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Sample records for caga gene detected

  1. Quantitative Detection and Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori from Stool using Droplet Digital PCR Reveals Variation in Bacterial Loads that Correlates with cagA Virulence Gene Carriage.

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    Talarico, Sarah; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Cortes, Bernal; Larson, Ann; Fang, Ferric C; Salama, Nina R

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the carcinogenic stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori have been limited by the lack of noninvasive detection and genotyping methods. We developed a new stool-based method for detection, quantification, and partial genotyping of H. pylori using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), which allows for increased sensitivity and absolute quantification by PCR partitioning. Stool-based ddPCR assays for H. pylori 16S gene detection and cagA virulence gene typing were tested using a collection of 50 matched stool and serum samples from Costa Rican volunteers and 29 H. pylori stool antigen-tested stool samples collected at a US hospital. The stool-based H. pylori 16S ddPCR assay had a sensitivity of 84% and 100% and a specificity of 100% and 71% compared to serology and stool antigen tests, respectively. The stool-based cagA genotyping assay detected cagA in 22 (88%) of 25 stools from CagA antibody-positive individuals and four (16%) of 25 stools from CagA antibody-negative individuals from Costa Rica. All 26 of these samples had a Western-type cagA allele. Presence of serum CagA antibodies was correlated with a significantly higher load of H. pylori in the stool. The stool-based ddPCR assays are a sensitive, noninvasive method for detection, quantification, and partial genotyping of H. pylori. The quantitative nature of ddPCR-based H. pylori detection revealed significant variation in bacterial load among individuals that correlates with presence of the cagA virulence gene. These stool-based ddPCR assays will facilitate future population-based epidemiologic studies of this important human pathogen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence genes associated with gastric diseases in Egyptian patients. ... of cagA/iceA type and we could not detect cagA. The overall vacA, iceA1and cagA genes identified were 61.6%, 38.8%, 26.6% respectively, by PCR-based molecular testing. The vacA gene status ...

  3. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed El-Shenawy

    could not detect cagA. The overall vacA, iceA1and cagA genes identified were 61.6%, 38.8%, 26.6% respec- tively, by PCR-based molecular testing. The vacA gene status was highly significant related to gastritis patient (P. 0.036). The vacA s1m1 and s2m2 alleles were significantly found in 50% of H. pylori infected patients ...

  4. Helicobacter pylori and cagA gene detected by polymerase chain reaction in gastric biopsies: correlation with histological findings, proliferation and apoptosis

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    Katia Ramos Moreira Leite

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The virulence of Helicobacter pylori (HP in gastroduodenal disease is related to pathogenicity islands (cagPAI present in some strains. Infection with cagPAI induces IL-8 secretion, increases epithelial cell proliferation and may be important in carcinogenesis. Our objective was to detect HP and the cagA gene (cagPAI marker by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and to correlate these results to histological findings, epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective, at the Surgical and Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Hospital Sírio-Libanês. METHODS: DNA samples isolated from 164 gastric biopsies were used for HP detection by PCR. cagPAI+ was identified in HP+ cases by cagA gene amplification. All cases were submitted to immunohistochemistry to evaluate cell proliferation, and TUNEL to detect apoptosis. Statistical analysis was performed to compare results. RESULTS: HP was detected in 67.7% of the patients, with good correlation between HP infection and moderate to severe gastritis, gastric ulcer and MALT lymphoma. There was a correlation between cagPAI+ strains and severe gastric diseases including cancer. The risk of gastric ulcer, adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma was 8.8 times higher for cagPAI+ patients. cagPAI+ infection was related to higher proliferation rates. The proliferation/apoptosis index was significantly higher for cagPAI+ patients. CONCLUSION: Cell growth deregulation in cagPAI+ patients could be demonstrated by the difference in the proliferation index. We believe that this explains the carcinogenic role of Helicobacter pylori.

  5. Helicobacter pylori cagA gene variants in Malaysians of different ethnicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mohamed (Ramelah); A. Hanafiah (Alfizah); I.M. Rose (Isa); M.R.A. Manaf; S.A. Abdullah (Shiekh Anwar); I. Sagap (Ismail); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.A. Yaacob (Jasmi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe have defined DNA repeat variability in the 3?-terminus of the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori strains from Malaysian patients of different ethnicities. We identified different alleles based on the EPIYA repeats. cagA types A-B-D and A-B-B-D are more similar to the sequence of

  6. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence genes associated with gastric diseases in Egyptian patients

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    Ahmed El-Shenawy

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the main genotype combinations in the studied Egyptian patients were; vacAs2m2/iceA1, vacAs1m1/cagA, mostly associated with gastritis, and vacAs1/cagA/icA, mainly in PUD. The less virulent (s2, s2m2 H. pylori genotypes were found in patients aged over 43 years.

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

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    Mendoza-Cantú, Alejandra; Urbina-Ríos, Cynthia Sofía; García-Martínez, Martha Elena; Torre-Martínez, Hilda H. H.

    2017-01-01

    The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n = 100) were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P < 0.001). In 34.6% (9/26) of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6) of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26), 83.3% (5/6), and 16.7% (1/6) of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P < 0.001). The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children. PMID:29226140

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

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    Alejandra Mendoza-Cantú

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n=100 were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P<0.001. In 34.6% (9/26 of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6 of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26, 83.3% (5/6, and 16.7% (1/6 of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P<0.001. The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children.

  9. Association of the CagA gene positive Helicobacter pylori and tissue levels of interleukin-17 and interleukin-8 in gastric ulcer patients.

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    El-Fakhry, Ashraf A; El-Daker, Medhat A; Badr, Rawia I; El-Nady, Ghada M; Mesbah, Maggie R; Youssef, Tamer; Arafa, Mohammad; Arafa, Mona; El-Naggar, Mohammed M

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that CagA gene positive Helicobacter pylori (CagA+ H. pylon) induces severe gastric mucosal inflammation. On the other hand, Interleukin (IL)-17 is known to stimulate IL-8 release by the gastric epithelial cells which facilitates chemotaxis of neutrophils through an IL-8-dependent mechanism. The aim of the study is to determine the role of IL-17 and IL-8 in the development of gastritis and gastric ulcer in H. pylori infected patients. Mucosal biopsy samples were obtained from the ulcer site of gastric mucosa of 28 patients with gastric ulcer (GU), 27 with gastritis and 8 controls subjects without gastritis or ulcers. Infection with H. pylori of patients and controls was assessed by a rapid urease test, histological examination and culture. Measurement of the tissue levels of IL-17 and IL-8 were assayed by ELISA. H. pylori cagA gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 28 patients with GU, 18 (64.2%) patients were positive for H. pylori infection, while 13 (48.1%) patients with gastritis and none of the controls were positive for H. pylori infection The CagA gene was detected in 12 (66.6%) in H. pylori GU patients, and 7 (53.8%) H. pylori positive gastritis. IL-17 was significantly higher in GU-CagA+ve H. pylori compared to GU-CagA- H. pylori (P H. pylori) was significantly higher compared to gastritis--CagA- H. pylori- (P H. pylori is associated with induction of mucosal injury. Also, IL-8 and IL-17 plays a role in the development of GU and gastritis especially in CagA+ H. pylori.

  10. Novel effects of Helicobacter pylori CagA on key genes of gastric cancer signal transduction: a comparative transfection study.

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    Vaziri, Farzam; Peerayeh, Shahin N; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Maghsoudi, Nader; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Siadat, Seyed D; Zali, Mohammad R

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is now recognized as a worldwide problem. Helicobacter pylori CagA is the first bacterial oncoprotein to be identified in relation to human cancer. Helicobacter pylori CagA is noted for structural diversity in its C-terminal region (contains EPIYA motifs), with which CagA interacts with numerous host cell proteins. Deregulation of host signaling by translocated bacterial proteins provides a new aspect of microbial-host cell interaction. The aim of this study is to compare the cellular effects of two different CagA EPIYA motifs on identified signaling pathways involve in gastric carcinogenesis. To investigate the effects of CagA protein carboxyl region variations on the transcription of genes involved in gastric epithelial carcinogenesis pathways, the eukaryotic vector carrying the cagA gene (ABC and ABCCC types) was transfected into gastric cancer cell line. The 42 identified key genes of signal transduction involved in gastric cancer were analyzed at the transcription level by real-time PCR. The results of real-time PCR provide us important clue that the ABCCC oncoprotein variant can change the fate of the cell completely different from ABC type. In fact, these result proposed that the ABCCC type can induce the intestinal metaplasia, IL-8, perturbation of Crk adaptor proteins, anti-apoptotic effect and carcinogenic effect more significantly than ABC type. These data support our hypothesis of a complex interaction of host cell and these two different H. pylori effector variants that determines host cellular fate. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay strip for rapid detection of CagA antigen of Helicobacter pylori.

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    Karakus, Cebrail

    2015-01-01

    About half of the world populations are known to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. The CagA antigen secreting strains provoke severe mucosal damages and act as a risk factor for the development of peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip was developed based on sandwich format for rapid detection of CagA antigen of H. pylori using gold conjugated monoclonal antibody. This LFIA strip will provide a good aid in the diagnosis of CagA-secreting H. pylori within 10 min instead of time consuming, expensive and laborious invasive approaches.

  12. Characterization of virulence genes cagA and vacA in Helicobacter Pylori and their prevalence in gastrointestinal disorders

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    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Neves, Daniel Locatelli; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined using cultures of gastric biopsy samples of patients attended at the academic hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Molecular methods were used to characterize the cagA and vacA genes from bacterial isolates associated with different diseases presented by patients. Out of a total of 81, forty-two gastric biopsy samples tested were positive for H. pylori, with a prevalence of 51.9%. No significant difference was found with regard to the gender (p=0.793) and age (p=0.183) of the patients. Genotype s1m1 vacA gene was found in 67% of the cases of peptic ulcer investigated (p=1.0), despite the limited number of patients with this disease (n=3). A correlation between the presence of less virulent strains (s2m2) and reflux esophagitis was found in the majority of the cases (45%), but without statistical significance. An association between the prevalence of cagA gene, found in 92% of isolates, and peptic ulcer was not observed (p=1.0), suggesting that this gene cannot be considered a specific marker of severity in our environment. The results reinforce the importance of conducting regional studies and the need to characterize H. pylori virulence genes associated with different diseases. PMID:24031754

  13. Evolution of cagA oncogene of Helicobacter pylori through recombination.

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    Yoshikazu Furuta

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that infects half the human population and causes gastritis, ulcers, and cancer. The cagA gene product is a major virulence factor associated with gastric cancer. It is injected into epithelial cells, undergoes phosphorylation by host cell kinases, and perturbs host signaling pathways. CagA is known for its geographical, structural, and functional diversity in the C-terminal half, where an EPIYA host-interacting motif is repeated. The Western version of CagA carries the EPIYA segment types A, B, and C, while the East Asian CagA carries types A, B, and D and shows higher virulence. Many structural variants such as duplications and deletions are reported. In this study, we gained insight into the relationships of CagA variants through various modes of recombination, by analyzing all known cagA variants at the DNA sequence level with the single nucleotide resolution. Processes that occurred were: (i homologous recombination between DNA sequences for CagA multimerization (CM sequence; (ii recombination between DNA sequences for the EPIYA motif; and (iii recombination between short similar DNA sequences. The left half of the EPIYA-D segment characteristic of East Asian CagA was derived from Western type EPIYA, with Amerind type EPIYA as the intermediate, through rearrangements of specific sequences within the gene. Adaptive amino acid changes were detected in the variable region as well as in the conserved region at sites to which no specific function has yet been assigned. Each showed a unique evolutionary distribution. These results clarify recombination-mediated routes of cagA evolution and provide a solid basis for a deeper understanding of its function in pathogenesis.

  14. Relationship between New Allelic Types of Helicobacter pylori vacA Gene and cagA Status and Risk of GU or DU in Iran

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    S Bakhti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have described VacA and CagA as the two important virulence determinants of Helicobacter pylori, which are associated with gastric ulcer (GU and duodenal ulcer (DU. The aim of present study was to determine the associations of the i and d regions genotypes of H. pylori vacA gene and cagA status with GU and DU risk. Methods: A total of 177 isolates were cultured from the biopsies of Iranian patients with different geographic origins and genotyped. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: Frequency of the vacA i1, i2, i1i2, d1, and d2 alleles and cagA in all patients was 42.9%, 55.4%, 1.7%, 41.8%, 58.2% and 68.4%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the frequencies of vacA i1 in isolates from GU than those from non-atrophic gastritis (p<0.05. When the GU was considered as a dependant factor by the multiple logistic regression analysis, the vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with the age- and sex-adjusted risk for GU (p=0.006, odds ratio [OR]=3.56 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45–8.75. Statistical analysis showed no significant association between vacA d genotype and digestive diseases. After controlling for age and sex variables, the cagA genotype remained in the final model when the DU was considered as a dependant factor by the the multiple logistic regression analysis (p=0.021, OR=3.77 95% CI=1.22-11.60. Conclusion: We have proposed that the H. pylori vacA i1 and cagA genotypes could be considered as benefit biomarkers for prediction of risk of GU and DU in Iran, respectively.

  15. Helicobacter pylori cagA Promoter Region Sequences Influence CagA Expression and Interleukin 8 Secretion.

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    Ferreira, Rui M; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Wen, Xiaogang; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-02-15

    Heterogeneity at the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene promoter region has been linked to variation in CagA expression and gastric histopathology. Here, we characterized the cagA promoter and expression in 46 H. pylori strains from Portugal. Our results confirm the relationship between cagA promoter region variation and protein expression originally observed in strains from Colombia. We observed that individuals with intestinal metaplasia were all infected with H. pylori strains containing a specific cagA motif. Additionally, we provided novel functional evidence that strain-specific sequences in the cagA promoter region and CagA expression levels influence interleukin 8 secretion by the host gastric epithelial cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Presence of Phage Orthologous Genes in Helicobacter pylori Correlates with the Presence of the Virulence Factors CagA and VacA.

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    Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav; Murray, Bradley; Rosenwald, Anne G

    2016-06-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is associated with ulcers and the development of gastric cancer. Several genes, including cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), are associated with increased gastric cancer risk. Some strains of H. pylori also contain sequences related to bacteriophage phiHP33; however, the significance of these phage-related sequences remains unknown. We assessed the extent to which phiHP33-related sequences are present in 335 H. pylori strains using homology searches then mapped shared genes between phiHP33 and H. pylori strains onto an existing phylogeny. One hundred and twenty-one H. pylori strains contain phage orthologous sequences, and the presence of the phage-related sequences correlates with the presence of CagA and VacA. Mapping of the phage orthologs onto a phylogeny of H. pylori is consistent with the hypothesis that these genes were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. phiHP33 phage orthologous sequences might be of significance in understanding virulence of different H. pylori strains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes in Cuban and Venezuelan populations

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    Diana Ortiz-Princz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA/vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA among patients with chronic gastritis in Cuba and Venezuela. Gastric antrum biopsies were taken for culture, DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Amplification of vacA and cagA segments was performed using two regions of cagA: 349 bp were amplified with the F1/B1 primers and the remaining 335 bp were amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers. The VA1-F/VA1-R set of primers was used to amplify the 259-bp (s1 or 286-bp (s2 product and the VAG-R/VAG-F set of primers was used to amplify the 567-bp (m1 or 642-bp (m2 regions of vacA. cagA was detected in 87% of the antral samples from Cuban patients and 80.3% of those from Venezuelan patients. All possible combinations of vacA regions were found, with the exception of s2/m1. The predominant combination found in both countries was s1/m1. The percentage of cagA+ strains was increased by the use of a second set of primers and a greater number of strains was amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers in the Cuban patients (p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the presence of the allelic variants of vacA and cagA in both populations. The predominant genotype was cagA+/s1m1 in both countries. The results support the necessary investigation of isolates circulating among the human population in each region.

  18. Helicobacter pylori cagA+ Is Associated with Milder Duodenal Histological Changes in Chilean Celiac Patients

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    Yalda Lucero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWhat is already known about this subject?Celiac disease (CD has a high clinical and histological diversity and the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive.H. pylori is a bacterium that chronically infect gastric and duodenal mucosa activating both a Th1/Th17 and T-reg pathways.The role of H. pylori (and the effect of their virulence factors in CD have not yet completely elucidated.What are the new findings?cagA+ H. pylori strains are associated to milder histological damage in infected CD patients.In active-CD patients the presence of cagA+ H. pylori is associated to an increase in T-reg markers, contrasting with a downregulation in cagA+ infected potential-CD individuals.How might it impact on clinical practice in the foreseeable future?The identification of microbiological factors that could modulate inflammation and clinical expression of CD may be used in the future as preventive strategies or as supplementary treatment in patients that cannot achieve complete remission, contributing to the better care of these patients.Background: Mechanisms underlying the high clinical and histological diversity of celiac disease (CD remain elusive. Helicobacter pylori (Hp chronically infects gastric and duodenal mucosa and has been associated with protection against some immune-mediated conditions, but its role (specifically of cagA+ strains in CD is unclear.Objective: To assess the relationship between gastric Hp infection (cagA+ strains and duodenal histological damage in patients with CD.Design: Case-control study including patients with active-CD, potential-CD and non-celiac individuals. Clinical presentation, HLA genotype, Hp/cagA gene detection in gastric mucosa, duodenal histology, Foxp3 positive cells and TGF-β expression in duodenal lamina propria were analyzed.Results: We recruited 116 patients, 29 active-CD, 37 potential-CD, and 50 non-CD controls. Hp detection was similar in the three groups (~30–40%, but cagA

  19. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori cagA promoter elements required for salt-induced upregulation of CagA expression.

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    Loh, John T; Friedman, David B; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Bravo, Luis E; Wilson, Keith T; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Cover, Timothy L

    2012-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection and consumption of a high-salt diet are each associated with an increased risk for the development of gastric cancer. To investigate potential synergism between these factors, we used a global proteomic approach to analyze H. pylori strains cultured in media containing varying salt concentrations. Among the differentially expressed proteins identified, CagA exhibited the greatest increase in expression in response to high salt concentrations. Analysis of 36 H. pylori strains isolated from patients in two regions of Colombia with differing incidences of gastric cancer revealed marked differences among strains in salt-responsive CagA expression. Sequence analysis of the cagA promoter region in these strains revealed a DNA motif (TAATGA) that was present in either one or two copies. Salt-induced upregulation of CagA expression was detected more commonly in strains containing two copies of the TAATGA motif than in strains containing one copy. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that two copies of the TAATGA motif are required for salt-induced upregulation of CagA expression. In summary, there is considerable heterogeneity among H. pylori strains in salt-regulated CagA expression, and these differences are attributable to variation in a specific DNA motif upstream of the cagA transcriptional start site.

  20. Helicobacter Pylori and CagA: Relationships With Esophageal and Gastroduodenal Disorders in Iranian Patients

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    Omid Teymournejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The severity of Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with virulence factors of the bacteria and host immune response. H. pylori has several virulence factors which a number of them are essential to emerge clinical outcomes. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA is the most important H. pylori virulence factor. Objectives: The aim of our study was to assess a significant relationship between presence of cagA and severity of clinical manifestation in esophageal and gastroduodenal disorders. Patients and Methods: A total of 240 gastric biopsies were collected between March 2012 and August 2013 from Tehran's hospitals. Three sets of biopsy specimens were obtained from the antrum and rapid urease tests, histological examination, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay were performed on the biopsy specimens. Results: One hundred and eight (45% of biopsy specimens were positive with rapid urease test and ureC gene PCR. Moreover, thirty eight (35.1% of positive specimens had cagA gene. The rate of gastric and duodenum inflammation was more in patients who carried CagA positive H. pylori strains. Whereas less inflammation and sever lesions in esophagus were found in CagA negative H. pylori strains. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a strong relationship between CagA and esophageal and gastroduodenal disorders. The number of CagA negative H. pylori was larger than CagA positive in esophagus lesion grade A, C, and D. Therefore, cagA may have a protective effect on some esophageal diseases. In addition, the number of CagA positives was larger than CagA negative H. pylori in gastric antrum and duodenum ulcer. Thus, CagA play a role to emerge peptic and duodenal ulcers.

  1. CEACAM6 is upregulated by Helicobacter pylori CagA and is a biomarker for early gastric cancer

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    Srivastava, Supriya; Samanta, Animesh; Sharma, Neel; Tan, Kar Tong; Yang, Henry; Voon, Dominic C.; Pang, Brendan; Teh, Ming; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Chang, Young-Tae; Yong, Wei Peng; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ho, Khek Yu; Tan, Patrick; Soong, Richie; Koeffler, Phillip H.; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Jeyasekharan, Anand D.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of gastric cancers saves lives, but remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify cell-surface biomarkers of early gastric cancer. We hypothesized that a subset of plasma membrane proteins induced by the Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA will be retained in early gastric cancers through non-oncogene addiction. An inducible system for expression of CagA was used to identify differentially upregulated membrane protein transcripts in vitro. The top hits were then analyzed in gene expression datasets comparing transcriptome of gastric cancer with normal tissue, to focus on markers retained in cancer. Among the transcripts enriched upon CagA induction in vitro, a significant elevation of CEACAM6 was noted in gene expression datasets of gastric cancer. We used quantitative digital immunohistochemistry to measure CEACAM6 protein levels in tissue microarrays of gastric cancer. We demonstrate an increase in CEACAM6 in early gastric cancers, when compared to matched normal tissue, with an AUC of 0.83 for diagnostic validity. Finally, we show that a fluorescently conjugated CEACAM6 antibody binds avidly to freshly resected gastric cancer xenograft samples and can be detected by endoscopy in real time. Together, these results suggest that CEACAM6 upregulation is a cell surface response to H. pylori CagA, and is retained in early gastric cancers. They highlight a novel link between CEACAM6 expression and CagA in gastric cancer, and suggest CEACAM6 to be a promising biomarker to aid with the fluorescent endoscopic diagnosis of early neoplastic lesions in the stomach. PMID:27421133

  2. Frequency of vacA, cagA and babA2 virulence markers in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican patients with chronic gastritis

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    Negrete Erasmo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Three major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the vacuolating toxin (VacA, the cytotoxin-associated gene product (CagA and the adhesion protein BabA2. Since considerable geographic diversity in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors has been reported, the aim of this work was to establish the H. pylori and vacA, cagA and babA2 gene status in 238 adult patients, from a marginal urban area of Mexico, with chronic gastritis. Methods H. pylori was identified in cultures of gastric biopsies by nested PCR. vacA and cagA genes were detected by multiplex PCR, whereas babA2 gene was identified by conventional PCR. Results H. pylori-positive biopsies were 143 (60.1%. All H. pylori strains were vacA+; 39.2% were cagA+; 13.3% were cagA+ babA2+ and 8.4% were babA2+. Mexican strains examined possessed the vacA s1, m1 (43.4%, s1, m2 (24.5%, s2, m1 (20.3% and s2, m2 (11.9% genotypes. Conclusion These results show that the Mexican patients suffering chronic gastritis we have studied had a high incidence of infection by H. pylori. Forty four percent (63/143 of the H. pylori strains analyzed in this work may be considered as highly virulent since they possessed two or three of the virulence markers analyzed: vacA s1 cagA babA2 (9.8%, 14/143, vacA s1 babA2 (4.9%, 7/143, and vacA s1 cagA (29.4%, 42/143. However, a statistically significant correlation was not observed between vacAs1, cagA and babA2 virulence markers (χ2 test; P > 0.05.

  3. Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Patients with Gastric Ulcer and Non Ulcer Disease using RFLP-PCR of ureAB, vacA , cagA Genes

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    Sh. Farshad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Different studies show that the reasons for clinically diverse outcomes of infections caused by H. pylori may include host and environmental factors as well as differences in the prevalence or expression of bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to study the distribution of different genotypes of major virulence factors cagA, vacA and ureAB among H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric ulcer (ulcerative disease and patients with gastritis (non ulcerative disease.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 65 H. pylori strains, 30 from patients with gastric ulcer and 35 from patients with non ulcerative gastritis disease were investigated by RFLP-PCR.Results: The prevalence of vacA-positive strains in ulcerative patients was significantly more than that in non ulcerative patients (P0.05.Conclusion: It seems that in the patients under our study the presence of cagA gene may not necessarily be a risk factor for ulcer disease, while a homologous genotype of vacA appears to be associated with an increase risk of ulcer development. Lastly, despite the existence of a high degree of genomic variability within ureAB, conserved DNA banding profiles are distributed in our areas.

  4. Human gastrin mRNA expression up-regulated by Helicobacter pylori CagA through MEK/ERK and JAK2-signaling pathways in gastric cancer cells.

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    Zhou, Jianjiang; Xie, Yuan; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Shu; Li, Yu

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori-cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA) and gastrin are believed to play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis, but their interaction has been incompletely clear. We constructed a eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1/cagA and a luciferase reporter vector pGL/gastrin promoter, and then co-transfected them into gastric cancer AGS and SGC-7901 cells. The two kinds of gastric cancer cells were, respectively, infected with cagA-positive H. pylori NCTC11637, and then the gastrin promoter activity and gastrin mRNA level were detected with a Dual-Luciferase reporter assay system and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Next, after the MEK/ERK and JAK2-signaling pathway inhibitors, U0126 and AG490, were used to treat the two cell lines, or the ERK1 and JAK2 genes were knocked down by siRNAs (small interference RNAs) in the two cell lines, the gastrin promoter activity and gastrin mRNA level were observed again. The results indicated that CagA could activate the gastrin promoter and up-regulate gastrin mRNA expression in AGS and SGC-7901 cells, but these effects could be inhibited by the inhibitors U0126 and AG490, and the CagA-induced gastrin mRNA expression was down-regulated in the cells whose ERK1 or JAK2 gene was knocked down. Gastrin promoter may be the transcriptional target of CagA, and CagA activates the gastrin promoter to up-regulate gastrin mRNA expression through the MEK/ERK and JAK1-signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.

  5. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

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    Chih-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis.

  6. CagA, a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, promotes the production and underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells

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    Yang, Man [Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu City 610500 (China); Li, Fu-gang [Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou City 646000 (China); Xie, Xi-sheng [Department of Nephrology, Second Clinical Medical Institution of North Sichuan Medical College (Nanchong Central Hospital), Nanchong City 637400 (China); Wang, Shao-qing [Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu City 610500 (China); Fan, Jun-ming, E-mail: junmingfan@163.com [Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu City 610500 (China); Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou City 646000 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA decreased the expression of C1GALT1 and its chaperone Cosmc in DAKIKI cells. • Helicobacter pylori infection may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN via CagA. - Abstract: While Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is closely associated with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study was to investigate the effect of cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA), a major virulence factor of Hp, on the production and underglycosylation of IgA1 in the B cell line DAKIKI cells. Cells were cultured and treated with recombinant CagA protein. We found that CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1, which at least partly attributed to the downregulation of β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) and its chaperone Cosmc. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Hp infection, at least via CagA, may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN by influencing the production and glycosylation of IgA1 in B cells.

  7. H. pylori virulence factor CagA increases intestinal cell proliferation by Wnt pathway activation in a transgenic zebrafish model

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    James T. Neal

    2013-05-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, and infection with strains carrying the virulence factor CagA significantly increases this risk. To investigate the mechanisms by which CagA promotes carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing CagA ubiquitously or in the anterior intestine. Transgenic zebrafish expressing either the wild-type or a phosphorylation-resistant form of CagA exhibited significantly increased rates of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and showed significant upregulation of the Wnt target genes cyclinD1, axin2 and the zebrafish c-myc ortholog myca. Coexpression of CagA with a loss-of-function allele encoding the β-catenin destruction complex protein Axin1 resulted in a further increase in intestinal proliferation. Coexpression of CagA with a null allele of the key β-catenin transcriptional cofactor Tcf4 restored intestinal proliferation to wild-type levels. These results provide in vivo evidence of Wnt pathway activation by CagA downstream of or in parallel to the β-catenin destruction complex and upstream of Tcf4. Long-term transgenic expression of wild-type CagA, but not the phosphorylation-resistant form, resulted in significant hyperplasia of the adult intestinal epithelium. We further utilized this model to demonstrate that oncogenic cooperation between CagA and a loss-of-function allele of p53 is sufficient to induce high rates of intestinal small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, establishing the utility of our transgenic zebrafish model in the study of CagA-associated gastrointestinal cancers.

  8. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India

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    Chattopadhyay Santanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.

  9. Risk of lymphoid follicle development in patients with chronic antral gastritis: role of endoscopic features, histopathological parameters, CagA status and interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms.

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    Achyut, B R; Moorchung, N; Srivastava, A N; Gupta, N K; Mittal, B

    2008-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis, lymphoid follicle formation and development of MALT lymphoma. We evaluated endoscopic, histological, serological and genetic risk factors associated with lymphoid follicle development in gastritis. After upper GI endoscopy, 3 antral biopsies were taken from 120 patients for histological examination. H. pylori was diagnosed using rapid urease test (RUT), modified Giemsa stain and IgG anti-CagA ELISA. Genotyping of IL-1B (-511C/T) and IL-1RN (86 bp VNTR) genes were performed by PCR-RFLP/PCR. In 120 patients, 45 (37.5%) showed presence of lymphoid follicles in antral gastric mucosa. H. pylori was positive by modified Giemsa stain (26%) RUT (50%) and anti-CagA IgG in 67.5%, The presence of nodularity (p = 0.030), neutrophilic infiltration (p = 0.010), lymphocytic infiltration (p = 0.002), glandular atrophy (p = 0.0001), glandular shortening (p = 0.001), fibrosis (p = 0.0001), plasma cells (p = 0.007), eosinophils (p = 0.012), anti-CagA antibodies (p = 0.003) and H. pylori density (p = 0.020) were associated with risk (odds ratio = 11.5, 3.8, 11.0, 8.4, 3.8, 4.6, 5.8, 16.0, 10.8 and 2.8 respectively) of lymphoid follicle. However, IL-1 gene polymorphisms did not influence lymphoid follicle development The presence of modularity, lymphocytic infiltration, glandular atrophy, glandular shortening, fibrosis, plasma cells, eosinophils and anti-CagA IgG antibodies are risk factors for lymphoid follicle development in patients with gastritis.

  10. The frequency of Helicobacter pylor infection and cagA expression in the Korean patients with gastric carcinoma

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    Jung, Sook Hyang; Kim, Yoo Chul [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection had been approved as a group 1 carcinogen by the international agency for research on cancer. However the association between H.pylori infection and gastric carcinoma was not so definite in South Asia including Korea, and the role of cagA gene of H.pylori in gastric carcinogenesis was a controversial issue. The aims of this study were firstly to study in vivo expression frequency of 16S rRNA and cagA gene of H.pylori, secondly to study the association between H.pylori infection and gastric cancer, the association between cagA expression and gastric cancer in Korean patients. In vivo expression rate of 16S rRNA was 74 % of gastric carcinoma patients and cagA expression rate was 51 % of gastric carcinoma patients with H.pylori infection. Although 90 % of gastric carcinoma patients had H.pylori infection, the association between H.pylori infection and gastric carcinoma was not significant. And there was no significant association between cagA expression and gastric carcinoma. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. CagA EPIYA polymorphisms in Colombian Helicobacter pylori strains and their influence on disease-associated cellular responses.

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    Fajardo, Carlos Alberto; Quiroga, Andrés Javier; Coronado, Andrea; Labrador, Karen; Acosta, Nicole; Delgado, Pilar; Jaramillo, Carlos; Bravo, María Mercedes

    2013-03-15

    To investigate the influence of the CagA diversity in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains from Colombia on the host cell biology. Eighty-four H. pylori-cagA positive strains with different Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs patterns, isolated from patients with gastritis (n = 17), atrophic gastritis (n = 17), duodenal ulcer (n = 16), intestinal metaplasia (n = 16) and gastric cancer (n = 18), were included. To determine the integrity of the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) we evaluated the presence of cagA, cagT, cagE, and cag10 genes by polymerase chain reaction. AGS gastric epithelial cells were infected with each strain and assayed for translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation of CagA by western blot, secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay after taking supernatants from cocultures and cell elongation induction. For cell elongation quantification, coculture photographs were taken and the proportion of "hummingbird" cells (> 15 μm) was determined. Overall 72% (60/84) of the strains were found to harbor a functional cagPAI. Levels of phosphorylated CagA were significantly higher for isolates from duodenal ulcer than the ones in strains from gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer (49.1% ± 23.1% vs 21.1% ± 19.5%, P < 0.02; 49.1% ± 23.1% vs 26.2% ± 14.8%, P < 0.045; 49.1% ± 23.1% vs 21.5% ± 19.5%, P < 0.043 and 49.1% ± 23.1% vs 29.5% ± 27.1%, P < 0.047 respectively). We observed variable IL-8 expression levels ranging from 0 to 810 pg/mL and from 8.8 to 1442 pg/mL at 6 h and 30 h post-infection, respectively. cagPAI-defective strains did not induce detectable levels of IL-8 at 6 h post-infection. At 30 h post-infection all strains induced IL-8 expression in AGS cells, although cagPAI-defective strains induced significantly lower levels of IL-8 than strains with a functional cagPAI (57.1 ± 56.6 pg/mL vs 513.6 ± 338.6 pg/mL, P < 0.0001). We did not observe differences in the extent of

  12. The Middle Fragment of Helicobacter pylori CagA Induces Actin Rearrangement and Triggers Its Own Uptake into Gastric Epithelial Cells

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    Abolghasem Tohidpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxin-associated gene product A (CagA is a major virulence factor secreted by Helicobacter pylori. CagA activity in the gastric epithelium is associated with higher risk of gastric cancer development. Bacterial type IV secretion system (T4SS-mediated translocation of CagA into the cytosol of human epithelial cells occurs via a poorly understood mechanism that requires CagA interaction with the host membrane lipid phosphatidylserine (PS and host cell receptor integrin α5β1. Here we have characterized the isolated recombinant middle fragment of CagA (CagA-M that contains the positively-charged PS-binding region (aa 613–636 and a putative β1 integrin binding site, but lacks the EPIYA region, secretion signal peptide and the CagA multimerization motif. We show that CagA-M, when immobilized on latex beads, is capable of binding to, and triggering its own uptake into, gastric epithelial cells in the absence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori. Using site-directed mutagenesis, fluorescent and electron microscopy, and highly-specific inhibitors, we demonstrate that the cell-binding and endocytosis-like internalization of CagA-M are dependent on (1 binding to PS; (2 β1 integrin activity; and (3 actin dynamics. Interaction of CagA-M with the host cells is accompanied by the development of long filopodia-like protrusions (macrospikes. This novel morphology is different from the hummingbird phenotype induced by the translocation of full-length CagA. The determinants within CagA-M and within the host that are important for endocytosis-like internalization into host cells are very similar to those observed for T4SS-mediated internalization of full-length CagA, suggesting that the latter may involve an endocytic pathway.

  13. Proteomic characterization of Helicobacter pylori CagA antigen recognized by child serum antibodies and its epitope mapping by peptide array.

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    Junko Akada

    Full Text Available Serum antibodies against pathogenic bacteria play immunologically protective roles, and can be utilized as diagnostic markers of infection. This study focused on Japanese child serum antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, a chronically-infected gastric bacterium which causes gastric cancer in adults. Serological diagnosis for H. pylori infection is well established for adults, but it needs to be improved for children. Serum samples from 24 children, 22 H. pylori (Hp-positive and 2 Hp-negative children, were used to catalogue antigenic proteins of a Japanese strain CPY2052 by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, 24 proteins were identified as candidate antigen proteins. Among these, the major virulence factor, cytotoxin-associated gene A protein (CagA was the most reactive antigen recognized by all the Hp-positive sera even from children under the age of 3 years. The major antigenic part of CagA was identified in the middle region, and two peptides containing CagA epitopes were identified using a newly developed peptide/protein-combined array chip method, modified from our previous protein chip method. Each of the epitopes was found to contain amino acid residue(s unique to East Asian CagA. Epitope analysis of CagA indicated importance of the regional CagA antigens for serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection in children.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of gastric epithelial cell adhesion and injection of CagA by Helicobacter pylori

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    Backert Steffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen uniquely adapted to colonize humans. Gastric infections with this bacterium can induce pathology ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to gastric cancer. More virulent H. pylori isolates harbour numerous well-known adhesins (BabA/B, SabA, AlpA/B, OipA and HopZ and the cag (cytotoxin-associated genes pathogenicity island encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The adhesins establish tight bacterial contact with host target cells and the T4SS represents a needle-like pilus device for the delivery of effector proteins into host target cells such as CagA. BabA and SabA bind to blood group antigen and sialylated proteins respectively, and a series of T4SS components including CagI, CagL, CagY and CagA have been shown to target the integrin β1 receptor followed by injection of CagA across the host cell membrane. The interaction of CagA with membrane-anchored phosphatidylserine may also play a role in the delivery process. While substantial progress has been made in our current understanding of many of the above factors, the host cell receptors for OipA, HopZ and AlpA/B during infection are still unknown. Here we review the recent progress in characterizing the interactions of the various adhesins and structural T4SS proteins with host cell factors. The contribution of these interactions to H. pylori colonization and pathogenesis is discussed.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of gastric epithelial cell adhesion and injection of CagA by Helicobacter pylori

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    Backert, Steffen

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen uniquely adapted to colonize humans. Gastric infections with this bacterium can induce pathology ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to gastric cancer. More virulent H. pylori isolates harbour numerous well-known adhesins (BabA\\/B, SabA, AlpA\\/B, OipA and HopZ) and the cag (cytotoxin-associated genes) pathogenicity island encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS). The adhesins establish tight bacterial contact with host target cells and the T4SS represents a needle-like pilus device for the delivery of effector proteins into host target cells such as CagA. BabA and SabA bind to blood group antigen and sialylated proteins respectively, and a series of T4SS components including CagI, CagL, CagY and CagA have been shown to target the integrin β1 receptor followed by injection of CagA across the host cell membrane. The interaction of CagA with membrane-anchored phosphatidylserine may also play a role in the delivery process. While substantial progress has been made in our current understanding of many of the above factors, the host cell receptors for OipA, HopZ and AlpA\\/B during infection are still unknown. Here we review the recent progress in characterizing the interactions of the various adhesins and structural T4SS proteins with host cell factors. The contribution of these interactions to H. pylori colonization and pathogenesis is discussed.

  16. Infecção por Helicobacter pylori e câncer gástrico: freqüência de cepas patogênicas cagA e vacA em pacientes com câncer gástrico Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: distribution of cagA and vacA genotypes in patients with gastric carcinoma

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    Cristiane Melissa Thomazini

    2006-02-01

    the human stomach by pathogenic Helicobacter pylori strains. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of cagA and vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in paraffin-embedded gastric samples from patients with gastric cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded samples from 42 patients with gastric cancer were histologically examined and evaluated by PCR for H. pylori cagA and vacA (s and m regions genotypes. RESULTS: Histological analysis allowed direct visualization of H. pylori in 85.7% of cases and PCR for urease C gene detected H. pylori in 95% of cases. The presence of cagA gene was detected in 23 (54.7% patients with gastric cancer. The s1 allele from vacA gene was found in samples from 24 (57.1% patients and the m1 allele in 26 (61.9 %. The s1m1 genotype was detected in 24 (57.1% patients with gastric cancer. The s2 allele was found in samples from four patients (9.5% and the m2 allele in three (7.1% patients. The distribution of H. pylori genotypes was similar in both intestinal and diffuse types of gastric carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the relevance of the pathogenic cagA and vacA H. pylori genotypes for significant organic lesions, such as gastric cancer, suggesting a possible role for H. pylori in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

  17. High diversity of vacA and cagA Helicobacter pylori genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer.

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    Yolanda López-Vidal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the topographical distribution of H. pylori in the stomach as well as the vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three gastric biopsies, from predetermined regions, were evaluated in 16 patients with gastric cancer and 14 patients with dyspeptic symptoms. From cancer patients, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor centers and margins; among these samples, the presence of H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes was evaluated. Positive H. pylori was 38% and 26% in biopsies obtained from the gastric cancer and non-cancer groups, respectively (p = 0.008, and 36% in tumor sites. In cancer patients, we found a preferential distribution of H. pylori in the fundus and corpus, whereas, in the non-cancer group, the distribution was uniform (p = 0.003. A majority of the biopsies were simultaneously cagA gene-positive and -negative. The fundus and corpus demonstrated a higher positivity rate for the cagA gene in the non-cancer group (p = 0.036. A mixture of cagA gene sizes was also significantly more frequent in this group (p = 0.003. Ninety-two percent of all the subjects showed more than one vacA gene genotype; s1b and m1 vacA genotypes were predominantly found in the gastric cancer group. The highest vacA-genotype signal-sequence diversity was found in the corpus and 5 cm from tumor margins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High H. pylori colonization diversity, along with the cagA gene, was found predominantly in the fundus and corpus of patients with gastric cancer. The genotype diversity observed across systematic whole-organ and tumor sampling was remarkable. We find that there is insufficient evidence to support the association of one isolate with a specific disease, due to the multistrain nature of H. pylori infection shown in this work.

  18. The effect of CagA status on response to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Western Turkey

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    M. Saruç

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available If cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA status affects the response rates of therapy, then it may be possible to predict Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. We aimed to evaluate the response to eradication treatment of H. pylori infection in CagA-positive and CagA-negative patients. A total of 184 patients (93 males, 91 females, mean age 42.6 ± 12.8 years with H. pylori-positive chronic gastritis were studied. Subjects underwent a gastroscopy and biopsy specimens were taken from the gastric antrum, body, and fundus. Before the eradication therapy was given all patients were tested for CagA, TNF-alpha and gastrin levels. They were then prescribed lansoprazole (30 mg bid, clarithromycin (500 mg bid, and amoxicillin (1.0 mg bid for one week. On the 8th week a second endoscopy was performed and further biopsy specimens were obtained from the same sites as in the initial endoscopy. One hundred and twenty-seven patients (69.1% were found to be CagA positive and 57 patients (30.9% were CagA negative. The total eradication rate was 82.6%. In the CagA-positive group this rate was 87.4%, and in the CagA-negative group it was 71.9% (P = 0.019. TNF-alpha levels were higher in the CagA-positive than in the CagA-negative group (P = 0.001. However, gastrin levels were not different between groups (P = 0.421. Our findings revealed that CagA-negative status might be a risk factor for failure of H. pylori triple therapies. The CagA pathogenicity island gives a growth advantage to H. pylori strains and has been associated with an increase in the inflammatory response at the gastric mucosal level. These properties could make CagA-positive H. pylori strains more susceptible to antibiotics.

  19. Influence of H. pylori CagA Coupled with Alcohol Consumption on Cytokine Profiles in Men.

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    Qu, Baoge; Han, Xinghai; Ren, Guangying; Jia, Yiguo; Liu, Yuanxun; Su, Jiliang; Wang, Zhongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Hui; Pan, Jindun; Liu, Li-Li; Hu, Wen-Juan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) coupled with chronic alcohol ingestion on cytokine profiles.A total of 215 male subjects were divided into the following 4 groups: 130 alcohol H pylori CagA-negative consumers (CagA-) (group A), 50 alcohol H pylori CagA-positive consumers (CagA+) (group B), 24 nonalcohol H pylori CagA-negative consumers (group C), and 11 nonalcohol H pylori CagA-positive consumers (group D). The serum CagA, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, E-selectin, adiponectin (ADP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).After adjusting for age and mean alcohol drinking history, a multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that the mean daily alcohol consumption, IL-6, TNF-α, and ADP levels were significantly increased with increases in the serum CagA concentrations (P = 0.008, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, and P = 0.006, respectively). The serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels of group A were significantly lower than those of group B (all P = 0.000). Furthermore, the serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels of groups A and C were significantly lower than those of group D (all P = 0.000), and the serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels of group C were significantly lower than those of group B (all P = 0.000). The serum ADP and E-selectin levels of groups B and D were significantly higher than those of group A (P = 0.000). The serum ADP levels of group B were significantly higher than those of group C (P = 0.000), and the serum ADP and E-selectin levels of group C were significantly lower than those of group D (P = 0.000 and P = 0.005, respectively). Finally, the serum TNF-α levels of groups B, C, and D were significantly higher than those of group A (all P = 0.000), and the serum TNF-α levels of group C were significantly higher than those of group D (P = 0.005).In

  20. The Gastric Mucosa from Patients Infected with CagA+ or VacA+ Helicobacter pylori Has a Lower Level of Dual Oxidase-2 Expression than Uninfected or Infected with CagA-/VacA- H. pylori.

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    Li, Hongqian; Zhou, Yunfeng; Zheng, Yufeng; Guo, Hong; Gao, Lei; Chen, Pan; Feng, Dandan; Wu, Lijuan; Yang, Moli; Qi, Yanli; Guo, Hao; Chang, Yongchao; Chu, Fong-Fong; Gao, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a well-recognized gastroduodenal pathogen and class I carcinogen. Dual oxidase-2 (DUOX2), a member of NADPH oxidase family, has several critical physiological functions, including thyroid hormone biosynthesis and host mucosal defense. To investigate the effect of H. pylori infection on DUOX2 gene expression in human stomach. The biopsies were obtained from patients who underwent endoscopic diagnosis. The patient serum was assayed for two virulence factors of H. pylori, CagA IgG and VacA. The inflammation in gastric mucosa was analyzed with histology. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of three members of NADPH oxidase, NOX1, NOX2, and DUOX2, as well as lactoperoxidase (LPO) in the gastric mucosa. NOX2, DUOX2, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) protein levels were quantified by Western blots or immunohistochemistry. The H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa had more severe inflammation than uninfected samples. However, the expression of DUOX2 mRNA and protein was lower in gastric mucosa of patients with H. pylori infection compared to the uninfected. Among the H. pylori-infected patients, those having CagA IgG or VacA in the serum had lower DUOX2 expression levels than those infected with H. pylori without either virulence factor. The NOX2 and MPO levels were higher in those patients infected with H. pylori irrespective of the virulence factors than those uninfected patients. NOX1 and LPO mRNA were undetectable in the gastric mucosa. CagA+ or VacA+ H. pylori in the stomach of patients may suppress DUOX2 expression to promote its own survival. Increased NOX2 could not eliminate H. pylori infection.

