.


    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids—biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged...

  3. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages. (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  4. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li


    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168 Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC, medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I, medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II, and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III. Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III. Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01 in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01. The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01. The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  5. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun


    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs. PMID:28231694



    González Moga, Amado; Guzmán Carranza, Enrique; Álvarez Vázquez, Leonardo; Huerta Hernández, Gabriel; Galicia Luna, Víctor; Anaya Contreras, Víctor Hugo; Isais Gómez, Abraham


    ABSTRACT Objective: To present the results of treatment of patients with cervical discopathy by anterior cervical approach, discectomy and placement of a PEEK interbody cage without anterior plate fixation. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study from March 2013 to March 2015. Sixteen patients with radiculopathy or clinical signs of myelopathy were included; all patients underwent cervical surgery through anterior approach, discectomy, and placement of PEEK cages on three levels. Deco...

  7. Morphological analysis of interbody fusion following posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages using computed tomography. (United States)

    Seo, Dong Kwang; Kim, Myeong Jong; Roh, Sung Woo; Jeon, Sang Ryong


    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using cages in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disorders due to its biomechanical stability and high fusion rate. However, research regarding patterns of fusion in the interbody space during the early postoperative period is lacking.Sixty consecutive patients were recruited from May 2013 to June 2015. All patients underwent PLIF using 2 titanium cages filled with local bone chips from decompressed lamina and facet bone in conjunction with pedicle screw fixation. Computed tomography scans were obtained 3 to 6 months following surgery in order to evaluate the partial fusion state. Computed tomography (CT) classification of fusion morphology was divided into 8 groups and then into compartments according to fusion space, and the rate of fusion for each was calculated. Further follow-up was conducted to confirm fusion state and assess outcomes.The most frequent pattern of interbody fusion was bilateral intra-cage fusion with unilateral lateral bridging of extra-cage areas (N = 36, 43.4%); the least frequent was interspace bridging of the 2 cages alone (N = 0, 0%). The fusion rate for the intra-cage area (Compartment 1) reached 100%. However, the fusion in the lateral space outside of cages (Compartment 2) was not satisfactory, though reasonable (72.3%). All patients were confirmed as achieving adequate fusion at the final follow-up, with improved clinical outcomes.Widening of the contact area between the vertebral body and cages is recommended to promote increased interbody fusion during the early postoperative period.

  8. Economic analysis of the environmental impact on marine cage lobster aquaculture in Vietnam


    Ly, Nguyen Thi Y


    In Vietnam, marine cage lobster aquaculture has been expanding significantly over the last years. Besides the economic contribution for locals living in the coastal areas in Central of Vietnam, this industry has created some problems that are relating to the marine environmental protection where trash fish feed is predominant. This paper investigates the environmental impact on cage marine lobster aquaculture in Vietnam by using the Change of Productivity method in which nitrogen releasing fr...

  9. [The finite element analysis of polyetheretherketone/hydroxyapatite/carbon fiber cage]. (United States)

    Liu, Xueyong; Zhu, Hongxin; Jing, Yanfeng; Sui, Guoxin; Zhang, Zongfu


    To compare the bio-mechanical characteristics of cages of two types, i. e., polyetheretherketone/ hydroxyapatite/carbon fiber (PEEK/HA/CF) and titanium combined with internal pedicle screw fixation in lumbar model, and to provide experimental evidences for clinical application, we constructed a three-dimensional finite element model of an intact L2-L4 segment by using computer tomography scans of a healthy male. The three-dimensional finite element models of an intact L2-L4 segment and single cage plus bilateral vertebral pedicle screw fixation were established. The angular motion of fused segment and stress distribution in the bone graft and cage and L3 inferior endplate under different loads were recorded. The result showed that the peak Von Mises stresses of the bone graft of PEEK/HA/CF group were at least 2.2 time as that of titanium group. The peak Von Mises stresses of L3 inferior endplate of the titanium group were at least 2. 3 times as that of PEEK/HA/CF group. These stresses were concentrated at places where the cage interfaced with the endplate. The angular variation of the titanium group showed similarity to PEEK/HA/CF group. The PEEK/HA/CF cage could provide stability similar to that of titanium cage in the presence of posterior instrumentation. It could increase the load transfer through the bone graft and promote the bone fusion. It could also reduce the stresses in endplates adjacent to the cage and reduce the subsidence of the cage.

  10. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  11. Model of a generator end-winding cage; Modelisation d`une cage de developpantes d`alternateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, A.C.; Fanton, J.P.; Davies, C.


    This document presents some studies concerning the vibratory characterization of particular structures called: generator end-winding cages. These structures are mainly made up of the endings of armature windings. The question of their good mechanical behaviour is of prime importance, since they are submitted to high electromagnetic efforts during the different electrical ratings encountered during operation. The designer (GEC-Alsthom) and the user (EDF) have both undertaken numerical calculations in order to characterize a given machine, in this case a 600 MW bipolar generator; it appeared interesting to compare such calculations. The models realized respectively by GEC-Alsthom and EDF make use of different techniques and hypotheses. GEC-Alsthom represents the sets of rods and spacers by plates, which properties are determined by a pre-processor. The model is simplified to take into account the existing symmetries. It takes profit of previous experience and aims at a fast utilisation. The EDF model tends to allow a further comprehensive calculation, form the electromagnetic efforts to the determination of local stresses. The whole set of the constituting elements of the structure is modelled by beams, which leads to an important size for the model (21 000 degrees of freedom). The validation performed on the two models has been focused on the comparison between respective results and also with experimental results. Each model provides values for the first eigenfrequencies and the associated modes shapes. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari


    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  13. Provision Of Carbon Nanotube Bucky Paper Cages For Immune Shielding Of Cells, Tissues, and Medical Devices (United States)

    Loftus, David J. (Inventor)


    System and method for enclosing cells and/or tissue, for purposes of growth, cell differentiation, suppression of cell differentiation, biological processing and/or transplantation of cells and tissues (biological inserts), and for secretion, sensing and monitoring of selected chemical substances and activation of gene expression of biological inserts implanted into a human body. Selected cells and/or tissue are enveloped in a "cage" that is primarily carbon nanotube Bucky paper, with a selected thickness and porosity. Optionally, selected functional groups, proteins and/or peptides are attached to the carbon nanotube cage, or included within the cage, to enhance the growth and/or differentiation of the cells and/or tissue, to select for certain cellular sub-populations, to optimize certain functions of the cells and/or tissue and/or to optimize the passage of chemicals across the cage surface(s). A cage system is also used as an immuns shield and to control operation of a nano-device or macroscopic device, located within the cage, to provide or transform a selected chemical and/or a selected signal.

  14. Evaluation of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) laboratory experiments. (United States)

    Huang, Shao Kang; Csaki, Tamas; Doublet, Vincent; Dussaubat, Claudia; Evans, Jay D; Gajda, Anna M; Gregorc, Alex; Hamilton, Michele C; Kamler, Martin; Lecocq, Antoine; Muz, Mustafa N; Neumann, Peter; Ozkirim, Asli; Schiesser, Aygün; Sohr, Alex R; Tanner, Gina; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Williams, Geoffrey R; Wu, Lyman; Zheng, Huoqing; Chen, Yan Ping


    The aim of this study was to improve cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Prevention of honey bee COlony LOSSes), on the physiology and survival of honey bees. We identified three cages that promoted good survival of honey bees. The bees from cages that exhibited greater survival had relatively lower titers of deformed wing virus, suggesting that deformed wing virus is a significant marker reflecting stress level and health status of the host. We also determined that a leak- and drip-proof feeder was an integral part of a cage system and a feeder modified from a 20-ml plastic syringe displayed the best result in providing steady food supply to bees. Finally, we also demonstrated that the addition of protein to the bees' diet could significantly increase the level ofvitellogenin gene expression and improve bees' survival. This international collaborative study represents a critical step toward improvement of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee laboratory experiments.

  15. A carbon fiber reinforced polymer cage for vertebral body replacement: technical note. (United States)

    Ciappetta, P; Boriani, S; Fava, G P


    We analyzed the surgical technique used for the replacement of damaged vertebral bodies of the thoracolumbar spine and the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages that are used to replace the pathological vertebral bodies. We also evaluated the biomechanical properties of carbon composite materials used in spinal surgery. The surgical technique of CFRP implants may be divided into two distinct steps, i.e., assembling the components that will replace the pathological vertebral bodies and connecting the cage to an osteosynthetic system to immobilize the cage. The CFRP cages, made of Ultrapek polymer and AS-4 pyrolytic carbon fiber (AcroMed, Rotterdam, The Netherlands), are of different sizes and may be placed one on top of the other and fixed together with a titanium rod. These components are hollow to allow fragments of bone to be pressed manually into them and present threaded holes at 15, 30, and 90 degrees on the external surface, permitting the insertion of screws to connect the cage to an anterior or posterior osteosynthetic system. To date, we have used CFRP cages in 13 patients undergoing corporectomies and 10 patients undergoing spondylectomies. None of our patients have reported complications. CFRP implants offer several advantages compared with titanium or surgical grade stainless steel implants, demonstrating high versatility and outstanding biological and mechanical properties. Furthermore, CFRP implants are radiolucent and do not hinder radiographic evaluation of bone fusion, allowing for better follow-up studies.

  16. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test. (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S


    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being.

  17. Atomistic simulations of CO2 and N2 within cage-type silica zeolites. (United States)

    Madison, Lindsey; Heitzer, Henry; Russell, Colin; Kohen, Daniela


    The behavior of CO(2) and N(2), both as single components and as binary mixtures, in two cage-type silica zeolites was studied using atomistic simulations. The zeolites considered, ITQ-3 and paradigm cage-type zeolite ZK4 (the all-silica analog of LTA), were chosen so that the principles illustrated can be generalized to other adsorbent/adsorbate systems with similar topology and types of interactions. N(2) was chosen both because of the potential uses of N(2)/CO(2) separations and because it differs from CO(2) most significantly in the magnitude of its Coulombic interactions with zeolites. Despite similarities between N(2) and CO(2) diffusion in other materials, we show here that the diffusion of CO(2) within cage-type zeolites is dominated by an energy barrier to diffusion located at the entrance to the narrow channels connecting larger cages. This barrier originates in Coulombic interactions between zeolites and CO(2)'s quadrupole and results in well-defined orientations for the diffusing molecules. Furthermore, CO(2)'s favorable electrostatic interactions with the zeolite framework result in preferential binding in the windows between cages. N(2)'s behavior, in contrast, is more consistent with that of molecules previously studied. Our analysis suggests that CO(2)'s behavior might be common for adsorbates with quadrupoles that interact strongly with a material that has narrow windows between cages.

  18. Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ruf Kasim


    Full Text Available Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5 kg was growth to 22.5 ± 1.40 kg and 38.8 ± 1.6 kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50 g was 107.8 ± 7.0 g and 152.5 ± 7.9 g during April, and 132.0 ± 8.0 g and 218.8 ± 8.6 g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43% day−1 and 3.69% day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

  19. Captivating New Roles of F-Actin Cortex in Exocytosis and Bulk Endocytosis in Neurosecretory Cells. (United States)

    Meunier, Frédéric A; Gutiérrez, Luis M


    The cortical actin network is a tight array of filaments located beneath the plasma membrane. In neurosecretory cells, secretory vesicles are recruited on this network via a small insert isoform of myosin VI in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Upon secretagogue stimulation, myosin II mediates a relaxation of the actin network leading to synchronous translocation of bound or caged vesicles to the plasma membrane where they undergo exocytosis. F-actin is also recruited to secretory sites, where structural changes are detected immediately preceding and following exocytic events. Here we examine the mechanism underpinning the astonishing multifunctionality of this network in the various stages of vesicular exocytosis and compensatory bulk endocytosis. We propose a theoretical framework incorporating critical roles of the actin network in coupling these processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of sea waves on underwater fish-breeding cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich


    Full Text Available Cultivation of sea objects is of great importance while solving the problems of providing the constantly growing requirements of the national economy with sea products. Cultivation of sea objects uses special hydrobiotechnical constructions. As the practice showed, cultivation of seafood is commercially impossible without solving the questions of calculating and designing such constructions. In special literature these questions are poorly covered or not considered at all. In the article the results of theoretical and pilot studies of waves influence on hydrobiotechnical constructions is provided, in particular on underwater fish-breeding cages.This article offers the theoretical solution to the problem of determining the efforts of the ropes holding the fish tank under wave influences. In order to solve this problem, the equations of hard drives movements were set up and the differential equations of free oscillations of buzz were obtained.When determining the horizontal movements, the four different configurations of connections and the system motion directions in general are possible in case of waveoscillations. Next step is the solution of the differential equations and determination of natural oscillation frequency in the direction of the vertical axis. Defining efforts in the ropes from their own weight (static calculation is self-explanatory, it should be noted that accounting for the weighing influence of water on such structures does not have significant influence.Further the authors defined loading and efforts from the regular waves’ impacts.Modeling of the waves influence on submersible fish tank was carried by Fraud method. The studies were conducted with two models with large and small mesh. The signals of strain gauge sensors were registered by electronic measuring equipment.When comparing the theoretical and experimental data, satisfactory results have been obtained. It was determined that in order to improve the calculation

  1. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Munić


    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  2. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory


    Simple Summary Reportable diseases, such as avian influenza, spread rapidly among poultry, resulting in the death of a large number of birds. Once such a disease has been diagnosed at a farm, infected and susceptible birds are rapidly killed to prevent the spread of the disease. The methods to eliminate infected caged laying hens are limited. An experiment was conducted to study the effectiveness of foam made from compressed air, water, and soap to kill laying hens in cages. The study found that stress levels of the hens killed using compressed air foam in cages to be similar to the hens killed by carbon dioxide or the negative control. Hens exposed to carbon dioxide died earlier as compared to the foam methods. The authors conclude that application of compressed air foam in cages is an alternative to methods such as gas inhalation and ventilation shutdown to rapidly and humanely kill laying hens during epidemics. Abstract During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly

  3. Effect of cage type on the behaviour patterns of rabbit does at different physiological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Alfonso-Carrillo


    Full Text Available Interest in commercially farmed rabbit welfare has increased in recent years. As a result, new alternativehousing systems have been developed, although they require evaluation in order to demonstrate their potential for improving welfare. The aim of this trial was to study the behavioural traits of rabbit does housed in 2 different types of cage (TC: conventional vs. alternative with an elevated platform, at different physiological stages (PS; lactation and gestation. Behavioural observations were carried out on 12 rabbit commercial does using continuous 24 h video recording. Independently of PS and TC, rabbit does spent most of their time on foot mats (on av. 57.7%. However, due to the use of platforms (on av. 23.0% of time, lactating does spent 36.6% less time on foot mats (P<0.001 and gestating does spent 27.0% less time on wire mesh (P<0.001 in alternative cages than in conventional cages. Alternative cages allowed for standing posture, but this behaviour was only observed in gestating does (on av. 4.6 times a day. Frequency of drinking was higher in conventional than in alternative cages (24.6 vs. 19.1 times a day; P<0.05. Gestating does housed in conventional cages reached the highest duration and frequency of interacting with neighbours (276 s/d and 4.6 times/d; P<0.05. The frequency of interacting with kits was lower in alternative than in conventional cages (2.4 vs. 8.6 times a day; P<0.01. Doe behaviour was influenced by the time of day, with less activity during the midday hours. During dark hours, rabbit does more frequently performed restless behaviour such as hyperactivity or nursing, matching the time at which rabbit does spent more time on the platform. The platform was frequently used by rabbit does, regardless of their physiological stage, and during late lactation phase, when mothers were not receptive to nursing, does housed in alternative cages used the platform as a mean to flee from kits trying to suckle


    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka


    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fi l (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and x-tra base (XB), and conventional control material X-Flow (XF). Composite samples (n=5) were polymerized for 20 s with Bluephase G2 curing unit. Vickers hardness was used to determine microhardness of each material at the surface, and at 2-mm and 4-mm depth. GSO on average recorded significantly higher microhardness values than bulk-fill materials (pcomposite XF revealed similar microhardness values as SDR, but significantly lower than XB (pmaterials was lower than microhardness of the conventional composite material (GSO). Surface microhardness of low-viscosity materials was generally even lower. The microhardness of all tested materials at 4 mm was not different from their surface values. However, additional capping layer was a necessity for low-viscosity bulk-fill materials due to their low microhardness.

  5. Synthesis of 18-membered open-cage fullerenes through controlled stepwise fullerene skeleton bond cleavage processes and substituent-mediated tuning of the redox potential of open-cage fullerenes. (United States)

    Yu, Yuming; Xie, Xiang; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Shuming; Shao, Yuanhua; Gan, Liangbing; Li, Yuliang


    Oxidation of the fullerenediol C(60)(OH)(2)(O)(OAc)(OOtBu)(3) with PhI(OAc)(2) yields the open-cage fullerene derivative C(60)(O)(2)(O)(OAc)(OOtBu)(3)2 with an 11-membered orifice. Compound 2 reacts with aniline to form a new open-cage derivative with a 14-membered orifice, which yields an 18-membered open-cage fullerene derivative upon addition of another molecule of aniline. Two different types of aniline derivatives with either electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents can be added sequentially, affording an unsymmetrical moiety in the open-cage structure. Reduction potentials of the 18-membered open-cage fullerene derivatives can be fine-tuned by changing the substituents on the aniline. The results provide new insights about the mechanism of open-cage reactions of fullerene-mixed peroxide.

  6. Controllable coordination-driven self-assembly: from discrete metallocages to infinite cage-based frameworks. (United States)

    Chen, Lian; Chen, Qihui; Wu, Mingyan; Jiang, Feilong; Hong, Maochun


    CONSPECTUS: Nanosized supramolecular metallocages have a unique self-assembly process that allows chemists to both understand and control it. In addition, well-defined cavities of such supramolecular aggregates have various attractive applications including storage, separation, catalysis, recognition, drug delivery, and many others. Coordination-driven self-assembly of nanosized supramolecular metallocages is a powerful methodology to construct supramolecular metallocages with considerable size and desirable shapes. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on controllable coordination-driven assembly of supramolecular metallocages and infinite cage-based frameworks. To this end, we have chosen flexible ligands that can adopt various conformations and metal ions with suitable coordination sites for the rational design and assembly of metal-organic supramolecular ensembles. This has resulted in various types of metallocages including M3L2, M6L8, M6L4, and M12L8 with different sizes and shapes. Because the kinds of metal geometries are limited, we have found that we can replace single metal ions with metal clusters to alternatively increase molecular diversity and complexity. There are two clear-cut merits of this strategy. First, metal clusters are much bigger than single metal ions, which helps in the construction and stabilization of large metallocages, especially nanosized cages. Second, metal clusters can generate diverse assembly modes that chemists could not synthesize with single metal ions. This allows us to obtain a series of unprecedented supramolecular metallocages. The large cavities and potential unsaturated coordination sites of these discrete supramolecular cages offer opportunities to construct infinite cage-based frameworks. This in turn can offer us a new avenue to understand self-assembly and realize certain various functionalities. We introduce two types of infinite cage-based frameworks here: cage-based coordination polymers and cage

  7. Effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished cages, Part I: Performance and well-being. (United States)

    Widowski, T M; Caston, L J; Hunniford, M E; Cooley, L; Torrey, S


    There are few published data on the effects of housing laying hens at different densities in large furnished cages (FC; a.k.a. enriched colony cages). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of housing laying hens at 2 space allowances (SA) in 2 sizes of FC on measures of production and well-being. At 18 wk of age, 1,218 LSL-Lite hens were housed in cages furnished with a curtained nesting area, perches, and scratch mat, and stocked at either 520 cm2 (Low) or 748 cm2 (High) total floor space. This resulted in 4 group sizes: 40 vs. 28 birds in smaller FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in larger FC (LFC). Data were collected from 20 to 72 wks of age. There was no effect of cage size (P = 0.21) or SA (P = 0.37) on hen day egg production, egg weight (PSize = 0.90; PSA = 0.73), or eggshell deformation (PSize = 0.14; PSA = 0.053), but feed disappearance was higher in SFC than LFC (P = 0.005). Mortality to 72 wk was not affected by cage size (P = 0.78) or SA (P = 0.55). BW (P = 0.006) and BW CV (P = 0.008) increased with age but were not affected by treatment. Feather cleanliness was poorer in FC with low SA vs. high (P allowance resulted in some measures of poorer external condition in both sizes of FC, which indicates that the welfare of hens housed at the lower space allowance may be compromised according to some welfare assessment criteria. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  8. General and simple approach for control cage and cylindrical mesopores, and thermal/hydrothermal stable frameworks. (United States)

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Mizukami, Fujio; Hanaoka, Takaaki


    Highly ordered cage and cylindrical mesoporeous silica monoliths (HOM) with 2- and 3-dimensional (2D and 3D, respectively) structures, mesopore/micropore volumes, and thick-walled frameworks were successfully fabricated by instant direct templating of lyotropic phases of copolymer (EO(m)-PO(n)-EO(m)) surfactants. Large cage-like pores with uniform constriction sizes up to 10 nm and open cylindrical channel-like mesopores can be easily achieved by this simple and efficient synthesis design. Our results show that the cage-like pores could be fabricated at relatively lower copolymer concentrations used in the lyotropic phase domains at copolymer/TMOS ratios of 35 wt %. These ordered cage pore architectures underwent transition to open-cylindrical pores by increasing the copolymer concentration. High EO/PO block copolymers, in general, were crucially affected on the increase of the interior cavity sizes and on the stability of the cage mesopore characters. However, for F108 (EO(141)PO(44)EO(141)) systems, the fabrication of ordered and stable cage pore monoliths was achieved with significantly higher copolymer concentrations up to 90 wt %. Interestingly, the effective copolymer molecular nature was also observed in the ability to design various ordered mesophase geometries in large domain sizes. Our findings here show evidence that the synthetic strategy provides realistic control over a wide range of mesostructured phase geometries and their extended long-range ordering in the final replicas of the silica monolith frameworks. In addition, the HOM silica monoliths exhibited considerable structural stability against higher thermal temperature (up to 1000 degrees C) and longer hydrothermal treatment times under boiling water and steam. The remarkable structural findings of 3D frameworks, transparent monoliths, and micropores combined with large cage- and cylindrical-like mesopores are expected to find promising uses in materials chemistry.