  1. Prevalence and Correlation with Clinical Diseases of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotype among Gastric Patients from Northeast China

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    Faisal Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes have significant genetic heterogenicity, resulting in different clinical outcomes. Northeast part of China has reported high prevalence of H. pylori infections and gastric cancer. Hence, we investigated the H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes with clinical outcomes in Northeast China. Gastric tissue samples (n=169, chronic gastritis (GIs, gastric ulcer (GU, and gastric cancer (GC were analysed for 16S rRNA ureA, cagA, and cagA genotypes by PCR. A total of 141 (84% cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA. GC showed high H. pylori infection (93% compared with GIs (72% and GU (84%. The vacAs1am1 was highly found in GC (40% and GU (36%, vacAs1am2 in GIs (33%, vacAs1bm1 (14% and vacAs1bm2 (8% in GU cases, and s2m1 in normal cases (33%, while vacAs1cm1 showed low frequency in GIs (2% and GU (3% and GC showed negative result. The East-Asian cagA strain was highly observed in GC (43%, as compared to GIs (41% and GU (20%. The East-Asian cagA/vacAs1am1 was significantly higher in GC (23% than in GU (22% and GIs (145 patients. The East-Asian type cagA with vacAs1a and vacAm1 is the most predominant genotype in H. pylori strains of Northeast China.

  2. Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in Laos.

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    Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Shiota, Seiji; Binh, Tran Thanh; Mahachai, Varocha

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an established cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to identify H. pylori genotypes and to examine their associations with geographical regions and gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010--March 2012 were enrolled. Two biopsy specimens (one each from the antrum and corpus) were obtained for CLO testing and only CLO test-positive gastric tissue were used to extract DNA. PCR and sequencing were identified for variants of the cagA and vacA genotypes. Some 119 Laos patients (36.2%) were found to be infected with H. pylori including 83 with gastritis, 13 with gastric ulcers (GU), 20 with duodenal ulcers (DU) and 3 with gastric cancer. cagA was detected in 99.2%. East-Asian-type cagA (62%) and vacA s1c (64.7%) were predominant genotypes in Laos. vacA s1c-m1b was significantly higher in GU than gastritis (53.8% vs. 24.1%; P-value=0.04) whereas vacA s1a-m2 was significantly higher in DU than gastritis (40.0% vs. 16.9%; P-value=0.03). East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1c were significantly higher in highland than lowland Lao (100% vs. 55.8%; P-value=0.001 and 88.2% vs. 61.5%, P-value=0.03 respectively). H. pylori is a common infection in Laos, as in other countries in Southeast Asia. The cagA gene was demonstrated in nearly all Laos patients, cagA and vacA genotypes being possible important factors in explaining H. pylori infection and disease outcomes in Laos.

  3. Detección molecular y genotipificación de Helicobacter pylori en biopsias gástricas de pacientes adultos sintomáticos de la ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina Molecular detection and genotypification of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies from symptomatic adult patients in Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Felix Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron detectar Helicobacter pylori en biopsias gástricas de pacientes sintomáticos adultos mediante PCR, detectar la presencia del gen cagA y de las variantes alélicas de vacA, y relacionar los genotipos con los diagnósticos endoscópicos. En el 81 % (39/48 de los pacientes se detectó H. pylori mediante nested PCR para hsp60. La presencia de cagA se detectó en 15/22 de las muestras y vacA s1 - m1 fue la combinación alélica más frecuente (15/22. El diagnóstico más frecuente, gastritis, se asoció en 10/13 de los casos con el genotipo cagA+, de los cuales 9/13 presentaron la variante alélica vacA s1- m1. En 3/3 pacientes con gastritis por H. pylori con genotipo cagA' se detectó la variante vacA s2 - m2. Estos resultados son los primeros comunicados en nuestra región y aportan datos de interés epidemiológico.Our goals were: a to detect Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies of symptomatic adults by PCR, b to detect the presence of the cagA gene as well as of the allelic variants of the vacA gene, and c to correlate genotypes with the endoscopic diagnoses. H. pylori was detected in 81 % (39/48 of patients by nested PCR for hsp60. The presence of cagA was detected in 15/22 of samples and vacA s1 - m1 was the most frequent allelic combination (15/22. Gastritis, the most frequent diagnosis, was associated with genotype cagA+ in 10/13 of patients. In this group, 9/13 showed the allelic variant vacA s1- m1. The variant vacA s2 - m2 was detected in 3/3 of gastritis cases by H. pylori with the cagA- genotype. These results are the first reported in our region and provide data of epidemiological interest.

  4. Early Molecular Events in Murine Gastric Epithelial Cells Mediated by Helicobacter pylori CagA.

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    Banerjee, Aditi; Basu, Malini; Blanchard, Thomas G; Chintalacharuvu, Subba R; Guang, Wei; Lillehoj, Erik P; Czinn, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Murine models of Helicobacter pylori infection are used to study host-pathogen interactions, but lack of severe gastritis in this model has limited its usefulness in studying pathogenesis. We compared the murine gastric epithelial cell line GSM06 to the human gastric epithelial AGS cell line to determine whether similar events occur when cultured with H. pylori. The lysates of cells infected with H. pylori isolates or an isogenic cagA-deficient mutant were assessed for translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and for activation of stress pathway kinases by immunoblot. Phosphorylated CagA was detected in both cell lines within 60 minutes. Phospho-ERK 1/2 was present within several minutes and distinctly present in GSM06 cells at 60 minutes. Similar results were obtained for phospho-JNK, although the 54 kDa phosphoprotein signal was dominant in AGS, whereas the lower molecular weight band was dominant in GSM06 cells. These results demonstrate that early events in H. pylori pathogenesis occur within mouse epithelial cells similar to human cells and therefore support the use of the mouse model for the study of acute CagA-associated host cell responses. These results also indicate that reduced disease in H. pylori-infected mice may be due to lack of the Cag PAI, or by differences in the mouse response downstream of the initial activation events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Usefulness of Housekeeping Genes for the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Strain Discrimination and Detection of Multiple Infection.

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    Palau, Montserrat; Kulmann, Marcos; Ramírez-Lázaro, María José; Lario, Sergio; Quilez, María Elisa; Campo, Rafael; Piqué, Núria; Calvet, Xavier; Miñana-Galbis, David

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects human stomachs of over half the world's population, evades the immune response and establishes a chronic infection. Although most people remains asymptomatic, duodenal and gastric ulcers, MALT lymphoma and progression to gastric cancer could be developed. Several virulence factors such as flagella, lipopolysaccharide, adhesins and especially the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and the oncoprotein CagA have been described for H. pylori. Despite the extensive published data on H. pylori, more research is needed to determine new virulence markers, the exact mode of transmission or the role of multiple infection. Amplification and sequencing of six housekeeping genes (amiA, cgt, cpn60, cpn70, dnaJ, and luxS) related to H. pylori pathogenesis have been performed in order to evaluate their usefulness for the specific detection of H. pylori, the genetic discrimination at strain level and the detection of multiple infection. A total of 52 H. pylori clones, isolated from 14 gastric biopsies from 11 patients, were analyzed for this purpose. All genes were specifically amplified for H. pylori and all clones isolated from different patients were discriminated, with gene distances ranged from 0.9 to 7.8%. Although most clones isolated from the same patient showed identical gene sequences, an event of multiple infection was detected in all the genes and microevolution events were showed for amiA and cpn60 genes. These results suggested that housekeeping genes could be useful for H. pylori detection and to elucidate the mode of transmission and the relevance of the multiple infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Systematic analysis of phosphotyrosine antibodies recognizing single phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs in CagA of Western-type Helicobacter pylori strains.

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    Judith Lind

    Full Text Available The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infections is determined by multiple host-pathogen interactions that may develop to chronic gastritis, and sometimes peptic ulcers or gastric cancer. Highly virulent strains encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS that delivers the effector protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA-sequence motifs, called A, B and C in Western-type strains, by members of the oncogenic Src and Abl host kinases. Phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs mediate interactions of CagA with host signaling factors--in particular various SH2-domain containing human proteins--thereby hijacking multiple downstream signaling cascades. Observations of tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA are mainly based on the use of commercial phosphotyrosine antibodies, which originally were selected to detect phosphotyrosines in mammalian proteins. Systematic studies of phosphorylated EPIYA-motif detection by the different antibodies would be very useful, but are not yet available. To address this issue, we synthesized phospho- and non-phosphopeptides representing each predominant Western CagA EPIYA-motif, and determined the recognition patterns of seven different phosphotyrosine antibodies in Western blots, and also performed infection studies with diverse representative Western H. pylori strains. Our results show that a total of 9-11 amino acids containing the phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs are necessary and sufficient for specific detection by these antibodies, but revealed great variability in sequence recognition. Three of the antibodies recognized phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs A, B and C similarly well; whereas preferential binding to phosphorylated motif A and motifs A and C was found with two and one antibodies, respectively, and the seventh anti-phosphotyrosine antibody did not recognize any phosphorylated EPIYA-motif. Controls showed that none of the antibodies recognized the corresponding non

  7. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

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    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  8. Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis

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    Sahara Shu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with cagA-positive, cagA EPIYA motif ABD type, and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotype strains of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response and increased risk of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it is unclear whether the prevalence and virulence factor genotypes found in Southeast Asia are similar to those in Western countries. Here, we examined the cagA status and prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs and vacA genotypes among H. pylori strains found in Southeast Asia and examined their association with gastroduodenal disease. Methods To determine the cagA status, cagA EPIYA motifs, and vacA genotypes of H. pylori, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 previous reports for 1,281 H. pylori strains detected from several Southeast Asian countries. Results The respective frequencies of cagA-positive and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotypes among examined subjects were 93% (1,056/1,133, 98% (1,010/1,033, 58% (581/1,009, and 96% (248/259, respectively. Stratification showed significant variation in the frequencies of cagA status and vacA genotypes among countries and the individual races residing within each respective country. The frequency of the vacA m-region genotype in patients infected with East Asian-type strains differed significantly between the northern and southern areas of Vietnam (p vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (odds ratio: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.12, p = 0.046 and 2.83, 1.50-5.34, p = 0.001, respectively in the examined Southeast Asian populations. Conclusions Both Western- and East Asian-type strains of H. pylori are found in Southeast Asia and are predominantly cagA-positive and vacA s1 type. In Southeast Asia, patients infected with vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains have an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease. Thus, testing for this genotype and the presence of cagA may have clinical usefulness.

  9. Anti-CagA IgG Antibody is Independent from Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes

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    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori strains have two classical virulence genes, the cytotoxinassociated A (cagA gene and the vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA gene, which are located in thecag pathogenicity island (cagPAI. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies to H. pylori,especially, the CagA antigen may be a reliable marker for selection of dyspeptic patients for upperendoscopy.Methods: Serum sample of 129 dyspeptic patients with positive H. pylori, were tested for serumIgG Anti-CagA antibody by ELISA. The presence of the cagA and vacA genotypes weredetermined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR on biopsy samples taken via endoscopy.Results: Positive serum IgG anti-CagA antibodies in patients with cagA+/vacA+ and cagA+/vacA- genotypes were 22/23 (95.6% and 18/19 (94.7%, respectively. In addition, serum IgG anti-CagAantibodies in patients with cagA-/vacA+ and cagA-/vacA- genotypes were 22/47 (46.8% and 33/40(82.5%, respectively.Conclusions: It can be concluded that the serum IgG anti-CagA antibody alone could selectpatients with dyspepsia following upper endoscopy. The assessment of vacuolating cytotoxinactivity of H. Pylori is, therefore, not required, even when vacA gene is positive. This hypothesisneeds to be studied in a large number of patients with dyspepsia.

  10. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  11. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from northeastern Brazil with upper gastrointestinal diseases

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    Meyssa Quezado de Figueiredo Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastric inflammation and significantly increases the risk of duodenal and gastric ulcer disease and distal gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from a Brazilian region where there is a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate vacA mosaicism and cagA status in the gastric mucosa of 134 H. pylori-positive patients, including 76 with gastritis: 28 with peptic ulcer disease and 30 with gastric cancer. The s1m1 variant was the predominant vacA genotype observed, whereas the s1 allele was more frequently observed in patients with more severe diseases associated with H. pylori infection [p = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 5.72, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.15-38.60]. Furthermore, all of the s1 alleles were s1b. Mixed vacA m1/m2 strains were found more frequently in patients with gastric cancer and a cagA-positive status was significantly associated with gastric cancer (p = 0.016, OR = 10.36, 95% CI = 1.35-217.31. Patients with gastric cancer (21/21, 100%, p = 0.006 or peptic ulcers (20/21, 95%, p = 0.02 were more frequently colonised by more virulent H. pylori strains compared to gastritis patients (41/61, 67.2%. In conclusion, in the northeastern of Brazil, which is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of gastric cancer in the country, infection with the most virulent H. pylori strains, carrying the cagA gene and s1m1 vacA alleles, predominates and is correlated with more severe H. pylori-associated diseases.

  12. Functional association between the Helicobacter pylori virulence factors VacA and CagA.

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    Argent, Richard H; Thomas, Rachael J; Letley, Darren P; Rittig, Michael G; Hardie, Kim R; Atherton, John C

    2008-02-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence factors CagA and VacA are implicated in the development of gastroduodenal diseases. Most strains possessing CagA also possess the more virulent vacuolating form of VacA. This study assessed the significance of possession of both virulence factors in terms of their effect on gastric epithelial cells, using a set of minimally passaged, isogenic VacA, CagA and CagE mutants in H. pylori strains 60190 and 84-183. The cagA and cagE mutants were found to significantly increase VacA-induced vacuolation of epithelial cells, and the vacA mutants significantly increased CagA-induced cellular elongations, compared with wild-type strains, indicating that CagA reduces vacuolation and VacA reduces hummingbird formation. Although epithelial cells incubated with the wild-type H. pylori strains may display both vacuolation and hummingbird formation, it was found that (i) hummingbird length was significantly reduced in vacuolated cells compared with those without vacuolation; (ii) the number of vacuoles was significantly reduced in vacuolated cells with hummingbird formation compared with those without hummingbirds; and (iii) cells displaying extensive vacuolation did not subsequently form hummingbirds and vice versa. VacA did not affect the phosphorylation of CagA. These data show that VacA and CagA downregulate each other's effects on epithelial cells, potentially allowing H. pylori interaction with cells whilst avoiding excessive cellular damage.

  13. [Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors vacA and cagA in individuals from two regions in Colombia with opposing risk for gastric cancer].

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    Trujillo, Esperanza; Martínez, Teresa; Bravo, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is high in Colombia; however, in the country´s Andean region, gastric cancer rates far surpass those in coastal areas. Helicobacter pylori genotypes cagA positive and vacA s1 and m1 are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. To compare the distribution of H. pylori genotypes associated with virulence in two regions in Colombia with opposing risk for gastric cancer. Four hundred and one gastric antral biopsies were obtained and analyzed from 401 individuals diagnosed with non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: 256 came from the high-risk area cities of Tunja and Bogotá, and 145 from the low-risk area cities of Barranquilla, Santa Marta and Cartagena. Genotyping of virulence genes vacA and cagA was performed by PCR. No difference was observed in the frequency of H. pylori infection between the two areas (77.3% vs 77.9 %, p=non significant, ns). The presence of cagA was higher in the low-risk area (77.9% vs. 69.2 %, p=ns). The vacA s1 allele was also more prevalent in the low-risk area (61.8 % vs 72.0 %, p=ns). The vacA m1 allele was more prevalent in the high-risk area (57.2 % vs 42.8 %, p=ns). The cagA positive s1m1 combination was also more frequent in the low-risk area (48.9% vs 38.9%, p=ns). The differences in the risk of gastric cancer in these two geographic areas cannot be explained by differences in the prevalence of infection by H. pylori or by differences in the virulence of circulating strains.

  14. Higher frequency of cagA EPIYA-C Phosphorylation Sites in H. pylori strains from first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients

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    Queiroz Dulciene MM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the prevalence of more virulent H. pylori genotypes in relatives of gastric cancer patients and in patients without family histories of gastric cancer. Methods We evaluated prospectively the prevalence of the infection by more virulent H. pylori strains in 60 relatives of gastric cancer patients comparing the results with those obtained from 49 patients without family histories of gastric cancer. H. pylori status was determined by the urease test, histology and presence of H. pylori ureA. The cytotoxin associated gene (cagA, the cagA-EPIYA and vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA were typed by PCR and the cagA EPIYA typing was confirmed by sequencing. Results The gastric cancer relatives were significant and independently more frequently colonized by H. pylori strains with higher numbers of CagA-EPIYA-C segments (OR = 4.23, 95%CI = 1.53–11.69 and with the most virulent s1m1 vacA genotype (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 1.04–7.51. Higher numbers of EPIYA-C segments were associated with increased gastric corpus inflammation, foveolar hyperplasia and atrophy. Infection by s1m1 vacA genotype was associated with increased antral and corpus gastritis. Conclusions We demonstrated that relatives of gastric cancer patients are more frequently colonized by the most virulent H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes, which may contribute to increase the risk of gastric cancer.

  15. Differential Mechanisms for SHP2 Binding and Activation Are Exploited by Geographically Distinct Helicobacter pylori CagA Oncoproteins

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    Takeru Hayashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori East Asian CagA is more closely associated with gastric cancer than Western CagA. Here we show that, upon tyrosine phosphorylation, the East Asian CagA-specific EPIYA-D segment binds to the N-SH2 domain of pro-oncogenic SHP2 phosphatase two orders of magnitude greater than Western CagA-specific EPIYA-C. This high-affinity binding is achieved via cryptic interaction between Phe at the +5 position from phosphotyrosine in EPIYA-D and a hollow on the N-SH2 phosphopeptide-binding floor. Also, duplication of EPIYA-C in Western CagA, which increases gastric cancer risk, enables divalent high-affinity binding with SHP2 via N-SH2 and C-SH2. These strong CagA bindings enforce enzymatic activation of SHP2, which endows cells with neoplastic traits. Mechanistically, N-SH2 in SHP2 is in an equilibrium between stimulatory “relaxed” and inhibitory “squeezed” states, which is fixed upon high-affinity CagA binding to the “relaxed” state that stimulates SHP2. Accordingly, East Asian CagA and Western CagA exploit distinct mechanisms for SHP2 deregulation.

  16. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease

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    Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

  17. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease.

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    Bridge, Dacie R; Merrell, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease.

  18. Influence of Dietary Factors on Helicobacter pylori and CagA Seroprevalence in Bulgaria

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    Daniel Yordanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between some dietary factors and prevalence of H. pylori infection or strain virulence in 294 adult asymptomatic blood donors. Methods. Seroprevalence was evaluated using ELISA. Logistic regression was used. Results. Anti-H. pylori IgG prevalence was 72.4%, and CagA IgG seroprevalence was 49.3%. In the multivariate analyses, the frequent (>5 days per week honey consumption was associated with both reduced H. pylori seroprevalence OR, 0.68 with 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.473–0.967 and reduced CagA IgG seroprevalence OR, 0.65 with 95% CI, 0.486–0859. Frequent (>5 days per week yoghurt consumption also was associated with lower H. pylori virulence of the strains (CagA IgG OR, 0.56 with 95% CI, 0.341–0.921. Smoking and consumption of the other dietary factors resulted in no significant differences in the prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG within the subject groups. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing reverse associations between honey or yoghurt consumption and CagA IgG prevalence as well as between frequent honey consumption and lower prevalence of the H. pylori infection. Regular honey and yoghurt consumption can be of value as a supplement in the control of H. pylori therapy.

  19. Fabrication of CaGa2O4 nanofibers by electrospinning and CaGa2O4-assisted photodegradation of crystal violet in aqueous dispersions under visible light illumination

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    Zhou, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Zhao-Chun; Zheng, Hou-Li

    2012-01-01

    CaGa2O4 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technology. The morphology and structure of as-prepared CaGa2O4 nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Based on the three-flux approximation, the direct band gap of CaGa2O4 nanofibers was estimated from the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. From the results obtained in the photodegradation experiments, it is observed that the photodegradation of crystal violet can take place under exposure to visible light in aqueous CaGa2O4 dispersions. Mechanistically, crystal violet absorbs visible light radiation and self-sensitizes its own oxidative transformation. At low concentrations of crystal violet, the suitability of Langmuir model to describe the photoadsorption phenomenon has been checked.

  20. Detecting Highways of Horizontal Gene Transfer

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    Bansal, Mukul S.; Gogarten, J. Peter; Shamir, Ron

    In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event a gene is transferred between two species that do not share an ancestor-descendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two species. However, several studies identified pairs of species between which many different genes were horizontally transferred. Such a pair is said to be linked by a highway of gene sharing. We present a method for inferring such highways. Our method is based on the fact that the evolutionary histories of horizontally transferred genes disagree with the corresponding species phylogeny. Specifically, given a set of gene trees and a trusted rooted species tree, each gene tree is first decomposed into its constituent quartet trees and the quartets that are inconsistent with the species tree are identified. Our method finds a pair of species such that a highway between them explains the largest (normalized) fraction of inconsistent quartets. For a problem on n species, our method requires O(n 4) time, which is optimal with respect to the quartets input size. An application of our method to a dataset of 1128 genes from 11 cyanobacterial species, as well as to simulated datasets, illustrates the efficacy of our method.

  1. Differences in Helicobacter pylori CagA tyrosine phosphorylation motif patterns between western and East Asian strains, and influences on interleukin-8 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Richard H; Hale, James L; El-Omar, Emad M; Atherton, John C

    2008-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from East Asia have an 'East Asian' type of CagA that is more active and predominantly comprises a single type. Strains from other countries have a 'western' type of CagA, which is less active and comprises many different types generated by intragenomic recombination. Co-culture of AGS gastric epithelial cells with isolates of western strains that displayed microevolution in CagA showed that isolates with additional copies of the C motif induced significantly more interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. Co-culture of AGS cells with western and East Asian strains, each expressing CagA with a single copy of the C or D motif, showed that East Asian strains induced significantly more IL-8 secretion. Analysis of the different CagA types from data deposited in GenBank and from the literature showed that western CagA is significantly more likely to undergo duplication of tyrosine phosphorylation motif C than East Asian CagA is of the corresponding D motif. Taken together, the data suggest that the already highly active East Asian CagA with one D motif has no requirement to increase its virulence, whereas the less active western CagA displays flexibility in its capacity to increase its number of tyrosine phosphorylation motifs to become more virulent.

  2. Soroprevalência de anticorpos contra o antígeno CagA do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera gástrica na região Norte do Brasil Seroprevalence of antibodies against the CagA antigen the Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastric ulcer in the North region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Caricio Martins

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O Helicobacter pylori é um agente patogênico largamente distribuído no mundo, estando envolvido no desenvolvimento de várias doenças gastrointestinais. Atualmente a infecção pela cepa virulenta (CagA+ do H. pylori é considerado um dos principais fatores etiológicos para o desenvolvimento de ulcerações gástricas. Baseado nessa informação, investigamos a soroprevalência das cepas virulentas entre os pacientes com úlcera gástrica da nossa região, utilizando testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos contra o H. pylori e a proteína CagA. Sendo observado que 82% (45/55 dos pacientes estavam infectados pela cepa virulenta, entre esses 89% (40/45 apresentaram grau de inflamação aumentado na mucosa gástrica, com denso infiltrado de leucócitos no tecido, o que provavelmente favoreceu a formação das ulcerações gástricas.Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic agent with a worldwide distribution and is involved in the development of many gastrointestinal diseases. Nowadays infection with the virulent strain CagA+ of H. pylori is considered one of the main etiological factors in the development of gastric ulcer. Based on this information, we investigated the seroprevalence of virulent strains among patients with gastric ulcer from one region, using serologic tests to detect antibodies against H. pylori and CagA protein. Infection by the virulent strain was found in 82% (40/55 of the patients, and among these, 89% (40/45 presented an increased degree of inflammation in the gastric mucosa, with a dense infiltration of leukocytes in the tissue, which probably favored the formation of gastric ulcer. We concluded that the presence of the virulent strain is related to the development of an increased inflammation in the gastric mucosa.

  3. Phylogenetic detection of conserved gene clusters in microbial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brian P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial genomes contain an abundance of genes with conserved proximity forming clusters on the chromosome. However, the conservation can be a result of many factors such as vertical inheritance, or functional selection. Thus, identification of conserved gene clusters that are under functional selection provides an effective channel for gene annotation, microarray screening, and pathway reconstruction. The problem of devising a robust method to identify these conserved gene clusters and to evaluate the significance of the conservation in multiple genomes has a number of implications for comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics as well as synthetic biology. Results In this paper we describe a new method for detecting conserved gene clusters that incorporates the information captured by a genome phylogenetic tree. We show that our method can overcome the common problem of overestimation of significance due to the bias in the genome database and thereby achieve better accuracy when detecting functionally connected gene clusters. Our results can be accessed at database GeneChords http://genomics10.bu.edu/GeneChords. Conclusion The methodology described in this paper gives a scalable framework for discovering conserved gene clusters in microbial genomes. It serves as a platform for many other functional genomic analyses in microorganisms, such as operon prediction, regulatory site prediction, functional annotation of genes, evolutionary origin and development of gene clusters.

  4. Phylogenetic detection of conserved gene clusters in microbial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Anton, Brian P; Roberts, Richard J; Kasif, Simon

    2005-10-03

    Microbial genomes contain an abundance of genes with conserved proximity forming clusters on the chromosome. However, the conservation can be a result of many factors such as vertical inheritance, or functional selection. Thus, identification of conserved gene clusters that are under functional selection provides an effective channel for gene annotation, microarray screening, and pathway reconstruction. The problem of devising a robust method to identify these conserved gene clusters and to evaluate the significance of the conservation in multiple genomes has a number of implications for comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics as well as synthetic biology. In this paper we describe a new method for detecting conserved gene clusters that incorporates the information captured by a genome phylogenetic tree. We show that our method can overcome the common problem of overestimation of significance due to the bias in the genome database and thereby achieve better accuracy when detecting functionally connected gene clusters. Our results can be accessed at database GeneChords http://genomics10.bu.edu/GeneChords. The methodology described in this paper gives a scalable framework for discovering conserved gene clusters in microbial genomes. It serves as a platform for many other functional genomic analyses in microorganisms, such as operon prediction, regulatory site prediction, functional annotation of genes, evolutionary origin and development of gene clusters.

  5. Efficient strategy for detecting gene × gene joint action and its application in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Won, Sungho; Kwon, Min-Seok; Mattheisen, Manuel; Park, Suyeon; Park, Changsoon; Kihara, Daisuke; Cichon, Sven; Ophoff, Roel; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Baur, Max; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofmann, A.; Lange, Christoph; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new approach to detect gene × gene joint action in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for case-control designs. This approach offers an exhaustive search for all two-way joint action (including, as a special case, single gene action) that is computationally feasible at the

  6. Molecular detection of disease resistance genes to powdery mildew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to detect the presence of disease resistance genes to infection of wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) in selected wheat cultivars from China using molecular markers. Genomic DNA of sixty cultivars was extracted and tested for the presence of selected prominent resistance genes to ...

  7. Molecular detection of Edwardsiella tarda with gyr B gene isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 16S rRNA gene was identical and exhibited 99% sequence similarity with the other known isolates of E. tarda available in the GenBank. This paper reports the isolation and detection of E. tarda with the gyrB gene in pirarucu, A. gigas, which was exhibited in an indoor private commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea ...

  8. A gene-based information gain method for detecting gene-gene interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Huang, Dongli; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai; Lv, Hongchao; Wang, Limei

    2015-11-01

    Currently, most methods for detecting gene-gene interactions (GGIs) in genome-wide association studies are divided into SNP-based methods and gene-based methods. Generally, the gene-based methods can be more powerful than SNP-based methods. Some gene-based entropy methods can only capture the linear relationship between genes. We therefore proposed a nonparametric gene-based information gain method (GBIGM) that can capture both linear relationship and nonlinear correlation between genes. Through simulation with different odds ratio, sample size and prevalence rate, GBIGM was shown to be valid and more powerful than classic KCCU method and SNP-based entropy method. In the analysis of data from 17 genes on rheumatoid arthritis, GBIGM was more effective than the other two methods as it obtains fewer significant results, which was important for biological verification. Therefore, GBIGM is a suitable and powerful tool for detecting GGIs in case-control studies.

  9. The power of phylogenetic approaches to detect horizontally transferred genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poptsova, Maria S; Gogarten, J Peter

    2007-03-21

    Horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in evolution because it sometimes allows recipient lineages to adapt to new ecological niches. High genes transfer frequencies were inferred for prokaryotic and early eukaryotic evolution. Does horizontal gene transfer also impact phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary history of genomes and organisms? The answer to this question depends at least in part on the actual gene transfer frequencies and on the ability to weed out transferred genes from further analyses. Are the detected transfers mainly false positives, or are they the tip of an iceberg of many transfer events most of which go undetected by current methods? Phylogenetic detection methods appear to be the method of choice to infer gene transfers, especially for ancient transfers and those followed by orthologous replacement. Here we explore how well some of these methods perform using in silico transfers between the terminal branches of a gamma proteobacterial, genome based phylogeny. For the experiments performed here on average the AU test at a 5% significance level detects 90.3% of the transfers and 91% of the exchanges as significant. Using the Robinson-Foulds distance only 57.7% of the exchanges and 60% of the donations were identified as significant. Analyses using bipartition spectra appeared most successful in our test case. The power of detection was on average 97% using a 70% cut-off and 94.2% with 90% cut-off for identifying conflicting bipartitions, while the rate of false positives was below 4.2% and 2.1% for the two cut-offs, respectively. For all methods the detection rates improved when more intervening branches separated donor and recipient. Rates of detected transfers should not be mistaken for the actual transfer rates; most analyses of gene transfers remain anecdotal. The method and significance level to identify potential gene transfer events represent a trade-off between the frequency of erroneous identification (false

  10. Helicobacter pylori genotyping from American indigenous groups shows novel Amerindian vacA and cagA alleles and Asian, African and European admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce

    Full Text Available It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D, Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Genotyping from American Indigenous Groups Shows Novel Amerindian vacA and cagA Alleles and Asian, African and European Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E.; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America. PMID:22073291

  12. Helicobacter pylori genotyping from American indigenous groups shows novel Amerindian vacA and cagA alleles and Asian, African and European admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.

  13. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Adato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM. Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on "unusual" sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain.

  14. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adato, Orit; Ninyo, Noga; Gophna, Uri; Snir, Sagi

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived) genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM). Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on “unusual” sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain. PMID:26439115

  15. Detect Key Gene Information in Classification of Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Liu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We detect key information of high-dimensional microarray profiles based on wavelet analysis and genetic algorithm. Firstly, wavelet transform is employed to extract approximation coefficients at 2nd level, which remove noise and reduce dimensionality. Genetic algorithm (GA is performed to select the optimized features. Experiments are performed on four datasets, and experimental results prove that approximation coefficients are efficient way to characterize the microarray data. Furthermore, in order to detect the key genes in the classification of cancer tissue, we reconstruct the approximation part of gene profiles based on orthogonal approximation coefficients. The significant genes are selected based on reconstructed approximation information using genetic algorithm. Experiments prove that good performance of classification is achieved based on the selected key genes.

  16. Identification of feces by detection of Bacteroides genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Shojo, Hideki; Ohmori, Takeshi; Hara, Masaaki; Takada, Aya; Adachi, Noboru; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In forensic science, the identification of feces is very important in a variety of crime investigations. However, no sensitive and simple fecal identification method using molecular biological techniques has been reported. Here, we focused on the fecal bacteria, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and developed a novel fecal identification method by detection of the gene sequences specific to these bacteria in various body (feces, blood, saliva, semen, urine, vaginal fluids and skin surfaces) and forensic (anal adhesions) specimens. Bacterial gene detection was performed by real-time PCR using a minor groove binding probe to amplify the RNA polymerase β-subunit gene of B. uniformis and B. vulgatus, and the α-1-6 mannanase gene of B. thetaiotaomicron. At least one of these bacteria was detected in the feces of 20 donors; the proportions of B. uniformis, B. vulgatus and B. thetaiotaomicron were 95, 85 and 60%, respectively. Bacteroides vulgatus was also detected in one of six vaginal fluid samples, but B. thetaiotaomicron and B. uniformis were not detected in body samples other than feces. Further, we applied this method to forensic specimens from 18 donors. Eighteen anal adhesions also contained at least one of three bacteria; B. uniformis, B. vulgatus and B. thetaiotaomicron were detected in 89, 78 and 56%, respectively, of the specimens. Thus, these bacteria were present at a high frequency in the fecal and forensic specimens, while either B. uniformis or B. vulgatus was detected in all samples. Therefore, B. uniformis and B. vulgatus represent more appropriate target species than B. thetaiotaomicron for the identification of fecal material. If B. vulgatus and/or B. uniformis are detected, it is likely that the sample contains feces. Taken together, our results suggest that the use of molecular biological techniques will aid the detection of feces in forensic practice, although it is possible that the samples contained

  17. A functional gene array for detection of bacterial virulence elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C

    2007-11-01

    We report our development of the first of a series of microarrays designed to detect pathogens with known mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples. To validate our approach, we developed a first generation array targeting genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for microorganism detection and discrimination, measured the required target concentration, and assessed tolerance for mismatches between probe and target sequences. Mismatch tolerance is a priority for this application, due to DNA sequence variability among members of gene families. Arrays were created using the NimbleGen Maskless Array Synthesizer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Purified genomic DNA from combinations of one or more of the four target organisms, pure cultures of four related organisms, and environmental aerosol samples with spiked-in genomic DNA were hybridized to the arrays. Based on the success of this prototype, we plan to design further arrays in this series, with the goal of detecting all known virulence and antibiotic resistance gene families in a greatly expanded set of organisms.

  18. Detection of polymorphism in booroola gene and growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were digested using AvaII and HhaI restriction enzymes for FecB and GDF9 genes, respectively. Results: In FecB locus, two genotypes, viz, wild type (+/+) and carrier-mutants (B/+), were detected with genotype frequencies of 0.948 and 0.052, respectively. Also, at GDF9 locus, ...

  19. Detection of polymorphism in booroola gene and growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study was carried out for detection of possible polymorphisms in Booroola gene (FecB) and growth differentiation factor 9 [GDF9] in Lori sheep breed. Methods: Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of the sheep and their DNA content extracted using modified salting-out method. The quantity and ...

  20. Analysis of biofilm formation and associated gene detection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biofilm-forming ability and distribution of biofilm associated genes in clinically isolated Staphylococcus in bovine mastitis. Silver staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crystal violet staining were conducted for the detection of biofilmforming ability in 24-well plates.

  1. Detection of mesocarp oleoyl-thioesterase gene of the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The thioesterase enzyme functions in lipid synthesis by cleaving the acyl-ACP bond and liberating the fatty acid. Thioesterases have been isolated from a number of plant sources. The gene for this enzyme was detected in Elaeis oleifera by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced ...

  2. Resistance Pattern and Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamase Genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    6 days ago ... Resistance Pattern and Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamase Genes in Clinical Isolates of. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Central Nigeria Tertiary Hospital. Niger. J Clin Pract 2018 ... last resort when dealing with MDR Gram-negative bacteria, but there .... no change in the antibiotics susceptibility pattern of.

  3. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotype diversity and interferon gamma expression in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrillo, D N; Atrisco-Morales, J; Hernández-Pando, R; Reyes-Navarrete, S; Betancourt-Linares, R; Cruz-del Carmen, I; Illades Aguiar, B; Román-Román, A; Fernández-Tilapa, G

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. In H. pylori-infected individuals, the clinical result is dependent on various factors, among which are bacterial components, the immune response, and environmental influence. To compare IFN-γ expression with the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 20 with gastric cancer were included in the study. Three gastric biopsies were taken; one was used for the molecular detection and genotyping of H. pylori; another was fixed in absolute alcohol and histologic sections were made for determining IFN-γ expression through immunohistochemistry. No differences were found in the cells that expressed IFN-γ between the patients with chronic gastritis (median percentage of positive cells: 82.6% in patients without H. pylori and 82% in infected persons) and those with gastric cancer (70.5% in H. pylori-negative patients and 78.5% in infected persons). IFN-γ expression was 69% in chronic gastritis patients infected with H. pylori vacAs2m2/cagA⁻ it was 86.5% in patients infected with H. pylori vacAs1m2/cagA⁻, 86.5% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁻, and 82% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁺. Similar data were found in the patients with gastric cancer. IFN-γ expression varied depending on the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotype, but not in accordance with the presence of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer.

  4. Genome Fusion Detection: a novel method to detect fusion genes from SNP-array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Sebastian; Groth, Philip

    2013-03-15

    Fusion genes result from genomic rearrangements, such as deletions, amplifications and translocations. Such rearrangements can also frequently be observed in cancer and have been postulated as driving event in cancer development. to detect them, one needs to analyze the transition region of two segments with different copy number, the location where fusions are known to occur. Finding fusion genes is essential to understanding cancer development and may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Here we present a novel method, the Genomic Fusion Detection algorithm, to predict fusion genes on a genomic level based on SNP-array data. This algorithm detects genes at the transition region of segments with copy number variation. With the application of defined constraints, certain properties of the detected genes are evaluated to predict whether they may be fused. We evaluated our prediction by calculating the observed frequency of known fusions in both primary cancers and cell lines. We tested a set of cell lines positive for the BCR-ABL1 fusion and prostate cancers positive for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. We could detect the fusions in all positive cell lines, but not in the negative controls.

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA and IL-1β Promote the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Arévalo-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the third cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is considered the most important risk factor, mainly by the activity of its virulence factor CagA. H. pylori/CagA-induced chronic inflammation triggers a series of gastric lesions of increased severity, starting with gastritis and ending with cancer. IL-1β has been associated with tumor development and invasiveness in different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. Currently, it is not clear if there is an association between CagA and IL-1β at a cellular level. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IL-1β and CagA on MCF-10A nontransformed cells. We found evidence that both CagA and IL-1β trigger the initiation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition characterized by β-catenin nuclear translocation, increased expression of Snail1 and ZEB1, downregulation of CDH1, and morphological changes during MCF-10A acini formation. However, only CagA induced MMP9 activity and cell invasion. Our data support that IL-1β and CagA target the β-catenin pathway, with CagA leading to acquisition of a stage related to aggressive tumors.

  6. VacA, CagA, IceA and OipA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the state of vacA, cagA, oipA and iceA genotypes of H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy samples of dogs. Methods: A total of 240 gastric biopsy samples were taken from 240 dogs using gastric endoscope. All the samples were cultured and H. pylori-positive samples were analyzed for the presence ...

  7. Systematical detection of significant genes in microarray data by incorporating gene interaction relationship in biological systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Wang

    Full Text Available Many methods, including parametric, nonparametric, and Bayesian methods, have been used for detecting differentially expressed genes based on the assumption that biological systems are linear, which ignores the nonlinear characteristics of most biological systems. More importantly, those methods do not simultaneously consider means, variances, and high moments, resulting in relatively high false positive rate. To overcome the limitations, the SWang test is proposed to determine differentially expressed genes according to the equality of distributions between case and control. Our method not only latently incorporates functional relationships among genes to consider nonlinear biological system but also considers the mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis of expression profiles simultaneously. To illustrate biological significance of high moments, we construct a nonlinear gene interaction model, demonstrating that skewness and kurtosis could contain useful information of function association among genes in microarrays. Simulations and real microarray results show that false positive rate of SWang is lower than currently popular methods (T-test, F-test, SAM, and Fold-change with much higher statistical power. Additionally, SWang can uniquely detect significant genes in real microarray data with imperceptible differential expression but higher variety in kurtosis and skewness. Those identified genes were confirmed with previous published literature or RT-PCR experiments performed in our lab.

  8. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeryun Kim

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH. Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH, but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%; locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%, no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001 and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001 were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002. En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the

  9. Detection of Imprinted Genes by Single-Cell Allele-Specific Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Federico A; Stamoulis, Georgios; Garieri, Marco; Falconnet, Emilie; Ribaux, Pascale; Borel, Christelle; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2017-03-02

    Genomic imprinting results in parental-specific gene expression. Imprinted genes are involved in the etiology of rare syndromes and have been associated with common diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Standard RNA bulk cell sequencing applied to whole-tissue samples has been used to detect imprinted genes in human and mouse models. However, lowly expressed genes cannot be detected by using RNA bulk approaches. Here, we report an original and robust method that combines single-cell RNA-seq and whole-genome sequencing into an optimized statistical framework to analyze genomic imprinting in specific cell types and in different individuals. Using samples from the probands of 2 family trios and 3 unrelated individuals, 1,084 individual primary fibroblasts were RNA sequenced and more than 700,000 informative heterozygous single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were genotyped. The allele-specific coverage per gene of each SNV in each single cell was used to fit a beta-binomial distribution to model the likelihood of a gene being expressed from one and the same allele. Genes presenting a significant aggregate allelic ratio (between 0.9 and 1) were retained to identify of the allelic parent of origin. Our approach allowed us to validate the imprinting status of all of the known imprinted genes expressed in fibroblasts and the discovery of nine putative imprinted genes, thereby demonstrating the advantages of single-cell over bulk RNA-seq to identify imprinted genes. The proposed single-cell methodology is a powerful tool for establishing a cell type-specific map of genomic imprinting. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of sulfonamide resistant bacteria and resistance genes in soils

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    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Weiyu; Liu, Huifen; Wang, Xiaobo; Yang, Fan; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Pinpin; Wang, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Manure application could accelerate the environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soils. In this study, the prevalence of sulfonamide resistant bacteria and resistance genes was investigated in agricultural soils to which organic manures had been applied in Tianjin, China. Anti-sulfonamide bacteria were found in the range of 3.29 × 104 to 1.70 × 105 CFU/g dry soil, occupying 1.5% to 2.2% of total viable counts. And sulI and sulII genes were detected in all sampling sites, with relative abundances of 5.69 × 10-5 to 6.95 × 10-4 and 4.28 × 10-4 to 1.25 × 10-3 respectively. No significant correlations between cultivable sulfonamide resistant bacteria and sul genes were found in this study. While sulI showed significant positive correlation with soil organic matter. Overall, the results highlight that soil plays an important role in resistance genes capture as the environmental reservoir.

  11. Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates

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    M. Ananda Chitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP is the major pathogenic species of dogs involved in a wide variety of skin and soft tissue infections. The accessory gene regulator (agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus has been extensively studied, and it influences the expression of many virulence genes. It encodes a two-component signal transduction system that leads to down-regulation of surface proteins and up-regulation of secreted proteins during in vitro growth of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to detect and sequence analyzing the AgrA, B, and D of SP isolated from canine skin infections. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have isolated and identified SP from canine pyoderma and otitis cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Primers for SP agrA and agrBD genes were designed using online primer designing software and BLAST searched for its specificity. Amplification of the agr genes was carried out for 53 isolates of SP by PCR and sequencing of agrA, B, and D were carried out for five isolates and analyzed using DNAstar and Mega5.2 software. Results: A total of 53 (59% SP isolates were obtained from 90 samples. 15 isolates (28% were confirmed to be methicillinresistant SP (MRSP with the detection of the mecA gene. Accessory gene regulator A, B, and D genes were detected in all the SP isolates. Complete nucleotide sequences of the above three genes for five isolates were submitted to GenBank, and their accession numbers are from KJ133557 to KJ133571. AgrA amino acid sequence analysis showed that it is mainly made of alpha-helices and is hydrophilic in nature. AgrB is a transmembrane protein, and AgrD encodes the precursor of the autoinducing peptide (AIP. Sequencing of the agrD gene revealed that the 5 canine SP strains tested could be divided into three Agr specificity groups (RIPTSTGFF, KIPTSTGFF, and RIPISTGFF based on the putative AIP produced by each strain

  12. A novel basolateral type IV secretion model for the CagA oncoprotein of Helicobacter pylori

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    Silja Wessler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular junctions are crucial structural elements for the formation and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions to control homeostasis or protect against intruding pathogens in humans. Alterations in these complexes represent key events in the development and progression of numerous cancers as well as multiple infectious diseases. Many bacterial pathogens harbor type IV secretion systems (T4SSs, which translocate virulence factors into host cells to hijack cellular processes. The pathology of the gastric pathogen and type-I carcinogen Helicobacter pylori strongly depends on a T4SS encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI. This T4SS forms a needle-like pilus and its activity is accomplished by the pilus-associated factors CagL, CagI and CagY which target the host integrin-β1 receptor followed by injection of the CagA oncoprotein into non-polarized AGS gastric epithelial cells. The finding of a T4SS receptor, however, suggested the presence of a sophisticated control mechanism for the injection of CagA. In fact, integrins constitute a group of basolateral receptors, which are normally absent at apical surfaces of the polarized epithelium in vivo. Our new results demonstrate that T4SS-pilus formation during H. pylori infection of polarized epithelial cells occurs preferentially at basolateral sites, and not at apical membranes (Tegtmeyer et al., 2017. We propose a stepwise process how H. pylori interacts with components of intercellular tight junctions (TJs and adherens junctions (AJs, followed by contacting integrin-based focal adhesions to disrupt and transform the epithelial cell layer in the human stomach. The possible impact of this novel signaling cascade on pathogenesis during infection is reviewed.

  13. Increasingly branched rolling circle amplification for the cancer gene detection.

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    Li, Hongling; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Zhenmeng; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Jia, Lee

    2016-12-15

    An increasingly branched rolling circle amplification (IB-RCA) which contains a padlock probe (PP) and a structurally tailored molecular beacon (MB) was innovatively developed for highly sensitive detection of cancer gene, Kras gene codon 12. In this system, the PP can be circularized after hybridization with the precisely-matched target DNA, while the stem of MB can be also opened by target DNA, resulting in hybridization with the circularized PP to generate a long tandem single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) product. Since the MB is also designed to hybridize with ssDNA product, the newly-opened MBs are able to trigger the next RCA reactions, therapy producing branched rolling circle amplification (RCA) products and in turn leading to the increasingly branched RCA (IB-RCA). This alternately and continuously operates hybridization-based MB opening and opened MBs-triggered RCA. As a result, a great number of MBs are opened that is associated with a dramatically amplified fluorescent signal, enabling to quantify target DNA down to 100 fM. This sensing method demonstrates a new concept of IB-RCA amplification even in a simple way to efficiently transduce the fluorescence signal, accomplishing the highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Loopback rolling circle amplification for ultrasensitive detection of Kras gene.

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    Xu, Huo; Wu, Dong; Jiang, Yifan; Zhang, Rongbo; Wu, Qingzheng; Liu, Yiyun; Li, Feng; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in Kras gene may be used as a diagnostic marker and a target for treatment of the broad spectrum of human cancers. In this study, we developed a new class of amplification assay, double-hairpin molecular beacon (DHMB)-based cascade rolling circle amplification (RCA), for ultrasensitive and selective detection of Kras gene in a homogenous solution. Specifically, target DNA can hybridize with DHMB and activate cyclical target strand-displacement polymerization (CTDP) and nicking-mediated strand-displacement polymerization (NMDP). The resulting nicked/displaced fragments substantially outnumber target DNA and cause the cascade rolling circle amplification (C-RCA) and nicked fragment-induced strand-displacement polymerization (NFDP). Even if four amplification processes are designed, only DHMB, padlock probe and polymerization primer are involved. Under optimized conditions, this screening system exhibits a linear range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 100fM to 20nM), and the detection limit is down to 16fM. Moreover, the developed biosensing system offers a high assay specificity for perfectly matched target DNA, and the measured data from practical samples demonstrated the potential application in the cancer diagnoses. As a proof-of-concept genetic assay, the novel signaling strategy, as well as desirable analytical capability, would significantly benefit the development of versatile amplification gene profiling platforms, revealing great promise in biological studies and medical diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A specific A/T polymorphism in Western tyrosine phosphorylation B-motifs regulates Helicobacter pylori CagA epithelial cell interactions.

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    Xue-Song Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes the human stomach, with mixed roles in human health. The CagA protein, a key host-interaction factor, is translocated by a type IV secretion system into host epithelial cells, where its EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs are recognized by host cell kinases, leading to multiple host cell signaling cascades. The CagA TPMs have been described as type A, B, C or D, each with a specific conserved amino acid sequence surrounding EPIYA. Database searching revealed strong non-random distribution of the B-motifs (including EPIYA and EPIYT in Western H. pylori isolates. In silico analysis of Western H. pylori CagA sequences provided evidence that the EPIYT B-TPMs are significantly less associated with gastric cancer than the EPIYA B-TPMs. By generating and using a phosphorylated CagA B-TPM-specific antibody, we demonstrated the phosphorylated state of the CagA B-TPM EPIYT during H. pylori co-culture with host cells. We also showed that within host cells, CagA interaction with phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase was B-TPM tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent, and the recombinant CagA with EPIYT B-TPM had higher affinity to PI3-kinase and enhanced induction of AKT than the isogenic CagA with EPIYA B-TPM. Structural modeling of the CagA B-TPM motif bound to PI3-kinase indicated that the threonine residue at the pY+1 position forms a side-chain hydrogen bond to N-417 of PI3-kinase, which cannot be formed by alanine. During co-culture with AGS cells, an H. pylori strain with a CagA EPIYT B-TPM had significantly attenuated induction of interleukin-8 and hummingbird phenotype, compared to the isogenic strain with B-TPM EPIYA. These results suggest that the A/T polymorphisms could regulate CagA activity through interfering with host signaling pathways related to carcinogenesis, thus influencing cancer risk.

  16. The bacterial virulence factor CagA induces microbial dysbiosis that contributes to excessive epithelial cell proliferation in the Drosophila gut.

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    Tiffani Alvey Jones

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota facilitate many aspects of human health and development, but dysbiotic microbiota can promote hyperplasia and inflammation and contribute to human diseases such as cancer. Human patients infected with the gastric cancer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori have altered microbiota; however, whether dysbiosis contributes to disease in this case is unknown. Many H. pylori human disease phenotypes are associated with a potent virulence protein, CagA, which is translocated into host epithelial cells where it alters cell polarity and manipulates host-signaling pathways to promote disease. We hypothesized that CagA alone could contribute to H. pylori pathogenesis by inducing microbial dysbiosis that promotes disease. Here we use a transgenic Drosophila model of CagA expression to genetically disentangle the effects of the virulence protein CagA from that of H. pylori infection. We found that expression of CagA within Drosophila intestinal stem cells promotes excess cell proliferation and is sufficient to alter host microbiota. Rearing CagA transgenic flies germ-free revealed that the dysbiotic microbiota contributes to cell proliferation phenotypes and also elicits expression of innate immune components, Diptericin and Duox. Further investigations revealed interspecies interactions are required for this dysbiotic CagA-dependent microbiota to promote proliferation in CagA transgenic and healthy control Drosophila. Our model establishes that CagA can alter gut microbiota and exacerbate cell proliferation and immune phenotypes previously attributed to H. pylori infection. This work provides valuable new insights into the mechanisms by which interactions between a specific virulence factor and the resident microbiota can contribute to the development and progression of disease.

  17. Specific Serum Immunoglobulin G Response to Urease and CagA Antigens of Helicobacter pylori in Infected Children and Adults in a Country with High Prevalence of Infection

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    Torres, Javier; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Onofre

    2002-01-01

    Few studies have analyzed the immune response to Helicobacter pylori CagA and urease antigens across age groups in the same population. The aim of this study was to analyze the serologic immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to CagA and urease proteins in children and adults with gastrointestinal symptoms and belonging to the same population and similar socioeconomic levels. The serologic response was studied in 352 children and 293 adults with gastrointestinal symptoms. IgG antibodies against CagA and urease were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using highly purified recombinant antigens. H. pylori infection was defined as a positive result in a serologic assay using whole-cell H. pylori extracts as the antigen. We found, in H. pylori-positive children, a seroprevalence of 46.9% to CagA and 16.2% to urease, whereas in H. pylori-positive adults, a seroprevalence of 78.9% to CagA and 59% to urease was found. In children, the magnitude of the response to CagA was significantly higher and the response to urease was significantly lower than those in adults. The kinetics of serologic response to CagA and to urease across age groups was contrastably different. Whereas CagA is a strong immunogen, urease is a poor immunogen during natural infection. These differences in the humoral response may be important for the short-term or long-term outcome of the infection. These results add to our knowledge of the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:11777836

  18. Detection of attaching and effacing virulence gene of E. coli

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    Maratu Soleha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Bakteri Escherichia coli (E. coli ada yang telah bermutasi menjadi patogen yang menimbulkan berbagai penyakit seperti hemorrhagic colitis (HC, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, sepsis, pnemonia, neonatal meningitis, dan infeksi saluran kemih. Mutasi terjadi karena bakteri ini menerima transfer gen yang virulen dari bakteri lain yang hidup di sekitarnya. E. coli yang biasanya hidup normal di dalam usus manusia telah beradaptasi sehingga bisa hidup di tanah, makanan, dan saluran kemih. Penelitian ini mendeteksi gene yang virulen pada DNA isolat E. coli. Metode: Untuk deteksi E. coli yang virulen pada penelitian ini digunakan metode Real-time PCR dengan mencocokkan hasil sekuensing dengan sekuens E. coli virulen yang telah di publikasikan sebagai rujukan. Hasil: Sekuens RT PCR menggambarkan DNA gen eae pada BLAST mempunyai kesesuaian dengan rujukan segmen E. coli yang virulen. Dari sampel yang berasal dari E. coli di sekitar perairan lingkungan didapatkan gen Eae sebagai gen yang menyebabkan E. coli menjadi virulen sebesar 7,3%. Kesimpulan: E. coli yang virulen ditemukan pada sampel E. coli yang berasal dari perairan lingkungan dengan metode realtime PCR. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:41-6 Kata kunci: gen virulen E. coli, real-time PCR, perairan lingkunganAbstractBackground: Escherichia coli(E. coli bacteria have developed into pathogenic bacteria that caused diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, sepsis, pneumonia, neonatal meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Pathogenic E. coli have acquired pathogenic/virulence genes from other bacteria in their environment. E. coli that normally lived in the human gut had adapted to other niches such as soil, food and the urinary tract. This study investigated the presence of pathogenic E. coli from water samples by examining E. coli virulence genes present in E. coli genomes of water sourced isolates. Methods:This study used Real-time PCR to detect

  19. Association of LEC and tnpA Helicobacter pylori genes with gastric cancer in a Brazilian population

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    Carrilho Flair J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori seroprevalence in Brazilians varies and is dependent on socioeconomic status, sanitation conditions and ethnicity; furthermore, H. pylori is not always associated with the incidence of gastric cancer, suggesting the role of more virulent strains. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of more virulent H. pylori strains with gastric cancer. Methods DNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of thirty-four cases of gastric cancer (11 intestinal-type, 23 diffuse-type, and thirty-four of patients with endoscopic gastritis. The presence of cagPAI genes (cagA, cagA promoter, cagE, cagM, tnpB, tnpA, cagT and the left end of the cagII (LEC and babA were analyzed by PCR. Results Comparison of H. pylori isolates from gastric cancer and gastritis patients showed significant associations of tnpA and LEC with gastric cancer (73.5% [OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 2.30-19.25] and 58.8% [OR, 10.71; 95% CI, 3.07-37.28] of cases, respectively. Other cagPAI genes were detected in both groups at similar frequencies. Conclusions tnpA and LEC of H. pylori cagPAI were associated with gastric cancer; nonetheless, these results were restricted within this group of patients and further studies are needed to confirm these results in a larger sample and determine their role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  20. Association testing to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes in trio data

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    Yeonok eLee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD occurs more often among males than females in a 4:1 ratio. Among theories used to explain the causes of ASD, the X chromosome and the Y chromosome theories attribute ASD to X-linked mutation and the male-limited gene expressions on the Y chromosome, respectively. Despite the rationale of the theory, studies have failed to attribute the sex-biased ratio to the significant linkage or association on the regions of interest on X chromosome. We further study the gender biased ratio by examining the possible interaction effects between two genes in the sex chromosomes. We propose a logistic regression model with mixed effects to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes. We investigated the power and type I error rates of the approach for a range of minor allele frequencies and varying linkage disequilibrium between markers and QTLs. We also evaluated the robustness of the model to population stratification. We applied the model to a trio-family data set with an ASD affected male child to study gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes.

  1. Detection of photoactive siderophore biosynthetic genes in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärdes, Astrid; Triana, Christopher; Amin, Shady A; Green, David H; Romano, Ariel; Trimble, Lyndsay; Carrano, Carl J

    2013-06-01

    Iron is an essential element for oceanic microbial life but its low bioavailability limits microorganisms in large areas of the oceans. To acquire this metal many marine bacteria produce organic chelates that bind and transport iron (siderophores). While it has been hypothesized that the global production of siderophores by heterotrophic bacteria and some cyanobacteria constitutes the bulk of organic ligands binding iron in the ocean because stability constants of siderophores and these organic ligands are similar, and because ligand concentrations rise sharply in response to iron fertilization events, direct evidence for this proposal is lacking. This lack is due to the difficulty in characterizing these ligands due both to their extremely low concentrations and their highly heterogeneous nature. The situation for characterizing photoactive siderophores in situ is more problematic because of their expected short lifetimes in the photic zone. An alternative approach is to make use of high sensitivity molecular technology (qPCR) to search for siderophore biosynthesis genes related to the production of photoactive siderophores. In this way one can access their "biochemical potential" and utilize this information as a proxy for the presence of these siderophores in the marine environment. Here we show, using qPCR primers designed to detect biosynthetic genes for the siderophores vibrioferrin, petrobactin and aerobactin that such genes are widespread and based on their abundance, the "biochemical potential" for photoactive siderophore production is significant. Concurrently we also briefly examine the microbial biodiversity responsible for such production as a function of depth and location across a North Atlantic transect.

  2. Relationship of interleukin-1B gene promoter region polymorphism with Helicobacter pylori infection and gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Ivy Bastos; Vianna, Júlia Silveira; Halicki, Priscila Cristina Bartolomeu; Lara, Caroline; Tadiotto, Thássia Fernanda; da Silva Maciel, João Batista; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; von Groll, Andrea; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida

    2015-09-29

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. The severity of damage is determined by the interplay between environmental/behavioral factors, bacterial pathogenicity genes and host genetic polymorphisms that can influence the secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, this study aimed to identify polymorphisms in the IL-1B and IL-1RN genes and their associations with H. pylori infection, cagA gene of H. pylori, and gastroduodenal diseases. Gastric biopsy samples from 151 patients infected with H. pylori and 76 uninfected individuals were analyzed. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histology and PCR. Polymorphisms at positions -511, -31 and +3954 of the IL-1B gene were detected by PCR-RFLP, and an analysis of the VNTR polymorphism of the IL-1RN gene was performed by PCR. It was observed that the presence of the T/T genotype at position -511 and the C/C genotype at position -31 were associated with H. pylori infection and with an increased risk of gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients. Additionally, strains from patients H. pylori-positive carrying the cagA gene was significantly related with the T/T genotype at position -511 of IL-1B.  No association of polymorphisms at position +3954 of IL-1B and in the IL-1RN with H. pylori infection and with risk of severe gastric diseases was found. We demonstrated that polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-1B gene (at positions -511 and -31) are associated with an enhanced risk of H. pylori infection as well as gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients.

  3. Helicobacter pylori counteracts the apoptotic action of its VacA toxin by injecting the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells.

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    Amanda Oldani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers but is also a high risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. The most pathogenic H. pylori strains (i.e., the so-called type I strains associate the CagA virulence protein with an active VacA cytotoxin but the rationale for this association is unknown. CagA, directly injected by the bacterium into colonized epithelium via a type IV secretion system, leads to cellular morphological, anti-apoptotic and proinflammatory effects responsible in the long-term (years or decades for ulcer and cancer. VacA, via pinocytosis and intracellular trafficking, induces epithelial cell apoptosis and vacuolation. Using human gastric epithelial cells in culture transfected with cDNA encoding for either the wild-type 38 kDa C-terminal signaling domain of CagA or its non-tyrosine-phosphorylatable mutant form, we found that, depending on tyrosine-phosphorylation by host kinases, CagA inhibited VacA-induced apoptosis by two complementary mechanisms. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA prevented pinocytosed VacA to reach its target intracellular compartments. Unphosphorylated CagA triggered an anti-apoptotic activity blocking VacA-induced apoptosis at the mitochondrial level without affecting the intracellular trafficking of the toxin. Assaying the level of apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells infected with wild-type CagA(+/VacA(+H. pylori or isogenic mutants lacking of either CagA or VacA, we confirmed the results obtained in cells transfected with the CagA C-ter constructions showing that CagA antagonizes VacA-induced apoptosis. VacA toxin plays a role during H. pylori stomach colonization. However, once bacteria have colonized the gastric niche, the apoptotic action of VacA might be detrimental for the survival of H. pylori adherent to the mucosa. CagA association with VacA is thus a novel, highly ingenious microbial strategy to locally protect its

  4. MicroRNAs Up-Regulated by CagA of Helicobacter pylori Induce Intestinal Metaplasia of Gastric Epithelial Cells

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    Zhu, Yongliang; Jiang, Qiaoli; Lou, Xiaojun; Ji, Xiaowei; Wen, Zhenzhen; Wu, Jia; Tao, Haiying; Jiang, Tingting; He, Wei; Wang, Caihua; Du, Qin; Zheng, Shu; Mao, Jianshan; Huang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    CagA of Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium-derived oncogenic protein closely associated with the development of gastric cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of widespread non-coding RNAs, many of which are involved in cell growth, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. The relationship between CagA protein and miRNAs is unclear. Using mammalian miRNA profile microarrays, we found that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 expression was up-regulated in CagA-transformed cells, miRNA-1290 was up-regulated in an Erk1/2-dependent manner, and miRNA-584 was activated by NF-κB. miRNA-584 sustained Erk1/2 activities through inhibition of PPP2a activities, and miRNA-1290 activated NF-κB by knockdown of NKRF. Foxa1 was revealed to be an important target of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290. Knockdown of Foxa1 promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition significantly. Overexpression of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 induced intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells in knock-in mice. These results indicate that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 interfere with cell differentiation and remodel the tissues. Thus, the miRNA pathway is a new pathogenic mechanism of CagA. PMID:22536353

  5. Gene-Wide Analysis Detects Two New Susceptibility Genes for Alzheimer's Disease

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    Harold, Denise; Jones, Lesley; Holmans, Peter; Gerrish, Amy; Vedernikov, Alexey; Richards, Alexander; DeStefano, Anita L.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Naj, Adam C.; Sims, Rebecca; Jun, Gyungah; Bis, Joshua C.; Beecham, Gary W.; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Russo, Giancarlo; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Denning, Nicola; Smith, Albert V.; Chouraki, Vincent; Thomas, Charlene; Ikram, M. Arfan; Zelenika, Diana; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Schmidt, Helena; Kunkle, Brian; Dunstan, Melanie L.; Vronskaya, Maria; Johnson, Andrew D.; Ruiz, Agustin; Bihoreau, Marie-Thérèse; Reitz, Christiane; Pasquier, Florence; Hollingworth, Paul; Hanon, Olivier; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Campion, Dominique; Crane, Paul K.; Baldwin, Clinton; Becker, Tim; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cruchaga, Carlos; Craig, David; Amin, Najaf; Berr, Claudine; Lopez, Oscar L.; De Jager, Philip L.; Deramecourt, Vincent; Johnston, Janet A.; Evans, Denis; Lovestone, Simon; Letenneur, Luc; Hernández, Isabel; Rubinsztein, David C.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sleegers, Kristel; Goate, Alison M.; Fiévet, Nathalie; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Gill, Michael; Brown, Kristelle; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Keller, Lina; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; McGuinness, Bernadette; Larson, Eric B.; Myers, Amanda J.; Dufouil, Carole; Todd, Stephen; Wallon, David; Love, Seth; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Gallacher, John; George-Hyslop, Peter St; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Bayer, Anthony; Tsuang, Debby W.; Yu, Lei; Tsolaki, Magda; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Proitsi, Petra; Collinge, John; Sorbi, Sandro; Garcia, Florentino Sanchez; Fox, Nick C.; Hardy, John; Naranjo, Maria Candida Deniz; Bosco, Paolo; Clarke, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele; Moebus, Susanne; Mecocci, Patrizia; Zompo, Maria Del; Maier, Wolfgang; Hampel, Harald; Pilotto, Alberto; Frank-García, Ana; Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Caffarra, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Perry, William; Mayhaus, Manuel; Lannfelt, Lars; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pichler, Sabrina; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Ingelsson, Martin; Beekly, Duane; Alvarez, Victoria; Zou, Fanggeng; Valladares, Otto; Younkin, Steven G.; Coto, Eliecer; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Gu, Wei; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Pau; Mateo, Ignacio; Owen, Michael J.; Faber, Kelley M.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Combarros, Onofre; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Soininen, Hilkka; Blacker, Deborah; Mead, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H.; Bennett, David A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Fratiglioni, Laura; Holmes, Clive; de Bruijn, Renee F. A. G.; Passmore, Peter; Montine, Thomas J.; Bettens, Karolien; Rotter, Jerome I.; Brice, Alexis; Morgan, Kevin; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Kukull, Walter A.; Hannequin, Didier; Powell, John F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Ritchie, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kauwe, John S. K.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Boada, Mercè; Hiltunen, Mikko; Martin, Eden R.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rujescu, Dan; Dartigues, Jean-François; Mayeux, Richard; Tzourio, Christophe; Hofman, Albert; Nöthen, Markus M.; Graff, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Lathrop, Mark; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Farrer, Lindsay A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ramirez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls. Principal Findings In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4×10−6) and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9×10−8) which indexed novel susceptibility loci. Significance The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24922517

  6. Gene-wide analysis detects two new susceptibility genes for Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Escott-Price

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls.In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4×10-6 and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9×10-8 which indexed novel susceptibility loci.The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed El-Shenawy

    Mosaicism in · vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of specific vacA · types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration. J Biol Chem · 1995;270:17771–7. [12] Cover TL. The vacuolatingcytotoxin of H. pylori. Mol Microbiol 1996;20:241–6. [13] Van Doorn LJ, Figueiredo C, Sanna R, Pena AS, ...

  8. Detection of Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA genotypes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori(H. Pylori) is one of the most common pathogens affecting human kind, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. Invasive and non- invasive methods have been used to diagnose H. pylori infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been broadly and successfully used to ...

  9. A novel fuzzy set based multifactor dimensionality reduction method for detecting gene-gene interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Young; Leem, Sangseob; Lee, Sungyoung; Park, Taesung

    2016-12-01

    Gene-gene interaction (GGI) is one of the most popular approaches for finding the missing heritability of common complex traits in genetic association studies. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method has been widely studied for detecting GGIs. In order to identify the best interaction model associated with disease susceptibility, MDR compares all possible genotype combinations in terms of their predictability of disease status from a simple binary high(H) and low(L) risk classification. However, this simple binary classification does not reflect the uncertainty of H/L classification. We regard classifying H/L as equivalent to defining the degree of membership of two risk groups H/L. By adopting the fuzzy set theory, we propose Fuzzy MDR which takes into account the uncertainty of H/L classification. Fuzzy MDR allows the possibility of partial membership of H/L through a membership function which transforms the degree of uncertainty into a [0,1] scale. The best genotype combinations can be selected which maximizes a new fuzzy set based accuracy measure. Two simulation studies are conducted to compare the power of the proposed Fuzzy MDR with that of MDR. Our results show that Fuzzy MDR has higher power than MDR. We illustrate the proposed Fuzzy MDR by analysing bipolar disorder (BD) trait of the WTCCC dataset to detect GGI associated with BD. We propose a novel Fuzzy MDR method to detect gene-gene interaction by taking into account the uncertainly of H/L classification and show that it has higher power than MDR. Fuzzy MDR can be easily extended to handle continuous phenotypes as well. The program written in R for the proposed Fuzzy MDR is available at https://statgen.snu.ac.kr/software/FuzzyMDR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Magne Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT enables bacteria to access, share, and recombine genetic variation, resulting in genetic diversity that cannot be obtained through mutational processes alone. In most cases, the observation of evolutionary successful HGT events relies on the outcome of initially rare events that lead to novel functions in the new host, and that exhibit a positive effect on host fitness. Conversely, the large majority of HGT events occurring in bacterial populations will go undetected due to lack of replication success of transformants. Moreover, other HGT events that would be highly beneficial to new hosts can fail to ensue due to lack of physical proximity to the donor organism, lack of a suitable gene transfer mechanism, genetic compatibility, and stochasticity in tempo-spatial occurrence. Experimental attempts to detect HGT events in bacterial populations have typically focused on the transformed cells or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to reach relative population sizes that will allow their immediate identification; the exception being the unusually strong positive selection conferred by antibiotics. Most HGT events are not expected to alter the likelihood of host survival to such an extreme extent, and will confer only minor changes in host fitness. Due to the large population sizes of bacteria and the time scales involved, the process and outcome of HGT are often not amenable to experimental investigation. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacteria with differing HGT rates and resulting fitness changes is therefore necessary to guide sampling design and predict realistic time frames for detection of HGT, as it occurs in laboratory or natural settings. Here we review the key population genetic parameters, consider their complexity and highlight knowledge gaps for further research.

  11. 40 CFR 798.5300 - Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Detection of gene mutations in somatic....5300 Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture. (a) Purpose. Mammalian cell culture systems may be used to detect mutations induced by chemical substances. Widely used cell lines include...

  12. Associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA de Helicobacter pylori e úlcera duodenal em crianças no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashour Abdussalam Ali Ramadam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori é o principal agente de gastrite em seres humanos e fator de risco para úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. A evolução da infecção está relacionada a diversos fatores, inclusive bacterianos, como presença de cagA e genótipo s1-m1 do vacA, associados com o desenvolvimento de úlcera e adenocarcinoma gástrico. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA em H. pylori isolado de crianças e relacionar os achados com a doença apresentada pelo paciente. Foram estudadas 65 crianças (24 com úlcera duodenal e 41 sem úlcera gástrica ou duodenal. A pesquisa de cagA e de alelos do vacA foi feita por PCR em amostras da bactéria isoladas do estômago dos pacientes. Infecção mista foi identificada em dez (15,4% crianças. Entre os pacientes com monoinfecção, o alelo s1 foi detectado em amostras isoladas de 40 (72,7%, e o m1 em 34 (61,8%. CagA foi identificado em H. pylori isolado de 38 (69,1% pacientes. Foi observada associação entre presença de cagA e de genótipo s1-m1 (p = 10-7 e entre cagA e padrão s1-m1 com úlcera duodenal (p = 0,073 e p = 0,037, respectivamente. Em conclusão, infecção mista por H. pylori é comum em crianças brasileiras, e amostras da bactéria apresentando o alelo s1 e cagA são as mais prevalentes no nosso meio. A concomitância do alelo s1 do vacA e de cagA foi freqüentemente observada, e a associação de amostras positivas de s1 e de cagA com úlcera duodenal foi confirmada neste trabalho.

  13. Relation of atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori-CagA(+) and interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Rafaela; Une, Clas; Ramirez, Vanessa; Alpizar-Alpizar, Warner; Gonzalez, Maria-I; Ramirez, Jose-A; De Mascarel, Antoine; Cuenca, Patricia; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Megraud, Francis

    2008-11-14

    To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) CagA(+) infection and pro-inflammatory polymorphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-1RN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 consecutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA(+) was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively. In this dyspeptic population, 86% were H pylori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive for CagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associated with CagA(+) status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogen PGI/PGII < 3.4 (OR = 4.9; P < 0.04) and alcohol consumption (OR = 7.3; P < 0.02). Duodenal ulcer was associated with CagA(+) (OR = 2.9; P < 0.04) and smoking (OR = 2.4; P < 0.04). PGI < 60 microg/L as well as PGI/PGII < 3.4 were associated with CagA(+). In a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, H pylori CagA(+) is not associated with ABG, but it is a risk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associated with the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population.

  14. Impact of Cytotoxin-Associated Gene Product-A Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Available data on the possible association between Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM) are contradictory. The prevalence of cytotoxin associated gene product A (cagA) positive H. pylori is high in Egypt. This study aims to examine its association with type 2 DM, and its effect on ...

  15. Application of gene detection technique in the antenatal diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Gu, M-S; Suo, F; Wang, C-X; Liu, X-H; Liu, F-M

    2017-04-01

    Gene chip and gene sequencing techniques were used to detect the main pathogenic genes in pregnant women with hereditary hearing loss. From May 2015 to May 2016, 1080 pregnant in Xuzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital were enrolled in this study. Women age range was 18 to 40 years. 4 genes and 9 mutation sites, including 4 sites (35delG, 176, 235delC and 299) in GJB2 gene, 2 sites (2168A>G and IVS-7-2A>G) in SLC26A4 (PDS) gene, 2 sites (1494C>T and 1555A>G) in 12s rRNA gene and 1 site (538C>T) in GJB3 gene, were detected using the GeeDom® 9-item hereditary hearing loss gene detection kit. Deafness genes in the husband of the pregnant woman with GJB2 and SLC26A4 positive gene mutations were verified using Sanger sequencing. Fetuses with the same deafness genes as their parents were diagnosed before delivery using amniocentesis. 48 patients (4.45 %) were detected positive for hereditary hearing loss. Most of them (28 cases) were identified with GJB2 gene mutation (1 case with 176 site mutation, 22 cases with 235delC site mutation and 5 cases with 299 site mutation). We had 15 cases of the SLC26A4 gene mutation (3 cases of 2168A>G site mutation and 12 cases of IVS-7-2A>G site mutation), 2 cases of 538C>T site mutation of GJB3 gene and 3 cases of 1555A>G site mutation of 12s rRNA gene. The gene detection technique has a great health-economic significance in screening the main pathogenic genes involved in the hereditary hearing loss.

  16. Higher number of Helicobacter pylori CagA EPIYA C phosphorylation sites increases the risk of gastric cancer, but not duodenal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rodrigo C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Bacterial virulence factors such as CagA have been shown to increase the risk of both diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role for CagA EPIYA polymorphisms in gastric carcinogenesis, and it has been shown to be geographically diverse. We studied associations between H. pylori CagA EPIYA patterns and gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer, in an ethnically admixed Western population from Brazil. CagA EPIYA was determined by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. A total of 436 patients were included, being 188 with gastric cancer, 112 with duodenal ulcer and 136 with gastritis. Results The number of EPIYA C segments was significantly associated with the increased risk of gastric carcinoma (OR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.74 to 5.45, p -3 even after adjustment for age and gender. Higher number of EPIYA C segments was also associated with gastric atrophy (p = 0.04 and intestinal metaplasia (p = 0.007. Furthermore, patients infected by cagA strains possessing more than one EPIYA C segment showed decreased serum levels of pepsinogen I in comparison with those infected by strains containing one or less EPIYA C repeat. Otherwise, the number of EPIYA C segments did not associate with duodenal ulcer. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that infection with H. pylori strains harbouring more than one CagA EPIYA C motif was clearly associated with gastric cancer, but not with duodenal ulcer. Higher number of EPIYA C segments was also associated with gastric precancerous lesions as demonstrated by histological gastric atrophic and metaplastic changes and decreased serum levels of pepsinogen I.

  17. Molecular interactions between MUC1 epithelial mucin, β-catenin, and CagA proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eGuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-8-driven neutrophil infiltration of the gastric mucosa is pathognomonic of persistent Helicobacter pylori infection. Our prior study showed that ectopic over-expression of MUC1 in human AGS gastric epithelial cells reduced H. pylori-stimulated IL-8 production compared with cells expressing MUC1 endogenously. Conversely, Muc1 knockout (Muc1-/- mice displayed an increased level of transcripts encoding the keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC, the murine equivalent of human IL-8, in gastric mucosa compared with Muc1(+/+ mice during experimental H. pylori infection. The current study tested the hypothesis that a decreased IL-8 level observed following MUC1 over-expression is mediated through the ability of MUC1 to associate with β-catenin, thereby inhibiting H. pylori-induced β-catenin nuclear translocation. Increased neutrophil infiltration of the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected Muc1(-/- mice was observed compared with Muc1(+/+ wild type littermates, thus defining the functional consequences of increased KC expression in the Muc1-null animals. Protein co-immunoprecipitation (coIP studies using lysates of untreated or H. pylori-treated AGS cells demonstrated that (a MUC1 formed a coIP complex with β-catenin and CagA, (b MUC1 over-expression reduced CagA/β-catenin coIP, and (c in the absence of MUC1 over-expression, H. pylori infection increased the nuclear level of β-catenin, (d whereas MUC1 over-expression decreased bacteria-driven β-catenin nuclear localization. These results suggest that manipulation of MUC1 expression in gastric epithelia may be an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit H. pylori-dependent IL-8 production, neutrophil infiltration, and stomach inflammation.

  18. Helicobacter pylori CagA triggers expression of the bactericidal lectin REG3γ via gastric STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Syin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of what is known about the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori cytotoxin, CagA, pertains to a much-vaunted role as a determinant of gastric inflammation and cancer. Little attention has been devoted to potential roles of CagA in the majority of H. pylori infected individuals not showing oncogenic progression, particularly in relation to host tolerance. Regenerating islet-derived (REG3γ encodes a secreted C-type lectin that exerts direct bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria in the intestine. Here, we extend this paradigm of lectin-mediated innate immunity, showing that REG3γ expression is triggered by CagA in the H. pylori-infected stomach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human gastric mucosal tissues, REG3γ expression was significantly increased in CagA-positive, compared to CagA-negative H. pylori infected individuals. Using transfected CagA-inducible gastric MKN28 cells, we recapitulated REG3γ induction in vitro, also showing that tyrosine phosphorylated, not unphosphorylated CagA triggers REG3γ transcription. In concert with induced REG3γ, pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the gp130 cytokine co-receptor via the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and transcription of two cognate ligands, interleukin(IL-11 and IL-6, were significantly increased. Exogenous IL-11, but not IL-6, directly stimulated STAT3 activation and REG3γ transcription. STAT3 siRNA knockdown or IL-11 receptor blockade respectively abrogated or subdued CagA-dependent REG3γ mRNA induction, thus demonstrating a requirement for uncompromised signalling via the IL-11/STAT3 pathway. Inhibition of the gp130-related SHP2-(Ras-ERK pathway did not affect CagA-dependent REG3γ induction, but strengthened STAT3 activation as well as augmenting transcription of mucosal innate immune regulators, IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-response factor (IRF1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a model of CagA-directed REG3

  19. Detecting Sequence Homology at the Gene Cluster Level with MultiGeneBlast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer; Nowick, Katja

    The genes encoding many biomolecular systems and pathways are genomically organized in operons or gene clusters. With MultiGeneBlast, we provide a user-friendly and effective tool to perform homology searches with operons or gene clusters as basic units, instead of single genes. The

  20. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TasA, the gene which play an important role in bacteria development, physiology and bacteria biofilm formation in Bacillus species was detected in the endophytic bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. In ten endophytic Bacillus strains tested, TasA gene was readily detected in Bacillus ...

  1. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  2. Detection of sulfonamide resistance genes via in situ PCR-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnida, Anna; Kunda, Katarzyna; Ziembińska, Aleksandra; Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Felis, Ewa; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rising use of antibiotics and as a consequence of their concentration in the environment an increasing number of antibiotic resistant bacteria is observed. The phenomenon has a hazardous impact on human and animal life. Sulfamethoxazole is one of the sulfonamides commonly detected in surface waters and soil. The aim of the study was to detect sulfamethoxazole resistance genes in activated sludge biocenosis by use of in situ PCR and/or hybridization. So far no FISH probes for the detection of SMX resistance genes have been described in the literature. We have tested common PCR primers used for SMX resistance genes detection as FISH probes as well as a combination of in situ PCR and FISH. Despite the presence of SMX resistance genes in activated sludge confirmed via traditional PCR, the detection of the genes via microscopic visualization failed.

  3. Bioinformatics analysis and detection of gelatinase encoded gene in Lysinibacillussphaericus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repin, Rul Aisyah Mat; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Shahimi, Safiyyah; Khalid, Rozida Mohd.; Ayob, Mohd. Khan; Bakar, Mohd. Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis toward genome sequence of Lysinibacillussphaericus (L. sphaericus) to determine gene encoded for gelatinase. L. sphaericus was isolated from soil and gelatinase species-specific bacterium to porcine and bovine gelatin. This bacterium offers the possibility of enzymes production which is specific to both species of meat, respectively. The main focus of this research is to identify the gelatinase encoded gene within the bacteria of L. Sphaericus using bioinformatics analysis of partially sequence genome. From the research study, three candidate gene were identified which was, gelatinase candidate gene 1 (P1), NODE_71_length_93919_cov_158.931839_21 which containing 1563 base pair (bp) in size with 520 amino acids sequence; Secondly, gelatinase candidate gene 2 (P2), NODE_23_length_52851_cov_190.061386_17 which containing 1776 bp in size with 591 amino acids sequence; and Thirdly, gelatinase candidate gene 3 (P3), NODE_106_length_32943_cov_169.147919_8 containing 1701 bp in size with 566 amino acids sequence. Three pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed and namely as, F1, R1, F2, R2, F3 and R3 were targeted short sequences of cDNA by PCR. The amplicons were reliably results in 1563 bp in size for candidate gene P1 and 1701 bp in size for candidate gene P3. Therefore, the results of bioinformatics analysis of L. Sphaericus resulting in gene encoded gelatinase were identified.

  4. Genome-Wide Detection and Analysis of Multifunctional Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, Yuri; Ghersi, Dario; Singh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Many genes can play a role in multiple biological processes or molecular functions. Identifying multifunctional genes at the genome-wide level and studying their properties can shed light upon the complexity of molecular events that underpin cellular functioning, thereby leading to a better understanding of the functional landscape of the cell. However, to date, genome-wide analysis of multifunctional genes (and the proteins they encode) has been limited. Here we introduce a computational approach that uses known functional annotations to extract genes playing a role in at least two distinct biological processes. We leverage functional genomics data sets for three organisms—H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, and S. cerevisiae—and show that, as compared to other annotated genes, genes involved in multiple biological processes possess distinct physicochemical properties, are more broadly expressed, tend to be more central in protein interaction networks, tend to be more evolutionarily conserved, and are more likely to be essential. We also find that multifunctional genes are significantly more likely to be involved in human disorders. These same features also hold when multifunctionality is defined with respect to molecular functions instead of biological processes. Our analysis uncovers key features about multifunctional genes, and is a step towards a better genome-wide understanding of gene multifunctionality. PMID:26436655

  5. An empirical fuzzy multifactor dimensionality reduction method for detecting gene-gene interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Sangseob; Park, Taesung

    2017-03-14

    Detection of gene-gene interaction (GGI) is a key challenge towards solving the problem of missing heritability in genetics. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method has been widely studied for detecting GGIs. MDR reduces the dimensionality of multi-factor by means of binary classification into high-risk (H) or low-risk (L) groups. Unfortunately, this simple binary classification does not reflect the uncertainty of H/L classification. Thus, we proposed Fuzzy MDR to overcome limitations of binary classification by introducing the degree of membership of two fuzzy sets H/L. While Fuzzy MDR demonstrated higher power than that of MDR, its performance is highly dependent on the several tuning parameters. In real applications, it is not easy to choose appropriate tuning parameter values. In this work, we propose an empirical fuzzy MDR (EF-MDR) which does not require specifying tuning parameters values. Here, we propose an empirical approach to estimating the membership degree that can be directly estimated from the data. In EF-MDR, the membership degree is estimated by the maximum likelihood estimator of the proportion of cases(controls) in each genotype combination. We also show that the balanced accuracy measure derived from this new membership function is a linear function of the standard chi-square statistics. This relationship allows us to perform the standard significance test using p-values in the MDR framework without permutation. Through two simulation studies, the power of the proposed EF-MDR is shown to be higher than those of MDR and Fuzzy MDR. We illustrate the proposed EF-MDR by analyzing Crohn's disease (CD) and bipolar disorder (BD) in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) dataset. We propose an empirical Fuzzy MDR for detecting GGI using the maximum likelihood of the proportion of cases(controls) as the membership degree of the genotype combination. The program written in R for EF-MDR is available at http://statgen.snu.ac.kr/software/EF-MDR .

  6. Robust multi-tissue gene panel for cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talantov Dmitri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have identified a set of genes whose relative mRNA expression levels in various solid tumors can be used to robustly distinguish cancer from matching normal tissue. Our current feature set consists of 113 gene probes for 104 unique genes, originally identified as differentially expressed in solid primary tumors in microarray data on Affymetrix HG-U133A platform in five tissue types: breast, colon, lung, prostate and ovary. For each dataset, we first identified a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in tumor vs. normal tissue at p-value = 0.05 using an experimentally derived error model. Our common cancer gene panel is the intersection of these sets of significantly dysregulated genes and can distinguish tumors from normal tissue on all these five tissue types. Methods Frozen tumor specimens were obtained from two commercial vendors Clinomics (Pittsfield, MA and Asterand (Detroit, MI. Biotinylated targets were prepared using published methods (Affymetrix, CA and hybridized to Affymetrix U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix, CA. Expression values for each gene were calculated using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis software MAS 5.0. We then used a software package called Genes@Work for differential expression discovery, and SVM light linear kernel for building classification models. Results We validate the predictability of this gene list on several publicly available data sets generated on the same platform. Of note, when analysing the lung cancer data set of Spira et al, using an SVM linear kernel classifier, our gene panel had 94.7% leave-one-out accuracy compared to 87.8% using the gene panel in the original paper. In addition, we performed high-throughput validation on the Dana Farber Cancer Institute GCOD database and several GEO datasets. Conclusions Our result showed the potential for this panel as a robust classification tool for multiple tumor types on the Affymetrix platform, as well as other whole genome arrays

  7. Detection of polymorphisms in leptin gene using single strand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    regulation of feed intake, energy metabolism, growth and reproduction in cattle. The genetic variation of ... coding region of a gene may lead to change in amino acids which alter expressed protein(s), and although ... genetic variations of the entire leptin gene in Sahiwal cattle using a non-radioactive PCR-SSCP technique.

  8. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. RESULTS: Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  9. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-05-18

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  10. Molecular detection of carbapenemase-producing genes in referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and confirmed one or more carbapenemase-producing genes in 68% of isolates, the most common organism being Klebsiella pneumoniae. (60%). The most common carbapenemase genes were blaNDM, followed by blaOXA-48 and its variants. BlaOXA-48 and its variants demonstrated non-susceptibility to ertapenem in ...

  11. The importance of vacA, cagA, and iceA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NLA; van Zwet, AA; Thijs, JC; Kooistra-Smid, AMD; van Slochteren, KR; Degener, JE; Kleibeuker, JH; van Doorn, LJ

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the presence of H. pylori virulence factors and clinical outcome in H. pylori infected patients. METHODS: DNA was isolated from an antral biopsy sample and vacA, cagA, and iceA genotype were determined by PCR and a reverse hybridization technique in 183

  12. Detection of horizontal transfer of individual genes by anomalous oligomer frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jeff; Liu, Hailan; Taton, Arnaud

    2012-06-15

    Understanding the history of life requires that we understand the transfer of genetic material across phylogenetic boundaries. Detecting genes that were acquired by means other than vertical descent is a basic step in that process. Detection by discordant phylogenies is computationally expensive and not always definitive. Many have used easily computed compositional features as an alternative procedure. However, different compositional methods produce different predictions, and the effectiveness of any method is not well established. The ability of octamer frequency comparisons to detect genes artificially seeded in cyanobacterial genomes was markedly increased by using as a training set those genes that are highly conserved over all bacteria. Using a subset of octamer frequencies in such tests also increased effectiveness, but this depended on the specific target genome and the source of the contaminating genes. The presence of high frequency octamers and the GC content of the contaminating genes were important considerations. A method comprising best practices from these tests was devised, the Core Gene Similarity (CGS) method, and it performed better than simple octamer frequency analysis, codon bias, or GC contrasts in detecting seeded genes or naturally occurring transposons. From a comparison of predictions with phylogenetic trees, it appears that the effectiveness of the method is confined to horizontal transfer events that have occurred recently in evolutionary time. The CGS method may be an improvement over existing surrogate methods to detect genes of foreign origin.

  13. Detection of horizontal transfer of individual genes by anomalous oligomer frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the history of life requires that we understand the transfer of genetic material across phylogenetic boundaries. Detecting genes that were acquired by means other than vertical descent is a basic step in that process. Detection by discordant phylogenies is computationally expensive and not always definitive. Many have used easily computed compositional features as an alternative procedure. However, different compositional methods produce different predictions, and the effectiveness of any method is not well established. Results The ability of octamer frequency comparisons to detect genes artificially seeded in cyanobacterial genomes was markedly increased by using as a training set those genes that are highly conserved over all bacteria. Using a subset of octamer frequencies in such tests also increased effectiveness, but this depended on the specific target genome and the source of the contaminating genes. The presence of high frequency octamers and the GC content of the contaminating genes were important considerations. A method comprising best practices from these tests was devised, the Core Gene Similarity (CGS) method, and it performed better than simple octamer frequency analysis, codon bias, or GC contrasts in detecting seeded genes or naturally occurring transposons. From a comparison of predictions with phylogenetic trees, it appears that the effectiveness of the method is confined to horizontal transfer events that have occurred recently in evolutionary time. Conclusions The CGS method may be an improvement over existing surrogate methods to detect genes of foreign origin. PMID:22702893

  14. Detection of horizontal transfer of individual genes by anomalous oligomer frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhai Jeff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the history of life requires that we understand the transfer of genetic material across phylogenetic boundaries. Detecting genes that were acquired by means other than vertical descent is a basic step in that process. Detection by discordant phylogenies is computationally expensive and not always definitive. Many have used easily computed compositional features as an alternative procedure. However, different compositional methods produce different predictions, and the effectiveness of any method is not well established. Results The ability of octamer frequency comparisons to detect genes artificially seeded in cyanobacterial genomes was markedly increased by using as a training set those genes that are highly conserved over all bacteria. Using a subset of octamer frequencies in such tests also increased effectiveness, but this depended on the specific target genome and the source of the contaminating genes. The presence of high frequency octamers and the GC content of the contaminating genes were important considerations. A method comprising best practices from these tests was devised, the Core Gene Similarity (CGS method, and it performed better than simple octamer frequency analysis, codon bias, or GC contrasts in detecting seeded genes or naturally occurring transposons. From a comparison of predictions with phylogenetic trees, it appears that the effectiveness of the method is confined to horizontal transfer events that have occurred recently in evolutionary time. Conclusions The CGS method may be an improvement over existing surrogate methods to detect genes of foreign origin.

  15. Power of grammatical evolution neural networks to detect gene-gene interactions in the presence of error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Anna C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of increasingly efficient means to obtain genetic information, a great insurgence of data has resulted, leading to the need for methods for analyzing this data beyond that of traditional parametric statistical approaches. Recently we introduced Grammatical Evolution Neural Network (GENN, a machine-learning approach to detect gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, also known as epistasis, in high dimensional genetic epidemiological data. GENN has been shown to be highly successful in a range of simulated data, but the impact of error common to real data is unknown. In the current study, we examine the power of GENN to detect interesting interactions in the presence of noise due to genotyping error, missing data, phenocopy, and genetic heterogeneity. Additionally, we compare the performance of GENN to that of another computational method – Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR. Findings GENN is extremely robust to missing data and genotyping error. Phenocopy in a dataset reduces the power of both GENN and MDR. GENN is reasonably robust to genetic heterogeneity and find that in some cases GENN has substantially higher power than MDR to detect functional loci in the presence of genetic heterogeneity. Conclusion GENN is a promising method to detect gene-gene interaction, even in the presence of common types of error found in real data.