  9. Effect of Ventilated Caging on Water Intake and Loss in 4 Strains of Laboratory Mice. (United States)

    Nicolaus, Mackenzie L; Bergdall, Valerie K; Davis, Ian C; Hickman-Davis, Judy M


    Food availability, temperature, humidity, strain, and caging type all affect water consumption by mice. Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is a new technique for the quantification of water turnover in mice. To understand water turnover in common strains of adult mice, male and female SCID, SKH, C57BL/6, and FVB mice were housed in same-sex groups of 5 animals in static cages or IVC. Body weight, TEWL, urine osmolality, and water consumption of mice and intracage temperature and humidity were measured every 48 h for comparison. Static cages were monitored for 7 d and IVC for 14 d before cage change. Female SCID, FVB, and C57 mice drank less water than did their male counterparts. Male and female SCID, SKH, and FVB mice in IVC drank less water and had higher urine osmolality than did those in static cages. In SCID and SKH mice, TEWL paralleled water consumption. C57 mice in static cages drank less water, had lower urine osmolality, and had less TEWL than did those in IVC. Temperature and humidity within the cage was higher than the macroenvironmental levels for all housing conditions, mouse strains, and sexes. Temperatures within IVC ranged from 76.6 to 81.4 °F compared with 69±0.4 °F in the room. Humidity within IVC ranged from 68% to 79% compared with 27.o%±2.7% within the room. These data demonstrate that mouse strain and housing conditions significantly influence water balance and indicate that macroenvironmental measurements do not always reflect the intracage environment.

  10. Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically-Engineered Mosquitoes (United States)

    Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Gould, Fred; Walsh, Rachael K.; Bond, Guillermo; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; James, Anthony A.; Alphey, Luke; Scott, Thomas W.


    Background A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10–20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10∶1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes. PMID:23350003

  11. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico.OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results.Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  12. The model of double-cage induction motor for the analysis of thermal fields in transient operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Jan


    Full Text Available Emergency motor switch-on happens occasionally while operating a doublesquirrel- cage motor at full supply voltage with the rotor blocked (e.g., in coal mills. After releasing the blockage, the by now heated motor is started up again. However, the mechanical stress caused by the increased temperature poses considerable hazards to the squirrel-cage winding. This paper presents a double-cage induction motor model for analysis of thermal fields in transient operation. The thermal field for the rotor of a doublesquirrel- cage motor of soldered or cast structure, operating in the conditions described, has been calculated in the present paper using a thermal network method. Measurement results have been presented for the double-squirrel-cage winding temperature for a soldered cage construction in the blocked rotor state.

  13. A brief overview of bulk metallic glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingwei Chen


      The discovery of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has stimulated widespread research enthusiasm because of their technological promise for practical applications and scientific importance in understanding glass formation and glass phenomena...

  14. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology


    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  15. Outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with Pedicle Screw fixation using two different Types of Titan Cages


    Abbushi, Alexander


    This is a retrospective study of 40 patients, who had a monosegmental lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis treated by monosegmental posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using two different types of titan cages and pedicle screw fixation. The objective was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical results of these patients treated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation either by using the Prospace Titan Cage of Aesculap or the O.I.C Titan Cage of Stryker. ...

  16. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo


    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  17. Behaviour, health and integument of four hybrids of laying hens in modified and conventional cages. (United States)

    Abrahamsson, P; Tauson, R; Appleby, M C


    1. In 2 trials the health and behaviour of a total of 3552 caged laying hens of 4 hybrids, Dekalb XL, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Shaver 288 in trial 1 and ISA Brown and LSL in trial 2, were studied. The cage designs were Get-away cages (GA) with 15 hens per cage, a special version of the 'Edinburgh modified cage' called 'Modified and enriched cage' (ME) with 4 ISA or 5 Leghorn hens per cage, conventional metal cages with 4 hens per cage without (CO) and with a perch (PC) and conventional plastic cages (PL) with three hens per cage. GA and ME included nests, perches and sandbaths. 2. In the first trial f1p4nest models were used, artificial turf and welded wire floor. In the second trial both nest models were used in GA, while all nests in ME were equipped with artificial turf. In the second trial there were 4 sandbath treatments in ME; no sandbath, sandbath (25 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks of age, sandbath first opened at 26 weeks and double size sandbath (50 x 50 cm) first opened at 16 weeks. Hens in GA were allowed access to the sandbaths from 26 weeks. 3. At 35 and 55 weeks the best plumage condition (feather cover) was found in PL and GA but plumage condition in ME was not significantly inferior than in GA. Hens in GA had the dirtiest plumage and most bumble foot but no toe pad hyperkeratosis. Some toe pad hyperkeratosis occurred in the other systems. Most keel bone lesions were found in systems with perches. The highest mortality was registered in GA. Hens in systems with perches, sandbaths and nests had increased strength of humerus at slaughter. 4. More eggs were laid in nests with artificial turf than in welded wire floor nests. LSL hens laid larger proportions of eggs in the nests (94% and 92% in the two trials) than the other hybrids. Less than 1% of the eggs in ME and 2% in GA were laid in the sandbaths. 5. The use of perches in ME and PC was approximately 30% in the day time. At night the use was 93% in ME and 89% in PC in trial 1 and 96% in

  18. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders (United States)

    Kong, Liang; Wen, Xiao-Gang; Zheng, Hao


    In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n + 1D topological order, which are often called n + 1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n + 1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the "bulk" for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n + 1D "bulk" phase is given by the "center" of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the "bulk" corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the "center". We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous) topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the "bulk" satisfies the same universal property as that of the "center" of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. "bulk" = center". The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous) topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  19. Small Cages with Insect Couples Provide a Simple Method for a Preliminary Assessment of Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Briand


    Full Text Available Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density. The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  20. PCR testing of a ventilated caging system to detect murine fur mites. (United States)

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D


    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da Silva


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analysis of the use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cages for atlantoaxial facet realignment and distraction for treatment of basilar invagination by Goel technique. Method: Retrospective descriptive statistical analysis of the neurological status, pain, presence of subsidence and bone fusion with the use of PEEK cages in 8 atlantoaxial joints of 4 patients with basilar invagination. All patients were treated with atlantoaxial facet distraction and realignment and subsequent arthrodesis C1-C2 by the technique of Goel modified by the use of PEEK cage. Results: All patients showed improvement in Nurick neurological assessment scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain. There were no cases of subsidence, migration, or damage to the vertebral artery during the insertion of the cage. All joints evolved with bone fusion, assessed by dynamic radiographs, and computed tomography. Two patients developed neuropathic pain in dermatome of C2 and one patient had unilateral vertebral artery injury during C2 instrumentation treated with insertion of pedicle screw to control the bleeding. Conclusion: The results of the treatment of basilar invagination by the Goel technique with the use of PEEK cages shown to be effective and safe although further studies are needed to confirm this use.

  2. The European Union ban on conventional cages for laying hens: history and prospects. (United States)

    Appleby, Michael C


    Since the publication of Animal Machines (Harrison, 1964), there has been widespread public pressure in Europe--supported by European institutions--to "ban the battery cage." The European Union (EU) and national governments (particularly in Northern Europe) funded research on noncage systems for egg production and enriched cages. In 1986, the EU passed a Directive specifying a minimum size for cages, but public opinion--again particularly in the North--continued to require more. A market sector emerged that would pay more for noncage eggs. Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland passed more stringent legislation than the rest of Europe. A 1999 Directive with details based on advice from the EU's Scientific Veterinary Committee will phase out conventional laying cages but allow enriched cages. Implementation depends on various factors, including negotiations in the World Trade Organization. In the next 10 years, however, major changes to the housing of most laying hens in Europe almost certainly will occur. Similar changes in other countries will follow. As in Europe, change probably will be piecemeal, affected both by public pressure and by all sectors of society: producers, retailers, consumers, legislators, and the media.

  3. Effect of breed, cage type, and reproductive phase on fecal corticosterone levels in doe rabbits. (United States)

    Prola, Liviana; Cornale, Paolo; Renna, Manuela; Macchi, Elisabetta; Perona, Giovanni; Mimosi, Antonio


    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) is increasingly being used as a noninvasive indicator of stress in assessment of nonhuman animal welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of breed, cage type, reproductive phase, and their interactions on FCC levels in doe rabbits. A total of 252 doe rabbits were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Does were individually housed in either standard dimension cages (SC) or in cages with a volume more than double that of the SC. Bigger cages (BC) were equipped with a plastic foot mat. Breed, cage type, and reproductive phase significantly affected FCC. New Zealand hybrids showed higher FCCs (p doe FCC. The highest FCCs were detected at partum (BC: 30.40 ± 0.81 pg g(-1); SC: 33.36 ± 0.86 pg g(-1); p ≤ .05), followed by postweaning (BC: 25.09 ± 0.95 pg g(-1); SC: 27.63 ± 0.95 pg g(-1); p ≤ .05). These results support the hypothesis that measurement of FCC provides a useful indicator of chronic stress in doe rabbits.

  4. Computationally-Guided Synthetic Control over Pore Size in Isostructural Porous Organic Cages. (United States)

    Slater, Anna G; Reiss, Paul S; Pulido, Angeles; Little, Marc A; Holden, Daniel L; Chen, Linjiang; Chong, Samantha Y; Alston, Ben M; Clowes, Rob; Haranczyk, Maciej; Briggs, Michael E; Hasell, Tom; Day, Graeme M; Cooper, Andrew I


    The physical properties of 3-D porous solids are defined by their molecular geometry. Hence, precise control of pore size, pore shape, and pore connectivity are needed to tailor them for specific applications. However, for porous molecular crystals, the modification of pore size by adding pore-blocking groups can also affect crystal packing in an unpredictable way. This precludes strategies adopted for isoreticular metal-organic frameworks, where addition of a small group, such as a methyl group, does not affect the basic framework topology. Here, we narrow the pore size of a cage molecule, CC3, in a systematic way by introducing methyl groups into the cage windows. Computational crystal structure prediction was used to anticipate the packing preferences of two homochiral methylated cages, CC14-R and CC15-R, and to assess the structure-energy landscape of a CC15-R/CC3-S cocrystal, designed such that both component cages could be directed to pack with a 3-D, interconnected pore structure. The experimental gas sorption properties of these three cage systems agree well with physical properties predicted by computational energy-structure-function maps.

  5. DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum amphipods: A tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, Emilie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Devaux, Alain [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Mons, Raphael [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Bony, Sylvie [Universite de Lyon, INRA-ENTPE, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Environnement, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx en Velin F-69518 (France); Garric, Jeanne [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France); Geffard, Alain [EA 2069 URVVC-SE, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Geffard, Olivier, E-mail: [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche des Milieux Aquatiques, (UR MALY), 3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, Cedex 9 (France)


    The aim of this study was to propose a tool for freshwater environmental genotoxicity assessment using Gammarus fossarum, a high ecologically relevant species. In a first part, gammarids were caged upstream and downstream wastewater treatment plant effluent output. The sensitivity of genotoxic responses of haemocytes, oocytes and spermatozoa was compared using the Comet assay. Spermatozoa appeared to be the most sensitive, suitable and relevant cell type for genotoxicity risk assessment. In a second part, a watershed-scale study was conducted over 2 years to evaluate the applicability of our caging procedure. The genotoxic impact of a contamination was followed, taking into account seasonal variability. DNA damage in spermatozoa exhibited low basal level and low variability in control upstream sites, providing a reliable discrimination of polluted sites. Finally, DNA damage in caged G. fossarum has been proved to be a sensitive and reproducible tool for freshwater genotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: > Two different contamination contexts: WWTP effluents and polymetallic contamination. > DNA damage in caged Gammarus fossarum is a sensitive tool for freshwater quality assessment. > Spermatozoa is the most relevant cell type for biomonitoring freshwater genotoxicity. > Combining biomarker responses with analytical chemistry provides rich ecotoxicological information. - We propose an approach to assess freshwater genotoxicity in the field based on caged Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, amphipoda).

  6. Molecular mechanism of formation of the face-sharing double cages in structure-I methane hydrate (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiang; Hou, Jian; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Mengyuan; Xu, Jiafang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Jun


    Despite the potential applications and ubiquity of clathrate hydrates, the molecular mechanism of formation of these compounds is not yet well-understood. In this work, the formation mechanism of the face-sharing double cages in structure-I hydrate was studied by density functional theory calculations, which is responsible to the hydrate nucleation and growth. The results show that the clathrate cages favor to form one after another, and the 512 cages are thermodynamically feasible in the beginning. The water-water and water-methane interactions mostly dominate the formation of the clathrate cages, while the methane-methane interactions have little effect on the formation process.

  7. The effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished cages, Part II: Behavior at the feeder. (United States)

    Widowski, T M; Caston, L J; Casey-Trott, T M; Hunniford, M E


    Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat. Hens with SA of either 520 cm2 (Low; 8.9 cm feeder space/hen) or 748 cm2 (High; 12.8 cm feeder space/hen) per bird resulted in groups of 40 vs. 28 birds in small FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in large FC (LFC). Chain feeders ran at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, and 1700 with lights on at 0500 and off at 1900 hours. Digital recordings of FC were scanned at chain feeder onset and every 15 min for one h after (5 scans × 5 feeding times × 2 d) to count the number of birds with their head in the feeder. All occurrences of aggressive pecks and displacements during 2 continuous 30-minute observations at 0800 h and 1700 h also were counted. Mixed model repeated analyses tested the effects of SA, cage size, and time on the percent of hens feeding, and the frequency of aggressive pecks and displacements. Surprisingly, the percent of birds feeding simultaneously was similar regardless of cage size (LFC: 23.0 ± 0.9%; SFC: 24.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.44) or SA (Low: 23.8 ± 0.9%; High: 23.3 ± 1.0%; P = 0.62). More birds were observed feeding at 1700 h (35.3 ± 0.1%) than any at other time (P < 0.001). Feeder use differed by cage area (nest, middle, or scratch) over the d (P < 0.001). The frequency of aggressive pecks was low overall and not affected by SA or cage size. Frequency of displacements was also low but greater at Low SA (P = 0.001). There was little evidence of feeder competition at the Low SA in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by

  8. Self-assembly of three-legged patchy particles into polyhedral cages (United States)

    den Otter, Wouter K.; Renes, Marten R.; Briels, W. J.


    The self-assembly of rigid three-legged building blocks into polyhedral cages is investigated by patchy particle simulations. A four-site anisotropic interaction potential is introduced to make pairs of overlapping legs bind in an anti-parallel fashion, thereby forming the edges of a polyhedron of pentagons and hexagons. A torsional potential, reflecting an asymmetry or polarity in the legs' binding potential, proves crucial for the successful formation of closed fullerene-like cages. Self-assembly proceeds by a nucleation-and-growth mechanism, with a high success rate of cage closure. The size distribution of the self-assembled buckyballs is largely determined by the pucker angle of the particle. Nature explores a similar building block, the clathrin triskelion, to regulate vesicle formation at the cell membrane during endocytosis.

  9. The interaction between water currents and salmon swimming behaviour in sea cages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johansson

    Full Text Available Positioning of sea cages at sites with high water current velocities expose the fish to a largely unknown environmental challenge. In this study we observed the swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. at a commercial farm with tidal currents altering between low, moderate and high velocities. At high current velocities the salmon switched from the traditional circular polarized group structure, seen at low and moderate current velocities, to a group structure where all fish kept stations at fixed positions swimming against the current. This type of group behaviour has not been described in sea cages previously. The structural changes could be explained by a preferred swimming speed of salmon spatially restricted in a cage in combination with a behavioural plasticity of the fish.

  10. Design Concepts of Polycarbonate-Based Intervertebral Lumbar Cages: Finite Element Analysis and Compression Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Obedt Figueroa-Cavazos


    Full Text Available This work explores the viability of 3D printed intervertebral lumbar cages based on biocompatible polycarbonate (PC-ISO® material. Several design concepts are proposed for the generation of patient-specific intervertebral lumbar cages. The 3D printed material achieved compressive yield strength of 55 MPa under a specific combination of manufacturing parameters. The literature recommends a reference load of 4,000 N for design of intervertebral lumbar cages. Under compression testing conditions, the proposed design concepts withstand between 7,500 and 10,000 N of load before showing yielding. Although some stress concentration regions were found during analysis, the overall viability of the proposed design concepts was validated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the efficacy of PEEK (Poly-ether-ether-ketone cage without plate for the treatment of single-level cervical spondylosis. Methods: Ten patients with cervical myelopathy data, with a single-level root condition, seen at the outpatient clinic of the Neurosurgery Service, operated in 2016, mean age 53 years, 6 (60% female, 4 (40% obese, 3 (30% smokers. The Cloward technique was used by anterior approach, discectomy, and PEEK cage placement. Results: At six months of surgery, 100% of the patients had increased intervertebral space, with a 100% reduction in osteophytes; only one patient had dysphagia, no patient had lesion of the adjacent segment and 10% had persistent root pathology. Cervical lordosis was observed in 90% of the patients and arthrodesis in 100% of the cases. Conclusions: Anterior approach arthrodesis using PEEK cage without cervical plate is effective as a treatment of cervical myelopathy in a single level.

  12. On the Damper Cage Bar´s Currents Calculation Forsalient Pole Large Synchronous Machina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Vicol


    Full Text Available The damper cage bars’ currents occur only when the synchronous machine operates in a dynamic regime and its rotor speed differs from the stator field speed. Basically there are two ways of calculating the damper cage currents, by using the machine equivalent circuit or by employing a 2D or 3D finite element method (FEM analysis. In this paper are discussedtwo methods to calculate the damper cage currents, one based on a coupled field-circuit approach when all the machine dimensions and winding should be known and another based on DC-decay tests conducted with the rotor on d, respectively q axis when all the transient parameters and time constants are obtained. Both methods are quite simple and offer an acceptable accuracy.