  16. Power of grammatical evolution neural networks to detect gene-gene interactions in the presence of error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Fanelli, Theresa J; Davis, Anna C; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2008-08-13

    With the advent of increasingly efficient means to obtain genetic information, a great insurgence of data has resulted, leading to the need for methods for analyzing this data beyond that of traditional parametric statistical approaches. Recently we introduced Grammatical Evolution Neural Network (GENN), a machine-learning approach to detect gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, also known as epistasis, in high dimensional genetic epidemiological data. GENN has been shown to be highly successful in a range of simulated data, but the impact of error common to real data is unknown. In the current study, we examine the power of GENN to detect interesting interactions in the presence of noise due to genotyping error, missing data, phenocopy, and genetic heterogeneity. Additionally, we compare the performance of GENN to that of another computational method - Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR). GENN is extremely robust to missing data and genotyping error. Phenocopy in a dataset reduces the power of both GENN and MDR. GENN is reasonably robust to genetic heterogeneity and find that in some cases GENN has substantially higher power than MDR to detect functional loci in the presence of genetic heterogeneity. GENN is a promising method to detect gene-gene interaction, even in the presence of common types of error found in real data.

  17. Candidate Genes for Nonsyndromic Cleft Palate Detected by Exome Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, A K; Drichel, D; van de Vorst, M; Böhmer, A C; Sivalingam, S; Ishorst, N; Klamt, J; Gölz, L; Alblas, M; Maaser, A; Keppler, K; Zink, A M; Dixon, M J; Dixon, J; Hemprich, A; Kruse, T; Graf, I; Dunsche, A; Schmidt, G; Daratsianos, N; Nowak, S; Aldhorae, K A; Nöthen, M M; Knapp, M; Thiele, H; Gilissen, C; Reutter, H; Hoischen, A; Mangold, E; Ludwig, K U

    2017-10-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) is a facial malformation that has a livebirth prevalence of 1 in 2,500. Research suggests that the etiology of nsCPO is multifactorial, with a clear genetic component. To date, genome-wide association studies have identified only 1 conclusive common variant for nsCPO, that is, a missense variant in the gene grainyhead-like-3 ( GRHL3). Thus, the underlying genetic causes of nsCPO remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at identifying rare variants that might contribute to nsCPO risk, via whole-exome sequencing (WES), in multiply affected Central European nsCPO pedigrees. WES was performed in 2 affected first-degree relatives from each family. Variants shared between both individuals were analyzed for their potential deleterious nature and a low frequency in the general population. Genes carrying promising variants were annotated for 1) reported associations with facial development, 2) multiple occurrence of variants, and 3) expression in mouse embryonic palatal shelves. This strategy resulted in the identification of a set of 26 candidate genes that were resequenced in 132 independent nsCPO cases and 623 independent controls of 2 different ethnicities, using molecular inversion probes. No rare loss-of-function mutation was identified in either WES or resequencing step. However, we identified 2 or more missense variants predicted to be deleterious in each of 3 genes ( ACACB, PTPRS, MIB1) in individuals from independent families. In addition, the analyses identified a novel variant in GRHL3 in 1 patient and a variant in CREBBP in 2 siblings. Both genes underlie different syndromic forms of CPO. A plausible hypothesis is that the apparently nonsyndromic clefts in these 3 patients might represent hypomorphic forms of the respective syndromes. In summary, the present study identified rare variants that might contribute to nsCPO risk and suggests candidate genes for further investigation.

  18. Detection of a Yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Giles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for Yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus and of mice (Mus musculus and Apodemus sylvaticus using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. Samples were from urban locations in the UK (Liverpool and Canada (Vancouver. The results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of Yersinia pestis, so caution should be taken when using this gene as a diagnostic marker.

  19. Use of artificial genomes in assessing methods for atypical gene detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K Azad

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Parametric methods for identifying laterally transferred genes exploit the directional mutational biases unique to each genome. Yet the development of new, more robust methods--as well as the evaluation and proper implementation of existing methods--relies on an arbitrary assessment of performance using real genomes, where the evolutionary histories of genes are not known. We have used the framework of a generalized hidden Markov model to create artificial genomes modeled after genuine genomes. To model a genome, "core" genes--those displaying patterns of mutational biases shared among large numbers of genes--are identified by a novel gene clustering approach based on the Akaike information criterion. Gene models derived from multiple "core" gene clusters are used to generate an artificial genome that models the properties of a genuine genome. Chimeric artificial genomes--representing those having experienced lateral gene transfer--were created by combining genes from multiple artificial genomes, and the performance of the parametric methods for identifying "atypical" genes was assessed directly. We found that a hidden Markov model that included multiple gene models, each trained on sets of genes representing the range of genotypic variability within a genome, could produce artificial genomes that mimicked the properties of genuine genomes. Moreover, different methods for detecting foreign genes performed differently--i.e., they had different sets of strengths and weaknesses--when identifying atypical genes within chimeric artificial genomes.

  20. Use of Artificial Genomes in Assessing Methods for Atypical Gene Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Parametric methods for identifying laterally transferred genes exploit the directional mutational biases unique to each genome. Yet the development of new, more robust methods-as well as the evaluation and proper implementation of existing methods-relies on an arbitrary assessment of performance using real genomes, where the evolutionary histories of genes are not known. We have used the framework of a generalized hidden Markov model to create artificial genomes modeled after genuine genomes. To model a genome, "core" genes-those displaying patterns of mutational biases shared among large numbers of genes-are identified by a novel gene clustering approach based on the Akaike information criterion. Gene models derived from multiple "core" gene clusters are used to generate an artificial genome that models the properties of a genuine genome. Chimeric artificial genomes-representing those having experienced lateral gene transfer-were created by combining genes from multiple artificial genomes, and the performance of the parametric methods for identifying "atypical" genes was assessed directly. We found that a hidden Markov model that included multiple gene models, each trained on sets of genes representing the range of genotypic variability within a genome, could produce artificial genomes that mimicked the properties of genuine genomes. Moreover, different methods for detecting foreign genes performed differently-i.e., they had different sets of strengths and weaknesses-when identifying atypical genes within chimeric artificial genomes.

  1. Molecular Detection of Virulence Genes and Antibiotic Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause diarrhea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, virulence genes and antibiotic resistance patterns of E. coli. O157:H7 in raw beef meat sold in Abeokuta, South ...

  2. Analysis of biofilm formation and associated gene detection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... There was no obvious difference between the frequencies of agr in the biofilm- positive strains and biofilm-negative ... Key words: Bovine mastitis Staphylococcus, biofilm, silver staining, crystal violet staining. INTRODUCTION ..... genes after their expression in prokaryotic cells. REFERENCES. Chen W ...

  3. Molecular Detection of Virulence Genes and Antibiotic Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause diarrhea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, virulence genes and antibiotic resistance patterns of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef meat sold in Abeokuta, South west Nigeria ...

  4. Detecting cognizable trends of gene expression in a time series ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose a bootstrap algorithm to identify 'cognizable' 'time-trends' of gene expression. Properties of the proposed algorithm are derived using a simulation study. The proposed algorithm captured known 'time-trends' in the simulated data with a high probability of success, even when sample sizes were small (n<10).

  5. Gene detection and expression profiling of Neisseria meningitidis using NanoString nCounter platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekletsion, Yenenesh K; Christensen, Hannah; Finn, Adam

    2018-02-07

    Detection of bacterial gene transcripts in low density mucosal samples is challenging. We evaluated the NanoString nCounter system for transcript detection in Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) cultures. The method was sensitive, reproducible (R 2  = 0.99) and demonstrated changes in gene expression. Studying Nm transcripts from pharyngeal samples may be feasible using this approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modularity-based credible prediction of disease genes and detection of disease subtypes on the phenotype-gene heterogeneous network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Hao, Han; Li, Yanda; Li, Shao

    2011-05-20

    disease subtypes detection. The CIPHER-HIT method presented here is effective for network inference, particularly on credible prediction of disease genes and the subtype analysis of diseases, for example Breast cancer. This method provides a promising way to analyze heterogeneous biological networks, both globally and locally.

  7. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; de Oliveira, Adilson; Martins, Patrícia Yoshida Faccioli; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-09-14

    Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly producing the non-classical enterotoxins seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates.

  8. Gene-wide analysis detects two new susceptibility genes for Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Escott-Price, Valentina; Bellenguez, Céline; Wang, Li-San; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Harold, Denise; Jones, Lesley; Holmans, Peter; Gerrish, Amy; Vedernikov, Alexey; Richards, Alexander; DeStefano, Anita L.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Naj, Adam C.; Sims, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over...

  9. Patrón de los motivos EPIYA de cepas cubanas de Helicobacter pylori positivas para CagA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino E. Torres

    2012-03-01

    Conclusión. La mayoría de los aislamientos cubanos presentaron las combinaciones de motivos EPIYA menos virulentas (ABC. Los resultados del empleo de los nuevos cebadores y el análisis de la secuenciación, confirmaron que todas las cepas estudiadas portaban el gen cagA de tipo occidental. Ninguno de los patrones específicos de EPIYA se asoció con úlcera péptica. Este es el primer reporte que muestra la distribución de los motivos EPIYA en los aislamientos de H. pylori de la región del Caribe.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i1.453

  10. Molecular detection of six virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates detected in children with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badamchi, Ali; Masoumi, Hossein; Javadinia, Shima; Asgarian, Ramin; Tabatabaee, Azardokht

    2017-06-01

    Although a vast majority of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by E. coli, epidemiological reports have indicated an increasing rate of such infections caused by some other opportunistic organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenesis mechanisms of P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect some virulence factor genes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates detected in patients with UTI, in children hospital of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Eighty-four Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Then, the presence of six virulence genes, in the genome of the isolates was evaluated using PCR amplifications techniques. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. According to the results, lasB was the most prevalent virulence gene that could be detected in the P. aeruginosa isolates (92.9%) used in this study. This was followed by aprA (81.2%), toxA (69.4%), and algD (60%) genes. Two genes, plcH and plcN, were detected in about 38.8% of the isolates. Additionally, Imipenem was found as the most active agent against the P. aeruginosa isolates used in this research. However, Cefotaxime resistance was observed in most of the isolates. Our P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited a great degree of heterogeneity not only in their virulence genes but also in their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Imipenem therapies tend to be among the best choices in the management of UTI caused by P. aeruginosa. As a conclusion, assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and also analyzing the virulence factors can be highly helpful to develop effective treatment strategies against P. aeruginosa urinary infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Detection of mutations in genes by specific LNA primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting variant nucleic acid whose nucleotide sequence differs from one another at a single (or more) position(s). The method uses a set of chimeric oligonucleotides containing DNA monomers and monomers of a novel class of DNA analogues, locked nucle...

  12. Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis genes in transgenic maize by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We optimized the PCR method to detect genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in open quarantine fields in Kenya. Many factors affect the extraction of the DNA from plants, such as the amount of tissue available, the condition of the plant material, the numbers of steps involved in the extraction procedure, ...

  13. Fast and sensitive detection of indels induced by precise gene targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Steentoft, Catharina; Hauge, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    The nuclease-based gene editing tools are rapidly transforming capabilities for altering the genome of cells and organisms with great precision and in high throughput studies. A major limitation in application of precise gene editing lies in lack of sensitive and fast methods to detect...... and characterize the induced DNA changes. Precise gene editing induces double-stranded DNA breaks that are repaired by error-prone non-homologous end joining leading to introduction of insertions and deletions (indels) at the target site. These indels are often small and difficult and laborious to detect...

  14. Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of Aichi viruses detected from Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dey, Shuvra Kanti; Phan, Tung Gia; Hoang, Le Phuc; Maneekarn, Niwat; Okitsu, Shoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of Aichi viruses was performed on 12 strains detected in Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam during 2002-2005. The phylogenetic tree constructed from 17 nucleotide sequences of the capsid gene of the strains studied and reference strains demonstrated that Aichi virus strains clustered into two branches. A classification of Aichi viruses based on the capsid gene was proposed, in which lineage I consists of the Aichi virus strains detected from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Germany, and lineage II includes Bangladeshi strains and a Brazilian strain.

  15. Detection of Bacillus sphaericus mosquitocidal toxin genes by multiplex colony PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Santosh C; Jagtap, Chandrakant B; Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, R B

    2009-02-01

    A multiplex colony PCR assay was developed for the detection of 5 genes encoding Bacillus sphaericus mosquito larvicidal toxins, namely binA, binB, mtx1, mtx2, and mtx3. Primers designed for these 5 genes yielded specific PCR amplicons of the expected size from type cultures of B. sphaericus. This method of detecting multiple toxin genes by colony PCR in a single tube reaction is a simple, rapid, and economical technique for identification of highly toxic environmental B. sphaericus isolates.

  16. Detection of FXIII gene V34L and fibrinogen β-gene -455G/A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FXIII gene Val34Leu variant appears to be associated with decreased risk of myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolism as well as with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Fibrinogen β-gene SNP -455G/A are associated with differences in the plasma levels of fibrinogen and severity of arterial disease.

  17. Detection of vanC1 gene transcription in vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Tiane Martin; Cassenego, Ana Paula Vaz; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Ribeiro, Andrea Machado Leal; Franco, Ana Cláudia; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC 1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis. PMID:23828012

  18. Detection of vanC 1 gene transcription in vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiane Martin de Moura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the presence and expression levels of the vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes in vancomycin-susceptible strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The vanC 1 and vanC 2/3 genes were located in the plasmid DNA and on the chromosome, respectively. Specific mRNA of the vanC 1 gene was detected in one of these strains. Additionally, analysis of the vanC gene sequences showed that these genes are related to the vanC genes of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus. The presence of vanC genes is useful for the identification of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. Moreover, this is the first report of vanC mRNA in E. faecalis.

  19. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... formation in Bacillus species was detected in the endophytic bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. (PCR) amplification. In ten endophytic Bacillus strains tested, TasA gene was readily detected in. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PEBA20 and 7 strains of Bacillus subtilis, whereas Bacillus megaterium and.

  20. Clonación y expresión de un fragmento recombinante del gen cagA de Helicobacter pylori y su evaluación preliminar en el serodiagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidice González

    2013-12-01

    100 % y 92,7 %, respectivamente. Conclusiones. El fragmento de la proteína CagA del estudio puede constituir una herramienta útil para el diagnóstico serológico de la infección por cepas de H. pylori positivas para CagA. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i4.1678

  1. [Application of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography for detection of alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng

    2011-04-01

    An assay method for alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) gene was established based on denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). The AHSP gene sequences are divided into six fragments. Because of one or two common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the first, second, fourth and sixth fragments, all samples should be analyzed individually when the fragments were detected. The third and fifth fragments were detected by DHPLC technique combined with DNA pooling for no common SNP in the fragments. The six common SNPs in AHSP gene can be genotyped accurately by the established method. After analyzing AHSP gene of 40 samples by DHPLC detection and gene sequencing, it was found that the results of the two methods were completely consistent. After AHSP gene of 365 samples being analyzed by DHPLC, two rare SNPs (11,810 G > A and 12,802 C > T)were found. Two missense mutations (AHSP D29V and AHSP V56G) were also found. AHSP D29V mutation is a novel mutation. AHSP V56G is a rare mutation. It demonstrated that this method is suitable for the detection of alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein gene.

  2. A high-throughput method for the detection of homoeologous gene deletions in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutational inactivation of plant genes is an essential tool in gene function studies. Plants with inactivated or deleted genes may also be exploited for crop improvement if such mutations/deletions produce a desirable agronomical and/or quality phenotype. However, the use of mutational gene inactivation/deletion has been impeded in polyploid plant species by genetic redundancy, as polyploids contain multiple copies of the same genes (homoeologous genes encoded by each of the ancestral genomes. Similar to many other crop plants, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is polyploid; specifically allohexaploid possessing three progenitor genomes designated as 'A', 'B', and 'D'. Recently modified TILLING protocols have been developed specifically for mutation detection in wheat. Whilst extremely powerful in detecting single nucleotide changes and small deletions, these methods are not suitable for detecting whole gene deletions. Therefore, high-throughput methods for screening of candidate homoeologous gene deletions are needed for application to wheat populations generated by the use of certain mutagenic agents (e.g. heavy ion irradiation that frequently generate whole-gene deletions. Results To facilitate the screening for specific homoeologous gene deletions in hexaploid wheat, we have developed a TaqMan qPCR-based method that allows high-throughput detection of deletions in homoeologous copies of any gene of interest, provided that sufficient polymorphism (as little as a single nucleotide difference amongst homoeologues exists for specific probe design. We used this method to identify deletions of individual TaPFT1 homoeologues, a wheat orthologue of the disease susceptibility and flowering regulatory gene PFT1 in Arabidopsis. This method was applied to wheat nullisomic-tetrasomic lines as well as other chromosomal deletion lines to locate the TaPFT1 gene to the long arm of chromosome 5. By screening of individual DNA samples from

  3. PCR detection of cytK gene in Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    A method for detection of the cytotoxin K cytK structural gene and its active promoter preceded by the PlcR-binding box, controlling the expression level of this enterotoxin, was developed. The method was applied for the purpose of the analysis of 47 bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different food products. It was found that the majority of the analyzed strains carried the fully functional cytK gene with its PlcR regulated promoter. The cytK gene was not detected in four emetic strains of Bacillus cereus carrying the cesB gene and potentially producing an emetic toxin - cereulide. The cytotoxin K gene was detected in 4 isolates classified as Bacillus mycoides and one reference strain B. mycoides PCM 2024. The promoter region and the N-terminal part of the cytK gene from two strains of B. mycoides (5D and 19E) showed similarities to the corresponding sequences of Bacillus cereus W23 and Bacillus thuringiensis HD-789, respectively. It was shown for the first time that the cytK gene promoter region from strains 5D and 19E of Bacillus mycoides had a similar arrangement to the corresponding sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The presence of the cytK gene in Bacillus mycoides shows that this species, widely recognized as nonpathogenic, may pose potential biohazard to human beings. © 2013.

  4. MetaMine – A tool to detect and analyse gene patterns in their environmental context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottmann Renzo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern sequencing technologies allow rapid sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of genomes and metagenomes. With every new sequencing project a vast number of new proteins become available with many genes remaining functionally unclassified based on evidences from sequence similarities alone. Extending similarity searches with gene pattern approaches, defined as genes sharing a distinct genomic neighbourhood, have shown to significantly improve the number of functional assignments. Further functional evidences can be gained by correlating these gene patterns with prevailing environmental parameters. MetaMine was developed to approach the large pool of unclassified proteins by searching for recurrent gene patterns across habitats based on key genes. Results MetaMine is an interactive data mining tool which enables the detection of gene patterns in an environmental context. The gene pattern search starts with a user defined environmentally interesting key gene. With this gene a BLAST search is carried out against the Microbial Ecological Genomics DataBase (MEGDB containing marine genomic and metagenomic sequences. This is followed by the determination of all neighbouring genes within a given distance and a search for functionally equivalent genes. In the final step a set of common genes present in a defined number of distinct genomes is determined. The gene patterns found are associated with their individual pattern instances describing gene order and directions. They are presented together with information about the sample and the habitat. MetaMine is implemented in Java and provided as a client/server application with a user-friendly graphical user interface. The system was evaluated with environmentally relevant genes related to the methane-cycle and carbon monoxide oxidation. Conclusion MetaMine offers a targeted, semi-automatic search for gene patterns based on expert input. The graphical user interface of Meta

  5. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS, and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  6. Detection of virulence genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae from estuaries in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de; Neves, Soraya da Silva; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  7. Application of nanomaterials in the bioanalytical detection of disease-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqian; Li, Jiao; He, Hanping; Huang, Min; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-12-15

    In the diagnosis of genetic diseases and disorders, nanomaterials-based gene detection systems have significant advantages over conventional diagnostic systems in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, specificity, and portability. In this review, we describe the application of nanomaterials for disease-related genes detection in different methods excluding PCR-related method, such as colorimetry, fluorescence-based methods, electrochemistry, microarray methods, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methods, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The most commonly used nanomaterials are gold, silver, carbon and semiconducting nanoparticles. Various nanomaterials-based gene detection methods are introduced, their respective advantages are discussed, and selected examples are provided to illustrate the properties of these nanomaterials and their emerging applications for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. An Emulsion Based Microarray Method to Detect the Toxin Genes of Toxin-Producing Organisms

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    Yunfei Bai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxins produced by bacteria and fungi are one of the most important factors which may cause food contamination. The study of detection methods with high sensitivity and throughput is significant for the protection of food safety. In the present study, we coupled microarray with emulsion PCR and developed a high throughput detection method. Thirteen different gene sites which encode the common toxins of several bacteria and fungi were assayed in parallel in positive and maize samples. Conventional PCR assays were carried out for comparison. The results showed that the developed microarray method had high specificity and sensitivity. Two zearalenone-related genes were investigated in one of the ten maize samples obtained with this present method. The results indicated that the emulsion based microarray detection method was developed successfully and suggested its potential application in multiple gene site detection.

  9. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues; Neves, Soraya da Silva; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes. PMID:25229224

  10. confFuse: High-Confidence Fusion Gene Detection across Tumor Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqin Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fusion genes play an important role in the tumorigenesis of many cancers. Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have been successfully applied in fusion gene detection for the last several years, and a number of NGS-based tools have been developed for identifying fusion genes during this period. Most fusion gene detection tools based on RNA-seq data report a large number of candidates (mostly false positives, making it hard to prioritize candidates for experimental validation and further analysis. Selection of reliable fusion genes for downstream analysis becomes very important in cancer research. We therefore developed confFuse, a scoring algorithm to reliably select high-confidence fusion genes which are likely to be biologically relevant.Results: confFuse takes multiple parameters into account in order to assign each fusion candidate a confidence score, of which score ≥8 indicates high-confidence fusion gene predictions. These parameters were manually curated based on our experience and on certain structural motifs of fusion genes. Compared with alternative tools, based on 96 published RNA-seq samples from different tumor entities, our method can significantly reduce the number of fusion candidates (301 high-confidence from 8,083 total predicted fusion genes and keep high detection accuracy (recovery rate 85.7%. Validation of 18 novel, high-confidence fusions detected in three breast tumor samples resulted in a 100% validation rate.Conclusions: confFuse is a novel downstream filtering method that allows selection of highly reliable fusion gene candidates for further downstream analysis and experimental validations. confFuse is available at https://github.com/Zhiqin-HUANG/confFuse.

  11. Detecting genes contributing to longevity using twin data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begun Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Searching for genes contributing to longevity is a typical task in association analysis. A number of methods can be used for finding this association -- from the simplest method based on the technique of contingency tables to more complex algorithms involving demographic data, which allow us to estimate the genotype-specific hazard functions. The independence of individuals is the common assumption in all these methods. At the same time, data on related individuals such as twins are often used in genetic studies. This paper proposes an extension of the relative risk model to encompass twin data. We estimate the power and also discuss what happens if we treat the twin data using the univariate model.

  12. REVIEW: Genetic Diversity: Detection of Gene Variation at the DNA Level and Utilization of Gene Markers on Locating QTLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced techniques of molecular biology have provided the opportunity to study genetic diversity within and among breeds at the single gene level. Many DNA markers, either of genomic DNA or cytoplasmic DNA, have been generated recently by utilizing molecular techniques, such as RFLP, microsatellites, PCR-RFLP, RAPD, sequencing etc. PCR-based techniques have recently progressed rapidly for the detection of both known- and unknown-mutation detections that may be applied in locating gene marker for economically important traits. There are basically two different approaches of locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs, candidate gene and random approaches. The first approach is based on prior supporting knowledge of physiological and biochemical evidence, showing that the gene is involved in the trait(s of interest, while the random marker approach attempts to locate gene markers by measuring genotypes at a large number of loci with unknown phenotypic effects, in the hope that the loci are linked to a QTL influencing the trait of interest.

  13. Detection of Gene Localization in a Large Concomitant Strabismus Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Erkan Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To define the gene locus related with concomitant strabismus in a large exotropia family. Material and Method: A three-generation family including 31 individuals among which 17 members had basic exotropia and 3 members had intermittent exotropia with known genome-wide analysis was investigated. The data of genome-wide analysis was evaluated under the assumed pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance which was supported by pedigree analysis. Detailed haplotype analysis of four regions on 3 chromosomes (chromosome 7, 13 and 18 which had positive lod scores in previous studies was performed. Results: The first region on chromosome 13 was excluded regarding haplotype analysis, but the second region could not be excluded because of the high homozigocity in the family. The region which had 200.000 bases on chromosome 18 could not be excluded as well. The region which had 9 Mb on 7p14.1 was common for all family members. 7p14.1 locus is considered as the most likely region responsible for the inheritance of strabismus in regard with familial inheritance and crossing-over pattern. Discussion: The 7p14.1 locus identified in this study is a novel site and it is different from the regions on chromosome 7 which were reported in previous studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the presence of critical recombinations across three generations and will shed light for further studies which will define the specific gene. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 407-12

  14. Driver Gene Mutations in Stools of Colorectal Carcinoma Patients Detected by Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Gemma; Sarhadi, Virinder K; Ghanbari, Reza; Doghaei-Moghaddam, Masoud; Ansari, Reza; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kokkola, Arto; Malekzadeh, Reza; Knuutila, Sakari

    2016-07-01

    Detection of driver gene mutations in stool DNA represents a promising noninvasive approach for screening colorectal cancer (CRC). Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a good option to study mutations in many cancer genes simultaneously and from a low amount of DNA. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of identifying mutations in 22 cancer driver genes with Ion Torrent technology in stool DNA from a series of 65 CRC patients. The assay was successful in 80% of stool DNA samples. NGS results showed 83 mutations in cancer driver genes, 29 hotspot and 54 novel mutations. One to five genes were mutated in 75% of cases. TP53, KRAS, FBXW7, and SMAD4 were the top mutated genes, consistent with previous studies. Of samples with mutations, 54% presented concomitant mutations in different genes. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway genes were mutated in 70% of samples, with 58% having alterations in KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF. Because mutations in these genes can compromise the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor blockade in CRC patients, identifying mutations that confer resistance to some targeted treatments may be useful to guide therapeutic decisions. In conclusion, the data presented herein show that NGS procedures on stool DNA represent a promising tool to detect genetic mutations that could be used in the future for diagnosis, monitoring, or treating CRC. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MicroSyn: A user friendly tool for detection of microsynteny in a gene family

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    Yang Xiaohan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional phylogeny analysis within gene family is mainly based on DNA or amino acid sequence homologies. However, these phylogenetic tree analyses are not suitable for those "non-traditional" gene families like microRNA with very short sequences. For the normal protein-coding gene families, low bootstrap values are frequently encountered in some nodes, suggesting low confidence or likely inappropriateness of placement of those members in those nodes. Results We introduce MicroSyn software as a means of detecting microsynteny in adjacent genomic regions surrounding genes in gene families. MicroSyn searches for conserved, flanking colinear homologous gene pairs between two genomic fragments to determine the relationship between two members in a gene family. The colinearity of homologous pairs is controlled by a statistical distance function. As a result, gene duplication history can be inferred from the output independent of gene sequences. MicroSyn was designed for both experienced and non-expert users with a user-friendly graphical-user interface. MicroSyn is available from: http://fcsb.njau.edu.cn/microsyn/. Conclusions Case studies of the microRNA167 genes in plants and Xyloglucan ndotransglycosylase/Hydrolase family in Populus trichocarpa were presented to show the utility of the software. The easy using of MicroSyn in these examples suggests that the software is an additional valuable means to address the problem intrinsic in the computational methods and sequence qualities themselves in gene family analysis.

  16. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus sp isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers

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    V.L.M. Rall

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS and -positive staphylococci (CPS in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6% and 20 CPS strains (24.4%. Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%. Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%, followed by seh and sej (29.2%. The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen.

  17. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    OH, In Young; KIM, Kyung Tae; SUNG, Ho Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods: The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing. Results: Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously. Conclusion: This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection. PMID:28979354

  18. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young OH

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Methods: The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing.Results: Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously.Conclusion: This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection.

  19. The detection of steroid sulfatase gene deletion (STS) in Egyptian males with X-linked ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamed, Mahmoud F; Hussein, Hassan A; Helmy, Nivine A; Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2010-10-01

    Ichthyosis is a disorder of keratinization characterized by diffuse uniform and persistent scales resulting from abnormal epidermal differentiation or metabolism. The identification of steroid sulfatase (STS) as the cause of X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) points to the importance of this enzyme in skin desquamation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis is a good diagnostic technique with which to detect a common deletion of the STS gene. In this study, the authors set out to detect the X-linked type of ichthyosis, diagnosed by detection of STS gene deletions among Egyptian males. Egyptian males complaining of X-linked ichthyosis were clinically examined, evaluating pedigree analysis of the family, cytogenetic studies using G-banding technique and FISH using locus specific probe for steroid sulfatase (STS) gene which is located at chromosome Xp22.3. Of patients, 11.11 percent had nocturnal enuresis and 33.33 percent showed STS gene deletion by FISH analysis. This study underlines a difficulty in diagnosing X-linked ichthyosis on the clinical features or familial pedigree analysis in Egypt and the importance of cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic studies for diagnosis. FISH analysis is a good, reliable and rapid diagnostic tool with which to detect STS gene deletion. Since FISH will not detect partial deletion or point mutations, the authors recommend further molecular studies to reach the proper diagnosis of X-linked ichthyosis.

  20. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, In Young; Kim, Kyung Tae; Sung, Ho Joong

    2017-01-01

    Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing. Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously. This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection.

  1. Rapid, highly sensitive and highly specific gene detection by combining enzymatic amplification and DNA chip detection simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel gene detection method based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP reaction and the DNA dissociation reaction on the same DNA chip surface to achieve a lower detection limit, broader dynamic range and faster detection time than are attainable with a conventional DNA chip. Both FAM- and thiol-labeled DNA probe bound to the complementary sequence accompanying Dabcyl was immobilized on the gold surface via Au/thiol bond. The LAMP reaction was carried out on the DNA probe fixed gold surface. At first, Dabcyl molecules quenched the FAM fluorescence. According to the LAMP reaction, the complementary sequence with Dabcyl was competitively reacted with the amplified targeted sequence. As a result, the FAM fluorescence increased owing to dissociation of the complementary sequence from the DNA probe. The simultaneous reaction of LAMP and DNA chip detection was achieved, and 103 copies of the targeted gene were detected within an hour by measuring fluorescence intensity of the DNA probe.

  2. Detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in the gut microbiota of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Sydney M; Summanen, Paula H; Downes, Julia; Corbett, Karen; Komoriya, Tomoe

    2017-06-01

    We studied stool specimens from 33 autistic children aged 2-9 years with gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and 13 control children without autism and without GI symptoms. We performed quantitative comparison of all Clostridium species and Clostridium perfringens strains from the fecal microbiota by conventional, selective anaerobic culture methods. We isolated C. perfringens strains and performed PCR analysis for the main C. perfringens toxin genes, alpha, beta, beta2, epsilon, iota and C. perfringens enterotoxin gene. Our results indicate that autistic subjects with gastrointestinal disease harbor statistically significantly (p = 0.031) higher counts of C. perfringens in their gut compared to control children. Autistic subjects also harbor statistically significantly (p = 0.015) higher counts of beta2-toxin gene-producing C. perfringens in their gut compared to control children, and the incidence of beta2-toxin gene-producing C. perfringens is significantly higher in autistic subjects compared to control children (p = 0.014). Alpha toxin gene was detected in all C. perfringens strains studied. C. perfringens enterotoxin gene was detected from three autistic and one control subject. Beta, epsilon, and iota toxin genes were not detected from autistic or control subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA de Helicobacter pylori e úlcera duodenal em crianças no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ashour Abdussalam Ali Ramadam; Gusmão Valquíria Ribeiro de; Magalhães Paula Prazeres; Collares Guilherme Birchal; Mendes Edilberto Nogueira; Queiroz Dulciene Maria de Magalhães; Rocha Gifone Aguiar; Rocha Andreia Maria Camargos; Carvalho Anfrisina Sales Teles

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori é o principal agente de gastrite em seres humanos e fator de risco para úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. A evolução da infecção está relacionada a diversos fatores, inclusive bacterianos, como presença de cagA e genótipo s1-m1 do vacA, associados com o desenvolvimento de úlcera e adenocarcinoma gástrico. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre cagA e alelos do vacA em H. pylori isolado de crianças e relacionar os achados com a doença apresentada pelo pac...

  4. Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori and CagA protein in schoolchildren of different ages living in urban and rural areas in southern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjova, T; Grünberg, H; Oona, M; Maaroos, H I; Nilsson, I; Wadström, T; Covacci, A; Uibo, R

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate Helicobacter pylori and CagA seropositivity in a non-selected group of schoolchildren in southern Estonia, with reference to previous studies where high seroprevalence to H. pylori (87%) and anti-CagA positivity (63%) in an adult population from the same region were found. A total of 421 schoolchildren selected haphazardly from a random population (n = 1018, ages 9, 12 or 15 years) and living in urban or rural areas. H. pylori status was determined by evaluation of IgG antibodies against cell surface proteins of H. pylori, strain CCUG 17874, using standard ELISA. Anti-CagA IgGs were determined by ELISA using a recombinant fragment of CagA (CCUG 17874) as solid-phase antigen. Absorbance values > 0.3 (405 nm) were taken as a CagA-positive result based on a study of 25 sera from H. pylori-negative children. Of the 421 subjects, 235 (56%) were H. pylori-ELISA positive, and 109 out of the 235 (46%) were anti-CagA positive. Neither H. pylori nor CagA positivity were significantly different in girls and boys, or in children aged 9, 12 or 15 years. The H. pylori prevalence rate (118/181, 65%) as well as CagA positivity (64/181, 35%) in rural areas were higher compared with those in towns (117/240, 49% and 54/240, 22%, respectively; P = 0.001 and P = 0.005). Of schoolchildren living in southern Estonia, 56% were seropositive to H. pylori. Half of them had anti-CagA antibodies. Schoolchildren living in rural areas were infected significantly more often with CagA-seropositive strains compared with those living in towns.

  5. Detection of influent virulence and resistance genes in microarray data through quasi likelihood modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, José S; Torres-Avilés, Francisco; López-Kleine, Liliana

    2013-02-01

    Publicly available genomic data are a great source of biological knowledge that can be extracted when appropriate data analysis is used. Predicting the biological function of genes is of interest to understand molecular mechanisms of virulence and resistance in pathogens and hosts and is important for drug discovery and disease control. This is commonly done by searching for similar gene expression behavior. Here, we used publicly available Streptococcus pyogenes microarray data obtained during primate infection to identify genes that have a potential influence on virulence and Phytophtora infestance inoculated tomato microarray data to identify genes potentially implicated in resistance processes. This approach goes beyond co-expression analysis. We employed a quasi-likelihood model separated by primate gender/inoculation condition to model median gene expression of known virulence/resistance factors. Based on this model, an influence analysis considering time course measurement was performed to detect genes with atypical expression. This procedure allowed for the detection of genes potentially implicated in the infection process. Finally, we discuss the biological meaning of these results, showing that influence analysis is an efficient and useful alternative for functional gene prediction.

  6. A meta-analysis of kidney microarray datasets: investigation of cytokine gene detection and correlation with rt-PCR and detection thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegall Mark D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays provide a means to simultaneously examine the gene expression of the entire transcriptome in a single sample. Many studies have highlighted the need for novel software and statistical approaches to assess the measured gene expression. Less attention has been directed toward whether genes considered undetectable by microarray can be detected by other strategies or whether these genes can provide accurate gene expression determinations. In the kidney this is a concern for genes such as cytokines which dramatically influence the immune response but are often considered low abundance genes produced by a small number of cells. Results Using both publicly available and our own microarray datasets we analyzed the detection p-value and detection call values for 81 human kidney samples run on the U133A or U133Plus2.0 Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA. For the cytokine genes, the frequency of detection in each sample group (normal, transplant and renal cell carcinoma was examined and revealed that a majority of cytokine related genes are not detectable in human kidney by microarray. Using a subset of 29 Mayo transplant samples, a group of seven transplant-related cytokines and eight non-cytokine genes were evaluated by real-time PCR (rt-PCR. For these 15 genes we compared the impact of decreasing microarray detection frequency with the changes in gene expression observed by both microarray and rt-PCR. We found that as microarray detection frequency decreased the correlation between microarray and rt-PCR data also decreased. Conclusion We conclude that, when analyzing microarray data from human kidney samples, genes generally expressed at low abundance (i.e. cytokines should be evaluated with more sensitive approaches such as rt-PCR. In addition, our data suggest that the use of detection frequency cutoffs for inclusion or exclusion of microarray data may be appropriate when comparing microarray and rt

  7. A meta-analysis of kidney microarray datasets: investigation of cytokine gene detection and correlation with rt-PCR and detection thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Walter D; Stegall, Mark D

    2007-03-30

    Microarrays provide a means to simultaneously examine the gene expression of the entire transcriptome in a single sample. Many studies have highlighted the need for novel software and statistical approaches to assess the measured gene expression. Less attention has been directed toward whether genes considered undetectable by microarray can be detected by other strategies or whether these genes can provide accurate gene expression determinations. In the kidney this is a concern for genes such as cytokines which dramatically influence the immune response but are often considered low abundance genes produced by a small number of cells. Using both publicly available and our own microarray datasets we analyzed the detection p-value and detection call values for 81 human kidney samples run on the U133A or U133Plus2.0 Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). For the cytokine genes, the frequency of detection in each sample group (normal, transplant and renal cell carcinoma) was examined and revealed that a majority of cytokine related genes are not detectable in human kidney by microarray. Using a subset of 29 Mayo transplant samples, a group of seven transplant-related cytokines and eight non-cytokine genes were evaluated by real-time PCR (rt-PCR). For these 15 genes we compared the impact of decreasing microarray detection frequency with the changes in gene expression observed by both microarray and rt-PCR. We found that as microarray detection frequency decreased the correlation between microarray and rt-PCR data also decreased. We conclude that, when analyzing microarray data from human kidney samples, genes generally expressed at low abundance (i.e. cytokines) should be evaluated with more sensitive approaches such as rt-PCR. In addition, our data suggest that the use of detection frequency cutoffs for inclusion or exclusion of microarray data may be appropriate when comparing microarray and rt-PCR gene expression data and p-value calculations.

  8. Helicobacter pylori CagA activates NF-κB by targeting TAK1 for TRAF6-mediated Lys 63 ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Acacia; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Tsang, Ying-Hung N; Li, Jiang-Dong; Higashi, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Peek, Richard M; Blanke, Steven R; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-initiated chronic gastritis is characterized by the cag pathogenicity island-dependent upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, which is largely mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. However, the cag pathogenicity island-encoded proteins and cellular signalling molecules that are involved in H. pylori-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory response remain unclear. Here, we show that H. pylori virulence factor CagA and host protein transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) are essential for H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB. CagA physically associates with TAK1 and enhances its activity and TAK1-induced NF-κB activation through the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6-mediated, Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of TAK1. These findings show that polyubiquitination of TAK1 regulates the activation of NF-κB, which in turn is used by H. pylori CagA for the H. pylori-induced inflammatory response. PMID:19820695

  9. High-throughput detection of fusion genes in cancer using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambros, Maryou B K; Wilkerson, Paul M; Natrajan, Rachael; Patani, Neill; Pawar, Vidya; Vatcheva, Radost; Mansour, Marthe; Laschet, Mirja; Oelze, Beatrice; Orr, Nicholas; Muller, Susanne; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2011-10-01

    Fusion genes have pivotal roles in the development and progression of human cancer and offer potential for rational drug design. Massively parallel sequencing has identified a panoply of in-frame expressed fusion genes, but early reports suggest that the majority of these are present at very low prevalence or are private events. Conventional methods for the identification of recurrent expressed fusion genes in large cohorts of cancers (eg fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)) are time consuming and prone to artifacts. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput strategy for the detection of recurrent fusion genes in cancer based on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Fusion genes were initially identified by massively parallel sequencing of breast cancer cell lines. For each fusion gene, two Sequenom probes were designed. Primary human breast cancers and cancer cell lines were interrogated for 10 fusion genes. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the MassARRAY method were then determined using FISH and qRT-PCR as the 'gold standard.' By combining two probes per fusion gene, the negative and positive predictive values were 100 and 71.4%, respectively. All fusion genes identified by massively parallel sequencing were accurately detected. No recurrent fusion genes were found. The MassARRAY-based approach described here may, therefore, be employed as a high-throughput screening tool for known fusion genes in human cancer. In keeping with other highly sensitive assays, further refinement of this technique is necessary to reduce the number of false-positive results. © 2011 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved

  10. Statistical methods on detecting differentially expressed genes for RNA-seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhongxue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For RNA-seq data, the aggregated counts of the short reads from the same gene is used to approximate the gene expression level. The count data can be modelled as samples from Poisson distributions with possible different parameters. To detect differentially expressed genes under two situations, statistical methods for detecting the difference of two Poisson means are used. When the expression level of a gene is low, i.e., the number of count is small, it is usually more difficult to detect the mean differences, and therefore statistical methods which are more powerful for low expression level are particularly desirable. In statistical literature, several methods have been proposed to compare two Poisson means (rates. In this paper, we compare these methods by using simulated and real RNA-seq data. Results Through simulation study and real data analysis, we find that the Wald test with the data being log-transformed is more powerful than other methods, including the likelihood ratio test, which has similar power as the variance stabilizing transformation test; both are more powerful than the conditional exact test and Fisher exact test. Conclusions When the count data in RNA-seq can be reasonably modelled as Poisson distribution, the Wald-Log test is more powerful and should be used to detect the differentially expressed genes.

  11. Detection of virulence genes and the phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from dogs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study identified the virulence genes, pathovars, and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains obtained from the feces of dogs with and without diarrhea. Virulence genes and phylogenetic group identification were studied using polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-seven E. coli isolates were positive for at least one virulence factor gene. Twenty-one (57.8% of the positive isolates were isolated from diarrheal feces and sixteen (43.2% were from the feces of non-diarrheic dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC were the most frequently (62.2% detected pathovar in dog feces and were mainly from phylogroup B1 and E. Necrotoxigenic E. coli were detected in 16.2% of the virulence-positive isolates and these contained the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1 gene and were classified into phylogroups B2 and D. All E. coli strains were negative for the presence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC enterotoxin genes, but four strains were positive for ETEC-related fimbriae 987P and F18. Two isolates were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains and contained the toxin genesStx2 or Stx2e, both from phylogroup B1. Our data showed that EPEC was the most frequent pathovar and B1 and E were the most common phylogroups detected in E. coli isolated from the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs.

  12. Impairments of mecA gene detection in bovine Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Dayanne Araújo; Coelho, Irene da Silva; da Motta, Cássia Couto; Rojas, Anna Carolina Coelho Marín; Dubenczuk, Felipe Carlos; Coelho, Shana de Mattos de Oliveira; de Souza, Miliane Moreira Soares

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance, especially to beta-lactams, favors treatment failures and its persistence in herd environment. This work aimed to develop a more specific primer for mecA gene detection based on the comparison of the conserved regions from distinct host origins and also investigated the presence of homologue mecA(LGA251) in bovine strains. A total of 43 Staphylococcus spp. were included in this study, comprising 38 bovine S. aureus, two human and three equine coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Phenotypical methicillin-resistance detection was performed through oxacillin agar-screening and cefoxitin disk-diffusion test. None isolate tested positive for mecA(LGA251) gene. For mecA gene PCR, new primers were designed based on the sequences of human S. aureus (HE681097) and bovine S. sciuri (AY820253) mecA. The new primers based on the S. aureus mecA sequence amplified fragments of human and equine CNS and the ones based on S. sciuri mecA sequence only yielded fragments for S. aureus bovine strains. Multiples alignments of mecA gene sequences from bovine, human and equine revealed punctual but significant differences in bovine strains that can lead to the mecA gene detection impairment. The observed divergences of mecA gene sequences are not a matter of animal or human origin, it is a specificity of bovine samples.

  13. Detecting ALK, ROS1 and RET Fusion Genes in Cell Block Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Xuefei; Li, Jiayu; Zhang, Yishi; Ren, Shengxiang; Chen, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Caicun

    2014-06-01

    Whether Cell block (CB) samples are applicable to detect anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) and ret proto-oncogene (RET) fusion genes in lung adenocarcinoma is still unknown. In this study, 108 cytological samples that contained lung adenocarcinoma cells were collected, and made into CB. The CB samples all contained at least 30% lung adenocarcinoma cells. In these patients, 48 harbored EGFR mutation. Among the 50 EGFR wild type patients who detected fusion genes, 14 carried EML4-ALK fusion (28%), 2 had TPM3-ROS1 fusion (4%), and 3 harbored KIF5B-RET fusion (6%). No double fusions were found in one sample. Patients with fusion genes were younger than those without fusion genes (p = 0.032), but no significant difference was found in sex and smoking status (p > 0.05). In the thirty-five patients who received first-line chemotherapy, patients with fusion gene positive had disease control rate (DCR) (72.7% VS 50%, p > 0.05) and objective response rate (ORR) (9.1% VS 4.2%, p > 0.05) compared with those having fusion gene negative. The median progression free survival (mPFS) were 4.0 and 2.7 months in patients harbored fusion mutations and wild type, respectively (p > 0.05). We conclude that CB samples could be used to detect ALK, ROS1 and RET fusions in NSCLC. The frequency distribution of three fusion genes is higher in lung adenocarcinoma with wild-type EGFR, compared with unselected NSCLC patient population. Patients with fusion genes positive are younger than those with fusion gene negative, but they had no significantly different PFS in first-line chemotherapy.

  14. Genotype-based association models of complex diseases to detect gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong; Manga, Prashiela

    A central problem in genetic epidemiology is to identify and rank genetic markers involved in a disease. Complex diseases, such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, are thought to be caused by an interaction of a panel of genetic factors, that can be identified by markers, which modulate environmental factors. Moreover, the effect of each genetic marker may be small. Hence, the association signal may be missed unless a large sample is considered, or a priori biomedical data are used. Recent advances generated a vast variety of a priori information, including linkage maps and information about gene regulatory dependence assembled into curated pathway databases. We propose a genotype-based approach that takes into account linkage disequilibrium (LD) information between genetic markers that are in moderate LD while modeling gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A major advantage of our method is that the observed genetic information enters a model directly thus eliminating the need to estimate haplotype-phase. Our approach results in an algorithm that is inexpensive computationally and does not suffer from bias induced by haplotype-phase ambiguity. We investigated our model in a series of simulation experiments and demonstrated that the proposed approach results in estimates that are nearly unbiased and have small variability. We applied our method to the analysis of data from a melanoma case-control study and investigated interaction between a set of pigmentation genes and environmental factors defined by age and gender. Furthermore, an application of our method is demonstrated using a study of Alcohol Dependence.

  15. The ftsZ gene as a tool for detection of Mycoplasma fermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofir, R; Horowitz, S; Wu, Q; Weinstein, Y

    1998-04-01

    Mycoplasma fermentans was reported as a common contaminant of cell cultures, and was shown to either induce or suppress several immunological functions. A strain of M. fermentans was recently isolated from a mouse T-lymphoma cell line, which differs from other M. fermentans strains by its growth characteristics and was designated (in the authors' records) as strain 609. Using the differential display technique (DD), a differentially expressed gene that was identified as the M. fermentans 609 ftsZ gene was isolated. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the M. fermentans 609 ftsZ gene to other ftsZ genes showed a 98% homology with Mycoplasma fermentans strain K7 and approximately 50% homology with Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma genitalium. Comparison of the putative amino acid sequences of the FtsZ proteins showed similar homology. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect the presence of this ftsZ gene was established; it is a fast and convenient assay to detect infection of cells by the M. fermentans species. This work demonstrates that: (i) DD can be used as a useful technique to identify and isolate mycoplasmal genes from infected cells; and (ii) the ftsZ gene can be a useful marker to distinguish between different species of mycoplasma.

  16. Fusion gene transcripts and Ig/TCR gene rearrangements are complementary but infrequent targets for PCR-based detection of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckx, N.; M.J. Willemse; T. Szczepanski (Tomasz); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); A.W. Langerak (Anton); P. Vandekerckhove (Philippe); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPCR-based monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute leukemias can be achieved via detection of fusion gene transcripts of chromosome aberrations or detection of immunoglobulin (lg) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements. We wished to assess whether both PCR targets are

  17. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes in samples from acute and chronic endodontic infections and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: survey samples from acute and chronic endodontic infections for the presence of genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracycline and erythromycin, and evaluate the ability of treatment to eliminate these genes from root canals. DNA extracts from samples of abscess aspirates (n=25) and root canals of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis (n=24) were used as template for direct detection of the genes blaTEM, cfxA, tetM, tetQ, tetW, and ermC using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial presence was determined using PCR with universal bacterial primers. Root canals of the asymptomatic cases were also sampled and evaluated after chemomechanical procedures using NiTi instruments with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation. All abscess and initial root canal samples were positive for bacteria. At least one of the target resistance genes was found in 36% of the abscess samples and 67% of the asymptomatic cases. The most prevalent genes in abscesses were blaTEM (24%) and ermC (24%), while tetM (42%) and tetW (29%) prevailed in asymptomatic cases. The blaTEM gene was significantly associated with acute cases (p=0.02). Conversely, tetM was significantly more prevalent in asymptomatic cases (p=0.008). Treatment eliminated resistance genes from most cases. Acute and chronic endodontic infections harboured resistance genes for 3 classes of widely used antibiotics. In most cases, treatment was effective in eliminating these genes, but there were a few cases in which they persisted. The implications of persistence are unknown. Direct detection of resistance genes in abscesses may be a potential method for rapid diagnosis and establishment of proactive antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

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    Bantong Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  19. Detection of virulence associated genes, haemolysin and protease amongst Vibrio cholerae isolated in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, L; Vadivelu, J; Puthucheary, S D

    2000-08-01

    Eighty-four strains of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139 and non-O1/non-O139 from clinical and environmental sources were investigated for the presence of the toxin co-regulated pilus gene, tcpA, the virulence cassette genes ctxA, zot, ace and cep and also for their ability to elaborate haemolysin and protease. The ctxA and zot genes were detected using DNA-DNA hybridization while the ace, cep and tcpA genes were detected using PCR. Production of haemolysin and protease was detected using mammalian erythrocytes and an agar diffusion assay respectively. Analysis of their virulence profiles showed six different groups designated Type I to Type VI and the major distinguishing factor among these profiles was in the in vitro production of haemolysin and/or protease. Clinical O1, O139 and environmental O1 strains were similar with regard to presence of the virulence cassette genes. All environmental O1 strains with the exception of one were found to possess ctxA, zot and ace giving rise to the probability that these strains may actually be of clinical origin. One strain which had only cep but none of the toxin genes may be a true environmental isolate. The virulence cassette and colonization factor genes were absent in all non-O1/non-O139 environmental strains but production of both the haemolysin and protease was present, indicating that these may be putative virulence factors. These findings suggest that with regard to its pathogenic potential, only strains of the O1 and O139 serogroup that possess the tcpA gene which encodes the phage receptor, have the potential to acquire the CTX genetic element and become choleragenic.

  20. Shared Gene Expression Alterations in Nasal and Bronchial Epithelium for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We previously derived and validated a bronchial epithelial gene expression biomarker to detect lung cancer in current and former smokers. Given that bronchial and nasal epithelial gene expression are similarly altered by cigarette smoke exposure, we sought to determine if cancer-associated gene expression might also be detectable in the more readily accessible nasal epithelium. Nasal epithelial brushings were prospectively collected from current and former smokers undergoing diagnostic evaluation for pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer in the AEGIS-1 (n = 375) and AEGIS-2 (n = 130) clinical trials and gene expression profiled using microarrays. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 535 genes that were differentially expressed in the nasal epithelium of AEGIS-1 patients diagnosed with lung cancer vs those with benign disease after one year of follow-up ( P  system signaling. A nasal lung cancer classifier derived in the AEGIS-1 cohort that combined clinical factors (age, smoking status, time since quit, mass size) and nasal gene expression (30 genes) had statistically significantly higher area under the curve (0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.89, P  = .01) and sensitivity (0.91; 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.97, P  = .03) than a clinical-factor only model in independent samples from the AEGIS-2 cohort. These results support that the airway epithelial field of lung cancer-associated injury in ever smokers extends to the nose and demonstrates the potential of using nasal gene expression as a noninvasive biomarker for lung cancer detection.

  1. Detection of toxin genes and RAPD analysis of bacillus cereus isolates from different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect genes for enterotoxins (hbla, entFM and bceT and for emetic toxin (cer, to determine antibiotic resistance, and to estimate intraspecies diversity in B. cereus isolates by RAPD analysis. B. cereus was identified in 12 out of 117 indigenous Bacillus spp. using the classical microbiological methods and PCR. All isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, two to tetracyclin and four to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Also, all isolates produced inducible penicillinases and β-lactamase. Toxin genes were detected with PCR. EntFM and cer genes were present in all isolates, hbla in all, but two, and bceT in none. RAPD analysis was performed with four different primers, two of them designed for this study. The intraspecies diversity revealed 10 different patterns at the 90% similarity level. Two separate clusters were formed regardless of a soil type or utilization. The detection of genes encoding toxins in all B. cereus isolates indicated these bacteria as potentially pathogenic and seriously for human health. Regardless of a soil type or utilization, the RAPD analysis showed high intraspecies heterogeneity in B. cereus isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the presence of entero- and emetic toxin genes and genetic heterogeneity in B. cereus isolates from different soil types and different soil utilization in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37006

  2. Human synthetic lethal inference as potential anti-cancer target gene detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solé Ricard V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL if mutation of either alone is not lethal, but mutation of both leads to death or a significant decrease in organism's fitness. The detection of SL gene pairs constitutes a promising alternative for anti-cancer therapy. As cancer cells exhibit a large number of mutations, the identification of these mutated genes' SL partners may provide specific anti-cancer drug candidates, with minor perturbations to the healthy cells. Since existent SL data is mainly restricted to yeast screenings, the road towards human SL candidates is limited to inference methods. Results In the present work, we use phylogenetic analysis and database manipulation (BioGRID for interactions, Ensembl and NCBI for homology, Gene Ontology for GO attributes in order to reconstruct the phylogenetically-inferred SL gene network for human. In addition, available data on cancer mutated genes (COSMIC and Cancer Gene Census databases as well as on existent approved drugs (DrugBank database supports our selection of cancer-therapy candidates. Conclusions Our work provides a complementary alternative to the current methods for drug discovering and gene target identification in anti-cancer research. Novel SL screening analysis and the use of highly curated databases would contribute to improve the results of this methodology.

  3. Detection of resistance genes and evaluation of water quality at zoo lakes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silva de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The investigation of the presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in aquatic environments is important to identify possible reservoirs of resistant microorganisms that could be a threat to human and animal health. The aims of this study were to analyze the presence of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobials in the aquatic environment and to assess the quality of water in zoo lakes. Results showed a pattern of genes conferring resistance to multiple antibiotics and turbidity, which was expected to be due to the presence of contaminants. The most frequent genes were sul I and sul II (sulfonamides, which were present in all the lakes, followed by genes encoding β-lactamases such as blaPSE I (77.8% and ampC (66.7%. However, tet(K, tet(M, and ermC genes were not detected. There was a positive correlation between the number of Enterobacteriaceae and resistance genes. In conclusion, the source of contamination of all lakes was probably the neighboring urban sewage or wastewater that increased the frequency of the total coliforms and resistance genes, which in turn posed a threat to the conservation of the animal life inhabiting the zoo.

  4. Detection Of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Gag-Gene By Rt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predominantly, cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage were specifically infected by the virus as proviral DNA was detected in infected cultures by amplification of a 414 base-pair (bp) fragment of the viral gag-gene by Reverse Transcription- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The present study revealed ...

  5. FuseFISH : robust detection of transcribed gene fusions in single cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semrau, Stefan; Crosetto, Nicola; Bienko, Magda; Boni, Marina; Bernasconi, Paolo; Chiarle, Roberto; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Transcribed gene fusions are key biomarkers in many hematologic and solid tumors, often representing the primary oncogenic driver mutation. Here, we report an experimental and computational pipeline for detecting fusion transcripts using single-molecule RNA FISH and unbiased correlation analysis

  6. Rapid detection of single nucleotide mutation in p53 gene based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the rapid detection of a specific DNA sequence related to the p53 gene is described. The structure and morphology of the synthesized graphene nanosheets and Au nanoparticles were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopyand energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy techniques.

  7. Credit card fraud detection: An application of the gene expression messy genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargupta, H.; Gattiker, J.R.; Buescher, K.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an application of the recently introduced gene expression messy genetic algorithm (GEMGA) (Kargupta, 1996) for detecting fraudulent transactions of credit cards. It also explains the fundamental concepts underlying the GEMGA in the light of the SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation and Class Hierarchizing) (Kargupta, 1995) framework.

  8. DNMT3A GENE POINT MUTATIONS DETECTION IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA PATIENTS USING SEQUENCING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vinogradov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to estimate the frequency of DNMT3A gene exons 18–26 point mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients (pts using target automatic sequencing technique.Material and Methods. Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples were obtained from 34 AML pts aged 21 to 64, who were treated in Sverdlovsk Regional Hematological Centre (Ekaterinburg during the period 2012–2014. Distribution of the pts according to FAB-classification was as follows: AML M0 – 3, M1 – 1, M2 – 12, M3 – 3, M4 – 10, M5 – 2, M6 – 1, M7 – 1, blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm – 1. Total RNA was extracted from leukemic cells and subjected to reverse transcription. DNMT3A gene exons 18–26 were amplified by PCR. Detection of mutations in DNMT3A gene was performed by direct sequencing. Sequencing was realized using an automatic genetic analyzer ABI Prism 310.Results. The average frequency of functionally significant point mutations in DNMT3A gene exons 18– 26 among the treated AML pts was 5.9%. They were detected in morphological subgroups M2 and M4(according to WHO classification. The average frequency of DNMT3A gene exons 18–26 point mutations among the AML M2 and M4 pts without chromosomal aberrations and TP53 gene point mutations was 14.3%. In both cases there were samples in which DNMT3A gene mutations were accompanied by molecular lesions of NPM1, KRAS and WT1 genes. AML pts with DNMT3A gene exons 18–26 point mutations characterized by poor response to standard chemotherapeutic regimens and unfavorable prognosis.

  9. Gene probes to detect cross-culture contamination in hormone producing cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuba, I; Lernmark, A; Madsen, Ole Dragsbæk

    1988-01-01

    Cross-culture contamination of cell lines propagated in continuous culture is a frequent event and particularly difficult to resolve in cells expressing similar phenotypes. We demonstrate that DNA-DNA hybridization to blotted endonuclease-digested cell DNA effectively detects cross-culture contam......Cross-culture contamination of cell lines propagated in continuous culture is a frequent event and particularly difficult to resolve in cells expressing similar phenotypes. We demonstrate that DNA-DNA hybridization to blotted endonuclease-digested cell DNA effectively detects cross...... sequence probe, BLUR, and lacked restriction fragment length polymorphism typical for the human HLA-DQ beta-chain gene. Although a human insulin gene probe showed a weak, nonhuman hybridization pattern, a cDNA probe for the Syrian hamster insulin gene hybridized strongly consistent with a single copy...

  10. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction.

  11. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Li

    Full Text Available Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction and thelytoky (asexual reproduction. Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction.

  12. Detection of virulence genes in Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC strains by Multiplex-PCR method

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    Javad Mohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Urinary tract infection caused by E. coli is one of the most common illnesses in all age groups worldwide. Presence of virulence genes is a key factor in bacterial pathogens in uroepithelial cells. The present study was performed to detect iha, iroN, ompT genes in the Uropathogenic E.coli isolates from clinical samples using multiplex-PCR method in Kerman. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Kerman hospitals were collected. After biochemical and microbiological tests, all strains were tested with regard to the presence of iha, iroN, and ompT genes using multiplex-PCR method. Results: The results of Multiplex-PCR showed that all specimens had one, two, or three virulence genes simultaneously. The highest and lowest frequency distribution of genes was related to iha (56.7% and iroN (20% respectively. Conclusion: According to the prevalence of urinary tract infection in the community and distribution of resistance and virulence factors, the fast and accurate detection of the strains and virulence genes is necessary

  13. PREVALENCE OF INFECTION WITH CAGA-POSITIVE HELICOBACTER PYLORI STRAINS AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ghisleni de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Context Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection, virulence factors, and clinical presentation vary widely according to the studied population. In Brazil, a continental country composed of several ethnicities and cultural habits, the behavior of infection also appears to vary, as many other studies have shown. Objectives Describe the prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains in a group of children and adolescents who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Methods Fifty-four gastric biopsy specimens of children and adolescents with H. pylori infection demonstrated by histology, urease test and molecular analysis were tested for the presence of cagA positive H. pylori strains by the polymerase chain reaction method. Results he prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori was 29.6% (95% confidence interval, 18 to 43.6%. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the endoscopic and histological features of patients infected with cagA-positive strains as compared with those infected by cagA-negative strains. Conclusions he study showed a low prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains among children and adolescents who underwent EGD in southern Brazil, in comparison to studies conducted with children from other regions of Brazil. There was no association between the presence of cagA-positive strains and more severe clinical presentations in the studied sample.

  14. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in doping control using mammalian reporter gene bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Sterk, Saskia S; van de Heijning, Monique P M; Brouwer, Abraham; Stephany, Rainer W; van der Burg, Bart; Sonneveld, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone testosterone. They are frequently detected as drugs in sport doping control. Being similar to or derived from natural male hormones, AAS share the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) as common mechanism of action. The mammalian androgen responsive reporter gene assay (AR CALUX bioassay), measuring compounds interacting with the AR can be used for the analysis of AAS without the necessity of knowing their chemical structure beforehand, whereas current chemical-analytical approaches may have difficulty in detecting compounds with unknown structures, such as designer steroids. This study demonstrated that AAS prohibited in sports and potential designer AAS can be detected with this AR reporter gene assay, but that also additional steroid activities of AAS could be found using additional mammalian bioassays for other types of steroid hormones. Mixtures of AAS were found to behave additively in the AR reporter gene assay showing that it is possible to use this method for complex mixtures as are found in doping control samples, including mixtures that are a result of multi drug use. To test if mammalian reporter gene assays could be used for the detection of AAS in urine samples, background steroidal activities were measured. AAS-spiked urine samples, mimicking doping positive samples, showed significantly higher androgenic activities than unspiked samples. GC-MS analysis of endogenous androgens and AR reporter gene assay analysis of urine samples showed how a combined chemical-analytical and bioassay approach can be used to identify samples containing AAS. The results indicate that the AR reporter gene assay, in addition to chemical-analytical methods, can be a valuable tool for the analysis of AAS for doping control purposes.

  15. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Towards a better detection of horizontally transferred genes by combining unusual properties effectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is one of the major mechanisms contributing to microbial genome diversification. A number of computational methods for finding horizontally transferred genes have been proposed in the past decades; however none of them has provided a reliable detector yet. In existing parametric approaches, only one single compositional property can participate in the detection process, or the results obtained through each single property are just simply combined. It's known that different properties may mean different information, so the single property can't sufficiently contain the information encoded by gene sequences. In addition, the class imbalance problem in the datasets, which also results in great errors for the gene detection, hasn't been considered by the published methods. Here we developed an effective classifier system (Hgtident that used support vector machine (SVM by combining unusual properties effectively for HGT detection. RESULTS: Our approach Hgtident includes the introduction of more representative datasets, optimization of SVM model, feature selection, handling of imbalance problem in the datasets and extensive performance evaluation via systematic cross-validation methods. Through feature selection, we found that JS-DN and JS-CB have higher discriminating power for HGT detection, while GC1-GC3 and k-mer (k = 1, 2, …, 7 make the least contribution. Extensive experiments indicated the new classifier could reduce Mean error dramatically, and also improve Recall by a certain level. For the testing genomes, compared with the existing popular multiple-threshold approach, on average, our Recall and Mean error was respectively improved by 2.81% and reduced by 26.32%, which means that numerous false positives were identified correctly. CONCLUSIONS: Hgtident introduced here is an effective approach for better detecting HGT. Combining multiple features of HGT is also essential for a wider range of HGT

  17. Towards a better detection of horizontally transferred genes by combining unusual properties effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dapeng; Xiao, Fen; Liu, Li; Hu, Kai; Tan, Yanping; He, Shunmin; Gao, Xieping

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is one of the major mechanisms contributing to microbial genome diversification. A number of computational methods for finding horizontally transferred genes have been proposed in the past decades; however none of them has provided a reliable detector yet. In existing parametric approaches, only one single compositional property can participate in the detection process, or the results obtained through each single property are just simply combined. It's known that different properties may mean different information, so the single property can't sufficiently contain the information encoded by gene sequences. In addition, the class imbalance problem in the datasets, which also results in great errors for the gene detection, hasn't been considered by the published methods. Here we developed an effective classifier system (Hgtident) that used support vector machine (SVM) by combining unusual properties effectively for HGT detection. Our approach Hgtident includes the introduction of more representative datasets, optimization of SVM model, feature selection, handling of imbalance problem in the datasets and extensive performance evaluation via systematic cross-validation methods. Through feature selection, we found that JS-DN and JS-CB have higher discriminating power for HGT detection, while GC1-GC3 and k-mer (k = 1, 2, …, 7) make the least contribution. Extensive experiments indicated the new classifier could reduce Mean error dramatically, and also improve Recall by a certain level. For the testing genomes, compared with the existing popular multiple-threshold approach, on average, our Recall and Mean error was respectively improved by 2.81% and reduced by 26.32%, which means that numerous false positives were identified correctly. Hgtident introduced here is an effective approach for better detecting HGT. Combining multiple features of HGT is also essential for a wider range of HGT events detection.

  18. Relation of atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori-CagA+ and interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Rafaela; Une, Clas; Ramírez, Vanessa; Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; González, María I; Ramírez, José A; de Mascarel, Antoine; Cuenca, Patricia; Pérez-Pérez, Guillermo; Mégraud, Francis

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) CagA+ infection and pro-inflammatory polymorphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-1RN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. METHODS: Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 consecutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA+ was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively. RESULTS: In this dyspeptic population, 86% were H pylori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive for CagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associated with CagA+ status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogen PGI/PGII risk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associated with the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population. PMID:19030199

  19. Detection of RTX toxin genes in gram-negative bacteria with a set of specific probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, P; Heyberger-Meyer, B; Burnens, A P; Nicolet, J; Frey, J

    1997-06-01

    The family of RTX (RTX representing repeats in the structural toxin) toxins is composed of several protein toxins with a characteristic nonapeptide glycine-rich repeat motif. Most of its members were shown to have cytolytic activity. By comparing the genetic relationships of the RTX toxin genes we established a set of 10 gene probes to be used for screening as-yet-unknown RTX toxin genes in bacterial species. The probes include parts of apxIA, apxIIA, and apxIIIA from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, cyaA from Bordetella pertusis, frpA from Neisseria meningitidis, prtC from Erwinia chrysanthemi, hlyA and elyA from Escherichia coli, aaltA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and lktA from Pasteurella haemolytica. A panel of pathogenic and nonpathogenic gram-negative bacteria were investigated for the presence of RTX toxin genes. The probes detected all known genes for RTX toxins. Moreover, we found potential RTX toxin genes in several pathogenic bacterial species for which no such toxins are known yet. This indicates that RTX or RTX-like toxins are widely distributed among pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. The probes generated by PCR and the hybridization method were optimized to allow broad-range screening for RTX toxin genes in one step. This included the binding of unlabelled probes to a nylon filter and subsequent hybridization of the filter with labelled genomic DNA of the strain to be tested. The method constitutes a powerful tool for the assessment of the potential pathogenicity of poorly characterized strains intended to be used in biotechnological applications. Moreover, it is useful for the detection of already-known or new RTX toxin genes in bacteria of medical importance.

  20. Similarity-based gene detection: using COGs to find evolutionarily-conserved ORFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchison Clyde A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental verification of gene products has not kept pace with the rapid growth of microbial sequence information. However, existing annotations of gene locations contain sufficient information to screen for probable errors. Furthermore, comparisons among genomes become more informative as more genomes are examined. We studied all open reading frames (ORFs of at least 30 codons from the genomes of 27 sequenced bacterial strains. We grouped the potential peptide sequences encoded from the ORFs by forming Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs. We used this grouping in order to find homologous relationships that would not be distinguishable from noise when using simple BLAST searches. Although COG analysis was initially developed to group annotated genes, we applied it to the task of grouping anonymous DNA sequences that may encode proteins. Results "Mixed COGs" of ORFs (clusters in which some sequences correspond to annotated genes and some do not are attractive targets when seeking errors of gene predicion. Examination of mixed COGs reveals some situations in which genes appear to have been missed in current annotations and a smaller number of regions that appear to have been annotated as gene loci erroneously. This technique can also be used to detect potential pseudogenes or sequencing errors. Our method uses an adjustable parameter for degree of conservation among the studied genomes (stringency. We detail results for one level of stringency at which we found 83 potential genes which had not previously been identified, 60 potential pseudogenes, and 7 sequences with existing gene annotations that are probably incorrect. Conclusion Systematic study of sequence conservation offers a way to improve existing annotations by identifying potentially homologous regions where the annotation of the presence or absence of a gene is inconsistent among genomes.

  1. Detection of Genes that Determine Maize Grain Quality Characteristics and Resistance to Stress Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovskyi, O.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 200 experimental maize samples (Maize Company were examined for the presence of genes that determine the quality characteristics of grain (wx and fl-2 genes, herbicide (bar (pat, epsps genes and insect (cry-genes resistance. The total DNA was extracted from maize living plant tissue. Primers to detect wx, fl-2, bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 genes were designed and selected. Multiplex and Touchdown PCR were worked out. PCR amplification of certain sequences was carried out. No transgenes (bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 were found among 200 analyzed experimental maize samples. At the same time, fl-2 gene was found in 41 samples, wx gene was found in 192 analyzed samples.

  2. Gene length and detection bias in single cell RNA sequencing protocols [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Phipson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq has rapidly gained popularity for profiling transcriptomes of hundreds to thousands of single cells. This technology has led to the discovery of novel cell types and revealed insights into the development of complex tissues. However, many technical challenges need to be overcome during data generation. Due to minute amounts of starting material, samples undergo extensive amplification, increasing technical variability. A solution for mitigating amplification biases is to include unique molecular identifiers (UMIs, which tag individual molecules. Transcript abundances are then estimated from the number of unique UMIs aligning to a specific gene, with PCR duplicates resulting in copies of the UMI not included in expression estimates. Methods: Here we investigate the effect of gene length bias in scRNA-Seq across a variety of datasets that differ in terms of capture technology, library preparation, cell types and species. Results: We find that scRNA-seq datasets that have been sequenced using a full-length transcript protocol exhibit gene length bias akin to bulk RNA-seq data. Specifically, shorter genes tend to have lower counts and a higher rate of dropout. In contrast, protocols that include UMIs do not exhibit gene length bias, with a mostly uniform rate of dropout across genes of varying length. Across four different scRNA-Seq datasets profiling mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs, we found the subset of genes that are only detected in the UMI datasets tended to be shorter, while the subset of genes detected only in the full-length datasets tended to be longer. Conclusions: We find that the choice of scRNA-seq protocol influences the detection rate of genes, and that full-length datasets exhibit gene-length bias. In addition, despite clear differences between UMI and full-length transcript data, we illustrate that full-length and UMI data can be combined to reveal the underlying biology

  3. Detection of stress resistance genes in transgenic maize by multiplex and touchdown polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikova M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To develop a methodology for detection of the genes of resistance to the stress factors in transgenic maize by multiplex (mPCR and touchdown polymerase chain reactions. Methods. isolation of total DNA by CTAB method, purification of DNA from RNA and proteins, electrophoresis of total DNA and amplification products in agarose gel, polymerase chain reaction. Results. The protocol of multiplex and touchdown polymerase chain reactions has been developed for simultaneous verification of the quality of total DNA extracted from the studied maize plant samples and detection of the following genes that determine resistance to the stress factors in the transgenic maize and maize transformation events: BT176, MON810, MON88017, DAS1507, DAS59122, MIR604, GA21, NK603 (mPCR, Bt11, MON863, MON89034, T25 (touchdown PCR. The multiplex PCR and touchdown PCR were developed using the reference samples. Conclusions. The proposed protocol of mPCR and touchdown PCR reactions can be used for mass analysis of maize samples to detect the genes of tolerance/resistance to herbicides and genes of resistance to insects reliably, authentically, quickly and cheaply.

  4. Detection and expression of the phosphonate transporter gene phnD in marine and freshwater picocyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilikchyan, Irina N; McKay, R Michael L; Zehr, Jonathan P; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Bullerjahn, George S

    2009-05-01

    We describe a PCR-based assay designed to detect expression of the phosphonate assimilation gene phnD from picocyanobacteria. The phnD gene encodes the phosphonate binding protein of the ABC-type phosphonate transporter, present in many of the picocyanobacterial genome sequences. Detection of phnD expression can indicate a capacity of picoplankton to utilize phosphonates, a refractory form of phosphorus that can represent 25% of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic phosphorus pool in marine systems. Primer sets were designed to specifically amplify phnD sequences from marine and freshwater Synechococcus spp., Prochlorococcus spp. and environmental samples from the ocean and Laurentian Great Lakes. Quantitative RT-PCR from cultured marine Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102 and freshwater Synechococcus sp. ARC-21 demonstrated induction of phnD expression in P-deficient media, suggesting that phn genes are regulated coordinately with genes under phoRB control. Last, RT-PCR of environmental RNA samples from the Sargasso Sea and Pacific Ocean detected phnD expression from the endemic picocyanobacterial population. Synechococcus spp. phnD expression yielded a depth-dependent pattern following gradients of P bioavailability. By contrast, the Prochlorococcus spp. primers revealed that in all samples tested, phnD expression was constitutive. The method described herein will allow future studies aimed at understanding the utilization of naturally occurring phoshonates in the ocean as well as monitoring the acquisition of synthetic phosphonate herbicides (e.g. glyphosate) by picocyanobacteria in freshwaters.

  5. Direct detection of diarrheagenic Aeromonas from faeces by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting aerolysin toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Suresh Kanna, P; Karkuzhali, K; Chattopadhyay, U K; Pal, D

    2001-01-01

    Detection of diarrheagenic Aeromonas specific aerolysin toxin (Aer) gene by PCR based assay and isolation, identification of diarrhea causing Aeromonas from faeces by culture methods were carried out in the Division of Active Surveillance, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata, India for a period of 12 months. Out of 602 faecal samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea admitted in Infectious Diseases (ID) Hospital, Kolkata, 68 (11.29%) samples were found to be possessing Aer gene by PCR technique. The conventional culture methods using selective media yielded only 64 (10.6%) Aeromonas strains from the same faecal samples. The different Aeromonas species possessing Aer gene identified by PCR based technique include A. hydrophila (55.8%), A. caviae (17.6%), A. veronii (10.2%), A. schubertii (4.4%), A. jandaei (2.9%) and A. trota (8.8%). The isolation and identification of Aeromonas by routine culture did not detect enterotoxigenic A. trota present in four diarrheal faecal samples. The failure of the growth of enterotoxigenic A. trota on selective media may be attributed to the ampicillin susceptibility of those strains. The quality control studies revealed that PCR method for the direct detection of Aer gene from the faeces has the sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%.

  6. Clinical relevance of the cagA, tnpA and tnpB genes in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohhabati; Bonten, Marc J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Kusters, Johannes G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous proteins have been proposed as virulence factors for the gram negative gastric bacterium Helicobacter pylori but only for a few this has unequivocally been demonstrated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association of the putative virulence factors tnpA and tnpB

  7. Detection of Shiga toxins genes by Multiplex PCR in clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different methods have been used for detection of shiga toxins; such as,  cell culture, ELISA, and RFPLA. However, all of these methods suffer from high cost, time-consumption and relatively low sensitivity. In this study we used Multiplex PCR method for detection of genes encoding shiga toxins. Material and Methods: In this study, 63 clinical samples were obtained from positive cultures of Shigella and E. coli O157, from Bahman 1391 until Ordibehesht 1392 in Mazandaran province. Initial confirmation of shiga toxins producing bacteria was performed by biochemical and serological methods. After DNA extraction, detection of stx1 and stx2 genes was accomplished by multiplex PCR.  For confirmation of the PCR amplicon, DNA sequencing was used. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed by disk diffusion method. Results:  Among the positive strains, 13 strains contained stx2 genes, 4 strains contained Stx/Stx1 genes and 4 strains harbored both Stx/Stx1 and Stx2. The DNA extracted from other Gram-negative bacteria was not protected by the relevant parts of these toxins. Sequencing of the amplified fragments indicated the correct toxin sequences.  The sensitivity for identification of Stx/Stx1 gene was 1.56 pg/ µl and for Stx2 was 1.08 pg/µl. The toxin positive strains were all sensitive to Cefixime, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, and Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: This method is fast and accurate for detection of bacteria producing shiga toxin and can be used to identify different types of shiga toxin.

  8. Clinical significance of hTERC gene detection in exfoliated cervical epithelial cells for cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiuhui; Liang, Peihe; Zheng, Yingru; Yi, Ping; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jian; Huang, Yinhu; Zhou, Yuanguo; Guo, Jianxin; Li, Li

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of abnormal human telomerase RNA gene component (hTERC) gene amplification tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervical lesions. In 373 patients with cytologic abnormalities, high-risk human papilomavirus (HR-HPV) was detected by the hybrid capture II method, and abnormal amplification of the hTERC gene in exfoliated cells was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cell smear findings suggested atypical squamous cells in 148 patients, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 62 patients, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 107 patients, squamous cell carcinoma in 56 patients, and cervical biopsy-revealed inflammation in 89 patients, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 36 patients, CIN II in 43 patients, CIN III in 129 patients, and infiltrating carcinoma in 76 patients. In the inflammation, CIN I, CIN II, CIN III, and infiltrating carcinoma groups, the infection rates of HR-HPV were 29.21%, 52.78%, 74.42%, 92.25%, and 93.42% (P 0.05), but they differed significantly in the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (P < 0.01). Among the 3 methods, hTERC testing showed the highest specificity and positive predictive value, and HR-HPV testing showed the highest sensitivity. In 41 patients with untreated CIN I and CIN II, the sensitivity of detection of hTERC gene amplification to predict lesion progression was 88.89%, and the specificity was 93.75%. Detection of abnormal amplification of the hTERC gene can assist in screening cervical lesions and identifying CIN I/II patients with a high progression risk.

  9. CagA and VacA Helicobacter Pylori Antibodies in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Suriani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with different genotypes of virulent Helicobacter pylori strains (cytotoxin-associated gene A [CagA]-and/or vacuolating cytotoxin A [VacA]-positive can play a role in the development of atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer (DU and gastric cancer (GC.

  10. Improved Detection of Bifidobacteria with Optimised 16S rRNA-Gene Based Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kathleen; Cox, Michael J.; Wopereis, Harm; Martin, Rocio; Knol, Jan; Li, Ming-Shi; Cookson, William O. C. M.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Kroll, J. Simon

    2012-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene is conserved across all bacteria and as such is routinely targeted in PCR surveys of bacterial diversity. PCR primer design aims to amplify as many different 16S rRNA gene sequences from as wide a range of organisms as possible, though there are no suitable 100% conserved regions of the gene, leading to bias. In the gastrointestinal tract, bifidobacteria are a key genus, but are often under-represented in 16S rRNA surveys of diversity. We have designed modified, ‘bifidobacteria-optimised’ universal primers, which we have demonstrated detection of bifidobacterial sequence present in DNA mixtures at 2% abundance, the lowest proportion tested. Optimisation did not compromise the detection of other organisms in infant faecal samples. Separate validation using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) shows that the proportions of bifidobacteria detected in faecal samples were in agreement with those obtained using 16S rRNA based pyrosequencing. For future studies looking at faecal microbiota, careful selection of primers will be key in order to ensure effective detection of bifidobacteria. PMID:22470420

  11. PCR detection of oxytetracycline resistance genes from diverse habitats in total community DNA and in streptomycete isolates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolakopoulou, T.L.; Egan, S.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Guillaume, G.; Heuer, H.; Wellington, E.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.; Collard, J.M.; Smalla, K.; Karagouni, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    A range of European habitats was screened by PCR for detection of the oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B), found in the oxytetracycline-producing strain Streptomyces rimosus. Primers were developed to detect these otr genes in tetracycline-resistant (TcR) streptomycete isolates from

  12. Specific gene probe for detection of biotyped and serotyped Listeria strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Notermans, S; Chakraborty, T; Leimeister-Wächter, M; Dufrenne, J; Heuvelman, K J; Maas, H; Jansen, W; Wernars, K; Guinee, P

    1989-01-01

    A total of 284 strains of Listeria, including all known serovars and biovars together with Listeria grayi and Listeria murrayi, were biotyped and serotyped. Biotyping and serotyping could be done in 2 days. A gene probe encoding a delayed hypersensitivity factor (DTH) was used in the detection of pathogenic biotypes and serotypes of the tested strains. The gene was found in all 117 tested Listeria monocytogenes strains of serogroups 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4ab, and 7. It was...

  13. Antibiotic resistance genes detected in the marine sponge Petromica citrina from Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Silva Laport

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although antibiotic-resistant pathogens pose a significant threat to human health, the environmental reservoirs of the resistance determinants are still poorly understood. This study reports the detection of resistance genes (ermB, mecA, mupA, qnrA, qnrB and tetL to antibiotics among certain culturable and unculturable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Petromica citrina. The antimicrobial activities elicited by P. citrina and its associated bacteria are also described. The results indicate that the marine environment could play an important role in the development of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of resistance genes among bacteria.

  14. Detection of single-copy functional genes in prokaryotic cells by two-pass TSA-FISH with polynucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shuji; Hasegawa, Takuya; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Kubota, Kengo

    2012-02-01

    In situ detection of functional genes with single-cell resolution is currently of interest to microbiologists. Here, we developed a two-pass tyramide signal amplification (TSA)-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol with PCR-derived polynucleotide probes for the detection of single-copy genes in prokaryotic cells. The mcrA gene and the apsA gene in methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, respectively, were targeted. The protocol showed bright fluorescence with a good signal-to-noise ratio and achieved a high efficiency of detection (>98%). The discrimination threshold was approximately 82-89% sequence identity. Microorganisms possessing the mcrA or apsA gene in anaerobic sludge samples were successfully detected by two-pass TSA-FISH with polynucleotide probes. The developed protocol is useful for identifying single microbial cells based on functional gene sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a rapid method for direct detection of tet(M) genes in soil from Danish farmland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Sengeløv, Gitte; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2004-01-01

    A method for direct detection of antibiotic resistance genes in soil samples has been developed. The tetracycline resistance gene, tet(M), was used as a model. The method was validated on Danish farmland soil that had repeatedly been treated with pig manure slurry containing resistant bacteria......: A detection limit of 10(2)-10(3) copies of the tet(M) gene per gram of soil (in a Bacillus cereus group bacterium) was achieved. tet(M) gene was detected in soil samples with the highest prevalence on farmland treated with pig manure slurry........ The tet(M) gene was directly detected in 10-80% of the samples from the various farmland soils and could be detected in all samples tested after selective enrichment. To validate the obtained results, the method was applied to garden soil samples where lower prevalence of resistance was found. Result...

  16. Detection of Luminous Vibrio harveyi in Penaeid Shrimp Through Nested PCR Using Haemolysin Gene Primer

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    WAWAN ABDULLAH SETIAWAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most important aquaculture commodity in Indonesia. However, the luminous disease primarily caused by Vibrio harveyi bacteria still becomes an obstacle in penaeid shrimp farming, especially in shrimp hatchery. This study was aimed to identify the presence of V. harveyi in L. vannamei through nested PCR using haemolysin gene primer. First, initial primers were designed using V. harveyi VIB 391 haemolysin gene sequence (accession number: DQ640264, flanking the position 133 to 756. This primer pairs were used to identify haemolysin gene in both V. harveyi MR5339 and V. harveyi 275 strain. Sequencing results from each sample showed 99% similarity with haemolysin gene sequence in Genebank. Furthermore, the sequence of V. harveyi MR5339 haemolysin gene was used to design the nested PCR primers. The first primer pairs of nested PCR have successfully amplified the haemolysin gene fragment of all V. harveyi strains samples from position 52 to 405. The second primer pairs of nested PCR have amplified position 204 to 405 where it can detect all of V. harveyi strains used as sample sources in this study. The application of nested PCR technique in this study was able to identify V. harveyi strains at serial dilution of cells density as low as 100 cfu/mL, which is equal to a single cell or at DNA concentration up to 101 fg/µL.

  17. Assessing the probability of detection of horizontal gene transfer events in bacterial populations

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    Jeffrey P. Townsend

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental approaches to identify horizontal gene transfer (HGT events of non-mobile DNA in bacteria have typically relied on detection of the initial transformants or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to be detected in a short time frame. Population genetic modelling of the growth dynamics of bacterial genotypes is therefore necessary to account for natural selection and genetic drift during the time lag and to predict realistic time frames for detection with a given sampling design. Here we draw on statistical approaches to population genetic theory to construct a cohesive probabilistic framework for investigation of HGT of exogenous DNA into bacteria. In particular, the stochastic timing of rare HGT events is accounted for. Integrating over all possible event timings, we provide an equation for the probability of detection, given that HGT actually occurred. Furthermore, we identify the key variables determining the probability of detecting HGT events in four different case scenarios that are representative of bacterial populations in various environments. Our theoretical analysis provides insight into the temporal aspects of dissemination of genetic material, such as antibiotic resistance genes or transgenes present in GMOs. Due to the long time scales involved and the exponential growth of bacteria with differing fitness, quantitative analyses incorporating bacterial generation time and levels of selection, such as the one presented here, will be a necessary component of any future experimental design and analysis of HGT as it occurs in natural settings.

  18. Real-Time PCR for Detection of NDM-1 Carbapenemase Genes from Spiked Stool Samples▿

    OpenAIRE

    Naas, T.; Ergani, A.; Carrer, A.; Nordmann, P.

    2011-01-01

    An in-house quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using TaqMan chemistry has been developed to detect NDM-1 carbapenemase genes from bacterial isolates and directly from stool samples. The qPCR amplification of blaNDM-1 DNA was linear over 10 log dilutions (r2 = 0.99), and the amplification efficiency was 1.03. The qPCR detection limit was reproducibly 1 CFU, or 10 plasmid molecules, and there was no cross-reaction with DNA extracted from several multidrug-resistant bacteria harboring other...

  19. Rapid detection of Van genes in rectal swabs by real time PCR in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Cantarelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory-based surveillance is an important component in the control of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE. METHODS: The study aimed to evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR (genes vanA-vanB for VRE detection on 115 swabs from patients included in a surveillance program. RESULTS: Sensitivity of RT-PCR was similar to primary culture (75% and 79.5%, respectively when compared to broth enriched culture, whereas specificity was 83.1%. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR provides same day results, however it showed low sensitivity for VRE detection.

  20. Statistical methods in detecting differential expressed genes, analyzing insertion tolerance for genes and group selection for survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang

    The thesis is composed of three independent projects: (i) analyzing transposon-sequencing data to infer functions of genes on bacteria growth (chapter 2), (ii) developing semi-parametric Bayesian method for differential gene expression analysis with RNA-sequencing data (chapter 3), (iii) solving group selection problem for survival data (chapter 4). All projects are motivated by statistical challenges raised in biological research. The first project is motivated by the need to develop statistical models to accommodate the transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-Seq) data, Tn-Seq data consist of sequence reads around each transposon insertion site. The detection of transposon insertion at a given site indicates that the disruption of genomic sequence at this site does not cause essential function loss and the bacteria can still grow. Hence, such measurements have been used to infer the functions of each gene on bacteria growth. We propose a zero-inflated Poisson regression method for analyzing the Tn-Seq count data, and derive an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain parameter estimates. We also propose a multiple testing procedure that categorizes genes into each of the three states, hypo-tolerant, tolerant, and hyper-tolerant, while controlling false discovery rate. Simulation studies show our method provides good estimation of model parameters and inference on gene functions. In the second project, we model the count data from RNA-sequencing experiment for each gene using a Poisson-Gamma hierarchical model, or equivalently, a negative binomial (NB) model. We derive a full semi-parametric Bayesian approach with Dirichlet process as the prior for the fold changes between two treatment means. An inference strategy using Gibbs algorithm is developed for differential expression analysis. We evaluate our method with several simulation studies, and the results demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods including the popularly applied ones such as edge

  1. Detecting epistatic interactions contributing to human gene expression using the CEPH family data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Gao, Guimin; Li, Jian; Page, Grier P; Zhang, Kui

    2007-01-01

    It is believed that epistatic interactions among loci contribute to variations in quantitative traits. Several methods are available to detect epistasis using population-based data. However, methods to characterize epistasis for quantitative traits in family-based association analysis are not well developed, especially for studying thousands of gene expression traits. Here, we proposed a linear mixed-model approach to detect epistasis for quantitative traits using family data. The proposed method was implemented in a widely used software program SOLAR. We evaluated the power of the method by simulation studies and applied this method to the analysis of the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain family gene expression data provided by Genetics Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15).

  2. A multiplex PCR for detection of genes encoding exfoliative toxins from Staphylococcus hyicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To develop a multiplex PCR for detection of genes encoding the exfoliative toxins ExhA, ExhB, ExhC and ExhD from Staphylococcus hyicus and to estimate the prevalence of exfoliative toxins among Staph. hyicus isolates from Danish pig herds with exudative epidermitis (EE). Methods and Results......: A multiplex PCR employing specific primers for each of the genes encoding four different exfoliative toxins was developed and evaluated using a collection of Staph. hyicus with known toxin type and a number of other staphylococcal species. A total of 314 Staph. hyicus isolates from pigs with EE were screened...... by multiplex PCR and the combined results of the present and previous investigations showed that ExhA, ExhB, ExhC and ExhD was found in 20, 33, 18 and 22%, respectively, of 60 cases of EE investigated. Conclusions: This study has provided a new tool for detection of toxigenic Staph. hyicus and a more...

  3. Bioaerosol emissions and detection of airborne antibiotic resistance genes from a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Liantong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Xu, Caijia; Dong, Liming; Yao, Maosheng

    2016-01-01

    Air samples from twelve sampling sites (including seven intra-plant sites, one upwind site and four downwind sites) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing were collected using a Reuter Centrifugal Sampler High Flow (RCS); and their microbial fractions were studied using culturing and high throughput gene sequence. In addition, the viable (fluorescent) bioaerosol concentrations for 7 intra-plant sites were also monitored for 30 min each using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS). Both air and water samples collected from the plant were investigated for possible bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and integrons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the air near sludge thickening basin was detected to have the highest level of culturable bacterial aerosols (up to 1697 CFU/m3) and fungal aerosols (up to 930 CFU/m3). For most sampling sites, fluorescent peaks were observed at around 3-4 μm, except the office building with a peak at 1.5 μm, with a number concentration level up to 1233-6533 Particles/m3. About 300 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, such as Comamonas Testosteroni and Moraxella Osloensis, were detected from the air samples collected over the biological reaction basin. In addition, we have detected the sul2 gene resistant to cotrimoxazole (also known as septra, bactrim and TMP-SMX) and class 1 integrase gene from the air samples collected from the screen room and the biological reaction basin. Overall, the screen room, sludge thickening basin and biological reaction basin imposed significant microbial exposure risks, including those from airborne antibiotic resistance genes.

  4. Rapid detection of carbapenemase genes by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jussimara; Widen, Raymond H; Pignatari, Antonio C C; Kubasek, Carly; Silbert, Suzane

    2012-04-01

    To develop a single multiplex real-time PCR assay to detect six different genetic types of carbapenemases already identified in Enterobacteriaceae (KPC, GES, NDM, IMP, VIM and OXA-48). A total of 58 bacterial isolates were tested. Thirty were previously characterized as resistant to carbapenems and documented by PCR and sequencing analysis to carry the following genes: bla(KPC) type, bla(GES) type, bla(IMP) type, bla(VIM) type, bla(OXA-48) and bla(NDM-1). These positive strains included 21 Enterobacteriaceae, 1 Acinetobacter baumannii and 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The remaining 28 isolates previously tested susceptible to carbapenems and were negative for these genes. Bacterial DNA was extracted using the easyMag extractor (bioMérieux, France). The real-time PCR was performed using the Rotor-Gene 6000 instrument (Corbett Life Science, Australia) and specific primers for each carbapenemase target were designed using the DNAStar software (Madison, WI, USA). Each one of the six carbapenemase genes tested presented a different melting curve after PCR amplification. The melting temperature (T(m)) analysis of the amplicons identified was as follows: bla(IMP) type (T(m) 80.1°C), bla(OXA-48) (T(m) 81.6°C), bla(NDM-1) (T(m) 84°C), bla(GES) type (T(m) 88.6°C), bla(VIM) type (T(m) 90.3°C) and bla(KPC) type (T(m) 91.6°C). No amplification was detected among the negative samples. The results showed 100% concordance with the genotypes previously identified. The new assay was able to detect the presence of six different carbapenemase gene types in a single 3 h PCR.