  13. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gurung


    Full Text Available During the 2014–2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO2 inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT and time to cessation of movement (COM of hens subjected to CAF, CO2 inhalation, and negative control (NEG treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO2 added to a chamber, a CO2 pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO2 added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO2 inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO2 in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  14. Depopulation of Caged Layer Hens with a Compressed Air Foam System. (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; Hoffman, John; Stringfellow, Kendre; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Zhao, Dan; Caldwell, David; Lee, Jason; Styles, Darrel; Berghman, Luc; Byrd, James; Farnell, Yuhua; Archer, Gregory; Farnell, Morgan


    During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments. In Experiment 1, two independent trials were conducted using young and spent hens. Experiment 1 consisted of five treatments: NEG, CO₂ added to a chamber, a CO₂ pre-charged chamber, CAF in cages, and CAF in a chamber. In Experiment 2, only spent hens were randomly assigned to three treatments: CAF in cages, CO₂ added to a chamber, and aspirated foam. Serum CORT levels of young hens were not significantly different among the CAF in cages, CAF in a chamber, NEG control, and CO₂ inhalation treatments. However, spent hens subjected to the CAF in a chamber had significantly higher CORT levels than birds in the rest of the treatments. Times to COM of spent hens subjected to CAF in cages and aspirated foam were significantly greater than of birds exposed to the CO₂ in a chamber treatment. These data suggest that applying CAF in cages is a viable alternative for layer hen depopulation during a reportable disease outbreak.

  15. Does impaction of titanium-coated interbody fusion cages into the disc space cause wear debris or delamination? (United States)

    Kienle, Annette; Graf, Nicolas; Wilke, Hans-Joachim


    A large number of interbody fusion cages are made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To improve bone on-growth, some are coated with a thin layer of titanium. This coating may fail when subjected to shear loading. The purpose of this testing was to investigate whether impaction of titanium-coated PEEK cages into the disc space can result in wear or delamination of the coating, and whether titanium cages with subtractive surface etching (no coating) are less susceptible to such failure. A biomechanical study was carried out to simulate the impaction process in clinical practice and to evaluate if wear or delamination may result from impaction. Two groups of posterior lumbar interbody fusion cages with a similar geometry were tested: n=6 titanium-coated PEEK and n=6 surface-etched titanium cages. The cages were impacted into the space in between two vertebral body substitutes (polyurethane foam blocks). The two vertebral body substitutes were fixed in a device, through which a standardized axial preload of 390 N was applied. The anterior tip of the cage was positioned at the posterior border of the space between the two vertebral body substitutes. The cages were then inserted using a drop weight with a mass representative of a surgical hammer. The drop weight impacted the insertion instrument at a maximum speed of about 2.6 m/s, which is in the range of the impaction speed in vivo. This was repeated until the cages were fully inserted. The wear particles were captured and analyzed according to the pertinent standards. The surface-etched titanium cages did not show any signs of wear debris or surface damage. In contrast, the titanium-coated PEEK cages resulted in detached wear particles of different sizes (1-191 µm). Over 50% of these particles had a size debris. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  17. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)


    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  18. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens. (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P


    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community.

  19. Growth and stress of dourado cultivated in cages at different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Braun


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and the stress levels of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis cultivated in cages. Fish stocked at densities of 15 (D15 and 30 (D30 fish per square meter were evaluated in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Fish were fed twice a day with extruded ration (42% crude protein. Density influenced only biomass and daily food intake, and glucose and lactate concentrations increased over time. D15 and D30 did not influence the growth of dourado. However, the increase of glucose and lactate levels over time indicates that cultivation in cages is a stressful condition for this species.

  20. Synthesis of potentially caged sphingolipids, possible precursors of cellular modulators and second messengers. (United States)

    Zehavi, U


    An increasing number of sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids and some of their degradation products have been recognized in recent years as second messengers involved in signal transduction and as modulators of numerous cellular functions. These can be converted into inert, caged compounds, introduced into cells and tissues and subsequently photolysed to active compounds thus enabling the study of fast biological processes. The novel, potentially caged compounds synthesized here are substituted 2-nitrobenzyl urethans and 2-nitrobenzyl amines derived from sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, N-methylsphingosine, N-methyldihydrosphingosine, psychosine and glucosylsphingosine. Upon irradiation of the afore mentioned compounds they release, or are expected to release, the free biologically active amines.

  1. Thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM with and without a squirrel cage rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Mohammadali


    Full Text Available Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM is a novel switched reluctance machine with limited information about its heat distribution and dissipation. This paper presents a two dimensional (2-D thermal analysis of Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (DSSRM to observe actual heat distribution in the parts of the machine, using Finite Element Method (FEM. Two topologies for the rotor of DSSRM are considered, Non-Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (NSC-DSSRM and Squirrel Cage Double Stator Switched Reluctance Machine (SC-DSSRM. The heat distribution of these two topologies is analyzed, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Finally the results are presented and compared.

  2. Holographic bulk reconstruction with α' corrections (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti


    We outline a holographic recipe to reconstruct α' corrections to anti-de Sitter (AdS) (quantum) gravity from an underlying CFT in the strictly planar limit (N →∞ ). Assuming that the boundary CFT can be solved in principle to all orders of the 't Hooft coupling λ , for scalar primary operators, the λ-1 expansion of the conformal dimensions can be mapped to higher curvature corrections of the dual bulk scalar field action. Furthermore, for the metric perturbations in the bulk, the AdS /CFT operator-field isomorphism forces these corrections to be of the Lovelock type. We demonstrate this by reconstructing the coefficient of the leading Lovelock correction, also known as the Gauss-Bonnet term in a bulk AdS gravity action using the expression of stress-tensor two-point function up to subleading order in λ-1.

  3. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini


    and a low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state...... are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface......The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio...

  4. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS


    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  5. Biomechanical evaluation of DTRAX® posterior cervical cage stabilization with and without lateral mass fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov LI


    Full Text Available Leonard I Voronov,1,2 Krzysztof B Siemionow,3 Robert M Havey,1,2 Gerard Carandang,2 Avinash G Patwardhan1,2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, 2Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, 3Department of Orthopaedics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: Lateral mass screw (LMS fixation with plates or rods is the current standard procedure for posterior cervical fusion. Recently, implants placed between the facet joints have become available as an alternative to LMS or transfacet screws for patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of the DTRAX® cervical cage for single- and two-level fusion and compare this to the stability achieved with LMS fixation with rods in a two-level construct.Methods: Seven cadaveric cervical spine (C3–C7 specimens were tested in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to ±1.5 Nm moment without preload (0 N in the following conditions: 1 intact (C3–C7, 2 LMS and rods at C4–C5 and C5–C6, 3 removal of all rods (LMS retained and placement of bilateral posterior cages at C5–C6, 4 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 (without LMS and rods, and 5 C4–C5 and C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages at C4–C5 and C5–C6 with rods reinserted.Results: Bilateral posterior cervical cages significantly reduced range of motion in all tested directions in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05. Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and LMS in a two-level construct: 0.6°±0.3° vs 1.2°±0.4° in flexion–­extension (P=0.001, (5.0°±2.6° vs 3.1°±1.3° in lateral bending (P=0.053, (1.3°±1.0° vs 2.2°±0.9° in axial rotation (P=0.091 for posterior cages and LMS, respectively. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to LMS, further reduced

  6. The Effect of Cage Space on Behavior and Reproduction in Crl:CD1(Icr and C57BL/6NCrl Laboratory Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna N Gaskill

    Full Text Available Recommendations for the amount of cage space required for female mice with litters were first made in the 2011 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We hypothesized that if a difference in mouse behavior and reproduction exists within the limits of commercially available caging, this difference would be detected between the smallest and largest cages. C57BL/6NCrl and Crl:CD1(Icr breeding mice were randomly assigned to a cage treatment: LP 18790 (226 cm2; A RC1 (305 cm2; A N10 (432 cm2; T 1291 (800 cm2 and a breeding configuration: single (male removed after birth; pair (1 male + 1 female; or trio (1 male + 2 females in a factorial design for 12 weeks. All cages received 8-10 g of nesting material and nests were scored weekly. Pups were weaned between post-natal day 18 and 26 and were weighed at weaning. Adult behavior and location in the cage were recorded by scan samples every 30 min over 48 hr of video recorded on PND 0-8 and PND 14-21 when pups were in the cage. Press posture and play behavior were recorded by 1/0 sampling method. Cage space did not significantly alter typical reproductive measures. Pups in the smallest cage played less than in the other cages. Adults in the smallest cage displayed more press posture than in the two largest cages. Mice in the largest cage spent more time under the feeder than in other areas of the cage. Nest score was also the highest in the largest cage. Housing breeding groups of mice in a range of commercially available cage sizes does not affect reproduction but behavioral measures suggest that the smallest cage tested, LP 18790, may be stressful for outbred mice when pups are present.

  7. Three-Dimensional Approaches to Assembling Negative Index Metamedia (United States)


    demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon near zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023903 (2008...Energy Transfer to CdTe Nanowires via Polymer Orientation," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 109 (2009). MURI Final Report 16 38. R. Merlin... Heterostructures ," Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176803 (2010). 58. D. Korobkin, B. Neuner, C. Fietz, N. Jegenyes, G. Ferro, and G. Shvets, "Measurements of the

  8. Collective dynamics of atoms embedded into negative index materials (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Li, Gao-xiang; Ficek, Zbigniew


    The dynamics of two two-level atoms embedded near to the interface of paired metamaterial slabs, one of negative permeability and the other of negative permittivity are studied. The interface behaves as a plasmonic waveguide composed of surface-plasmon polariton modes. It is found that significantly different dynamics occur for the resonant and an off-resonant couplings of the plasma field to the atoms. In the case of the resonant coupling, the plasma field does not appear as a dissipative reservoir to the atoms. We adopt the image method and show that the dynamics of the two atoms are completely equivalent to those of a four-atom system. Moreover, two threshold coupling strengths exist, one corresponding to the strength of coupling of the plasma field to the symmetric and the other to the antisymmetric modes of the system. The thresholds distinguish between the non-Markovian and Markovian regimes of the evolutions. The solutions predict a large and long living entanglement mediated by the plasma field in both Markovian and non-Markovian regimes of the evolution. We also show that a simultaneous Markovian and non-Markovian regimes of the evolution may occur in which the memory effects exist over a finite evolution time. Keywords: met

  9. Negative-Index Media for Matter-Wave Optics (United States)

    Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Boustimi, M.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Ducloy, M.


    We consider the extension of optical metamaterials to matter waves and then the down scaling of metaoptics to nanometric wavelengths. We show that the generic property of pulsed comoving magnetic fields allows us to fashion the wave-number dependence of the atomic phase shift. It can be used to produce a transient negative group velocity of an atomic wave packet, which results into a negative refraction of the matter wave. Application to slow metastable argon atoms Ar*(P23) shows that the device is able to operate either as an efficient beam splitter or an atomic metalens.

  10. Self-Assembled Soft Optical Negative Index Materials (United States)


    dividing the results of the closed aperture Z-scan by those from the open aperture Z-scan. The source of the Z-scan can be directly from a laser or...orientation and relative position with respect to precision scribe lines. This type of mapping enabled us to examine regions .of interest in optical...chirality of cysteine stabilizers has the distinct effect on both the growth kinetics and the optical properties of CdTe nanocrystals synthesized in

  11. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)


    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  12. A mechanistic analysis of bulk powder caking (United States)

    Calvert, G.; Curcic, N.; Ghadiri, M.


    Bulk powder transformations, such as caking, can lead to numerous problems within industry when storing or processing materials. In this paper a new Environmental Caking Rig (ECR) is introduced and has been used to evaluate the caking propensity of a hygroscopic powder as a function of temperature, Relative Humidity (RH), mechanical stress and also when RH is cycled. A linear relationship exists between cake strength and the extent of bulk deformation, here defined by the engineering strain. An empirical model has been used to predict the caking behaviour based on consolidation stress and environmental conditions.

  13. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado


    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  14. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring (United States)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  15. Spray washing, absorbent cornstarch powder, and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled transport cage flooring (United States)

    Broiler transport cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Allowing feces to dry is an effective but slow and logistically impractical means to kill Campylobacter in soiled transport cages. ...

  16. Gender differences in exerted forces and physiological load during pushing and pulling of wheeled cages by postal workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, A. J.; Kluver, B. D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; Hoozemans, M. J.


    The aim was to determine gender differences regarding exerted forces and physiological load during push/pull tasks simulating the daily working practice of postal workers. Eight female and four male workers handled four-wheeled cages under eight conditions corresponding to the cage weight (130, 250,

  17. On the growth of Penaeus indicus experimented in cages at different densities in a selected nursery ground

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N.; Paulinose, V.T.; Balasubramanian, T.; Menon, P.G.; Kutty, M.K.

    Effect of different densities on the growth of Penaeus indicus was studied in a higly productive nursery ground located at Ramanthuruth Island (lat. 9~'58'50"N, long. 76~'15'40"E) using cages. Eight cages of the same size were placed with prawns...

  18. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood. (United States)

    Marchesi, Guilherme D'Aprile; Soto, Sônia de Fatima; Castro, Isac de; Rodrigues, Thiago Guimarães; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; Almeida, Francine Maria de; Pazetti, Rogerio; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara


    To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) from birth until adulthood. Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs) and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8) counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages.

  19. The effects of individually ventilated cages on the respiratory systems of male and female Wistar rats from birth until adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme D’Aprile Marchesi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20 than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4, whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0 than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22 at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3 and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3 offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0 and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0 at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4 and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6 offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8, neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1 and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8 counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages.

  20. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Oliveira, R.; McDonough, S.; Matser, A.; Khatikarn, J.; Satapornvanit, K.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Domingues, I.; Brink, van den P.J.


    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics,

  1. Friction moment analysis of space gyroscope bearing with ribbon cage under ultra-low oscillatory motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shaona


    Full Text Available This paper presents the model of calculating the total friction moment of space gyroscope ball bearings which usually work under ultra-low oscillatory motion and are very sensitive to the friction moment. The aim is to know the proportion of the friction moment caused by each frictional source in the bearing’s total friction moment, which is helpful to optimize the bearing design to deduce the friction moment. In the model, the cage dynamic equations considering six degree-of-freedom and the balls dynamic equations considering two degree-of-freedom were solved. The good trends with different loads between the measured friction moments and computational results prove that the model under constant rate was validated. The computational results show that when the speed was set at 5 r/min, the bearing’s maximum total friction moment when oscillation occurred was obviously larger than that occurred at a constant rate. At the onset of each oscillatory motion, the proportion of the friction moment caused by cage in the bearing’s total friction moment was very high, and it increased with the increasing speed. The analyses of different cage thicknesses and different clearances between cage pocket and ball show that smaller thickness and clearance were preferred.

  2. Combining Protein Cages and Polymers: from Understanding Self-Assembly to Functional Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, Stan Joris; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria


    Protein cages, such as viruses, are well-defined biological nanostructures which are highly symmetrical and monodisperse. They are found in various shapes and sizes and can encapsulate or template non-native materials. Furthermore, the proteins can be chemically or genetically modified giving them

  3. Cage occupancies in the high pressure structure H methane hydrate: a neutron diffraction study. (United States)

    Tulk, C A; Klug, D D; dos Santos, A M; Karotis, G; Guthrie, M; Molaison, J J; Pradhan, N


    A neutron diffraction study was performed on the CD(4) : D(2)O structure H clathrate hydrate to refine its CD(4) fractional cage occupancies. Samples of ice VII and hexagonal (sH) methane hydrate were produced in a Paris-Edinburgh press and in situ neutron diffraction data collected. The data were analyzed with the Rietveld method and yielded average cage occupancies of 3.1 CD(4) molecules in the large 20-hedron (5(12)6(8)) cages of the hydrate unit cell. Each of the pentagonal dodecahedron (5(12)) and 12-hedron (4(3)5(6)6(3)) cages in the sH unit cell are occupied with on average 0.89 and 0.90 CD(4) molecules, respectively. This experiment avoided the co-formation of Ice VI and sH hydrate, this mixture is more difficult to analyze due to the proclivity of ice VI to form highly textured crystals, and overlapping Bragg peaks of the two phases. These results provide essential information for the refinement of intermolecular potential parameters for the water-methane hydrophobic interaction in clathrate hydrates and related dense structures.

  4. The Effects of Caging on the Colonization of Fouling Organisms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of caging on the colonization and development ofthe fouling community in the upper Bonny estuary was studied. The experimental design was such that sets of wooden ... competitively dominant species to create space and allow less competitive species to coexist in the community (Dayton 1975). However, in ...

  5. Comparison of polyetheretherketone (PEEK cage and cervical disc prostheses used in anterior cervical microscopic discectomy operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadir Alkan


    Conclusion: It was shown that in the cervical disc prosthesis group (Group A in the early and later postoperative period, intervertebral disk heights were preserved by a statistically significant amount compared to the PEEK cage group (Group B. However, this scenario did not create any significant difference in the clinical evaluation results. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 1-8

  6. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz


    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  7. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies (United States)

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S.; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J.; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang


    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible.

  8. Romantic Remediation? John Cage and Henry David Thoreau’s Walden State of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.


    Rather than identifying Cage as a romantic soul mate of the transcendentalists exhibiting a rebellious attitude against conventions, I will investigate new ways to detect with greater exactness what Sean Wilentz described in the context of David S. Reynolds work on the American Renaissance as “the

  9. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of ...

  10. That Entertainment Called a Discussion: The Critical Arts Pedagogy of John Cage (United States)

    Muller, Otto


    Just as John Cage used chance techniques to relinquish control in his practice as a composer, he used pedagogical techniques that facilitated shared learning and experimentation. The tenets of Critical Pedagogy, as laid out by Paulo Freire in "The Pedagogy of the Oppressed," offer insights into the structures and strategies implicit in…

  11. First-principles investigations of intermetallics in the Ca-Ge system (United States)

    Bouderba, H.; Djaballah, Y.; Belgacem-Bouzida, A.; Beddiaf, R.


    Ca-Ge intermetallics were studied by first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT) with the projector augmented-wave technique (PAW); both LDA and GGA were considered. Structural parameters and enthalpies of formation of observed intermetallics in the phase diagram were calculated. Other structures observed in other isoelectronic systems A-B (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; B=Si, Sn, Pb, Ge) were also investigated. GGA results are very close to available experimental data and proved to be more accurate than the LDA to describe this system. Results show that (i) Ca7Ge6 is not a ground state compound; (ii) a new polymorph of CaGe2, not yet reported experimentally, is found to be more stable than all other forms at 0 °K at this composition with the GGA; this is qualitatively in disagreement with the LDA that gives it less stable than the accepted one in the phase diagram; (iii) the new structure of Ca3Si4 reported in the Ca-Si system is very competitive energetically in the Ca-Ge system and indications suggest that it may represent a new compound in Ca-Ge; (iv) the experimentally reported cell parameters for Ca7Ge, and even Ca33Ge, are probably of some other compounds and not of the supposed ones; (v) all of the energetically competitive compounds are mechanically stable.

  12. Using Finite Element Method to Estimate the Material Properties of a Bearing Cage (United States)


    model for a cotton -phenolic based bearing cage. After performing a literature search, limited mechanical material property data was available. As a...UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED i CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Experimental 1 Bearing...unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 1 INTRODUCTION In the absence of mechanical material data, empirical experiments may be performed to estimate necessary


    The report gives results of a demonstration of the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable-speed wind generation system. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to either a double-sided pulse-width modulation converte...

  14. Mathematical Modelling and Parameter Determination of Reluctance Synchronous Motor with Squirrel Cage (United States)

    Hudák, Peter; Hrabovcová, Valéria


    The paper provides an analysis of reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with asymmetrical rotor cage. Its performances during its starting up is investigated. A mathematical model is created on the basis of detailed investigation of model parameters. The RSM starting up by switching it directly across the line was simulated and verified by measurements.