  5. The Spike-and-Slab Lasso Generalized Linear Models for Prediction and Associated Genes Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zaixiang; Shen, Yueping; Zhang, Xinyan; Yi, Nengjun

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale "omics" data have been increasingly used as an important resource for prognostic prediction of diseases and detection of associated genes. However, there are considerable challenges in analyzing high-dimensional molecular data, including the large number of potential molecular predictors, limited number of samples, and small effect of each predictor. We propose new Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear models, called spike-and-slab lasso GLMs, for prognostic prediction and detection of associated genes using large-scale molecular data. The proposed model employs a spike-and-slab mixture double-exponential prior for coefficients that can induce weak shrinkage on large coefficients, and strong shrinkage on irrelevant coefficients. We have developed a fast and stable algorithm to fit large-scale hierarchal GLMs by incorporating expectation-maximization (EM) steps into the fast cyclic coordinate descent algorithm. The proposed approach integrates nice features of two popular methods, i.e., penalized lasso and Bayesian spike-and-slab variable selection. The performance of the proposed method is assessed via extensive simulation studies. The results show that the proposed approach can provide not only more accurate estimates of the parameters, but also better prediction. We demonstrate the proposed procedure on two cancer data sets: a well-known breast cancer data set consisting of 295 tumors, and expression data of 4919 genes; and the ovarian cancer data set from TCGA with 362 tumors, and expression data of 5336 genes. Our analyses show that the proposed procedure can generate powerful models for predicting outcomes and detecting associated genes. The methods have been implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/). Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Rapid and Sensitive Reporter Gene Assays for Detection of Antiandrogenic and Estrogenic Effects of Environmental Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential...... antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effectivein vitroscreening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were......-on laboratory time. This assay is a powerful tool for the efficient and accurate determination and quantification of the effects of antiandrogens on reporter gene transcription. To extend the application of FuGene, the reagent was shown to be superior compared to Lipofectin for transfecting MCF7 human breast...

  7. Rapid and sensitive reporter gene assays for detection of antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jørgensen, E.C.B.; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effective in vitro screening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were...... induction of luciferase activity. The classical antiandrogenic compounds hydroxy-flutamide, bicalutamide, spironolactone, and cyproterone acetate together with the pesticide(metabolite)s, vinclozolin, p,p'-DDE, and procymidone all potently inhibited the response to 0.1 nM R1881, Compared to the traditional...... cancer cells with an estrogen response element-luciferase vector. Thus, FuGene may prove to be valuable in diverse reporter gene assays involving transient transfections for screening of potential endocrine disrupters for (anti)androgenic and (anti)estrogenic properties....

  8. Detection of stx1 and stx2 Genes in Pennsylvanian White-Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Mauro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli carrying the stx1 and/or stx2 genes can cause multi-symptomatic illness in humans. A variety of terrestrial and aquatic environmental reservoirs of stx have been described. Culture based detection of microbes in deer species have found a low percentage of samples that have tested positive for Stx-producing microbes, suggesting that while deer may contain these microbes, their overall abundance in deer is low. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR was utilized to test for the presence of stx genes in white-tailed deer fecal matter in western Pennsylvania. In this culture independent screening, nearly half of the samples tested positive for the stx2 gene, with a bias towards samples that were concentrated with stx2. This study, while limited in scope, suggests that deer may be a greater reservoir for stx than was previously thought.

  9. An RGD helper sequence in CagL of Helicobacter pylori assists in interactions with integrins and injection of CagA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eConradi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a specific gastric pathogen that colonizes the stomach in more than 50% of the world’s human population. Infection with this bacterium can induce several types of gastric pathology, ranging from chronic gastritis to peptic ulcers and even adenocarcinoma. Virulent H. pylori isolates encode components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS, which form a pilus for the injection of virulence proteins such as CagA into host target cells. This is accomplished by a specialized adhesin on the pilus surface, the protein CagL, a putative VirB5 ortholog, which binds to host cell β1 integrin, triggering subsequent delivery of CagA across the host cell membrane. Like the human extracellular matrix protein fibronectin, CagL contains an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motif and is able to trigger intracellular signaling pathways by RGD-dependent binding to integrins. While CagL binding to host cells is mediated primarily by the RGD motif, we identified an auxiliary binding motif for CagL-integrin interaction. Here, we report on a surface-exposed FEANE (Phe-Glu-Ala-Asn-Glu interaction motif in spatial proximity to the RGD sequence, which enhances the interactions of CagL with integrins. It will be referred to as RGD helper sequence (RHS. Competitive cell adhesion assays with recombinant wild type CagL and point mutants, competition experiments with synthetic cyclic and linear peptides, and peptide array experiments revealed amino acids essential for the interaction of the RHS motif with integrins. Infection experiments indicate that the RHS motif plays a role in the early interaction of H. pylori T4SS with integrin, to trigger signaling and to inject CagA into host cells. We thus postulate that CagL is a versatile T4SS surface protein equipped with at least two motifs to promote binding to integrins, thereby causing aberrant signaling within host cells and facilitating translocation of CagA into host cells, thus contributing directly to H. pylori

  10. CompositeSearch: A Generalized Network Approach for Composite Gene Families Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Bapteste, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Genes evolve by point mutations, but also by shuffling, fusion, and fission of genetic fragments. Therefore, similarity between two sequences can be due to common ancestry producing homology, and/or partial sharing of component fragments. Disentangling these processes is especially challenging in large molecular data sets, because of computational time. In this article, we present CompositeSearch, a memory-efficient, fast, and scalable method to detect composite gene families in large data sets (typically in the range of several million sequences). CompositeSearch generalizes the use of similarity networks to detect composite and component gene families with a greater recall, accuracy, and precision than recent programs (FusedTriplets and MosaicFinder). Moreover, CompositeSearch provides user-friendly quality descriptions regarding the distribution and primary sequence conservation of these gene families allowing critical biological analyses of these data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Keratin 1 gene mutation detected in epidermal nevus with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Akiko; Akiyama, Masashi; Sakai, Kaori; Goto, Maki; Nomura, Yukiko; Ando, Satomi; Abe, Masataka; Sawamura, Daisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    Since 1994, four cases of epidermal nevus with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH) caused by keratin 10 gene mutations have been reported, although no keratin 1 (K1) gene mutation has yet been reported. We detected a K1 gene (KRT1) mutation in epidermal nevus with EH in a 10-year-old Japanese male. The patient showed well-demarcated verrucous, hyperkeratotic plaques mainly on the trunk, covering 15% of the entire body surface. No hyperkeratosis was seen on the palms or soles. He had no family history of skin disorders. His lesional skin showed typical granular degeneration and, ultrastructurally, clumped keratin filaments were observed in the upper epidermis. Direct sequence analysis of genomic DNA extracted from lesional skin revealed a heterozygous 5' donor splice site mutation c.591+2T>A in KRT1. This mutation was not detected in genomic DNA samples from the patient's peripheral blood leukocytes or those of other family members. The identical splice mutation was previously reported in a family with palmoplantar keratoderma and mild ichthyosis, and was demonstrated to result in a 22 amino-acid deletion p.Val175_Lys196del in the H1 and 1A domains of K1. To our knowledge, the present patient is the first reported case of epidermal nevus associated with EH caused by a K1 gene mutation in a mosaic pattern.

  12. Detecting splicing patterns in genes involved in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Grégoire; Rousselin, Antoine; Goardon, Nicolas; Castéra, Laurent; Harter, Valentin; Legros, Angelina; Muller, Etienne; Fouillet, Robin; Brault, Baptiste; Smirnova, Anna S; Lemoine, Fréderic; de la Grange, Pierre; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Houdayer, Claude; Bonnet, Françoise; Blanc-Fournier, Cécile; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Frebourg, Thierry; Martins, Alexandra; Vaur, Dominique; Krieger, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Interpretation of variants of unknown significance (VUS) is a major challenge for laboratories performing molecular diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), especially considering that many genes are now known to be involved in this syndrome. One important way these VUS can have a functional impact is through their effects on RNA splicing. Here we present a custom RNA-Seq assay plus bioinformatics and biostatistics pipeline to analyse specifically alternative and abnormal splicing junctions in 11 targeted HBOC genes. Our pipeline identified 14 new alternative splices in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in addition to detecting the majority of known alternative spliced transcripts therein. We provide here the first global splicing pattern analysis for the other nine genes, which will enable a comprehensive interpretation of splicing defects caused by VUS in HBOC. Previously known splicing alterations were consistently detected, occasionally with a more complex splicing pattern than expected. We also found that splicing in the 11 genes is similar in blood and breast tissue, supporting the utility and simplicity of blood splicing assays. Our pipeline is ready to be integrated into standard molecular diagnosis for HBOC, but it could equally be adapted for an integrative analysis of any multigene disorder.

  13. Improved detection of differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments through multiple scanning and image integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdi, Chiara; Trevisan, Silvia; Celegato, Barbara; Costa, Germano; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2003-01-01

    The variability of results in microarray technology is in part due to the fact that independent scans of a single hybridised microarray give spot images that are not quite the same. To solve this problem and turn it to our advantage, we introduced the approach of multiple scanning and of image integration of microarrays. To this end, we have developed specific software that creates a virtual image that statistically summarises a series of consecutive scans of a microarray. We provide evidence that the use of multiple imaging (i) enhances the detection of differentially expressed genes; (ii) increases the image homogeneity; and (iii) reveals false-positive results such as differentially expressed genes that are detected by a single scan but not confirmed by successive scanning replicates. The increase in the final number of differentially expressed genes detected in a microarray experiment with this approach is remarkable; 50% more for microarrays hybridised with targets labelled by reverse transcriptase, and 200% more for microarrays developed with the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) technique. The results have been confirmed by semi-quantitative RT–PCR tests. PMID:14627839

  14. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1m1 genotype but not cagA or babA2 increase the risk of ulcer and gastric cancer in patients from Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rom?n-Rom?n, Adolfo; Mart?nez-Carrillo, Dinorah Nashely; Atrisco-Morales, Josefina; Az?car-Heziquio, Julio C?sar; Cuevas-Caballero, Abner Sa?l; Casta??n-S?nchez, Carlos Alberto; Reyes-R?os, Roxana; Betancourt-Linares, Reyes; Reyes-Navarrete, Salom?n; Cruz-del Carmen, Iv?n; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Cort?s-Malag?n, Enoc Mariano; Fern?ndez-Tilapa, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Background The vacA, cagA and babA2 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with gastric pathology. The objectives were to determine the frequency of infection and distribution of the vacA, cagA and babA2 genotypes of H. pylori in patients with gastric ulcer, chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, and to evaluate the association of virulent genotypes with diagnosis. Methods We studied 921 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia or with presumptive diagnosis of gastric cancer. The DNA of H....

  15. Minimal residual disease detection in Tunisian B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on immunoglobulin gene rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Besbes

    Full Text Available IGH gene rearrangement and IGK-Kde gene deletion can be used as molecular markers for the assessment of B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL. Minimal residual disease detected based on those markers is currently the most reliable prognosis factor in B-ALL. The aim of this study was to use clonal IGH/IGK-Kde gene rearrangements to confirm B-ALL diagnosis and to evaluate the treatment outcome of Tunisian leukemic patients by monitoring the minimal residual disease (MRD after induction chemotherapy. Seventeen consecutive newly diagnosed B-ALL patients were investigated by multiplex PCR assay and real time quantitative PCR according to BIOMED 2 conditions. The vast majority of clonal VH-JH rearrangements included VH3 gene. For IGK deletion, clonal VK1f/6-Kde recombinations were mainly identified. These rearrangements were quantified to follow-up seven B-ALL after induction using patient-specific ASO. Four patients had an undetectable level of MRD with a sensitivity of up to 10-5. This molecular approach allowed identification of prognosis risk group and adequate therapeutic decision. The IGK-Kde and IGH gene rearrangements might be used for diagnosis and MRD monitoring of B-ALL, introduced for the first time in Tunisian laboratories.

  16. Detecting coordinated regulation of multi-protein complexes using logic analysis of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates Todd O

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the functional units in cells are multi-protein complexes such as RNA polymerase, the ribosome, and the proteasome. For such units to work together, one might expect a high level of regulation to enable co-appearance or repression of sets of complexes at the required time. However, this type of coordinated regulation between whole complexes is difficult to detect by existing methods for analyzing mRNA co-expression. We propose a new methodology that is able to detect such higher order relationships. Results We detect coordinated regulation of multiple protein complexes using logic analysis of gene expression data. Specifically, we identify gene triplets composed of genes whose expression profiles are found to be related by various types of logic functions. In order to focus on complexes, we associate the members of a gene triplet with the distinct protein complexes to which they belong. In this way, we identify complexes related by specific kinds of regulatory relationships. For example, we may find that the transcription of complex C is increased only if the transcription of both complex A AND complex B is repressed. We identify hundreds of examples of coordinated regulation among complexes under various stress conditions. Many of these examples involve the ribosome. Some of our examples have been previously identified in the literature, while others are novel. One notable example is the relationship between the transcription of the ribosome, RNA polymerase and mannosyltransferase II, which is involved in N-linked glycan processing in the Golgi. Conclusions The analysis proposed here focuses on relationships among triplets of genes that are not evident when genes are examined in a pairwise fashion as in typical clustering methods. By grouping gene triplets, we are able to decipher coordinated regulation among sets of three complexes. Moreover, using all triplets that involve coordinated regulation with the ribosome

  17. A combination test for detection of gene-environment interaction in cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brandon; Basu, Saonli; McGue, Matt

    2017-07-01

    Identifying gene-environment (G-E) interactions can contribute to a better understanding of disease etiology, which may help researchers develop disease prevention strategies and interventions. One big criticism of studying G-E interaction is the lack of power due to sample size. Studies often restrict the interaction search to the top few hundred hits from a genome-wide association study or focus on potential candidate genes. In this paper, we test interactions between a candidate gene and an environmental factor to improve power by analyzing multiple variants within a gene. We extend recently developed score statistic based genetic association testing approaches to the G-E interaction testing problem. We also propose tests for interaction using gene-based summary measures that pool variants together. Although it has recently been shown that these summary measures can be biased and may lead to inflated type I error, we show that under several realistic scenarios, we can still provide valid tests of interaction. These tests use significantly less degrees of freedom and thus can have much higher power to detect interaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that the iSeq-aSum-min test, which combines a gene-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-G, and an interaction-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-I, provides a powerful alternative to test G-E interaction. We demonstrate the performance of these approaches using simulation studies and illustrate their performance to study interaction between the SNPs in several candidate genes and family climate environment on alcohol consumption using the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research dataset. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. Molecular analysis of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in Spanish individuals: Deletion detection and familial diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino, A.; Garcia-Delgado, M.; Narbona, J. [Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    1995-11-06

    Deletion studies were performed in 26 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients through amplification of nine different exons by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA from paraffin-embedded muscle biopsies was analyzed in 12 of the 26 patients studied. Optimization of this technique is of great utility because it enables analysis of material stored in pathology archives. PCR deletion detection, useful in DMD-affected boys, is problematic in determining the carrier state in female relatives. For this reason, to perform familial linkage diagnosis, we made use of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (STRP, or short tandem repeat polymorphism) located in intron 49 of the gene. We designed a new pair of primers that enabled the detection of 22 different alleles in relatives in the 14 DMD families studied. The use of this marker allowed familial diagnosis in 11 of the 14 DMD families and detection of de novo deletions in 3 of the probands. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The application of reporter gene assays for the detection of endocrine disruptors in sport supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T. [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT95AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Scippo, Marie Louise [Department of Food Sciences, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Muller, Marc [Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering GIGA-R, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [LABERCA, ENVN, USC INRA 2013, BP 50707, 44 307, Nantes (France); Malone, Edward [The State Laboratory, Young' s Cross, Celbridge, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Bovee, Toine F.H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, AE Wageningen 6700 (Netherlands); Mitchell, Samuel [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT95AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-26

    The increasing availability and use of sports supplements is of concern as highlighted by a number of studies reporting endocrine disruptor contamination in such products. The health food supplement market, including sport supplements, is growing across the Developed World. Therefore, the need to ensure the quality and safety of sport supplements for the consumer is essential. The development and validation of two reporter gene assays coupled with solid phase sample preparation enabling the detection of estrogenic and androgenic constituents in sport supplements is reported. Both assays were shown to be of high sensitivity with the estrogen and androgen reporter gene assays having an EC{sub 50} of 0.01 ng mL{sup -1} and 0.16 ng mL{sup -1} respectively. The developed assays were applied in a survey of 63 sport supplements samples obtained across the Island of Ireland with an additional seven reference samples previously investigated using LC-MS/MS. Androgen and estrogen bio-activity was found in 71% of the investigated samples. Bio-activity profiling was further broken down into agonists, partial agonists and antagonists. Supplements (13) with the strongest estrogenic bio-activity were chosen for further investigation. LC-MS/MS analysis of these samples determined the presence of phytoestrogens in seven of them. Supplements (38) with androgen bio-activity were also selected for further investigation. Androgen agonist bio-activity was detected in 12 supplements, antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 16 and partial antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 10. A further group of supplements (7) did not present androgenic bio-activity when tested alone but enhanced the androgenic agonist bio-activity of dihydrotestosterone when combined. The developed assays offer advantages in detection of known, unknown and low-level mixtures of endocrine disruptors over existing analytical screening techniques. For the detection and identification of constituent hormonally

  20. Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25 and K. pneumoniae (n = 52 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test. Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii, DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia, ACC (Ambler class C, EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.

  1. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow.

  2. A resampling-based meta-analysis for detection of differential gene expression in breast cancer

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    Ergul Gulusan

    2008-12-01

    -time qRT-PCR supported the meta-analysis results. Conclusion The proposed meta-analysis approach has the ability to detect a set of differentially expressed genes with the least amount of within-group variability, thus providing highly stable gene lists for class prediction. Increased statistical power and stringent filtering criteria used in the present study also make identification of novel candidate genes possible and may provide further insight to improve our understanding of breast cancer development.

  3. Prediction of antibiotic resistance from antibiotic resistance genes detected in antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli using PCR or WGS.

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    Moran, Robert A; Anantham, Sashindran; Holt, Kathryn E; Hall, Ruth M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of bioinformatic detection of resistance genes in whole-genome sequences in correctly predicting resistance phenotypes. Genomes of a collection of well-characterized commensal Escherichia coli were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq technology and assembled with SPAdes. Antibiotic resistance genes identified by PCR, SRST2 analysis of reads and ResFinder analysis of SPAdes assemblies were compared with known resistance phenotypes. Generally, the antibiotic resistance genes detected using bioinformatic methods were concordant, but only ARG-ANNOT included sat2 . However, the presence or absence of genes was not always predictive of the phenotype. In one strain, trimethoprim resistance was due to a known mutation in the chromosomal folA gene. In cases where the copy number was low, the aadA5 gene downstream of dfrA17 did not confer streptomycin or spectinomycin resistance. Resistance genes were found in the genomes that were not detected previously by PCRs targeting a limited gene set and gene cassettes in class 1 or class 2 integrons. In one isolate, the aadA1 gene cassette in the estX - aadA1 cassettes pair was outside an integron context and was not expressed. The qnrS1 gene, conferring reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, and the bla CMY-2 gene, encoding an ESBL, were each detected in a single isolate and mphA (macrolide resistance) was present in six isolates surrounded by IS 26 and IS 6100 . WGS analysis detected more genes than PCR. Some were not expressed, causing inconsistencies with the experimentally determined phenotype. An unpredicted chromosomal folA mutation causing trimethoprim resistance was found.

  4. Detection of magA Gene in Klebsiella spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples

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    Alireza Zamani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Klebsiella infections are caused mainly by K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. In the last two decades, a new type of invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae which contains mucoviscosity-associated gene (magA has emerged. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of magA gene and to detect antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella   spp. isolated from clinical samples.     Materials and Methods:   Klebsiella isolates were collected from patients admitted to referral hospitals of Hamadan, Iran, during a 12-month period from 2007 to 2008. The samples were analyzed by conventional microbiological methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The hypermucoviscosity (HV phenotype of Klebsiella   isolates was characterized by formation of viscous strings >5 mm as a positive test. The susceptibility of isolates to routine antibiotics was assessed by agar disk diffusion method.   Results: Out of 105 Klebsiella isolates, 96.2% was identified as K. pneumoniae and 3.8% as K. oxytoca by PCR. magA gene was detected in 4 (3.8% isolates of K. pneumoniae. The isolates of K. oxytoca contained no magA gene. From 4 isolates with positive magA gene, two of them were HV+ and two were HV- phenotype. Overall, sixty-four isolates (60.95% of K. pneumoniae   showed an HV positive phenotype and all isolates of K. oxytoca were HV-phenotype. The most effective antibiotics against the isolates were tobramycin (79.05%, ceftazidime (79.05%, ceftizoxime (78.09%, ciprofloxacin (76.19%, ceftriaxone (76.24% and amikacin (74.29%.     Conclusion: The results suggest that there is also magA associated serotype of the K. pneumoniae in this region. In addition, the presence of HV+ phenotype may not be associated with magA   .     I

  5. New multiplex real-time PCR approach to detect gene mutations for spinal muscular atrophy.

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    Liu, Zhidai; Zhang, Penghui; He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shan; Tang, Shi; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xinbin; Tan, Junjie; Peng, Bin; Jiang, Li; Hong, Siqi; Zou, Lin

    2016-08-17

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in children, and the diagnosis is complicated and difficult, especially at early stage. Early diagnosis of SMA is able to improve the outcome of SMA patients. In our study, Real-time PCR was developed to measure the gene mutation or deletion of key genes for SMA and to further analyse genotype-phenotype correlation. The multiple real-time PCR for detecting the mutations of survival of motor neuron (SMN), apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 2 gene (GTF2H2) was established and confirmed by DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The diagnosis and prognosis of 141 hospitalized children, 100 normal children and further 2000 cases of dry blood spot (DBS) samples were analysed by this multiple real-time PCR. The multiple real-time PCR was established and the accuracy of it to detect the mutations of SMN, NAIP and GTF2H2 was at least 98.8 % comparing with DNA sequencing and MLPA. Among 141 limb movement disorders children, 75 cases were SMA. 71 cases of SMA (94.67 %) were with SMN c.840 mutation, 9 cases (12 %) with NAIP deletion and 3 cases (4 %) with GTF2H2 deletion. The multiple real-time PCR was able to diagnose and predict the prognosis of SMA patients. Simultaneously, the real-time PCR was applied to detect trace DNA from DBS and able to make an early diagnosis of SMA. The clinical and molecular characteristics of SMA in Southwest of China were presented. Our work provides a novel way for detecting SMA in children by using real-time PCR and the potential usage in newborn screening for early diagnosis of SMA.

  6. Detection of methicillin resistant and toxin-associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Cajethan Ezeamagu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a problem in both healthcare institutions and community settings. This is due to its multi-drug resistant challenges. Hence, this study assessed the prevalence of methicillin resistant gene (mecA, exfoliative toxin (eta and etb and toxic shock syndrome (tsst-1 genes in S. aureus isolated from clinical samples. A total of 120 clinical samples of patients (urine, high vagina swab (HVS, semen, wound swab, sputum and urethral swab from a hospital laboratory were obtained. S. aureus was isolated and then identified with API-staph kit. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by agar diffusion while PCR was used to detect the presence of mecA and toxin-associated genes. Fifty S. aureus isolates were obtained at frequencies of 26(52%, 12(24%, 4(8%, 3(6%, 3(6% and 2(4% from the HVS, urine, semen, wound, sputum and urethral swab samples respectively. All the isolates of S. aureus were resistant to the antibiotics used in this study. MecA, tsst-1, eta and etb were detected in 19(38%, 7(14%, 3(6% and 2(4% of the isolates respectively. The prevalence of MRSA and its resistance pattern observed in this study was a signal that the health-care workers and the general public are at risk.

  7. SERPINA1 Full-Gene Sequencing Identifies Rare Mutations Not Detected in Targeted Mutation Analysis.

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    Graham, Rondell P; Dina, Michelle A; Howe, Sarah C; Butz, Malinda L; Willkomm, Kurt S; Murray, David L; Snyder, Melissa R; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Halling, Kevin C; Highsmith, W Edward

    2015-11-01

    Genetic α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is characterized by low serum AAT levels and the identification of causal mutations or an abnormal protein. It needs to be distinguished from deficiency because of nongenetic causes, and diagnostic delay may contribute to worse patient outcome. Current routine clinical testing assesses for only the most common mutations. We wanted to determine the proportion of unexplained cases of AAT deficiency that harbor causal mutations not identified through current standard allele-specific genotyping and isoelectric focusing (IEF). All prospective cases from December 1, 2013, to October 1, 2014, with a low serum AAT level not explained by allele-specific genotyping and IEF were assessed through full-gene sequencing with a direct sequencing method for pathogenic mutations. We reviewed the results using American Council of Medical Genetics criteria. Of 3523 cases, 42 (1.2%) met study inclusion criteria. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations not identified through clinical testing were detected through full-gene sequencing in 16 (38%) of the 42 cases. Rare mutations not detected with current allele-specific testing and IEF underlie a substantial proportion of genetic AAT deficiency. Full-gene sequencing, therefore, has the ability to improve accuracy in the diagnosis of AAT deficiency. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid Molecular detection of citrus brown spot disease using ACT gene in Alternaria alternata

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    Hamid Moghimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Using rapid detection methods is important for detection of plant pathogens and also prevention through spreading pests in agriculture. Citrus brown spot disease caused by pathogenic isolates of Alternaria alternata is a common disease in Iran. Materials and methods: In this study, for the first time a PCR based molecular method was used for rapid diagnosis of brown spot disease. Nine isolates of A. Alternata were isolated in PDA medium from different citrus gardens. The plant pathogenic activity was examined in tangerine leaves for isolates. Results showed that these isolates are the agents of brown spot disease. PCR amplification of specific ACT-toxin gene was performed for DNA extracted from A. alternata isolates, with 11 different fungal isolates as negative controls and 5 DNA samples extracted from soil. Results: Results showed that A. alternata, the causal agent of brown spot disease, can be carefully distinguished from other pathogenic agents by performing PCR amplification with specific primers for ACT toxin gene. Also, the results from Nested-PCR method confirmed the primary reaction and the specificity of A. alternata for brown spot disease. PCR results to control samples of the other standard fungal isolates, showed no amplification band. In addition, PCR with the DNA extracted from contaminated soils confirmed the presence of ACT toxin gene. Discussion and conclusion: Molecular procedure presented here can be used in rapid identification and prevention of brown spot infection in citrus gardens all over the country.

  9. Isolation of Clostridium difficile and Detection of A and B Toxins Encoding Genes

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    Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clostridium difficile is the most important anaerobic, gram positive, spore forming bacillus which is known as a prevalent factor leading to antibiotic associated diarrheas and is the causative agent of pseudomembrane colitis. The role of this bacterium along with the over use of antibiotics have been proved to result in colitis. The major virulence factors of these bacteria are the A and B toxins. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to isolate C. difficile from stool samples and detect A and B toxins encoding genes, in order toserve as a routine method for clinical diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Recognition of A and B toxins encoding genes by uniplex and multiplex PCR using two pairs of primers from 136 accumulated stool samples. Results: Results of the present study showed that out of 136 stool samples, three C. difficile were isolated and these strains contained A and B toxins encoding genes. Conclusions: It was concluded that although detection of C. difficile from stool samples based on PCR (polymerase chain reaction is expensive, yet this method is more sensitive and less time-consuming than culture methods and can be used as a clinical laboratory test.

  10. [Detection of the exogenous gene copy number of the transgenic tomato anti-caries vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guo-hui; Liu, Jian-guo; Tian, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Bai, Peng-yuan; Han, Qi; Gu, Yu; Guan, Xiao-yan; Wang, Hai-hui

    2013-12-01

    To detect the exogenous gene copy number of the transgenic tomato anti-caries vaccine by using the SYBR Green real-time PCR. Recombinant plasmid pEAC10 and pEPC10 were used as standard to detect genome samples of exogenous gene pacA-ctxB and pacP-ctxB by SYBR green fluorescent quantitation, then the average value was calculated as gene copy number. The copy number of the transgenic tomato carrying pacA-ctxB was 1.3 and the pacP-ctxB was 3.2. The transgenic tomato plants which have high stability are low-copy transgenic plants. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (30160086, 81260164), Science and Technical Fund of Guizhou Province (LKZ[2011]41), Project of Technology Innovation Team in Guizhou Province, Leading Academic Discipline Construction Project in Guizhou Province and Excellent Scientific Research Team Cultivation Project in Zunyi Medical College ([2012]12).

  11. Pinda: a web service for detection and analysis of intraspecies gene duplication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Dimitrios-Georgios; Glykos, Nicholas M

    2013-09-01

    We present Pinda, a Web service for the detection and analysis of possible duplications of a given protein or DNA sequence within a source species. Pinda fully automates the whole gene duplication detection procedure, from performing the initial similarity searches, to generating the multiple sequence alignments and the corresponding phylogenetic trees, to bootstrapping the trees and producing a Z-score-based list of duplication candidates for the input sequence. Pinda has been cross-validated using an extensive set of known and bibliographically characterized duplication events. The service facilitates the automatic and dependable identification of gene duplication events, using some of the most successful bioinformatics software to perform an extensive analysis protocol. Pinda will prove of use for the analysis of newly discovered genes and proteins, thus also assisting the study of recently sequenced genomes. The service's location is http://orion.mbg.duth.gr/Pinda. The source code is freely available via https://github.com/dgkontopoulos/Pinda/. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of candidate nectin gene mutations in infertile men with severe teratospermia.

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    Bronson, Richard; Mikhailik, Anatoly; Schwedes, John; Gnatenko, Dimitri; Hatchwell, Eli

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 40% of infertile men have an abnormal semen analysis, resulting from either abnormalities of sperm production (defective spermatogenesis) or sperm shape (defective spermiogenesis). This latter process is dependent upon the function of Sertoli cells, which maintain specialized junctional complexes with germ cells. Nectins, members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, participate in formation of these dynamic complexes. Male mice in which the nectin-2 or nectin-3 gene is knocked out are sterile. Their spermatozoa exhibit severe teratospermia, altered motility, and an impaired ability to fertilize eggs. We asked whether mutations in the protein coding regions of the nectin-2 (aka PVRL2) and nectin-3 (aka PVRL3) genes could be detected in men from infertile couples whose semen analysis revealed unimpaired sperm production, judged by normal sperm concentration, but severe abnormalities in sperm shape. Ejaculates were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and later submitted for Sanger analysis of these two genes, to detect mutations in their protein coding regions. Eighty-nine of 455 ejaculates (19.5%) met the inclusion criteria for study. Two of the 56 samples that were successfully analyzed for nectin-2 (3.6%) and one of 73 (1.3%) analyzed for nectin-3 possessed possibly damaging mutations. Despite the small-scale nature of the study, at least two low-frequency deleterious variants were identified. These results suggest the need for a larger-scale study of sequence variants in the nectins in severe teratospermia.

  13. Development of a DNA microarray to detect antimicrobial resistance genes identified in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jonathan G; Lindsey, Rebecca L; Rondeau, Gaelle; Porwollik, Steffen; Long, Fred; McClelland, Michael; Jackson, Charlene R; Englen, Mark D; Meinersmann, Richard J; Berrang, Mark E; Davis, Johnnie A; Barrett, John B; Turpin, Jennifer B; Thitaram, Sutawee N; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2010-03-01

    To understand the mechanisms and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AR), the genetic elements responsible must be identified. Due to the myriad of possible genes, a high-density genotyping technique is needed for initial screening. To achieve this, AR genes in the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank database were identified by their annotations and compiled into a nonredundant list of 775 genes. A DNA microarray was constructed of 70mer oligonucelotide probes designed to detect these genes encoding resistances to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, chloramphenicols, glycopeptides, heavy metals, lincosamides, macrolides, metronidazoles, polyketides, quaternary ammonium compounds, streptogramins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprims as well as resistance transfer genes. The microarray was validated with two fully sequenced control strains of Salmonella enterica: Typhimurium LT2 (sensitive) and Typhi CT18 (multidrug resistance [MDR]). All resistance genes encoded on the MDR plasmid, pHCM1, harbored by CT18 were detected in that strain, whereas no resistance genes were detected in LT2. The microarray was also tested with a variety of bacteria, including MDR Salmonella enterica serovars, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria spp., and Clostridium difficile. The results presented here demonstrate that a microarray can be designed to detect virtually all AR genes found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, thus reducing the subsequent assays necessary to identify specific resistance gene alleles.

  14. The probability of a gene tree topology within a phylogenetic network with applications to hybridization detection.

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    Yu, Yun; Degnan, James H; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-01-01

    Gene tree topologies have proven a powerful data source for various tasks, including species tree inference and species delimitation. Consequently, methods for computing probabilities of gene trees within species trees have been developed and widely used in probabilistic inference frameworks. All these methods assume an underlying multispecies coalescent model. However, when reticulate evolutionary events such as hybridization occur, these methods are inadequate, as they do not account for such events. Methods that account for both hybridization and deep coalescence in computing the probability of a gene tree topology currently exist for very limited cases. However, no such methods exist for general cases, owing primarily to the fact that it is currently unknown how to compute the probability of a gene tree topology within the branches of a phylogenetic network. Here we present a novel method for computing the probability of gene tree topologies on phylogenetic networks and demonstrate its application to the inference of hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting. We reanalyze a Saccharomyces species data set for which multiple analyses had converged on a species tree candidate. Using our method, though, we show that an evolutionary hypothesis involving hybridization in this group has better support than one of strict divergence. A similar reanalysis on a group of three Drosophila species shows that the data is consistent with hybridization. Further, using extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate the power of gene tree topologies at obtaining accurate estimates of branch lengths and hybridization probabilities of a given phylogenetic network. Finally, we discuss identifiability issues with detecting hybridization, particularly in cases that involve extinction or incomplete sampling of taxa.

  15. Detecting clusters of different geometrical shapes in microarray gene expression data.

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    Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon

    2005-05-01

    Clustering has been used as a popular technique for finding groups of genes that show similar expression patterns under multiple experimental conditions. Many clustering methods have been proposed for clustering gene-expression data, including the hierarchical clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing map (SOM). However, the conventional methods are limited to identify different shapes of clusters because they use a fixed distance norm when calculating the distance between genes. The fixed distance norm imposes a fixed geometrical shape on the clusters regardless of the actual data distribution. Thus, different distance norms are required for handling the different shapes of clusters. We present the Gustafson-Kessel (GK) clustering method for microarray gene-expression data. To detect clusters of different shapes in a dataset, we use an adaptive distance norm that is calculated by a fuzzy covariance matrix (F) of each cluster in which the eigenstructure of F is used as an indicator of the shape of the cluster. Moreover, the GK method is less prone to falling into local minima than the k-means and SOM because it makes decisions through the use of membership degrees of a gene to clusters. The algorithmic procedure is accomplished by the alternating optimization technique, which iteratively improves a sequence of sets of clusters until no further improvement is possible. To test the performance of the GK method, we applied the GK method and well-known conventional methods to three recently published yeast datasets, and compared the performance of each method using the Saccharomyces Genome Database annotations. The clustering results of the GK method are more significantly relevant to the biological annotations than those of the other methods, demonstrating its effectiveness and potential for clustering gene-expression data. The software was developed using Java language, and can be executed on the platforms that JVM (Java Virtual Machine) is running. It is

  16. Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA against Newcastle disease virus.

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    Yani Zhang

    Full Text Available As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05, indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.

  17. Multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.

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    Nathan D Grubaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. Global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. Here, we report an oligonucleotide DNA microarray design, termed ArboChip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, Alphavirus (Togaviridae, Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae, and Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assay utilizes targeted PCR amplification of three genes from each virus genus for electrochemical detection on a portable, field-tested microarray platform. Fifty-two viruses propagated in cell-culture were used to evaluate the specificity of the PCR primer sets and the ArboChip5.1 microarray capture probes. The microarray detected all of the tested viruses and differentiated between many closely related viruses such as members of the dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Semliki Forest virus clades. Laboratory infected mosquitoes were used to simulate field samples and to determine the limits of detection. Additionally, we identified dengue virus type 3, Japanese encephalitis virus, Tembusu virus, Culex flavivirus, and a Quang Binh-like virus from mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2011 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that the described assay can be utilized in a comprehensive field surveillance program by the broad-range amplification and specific identification of arboviruses from infected mosquitoes. Furthermore, the microarray platform can be deployed in the field and viral RNA extraction to data analysis can occur in as little as 12 h. The information derived from the ArboChip5.1 microarray can help to establish

  18. Deletion of the TNFAIP3/A20 gene detected by FICTION analysis in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The TNFAIP3 gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme (A20) involved in the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling, is frequently inactivated by gene deletions/mutations in a variety of B-cell malignancies. However, the detection of this in primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) specimens is hampered by the scarcity of Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HR-S) cells even after enrichment by micro-dissection. Methods We used anti-CD30 immunofluorescence with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate the relative number of TNFAIP3/CEP6 double-positive signals in CD30-positive cells. Results From a total of 47 primary classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) specimens, 44 were evaluable. We found that the relative numbers of TNFAIP3/CD30 cells were distributed among three groups, corresponding to those having homozygous (11%), heterozygous (32%), and no (57%) deletions in TNFAIP3. This shows that TNFAIP3 deletions could be sensitively detected using our chosen methods. Conclusions Comparing the results with mutation analysis, TNFAIP3 inactivation was shown to have escaped detection in many samples with homozygous deletions. This suggests that TNFAIP3 inactivation in primary cHL specimens might be more frequent than previously reported. PMID:23039325

  19. Detection of Balamuthia mandrillaris DNA by real-time PCR targeting the RNase P gene

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    Lewin Astrid

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The free-living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris may cause fatal encephalitis both in immunocompromised and in – apparently – immunocompetent humans and other mammalian species. Rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable detection requiring little pathogen-specific expertise is an absolute prerequisite for a successful therapy and a welcome tool for both experimental and epidemiological research. Results A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using TaqMan® probes (real-time PCR was established specifically targeting the RNase P gene of B. mandrillaris amoebae. The assay detected at least 2 (down to 0.5 genomes of B. mandrillaris grown in axenic culture. It did not react with DNA from closely related Acanthamoeba (3 species, nor with DNA from Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania major, Pneumocystis murina, Mycobacterium bovis (BCG, human brain, various mouse organs, or from human and murine cell lines. The assay efficiently detected B. mandrillaris DNA in spiked cell cultures, spiked murine organ homogenates, B. mandrillaris-infected mice, and CNS tissue-DNA preparations from 2 patients with proven cerebral balamuthiasis. This novel primer set was successfully combined with a published set that targets the B. mandrillaris 18S rRNA gene in a duplex real-time PCR assay to ensure maximum specificity and as a precaution against false negative results. Conclusion A real-time PCR assay for B. mandrillaris amoebae is presented, that is highly specific, sensitive, and reliable and thus suited both for diagnosis and for research.

  20. eQTL epistasis: detecting epistatic effects and inferring hierarchical relationships of genes in biological pathways.

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    Kang, Mingon; Zhang, Chunling; Chun, Hyung-Wook; Ding, Chris; Liu, Chunyu; Gao, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Epistasis is the interactions among multiple genetic variants. It has emerged to explain the 'missing heritability' that a marginal genetic effect does not account for by genome-wide association studies, and also to understand the hierarchical relationships between genes in the genetic pathways. The Fisher's geometric model is common in detecting the epistatic effects. However, despite the substantial successes of many studies with the model, it often fails to discover the functional dependence between genes in an epistasis study, which is an important role in inferring hierarchical relationships of genes in the biological pathway. We justify the imperfectness of Fisher's model in the simulation study and its application to the biological data. Then, we propose a novel generic epistasis model that provides a flexible solution for various biological putative epistatic models in practice. The proposed method enables one to efficiently characterize the functional dependence between genes. Moreover, we suggest a statistical strategy for determining a recessive or dominant link among epistatic expression quantitative trait locus to enable the ability to infer the hierarchical relationships. The proposed method is assessed by simulation experiments of various settings and is applied to human brain data regarding schizophrenia. The MATLAB source codes are publicly available at: http://biomecis.uta.edu/epistasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Detection of growth hormone gene defects by dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF).

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    Miyata, I; Cogan, J D; Prince, M A; Kamijo, T; Ogawa, M; Phillips, J A

    1997-02-01

    We carried out screening for mutations in the GH-1 gene in 29 sporadic Japanese subjects with severe Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) by dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF). Three of 29 (approximately 10%) were heterozygous for each of the following GH-1 gene mutations including: 1) an G-->A transition in the third codon of the GH-1 signal peptide of exon 1 resulting in a Threonine to Alanine substitution, 2) a G-->A transition in the first base of the donor splice site of IVS 3 (+1G-->A) and 3) a G-->A transition in the 183rd codon of the GH-1 mature peptide of exon 5 resulting in an Arginine to Histidine substitution. One of three was heterozygous for both mutations of 1) and 2). The IVS 3 (+1G-->A) mutation has been previously reported in affected individuals from three unrelated families with IGHD type II (autosomal dominant form). This mutation destroys the GH IVS 3 donor splice site, causing skipping of exon 3 and loss of the codons for amino acids 32-71 of the mature GH peptide. Our findings indicate that 1) ddF screening of genomic DNAs provides a practical tool to detect GH gene mutations and 2) some sporadic cases of IGHD may be caused by GH gene alternations.

  2. The Detection of Metabolite-Mediated Gene Module Co-Expression Using Multivariate Linear Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishanta Padayachee

    Full Text Available Investigating whether metabolites regulate the co-expression of a predefined gene module is one of the relevant questions posed in the integrative analysis of metabolomic and transcriptomic data. This article concerns the integrative analysis of the two high-dimensional datasets by means of multivariate models and statistical tests for the dependence between metabolites and the co-expression of a gene module. The general linear model (GLM for correlated data that we propose models the dependence between adjusted gene expression values through a block-diagonal variance-covariance structure formed by metabolic-subset specific general variance-covariance blocks. Performance of statistical tests for the inference of conditional co-expression are evaluated through a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to the gene expression data of the previously characterized lipid-leukocyte module. Our results show that the GLM approach improves on a previous approach by being less prone to the detection of spurious conditional co-expression.

  3. Detecting role errors in the gene hierarchy of the NCI Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Cohen, Barry; Halper, Michael; Oren, Marc; Perl, Yehoshua

    2008-01-01

    Gene terminologies are playing an increasingly important role in the ever-growing field of genomic research. While errors in large, complex terminologies are inevitable, gene terminologies are even more susceptible to them due to the rapid growth of genomic knowledge and the nature of its discovery. It is therefore very important to establish quality-assurance protocols for such genomic-knowledge repositories. Different kinds of terminologies often times require auditing methodologies adapted to their particular structures. In light of this, an auditing methodology tailored to the characteristics of the NCI Thesaurus's (NCIT's) Gene hierarchy is presented. The Gene hierarchy is of particular interest to the NCIT's designers due to the primary role of genomics in current cancer research. This multi-phase methodology focuses on detecting role-errors, such as missing roles or roles with incorrect or incomplete target structures, occurring within that hierarchy. The methodology is based on two kinds of abstraction networks, called taxonomies, that highlight the role distribution among concepts within the IS-A (subsumption) hierarchy. These abstract views tend to highlight portions of the hierarchy having a higher concentration of errors. The errors found during an application of the methodology are reported. Hypotheses pertaining to the efficacy of our methodology are investigated.

  4. A multiplex method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Yang, Y; Liu, R; Li, Q; Yang, F; Ma, L; Liu, H; Chen, X; Yang, Z; Cui, L; He, Y

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect caused by G6PD gene mutations. This study aimed to develop a cost-effective, multiplex, genotyping method for detecting common mutations in the G6PD gene. We used a SNaPshot approach to genotype multiple G6PD mutations that are common to human populations in South-East Asia. This assay is based on multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension reactions. Different G6PD gene mutations were determined by peak retention time and colors of the primer extension products. We designed PCR primers for multiplex amplification of the G6PD gene fragments and for primer extension reactions to genotype 11 G6PD mutations. DNA samples from a total of 120 unrelated G6PD-deficient individuals from the China-Myanmar border area were used to establish and validate this method. Direct sequencing of the PCR products demonstrated 100% concordance between the SNaPshot and the sequencing results. The SNaPshot method offers a specific and sensitive alternative for simultaneously interrogating multiple G6PD mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Detection of sickle cell gene by analysis of amplified DNA sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S Z; Sheng, M; Zhao, J Q; Qiu, X K; Zeng, Y T; Wang, Q S; He, M X; Zhu, J M; Liu, W P; Li, W W

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a technique of DNA amplification in vitro and its application on detection of sickle cell (Hb S) gene. Genomic DNA was microextracted from dried blood specimen of the first patient with sickle cell trait in China. Target DNA sequence was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primers beta 1 (5'-ACACAACTGTGTTCACTAGC-3') and beta 2 (5'-CAACTTCATCCACGTTCACC-3') that primed amplification of an 110-base-pair (bp) segment of beta globin gene. The amplified DNA was digested with a restriction endonuclease Mst II, which has a recognition site at codon 6 in the normal beta globin gene, and cleaved the normal amplified beta globin DNA into two fragments of 54bp and 56 bp which was as an overlap band in agarose gel electrophoresis, while the 110bp fragment amplified from DNA of sickle cell mutation remained uncleaved owing to a single base substitution (A----T) at codon 6 in the mutation. DNA amplification method is rapid, sensitive and simple, and does not require radioactive probes. Besides, the PCR amplification can be carried out on the DNA extracted from dried blood samples. So the technique is very useful for gene diagnosis and carrier screening of genetic disease.