  15. Photomodulating Gene Expression by Using Caged siRNAs with Single-Aptamer Modification. (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Changmai; Fan, Xinli; Tang, Xinjing


    Caged siRNAs incorporating terminal modification were rationally designed for photochemical regulation of gene silencing induced by RNA interference (RNAi). Through the conjugation of a single oligonucleotide aptamer at the 5' terminus of the antisense RNA strand, enhancement of the blocking effect for RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation/processing was expected, due both/either to the aptamers themselves and/or to their interaction with large binding proteins. Two oligonucleotide aptamers (AS1411 and MUC-1) were chosen for aptamer-siRNA conjugation through a photolabile linker. This caging strategy was successfully used to photoregulate gene expression both of firefly luciferase and of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in cells. Further patterning experiments revealed that spatial regulation of GFP expression was successfully achieved by using the aptamer-modified caged siRNA and light activation. We expect that further optimized caged siRNAs featuring aptamer conjugation will be promising for practical applications to spatiotemporal photoregulation of gene expression in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Response of phytoplankton to an experimental fish culture in net cages in a subtropical reservoir. (United States)

    Bartozek, E C R; Bueno, N C; Feiden, A; Rodrigues, L C


    This study aimed to evaluate nutrients concentration and spatial-temporal changes in phytoplankton biovolume during an experimental fish culture in net cages in a lateral arm of Salto Caxias reservoir, Brazil. Two sampling stations were placed in the affected lateral arm and other two in a cageless lateral arm. Neither abiotic variables nor phytoplankton biovolume presented significant differences between the treatments. Only temporal changes were confirmed by the analysis performed. Both lateral arms were classified as oligotrophic, reflecting low influence of the net cages. Phytoplankton growth seems to be limited by nitrogen. Biovolume values were, in general, low and five major functional groups were recognized (E, F, G, K and P). In summer higher biovolume values were observed and representatives of Chlorophyceae and Cyanobacteria belonging to the functional groups F and K, respectively, were the most important. In winter phytoplankton was mainly composed by Bacillariophyceae taxa from P group. G group was also restricted to winter and E group occurred in winter and summer. The variations recorded in phytoplankton structure appear to have been mainly influenced by seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation and nutrients availability. The effects of net cages on the abiotic variables and phytoplankton biovolume appear to have been small, probably due to the small number of net cages employed and the system dilution capacity. However, a permanent monitoring of phytoplankton is recommended, since this environment has a carrying capacity, from which the trophic state may increase.

  17. Sternum Length and Rib Cage Dimensions Compared with Bodily Proportions in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Laurin


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A greater structural expansion of the rib cage in females compared with males has been described in cystic fibrosis (CF patients; however, conflicting data exist as to whether an elongation of the bony ribs and sternum contributes to this expansion.

  18. Laying Performance of Wareng Chicken under Free Choice Feeding and Different Cage Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar


    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using free choice feeding technique under different cage density for unselected native chicken. Eighty hens of laying Wareng chicken were divided into two feeding systems. Half of them were fed complete commercial diet of 17% crude protein, with 2800 kcal ME/kg and the other half were subjected to free choice diet. The diets were in mash form and placed in sufficient feed troughs in front of each cage. Each cage was occupied by four or six hens. Free choice feeding hens were served with commercial concentrate (30% crude protein, ground corn and oyster shell, placed separately in feed troughs. Observation was carried out during 24 weeks laying period, starting from 20 to 44 weeks of age. The results showed that egg production (9.35% hen day, and the intake of feed (42.74 g/day, protein (7.01 g/day, energy (116.6 kcal ME/day, calcium (1.99 g/day and phosphorus (0.22 g/day were not affected (P>0.05 by feeding system nor by cage density. The results however indicated that free choice feeding technique provided sufficient nutrients in supporting maximum egg production of unselected native chicken.

  19. Photoactivatable Drug-Caged Fluorophore Conjugate Allows Direct Quantification of Intracellular Drug Transport (United States)

    Kohler, Rainer H.; Weissleder, Ralph


    We report here a method that utilizes photoactivatable drug-caged fluorophore conjugate to quantify intracellular drug trafficking processes at single cell resolution. Photoactivation is performed in labeled cellular compartments to visualize intracellular drug exchange at physiologic conditions, without the need for washing, facilitating its translation to in vivo cancer models. PMID:24135896

  20. Economic traits and performance of Italian quails reared at different cage stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABG Faitarone


    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of different cage stocking densities on the performance of Italian quails in the laying period. Two hundred and sixty four quails with 30 weeks of age and 280g mean body weight were used. Birds were randomly assigned to 96 x 33 x 16 cm cages and distributed in a randomized block design with 4 treatments (12, 15, 18 and 21 quails per cage or 264, 211, 176 and 151 cm² per quail, respectively and 4 replicates. Birds were given feed and water ad libitum and submitted to the same experimental conditions. The experimental diet was formulated based on NRC (1994 recommendations. There were no significant differences among treatments for feed conversion per egg mass (kg:kg, percentage of broken eggs and mortality. There was a linear reduction (p<0.05 in egg weight, feed consumption, percentage of production, egg mass and feed conversion per dozen with the increase in stocking density. The gain per house per day was better at the cage density of 151 cm² per bird. However, the density of 211 cm² per bird provided the best gain per bird per day, because this stocking density had better productive indexes when compared with the other treatments.

  1. Nicolas Cage otsib kadunud tütart naistesaarelt / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin


    Õudusfilm "Ohvripidu" : režissöör Neil LaBute : peaosas Nicholas Cage : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Film on uusversioon briti 1973.a. filmist, mille režissöör oli Robin Hardy ja ühes peaosadest Christopher Lee

  2. 48 CFR 204.7206 - Using CAGE codes to identify agents and brokers. (United States)


    ... identify agents and brokers. 204.7206 Section 204.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... 204.7206 Using CAGE codes to identify agents and brokers. Authorized agents and brokers are entities... code will be assigned to the agent/broker establishment in addition to any codes assigned to the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz


    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  4. Red mason bees cannot compete with honey bees for floral resources in a cage experiment. (United States)

    Hudewenz, Anika; Klein, Alexandra-Maria


    Intensive beekeeping to mitigate crop pollination deficits and habitat loss may cause interspecific competition between bees. Studies show negative correlations between flower visitation of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees, but effects on the reproduction of wild bees were not proven. Likely reasons are that honey bees can hardly be excluded from controls and wild bee nests are generally difficult to detect in field experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) compete with honey bees in cages in order to compare the reproduction of red mason bees under different honey bee densities. Three treatments were applied, each replicated in four cages of 18 m³ with 38 red mason bees in all treatments and 0, 100, and 300 honey bees per treatment with 10-20% being foragers. Within the cages, the flower visitation and interspecific displacements from flowers were observed. Niche breadths and resource overlaps of both bee species were calculated, and the reproduction of red mason bees was measured. Red mason bees visited fewer flowers when honey bees were present. Niche breadth of red mason bees decreased with increasing honey bee density while resource overlaps remained constant. The reproduction of red mason bees decreased in cages with honey bees. In conclusion, our experimental results show that in small and isolated flower patches, wild bees can temporarily suffer from competition with honey bees. Further research should aim to test for competition on small and isolated flower patches in real landscapes.

  5. Remedies for a high incidence of broken eggs in furnished cages: effectiveness of increasing nest attractiveness and lowering perch height. (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Struelens, E; Ampe, B


    Two remedial treatments to reduce the high incidence of broken eggs in the furnished cages of our experimental layer farm were investigated: lining the nest floor with artificial turf (to increase nest acceptance) and lowering perch height (to reduce the chance of egg breakage of outside-nest eggs). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used with low (7 cm) or high (24 cm) perches, and with nest floors lined with artificial turf or plastic mesh. Eight cages, each housing 8 hens initially (aged 40 to 56 wk), were used per treatment. Egg location and percentage of broken eggs were recorded. Hen position (cage floor, nest, or perch) was recorded by direct scan-sampling observations. In addition, 8 cages (4 high + 4 low) each containing 8 hens (aged 54 to 56 wk) were videorecorded to determine perch use and behavior during the light period. Data were mainly analyzed using logistic regression and mixed models with cage as the experimental unit. Nest floor material did not influence the percentage of eggs broken or laid outside the nest. The proportion of outside-nest eggs (2.6 vs. 10.6%, P = 0.004), and consequently also of total eggs (2 vs. 4.6%, P = 0.016) broken, was lower for low than high cages. Perch use increased during the observation period, more so for the high cages during the light period and the low cages during the dark period. Perch bout duration (P nest floor lining with artificial turf was not an effective remedy for the already-high rate of broken eggs, but the prevalence of broken outside-nest eggs was lower in cages with low versus high perches. However, perching behavior during the light period was more disturbed in cages with low perches.

  6. Acclimatization of mice to different cage types and social groupings with respect to fecal secretion of IgA and corticosterone metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Cathrine Juel; Kalliokoski, Otto; Abelson, Klas Sp


    Stress associated with transport and change of environment may have widespread effects on physiological parameters in laboratory animals. To investigate the time needed for mice to acclimatize to a new environment, based on fecal IgA and corticosterone excretion, eightweek-old BALB/c mice of both...... genders were housed either in groups of eight in different cage types in open conventional cages, in Individual Ventilated Cages (IVC), in open conventional cages inside a plastic isolator, or in different group sizes (8, 4, 8, 10 or 12 mice in each group) in open conventional cages. Feces were collected...... from each cage on routine cage changing. There was no significant difference in corticosterone excretion in feces between animals housed in the different cage types or between animals housed in different group sizes. IgA excretion for both males and females was found to be affected by transfer of mice...

  7. Application of biodegradable 3D-printed cage for cervical diseases via anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF): an in vitro biomechanical study. (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofan; Jiang, Libo; Yang, Jielai; Cao, Lu; Dong, Jian


    To design and fabricate a 3D-printed cervical cage composite of polylactic acid (PLA)/nano-sized and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). CAD analysis provided a useful platform to design the preliminary cage. In vitro cell culture and in vivo animal results showed promising results in the biocompatibility of the constructs. Endplate matching evaluation showed better matching degree of 3D-printed cages than those of conventional cages. Biomechanical evaluation showed better mechanical properties of 3D-printed cages than those of conventional cages. The novel 3D printed PLA/pβ-TCP cage showed good application potential, indicating a novel, feasible, and inexpensive method to manufacture cervical fusion cages.

  8. Cellulosic ethanol byproducts as a bulking agent (United States)

    J.M. Considine; D. Coffin; J.Y. Zhu; D.H. Mann; X. Tang


    Financial enhancement of biomass value prior to pulping requires subsequent use of remaining materials; e.g., high value use of remaining stock material after cellulosic ethanol production would improve the economics for cellulosic ethanol. In this work, use of enzymatic hydrolysis residual solids (EHRS), a cellulosic ethanol byproduct, were investigated as a bulking...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  10. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    157–161. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K YU. ∗. , Y H WANG, G Z XING, Q QIAO, B LIU, Z J CHU, C L LI and F YOU. State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University,.

  11. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 1. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K Yu Y H Wang G Z Xing Q Qiao B Liu Z J Chu C L Li F You. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 157-161 ...

  12. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin


    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane shear...

  13. Thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, A.C.; de Groot, K.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.


    The thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate was carried out in the solid phase, the mesomorphic phase, and the liquid phase to study the effect of monomer ordering on polymerization rate and polymer properties. The rate increased with decreasing ordering (or enhanced mobility) of the

  14. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.R.


    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials

  15. Polonium bulk and surface vibrational dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigrine, Rachid; Bourahla, Boualem [Laboratoire de Physique PEC UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Khater, Antoine


    Calculations are presented for the bulk phonons and for surface Rayleigh phonons and resonances for Polonium, the only element known to form in the simple cubic lattice. The static stability of this lattice has been confirmed recently by ab initio simulations which yield two bulk elastic constants, c{sub 11} and c{sub 12}. Constitutive equations are derived for the isotropic cubic lattice based upon the Fuchs's method. This permits effectively a numerical evaluation of central potential force constants for Polonium from the ab initio results. Numerical calculations are then made for the material vibration dynamics in the force constant model with the use of the matching method. The numerical applications yield for Polonium the bulk phonon branches along[100],[110], and [111], and the Rayleigh phonons and surface resonances along the[010] direction in an unreconstructed (001) surface. The local vibration densities of states are calculated for bulk and surface sites for this element. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Modelling ventilated bulk storage of agromaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, N.L.M.; Keesman, K.J.


    Storage of season-dependent agro-materials is a key process in providing food, feed and biomass throughout the whole year. We review the state of the art in physical modelling, simulation and control of ventilated bulk storage facilities, and in particular the storage of potatoes, from a

  17. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina


    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  18. Transformation kinetics for surface and bulk nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Elena, E-mail: [University of Milan, Department of Mathematics, via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rios, Paulo R., E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, 27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)] [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)


    A rigorous mathematical approach based on the causal cone and stochastic geometry concepts is used to derive new exact expressions for transformation kinetics theory. General expressions for the mean volume density and the volume fraction are derived for both surface and bulk nucleation in a general Borel subset of R{sup 3}. In practice, probably any specimen shape of engineering interest is going to be a Borel set. An expression is also derived for the important case of polyhedral shape, in which surface nucleation may take place on the faces, edges and vertices of the polyhedron as well as within the bulk. Moreover, explicit expressions are given for surface and bulk nucleation for three specific shapes of engineering relevance: two parallel planes, an infinitely long cylinder and a sphere. Superposition is explained in detail and it permits the treatment of situations in which surface and bulk nucleation take place simultaneously. The new exact expressions presented here result in a significant increase in the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.

  19. Scientific computing on bulk synchronous parallel architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.H.; McColl, W.F.


    Bulk synchronous parallel architectures oer the prospect of achieving both scalable parallel performance and architecture independent parallel software. They provide a robust model on which to base the future development of general purpose parallel computing systems. In this paper, we theoretically

  20. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials | Yildirim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x‑tra Base Bulk Fill). Materials and Methods: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and ...

  1. Polar self-assembly: steric effects leading to polar mixed-ligand coordination cages. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Miller, Philip W; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; James, Stuart L


    We present a highly unusual example of self-assembly, specifically a polar, mixed-ligand cage which forms in preference to symmetrical homo-ligand products, and which suggests that steric effects can be exploited to obtain novel non-uniform polyhedral cages. In particular, reaction between the bulky tripodal triphosphine 2,4,6-tris(diphenylphosphino)triazine, L1, the non-bulky tripodal trinitrile 2,4,6-tris(cyanomethyl)trimethylbenzene, L2 and silver hexafluoroantimonate, AgSbF6, in a 3:1:4 ratio gives the mixed-ligand aggregate [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(SbF6)]3+, 1-SbF6, instantly as the only product in quantitative yield. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 1-SbF6 is consistent with the suspected solution-state structure. The cage derives from trigonal-pyramidal geometry, the basal vertices of which are defined by three bulky triphosphines, L1, and the apical vertex by the non-bulky trinitrile, L2. There is apical elongation amounting to 19% in comparison to the ideal uniform tetrahedron. The cage also encapsulates an SbF6 anion. 19F NMR spectra in solution for the analogous PF6 complex [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(PF6)]3+, 1-PF6, confirm that one anion is also encapsulated in solution. The synthesis of the analogous CF3SO3(-) complex, [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(OTf)]3+, 1-OTf, in solution is also described, although 1-PF6 and 1-OTf could not be isolated due to slow decomposition in solution. The selective formation of these mixed-ligand cages is discussed in terms of ligand-ligand and ligand-included anion steric repulsions, which we propose prevent the formation of the competing hypothetical homo-ligand tetrahedral structure [Ag4(L1)4(SbF6)]3+, and thus favour the mixed ligand cage. "Cage cone angles" for L1 and L2 are estimated at 115 degrees and 101 degrees, respectively. Variable-temperature 31P NMR spectroscopy shows that complex 1-SbF6 and the related previously reported partial tetrahedral complex [Ag4(L1)3(anion)]3+ undergo dynamic twisting processes in solution between enantiomeric C3

  2. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe


    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  3. Expiratory rib cage compression in mechanically ventilated adults: systematic review with meta-analysis (United States)

    Borges, Lúcia Faria; Saraiva, Mateus Sasso; Saraiva, Marcos Ariel Sasso; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Kessler, Adriana


    Objective To review the literature on the effects of expiratory rib cage compression on ventilatory mechanics, airway clearance, and oxygen and hemodynamic indices in mechanically ventilated adults. Methods Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PEDro, and LILACS. Studies on adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units and under mechanical ventilation that analyzed the effects of expiratory rib cage compression with respect to a control group (without expiratory rib cage compression) and evaluated the outcomes static and dynamic compliance, sputum volume, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen were included. Experimental studies with animals and those with incomplete data were excluded. Results The search strategy produced 5,816 studies, of which only three randomized crossover trials were included, totaling 93 patients. With respect to the outcome of heart rate, values were reduced in the expiratory rib cage compression group compared with the control group [-2.81 bpm (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -4.73 to 0.89; I2: 0%)]. Regarding dynamic compliance, there was no significant difference between groups [-0.58mL/cmH2O (95%CI: -2.98 to 1.82; I2: 1%)]. Regarding the variables systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, significant differences were found after descriptive evaluation. However, there was no difference between groups regarding the variables secretion volume, static compliance, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Conclusion There is a lack of evidence to support the use of expiratory rib cage compression in routine care, given that the literature on this topic offers low methodological quality and is inconclusive. PMID

  4. Folding dynamics of Trp-cage in the presence of chemical interference and macromolecular crowding. I. (United States)

    Samiotakis, Antonios; Cheung, Margaret S


    Proteins fold and function in the crowded environment of the cell's interior. In the recent years it has been well established that the so-called "macromolecular crowding" effect enhances the folding stability of proteins by destabilizing their unfolded states for selected proteins. On the other hand, chemical and thermal denaturation is often used in experiments as a tool to destabilize a protein by populating the unfolded states when probing its folding landscape and thermodynamic properties. However, little is known about the complicated effects of these synergistic perturbations acting on the kinetic properties of proteins, particularly when large structural fluctuations, such as protein folding, have been involved. In this study, we have first investigated the folding mechanism of Trp-cage dependent on urea concentration by coarse-grained molecular simulations where the impact of urea is implemented into an energy function of the side chain and/or backbone interactions derived from the all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with urea through a Boltzmann inversion method. In urea solution, the folding rates of a model miniprotein Trp-cage decrease and the folded state slightly swells due to a lack of contact formation between side chains at the terminal regions. In addition, the equilibrium m-values of Trp-cage from the computer simulations are in agreement with experimental measurements. We have further investigated the combined effects of urea denaturation and macromolecular crowding on Trp-cage's folding mechanism where crowding agents are modeled as hard-spheres. The enhancement of folding rates of Trp-cage is most pronounced by macromolecular crowding effect when the extended conformations of Trp-cast dominate at high urea concentration. Our study makes quantitatively testable predictions on protein folding dynamics in a complex environment involving both chemical denaturation and macromolecular crowding effects.

  5. Individually ventilated cages impose cold stress on laboratory mice: a source of systemic experimental variability. (United States)

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B


    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems.

  6. Perbandingan tingkat kebocoran mikro resin komposit bulk-filldengan teknik penumpatan oblique incremental dan bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Puja Permana


    Full Text Available Micoleakage comparison of bulk-fillcomposite beetwen oblique incremental and bulk placement techniques. Resin composite bulk-fill was a new type of resin composite that speed up application process of composite. The concept of bulk-fill composite allows composite to fill at a depth of 4 mm and minimizes polymerization shrinkage. This study aims to determine the comparison of placement techniques (oblique incremental/bulk of bulk-fill composite on microleakage in class I preparations. Thirty two human maxillary premolar were stored in distilled water, then Class I preparations were made with the depth of the cavity which was 4 mm (3 x 3 x 4. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups, group 1 uses oblique incremental placement technique and group 2 with bulk placement technique. Samples were stored in an incubator at a temperature of 37 °C for 24 hours, then it was thermocycled manually, 100 cycles at temperature between 5 °C and 55 °C. Microleakage was measured using a digital microscope with a 100 X magnification in millimeters using a microscope micrometer calibration ruler with 0,1 mm level of accuracy after immersion in 0,3% methylene blue and sectioned using separating disc. The result of this study revealed that in group 1 microleakage range was 1.0 mm - 2.7 mm with an average 1.625 mm, and in group 2 microleakage range was 3.6 mm - 4.0 mm with an average of 3.763 mm. The data were analyzed using T-test. The analysis showed a significant difference between two groups (p <0.05. The conclusion of this study was bulk-fill composite in class I cavities with oblique incremental placement technique produces less microleakage than bulk placement technique.   ABSTRAK Resin komposit bulk-fill adalah resin komposit yang dirancang untuk mempercepat proses aplikasi resin komposit. Konsep bulk-fill memungkinkan resin komposit ditumpat sekaligus 4 mm dan mengalami pengerutan polimerisasi minimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek teknik

  7. A Geometric Principle May Guide Self-Assembly of Fullerene Cages from Clathrin Triskelia and from Carbon Atoms☆ (United States)

    Schein, Stan; Sands-Kidner, Michelle


    Abstract Clathrin triskelia and carbon atoms alike self-assemble into a limited selection of fullerene cages (with n three connected vertices, 3n/2 edges, 12 pentagonal faces, and (n−20)/2 hexagonal faces). We show that a geometric constraint—exclusion of head-to-tail dihedral angle discrepancies (DADs)—explains this limited selection as well as successful assembly into such closed cages in the first place. An edge running from a pentagon to a hexagon has a DAD, since the dihedral angles about the edge broaden from its pentagon (tail) end to its hexagon (head) end. Of the 21 configurations of a central face and surrounding faces, six have such DAD vectors arranged head-to-tail. Of the 5770 mathematically possible fullerene cages for n ≤ 60, excluding those with any of the six configurations leaves just 15 cages plus buckminsterfullerene (n = 60), among them the known clathrin cages. Of the 216,739 mathematically possible cages for 60 fullerenes for some n (30,34,46,48,52–58,62–68) explains the abundance of certain cages, including buckminsterfullerene. These principles also suggest a “probable roads” path to self-assembly in place of pentagon-road and fullerene-road hypotheses. PMID:17921209

  8. Selenium uptake and speciation in wild and caged fish downstream of a metal mining and milling discharge. (United States)

    Phibbs, James; Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Hauck, Dominic; Pickering, Ingrid J; Liber, Karsten; Janz, David M


    The aim of this research was to evaluate the dominance of the feeding pathway with respect to selenium (Se) uptake and speciation in fish inhabiting the receiving waters downstream of a uranium processing mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The experimental design included analysis of Se in the predominant fish species located in the study area, a caging validation study using wild, naïve (i.e., collected from a reference lake) lake chub (Couesius plumbeus) and spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and a 21-day feeding cage study using wild naïve lake chub. Three exposure lakes located downstream of the uranium mill and one reference lake situated in an adjacent watershed were studied to investigate a gradient of Se exposure. Lake chub were identified as more suitable candidates for caging due to higher survival and condition factor at the completion of the 21-day trial. Analytical results indicated that lake chub caged in the exposure lakes had significantly greater whole-body Se concentrations after 21 days compared to fish caged in the reference lake. Selenium speciation results (obtained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy) from wild and caged lake chub indicated that organic Se modeled as selenomethionine was the dominant form of Se found in both wild and caged lake chub from the exposure lakes, and that selenomethionine (R-Se-R) acts as a marker of bioavailable Se exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergy of Two Assembly Languages in DNA Nanostructures: Self-Assembly of Sequence-Defined Polymers on DNA Cages. (United States)

    Chidchob, Pongphak; Edwardson, Thomas G W; Serpell, Christopher J; Sleiman, Hanadi F


    DNA base-pairing is the central interaction in DNA assembly. However, this simple four-letter (A-T and G-C) language makes it difficult to create complex structures without using a large number of DNA strands of different sequences. Inspired by protein folding, we introduce hydrophobic interactions to expand the assembly language of DNA nanotechnology. To achieve this, DNA cages of different geometries are combined with sequence-defined polymers containing long alkyl and oligoethylene glycol repeat units. Anisotropic decoration of hydrophobic polymers on one face of the cage leads to hydrophobically driven formation of quantized aggregates of DNA cages, where polymer length determines the cage aggregation number. Hydrophobic chains decorated on both faces of the cage can undergo an intrascaffold "handshake" to generate DNA-micelle cages, which have increased structural stability and assembly cooperativity, and can encapsulate small molecules. The polymer sequence order can control the interaction between hydrophobic blocks, leading to unprecedented "doughnut-shaped" DNA cage-ring structures. We thus demonstrate that new structural and functional modes in DNA nanostructures can emerge from the synergy of two interactions, providing an attractive approach to develop protein-inspired assembly modules in DNA nanotechnology.

  10. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction. (United States)

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  11. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)


    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Enhanced bulk polysilicon production using silicon tubes (United States)

    Jafri, Ijaz; Chandra, Mohan; Zhang, Hui; Prasad, Vish; Reddy, Chandra; Amato-Wierda, Carmela; Landry, Marc; Ciszek, Ted


    A novel technique using silicon tubes for the production of bulk polysilicon via chemical vapor deposition is presented. Our experimental studies with a model reactor indicate that the polysilicon growth inside the silicon tube (15.3 g) exceeds that of the calculated polysilicon growth on silicon slim rods (4.3 g) over 55 h of deposition time. A computational model is also being developed to simulate the growth rates of the model reactor. Preliminary computational results from this model show a slightly asymmetric temperature distribution at the reactor center line with a 1000 sccm argon flow at 850°C reactor temperature. Both these experimental and computational modeling studies have identified key criteria for the prototype reactor being designed for bulk polysilicon growth.

  13. Internal shear cracking in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf


    This paper presents an uncoupled ductile damage criterion for modelling the opening and propagation of internal shear cracks in bulk metal forming. The criterion is built upon the original work on the motion of a hole subjected to shear with superimposed tensile stress triaxiality and its overall...... performance is evaluated by means of side-pressing formability tests in Aluminium AA2007-T6 subjected to different levels of pre-strain. Results show that the new proposed criterionis able to combine simplicity with efficiency for predicting the onset of fracture and the crack propagation path for the entire...... cracking to internal cracks formed undert hree-dimensional states of stress that are typical of bulk metal forming....

  14. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol


    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  15. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei


    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  16. The Crystal Structure of a Maxi/Mini-Ferritin Chimera Reveals Guiding Principles for the Assembly of Protein Cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, Thomas A. [Department; Division; Srivastava, Yogesh [Genome; Jauch, Ralf [Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore; Genome; Fan, Rongli [Division; Orner, Brendan P. [Department; Division


    Cage proteins assemble into nanoscale structures with large central cavities. They play roles, including those as virus capsids and chaperones, and have been applied to drug delivery and nanomaterials. Furthermore, protein cages have been used as model systems to understand and design protein quaternary structure. Ferritins are ubiquitous protein cages that manage iron homeostasis and oxidative damage. Two ferritin subfamilies have strongly similar tertiary structure yet distinct quaternary structure: maxi-ferritins normally assemble into 24-meric, octahedral cages with C-terminal E-helices centered around 4-fold symmetry axes, and mini-ferritins are 12-meric, tetrahedral cages with 3-fold axes defined by C-termini lacking E-domains. To understand the role E-domains play in ferritin quaternary structure, we previously designed a chimera of a maxi-ferritin E-domain fused to the C-terminus of a mini-ferritin. The chimera is a 12-mer cage midway in size between those of the maxi- and mini-ferritin. The research described herein sets out to understand (a) whether the increase in size over a typical mini-ferritin is due to a frozen state where the E-domain is flipped out of the cage and (b) whether the symmetrical preference of the E-domain in the maxi-ferritin (4-fold axis) overrules the C-terminal preference in the mini-ferritin (3-fold axis). With a 1.99 Å resolution crystal structure, we determined that the chimera assembles into a tetrahedral cage that can be nearly superimposed with the parent mini-ferritin, and that the E-domains are flipped external to the cage at the 3-fold symmetry axes.

  17. Anterior dislodgement of a fusion cage after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis. (United States)

    Oh, Hyeong Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho; Hong, Soon-Woo


    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is commonly used procedure for spinal fusion. However, there are no reports describing anterior cage dislodgement after surgery. This report is a rare case of anterior dislodgement of fusion cage after TLIF for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 51-year-old man underwent TLIF at L4-5 with posterior instrumentation for the treatment of grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis with LSTV. At 7 weeks postoperatively, imaging studies demonstrated that banana-shaped cage migrated anteriorly and anterolisthesis recurred at the index level with pseudoarthrosis. The cage was removed and exchanged by new cage through anterior approach, and screws were replaced with larger size ones and cement augmentation was added. At postoperative 2 days of revision surgery, computed tomography (CT) showed fracture on lateral pedicle and body wall of L5 vertebra. He underwent surgery again for paraspinal decompression at L4-5 and extension of instrumentation to S1 vertebra. His back and leg pains improved significantly after final revision surgery and symptom relief was maintained during follow-up period. At 6 months follow-up, CT images showed solid fusion at L4-5 level. Careful cage selection for TLIF must be done for treatment of spondylolisthesis accompanied with deformed LSTV, especially when reduction will be attempted. Banana-shaped cage should be positioned anteriorly, but anterior dislodgement of cage and reduction failure may occur in case of a highly unstable spine. Revision surgery for the treatment of an anteriorly dislodged cage may be effectively performed using an anterior approach.

  18. Surface, bulk, and rheological properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/high density polyethylene nanocomposites (United States)

    Cook, Robert Douglas, Jr.

    In the formulation of high performance nanocomposites, control of miscibility and dispersion of filler material through a polymer matrix is of utmost importance. Due to their inorganic nature most nanofillers are insoluble in polymers, leading to costly/complicated surface modification as a primary means of increasing miscibility and interaction with organic matrices. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals offer an attractive alternative to conventional nanofillers. Due to their hybrid organic-inorganic nature, POSS has the potential to be tailored for miscibility in a wide range of organic matrices not by chemical surface modification but through modification of the molecular structure of the filler itself. The overall goal of this research is to investigate how changes to POSS molecular structure affect miscibility and dispersion in physically blended high density polyethylene (HDPE)/POSS blends. The primary objective of the first section is to understand the effect of POSS cage structure, physical state and R-group alkyl chain length on miscibility and blend performance through a wide range of characterization techniques. Special attention will be paid to rheological, bulk and surface performance of the blends as compared to the neat HDPE matrix. The primary objective of the second section is to determine the utility of theoretical solubility parameter calculations as a means of predicting POSS miscibility in the HDPE matrix. This section will focus on solubility parameters calculated using both group contribution and molecular dynamics simulation methods, determining their proximity to each other, and qualifying their applicability in predicting POSS miscibility and blend performance. This dissertation is comprised of six chapters. Chapter I provides an introduction to nanocomposites, as well as background information on HDPE, POSS, pertinent POSS blends and solubility parameter theory. Chapter II gives an overview of the research

  19. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal


    Wu, M.R.


    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials that will be the major international trade flows in the future, the characteristics of these potential biomass materials, the interaction between the material properties and terminal equipment, the pe...

  20. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)


    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  1. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.


    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja


    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...... is conducted by depositing a minute mass by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a mass resolution of 0.4 fg in air....

  3. Scaling Bulk Data Analysis with Mapreduce (United States)


    Writing Bulk_Extractor MapReduce 101 List of References 105 viii Initial Distribution List 113 ix THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK x List of Figures...dedicated Experts -Formal definition presented -Large technology growth
 -Everyone has email, cell phones, networks Adolescence
 -Growth in Academics ...period is where we see those requirements come to fruition with an explosive growth into the academic community. This period marks a point where research

  4. An Extended Hardness Limit in Bulk Nanoceramics (United States)


    to fabricate bulk, fully dense and high-purity nanocrystalline ceramics with unprecedentedly small nanometer- sized grains. Using magnesium aluminate ...nanocrystalline ceramic sintered at 2 GPa and 795 C. The diffraction peaks correspond to stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [42] and a nickel ring that found to be 3.6005 ± 0.0079 g cm3, which is equal to that of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [43] and reveals that the produced ceramics are

  5. Analysis of the correlative factors in the selection of interbody fusion cage height in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Chen, Wenjie; Jiang, Jianyuan; Lu, Feizhou; Ma, Xiaosheng; Xia, Xinlei


    Selecting an interbody cage with appropriate height is one of the key steps in lumbar interbody fusion, and has an important impact on clinical efficacy. How to choose the appropriate height of the cage becomes one of the core problems of lumbar interbody fusion for spine surgeons. However, studies about objective selection criteria on interbody cage height was rare. One hundred fifty-seven patients with single segment lumbar degenerative diseases treated by TLIF surgery from January 2011 to July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Parameters analyzed included: gender, age, body height, clinical diagnosis, pathological segment location and the intervertebral height of pathological segment, pathological segment activity, the intervertebral height of the adjacent segments. And further to analyze the correlation between these parameters and interbody cage height. By measuring the intervertebral height of pathological segment and normal segment to calculate the regression equation of interbody cage height. The average interbody cage height of male patients (12.38 ± 1.43) mm was significantly higher than female (11.62 ± 1.45) mm (p lumbar interbody fusion for Chinese patients with lumbar degenerative diseases was: L3-4 (11.28 ± 3.29) mm ~ (12.76 ± 2.40) mm, L4-5 (11.62 ± 2.89) mm ~ (13.18 ± 1.91) mm, L5-S1 (10.52 ± 2.22) mm ~ (11.90 ± 2.80) mm. The regression equation of interbody cage height was: interbody cage height = 11.123-0.563 * (gender) + 0.149 * (the middle intervertebral height of pathological segment). The selection of interbody cage height was influenced by sex, body height, pathological segment location, the intervertebral height of pathological segment and other factors. The interbody cage height for the lower lumbar spine mostly selected 11,12,13 mm, L3-4, L4-5 segment highly selective in general should not be less than 10 mm, and L5-S1 segments height was relatively small, usually not more

  6. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsiang-Ho


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  7. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  8. Influence of the absolute configuration of npe-caged cytosine on DNA single base pair stability. (United States)

    Steinert, Hannah S; Schäfer, Florian; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Heckel, Alexander; Schwalbe, Harald


    Photolabile protecting groups are a versatile tool to trigger reactions by light irradiation. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the absolute configuration of the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl (NPE) cage group on a 15-base-pair duplex DNA. Using UV melting, we determined the global stability of the unmodified and the selectively (S)- and (R)-NPE-modified DNA sequences, respectively. We observe a differently destabilizing effect for the two NPE stereoisomers on the global stability. Analysis of the temperature dependence of imino proton exchange rates measured by NMR spectroscopy reveals that this effect can be attributed to decreased base pair stabilities of the caged and the 3'-neighbouring base pair, respectively. Furthermore, our NMR based structural models of the modified duplexes provide a structural basis for the distinct effect of the (S)- and the (R)-NPE group. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Carbon Substitution on N24 Cages: Crossover between Triangular and Hexagonal Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Sanders


    Full Text Available Complex forms of nitrogen are of interest for their potential as high-energy materials, but many all-nitrogen systems lack the stability for practical high-energy applications. Inclusion of carbon atoms in an otherwise all-nitrogen structure can increase stability. Nitrogen cages are known for energetically preferring cylindrical structures with triangular endcaps, but carbon cages prefer the pentagon-hexagon structure of the fullerenes. Previous calculations on N22C2 have shown that carbon inclusion narrows the gap between triangular and fullerene-like structures. In the current study, three isomers of N24 are used as frameworks for carbon substitution. Theoretical calculations are carried out on isomers of N20C4, N18C6, and N16C8, with the goal of determining what level of carbon substitution causes the carbon fullerene-like structures to become energetically preferred.

  10. Sensorless speed detection of squirrel-cage induction machines using stator neutral point voltage harmonics (United States)

    Petrovic, Goran; Kilic, Tomislav; Terzic, Bozo


    In this paper a sensorless speed detection method of induction squirrel-cage machines is presented. This method is based on frequency determination of the stator neutral point voltage primary slot harmonic, which is dependent on rotor speed. In order to prove method in steady state and dynamic conditions the simulation and experimental study was carried out. For theoretical investigation the mathematical model of squirrel cage induction machines, which takes into consideration actual geometry and windings layout, is used. Speed-related harmonics that arise from rotor slotting are analyzed using digital signal processing and DFT algorithm with Hanning window. The performance of the method is demonstrated over a wide range of load conditions.

  11. Cyclic Water Clusters in Tape-Like and Cage-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhou Lei


    Full Text Available Controlling the ratio of 2,2′-bpy to benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid produces two interesting complexes, namely [Co(2,2′-bpy3] (SO4 8.5H2O (1 and [Cu2(BTCA (2,2′-bpy4] (OH (2,2′-bpy0.5·14H2O (2 (H3BTCA = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine. We report the structural evidence in the solid state of discrete lamellar water cluster conformations. These units are found to act as supramolecular glue in the aggregation of cobalt (II or copper (II complexes to give three dimensional cage-like networks through hydrogen-bonding. It is interesting that the structure of complex 1 contains a 3D negatively charged cage.

  12. Covalent Organic Frameworks and Cage Compounds: Design and Applications of Polymeric and Discrete Organic Scaffolds. (United States)

    Beuerle, Florian; Gole, Bappaditya


    Porous organic materials are an emerging class of functional nanostructures with unprecedented properties. Dynamic covalent assembly of small organic building blocks under thermodynamic control is utilized for the intriguingly simple formation of complex molecular architectures in one-pot procedures. In this review, we aim to analyze the basic design principles that govern the formation of either covalent organic frameworks as crystalline porous polymers or covalent organic cage compounds as shape-persistent molecular objects. Common synthetic protocols and characterization techniques will be discussed besides more advanced strategies such as postsynthetic modification or self-sorting. When appropriate, healthy comparisons are drawn between polymeric frameworks and discrete organic cages considering their underlying properties. Furthermore, we highlight the potential of these materials for applications ranging from gas storage to catalysis or organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Possible cage motion of interstitial Fe in α-AlO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Johnston, K.; Masenda, H.


    In addition to spectral components due to Fe2 + and Fe3 +, a single line is observed in emission Mössbauer spectra following low fluence (Fe*, 57Mn and 57Co in α-Al2O3. For the 57Co and 57Mn implantations, the intensity of the single line is found to depend...... on the emission angle relative to the crystal symmetry axis. This angular dependence can be explained by a non-isotropic f-factor and/or motion of the Fe ion between sites in an interstitial cage. It is argued that interstitial cage motion is a more likely explanation, as this can account for the lack...

  14. Cup-cage construct for acute fractures of the acetabulum, re-defining indications. (United States)

    Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Villanueva-Martínez, Manuel; Rojo-Manaute, Jose; Sanz-Ruíz, Pablo; Vaquero-Martín, Javier


    Acetabular fractures in the elderly are challenging injuries. The use of a trabecular metal acetabular cage was investigated as the treatment option in a series of elderly patients with acetabular fractures. At a 2-year follow up, 6 elderly patients were found to have mimimum pain, increased function, and increased scores using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel system modified by Charnley. Radiographically, the areas of morsellised autograft that surrounded the cups were seen to have incorporated uniformly well, and the acetabular fractures were healed within six months after surgery. No mechanical failure, screw breakage, loosening, or migration was noticed. This novel indication of the cup-cage construction that uses revision techniques, for selected patients and fractures, to achieve an acute stable reconstruction, should be considered as an alternative reconstruction option in elderly patients presenting with acetabular fractures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cage Culture Turbidostat: a Device for Rapid Determination of Algal Growth Rate


    Skipnes, Olav; Eide, Ingvar; Jensen, Arne


    The present cage culture turbidostat consists of a growth chamber and a control unit. The microorganisms (photoautotrophic algae) are kept in the growth chamber by porous membranes (pore size 1 to 3 μm) which retain the algae but allow efficient exchange of the growth medium. Flow rate and composition of the medium can therefore be varied independently of algal population density. A reciprocating pumping mode of the medium is introduced to obtain more gentle clearance of membranes than that p...