  6. Evaluation of a GFP Report Gene Construct for Environmental Arsenic Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, F.F.; Barnes, J.M.; Bruhn, D.F.

    2002-03-28

    Detection of arsenic and other heavy metal contaminants in the environment is critical to ensuring safe drinking water and effective cleanup of historic activities that have led to widespread contamination of soil and groundwater. Biosensors have the potential to significantly reduce the costs associated with site characterization and long term environmental monitoring. By exploiting the highly selective and sensitive natural mechanisms by which bacteria and other living organisms respond to heavy metals, and fusing transcriptionally active components of these mechanisms to reporter genes, such as B-galactosidase, bacterial luciferase (lux), or green fluorescent protein (GFP) from marine jellyfish, it is possible to produce inexpensive, yet effective biosensors. This article describes the response to submicrogram quantities of arsenite and arsenate of a whole cell arsenic biosensor utilizing a GFP reporter gene.

  7. Inv A gene specific PCR for detection of Salmonella from broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenmozhi Velayutham

    Full Text Available Poultry meat has been identified as one of the principal foodborne source of Salmonella. In this preliminary study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. contamination of broiler carcasses, were determined. Sixty samples were collected from poultry carcasses from the commercial broiler slaughtering facility in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu. The presence of Salmonella spp in collected samples was assessed by performing the pre-enrichment and enrichment culture, followed by PCR assay. The primers were selected from the invA gene specific for the detection of Salmonella spp. In this study 8.3% of poultry carcasses were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp. In order to provide a more accurate profile of the prevalence of Salmonella spp in broiler carcasses, it is pertinent to use inv A gene specific PCR method that could be considered as an appropriate alternative to conventional culture method. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 562-564

  8. Sex determination in femurs of modern Egyptians: A comparative study between metric measurements and SRY gene detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Gaballah

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The SRY gene detection method for sex determination is quick and simple, requiring only one PCR reaction. It corroborates the results obtained from anatomical measurements and further confirms the sex of the femur bone in question.

  9. Enhanced Gene Detection Assays for Fumarate-Adding Enzymes Allow Uncovering of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degraders in Terrestrial and Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Netzer, Frederick; Pilloni, Giovanni; Kleindienst, Sara; Krüger, Martin; Knittel, Katrin; Gründger, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    The detection of anaerobic hydrocarbon degrader populations via catabolic gene markers is important for the understanding of processes at contaminated sites. Fumarate-adding enzymes (FAEs; i.e., benzylsuccinate and alkylsuccinate synthases) have already been established as specific functional marker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders. Several recent studies based on pure cultures and laboratory enrichments have shown the existence of new and deeply branching FAE gene lineages, such as clostridial benzylsuccinate synthases and homologues, as well as naphthylmethylsuccinate synthases. However, established FAE gene detection assays were not designed to target these novel lineages, and consequently, their detectability in different environments remains obscure. Here, we present a new suite of parallel primer sets for detecting the comprehensive range of FAE markers known to date, including clostridial benzylsuccinate, naphthylmethylsuccinate, and alkylsuccinate synthases. It was not possible to develop one single assay spanning the complete diversity of FAE genes alone. The enhanced assays were tested with a range of hydrocarbon-degrading pure cultures, enrichments, and environmental samples of marine and terrestrial origin. They revealed the presence of several, partially unexpected FAE gene lineages not detected in these environments before: distinct deltaproteobacterial and also clostridial bssA homologues as well as environmental nmsA homologues. These findings were backed up by dual-digest terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostics to identify FAE gene populations independently of sequencing. This allows rapid insights into intrinsic degrader populations and degradation potentials established in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon-impacted environmental systems. PMID:23124238

  10. Heteroduplex analysis of the dystrophin gene: application to point mutation and carrier detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Bartolo, C; Moxley, R T; Mendell, J R

    1994-03-01

    Approximately one-third of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have undefined mutations in the dystrophin gene. For carrier and prenatal studies in families without detectable mutations, the indirect restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage approach is used. Using a multiplex amplification and heteroduplex analysis of dystrophin exons, we identified nonsense mutations in two DMD patients. Although the nonsense mutations are predicted to severely truncate the dystrophin protein, both patients presented with mild clinical courses of the disease. As a result of identifying the mutation in the affected boys, direct carrier studies by heteroduplex analysis were extended to other relatives. We conclude that the technique is not only ideal for mutation detection but is also useful for diagnostic testing.

  11. Detecting Inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology Using Ontology Databases with Not-gadgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lependu, Paea; Dou, Dejing; Howe, Doug

    We present ontology databases with not-gadgets, a method for detecting inconsistencies in an ontology with large numbers of annotated instances by using triggers and exclusion dependencies in a unique way. What makes this work relevant is the use of the database itself, rather than an external reasoner, to detect logical inconsistencies given large numbers of annotated instances. What distinguishes this work is the use of event-driven triggers together with the introduction of explicit negations. We applied this approach toward the serotonin example, an open problem in biomedical informatics which aims to use annotations to help identify inconsistencies in the Gene Ontology. We discovered 75 inconsistencies that have important implications in biology, which include: (1) methods for refining transfer rules used for inferring electronic annotations, and (2) highlighting possible biological differences across species worth investigating.

  12. Microelectronic DNA assay for the detection of BRCA1 gene mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Han, Jie; Li, Jun; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 are characterized by predisposition to breast cancer, ovarian cancer and prostate cancer as well as colon cancer. Prognosis for this cancer survival depends upon the stage at which cancer is diagnosed. Reliable and rapid mutation detection is crucial for the early diagnosis and treatment. We developed an electronic assay for the detection of a representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), deletion and insertion in BRCA1 gene by the microelectronics microarray instrumentation. The assay is rapid, and it takes 30 minutes for the immobilization of target DNA samples, hybridization, washing and readout. The assay is multiplexing since it is carried out at the same temperature and buffer conditions for each step. The assay is also highly specific, as the signal-to-noise ratio is much larger than recommended value (72.86 to 321.05 vs. 5) for homozygotes genotyping, and signal ratio close to the perfect value 1 for heterozygotes genotyping (1.04).

  13. Heteroduplex analysis of the dystrophin gene: Application to point mutation and carrier detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, T.W.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.; Western, L.M.; Bartolo, C.; Mendell, J.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Moxley, R.T. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Approximately one-third of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have undefined mutations in the dystrophin gene. For carrier and prenatal studies in families without detectable mutations, the indirect restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage approach is used. Using a multiplex amplification and heteroduplex analysis of dystrophin exons, the authors identified nonsense mutations in two DMD patients. Although the nonsense mutations are predicted to severely truncate the dystrophin protein, both patients presented with mild clinical courses of the disease. As a result of identifying the mutation in the affected boys, direct carrier studies by heteroduplex analysis were extended to other relatives. The authors conclude that the technique is not only ideal for mutation detection but is also useful for diagnostic testing. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plant – molecular and classical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziembińska-Buczyńska Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a group of substances potentially harmful to the environment. They can play a role in bacterial resistance transfer among pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In this experiment three representatives of medically important chemotherapeutics, confirmed to be present in high concentrations in wastewater treatment plants with HPLC analysis were used: erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Erythromycin concentration in activated sludge was not higher than 20 ng L−1. N-acetylo-sulfamethoxazole concentration was 3349 ± 719 in winter and 2933 ± 429 ng L−1 in summer. Trimethoprim was present in wastewater at concentrations 400 ± 22 and 364 ± 60 ng L−1, respectively in winter and summer. Due to a wide variety of PCR-detectable resistance mechanisms towards these substances, the most common found in literature was chosen. For erythromycin: erm and mef genes, for sulfamethoxazole: sul1, sul2, sul3 genes, in the case of trimethoprim resistance dhfrA1 and dhfr14 were used in this study. The presence of resistance genes were analyzed in pure strains isolated from activated sludge and in the activated sludge sample itself. The research revealed that the value of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC did not correspond with the expected presence of more than one resistance mechanisms. Most of the isolates possessed only one of the genes responsible for a particular chemotherapeutic resistance. It was confirmed that it is possible to monitor the presence of resistance genes directly in activated sludge using PCR. Due to the limited isolates number used in the experiment these results should be regarded as preliminary.

  15. The detection of fosfomycin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae from pets and their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Wu, Dongfang; Lei, Lei; Shen, Zhangqi; Wang, Yang; Liao, Kang

    2016-09-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fosfomycin resistance and molecular characteristic of fosfomycin-resistant strains isolated from companion animals and their owners. A total of 171 samples collected from pets and pet owners in a Chinese veterinary teaching hospital were screened for the presence of phenotype and genotype of fosfomycin-resistance by selective media containing fosfomycin and PCR & sequencing. Among 171 samples tested, nineteen isolates were resistant to fosfomycin. Sixteen and three of these fosfomycin-resistant isolates were positive for fosA3 and fosA genes, respectively. The fosA3 gene was detected both in chromosomes and plasmids in bacteria. All of the fosA3 gene-positive isolates except one were CTX-M producers and nearly half (7/16) of them also harbored the rmtB gene. The fosA3 gene-carrying plasmids, which were readily transferrable to recipient E. coli J53 by conjugation, conferred resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Genetic structures were IS26-385bp-fosA3-1810bp-IS26 (n=11) and IS26-385bp-fosA3-588bp-IS26 (n=5). Molecular typing indicated that two fosA3-positive isolates from dogs were genetically identical to the isolates from the pet owners. Our results indicated that active transmission of fosA3-mediated fosfomycin resistance has occurred among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from pets and their owners by both horizontal transfer and clonal expansion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Detection of new paternal dystrophin gene mutations in isolated cases of dystrophinopathy in females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegoraro, E.; Wessel, H.B.; Schwartz, L.; Hoffman, E.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Schimke, R.N. (Kansas Univ. Medical Center, Kansas City (United States)); Arahata, Kiichi; Hayashi, Yukiko (National Institute of Neurosciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Stern, H. (Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)); Marks, H. (A.I. duPont Institute, Wilmington (United States)); Glasberg, M.R. (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)) (and others)

    1994-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common lethal monogenic disorders and is caused by dystrophin deficiency. The disease is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait; however, recent biochemical and clinical studies have shown that many girls and women with a primary myopathy have an underlying dystrophinopathy, despite a negative family history for Duchenne dystrophy. These isolated female dystrophinopathy patients carried ambiguous diagnoses with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy) prior to biochemical detection of dystrophin abnormalities in their muscle biopsy. It has been assumed that these female dystrophinopathy patients are heterozygous carries who show preferential inactivation of the X chromosome harboring the normal dystrophin gene, although this has been shown for only a few X:autosome translocations and for two cases of discordant monozygotic twin female carriers. Here the authors study X-inactivation patterns of 13 female dystrophinopathy patients - 10 isolated cases and 3 cases with a positive family history for Duchenne dystrophy in males. They show that all cases have skewed X-inactivation patterns in peripheral blood DNA. Of the nine isolated cases informative in the assay, eight showed inheritance of the dystrophin gene mutation from the paternal germ line. Only a single case showed maternal inheritance. The 10-fold higher incidence of paternal transmission of dystrophin gene mutations in these cases is at 30-fold variance with Bayesian predictions and gene mutation rates. Thus, the results suggest some mechanistic interaction between new dystrophin gene mutations, paternal inheritance, and skewed X inactivation. The results provide both empirical risk data and a molecular diagnostic test method, which permit genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of this new category of patients. 58 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Normal uniform mixture differential gene expression detection for cDNA microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raftery Adrian E

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the primary tasks in analysing gene expression data is finding genes that are differentially expressed in different samples. Multiple testing issues due to the thousands of tests run make some of the more popular methods for doing this problematic. Results We propose a simple method, Normal Uniform Differential Gene Expression (NUDGE detection for finding differentially expressed genes in cDNA microarrays. The method uses a simple univariate normal-uniform mixture model, in combination with new normalization methods for spread as well as mean that extend the lowess normalization of Dudoit, Yang, Callow and Speed (2002 1. It takes account of multiple testing, and gives probabilities of differential expression as part of its output. It can be applied to either single-slide or replicated experiments, and it is very fast. Three datasets are analyzed using NUDGE, and the results are compared to those given by other popular methods: unadjusted and Bonferroni-adjusted t tests, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM, and Empirical Bayes for microarrays (EBarrays with both Gamma-Gamma and Lognormal-Normal models. Conclusion The method gives a high probability of differential expression to genes known/suspected a priori to be differentially expressed and a low probability to the others. In terms of known false positives and false negatives, the method outperforms all multiple-replicate methods except for the Gamma-Gamma EBarrays method to which it offers comparable results with the added advantages of greater simplicity, speed, fewer assumptions and applicability to the single replicate case. An R package called nudge to implement the methods in this paper will be made available soon at http://www.bioconductor.org.

  18. Cross-priming amplification targeting the coagulase gene for rapid detection of coagulase-positive Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, B; Cui, J-Y; Sun, L; Yang, S; Zhao, Y-L

    2015-07-01

    To develop and evaluate cross-priming amplification (CPA) combined with immuno-blotting for the detection of coagulase-positive Staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four sets of cross and detection primers were designed according to four sequences of coagulase gene in Staph. aureus. The most specific primer pair was screened out for the next amplification and interaction. The specificity was evaluated in a total of 53 species of Staph. aureus and non-Staph. aureus. Two red lines indicating positive were always observed on the BioHelix Express strip for 12 subspecies of Staph. aureus. In contrast, only one signal line showing negative results was detected in all of non-Staph. aureus samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of CPA was 3·6 ± 2·7 fg for the genomic DNA, which is about 100 and 10 times sensitive than those of PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification respectively. For the pure culture of Staph. aureus and milk powders, the LODs of CPA were about 1·34 CFU per reaction and 5·2 ± 3·7 CFU per 100 g of milk powder respectively. The CPA method was also successfully applied to evaluate the contamination of Staph. aureus in 318 samples of daily food. CPA is a very sensitive and rapid method to detect Staph. aureus by simple laboratory instrument. It is the first report on the application of the CPA with immuno-blotting for detection of coagulase-positive Staphylococci including Staph. aureus. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. GeneBreak: detection of recurrent DNA copy number aberration-associated chromosomal breakpoints within genes [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert van den Broek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of cancer is driven by somatic alterations, including numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations. Currently, several computational methods are available and are widely applied to detect numerical copy number aberrations (CNAs of chromosomal segments in tumor genomes. However, there is lack of computational methods that systematically detect structural chromosomal aberrations by virtue of the genomic location of CNA-associated chromosomal breaks and identify genes that appear non-randomly affected by chromosomal breakpoints across (large series of tumor samples. ‘GeneBreak’ is developed to systematically identify genes recurrently affected by the genomic location of chromosomal CNA-associated breaks by a genome-wide approach, which can be applied to DNA copy number data obtained by array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH or by (low-pass whole genome sequencing (WGS. First, ‘GeneBreak’ collects the genomic locations of chromosomal CNA-associated breaks that were previously pinpointed by the segmentation algorithm that was applied to obtain CNA profiles. Next, a tailored annotation approach for breakpoint-to-gene mapping is implemented. Finally, dedicated cohort-based statistics is incorporated with correction for covariates that influence the probability to be a breakpoint gene. In addition, multiple testing correction is integrated to reveal recurrent breakpoint events. This easy-to-use algorithm, ‘GeneBreak’, is implemented in R (www.cran.r-project.org and is available from Bioconductor (www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GeneBreak.html.

  20. Frequency of virulence genes in mixed infections with Helicobacter pylori strains from a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The Fisher's exact test did not support a significant association between clinical outcome and genotype. The main circulating genotypes in the Mexican population studied were: cagA+, vacAs1, and vacAm1. Multiplex PCR can be used as a screening test for H. pylori strains. Furthermore, the cagE gene is a good marker for identifying cag-PAI positive strains.

  1. [Detection of Leishmania spp. based on the gene encoding HSP20].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Ana M; Fraga, Jorge; Rodríguez, Omaira; Blanco, Orestes; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; García, Ana L; Valencia, Braulio M; Muskus, Carlos; Van der Auwera, Gert; Requena, José M

    2014-01-01

    Explore a new target for molecular diagnosis of Leishmania. We evaluated the utility of the gene that encodes the heat shock protein 20-kDa (Hsp20) for detecting Leishmania by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was normalized and analytical parameters were determined, as well as the validity and diagnostic accuracy, and concordance with the PCR - 18S. PCR-Hsp20 with DNA was obtained from a group of clinical samples from different sources. The analytical parameters were adequate. The sensitivity obtained was 86% and the specificity was 100%. The concordance with the reference method was good (κ = 0.731), which supports its potential use for diagnosis. The possibility of subsequent identification of the species by sequencing the amplified product gives an additional advantage. The usefulness of this gene as a new target for the detection of Leishmania was demonstrated. Because of its potential, it is recommended to improve the sensitivity of the method and to evaluate it in different endemic regions.

  2. Preimplantational genetic diagnosis and mutation detection in a family with duplication mutation of DMD gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghui; Yu, Ping; Yong, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Wei, Xiaoming; Qi, Ming; Jin, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease caused by mutation in the DMD gene. A 38-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with her son who was diagnosed with DMD. Multiplex PCR failed to detect DMD mutations in the affected child. The female carrier underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis by linkage analysis and gender determination. Eight embryos were biopsied after in vitro fertilization. Two healthy embryos determined both as females (E1 and E3) were transferred. Although the paternal allele was absent in E3, it was considered to be a result of allele dropout for the STR-49 marker. Surprisingly, a female and a male baby were delivered at 38 gestational weeks, suggesting that E3 was a male embryo with the allele dropout occurring at the SRY gene. Exon 2 duplication was detected in the DMD patient and the carrier mother using next-generation sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Next, we verified the duplication of exon 2 by real-time PCR, using a special primer at 3' of intron 1, very close to exon 2. Finally, we confirmed that both newborns inherited the normal allele, using quantitative real-time PCR and linkage analysis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  4. [Significance of Septin9 gene methylation detection of plasma circulation DNA in colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qian; Jin, Peng; Yang, Lang; Wang, Xin; An, Hejuan; Liu, Lili; Li, Na; Sheng, Jianqiu

    2014-12-30

    To explore the role of detecting the methylation status of gene Septin9 (SEPT9) in plasma for colorectal cancer screening in Chinese population. Patients were collected from Beijing Military General Hospital since September 2013 to February 2014. The performance of SEPT9 assay was validated in a single-blind study of 80 cases with colonoscopy and pathologically verified colorectal cancer and 52 normal controls. The detection of Septin9 gene methylation in peripheral blood was performed by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). And immunoassay fecal occult blood test was conducted to compare the superiority of methylated Septin9 for screening colorectal cancer. The Septin9 assay successfully identified 75.0% (95%CI:64.7%-83.6%) of cancers at a specificity of 98.1% (95%CI:90.9%-99.9%). And it was superior to fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer (sensitivity 79.5% vs 53.8%, P < 0.05). Determination of SEPT9 methylation status is an innovative non-invasive plasma screening test for colorectal cancer.

  5. Detection of variants in 15 genes in 87 unrelated Chinese patients with Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is the earliest onset and most severe form of hereditary retinal dystrophy. So far, full spectrum of variations in the 15 genes known to cause LCA has not been systemically evaluated in East Asians. Therefore, we performed comprehensive detection of variants in these 15 genes in 87 unrelated Han Chinese patients with LCA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 51 most frequently mutated exons and introns in the 15 genes were selected for an initial scan using cycle sequencing. All the remaining exons in 11 of the 15 genes were subsequently sequenced. Fifty-three different variants were identified in 44 of the 87 patients (50.6%, involving 78 of the 88 alleles (11 homozygous and 56 heterozygous variants. Of the 53 variants, 35 (66% were novel pathogenic mutations. In these Chinese patients, variants in GUCY2D are the most common cause of LCA (16.1% cases, followed by CRB1 (11.5%, RPGRIP1 (8%, RPE65 (5.7%, SPATA7 (4.6%, CEP290 (4.6%, CRX (3.4%, LCA5 (2.3%, MERTK (2.3%, AIPL1 (1.1%, and RDH12 (1.1%. This differs from the variation spectrum described in other populations. An initial scan of 55 of 215 PCR amplicons, including 214 exons and 1 intron, detected 83.3% (65/78 of the mutant alleles ultimately found in these 87 patients. In addition, sequencing only 9 exons would detect over 50% of the identified variants and require less than 5% of the labor and cost of comprehensive sequencing for all exons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that specific difference in the variation spectrum found in LCA patients from the Han Chinese and other populations are related by ethnicity. Sequencing exons in order of decreasing risk is a cost-effective way to identify causative mutations responsible for LCA, especially in the context of genetic counseling for individual patients in a clinical setting.

  6. New genes in traditional seed systems: diffusion, detectability and persistence of transgenes in a maize metapopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van Heerwaarden

    Full Text Available Gene flow of transgenes into non-target populations is an important biosafety concern. The case of genetically modified (GM maize in Mexico has been of particular interest because of the country's status as center of origin and landrace diversity. In contrast to maize in the U.S. and Europe, Mexican landraces form part of an evolving metapopulation in which new genes are subject to evolutionary processes of drift, gene flow and selection. Although these processes are affected by seed management and particularly seed flow, there has been little study into the population genetics of transgenes under traditional seed management. Here, we combine recently compiled data on seed management practices with a spatially explicit population genetic model to evaluate the importance of seed flow as a determinant of the long-term fate of transgenes in traditional seed systems. Seed flow between farmers leads to a much wider diffusion of transgenes than expected by pollen movement alone, but a predominance of seed replacement over seed mixing lowers the probability of detection due to a relative lack of homogenization in spatial frequencies. We find that in spite of the spatial complexities of the modeled system, persistence probabilities under positive selection are estimated quite well by existing theory. Our results have important implications concerning the feasibility of long term transgene monitoring and control in traditional seed systems.

  7. New genes in traditional seed systems: diffusion, detectability and persistence of transgenes in a maize metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Bellon, Mauricio R

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow of transgenes into non-target populations is an important biosafety concern. The case of genetically modified (GM) maize in Mexico has been of particular interest because of the country's status as center of origin and landrace diversity. In contrast to maize in the U.S. and Europe, Mexican landraces form part of an evolving metapopulation in which new genes are subject to evolutionary processes of drift, gene flow and selection. Although these processes are affected by seed management and particularly seed flow, there has been little study into the population genetics of transgenes under traditional seed management. Here, we combine recently compiled data on seed management practices with a spatially explicit population genetic model to evaluate the importance of seed flow as a determinant of the long-term fate of transgenes in traditional seed systems. Seed flow between farmers leads to a much wider diffusion of transgenes than expected by pollen movement alone, but a predominance of seed replacement over seed mixing lowers the probability of detection due to a relative lack of homogenization in spatial frequencies. We find that in spite of the spatial complexities of the modeled system, persistence probabilities under positive selection are estimated quite well by existing theory. Our results have important implications concerning the feasibility of long term transgene monitoring and control in traditional seed systems.

  8. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  9. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

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    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis. The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%, tetracycline (55.86% and nalidixic acid (55.17%. Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  10. Detection of toxic shock toxin (tst gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk samples

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    S. Baniardalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle all over the world. This agent produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors in-cluding toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 which is the major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS. In the present study, 76 S. aureus isolates have been obtained from milk samples collected from 7 dairy herds in Hamedan province of Iran. The isolates were identified based on the biochemical and molecular methods using PCR amplification of the femA gene. The staphylococcal isolates were also examined for the presence of TSST-1 (tst encoding gene. This gene was detected in only one S. aureus isolate (1.3%. The results revealed that S. aureus strains causing bovine mastitis may potentially produce staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, indicating that it is very important to follow the presence of TSST-1 producing S. aureus isolates in foodstuffs to protect consumers against the risk of toxic shock syndrome

  11. Strategy to detect pre-existing immunity to AAV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falese, L; Sandza, K; Yates, B; Triffault, S; Gangar, S; Long, B; Tsuruda, L; Carter, B; Vettermann, C; Zoog, S J; Fong, S

    2017-11-06

    Gene therapy may offer a new treatment option, particularly for patients with severe hemophilia, based on recent research. However, individuals with pre-existing immunity to adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) may be less likely to benefit from AAV vector-based therapies. To study pre-existing AAV5 immunity in humans, we validated two complementary, sensitive, and scalable in vitro assays to detect AAV5 total antibodies and transduction inhibition (TI). Using these two assays, we found that 53% of samples from 100 healthy male individuals were negative in both assays, 18% were positive in both assays, 5% were positive for total antibodies but negative for TI and, of interest, 24% were negative for total antibodies but positive for TI activity, suggesting the presence of non-antibody‒based neutralizing factors in human plasma. Similar findings were obtained with 24 samples from individuals with hemophilia A. Based on these results, we describe the development of a dual-assay strategy to identify individuals without total AAV5 antibodies or neutralizing factors who may be more likely to respond to AAV5-directed gene therapy. These assays offer a universal, transferrable platform across laboratories to assess the global prevalence of AAV5 antibodies and neutralizing factors in large patient populations to help inform clinical development strategies.Gene Therapy accepted article preview online, 06 November 2017. doi:10.1038/gt.2017.95.

  12. Molecular Characterization and SNP Detection of CD14 Gene of Crossbred Cattle

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    Aruna Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CD14 is an important molecule for innate immunity that can act against a wide range of pathogens. The present paper has characterized CD14 gene of crossbred (CB cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus. Cloning and sequence analysis of CD14 cDNA revealed 1119 nucleotide long open reading frame encoding 373 amino acids protein and 20 amino acids signal peptide. CB cattle CD14 gene exhibited a high percentage of nucleotide identity (59.3–98.1% with the corresponding mammalian homologs. Cattle and buffalo appear to have diverged from a common ancestor in phylogenetic analysis. 25 SNPs with 17 amino acid changes were newly reported and the site for mutational hot-spot was detected in CB cattle CD14 gene. Non-synonymous substitutions exceeding synonymous substitutions indicate the evolution of this protein through positive selection among domestic animals. Predicted protein structures obtained from deduced amino acid sequence indicated CB cattle CD14 molecule to be a receptor with horse shoe-shaped structure. The sites for LPS binding, LPS signalling, leucine-rich repeats, putative N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor, disulphide bridges, alpha helix, beta strand, leucine rich nuclear export signal, leucine zipper and domain linker were predicted. Most of leucine and cysteine residues remain conserved across the species.

  13. Serological detection of attenuated HIV-1 variants with nef gene deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, A L; Mills, J; Rhodes, D; Deacon, N J; McPhee, D A

    1998-04-16

    To investigate whether members of a transfusion-linked cohort (the Sydney Bloodbank Cohort) infected with a nef-deleted strain of HIV-1 could be differentiated from individuals infected with wild-type strains of HIV-1 by characterizing the Nef antibody response of cohort members. Retrospective and prospective analysis of the nef gene sequence and the antibody response to Nef peptides in HIV-infected subjects. Plasma was obtained from all individuals of the Sydney cohort, and from a variety of HIV-1-infected and uninfected controls. Antibodies recognizing full-length recombinant HIV-1NL43 Nef protein and synthetic peptide analogues were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All 34 individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1 had antibodies reacting with full-length Nef protein as well as with a series of synthetic peptides (6-23-mers) spanning most of the Nef protein of HIV-1NL43. Although the HIV-1 quasispecies infecting the Sydney cohort had a consensus deletion of the nef gene corresponding to amino-acids 165-206, HIV-1 strains from individual members of the cohort had additional deletions comprising up to 80% of the nef gene. Members of the cohort had antibodies to peptides homologous to all regions of the Nef protein tested, except for a single peptide (amino-acids 162-177) that lies within the consensus nef deletion for the cohort quasispecies. These data show that nef-deleted strains of HIV-1 can be detected serologically. In the Sydney cohort, detection of antibodies to all regions of Nef tested, except that corresponding to amino-acids 162-177, suggests that observed deletions outside this domain occurred after this virus had infected these subjects and stimulated an immune response. A Nef peptide serological assay may be useful for identifying further examples of individuals infected with nef-deleted, attenuated HIV-1 quasispecies and for assessing the evolution of those variants in vivo.

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

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    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  15. Detection of Chloramphenicol Resistance Genes (cat in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

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    Tiana Milanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram negative bacteria, which may cause infection in eyes, ears, skin, bones, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, circulatory system, heart, respiratory system, and urinary tract. Recently, chloramphenicol is no longer used as the main option of the therapy due of its resistance case. The aim of this research was to detect the presence of gene which is responsible to chloramphenicol resistance in clinical isolates of P.aeruginosa. These bacteria isolated from pus of external otitis patients in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Bandung City. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method (colony-PCR and DNA-PCR were performed to detect this resistance gene. Electropherogram from PCR products showed that the chloramphenicol resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa was caused by cat gene (317 bp. Based on this research, cat gene may be used to detect the chloramphenicol resistance in patients with external ostitis.

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to PCR: A rapid on-site detection of gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2017-10-17

    Innovation in medical research has been diverted at multiple occasions to enhance human performance. The predicted great progress in gene therapy has raised some concerns regarding its misuse in the world of sports (gene doping) for several years now. Even though there is no evidence that gene doping has ever been used in sports, the continuous improvement of gene therapy techniques increases the likelihood of abuse. Therefore, since 2004, efforts have been invested by the anti-doping community and WADA for the development of detection methods. Several nested PCR and qPCR-based strategies exploiting the absence of introns in the transgenic DNA have been proposed for the long-term detection of transgene in blood. Despite their great sensitivity, those protocols are hampered by limitations of the techniques that can be cumbersome and costly. The purpose of this perspective is to describe a new approach based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of gene doping. This protocol enables a rapid and simple method to amplify nucleic acids with a high sensitivity and specificity and with a simple visual detection of the results. LAMP is already being used in clinical application for the detection of viruses or mutations. Therefore, this technique has the potential to be further developed for the detection of foreign genetic material in elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [The application of end user computing (EUC) for detection of lipoprotein lipase gene abnormality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Kobori, K; Kondo, A; Yonekawa, O; Kanno, T

    1999-08-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme digesting lipoprotein triglyceride (TG) in peripheral blood vessels. Most patients with LPL deficiency show very high plasma TG and low HDL-C. To establish an effective computer-based screening system to identify individuals with genetic LPL disorders, we selected 50 subjects whose plasma TG was over 350mg/dl and HDL-C was lower than 35mg/dl from patients at Hamamatsu University Hospital. We applied End User Computing (EUC) of our laboratory system to select high risk subjects with LPL gene abnormalities. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from LPL gene exons 2-9 were screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), direct DNA sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We found a novel missense mutation (1223C-->G, S323C) in LPL gene exon 7 from three subjects. By PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis and restriction digestion, the three subjects were found to be heterozygous. In addition, we identified two other common mutations in Japanese employing the RFLP method. One was the 1595C-->G (S447X) in exon 9 from six subjects, two homozygous and four heterozygous individuals. The other was a mutation of intron 3 (C-->T transition) from four heterozygous subjects. Using EUC screening method, we detected genetic LPL abnormalities more easily. The frequency of the LPL gene mutation in the 50 high-risk subjects was 26%, and was estimated to be one out of 2,000 patients at our clinic. Using the EUC system to screen for LPL mutations was established to be an effective computer-based screening system to identify individuals with genetic abnormalities.

  18. Gene-Based Detection of Microorganisms in Environmental Samples Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, John I.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Cassell, Gail H.; Wechser, Mark; Taylor, Theresa B.; Albin, Michael; Paszko-Kolva, Christine; Roman, Monsi C.

    1997-01-01

    Contaminating microorganisms pose a serious potential risk to the crew's well being and water system integrity aboard the International Space Station (ISS). We are developing a gene-based microbial monitor that functions by replicating specific segments of DNA as much as 10(exp 12) x. Thus a single molecule of DNA can be replicated to detectable levels, and the kinetics of that molecule's accumulation can be used to determine the original concentration of specific microorganisms in a sample. Referred to as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), this enzymatic amplification of specific segments of the DNA or RNA from contaminating microbes offers the promise of rapid, sensitive, quantitative detection and identification of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. We envision a small instrument capable of assaying an ISS water sample for 48 different microbes in a 24 hour period. We will report on both the developments in the chemistry necessary for the PCR assays to detect microbial contaminants in ISS water, and on progress towards the miniaturization and automation of the instrumentation.

  19. High Prevalence of Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal Type 1 Gene Variations Detected by Whole Gene Sequencing in Patients with Fibrocalculous Pancreatic Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, Anish; Shivaprasad, C; Pulikkal, Annie A; Atluri, Sridevi; Sarathi, Vijaya; Dwarakanath, C S

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to study the prevalence and pattern of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene variations in patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) using whole gene sequencing. A total of 56 consecutive patients of FCPD were recruited for the study. Diagnosis of FCPD was based on the presence of diabetes mellitus in patients having chronic pancreatitis with radiological evidence of ductal calcifications, in the absence of other known causes for pancreatitis. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid samples were collected from all patients, and complete gene sequencing was performed for SPINK1 gene using Sanger technique. Overall 35 patients (62.5%) were detected to have genetic alterations in SPINK1 gene. N34S polymorphism was seen in 23 participants (41.07%) out of which 3 were homozygous. N34S was seen to be in linkage disequilibrium with IVS1 - 37T>C (18/23) and IVS3-69insAAAA (19/23) polymorphisms. Seven patients (12.5%) had a 272 C>T 3'UTR polymorphism while one patient (1.8%) had a P55S polymorphism. Two patients (3.5%) had an IVS3 + 2T>C mutation which has been shown to be associated with loss of function of SPINK protein. Overall 48.2% of FCPD patients had genetic variations that were significant compared to the control population. There was no difference in anthropometric and biochemical parameters between those with or without SPINK1 gene variations. Variations in SPINK1 gene are frequently observed in FCPD. N34S polymorphism was the most common variation followed by intronic variations. Two patients had the pathogenic intronic IVS3 + 2T>C mutation. Whole gene sequencing of the SPINK1 gene enabled detection of an additional 7.1% of patients with significant SPINK1 gene variations as compared to targeted screening for the N34S variation.

  20. Detection of copy number variants reveals association of cilia genes with neural tube defects.

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    Xiaoli Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs are one of the most common birth defects caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Currently, little is known about the genetic basis of NTDs although up to 70% of human NTDs were reported to be attributed to genetic factors. Here we performed genome-wide copy number variants (CNVs detection in a cohort of Chinese NTD patients in order to exam the potential role of CNVs in the pathogenesis of NTDs. METHODS: The genomic DNA from eighty-five NTD cases and seventy-five matched normal controls were subjected for whole genome CNVs analysis. Non-DGV (the Database of Genomic Variants CNVs from each group were further analyzed for their associations with NTDs. Gene content in non-DGV CNVs as well as participating pathways were examined. RESULTS: Fifty-five and twenty-six non-DGV CNVs were detected in cases and controls respectively. Among them, forty and nineteen CNVs involve genes (genic CNV. Significantly more non-DGV CNVs and non-DGV genic CNVs were detected in NTD patients than in control (41.2% vs. 25.3%, p<0.05 and 37.6% vs. 20%, p<0.05. Non-DGV genic CNVs are associated with a 2.65-fold increased risk for NTDs (95% CI: 1.24-5.87. Interestingly, there are 41 cilia genes involved in non-DGV CNVs from NTD patients which is significantly enriched in cases compared with that in controls (24.7% vs. 9.3%, p<0.05, corresponding with a 3.19-fold increased risk for NTDs (95% CI: 1.27-8.01. Pathway analyses further suggested that two ciliogenesis pathways, tight junction and protein kinase A signaling, are top canonical pathways implicated in NTD-specific CNVs, and these two novel pathways interact with known NTD pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from the genome-wide CNV study suggests that genic CNVs, particularly ciliogenic CNVs are associated with NTDs and two ciliogenesis pathways, tight junction and protein kinase A signaling, are potential pathways involved in NTD pathogenesis.

  1. Infección por Helicobacter pylori en la Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.Prevalencia de las cepas cagA positivas

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    Beatriz Gutiérrez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Existe una gran falta de información acerca de la infección por Helicobacter pylori en los países de la región del Caribe. Nuestros objetivos en este estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia, la resistencia a los antibióticos y los factores de virulencia de la bacteria. La medida de la prevalencia de la infección por H. pylori se determinó en un grupo de pacientes a los que se les practicó una endoscopia en tres centros hospitalarios de La Ciudad de La Habana, lo que nos permitió evaluar la resistencia a la claritromicina y la presencia de cagA + en las cepas obtenidas. De las endoscopias realizadas se obtuvieron 117 biopsias gástricas, procedentes de tres centros hospitalarios de La Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba: Instituto de Oncología, Instituto de Gastroenterología y el Hospital Calixto García. Las biopsias fueron mantenidas a –70 ºC para posterior cultivo en tres medios diferentes (dos selectivos y uno no selectivo y su posterior incubación por 7 días a 37 ºC en una atmósfera de microaerofilia. La presencia de H. pylori fue identificada por la presencia de diferentes enzimas (oxidasa, catalasa, ureasa. Se realizó la extracción del DNA y la PCR, donde se utilizó el primer H2761676 y se amplificó con 397 fragmentos del gen cagA. La susceptibilidad a la claritromicina fue medida por el método de difusión en gel. Diagnóstico endoscópico: (1 cáncer gástrico; (19 úlcera duodenal; (8 úlcera gástrica; (89 dispepsias no ulcerosas, incluyendo (62 gastritis; (9 hernia hiatal; (2 reflujo biliar; (1 pólipo gástrico; (15 panendoscopias normales. Del total de 117 biopsias realizadas, 83 fueron positivas a la infección por H.pylori (70,9% . De las 35 cepas a las que se les realizó presencia de cagA+ resultaron positivas 31 (88,5%. Solo el 3% de las cepas fueron resistentes a la claritromicina. La prevalencia de la infección por H. pylori en la población sintomática de La Ciudad de La Habana es la misma que la reportada en

  2. Inner energy transfer and its influence on luminescence properties of CaGa2O4:Eu3+ reddish emission phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dinghua; Hu, Zhengfa; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yaopeng; Luo, Li; Wang, Yinhai

    2014-09-01

    The photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped CaGa2O4 phosphors prepared by high temperature solid state reaction method were firstly investigated and analyzed for the difference from the electroluminescence and the potential applications into LED. The experimental results indicated that there exist two strong absorption bands at around 394 nm and 463 nm, which are consistent with the output wavelengths of GaN-based LEDs. The predominant transition of Eu3+ ions originates from the electric dipole transition 5D0-7F2 with the red emission at 617 nm, indicating that Eu3+ ions occupy the sites without inversion symmetry. The optimum concentration of Eu3+-doping was obtained to be 4 mol% and the emission quenching occurred when the content of Eu3+ increased. The inner energy transfer including radiative and non-radiative energy transfer from the host to Eu3+ ions was observed.

  3. Methylation status of CDH1 gene in samples of gastric mucous from brazilian patients with chronic gastritis infected by Helicobacter pylori

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    Erika Kague

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is one of the top list of cancer types that most leads to death in Brazil and worldwide. Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori is a class I carcinogen and infect almost 90% of chronic gastritis patients. Some genotypes confer different virulent potential to H. pylori and can increase the risk of gastritis development. Methylation of CpG islands can inactivate tumor suppressor genes and therefore, it can be involved in the tumorigenic process. CDH1 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the E-cadherin protein, which is important in maintaining cell-cell contacts. The inactivation of this gene can increase the chance of metastasis. Promoter methylation of CDH1 at early steps of gastric carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the methylation status of CDH1 in chronic gastritis samples and correlated it with the presence of H. pylori. METHODS: Sixty gastric mucosal biopsies were used in this study. The detection of H. pylori was performed with the PCR primers specific to urease C gene. H. pylori genotyping was performed by PCR to cagA and vacA (s and m region. The methylation status of these gene CDH1 was analyzed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the PCR products was performed using primers methylated and unmethylated in both forward and reverse directions. RESULTS: H. pylori was detected in 90% of chronic gastritis samples; among these 33% were cagA positive and 100% vacA s1. The genotype vacA s2/m1 was not detected in any sample analyzed. Methylation of CDH1 was detected in 63.3% of chronic gastritis samples and 95% of them were also H. pylori-positive. CONCLUSION: This work suggests that CDH1 gene methylation and H. pylori infection are frequent events in samples from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and reinforces the correlation between H. pylori infection and CDH1 inactivation in early steps of gastric tumorigenesis

  4. Design and evaluation of novel primers for the detection of genes encoding diverse enzymes of methylotrophy and autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Lian; Wade, William G; Chen, Yin; Kelly, Donovan P; Wood, Ann P

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic significance of the diversity of key enzymes of methylotrophic and autotrophic metabolism is discussed. Primers for these key enzymes were designed using gene sequences encoding methanol dehydrogenase (mxaF; using subsets from database sequences for 22 Bacteria), hydroxypyruvate reductase (hpr; 36 sequences), methylamine dehydrogenase (mauA; 12 sequences), methanesulfonate monooxygenase (msmA; four sequences), and the ccbL and cbbM genes of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (26 and 23 sequences). These were effective in amplifying the correct gene products for the target genes in reference organisms and in test organisms not previously shown to contain the genes, as well as in some methylotrophic Proteobacteria isolated from the human mouth. The availability of the new primers increases the probability of detecting diverse examples of the genes encoding these key enzymes both in natural populations and in isolated bacterial strains.

  5. Sensitive detection of novel Indian isolate of BTV 21 using ns1 gene based real-time PCR assay

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    Gaya Prasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to develop ns1 gene based sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay for diagnosis of India isolates of bluetongue virus (BTV. Materials and Methods: The BTV serotype 21 isolate (KMNO7 was isolated from Andhra Pradesh and propagated in BHK-21 cell line in our laboratory. The Nucleic acid (dsRNA of virus was extracted using Trizol method and cDNA was prepared using a standard protocol. The cDNA was allowed to ns1 gene based group specific PCR to confirm the isolate as BTV. The viral RNA was diluted 10 folds and the detection limit of ns1 gene based RT-PCR was determined. Finally the tenfold diluted viral RNA was subjected to real-time RT-PCR using ns1 gene primer and Taq man probe to standardized the reaction and determine the detection limit. Results: The ns1 gene based group specific PCR showed a single 366bp amplicon in agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed the sample as BTV. The ns1 gene RT-PCR using tenfold diluted viral RNA showed the detection limit of 70.0 fg in 1%agarose gel electrophoresis. The ns1 gene based real time RT-PCR was successfully standardized and the detection limit was found to be 7.0 fg. Conclusion: The ns1 gene based real-time RT-PCR was successfully standardized and it was found to be 10 times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. Key words: bluetongue, BTV21, RT-PCR, Real time RT-PCR, ns1 gene [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 554-557

  6. Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus with a recombinant S gene detected in Hungary, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkó, Anna; Biksi, Imre; Cságola, Attila; Tuboly, Tamás; Kiss, Krisztián; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Ádám

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) can cause a severe enteric disease affecting pigs of all ages. In January 2016, diarrhoea with occasional vomiting was observed in a small pig farm in Hungary. All animals became affected, while mortality (of up to 30%) was only seen in piglets. Samples from different age groups and the carcass of a piglet were examined by various methods including pathology, bacteriology and molecular biology. PEDV was confirmed by PCR and its whole genome sequence was determined. The sequence PEDV HUN/5031/2016 showed high identity with recently reported European viruses. Differences were found mostly in the S gene, where recombination was detected with a newly identified and already recombinant swine enteric coronavirus (Se-CoV) from Italy. The present report describes the first porcine epidemic diarrhoea outbreak in Hungary after many years and gives an insight into the genetics of the Hungarian PEDV.

  7. Targeted next-generation sequencing detects novel gene-phenotype associations and expands the mutational spectrum in cardiomyopathies.

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    Cinzia Forleo

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of primary diseases of the myocardium, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC, with higher morbidity and mortality. These diseases are genetically diverse and associated with rare mutations in a large number of genes, many of which overlap among the phenotypes. To better investigate the genetic overlap between these three phenotypes and to identify new genotype-phenotype correlations, we designed a custom gene panel consisting of 115 genes known to be associated with cardiomyopathic phenotypes and channelopathies. A cohort of 38 unrelated patients, 16 affected by DCM, 14 by HCM and 8 by ARVC, was recruited for the study on the basis of more severe phenotypes and family history of cardiomyopathy and/or sudden death. We detected a total of 142 rare variants in 40 genes, and all patients were found to be carriers of at least one rare variant. Twenty-eight of the 142 rare variants were also predicted as potentially pathogenic variants and found in 26 patients. In 23 out of 38 patients, we found at least one novel potential gene-phenotype association. In particular, we detected three variants in OBSCN gene in ARVC patients, four variants in ANK2 gene and two variants in DLG1, TRPM4, and AKAP9 genes in DCM patients, two variants in PSEN2 gene and four variants in AKAP9 gene in HCM patients. Overall, our results confirmed that cardiomyopathic patients could carry multiple rare gene variants; in addition, our investigation of the genetic overlap among cardiomyopathies revealed new gene-phenotype associations. Furthermore, as our study confirms, data obtained using targeted next-generation sequencing could provide a remarkable contribution to the molecular diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, early identification of patients at risk for arrhythmia development, and better clinical management of cardiomyopathic patients.