  16. Effets de la couverture des cages flottantes et de la période de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    avec deux saisons de pluies (mars-juin et septembre-octobre) et deux saisons sèches. (juillet-août et novembre-février). Les cages flottantes utilisées ont été ..... The effects of density, light and shelter on the growth and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) fingerlings. Aquaculture 160: 251 - 258.

  17. A Non-Parametric Item Response Theory Evaluation of the CAGE Instrument Among Older Adults. (United States)

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily


    The validity of the CAGE using item response theory (IRT) has not yet been examined in older adult population. This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAGE using both non-parametric and parametric IRT models, assess whether there is any differential item functioning (DIF) by age, gender and ethnicity and examine the measurement precision at the cut-off scores. We used data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study to conduct Mokken scaling analysis (MSA), dichotomous Rasch and 2-parameter logistic IRT models. The measurement precision at the cut-off scores were evaluated using classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC). The MSA showed the overall scalability H index was 0.459, indicating a medium performing instrument. All items were found to be homogenous, measuring the same construct and able to discriminate well between respondents with high levels of the construct and the ones with lower levels. The item discrimination ranged from 1.07 to 6.73 while the item difficulty ranged from 0.33 to 2.80. Significant DIF was found for 2-item across ethnic group. More than 90% (CC and CA ranged from 92.5% to 94.3%) of the respondents were consistently and accurately classified by the CAGE cut-off scores of 2 and 3. The current study provides new evidence on the validity of the CAGE from the IRT perspective. This study provides valuable information of each item in the assessment of the overall severity of alcohol problem and the precision of the cut-off scores in older adult population.

  18. Measurement of the Oxygen Permeability of a Composite Test Structure for the ALICE TPC Field Cage

    CERN Document Server

    Mast, M; CERN. Geneva; Bächler, J


    Abstract This note reports on measurements of oxygen permeation through a sample of a low-mass composite structure proposed for the manufacture of the TPC field cage vessels. The investigated test structure was commercially fabricated of three separate pieces glued together via two solid splices. The specimen was produced by Fischer Advanced Composite Components G.m.b.H. in Ried/Austria in cooperation with CERN.

  19. Carbon dioxide hydrate phase equilibrium and cage occupancy calculations using ab initio intermolecular potentials. (United States)

    Velaga, Srinath C; Anderson, Brian J


    Gas hydrate deposits are receiving increased attention as potential locations for CO2 sequestration, with CO2 replacing the methane that is recovered as an energy source. In this scenario, it is very important to correctly characterize the cage occupancies of CO2 to correctly assess the sequestration potential as well as the methane recoverability. In order to predict accurate cage occupancies, the guest–host interaction potential must be represented properly. Earlier, these potential parameters were obtained by fitting to experimental equilibrium data and these fitted parameters do not match with those obtained by second virial coefficient or gas viscosity data. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations provide an independent means to directly obtain accurate intermolecular potentials. A potential energy surface (PES) between H2O and CO2 was computed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE), an error caused due to the lower basis set, by using the half counterpoise method. Intermolecular potentials were obtained by fitting Exponential-6 and Lennard-Jones 6-12 models to the ab initio PES, correcting for many-body interactions. We denoted this model as the “VAS” model. Reference parameters for structure I carbon dioxide hydrate were calculated using the VAS model (site–site ab initio intermolecular potentials) as Δμ(w)(0) = 1206 ± 2 J/mol and ΔH(w)(0) = 1260 ± 12 J/mol. With these reference parameters and the VAS model, pure CO2 hydrate equilibrium pressure was predicted with an average absolute deviation of less than 3.2% from the experimental data. Predictions of the small cage occupancy ranged from 32 to 51%, and the large cage is more than 98% occupied. The intermolecular potentials were also tested by calculating the pure CO2 density and diffusion of CO2 in water using molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in Napoleon Gulf, Lake Victoria: effects of cage aquaculture in eutrophic lake. (United States)

    Egessa, Robert; Pabire, Gandhi Willy; Ocaya, Henry


    An investigation was conducted on the macro-benthic fauna of the Napoleon Gulf in the northern part of Lake Victoria from March 2011 to December 2016 at the cage fish farm. The aim was to examine the likely impact of cage aquaculture on macro-benthic invertebrates. Cage aquaculture is now a common practice on Lake Victoria yet little is known about its long-term effect on macro-benthic faunal assemblages. Temporal variation indicated a general decline in annual faunal density at the farm area with corresponding stability at upstream (control) and downstream sites. Arthropods remained numerically dominant at the control and downstream sites. The percentage abundance of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) and Malacostraca was highest at the upstream and lowest at the farm area. The farm area which initially was dominated by molluscs became dominated by arthropods after 3 years. The decrease in density of molluscs at the farm area was attributed to the general decrease in density of two species: Bellamya unicolor (Gastropoda) and Corbicula africana (Bivalvia). These two species were initially abundant but showed decline within the farm area with corresponding stability at the upstream and downstream areas. Oligochaete annelids were more abundant within the farm area than at the upstream and downstream sites. These findings suggested that molluscs offered better prediction of the impact of cages on the environment than arthropods. Besides that, in a community dominated by pollution-tolerant organisms, the impact of aquaculture may not be immediate especially when organic loading from aquaculture is moderate.

  1. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems



    Abstract 1. Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. 2. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 ?m) from cage and alternative system henhouses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experiment...

  2. A Self-Assembled Electro-Active M8L4 Cage Based on Tetrathiafulvalene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Goeb


    Full Text Available Two self-assembled redox-active cages are presented. They are obtained by coordination-driven self-assembly of a tetra-pyridile tetrathiafulvalene ligand with cis-M(dppf(OTf2 (M = Pd or Pt; dppf = 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphinoferrocene; OTf = trifluoromethane-sulfonate complexes. Both species are fully characterized and are constituted of 12 electro-active subunits that can be reversibly oxidized.

  3. Commande multivariable du moteur asynchrone triphasé à cage par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La commande du moteur asynchrone triphasé à cage alimenté par des convertisseurs est traitée comme celle d'un système multivariable. L'étude du comportement du moteur a été réalisée en simulation, avec différentes valeurs de la fréquence d'alimentation, pour justifier le choix de l'onduleur. Le programme de ...

  4. Time-resolved assembly of chiral uranyl peroxo cage clusters containing belts of polyhedra. (United States)

    Qiu, Jie; Nguyen, Kevin; Jouffret, Laurent; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Burns, Peter C


    Two chiral cage clusters built from uranyl polyhedra and (HPO(3))(2-) groups have been synthesized in pure yield and characterized structurally and spectroscopically in the solid state and aqueous solution. Synthesis reactions under ambient conditions in mildly acidic aqueous solutions gave clusters U(22)PO(3) and U(28)PO(3) that contain belts of four uranyl peroxide pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramids, in contrast to earlier reported uranyl peroxide cage clusters that are built from four-, five-, and six-membered rings of uranyl hexagonal bipyramids. U(22)PO(3) and U(28)PO(3) are also the first chiral uranyl-based cage clusters, the first that contain uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that contain no peroxide ligands, and the first that incorporate (HPO(3))(2-) bridges between uranyl ions. They are built from 22 uranyl polyhedra and 20 (HPO(3))(2-) groups, or 28 uranyl polyhedra and 24 (HPO(3))(2-) groups, with the outer and inner surfaces of the cages passivated by the O atoms of uranyl ions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles demonstrated that U(22)PO(3) clusters formed in solution within 1 h after mixing of reactants, and remained in solution for 2 weeks prior to crystallization. Time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and SAXS demonstrated that U(28)PO(3) clusters formed in solution within 1 h of mixing the reactants, and remained in solution 1 month before crystallization. Crystallization of U(22)PO(3) and U(28)PO(3) is accelerated by addition of KNO(3). Clusters of U(22)PO(3) with and without encapsulated cations exhibit markedly different aqueous solubility, reflecting the importance of cluster surface charge in fostering linkages through counterions to form a stable solid.

  5. The Effect of the PEEK Cage on the Cervical Lordosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gulsen


    CONCLUSION: We achieved better cervical lordotic angles at the postoperative period by implanting one-level, two-level, three-level or four-level PEEK cage filled with demineralized bone matrix. Also, the causes of cervical root and or medulla spinalis impingement were different in group1 and 2. While extruded cervical disc impingement was the first pathology in group 1, osteophyte formation was the first pathology in group 2.

  6. Clinical experience using polyetheretherketone (PEEK) intervertebral structural cage for anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. (United States)

    Kasliwal, Manish K; O'Toole, John E


    Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) is commonly performed for various pathologies involving the cervical spine. Although polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), clinical literature demonstrating its efficacy following ACCF is sparse. A retrospective review of patients enrolled in a prospective database who underwent single/multi-level ACCF was performed. Fifty-nine patients were identified who underwent corpectomy reconstruction with PEEK cages for symptomatic degenerative, neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic pathologies of the cervical spine. Thirty-five patients having at least 6 months follow-up (FU) were included in the final analysis. The mean age of patients was 51 years (range, 18-81 years) with FU ranging from 6 to 33 months (mean, 6.6 months). None of the patients had dysphagia at last FU. There was no implant failure with fusion occurring in all patients. While 57% of patients (20/35) remained stable with no progression of myelopathy, 43% (15/35) improved one (11 patients) or two (four patients) Nurick grades after surgery. The use of PEEK cages packed with autograft or allograft is safe and effective following anterior cervical corpectomy, demonstrating high fusion rates and good clinical results. This synthetic material obviates the morbidity associated with autograft harvest and possible infectious risks of allograft. The wide array of cage dimensions facilitates ease of use in patients of all sizes and appears safe for use in the typical pathologic conditions encountered in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Semi-quantitative assessment of the distribution of Salmonella in the environment of caged layer flocks


    Wales, Andrew; Breslin, M; Davies, R


    Aims: To evaluate a semi-quantitative technique for the enumeration of Salmonella in the environment of layer flocks, and to compare findings with those of a standard qualitative technique Methods and Results: Samples were taken from faeces, floor dust, dust on cages, feeders and egg belts. After mixing with buffered peptone water, serial dilutions were prepared and culture was performed using pre-enrichment, then plating on semi-solid selective and solid isolation media. Co...

  8. CAGE: A Database of Cancer Genes of Human, Mouse and Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Khalid


    Full Text Available CAGE is the database of cancer genes of human, mouse and rat. We have designed PCR oligonucleotide primer sequences for each gene, with their features and conditions given. This feature alone greatly facilitates researchers in PCR amplification of genes sequences, especially in cloning experiments. Currently it encompasses more than 1000 nucleotide entries. Flexible database design, easy expandability, and easy retrieval of information are the main features of this database. The Database is publicly available at

  9. Chiral self-discrimination in a M3L2 subphthalocyanine cage. (United States)

    Claessens, Christian G; Torres, Tomás


    A tris(3-pyridyl)-substituted C3 symmetric subphthalocyanine (SubPc) was dimerized into a M3L2 cage in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of (en)Pd(NO3)2. NMR studies demonstrated the recognition event to be accompanied by chiral self-discrimination between the two enantiomers of the SubPc. Moreover, the specificity is such that only one of four possible isomers was detected in solution.

  10. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A


    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  11. Template-directed synthesis of nets based upon octahemioctahedral cages that encapsulate catalytically active metalloporphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie


    meso-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) templates the synthesis of six new metal-organic materials by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate with transition metals, five of which exhibit HKUST-1 or tbo topology (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg). The resulting materials, porph@MOMs, selectively encapsulate the corresponding metalloporphyrins in octahemioctahedral cages and can serve as size-selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of olefins. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Heru Prihadi


    Full Text Available Utilization of Cirata Reservoir for fisheries aquaculture with floating net cage system has been increasing rapidly. Industrial waste existed along watershed brings significant heavy metal pollutant that flows and difficult to control. Consequences of such activities were reflected in the degradation of reservoir environment indicated by sedimentation, water quality degradation and fish mass mortality because of up welling. The objectives of this research were: 1 to obtain data and information on heavy metal content in Cirata Reservoir waters, and 2 to observe and understand the effect of heavy metal to the fish cultured in floating net cage to support aquaculture in floating net cage system. Water quality and fish histology analyses were the methodologies used in this research. Descriptive and laboratory analysis were carry out to analysis the data. Based on observation and descriptive analyses, the content of heavy metal in Cirata Reservoir was classified as worse. Concentration of Pb, Cr, Hg, and Cd in the sample of water and tilapia digestive organ becomes fragile. Infiltration of hemoglobin cell, necrosis, degeneration and pigmentation occurred in body organs when up welling happened. Beside that, during up-welling digestive organ become easily breakable resulted in fish mass mortality in floating net cage. The affinity of hemoglobin to the toxic gas was higher than to oxygen, therefore aeration was not affective and mass mortality cannot be avoided. This was because of various events that occured to the fish and the other water biota that encompassed regular diffusion, bio-magnification, and bio-concentration to fish.

  13. Effects of interaction of breed by pen and cage position on hen day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This were subjected to a two way Analysis of variance to determine the effect of breed by pen and cage interaction on hen-day performance.Mean hen day lay of Haco black by pen interaction was not significantly (P>0.01) different in pen L1 and L3, while that in pen L2 was low and significantly (P<.05) different from that in ...

  14. Flexible, Symmetry-Directed Approach To Assembling Protein Cages (Publisher’s Version Open Access) (United States)


    and eHoward Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Edited by David Baker, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, and...widespread in nature and confers new biological properties. Engineered protein assemblies have potential applica- tions in nanotechnology and medicine...assemble into the desired structure. Here we demonstrate a simple, generalizable approach to assemble proteins into cage-like structures that uses short



    Neeraj Mehar*1 & Neha Mathur2


    It is important to know their mechanical properties and their failure mechanism during the impact in order to increased the safety of any vehicle. This thesis focuses on the design of bumper, spring and roll cage for lesser weight and better performance. Also it describes about the stress analysis on a car frontal protection system (bumper) simulations. Research concentrates on composite material. It is considering their function, geometry, and other parameters that influence the compatibilit...

  16. Population genetic structure of Ascaridia galli re-emerging in non-caged laying hens


    Höglund, Johan; Morrison, David A; Engström, Annie; Nejsum, Peter; Jansson, Désirée S


    Abstract Background The poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli has reappeared in hens kept for egg production in Sweden after having been almost absent a decade ago. Today this is a frequent intestinal nematode parasite in non-caged laying hens. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity (Fst) in A. galli collected from different poultry production sites in southern Sweden, to identify possible common routes of colonization. Methods Adult parasites (n = 153) from 10 farms, incl...

  17. A Structure-Based Assembly Screen of Protein Cage Libraries in Living Cells: Experimentally Repacking a Protein-Protein Interface To Recover Cage Formation in an Assembly-Frustrated Mutant. (United States)

    Cornell, Thomas A; Ardejani, Maziar S; Fu, Jing; Newland, Stephanie H; Zhang, Yu; Orner, Brendan P


    Cage proteins, which assemble into often highly symmetric hollow nanoscale capsules, have great potential in applications as far reaching as drug delivery, hybrid nanomaterial engineering, and catalysis. In addition, they are promising model systems for understanding how cellular nanostructures are constructed through protein-protein interactions, and they are beginning to be used as scaffolds for synthetic biology approaches. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the engineering of protein cages, and in support of these strategies, we have recently described a fluorescence-based assay for protein cage assembly that is specific for certain oligomerization states and symmetry-related protein-protein interfaces. In this work, we expand this assay to living cells and a high-throughput assay for screening protein cage libraries using flow cytometry. As a proof of principle, we apply this technique to the screening of libraries of a double-alanine mutant of the mini-ferritin, DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps). This mutant, due to disruption of key protein-protein interactions, is unable to assemble into a cage. Randomization of residues surrounding the double mutation afforded a repacked interface and proteins with recovered cage formation, demonstrating the strength and utility of this approach.

  18. Performance of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Cages, under Different Percentage of Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. B. Pereira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different rate in percentage feeding of the productivity (Body weight (BW and feed conversion (FC of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, with a total of 13500 animals, distributed in nine cages, with n = 1500 fish/cage, with three replicates in a period of four weeks. The animals were feed with   three treatments: treatment 1 (2% BW; treatment 2 ( 3% BW and treatment 3 (4% BW, divided in two meals,  and feed  with commercial food 36% crude protein. The BW gain was significantly higher for the animals that received feed rate of 4% BW. However, apparent feed conversion was better when used the rate of (2% BW- treatment 1 of tambaqui reared in cages.

  19. Distance Factors and Croatian Export Obstacles in the EU15: CAGE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Miloloža


    Full Text Available For long-term sustainability of any enterprise, it is required to observe each market separately and systematically modify business approach to prevailing conditions in each. However, adaptation to each market can be a complex affair that requires certain financial costs but ignoring distinguishing criteria leads to reduction in revenues and undermines long-term profitability. Time saving and cost-effectiveness can be achieved by application of The CAGE Distance Framework – a model that analysis all diversities between two or more countries. Croatia did not yet utilize the benefits that European Union membership provides nor did significantly improved its international business. It is obvious that Croatia faces difficulties in the strategic approach to prospective foreign markets. Therefore, emphasis of this article is on analysis and identification of the distinguishing factors between Croatia and the EU15 in order to facilitate and enhance cooperation among them in the future. Throughout the analysis of Croatian export from the beginning of the economic crisis, this article gives an overview of international collaboration among Croatia and the EU15 and comparative analysis by using The CAGE Distance Framework. This analysis has confirmed significant fluctuations, unexploited potential and problems of the Croatian economy in all dimensions of The CAGE model.

  20. In vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue cage model in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfu eCao


    Full Text Available Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone specially developed for use in veterinary medicine with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. The objective of our study was to re-evaluate in vivo antimicrobial activity of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in calves. Calves were infected by direct injection into tissue cages with Pasteurella multocida(type B, serotype 2, then intramuscularly received a range of marbofloxacin doses 24h after inoculation. The ratio of 24h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration or the mutant prevention concentration (AUC24h/MIC or AUC24h/MPC was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD index that best described the effectiveness of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida (R2=0.8514 by nonlinear regression analysis. Marbofloxacin exhibited a good antimicrobial activity in vivo. The levels of AUC24h/MIC and AUC24h/MPC that produced 50% (1.5log10CFU/mL reduction and 90% (3log10CFU/mL reduction of maximum response were 18.60h and 50.65h, 4.67h and 12.89h by using sigmoid Emax model WINNONLIN software, respectively. The in vivo PK/PD integrated methods by tissue cage model display the advantage of the evaluation of antimicrobial activity and the optimization of the dosage regimen for antibiotics in the presence of the host defenses, especially in target animal of veterinary interest.

  1. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) intervertebral cage as a cause of chronic systemic allergy: a case report. (United States)

    Maldonado-Naranjo, Andres L; Healy, Andrew T; Kalfas, Iain H


    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is an organic polymer thermoplastic with strong mechanical and chemical resistance properties. It has been used in industry to fabricate items for demanding applications such as bearings, piston parts, compressor plate valves, and cable insulation. Since the early 1980s, polyetheretherketone polymers have been increasingly used in orthopedic and spinal surgery applications. Numerous studies and years of clinical experience have confirmed the biocompatibility of this material. The purpose of the study was to report a case of chronic systemic allergy after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) and implantation of an intervertebral PEEK cage, with resolution of symptoms after removal of PEEK cage. This study is a case report with clinical evidence for allergy to PEEK. The methods involve clinical findings and review of current literature. After ACDF and implantation of an intervertebral PEEK cage, the patient had developed an angioedema-like picture marked by severe redness, itching, swelling of his tongue, and skin thickening. A skin patch test was positive for PEEK. Removal of the implant resulted in the resolution of his allergy symptoms shortly after surgery. Tissue reactions to PEEK are extremely rare. Herein, we present the first report of a chronic allergic response to interbody PEEK material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational investigation of cold denaturation in the Trp-cage miniprotein (United States)

    Kim, Sang Beom; Palmer, Jeremy C.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.


    The functional native states of globular proteins become unstable at low temperatures, resulting in cold unfolding and impairment of normal biological function. Fundamental understanding of this phenomenon is essential to rationalizing the evolution of freeze-tolerant organisms and developing improved strategies for long-term preservation of biological materials. We present fully atomistic simulations of cold denaturation of an α-helical protein, the widely studied Trp-cage miniprotein. In contrast to the significant destabilization of the folded structure at high temperatures, Trp-cage cold denatures at 210 K into a compact, partially folded state; major elements of the secondary structure, including the α-helix, are conserved, but the salt bridge between aspartic acid and arginine is lost. The stability of Trp-cage’s α-helix at low temperatures suggests a possible evolutionary explanation for the prevalence of such structures in antifreeze peptides produced by cold-weather species, such as Arctic char. Although the 310-helix is observed at cold conditions, its position is shifted toward Trp-cage’s C-terminus. This shift is accompanied by intrusion of water into Trp-cage’s interior and the hydration of buried hydrophobic residues. However, our calculations also show that the dominant contribution to the favorable energetics of low-temperature unfolding of Trp-cage comes from the hydration of hydrophilic residues. PMID:27457961

  3. Effect of Cage Type on Fecal Corticosterone Concentration in Buck Rabbits During the Reproductive Cycle. (United States)

    Cornale, Paolo; Macchi, Elisabetta; Renna, Manuela; Prola, Liviana; Perona, Giovanni; Mimosi, Antonio


    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) was measured in 14 buck rabbits individually housed in standard-dimension cages (SC) or in bigger cages (BC; with a volume more than double that of SC and equipped with a plastic foot mat) during 4 consecutive reproductive cycles. Cage type and reproductive phase (estrous synchronization of doe rabbits, artificial insemination, partum, preweaning, and postweaning) were not statistically significant but tendentially affected FCCs (.05 rabbits housed in SC showed higher FCCs than those housed in BC (27.42 pg g(- 1) dried feces and 25.57 pg g(- 1), respectively; SEM = 2.952). The highest FCC values were detected at artificial insemination (BC, 27.91 pg g(- 1); SC, 30.45 pg g(- 1); SEM = 3.520), highlighting that the phase of semen collection could be one of the most critical moments for buck rabbits, although further investigations are needed. These preliminary results suggest that measurement of FCC could be used as an indicator of chronic stress in buck rabbits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula


    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  5. [Occupational exposure of physical therapists to electric and magnetic fields and the efficacy of Faraday cages]. (United States)

    Messias, Iracimara de Anchieta; Okuno, Emico; Colacioppo, Sérgio


    Measure physical therapists' exposure to the electric and magnetic fields produced by 17 shortwave diathermy devices in physical therapy clinics in the city of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil. Compare the observed values with the exposure levels recommended by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Observe the efficacy of Faraday cages as a means of protecting physical therapists from exposure to oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Electric and magnetic field measurements were taken at four points during actual physical therapy sessions: in proximity to the operator's pelvis and head, the devices' electrical cables, and the electrodes. The measuring equipment was a Wandel & Goltermann EMR-200. The values obtained in proximity to the electrodes and cables were 10 to 30 times higher than ICNIRP's recommended occupational reference levels. In the shortwave diathermy treatment rooms with Faraday cages, the fields were even higher than in treatment rooms not so equipped-principally the magnetic field, where the values were more than 100 times higher than the ICNIRP exposure limit. The electric and magnetic field intensities obtained in this study are generally above the exposure levels recommend in ICNIRP standards. It was also observed that the Faraday cage offers physical therapists no protection, and instead, increases their level of exposure.

  6. Multiple optical cages generated by focusing a Laguerre-cosine-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Xiaoli; Tang, Huiqin; Zhu, Kaicheng


    We introduce a new kind of random stationary, scalar beam named Laguerre-cosine-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LcGCSM) beam whose spectral degree of coherence (SDOC) is a Gaussian function modulated by both non-conventional Laguerre- and cosine-type factors. The analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density of a LcGCSM beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD optical system are derived. The intensity distributions of such beams focused through a thin lens are illustrated numerically. It is found that a LcGCSM beam exhibits self-splitting and self-shaping properties during propagation, evolving into multiple optical cages near the focal region. By directly modulating the spatial structure of the SDOC in the source plane, the characteristics of the optical cages derived from the proposed LcGCSM beams can be adjusted flexibly. Moreover, we demonstrate that these nontrivial focusing properties of a LcGCSM beam can be well elucidated with the combination effect of individual merits associated with each non-conventional SDOC component of the entire SDOC. Therefore, our results provide a new route for generating and controlling multiple optical cages, and will be useful for trapping multiple particles, guiding multiple atoms and optical communications.

  7. Dorsal and ventral target strength measurements on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in sea cages

    CERN Document Server

    Soliveres, Ester; Espinosa, Victor


    The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between target strength (TS) and total body length of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), in order to monitor its growth in sea cages. Five classes of commercial size gilthead sea bream are characterized, comprising lengths from 20 to 25 cm, corresponding to weights between 160 and 270 g. A few specimens were introduced into a sea cage of 3 m in diameter and a height of 2.7 m. We measure TS directly using a Simrad EK60 echosounder with a 7^{\\circ} split-beam transducer working at 200 kHz. The transducer was located in the center of the cage during measurements, at the bottom facing upwards for ventral recordings and on the surface facing downwards to perform dorsal recordings. Two analyses based on single echo detection were performed: the first one obtains compensated transducer directivity TS values from intensity and angular echosounder data; while the second one omit phase information, affording uncompensated TS values (TSu). Two algorithms have bee...

  8. Cage-Core Interactions in Fullerenes Enclosing Metal Clusters with Multiple Scandium and Yttrium Atoms. (United States)

    Dan, Liu; Hagelberg, Frank


    Pronounced stability has been reported for metallofullerenes of the form NSc3@CN (N = 68, 78) /1/. In response of these and related findings, Density Functional Theory studies have been performed on the relation between cage-core interactions and the geometry as well as stability of endofullerenes with metal impurities containing Sc and Y. Substantial electron transfer from the metal core to the fullerene cage combines with electron backdonation, involving the interaction between the occupied orbitals of the negatively charged cage and the unoccupied d orbitals of the positively charged core. The Hueckel 4n+2 rule, well established in organic chemistry, is shown to provide a valuable heuristic tool for understanding the intramolecular electron transfer and the related stability gain /1/. The usefulness of the aromaticity concept for explaining and predicting the architecture of metallofullerenes is further exemplified by the units Sc2@C84 and Y2@C84 which were analyzed in spin triplet and singlet conditions. The Sc2 core turns out to be realized by two separated ions, while Y2 forms a bound subunit. These findings are in agreement with conclusions based on the 4n + 2 rule, assisted by Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) calculations. /1/ Stevenson, S.; Fowler, P.W.; Heine, T.; Duchamp, J.C.; Rice, G.; Glass, T.; Harich, K.; Hadju, F.; Bible, R.; Dorn, H.C. Nature, 2000, 408, 427, /2/ S. S. Park, D. Liu, F. Hagelberg, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 8865 (2005).

  9. The Iron Cage and the Gaze: Interpreting Medical Control in the English Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Exworthy


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to determine the value of theoretical ideal-types of medical control. Whilst ideal types (such as the iron cage and gaze need revision in their application to medical settings, they remain useful in describing and explaining patterns of control and autonomy in the medical profession. The apparent transition from the cage to the gaze has often been over-stated since both types are found in many contemporary health reforms. Indeed, forms of neo-bureaucracy have emerged alongside surveillance of the gaze. These types are contextualised and elaborated in terms of two empirical examples: the management of medical performance and financial incentives for senior hospital doctors in England. Findings point towards the reformulation of medical control, an on-going re-stratification of the medical profession, and the internalisation of managerial discourses. The cumulative effect involves the medical profession’s ability to re-cast and enhance its position (vis-à-vis managerial interests.Keywords: medical profession, medical control, iron cage, gaze

  10. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková


    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  11. Cell tracking with caged xenon: using cryptophanes as MRI reporters upon cellular internalization. (United States)

    Klippel, Stefan; Döpfert, Jörg; Jayapaul, Jabadurai; Kunth, Martin; Rossella, Federica; Schnurr, Matthias; Witte, Christopher; Freund, Christian; Schröder, Leif


    Caged xenon has great potential in overcoming sensitivity limitations for solution-state NMR detection of dilute molecules. However, no application of such a system as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent has yet been performed with live cells. We demonstrate MRI localization of cells labeled with caged xenon in a packed-bed bioreactor working under perfusion with hyperpolarized-xenon-saturated medium. Xenon hosts enable NMR/MRI experiments with switchable contrast and selectivity for cell-associated versus unbound cages. We present MR images with 10(3) -fold sensitivity enhancement for cell-internalized, dual-mode (fluorescence/MRI) xenon hosts at low micromolar concentrations. Our results illustrate the capability of functionalized xenon to act as a highly sensitive cell tracer for MRI detection even without signal averaging. The method will bridge the challenging gap for translation to in vivo studies for the optimization of targeted biosensors and their multiplexing applications. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Yolk @ cage-Shell Hollow Mesoporous Monodispersion Nanospheres of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate for Drug Delivery with High Loading Capacity. (United States)

    Huang, Suping; Li, Chunxia; Xiao, Qi


    In this paper, yolk-shell hollow nanospheres of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) are prepared, and its loading capacity is investigated by comparing with that of solid-shell hollow structure ACP and cage-shell hollow structure ACP. Results show that the products are yolk @ cage-shell of ACP with large shell's pores size (15-40 nm) and large cavity volume. Adsorption results show that the loading capacity of yolk @ cage-shell hollow spherical ACP is very high, which is more than twice that of hollow ACP and 1.5 times of cage-like ACP. The main reasons are that the big shell's pore size contributes the large molecular doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX · HCl) to enter the inner of hollow spheres easier, and the yolk-shell structure provides larger interior space and more adsorption sites for loading drugs.

  13. Why cage a tree? Use of whole-tree enclosures to assess introduced predators of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (United States)

    Jerome F. Grant; James Rusty Rhea; Paris Lambdin; Greg Wiggins; Abdul Hakeem


    While commonly used approaches (petri dishes, small arenas, growth chambers, greenhouse studies, sleeve cages, etc.) for evaluation of natural enemies provide important information, does the small size of these arenas limit their...

  14. The estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles and its effect on bisphenol A studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thigpen, Julius E; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Kissling, Grace E; Locklear, Jacqueline; Caviness, Gordon F; Whiteside, Tanya; Belcher, Scott M; Brown, Nadine M; Collins, Bradley J; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Camacho, Luísa; Adsit, Floyd G; Grant, Mary


    .... The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2...

  15. Nesting, dust bathing and perching by laying hens in cages: effects of design on behaviour and welfare. (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Smith, S F; Hughes, B O


    1. Laying hens (192 ISA Brown medium hybrids) were housed from 18 to 72 weeks as groups of 4 in conventional or experimental cages. The main area of all cages provided 675 cm2/hen. All experimental cages had perches, dust baths and nest boxes, which were of three types: litter (L), artificial turf (A) or plastic rollaway (P). These facilities provided an additional 375 to 480 cm2/hen. The nest boxes and dust baths occupied either high or low positions. Behaviour, physical condition and production of the birds were regularly recorded. 2. Mortality was low (1.6% overall) and egg production very good in all treatments. The proportion of cracked and dirty eggs was slightly (but not significantly) higher in the experimental cages. In the experimental cages 90% of eggs were laid overall in the nest boxes and 3% in the dust baths. The proportion laid in the nest boxes was lower early in the laying cycle and increased with time, reaching 99% in A. 3. The facilities were heavily used. Birds spent about 25% of day time on the perches and 10-15% in or near the nest box and dust bath. At night, the majority of birds (90 to 94%) roosted on perches, but most of the remainder were on the lips of the nest box or dust bath, fouling the interiors. 4. Pre-laying behaviour was much more settled in the experimental cages (45 min spent in the eventual laying position) than in the conventional ones (20 min) and total duration varied from 68 min in A to 87 min in P. The number of nest entries varied from 3.0 (A and P) to 4.3 (L); disturbance to sitting birds was correspondingly greater in L. 5. Dust bathing in the experimental cages generally took place during the afternoon in a single bout of about 5 min duration, whereas in the conventional cages it was brief and fragmented (3 bouts of 10 s each). The dust bath was also used for foraging behaviour (pecking and scratching). The treatments with small dust baths (A and P) caused problems for the birds. 6. Feather, foot and claw damage all

  16. Materials for Bulk Acoustic Resonators and Filters (United States)

    Loebl, Hans-Peter


    Highly selective solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (BAW) band pass filters are suited for mobile and wireless systems in the GHz frequency range between 0.8 and 10 GHz. Electro-acoustic thin film BAW resonators are the building blocks these BAW filters. Piezoelectric materials used in these resonators include mainly AlN or ZnO which can be deposited by dedicated thin film sputter deposition techniques. Using these piezo-electric materials and using suited materials for the acoustic Bragg reflector, BAW resonators with high quality factors can be fabricated. The achievable filter bandwidth is approximately 4Alternatively, also ferroelectric thin films might be used to achieve higher coupling coefficient and thus filter bandwidth. BAW resonators and filters have been designed and fabricated on 6" Silicon and glass wafers. Results are presented for resonators and filters operating between 1.95 and 8 GHz. The talk will give an overview of the material aspects which are important for BAW devices. It will be shown that modeling of the resonator and filter response using 1D electro-acoustic simulation (1,2) which includes losses is essential to extract acoustic and electrical material parameters. (1) Solidly Mounted Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters for the Ghz Frequency Range, H.P. Loebl, C. Metzmacher , D.N.Peligrad , R. Mauczok , M. Klee , W. Brand , R.F. Milsom , P.Lok , F.van Straten , A. Tuinhout , J.W.Lobeek, IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002. (2) Combined Acoustic-Electromagnetic Simulation Of Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, R.F. Milsom, H-P. Löbl, D.N. Peligrad, J-W. Lobeek, A. Tuinhout, R. H. ten Dolle IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002.

  17. Preliminary Observations On The Relative Growth And Production Of Tilapia Species Cultured In Cages At Three Stocking Densities


    Al Zahaby, A. S. [الاحمدي الذهبي; Badawy, E. A.; El-Serafy, S. S.; El-Agamy, A. E.


    Relative growth rate and productivity of Tilapia species (T. nilotica and T. galilaea) were studied for fish reared in cages in the Serow fish farm, Egypt. Both species were reared under three different stocking densities 100, 200 and 300 fish/ in^The fish were fed daily with supplementary food of 20% protein content at 5% of the stock weight-Control cages of each type of fish at the lowest stocking density were maintained without supplementary feeding. Results indicated that the individua...

  18. Enriched cages for groups of laboratory male rats and their effects on behaviour, weight gain and adrenal glands. (United States)

    Lidfors, L; Wichman, A; Ewaldsson, B; Lindh, A-S


    We investigated if there were any negative effects on the behaviour and physiology of rats housed in groups of five in two types of enriched cages and compared them with paired-housed rats housed in traditional cages. Eighty-four male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in an enriched rat cage (ERC), a rebuilt rabbit cage (RRC) or a Makrolon III cage (MC) system from 5-16 weeks of age with access to different enrichments. Recordings of behaviour and cage use (3 × 24 h video recording), weekly weighing, measuring food consumption four days/week and water consumption two days/week, were carried out. The rats' muscle strength was assessed using the 'inclined plane' at the end of the study, and after euthanasia the adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Being in the shelter was the most common behaviour in the ERC and RRC groups. In the MC group, which lacked a shelter, rats performed the highest percentage of lying, grooming, rearing, play fighting and manipulating paper shreds. Rats in the RRC had the highest percentage of standing and manipulating gnawing sticks. Water consumption was higher in MC than in ERC and RRC rats. Rats from the RRC managed to remain at a steeper angle on the 'inclined plane' than rats from the MC. There were no significant effects of cage type on weight gain, food consumption or relative weights of adrenal glands. In conclusion, male rats kept in groups of five in larger enriched cages benefited from the enrichments, and no negative effects were found in the larger groups.

  19. Does Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Adversely Affect Long-Term Welfare following Transfer to Furnished Cages? (United States)

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Hansen, Tone Beate; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Moe, Randi O.; Janczak, Andrew M.


    This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10). There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000), with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52%) compared to cage birds (2.48%). The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing. PMID:25229879

  20. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Carbone


    In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments.

  1. Does rearing laying hens in aviaries adversely affect long-term welfare following transfer to furnished cages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Tahamtani

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03. Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10. There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000, with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52% compared to cage birds (2.48%. The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing.

  2. Extraordinary plasticity of ductile bulk metallic glasses. (United States)

    Chen, Mingwei; Inoue, Akihisa; Zhang, Wei; Sakurai, Toshio


    Shear bands generally initiate strain softening and result in low ductility of metallic glasses. In this Letter, we report high-resolution electron microscope observations of shear bands in a ductile metallic glass. Strain softening caused by localized shearing was found to be effectively prevented by nanocrystallization that is in situ produced by plastic flow within the shear bands, leading to large plasticity and strain hardening. These atomic-scale observations not only well explain the extraordinary plasticity that was recently observed in some bulk metallic glasses, but also reveal a novel deformation mechanism that can effectively improve the ductility of monolithic metallic glasses.

  3. "Work-Hardenable" ductile bulk metallic glass. (United States)

    Das, Jayanta; Tang, Mei Bo; Kim, Ki Buem; Theissmann, Ralf; Baier, Falko; Wang, Wei Hua; Eckert, Jürgen


    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive "work hardening" and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The "work-hardening" capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  4. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole


    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang


    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  6. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo


    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  7. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.


    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  8. Cosmological Brane World Solutions with Bulk Scalar Fields


    Davis, Stephen C.


    Cosmological brane world solutions are found for five-dimensional bulk spacetimes with a scalar field. A supergravity inspired method for obtaining static solutions is combined with a method for finding brane cosmologies with constant bulk energies. This provides a way to generate full (bulk and brane) cosmological solutions to brane worlds with bulk scalar fields. Examples of these solutions, and their cosmological evolution, are discussed.

  9. Porous biodegradable lumbar interbody fusion cage design and fabrication using integrated global-local topology optimization with laser sintering. (United States)

    Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying


    Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical large animal study that can withstand physiological loads while possessing sufficient interconnected porosity for bony bridging and fusion, we developed a multiscale topology optimization technique. Topology optimization at the macroscopic scale provides optimal structural layout that ensures mechanical strength, while optimally designed microstructures, which replace the macroscopic material layout, ensure maximum permeability. Optimally designed cages were fabricated using solid, freeform fabrication of poly(ε-caprolactone) mixed with hydroxyapatite. Compression tests revealed that the yield strength of optimized fusion cages was two times that of typical human lumbar spine loads. Computational analysis further confirmed the mechanical integrity within the human lumbar spine, although the pore structure locally underwent higher stress than yield stress. This optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-bearing, stress shielding, and interconnected porosity when using biodegradable materials for fusion cages.

  10. Usefulness of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage with plate augmentation for anterior arthrodesis in traumatic cervical spine injury. (United States)

    Song, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Byung-Wan; Kim, Gyu-Hyung; Song, Ji-Hun


    Even though many clinical reports about cages have been documented in patients with degenerative disorders, reports were scarce for traumatic injury cases, and those cases using metal cages were restricted to only one-level injury. To evaluate the usefulness of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and plate construction in anterior interbody fusions (AIF) for traumatic cervical spine injuries by analyzing radiographic changes and clinical outcomes. Retrospective study. Fifty-eight patients (91 levels) underwent cage and plate construction for treatment of traumatic cervical spine injury. The fusion rate, fusion time, changes of Cobb angle, subsidence rate, and adjacent level changes were assessed as a radiographic outcome. Clinical analysis includes the recovery rate on the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale and the presence of the complications. We evaluated 58 patients (91 levels) who underwent surgery and had at least 24 months in follow-up study. Radiographic evaluation included the assessment of interbody fusion rate, fusion time, changes of Cobb angle, subsidence rate, and adjacent level changes. Clinical assessment was done by analyzing recovery state of ASIA impairment scale from preoperative period to the last follow-up and by evaluating complications. Fifty-four cases showed bony fusion within 3 months after the surgery. The mean Cobb angle between the vertebral bodies was 2.54 degrees before operation, 9.13 degrees after operation, and 8.39 degrees at the latest follow-up. The mean intervertebral disc height was increased by 3.01 mm after the operation, but the mean height was 2.17 mm shorter at the last follow-up than after postoperation. In terms of clinical results, five Grade A cases and one Grade B case as assessed by the ASIA impairment scale were unchanged until the last follow-up. Twenty-three cases of Grade C, 16 cases of Grade D, and 13 cases of Grade E improved to seven cases, 26 cases, and 19 cases, respectively. Three

  11. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  12. Use of containers to carry bulk and break bulk commodities and its impact on gulf region ports and international trade. (United States)


    The University of New Orleans Transportation Institute was tasked by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) in mid-2012 to assess the use of containers to transport bulk and break bulk commodities and to determine what their impact would...

  13. Bulk magnetic domain stability controls paleointensity fidelity (United States)

    Paterson, Greig A.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pan, Yongxin


    Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records—in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen. This trend is evident in both geological and archeological materials that are typically used to obtain paleointensity data and is therefore pervasive throughout most paleomagnetic studies. Comparing this trend to paleointensity data from both laboratory and historical experiments reveals a quantitative relationship between BDS and paleointensity behavior. Specimens that have lower BDS values display higher curvature on the paleointensity analysis plot, which leads to more inaccurate results. In-field quantification of BDS therefore reflects low-field bulk remanence stability. Rapid hysteresis measurements can be used to provide a powerful quantitative method for preselecting paleointensity specimens and postanalyzing previous studies, further improving our ability to select high-fidelity recordings of ancient magnetic fields. BDS analyses will enhance our ability to understand the evolution of the geodynamo and can help in understanding many fundamental Earth and planetary science questions that remain shrouded in controversy.

  14. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n+1D topological order, which are often called n+1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n+1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the “bulk” for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n+1D “bulk” phase is given by the “center” of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the “bulk” corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the “center”. We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the “bulk” satisfies the same universal property as that of the “center” of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. “bulk = center”. The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  15. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.


    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  16. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest


    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  17. Temperature dependence of electron magnetic resonance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles mineralized in Listeria innocua protein cages (United States)

    Usselman, Robert J.; Russek, Stephen E.; Klem, Michael T.; Allen, Mark A.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Idzerda, Yves U.; Singel, David J.


    Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles formed within size-constraining Listeria innocua (LDps)-(DNA-binding protein from starved cells) protein cages that have an inner diameter of 5 nm. Variable-temperature X-band EMR spectra exhibited broad asymmetric resonances with a superimposed narrow peak at a gyromagnetic factor of g ≈ 2. The resonance structure, which depends on both superparamagnetic fluctuations and inhomogeneous broadening, changes dramatically as a function of temperature, and the overall linewidth becomes narrower with increasing temperature. Here, we compare two different models to simulate temperature-dependent lineshape trends. The temperature dependence for both models is derived from a Langevin behavior of the linewidth resulting from "anisotropy melting." The first uses either a truncated log-normal distribution of particle sizes or a bi-modal distribution and then a Landau-Liftshitz lineshape to describe the nanoparticle resonances. The essential feature of this model is that small particles have narrow linewidths and account for the g ≈ 2 feature with a constant resonance field, whereas larger particles have broad linewidths and undergo a shift in resonance field. The second model assumes uniform particles with a diameter around 4 nm and a random distribution of uniaxial anisotropy axes. This model uses a more precise calculation of the linewidth due to superparamagnetic fluctuations and a random distribution of anisotropies. Sharp features in the spectrum near g ≈ 2 are qualitatively predicted at high temperatures. Both models can account for many features of the observed spectra, although each has deficiencies. The first model leads to a nonphysical increase in magnetic moment as the temperature is increased if a log normal distribution of particles sizes is used. Introducing a bi-modal distribution of particle sizes resolves the unphysical

  18. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes... (United States)


    ... IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IMDG Code International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code IMO... authorized for bulk transportation by vessel and include special handling procedures based on the IMSBC Code... Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...

  19. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes


    diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across......%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all...... of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10...

  20. Organoboron polymers for photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions. (United States)

    Cataldo, Sebastiano; Fabiano, Simone; Ferrante, Francesco; Previti, Francesco; Patanè, Salvatore; Pignataro, Bruno


    We report on the application of three-coordinate organoboron polymers, inherently strong electron acceptors, in flexible photovoltaic (PV) cells. Poly[(1,4-divinylenephenylene)(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylborane)] (PDB) has been blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form a thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on PET/ITO substrates. Morphology may be modulated to give a high percentage of domains (10-20 nm in size) allowing exciton separation. The photoelectric properties of the BHJs in devices with aluminium back electrodes were imaged by light beam induced current (LBIC) and light beam induced voltage (LBIV) techniques. Open circuit voltages, short circuit currents and overall external quantum efficiencies obtained are among the highest reported for all-polymer PV cells. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo


    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias


    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  3. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K


    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  4. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P [University of California, Berkeley; Luo, Weidong [ORNL; Yi, D. [University of California, Berkeley; Zhang, J.-X. [University of California, Berkeley; Rossell, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, C.-H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology; You, L. [University of California, Berkeley; Singh-Bhalla, G. B. [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Yang, S.Y [University of California, Berkeley; He, Q [University of California, Berkeley; Ramasse, Q. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erni, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Martin, L. W. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Chu, Y. H. [University of California, Berkeley; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Ramesh, R. [University of California, Berkeley


    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to no- vel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we em- ploy a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite un- derlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon.

  5. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements (United States)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan


    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  6. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James


    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  7. How Many Bulk Metallic Glasses Are There? (United States)

    Li, Yanglin; Zhao, Shaofan; Liu, Yanhui; Gong, Pan; Schroers, Jan


    Quantitative prediction of glass forming ability using a priori known parameters is highly desired in metallic glass development; however proven to be challenging because of the complexity of glass formation. Here, we estimate the number of potential metallic glasses (MGs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) forming systems and alloys, from empirically determined alloy design rules based on a priori known parameters. Specifically, we take into account atomic size ratio, heat of mixing, and liquidus temperature, which we quantify on binary glasses and centimeter-sized BMGs. When expanding into higher order systems that can be formed among 32 practical elements, we reduce the composition space for BMG formation using developed criteria by 106 times and estimate ∼3 million binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary BMGs alloys.

  8. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations (United States)

    Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN


    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  9. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio


    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  10. Generation and Stability of Bulk Nanobubbles. (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jong-Min


    Recently, extremely small bubbles, referred to as nanobubbles, have drawn increased attention due to their novel properties and great potential for various applications. In this study, a novel method for the generation of bulk nanobubbles (BNBs) was introduced, and stability of fabricated BNBs was investigated. BNBs were created from CO2 gas with a mixing method; the chemical identity and phase state of these bubbles can be determined via infrared spectroscopy. The presence of BNBs was observed with a nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The ATR-FTIR spectra of BNBs indicate that the BNBs were filled with CO2 gas. Furthermore, the BNB concentration and its ζ-potential were about 2.94 × 108 particles/mL and -20 mV, respectively (24 h after BNB generation with a mixing time of 120 min). This indicates the continued existence and stability of BNBs in water for an extended period of time.

  11. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms


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    Full Text Available Two thousand 1-day-old layer chicks were used in the study from Lohman Brown, Isa Brown, Lohman White and Bowans White breeds. The chicks were placed in the at 3 cage densities (211.8, 274.5 and 370.6 cm2 per bird and on 3 positions (as top, middle and bottom tiers. All birds were kept under standard management policy and a commercial vaccination program was practiced. Total specific antibody titres to Infectious Brochitis Virus (IBV, Infectious Bursal Desease Virus (IBDV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and Egg Drop Syndrome Virus (EDSV vaccines at the ages of 5, 10 and 20 weeks were serologically determined by ELISA. Cellmediated immune response was also evaluated. In commercial white egg laying strains specific antibody titres to IBV, IBDV, NDV and EDSV vaccines were greater than in Brown egg layer strains. Keeping in cage created more stress in Brown egg laying chicks than those in white egg laying chicks. As cage density increased, the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L ratio slightly increased. Cage position had no influence on the titres of antibodies to IBV and IBDV vaccines but the position of cage in pullets where chicks were stocked, from top to bottom, NDV and EDSV antibody titre decreased and percentage of heterophils, H/L ratio and basophil rates were low. These findings suggest that cage-related stress could be decreased, resistance to diseases and finally well-being of hens may be improved if hens are kept under proper position and density within cage systems with respect to their physiological and behavioral characteristics that controlled by genes.

  13. Urea-Functionalized M4L6 Cage Receptors: Self-Assembly, Dynamics, and Anion Recognition in Aqueous Solutions

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    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL


    We present an extensive study of a novel class of de novo designed tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} (M = Ni, Zn) cage receptors, wherein internal decoration of the cage cavities with urea anion-binding groups, via functionalization of the organic components L, led to selective encapsulation of tetrahedral oxoanions EO{sub 4}{sup -} (E = S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, n = 2; E = P, n = 3) from aqueous solutions, based on shape, size, and charge recognition. External functionalization with tBu groups led to enhanced solubility of the cages in aqueous methanol solutions, thereby allowing for their thorough characterization by multinuclear ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 77}Se) and diffusion NMR spectroscopies. Additional experimental characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, as well as theoretical calculations, led to a detailed understanding of the cage structures, self-assembly, and anion encapsulation. We found that the cage self-assembly is templated by EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions (n {ge} 2), and upon removal of the templating anion the tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} cages rearrange into different coordination assemblies. The exchange selectivity among EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions has been investigated with {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy using {sup 77}SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} as an anionic probe, which found the following selectivity trend: PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In addition to the complementarity and flexibility of the cage receptor, a combination of factors have been found to contribute to the observed anion selectivity, including the anions charge, size, hydration, basicity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities.

  14. Effects of housing condition and cage change on characteristics of sleep in mice. (United States)

    Febinger, Heidi Y; George, Amrita; Priestley, Jill; Toth, Linda A; Opp, Mark R


    Although human subjects are widely used to study sleep and sleep disorders, animals have been invaluable in developing our understanding of the physiology of sleep and underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Environmental stimuli are likely to modify sleep in both animals and people, suggesting that environmental stability must be controlled carefully by both husbandry and research staff to allow collection of valid results with minimal numbers of animals. However, few studies have measured the effects of cage condition on sleep parameters in mice. Current guidelines recommend social housing and environmental enrichment for standard rodent housing. Environmental factors such as these create potential confounds in studies for which facets of sleep are outcome measures. We therefore sought to determine whether cage changes, group housing, or single housing with a shelter altered measures of sleep in C57BL/6J mice. The resulting data indicate that 1) cage changing disrupts sleep for approximately 3 h; 2) group housing is associated with shorter bouts of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and less slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the light phase and with more REMS during the dark phase; and 3) mice housed with a shelter spend less time awake and more time in SWS, with longer bouts of SWS during the dark phase. In additional, both group housing and housing with a shelter were associated with less locomotor activity than occurred in individually housed mice without a shelter. These findings provide evidence for long-held beliefs that housing conditions must be controlled carefully in studies that require assessment of sleep.

  15. Treatment of cervical radiculopathy by anterior cervical discectomy and cage fusion

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    Osman A Mohamed


    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the pioneering days of the anterior cervical approach introduced by Cloward et al. in the early 1950s, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF has been the standard procedure for most discogenic and degenerative cervical spinal lesions. Although traditional interbody fusion using iliac bone can maintain the patency of the neuroforamen and ensure solid fusion, selection of patients, and of surgical procedure for ACDF is a continuous challenge. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the results of cervical discectomy and fusion with cervical cages in treatment of cervical radiculopathy clinically and radiologically. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy were operated upon using this technique. They were 15 males and 3 females. Clinical and radiological assessment, visual analog scale (VAS for neck and arm and modified Oswestery neck disability index (NDI were done preoperatively and at 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Polyetheretherketone (Peek cages filled with iliac bone graft were used after cervical discectomy. The levels operated upon were C 5-6 in 16 patients and C4-5 in 2 patients. Results: Marked clinical improvement as regard arm and neck pain, and NDI was observed. The pre and post operative mean and standard deviations (SD of the various scores were as follows. VAS for pain in arm reduced from mean of 8 (SD 1.76 to mean 0.4 (SD 0.4, VAS for neck pain reduced from mean of 3.5 (SD 1.58 to mean of 0.8 (SD 0.47, and NDI from mean of 20.2 (SD 0.89 to 2.1(SD 1.05. Fusion occurred in all patients. Subjectively 79% of the patients reported marked improvement in neck pain, and 95% reported marked reduction in arm pain. Conclusion: Anterior cervical discectomy and cage fusion resulted in high fusion rate with minimal preservation of lordosis.

  16. Four-level anterior cervical discectomies and cage-augmented fusion with and without fixation. (United States)

    Shousha, Mootaz; Ezzati, Ali; Boehm, Heinrich


    Anterior cervical decompression and fusion is a well-established procedure for the treatment of cervical spinal canal stenosis. In this study, we evaluated the necessity of spinal instrumentation after four-level anterior cervical decompression and cage fusion. From January 2006 until August 2008, 25 patients (8 females and 17 males) (mean age 63.9 ± 7.9 years) suffering from spinal stenosis C3-C7 underwent anterior decompression and interbody fusion. The patients were divided into two groups. Four-level discectomy and cage fusion was performed in all patients. In group A including nine patients, posterior instrumentation with a lateral mass screw-rod system was added, while in group B including 16 patients, additional instrumentation was not performed. The mean duration of follow-up was 48.6 months (average 25-67 months). Clinically, the mean value for the Neck Disability Index improved from 40 ± 23.25 at presentation to 16.31 ± 15.09 at the final follow-up. The difference between the two groups was statistically not significant. Radiologically, the criteria for solid bony fusion were achieved successfully in all patients of group A, and in 87.5 % of patients in group B. The difference between the two groups was statistically not significant. The fused segment was then evaluated in the sagittal radiographs as regards the height and the lordosis angle. The loss in the height as well as the loss in the lordosis angle was more when posterior instrumentation was not added. However, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Stand-alone intersomatic cage fusion is an acceptable line of treatment for four-level cervical disc disease, both clinically and radiologically. Although the addition of posterior instrumentation yields better radiological results, the difference does not reach the statistical significance level.

  17. Cage-enrichment: rabbit does prefer straw or a compressed wooden block

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    Jorine M. Rommers


    Full Text Available The effect of different food related materials on the behaviour of commercial meat rabbit does was investigated to provide them enrichment. Five different treatments were tested. Control (pens without additional enrichment, C was compared with pens containing a pinewood stick (Pine, straw in a plastic bin (Straw, a compressed wooden block (Ply or a combination of straw and a pinewood stick (Straw+Pine. The experiment was conducted on a commercial rabbit farm using 80 cages with multiparous lactating hybrid (Hycole rabbit does. Behavioural observations were conducted in the first 4 wk of 2 successive lactations of 6 wk each, twice a week from 15:00 to 18:30 h. Once every week the consumption of gnawing materials and soiling of the cages was scored. More does were significantly occupied with Straw and Ply than with Pine (24±20, 11±9 and 4±3% of does, respectively for a longer duration (4±4, 2±2, 0.1±0.2% of observed time, respectively. In does of Straw+Pine group, the pinewood was barely touched and straw was preferred. It can be concluded that straw (loose material and wooden block are used by the animals as enrichment material to gnaw or chew on. The materials remain attractive for the 2 lactations which were measured. The pinewood stick as provided in this study was rarely used and it may be questioned whether it is sufficient as enrichment material or if it should be provided in another way than hanging on the roof of the cage. This study provides a first step towards a positive list of enrichment materials that can be used in commercial rabbit farming in The Netherlands.

  18. Position and Orientation Insensitive Wireless Power Transmission for EnerCage-Homecage System. (United States)

    Jia, Yaoyao; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Wang, Zheyuan; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Madsen, Teresa E; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam


    We have developed a new headstage architecture as part of a smart experimental arena, known as the EnerCage-HC2 system, which automatically delivers stimulation and collects behavioral data over extended periods with minimal small animal subject handling or personnel intervention in a standard rodent homecage. Equipped with a four-coil inductive link, the EnerCage-HC2 system wirelessly powers the receiver (Rx) headstage, irrespective of the subject's location or head orientation, eliminating the need for tethering or carrying bulky batteries. On the transmitter (Tx) side, a driver coil, five high-quality (Q) factor segmented resonators at different heights and orientations, and a closed-loop Tx power controller create a homogeneous electromagnetic (EM) field within the homecage 3-D space, and compensate for drops in power transfer efficiency (PTE) due to Rx misalignments. The headstage is equipped with four small slanted resonators, each covering a range of head orientations with respect to the Tx resonators, which direct the EM field toward the load coil at the bottom of the headstage. Moreover, data links based on Wi-Fi, UART, and Bluetooth low energy are utilized to enables remote communication and control of the Rx. The PTE varies within 23.6%-33.3% and 6.7%-10.1% at headstage heights of 8 and 20 cm, respectively, while continuously delivering >40 mW to the Rx electronics even at 90° rotation. As a proof of EnerCage-HC2 functionality in vivo, a previously documented on-demand electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus, eliciting consistent head rotation, is demonstrated in three freely behaving rats.

  19. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation. (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph P Y


    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a nonselective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids: biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged vanilloids, Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA, are photoreleased with quantum efficiency of 0.13 and 0.041, respectively. Under flash photolysis conditions, photorelease of Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA is 95% complete in approximately 40 micros and approximately 125 micros, respectively. Through 1-photon excitation with ultraviolet light (360 nm), or 2-photon excitation with red light (720 nm), the caged vanilloids can be photoreleased in situ to activate TRPV1 receptors on nociceptive neurons. The consequent increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) can be visualized by laser-scanning confocal imaging of neurons loaded with the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator, fluo-3. Stimulation results from TRPV1 receptor activation, because the response is blocked by capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. In Ca(2+)-free extracellular medium, photoreleased vanilloid can still elevate [Ca(2+)](i), which suggests that TRPV1 receptors also reside on endomembranes in neurons and can mediate Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Notably, whole-cell voltage clamp measurements showed that flash photorelease of vanilloid can activate TRPV1 channels in probing morphologically distinct structures of nociceptive sensory neurons with high spatial and temporal precision.

  20. Comparison of allograft and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage subsidence rates in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). (United States)

    Yson, Sharon C; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Santos, Edward Rainier G


    Structural allografts and PEEK cages are commonly used interbody fusion devices in ACDF. The subsidence rates of these two spacers have not yet been directly compared. The primary aim of this study was to compare the subsidence rate of allograft and PEEK cage in ACDF. The secondary aim was to determine if the presence of subsidence affects the clinical outcome. We reviewed 67 cases (117 levels) of ACDF with either structural allograft or PEEK cages. There were 85 levels (48 cases) with PEEK and 32 levels (19 cases) with allograft spacers. Anterior and posterior disc heights at each operative level were measured at immediate and 6months post-op. Subsidence was defined as a decrease in anterior or posterior disc heights >2mm. NDI of the subsidence (SG) and non-subsidence group (NSG) were recorded. Chi-square test was used to analyze subsidence rates. T-test was used to analyze clinical outcomes (α=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between subsidence rates of the PEEK (29%; 25/85) and allograft group (28%; 9/32) (p=0.69). Overall mean subsidence was 2.3±1.7mm anteriorly and 2.6±1.2mm posteriorly. Mean NDI improvement was 11.7 (from 47.1 to 35.4; average follow-up: 12mos) for the SG and 14.0 (from 45.8 to 31.8; average follow-up: 13mos) for the NSG (p=0.74). Subsidence rate does not seem to be affected by the use of either PEEK or allograft as spacers in ACDF. Furthermore, subsidence alone does not seem to be predictive of clinical outcomes of ACDF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.