  8. Targeted next-generation sequencing detects novel gene-phenotype associations and expands the mutational spectrum in cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forleo, Cinzia; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Sorrentino, Sandro; Manzari, Caterina; Chiara, Matteo; Iacoviello, Massimo; Guaricci, Andrea Igoren; De Santis, Delia; Musci, Rita Leonarda; La Spada, Antonino; Marangelli, Vito; Pesole, Graziano; Favale, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of primary diseases of the myocardium, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), with higher morbidity and mortality. These diseases are genetically diverse and associated with rare mutations in a large number of genes, many of which overlap among the phenotypes. To better investigate the genetic overlap between these three phenotypes and to identify new genotype-phenotype correlations, we designed a custom gene panel consisting of 115 genes known to be associated with cardiomyopathic phenotypes and channelopathies. A cohort of 38 unrelated patients, 16 affected by DCM, 14 by HCM and 8 by ARVC, was recruited for the study on the basis of more severe phenotypes and family history of cardiomyopathy and/or sudden death. We detected a total of 142 rare variants in 40 genes, and all patients were found to be carriers of at least one rare variant. Twenty-eight of the 142 rare variants were also predicted as potentially pathogenic variants and found in 26 patients. In 23 out of 38 patients, we found at least one novel potential gene-phenotype association. In particular, we detected three variants in OBSCN gene in ARVC patients, four variants in ANK2 gene and two variants in DLG1, TRPM4, and AKAP9 genes in DCM patients, two variants in PSEN2 gene and four variants in AKAP9 gene in HCM patients. Overall, our results confirmed that cardiomyopathic patients could carry multiple rare gene variants; in addition, our investigation of the genetic overlap among cardiomyopathies revealed new gene-phenotype associations. Furthermore, as our study confirms, data obtained using targeted next-generation sequencing could provide a remarkable contribution to the molecular diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, early identification of patients at risk for arrhythmia development, and better clinical management of cardiomyopathic patients.

  9. Variation in the number of EPIYA-C repeats in CagA protein from Colombian Helicobacter pylori strains and its ability to induce hummingbird phenotype in gastric epithelial cells Variación en el número de repeticiones EPIYA-C en la proteína CagA de aislamientos colombianos de Helicobacter pylori y su capacidad para inducir fenotipo colibrí en células epiteliales gástricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Bravo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies using Western Helicobacter pylori strains have shown that a risk factor for gastric cancer is the number of EPIYA-C motifs in the cytotoxin-associated A protein. CagA is delivered into epithelial cells, where it becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in their EPIYA repeats and induces cytoskeleton rearrangements.
    Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate H. pylori cagA positive strains isolated from Colombian patients with gastroduodenal diseases for the number of EPIYA-C repeats in cagA and their ability to induce cytoskeleton rearrangements in epithelial cells.
    Materials and methods. We analyzed the 3' EPIYA repeats region of cagA by PCR in 93 H. pylori cagA positive strains from 49 patients with gastritis, 17 with gastric cancer, and 24 with duodenal ulcer. AGS cells exposed to the various H. pylori isolates were evaluated for rearrangements in their cytoskeleton.
    Results. Strains with one EPIYA-C were the most frequent in gastritis and duodenal ulcer patients. Strains with three EPIYA-C were mainly found in gastric cancer. We found a significantly higher risk of gastric cancer for individuals infected with strains harboring three EPIYA-C motifs (OR=12.4, CI95%: 2.32-66.3. Strains from gastric cancer showed significantly higher percentages of induction of cytoskeleton rearrangements in comparison with those from gastritis (p Mann-Whitney<0.005.
    Conclusions. H. pylori strains with three EPIYA-C repeats can confer an increased risk of cancer to infected individuals.Introducción. En los aislamientos de Helicobacter pylori del hemisferio occidental, se ha observado que el número de repeticiones EPIYA-C en la proteína CagA es un factor de riesgo para cáncer gástrico. La proteína CagA es introducida en la célula epitelial y, posteriormente, es fosforilada en las tirosinas presentes en los motivos EPIYA e induce rearreglos en el citoesqueleto.
    Objetivos. Nuestro propósito fue evaluar el n

  10. No excess gene movement is detected off the avian or lepidopteran Z chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Pease, James B; Hahn, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Most of our knowledge of sex-chromosome evolution comes from male heterogametic (XX/XY) taxa. With the genome sequencing of multiple female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW) taxa, we can now ask whether there are patterns of evolution common to both sex chromosome systems. In all XX/XY systems examined to date, there is an excess of testis-biased retrogenes moving from the X chromosome to the autosomes, which is hypothesized to result from either sexually antagonistic selection or escape from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). We examined RNA-mediated (retrotransposed) and DNA-mediated gene movement in two independently evolved ZZ/ZW systems, birds (chicken and zebra finch) and lepidopterans (silkworm). Even with sexually antagonistic selection likely operating in both taxa and MSCI having been identified in the chicken, we find no evidence for an excess of genes moving from the Z chromosome to the autosomes in either lineage. We detected no excess for either RNA- or DNA-mediated duplicates, across a range of approaches and methods. We offer some potential explanations for this difference between XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex chromosome systems, but further work is needed to distinguish among these hypotheses. Regardless of the root causes, we have identified an additional, potentially inherent, difference between XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems.

  11. Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

    2015-02-01

    The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose.

  12. Detection of Histone Modifications at Specific Gene Loci in Single Cells in Histological Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Delphine; Shankman, Laura L; Nguyen, Anh T; Owens, Gary K

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays have contributed greatly to our understanding of the role of histone modifications in gene regulation. However, a major limitation is that they do not permit analysis with single cell resolution thus confounding analyses of heterogeneous cell populations. Herein we present a new method which permits visualization of histone modifications of single genomic loci with single-cell resolution in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections based on combined use of In Situ Hybridization (ISH) and Proximity Ligation Assays (PLA). Using this method we show that H3K4dime of the MYH11 locus is restricted to the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage in human and mouse tissue sections, and that the mark persists even in phenotypically modulated SMC within atherosclerotic lesions that show no detectable expression of SMC marker genes. This new methodology has promise for broad applications in the study of epigenetic mechanisms in complex multicellular tissues in development and disease. PMID:23314172

  13. Detection of Intracellular Adhesion (ica Gene and Biofilm Formation Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Blood Cultures

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    Mohsen Mirzaee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In fact the biofilms are composed of bacterial cells living inmulticellular structures such as tissues and organs embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS. Ability to attach and biofilm formation are the most important virulence factors Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The aims of this study were to detect intracellular adhesion (ica locus and its relation to the biofilm formation phenotype in clinical isolates of S. aureus isolated from bloodcultures.Methods: A total of 31 clinical S. aureus isolates were collected from Loghman Hospital of Tehran, Iran. In vitro biofilm formation ability was determined by microliter tissue culture plates. All clinical isolates were examined for determination the ica locus by using PCR method.Results: Twelve (38.7% of the isolates were strong biofilm producers. The results showed that 18(80.6% of the isolates carried icaD gene, whereas the prevalence of icaA, icaB and icaC were 51.6%, 45.1% and 77.4% respectively.Conclusions: S. aureus clinical isolates have different ability to form biofilm. This may be caused by the differences in the expression of biofilm related genes, genetic make-up and physiological conditions.

  14. Impairment of novelty detection in mice targeted for the Chl1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michel; Jamon, Marc

    2009-06-22

    A deficit in cell adhesion molecules including the human Chl1 (close homologue of the L1 cell adhesion molecule) gene may cause impairment of cognitive processes. Aberrant connectivity in the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been reported in mice lacking the CHL1 protein after Chl1 gene targeting. Previous studies have observed a deficit in the processing of novel information by CHL1-deficient mice. We investigated deficits in spatial discrimination and object discrimination in three groups of mice--Chl1(+/+), Chl1(+/-) and Chl1(-/-)--performing spatial and object novelty tasks. The results indicated that wild-type mice easily recognized objects that were either "displaced" or "substituted". Chl1(-/-) mice showed severe impairment of the capacity to react to both spatial and non-spatial novelty. Chl1(+/-) mice were severely restricted in their ability to detect spatial changes, but succeeded in novel object discrimination. A dose-dependent sensitivity of the organization of the CA3 layer to the CHL1 protein may explain this result. However, the observations suggest that a dysfunction of parts of the brain other than the hippocampus may be involved in the impairment.

  15. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-09

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.

  16. Detection of tstH Gene in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Hospitalized Burnt Children

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    Ali Badamchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:    The main cause of toxic shock is TSST-1 toxin which is produced by S. aureus.  Finding of TSST-1 toxin in burnt children is very important to prevent TSS and its consequences. Methods:     The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gene encoding TSST-1 toxin in wound specimens by PCR. In this case-control study, 90 children who were admitted to the burn unit, were divided in two groups of 45 patients, namely febrile (cases group and non-febrile (control group. Samplings were done from the burn wounds and were tested by PCR with specific primers of tstH gene. Finally, all data including demographic characteristics, percentage of burnt surface severity and the PCR results were analyzed, statistically.Results:    The positive PCR results indicated the expression of tstH gene in 37.7% of the febrile children and 11.1% of the non-febrile children with a statistically significant difference (p <0.003. The means and the standard deviations for the percentage of burnt surfaces (i.e. severity in the samples with the positive and negative PCR results were 30.9±16.93 and 20.09±11.02, respectively with a statistically significant difference (p <0.01. No difference with respect to age and sex could be detected between positive and negative PCR results.Conclusion:    A direct association between the expression of tstH and the occurrence of fever in the burnt children was observed. Furthermore, increased surface area of the wounds was also positively related to the expression of tstH.

  17. Potential Pitfalls of SDH Immunohistochemical Detection in Paragangliomas and Phaeochromocytomas Harbouring Germline SDHx Gene Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Raffaella; Rapizzi, Elena; Canu, Letizia; Ercolino, Tonino; Baroni, Gianna; Fucci, Rossella; Costa, Giuseppe; Mannelli, Massimo; Nesi, Gabriella

    2017-02-01

    Germline mutations in any of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes result in destabilization of the SDH protein complex and loss of SDHB expression at immunohistochemistry. SDHA is lost together with SDHB in SDHA-mutated tumours, but its expression is retained in tumours with other SDH mutations. We investigated whether SDHA/SDHB immunohistochemistry is able to identify SDH-related tumours in a retrospective case series of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs). SDHA and SDHB immunostaining was performed in 13 SDH gene-mutated tumours (SDHB: n=3; SDHC: n=1; SDHD: n=9) and 16 wild-type tumours. Protein expression by western blot analysis and enzymatic activity were also assessed. Tumours harbouring SDH gene mutations demonstrated a significant reduction in enzymatic activity and protein expression when compared to wild-type tumours. SDHB immunostaining detected 76.9% of SDH mutated PCCs/PGLs (3/3 SDHB-mutated samples; 1/1 SDHC-mutated sample; 6/9 SDHD-mutated samples). In three SDHD-related tumours with the same mutation (p.Pro81Leu), positive (n=2) or weakly diffuse (n=1) SDHB staining was observed. All wild-type PCCs/PGLs exhibited SDHB immunoreactivity, while immunostaining for SDHA was positive in 93.8% cases and weakly diffuse in one (6.2%). SDHA protein expression was preserved in all tumours with mutations. SDHA and SDHB immunohistochemistry should be interpreted with caution, due to possible false-positive or false-negative results, and ideally in the setting of quality assurance provided by molecular testing. In SDHD mutation, weak non-specific cytoplasmic staining occurs commonly, and this pattern of staining can be difficult to interpret with certainty. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F., E-mail: mkelley2@its.jnj.com; Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.

    2014-03-15

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.

  19. Coupled transcriptome and proteome analysis of human lymphotropic tumor viruses: insights on the detection and discovery of viral genes

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    Dresang Lindsay R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV are related human tumor viruses that cause primary effusion lymphomas (PEL and Burkitt's lymphomas (BL, respectively. Viral genes expressed in naturally-infected cancer cells contribute to disease pathogenesis; knowing which viral genes are expressed is critical in understanding how these viruses cause cancer. To evaluate the expression of viral genes, we used high-resolution separation and mass spectrometry coupled with custom tiling arrays to align the viral proteomes and transcriptomes of three PEL and two BL cell lines under latent and lytic culture conditions. Results The majority of viral genes were efficiently detected at the transcript and/or protein level on manipulating the viral life cycle. Overall the correlation of expressed viral proteins and transcripts was highly complementary in both validating and providing orthogonal data with latent/lytic viral gene expression. Our approach also identified novel viral genes in both KSHV and EBV, and extends viral genome annotation. Several previously uncharacterized genes were validated at both transcript and protein levels. Conclusions This systems biology approach coupling proteome and transcriptome measurements provides a comprehensive view of viral gene expression that could not have been attained using each methodology independently. Detection of viral proteins in combination with viral transcripts is a potentially powerful method for establishing virus-disease relationships.

  20. Coupled Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of Human Lymphotropic Tumor Viruses: Insights on the Detection and Discovery of Viral Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresang, Lindsay R.; Teuton, Jeremy R.; Feng, Huichen; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Li, Zhihua; Smith, Richard D.; Sugden, Bill; Moore, Patrick S.; Chang, Yuan

    2011-12-20

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are related human tumor viruses that cause primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) and Burkitt's lymphomas (BL), respectively. Viral genes expressed in naturally-infected cancer cells contribute to disease pathogenesis; knowing which viral genes are expressed is critical in understanding how these viruses cause cancer. To evaluate the expression of viral genes, we used high-resolution separation and mass spectrometry coupled with custom tiling arrays to align the viral proteomes and transcriptomes of three PEL and two BL cell lines under latent and lytic culture conditions. Results The majority of viral genes were efficiently detected at the transcript and/or protein level on manipulating the viral life cycle. Overall the correlation of expressed viral proteins and transcripts was highly complementary in both validating and providing orthogonal data with latent/lytic viral gene expression. Our approach also identified novel viral genes in both KSHV and EBV, and extends viral genome annotation. Several previously uncharacterized genes were validated at both transcript and protein levels. Conclusions This systems biology approach coupling proteome and transcriptome measurements provides a comprehensive view of viral gene expression that could not have been attained using each methodology independently. Detection of viral proteins in combination with viral transcripts is a potentially powerful method for establishing virus-disease relationships.

  1. Detection system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae with phenyl acrylic acid decarboxylase gene (PAD1) and sulphur efflux gene (SSU1) by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, K M; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2017-10-16

    Production of wine with selected yeast strains is a common enological practice followed for the production of wine with desirable organoleptic properties and to guarantee the homogeneity of successive vintages. Sulphur dioxide tolerance and phenyl acrylic acid resistance are the enological traits essential for the survivability of the yeast during fermentation. The present study describes the detection of S. cerevisiae with enological traits, such as phenyl acrylic acid resistance and sulphur dioxide tolerance in a single test. Phenyl acrylic acid decarboxylase (PAD1) and sulphite efflux genes (SSU1) were detected by multiplex PCR, thus confirming the specificity of primers. A single cocktail of all reagents required for the simultaneous detection of both these genes was designed. The ready-to-use formulation optimized was stable at 4 and - 20 °C for 6 months. The amplification of phenyl acrylic acid decarboxylase and sulphite efflux genes, validated the suitability of the ready-to-use formulation for the detection of S. cerevisiae in food samples. The ready-to-use formulation optimized, minimizes the end user requirements for the detection of S. cerevisiae. Thus, the method was suitable for the identification of S. cerevisiae strains from a mixture of yeast prior to the sequencing analysis, thereby reducing the cost and time of screening.

  2. Initialization Parameter Sweep in ATHENA: Optimizing Neural Networks for Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions in the Presence of Small Main Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Emily R; Buchanan, Carrie C; Dudek, Scott M; Torstenson, Eric C; Turner, Stephen D; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in genotyping technology have led to the generation of an enormous quantity of genetic data. Traditional methods of statistical analysis have proved insufficient in extracting all of the information about the genetic components of common, complex human diseases. A contributing factor to the problem of analysis is that amongst the small main effects of each single gene on disease susceptibility, there are non-linear, gene-gene interactions that can be difficult for traditional, parametric analyses to detect. In addition, exhaustively searching all multi-locus combinations has proved computationally impractical. Novel strategies for analysis have been developed to address these issues. The Analysis Tool for Heritable and Environmental Network Associations (ATHENA) is an analytical tool that incorporates grammatical evolution neural networks (GENN) to detect interactions among genetic factors. Initial parameters define how the evolutionary process will be implemented. This research addresses how different parameter settings affect detection of disease models involving interactions. In the current study, we iterate over multiple parameter values to determine which combinations appear optimal for detecting interactions in simulated data for multiple genetic models. Our results indicate that the factors that have the greatest influence on detection are: input variable encoding, population size, and parallel computation.

  3. Multi-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect cell cycle gene copy number aberrations in young breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Bai, Jingchao; Hao, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Yunhui; Zhang, Xiaobei; Yuan, Weiping; Hu, Linping; Cheng, Tao; Zetterberg, Anders; Lee, Mong-Hong; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease of cell cycle, and the dysfunction of cell cycle checkpoints plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. We employed multi-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) to investigate gene copy number aberrations (CNAs) of 4 genes (Rb1, CHEK2, c-Myc, CCND1) that are involved in the regulation of cell cycle, in order to analyze the impact of gene aberrations on prognosis in the young breast cancer patients. Gene copy number aberrations of these 4 genes were more frequently observed in young breast cancer patients when compared with the older group. Further, these CNAs were more frequently seen in Luminal B type, Her2 overexpression, and tiple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) type in young breast cancer patients. The variations of CCND1, Rb1, and CHEK2 were significantly correlated with poor survival in the young breast cancer patient group, while the amplification of c-Myc was not obviously correlated with poor survival in young breast cancer patients. Thus, gene copy number aberrations (CNAs) of cell cycle-regulated genes can serve as an important tool for prognosis in young breast cancer patients.

  4. Detection of a novel mutation in the GAA gene in an Iranian child with glycogen storage disease type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehdari, Hamid; Emami, Mozhgan; Mohammadian, Gholamreza; Khodadadi, Ali; Azmoon, Somayeh; Baradaran, Masumeh

    2013-02-01

    Glycogen storage disease II (GSDII or Pompe disease, OMIM # 232300) is an autosomal recessive hereditary lysosomal disorder. Mutations in the GAA gene usually lead to reduced acid α-glucosidase (acid maltase, GAA, OMIM *606800, EC 3.1.26.2) activity, which results in impaired degradation and subsequent accumulation of glycogen within lysosomes. We present an Iranian boy, who was diagnosed with GSDII based upon clinical and biochemical findings. A single adenine insertion (insA) was detected at codon 693 that leads to a predicted premature stop codon at codon 736 in the GAA gene. The parents were heterozygous for the same change. According to the human genome mutation database (www.hgmd.org) and lecture reviews, the detected change is a novel mutation. We suppose that the discovered insertion in the GAA gene might lead to a reduced activity of the gene product. This assumption is in agreement with biochemical and clinical signs in the patient.

  5. Detection of coat protein gene of nervous necrosis virus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinik; Suh, Sung-Suk; Park, Mirye; Oh, Myung-Joo; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-03-01

    To establish a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the identification of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. A set of synthesized primers was used to match the sequences of a specific region of the nnv gene from the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, not originating from NNV-infected fish, the efficiency and specificity of LAMP were measured dependent on the concentration of DNA polymerase and the reaction temperature and time. In addition, to determine species-specific LAMP primers, cross reactivity testing was applied to the reaction between NVV and other virus families including viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and marine birnavirus. The optimized LAMP reaction carried out at 64 °C for 60 min, and above 4 U Bst DNA polymerase. The sensitivity of LAMP for the detection of nnv was thus about 10 times greater than the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction. The LAMP assay primers were specific for the detection NNV infection in Epinephelus septemfasciatus. The development of LAMP primers based on genetic information from a public database, not virus-infected samples, may provide a very simple and convenient method to identify viral infection in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical biosensor based on nanoporous gold electrode for detection of PML/RARα fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guangxian; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Xuhai; Wang, Kun; Lian, Zhixian; Liu, Qicai; Chen, Yuanzhong; Du, Min; Lin, Xinhua

    2011-05-15

    In this study, a kind of nanoporous gold electrode (NPG) prepared with repetitive square-wave oxidation reduction cycle (SWORC) was reported. The active surface area of the proposed NPG electrode was 9.9 times larger than that of a bare flat one characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on NPG electrode was fabricated for detection of promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) by using Methylene Blue (MB) as an electroactive indicator. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed to monitor the hybridization reaction on the probe modified electrode. The decrease of the peak current of MB was observed upon hybridization of the probe with target DNA. The results indicated that the peak current was linear with the concentration of complementary strand in the range of 60 pM to 220 pM with a detection limit of 6.7 pM. This new biosensor exhibited excellent sensitivity and selectivity and had been used for an assay of PCR real sample with a satisfactory result. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simple Detection of Large InDeLS by DHPLC: The ACE Gene as a Model

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    Renata Guedes Koyama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion-deletion polymorphism (InDeL is the second most frequent type of genetic variation in the human genome. For the detection of large InDeLs, researchers usually resort to either PCR gel analysis or RFLP, but these are time consuming and dependent on human interpretation. Therefore, a more efficient method for genotyping this kind of genetic variation is needed. In this report, we describe a method that can detect large InDeLs by DHPLC (denaturating high-performance liquid chromatography using the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene I/D polymorphism as a model. The InDeL targeted in this study is characterized by a 288 bp Alu element insertion (I. We used DHPLC at nondenaturating conditions to analyze the PCR product with a flow through the chromatographic column under two different gradients based on the differences between D and I sequences. The analysis described is quick and easy, making this technique a suitable and efficient means for DHPLC users to screen InDeLs in genetic epidemiological studies.

  8. Molecular detection of meat animal species targeting MT 12S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, M V; Gadekar, Y P; Dighe, V D; Kokane, R D; Bannalikar, A S

    2011-05-01

    The efficacy of PCR-RFLP analysis of mt 12S rRNA gene in identification of animal species from meat samples of known and unknown origin and adulterated meat samples was evaluated. In PCR, all the samples generated an amplicon of 456 bp. Restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR product with AluI, HhaI, BspTI and ApoI revealed characteristic RFLP patterns. Of the samples of unknown origin few were identified as cattle, few as buffalo and some were admixtures of two, suggesting adulteration. The RFLP pattern of one did not match any of species included in the study, which on sequencing was confirmed as camel meat. Application of this technique on adulterated meat samples could detect both animal species in proportion of 50:50 and 75:25 (except in case of goat+cattle). The technique however could not detect any of the two species when proportion of mixture was 90:10 (except in case of cattle+buffalo). Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using linkage analysis to detect gene-gene interaction by stratifying family data on known disease, or disease-associated, alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Corso

    Full Text Available Detecting gene-gene interaction in complex diseases is a major challenge for common disease genetics. Most interaction detection approaches use disease-marker associations and such methods have low power and unknown reliability in real data. We developed and tested a powerful linkage-analysis-based gene-gene interaction detection strategy based on conditioning the family data on a known disease-causing allele or disease-associated marker allele. We computer-generated multipoint linkage data for a disease caused by two epistatically interacting loci (A and B. We examined several two-locus epistatic inheritance models: dominant-dominant, dominant-recessive, recessive-dominant, recessive-recessive. At one of the loci (A, there was a known disease-related allele. We stratified the family data on the presence of this allele, eliminating family members who were without it. This elimination step has the effect of raising the "penetrance" at the second locus (B. We then calculated the lod score at the second locus (B and compared the pre- and post-stratification lod scores at B. A positive difference indicated interaction. We also examined if it was possible to detect interaction with locus B based on a disease-marker association (instead of an identified disease allele at locus A. We also tested whether the presence of genetic heterogeneity would generate false positive evidence of interaction. The power to detect interaction for a known disease allele was 60-90%. The probability of false positives, based on heterogeneity, was low. Decreasing linkage disequilibrium between the disease and marker at locus A decreased the likelihood of detecting interaction. The allele frequency of the associated marker made little difference to the power.

  10. Comparison of Two Different PCR-based Methods for Detection of GAA Expansions in Frataxin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezam, Mona; Amirfiroozi, Akbar; Togha, Mansoureh; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats is the molecular basis of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Precise detection of the GAA expansion repeat in frataxin gene has always been a challenge. Different molecular methods have been suggested for detection of GAA expansion, including; short-PCR, long-PCR, Triplet repeat primed-PCR (TP-PCR) and southern blotting. The aim of study was to evaluate two PCR-based methods, TP-PCR and long-PCR, and to explore the use of TP-PCR accompanying with long-PCR for accurate genotyping of FRDA patients. Blood samples were collected from six Iranian patients suspected to FRDA, who referred to the Department of Medical Genetics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the year 2014. For one of these patients' four asymptomatic members of the family were also recruited for the analysis. DNA extraction was performed by two different methods. TP-PCR and long-PCR were carried out in all samples. The type of this study is assessment / investigation of methods. Using a combination of the above methods, the genotypes of all samples were confirmed as five homozygous mutants (expanded GAA repeats), two heterozygous and three homozygous normal (normal repeat size). The results obtained by TP-PCR are consistent with long-PCR results. The presence or absence of expanded alleles can be identified correctly by TP-PCR. Performing long-PCR and Fluorescent-long-PCR enables accurate genotyping in all samples. This approach is highly reliable. It could be successfully used for detection of GAA expansion repeats.

  11. Detection of 22 common leukemic fusion genes using a single-step multiplex qRT-PCR-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, Lina; Chen, Zhenzhu; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Jieying; Fan, Ruihua; Song, Yongping

    2017-07-25

    Fusion genes generated from chromosomal translocation play an important role in hematological malignancies. Detection of fusion genes currently employ use of either conventional RT-PCR methods or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), where both methods involve tedious methodologies and require prior characterization of chromosomal translocation events as determined by cytogenetic analysis. In this study, we describe a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)-based multi-fusion gene screening method with the capacity to detect 22 fusion genes commonly found in leukemia. This method does not require pre-characterization of gene translocation events, thereby facilitating immediate diagnosis and therapeutic management. We performed fluorescent qRT-PCR (F-qRT-PCR) using a commercially-available multi-fusion gene detection kit on a patient cohort of 345 individuals comprising 108 cases diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for initial evaluation; remaining patients within the cohort were assayed for confirmatory diagnosis. Results obtained by F-qRT-PCR were compared alongside patient analysis by cytogenetic characterization. Gene translocations detected by F-qRT-PCR in AML cases were diagnosed in 69.4% of the patient cohort, which was comparatively similar to 68.5% as diagnosed by cytogenetic analysis, thereby demonstrating 99.1% concordance. Overall gene fusion was detected in 53.7% of the overall patient population by F-qRT-PCR, 52.9% by cytogenetic prediction in leukemia, and 9.1% in non-leukemia patients by both methods. The overall concordance rate was calculated to be 99.0%. Fusion genes were detected by F-qRT-PCR in 97.3% of patients with CML, followed by 69.4% with AML, 33.3% with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 9.1% with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and 0% with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We describe the use of a F-qRT-PCR-based multi-fusion gene screening method as an efficient one-step diagnostic procedure as an

  12. Comparison of Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in clinical fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Laukkanen, E; Hirvonen, J J; Saha, K

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usability and performance of the Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens. Of the 186 stool specimens, 53 (28.5%) were considered true-positive for norovirus (NoV). Of the true-positive specimens, Xpert detected 53 and RidaGene detected 52. The respective sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 91.0-98.5%] for the Xpert assay, and 98.1% (95% CI, 94.4-100%) and 97.0% (95% CI, 94.1-99.9%) for the RidaGene assay. Positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) were 88.3% and 100% for the Xpert assay, and 92.9% and 99.2% for the RidaGene assay, respectively. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there were no significant differences (p-value > 0.5) between the results of the Xpert and RidaGene Norovirus assays. We found that both assays are useful for the detection of noroviruses in clinical stool samples.

  13. Detection and quantification of probiotic strain Lactobacillus gasseri K7 in faecal samples by targeting bacteriocin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treven, Primož; Turkova, Kristyna; Trmčić, Aljoša; Obermajer, Tanja; Rogelj, Irena; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič

    2013-11-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri K7 is a probiotic strain that produces bacteriocins gassericin K7 A and K7 B. In order to develop a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection of L. gasseri K7, 18 reference strains of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and 45 faecal samples of adults who have never consumed strain K7 were tested with PCR using 14 pairs of primers specific for gassericin K7 A and K7 B gene determinants. Incomplete gassericin K7 A or K7 B gene clusters were found to be dispersed in different lactobacilli strains as well as in faecal microbiota. One pair of primers was found to be specific for the total gene cluster of gassericin K7A and one for gassericin K7B. The real-time PCR analysis of faecal samples spiked with K7 strain revealed that primers specific for the gene cluster of the gassericin K7 A were more suitable for quantitative determination than those for gassericin K7 B, due to the lower detection level. Targeting of the gassericin K7 A or K7 B gene cluster with specific primers could be used for detection and quantification of L. gasseri K7 in human faecal samples without prior cultivation. The results of this study also present new insights into the prevalence of bacteriocin-encoding genes in gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  15. Detection of the beta2 toxin gene of Clostridium perfringens in diarrhoeic piglets in The Netherlands and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, H L; Molkenboer, M J; Bakker, J; Miserez, R; Häni, H; Frey, J; Popoff, M R; van den Bosch, J F

    1999-07-01

    The two studies presented here were done to determine the prevalence of the alpha, beta, epsilon and enterotoxin genes and the novel beta2 toxin gene of Clostridium perfringens in neonatal or pre-weaned piglets with diarrhoea or necrotic enteritis. All C. perfringens isolates were positive for the alpha and negative for the epsilon and enterotoxin gene, implying that only non-enterotoxigenic type A and C strains were detected. The most important findings were the relatively high prevalence of the beta2 toxin gene in isolates from diarrhoeic piglets in both studies, and, in one of the two studies, absence of strains with only the alpha and beta toxin gene. These data are supportive for the suggestion of a causal relationship of beta2 toxin-producing strains with digestive tract diseases in piglets.

  16. Proteomic Detection of Non-Annotated Protein-Coding Genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wook; Silby, Mark W.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicoll, Julie S.; Hixson, Kim K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2009-12-24

    Genome sequences are annotated by computational prediction of coding sequences, followed by similarity searches such as BLAST, which provide a layer of (possible) functional information. While the existence of processes such as alternative splicing complicates matters for eukaryote genomes, the view of bacterial genomes as a linear series of closely spaced genes leads to the assumption that computational annotations which predict such arrangements completely describe the coding capacity of bacterial genomes. We undertook a proteomic study to identify proteins expressed by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 from genes which were not predicted during the genome annotation. Mapping peptides to the Pf0-1 genome sequence identified sixteen non-annotated protein-coding regions, of which nine were antisense to predicted genes, six were intergenic, and one read in the same direction as an annotated gene but in a different frame. The expression of all but one of the newly discovered genes was verified by RT-PCR. Few clues as to the function of the new genes were gleaned from informatic analyses, but potential orthologues in other Pseudomonas genomes were identified for eight of the new genes. The 16 newly identified genes improve the quality of the Pf0-1 genome annotation, and the detection of antisense protein-coding genes indicates the under-appreciated complexity of bacterial genome organization.

  17. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Huang

    Full Text Available Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  18. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  19. Evaluation of Four Endogenous Reference Genes and Their Real-Time PCR Assays for Common Wheat Quantification in GMOs Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat. PMID:24098735

  20. Creation of Mice Bearing a Partial Duplication of HPRT Gene Marked with a GFP Gene and Detection of Revertant Cells In Situ as GFP-Positive Somatic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Asao; Suemori, Hirofumi; Hirai, Yuko; Hamasaki, Kanya; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Mitani, Hiroshi; Landes, Reid D; Nakamura, Nori

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming clear that apparently normal somatic cells accumulate mutations. Such accumulations or propagations of mutant cells are thought to be related to certain diseases such as cancer. To better understand the nature of somatic mutations, we developed a mouse model that enables in vivo detection of rare genetically altered cells via GFP positive cells. The mouse model carries a partial duplication of 3' portion of X-chromosomal HPRT gene and a GFP gene at the end of the last exon. In addition, although HPRT gene expression was thought ubiquitous, the expression level was found insufficient in vivo to make the revertant cells detectable by GFP positivity. To overcome the problem, we replaced the natural HPRT-gene promoter with a CAG promoter. In such animals, termed HPRT-dup-GFP mouse, losing one duplicated segment by crossover between the two sister chromatids or within a single molecule of DNA reactivates gene function, producing hybrid HPRT-GFP proteins which, in turn, cause the revertant cells to be detected as GFP-positive cells in various tissues. Frequencies of green mutant cells were measured using fixed and frozen sections (liver and pancreas), fixed whole mount (small intestine), or by means of flow cytometry (unfixed splenocytes). The results showed that the frequencies varied extensively among individuals as well as among tissues. X-ray exposure (3 Gy) increased the frequency moderately (~2 times) in the liver and small intestine. Further, in two animals out of 278 examined, some solid tissues showed too many GFP-positive cells to score (termed extreme jackpot mutation). Present results illustrated a complex nature of somatic mutations occurring in vivo. While the HPRT-dup-GFP mouse may have a potential for detecting tissue-specific environmental mutagens, large inter-individual variations of mutant cell frequency cause the results unstable and hence have to be reduced. This future challenge will likely involve lowering the background mutation

  1. Creation of Mice Bearing a Partial Duplication of HPRT Gene Marked with a GFP Gene and Detection of Revertant Cells In Situ as GFP-Positive Somatic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asao Noda

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that apparently normal somatic cells accumulate mutations. Such accumulations or propagations of mutant cells are thought to be related to certain diseases such as cancer. To better understand the nature of somatic mutations, we developed a mouse model that enables in vivo detection of rare genetically altered cells via GFP positive cells. The mouse model carries a partial duplication of 3' portion of X-chromosomal HPRT gene and a GFP gene at the end of the last exon. In addition, although HPRT gene expression was thought ubiquitous, the expression level was found insufficient in vivo to make the revertant cells detectable by GFP positivity. To overcome the problem, we replaced the natural HPRT-gene promoter with a CAG promoter. In such animals, termed HPRT-dup-GFP mouse, losing one duplicated segment by crossover between the two sister chromatids or within a single molecule of DNA reactivates gene function, producing hybrid HPRT-GFP proteins which, in turn, cause the revertant cells to be detected as GFP-positive cells in various tissues. Frequencies of green mutant cells were measured using fixed and frozen sections (liver and pancreas, fixed whole mount (small intestine, or by means of flow cytometry (unfixed splenocytes. The results showed that the frequencies varied extensively among individuals as well as among tissues. X-ray exposure (3 Gy increased the frequency moderately (~2 times in the liver and small intestine. Further, in two animals out of 278 examined, some solid tissues showed too many GFP-positive cells to score (termed extreme jackpot mutation. Present results illustrated a complex nature of somatic mutations occurring in vivo. While the HPRT-dup-GFP mouse may have a potential for detecting tissue-specific environmental mutagens, large inter-individual variations of mutant cell frequency cause the results unstable and hence have to be reduced. This future challenge will likely involve lowering the

  2. Genome-Wide Detection of SNP and SV Variations to Reveal Early Ripening-Related Genes in Grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshuai Xu

    Full Text Available Early ripening in grape (Vitis vinifera L. is a crucial agronomic trait. The fruits of the grape line 'Summer Black' (SBBM, which contains a bud mutation, can be harvested approximately one week earlier than the 'Summer Black' (SBCcontrol. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the bud mutation related to early ripening, we detected genome-wide genetic variations based on re-sequencing. In total, 3,692,777 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 81,223 structure variations (SVs in the SBC genome and 3,823,464 SNPs and 85,801 SVs in the SBBM genome were detected compared with the reference grape sequence. Of these, 635 SBC-specific genes and 665 SBBM-specific genes were screened. Ripening and colour-associated unigenes with non-synonymous mutations (NS, SVs or frame-shift mutations (F were analysed. The results showed that 90 unigenes in SBC, 76 unigenes in SBBM and 13 genes that mapped to large fragment indels were filtered. The expression patterns of eight genes were confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR.The re-sequencing data showed that 635 SBC-specific genes and 665 SBBM-specific genes associated with early ripening were screened. Among these, NCED6 expression appears to be related to NCED1 and is involved in ABA biosynthesis in grape, which might play a role in the onset of anthocyanin accumulation. The SEP and ERF genes probably play roles in ethylene response.

  3. Novel Mutations Detected in Avirulence Genes Overcoming Tomato Cf Resistance Genes in Isolates of a Japanese Population of Cladosporium fulvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yuichiro; van 't Hof, Pieter; Beenen, Henriek; Mesarich, Carl; Kubota, Masaharu; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Mehrabi, Rahim; Notsu, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Bahkali, Ali; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Collemare, Jérôme; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2015-01-01

    Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr) genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i) frameshift mutations and (ii) transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii) point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv) deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.

  4. [Establishment of a triplex real-time PCR for the detection of cholera toxin gene ctx and heat labile enterotoxin gene elt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Kan, Biao; Zhang, Jingyun

    2014-06-01

    To establish a triplex TaqMan real-time PCR system containing internal amplification control (IAC) to detect cholera toxin gene ctxA and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)heat-labile enterotoxin gene elt. Primers and probes were designed based on the sequences of ctxA, elt and IAC. Both sensitivity and specificity were analyzed and interactions between different reactions were evaluated. This system showed that the sensitivity of ctxA was 94 copies/reaction while the elt 79 copies/reaction and the amplification efficiency were 94.7% and 98.1%, respectively. Under the ratio of copy numbers on gene ctxA to elt as between 1 : 1-1 : 10, when both targets were detected, with impact was less on each other. However, when the amount of elt or ctxA was 100 times of IAC, the amplification of IAC was significantly inhibited. This system showed both satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, thus could be used to detect pathogenic bacteria in diarrhea stools. The detection of IAC could prompt the presence of PCR inhibitors in samples being tested.

  5. Ultrafiltration and Microarray for Detection of Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J; Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer L

    2016-01-04

    Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of >95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole-genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of the microarray. Viruses (adenovirus, bocavirus, hepatitis A virus, and human polyomaviruses) were detected in sewage-contaminated samples. Pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri, and Campylobacter fetus were detected along with genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Nonmetric dimensional analysis of MST marker genes grouped sewage-spiked freshwater and marine samples with sewage and apart from other fecal sources. The sensitivity (percent true positives) of the microarray probes for gene targets anticipated in sewage was 51 to 57% and was lower than the specificity (percent true negatives; 79 to 81%). A linear relationship between gene copies determined by quantitative PCR and microarray fluorescence was found, indicating the semiquantitative nature of the MST microarray. These results indicate that ultrafiltration coupled with WGA provides sufficient nucleic acids for detection of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and antibiotic resistance genes by the microarray in applications ranging from beach monitoring to risk assessment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Presymptomatic breast cancer in Egypt: role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes mutations detection

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    Hashishe Mervat M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases affecting women. Inherited susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are considered in breast, ovarian and other common cancers etiology. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified that confer a high degree of breast cancer risk. Objective Our study was performed to identify germline mutations in some exons of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer in females. Methods This study was applied on Egyptian healthy females who first degree relatives to those, with or without a family history, infected with breast cancer. Sixty breast cancer patients, derived from 60 families, were selected for molecular genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The study also included 120 healthy first degree female relatives of the patients, either sisters and/or daughters, for early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer mutation carriers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of all the studied subjects. Universal primers were used to amplify four regions of the BRCA1 gene (exons 2,8,13 and 22 and one region (exon 9 of BRCA2 gene using specific PCR. The polymerase chain reaction was carried out. Single strand conformation polymorphism assay and heteroduplex analysis were used to screen for mutations in the studied exons. In addition, DNA sequencing of the normal and mutated exons were performed. Results Mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were detected in 86.7% of the families. Current study indicates that 60% of these families were attributable to BRCA1 mutations, while 26.7% of them were attributable to BRCA2 mutations. Results showed that four mutations were detected in the BRCA1 gene, while one mutation was detected in the BRCA2 gene. Asymptomatic relatives, 80(67% out of total 120, were mutation carriers. Conclusions BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer. BRCA mutations

  7. Normalisation against Circadian and Age-Related Disturbances Enables Robust Detection of Gene Expression Changes in Liver of Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Costa, Sara S.; Wegmann, Daniel; Ripperger, Jürgen A.

    2017-01-01

    The expression of some genes is affected by age. To detect such age-related changes, their expression levels are related to constant marker genes. However, transcriptional noise increasing with advancing age renders difficult the identification of real age-related changes because it may affect the marker genes as well. Here, we report a selection procedure for genes appropriate to normalise the mouse liver transcriptome under various conditions including age. These genes were chosen from an initial set of 16 candidate genes defined based on a RNA-sequencing experiment and published literature. A subset of genes was selected based on rigorous statistical assessment of their variability using both RNA-sequencing and Nanostring hybridization experiments. The robustness of these marker genes was then verified by the analysis of 130 publicly available data sets using the mouse liver transcriptome. Altogether, a set of three genes, Atp5h, Gsk3β, and Sirt2 fulfilled our strict selection criteria in all assessments, while four more genes, Nono, Tprkb, Tspo, and Ttr passed all but one assessment and were included into the final set of marker genes to enhance robustness of normalisation against outliers. Using the geometric mean of expression of the genes to normalise Nanostring hybridization experiments we reliably identified age-related increases in the expression of Casein kinase 1δ and 1ϵ, and Sfpq, while the expression of the glucose transporter Glut2 decreased. The age-related changes were verified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. As conclusion, proper normalisation enhances the robustness of quantitative methods addressing age-related changes of a transcriptome. PMID:28068403

  8. Evaluation of GeneXpert® system for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus in clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Mencacci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus strains (MRSA have reached epidemic proportions globally, being the major cause of nosocomial infections. Rapid identification of MRSA in nasal swabs or in clinical samples is considered a useful strategy for control and treatment of these infections. GeneXpert system (Cepheid Europe,Vira-Solelch, Maurence-Scopont-France can detect by real-time PCR in approximately one hour methicillin-resistant S. aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in clinical samples, in comparison with 24 hours for the culture or 48 hours for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In this study GeneXpert system was compared with traditional tests for MRSA detection in nasal swabs, bloodcultures and surgical wound swabs. Materials and methods. Eighteen nasal swabs, 23 blood-cultures and 13 surgical wound swabs were tested. The samples were cultured on blood-agar and mannitol-salt agar. Identification of isolates was carried out with traditional tests (Gram staining, catalase, coagulase and automatic Phoenix system. Methicillin-susceptibility was evaluated according to 2010 CLSI guidelines. GeneXpert system was performed according to manufacturers instructions, by using the specific kits and methicillin-resistance was detected by amplification of the genic sequences spa, SCC e mecA. Results. The results showed a 100% accordance between GeneXpert system and traditional tests for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In particular, among 18 nasal swabs, no MRSA was detected, while 1 bloodculture (4.3% and 4 surgical wound swabs (30.7% were positive for MRSA. Conclusions. GeneXpert system allows a rapid detection of MRSA in clinical samples and shows the same sensitivity and specificity as traditional tests. Therefore, it represents a further effective diagnostic method for prevention and treatment of nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

  9. Rapid detection of vip1-type genes from Bacillus cereus and characterization of a novel vip binary toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Tang, Changqing; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Linxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2011-12-01

    A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for identifying vegetative insecticidal protein (vip) 1-type genes from Bacillus cereus was developed by designing specific primers based on the conserved regions of the genes to amplify vip1-type gene fragments. PCR products were digested with endonuclease AciI, and four known vip1-type genes were identified. Vip1Ac and vip1Aa-type genes appeared in 17 of 26 B. cereus strains. A novel vip1-type gene, vip1Ac1, was identified from B. cereus strain HL12. The vip1Ac1 and vip2Ae3 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 by vector pCOLADuet-1. The binary toxin showed activity only against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera), but not for Coleptera (Tenebrio molitor, Holotrichia oblita), Lepidoptera (Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, and Chilo suppressalis), Diptera (Culex quinquefasciatus). The LC(50) of this binary toxin for A. gossypii is 87.5 (34.2-145.3) ng mL(-1) . This is probably only the second report that Vip1 and Vip2 binary toxin shows toxicity against homopteran pests. The PCR-RFLP method developed could be very useful for identifying novel Vip1-Vip2-type binary toxins, and the novel binary toxins, Vip1Ac1 and Vip2Ae3, identified in this study may have applications in biological control of insects, thus avoiding potential problems of resistance. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal two-stage strategy for detecting interacting genes in complex diseases

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    Man Michael

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mapping of complex diseases is one of the most important problems in human genetics today. The rapid development of technology for genetic research has led to the discovery of millions of polymorphisms across the human genome, making it possible to conduct genome-wide association studies with hundreds of thousands of markers. Given the large number of markers to be tested in such studies, a two-stage strategy may be a reasonable and powerful approach: in the first stage, a small subset of promising loci is identified using single-locus testing, and, in the second stage, multi-locus methods are used while taking into account the loci selected in the first stage. In this report, we investigate and compare two possible two-stage strategies for genome-wide association studies: a conditional approach and a simultaneous approach. Results We investigate the power of both the conditional and the simultaneous approach to detect the disease loci for a range of two-locus disease models in a case-control study design. Our results suggest that, overall, the conditional approach is more robust and more powerful than the simultaneous approach; the conditional approach can greatly outperform the simultaneous approach when one of the two disease loci has weak marginal effect, but interacts strongly with the other, stronger locus (easily detectable using single-locus methods in the first stage. Conclusion Genome-wide association studies hold the promise of finding new genes implicated in complex diseases. Two-stage strategies are likely to be employed in these large-scale studies. Therefore we compared two natural two-stage approaches: the conditional approach and the simultaneous approach. Our power studies suggest that, when doing genome-wide association studies, a two-stage conditional approach is likely to be more powerful than a two-stage simultaneous approach.

  11. Characterization of RPO B gene for detection of rifampicin drug resistance by SSCP and sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in recent times, the rapid detection of resistance to the first-line anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin was felt worldwide. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic potential of polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP for checking its utility as a rapid screening test for determination of rifampicin drug resistance. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis (22 rifampicin resistant, 11 rifampicin sensitive and one control H37Rv strains were analysed by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing within the 157-bp region of the rpo B gene (Ala 500 -Val 550 . Results: Rifampicin resistance was detected successfully by PCR-SSCP in 20/22(90.90% of rifampicin-resistant strains showing a total of nine different mutations in seven codon positions: codon 513 (CAA→CCA, 516 (GAC→GTC, 507 (GGC→GAC, 526 (CAC→GAC, TAC, 531 (TCG→TTG, TGG, 522 (TCG→TGG and 533 (GTG→CCG. Two rifampicin-resistant strains showed an identical PCR-SSCP pattern with the wild type H37Rv; 77.27% rifampicin-resistant strains showed a single point mutation and 9.09% had no mutation. Three rifampicin-resistant strains showed characteristic double mutations at codon positions 526 and 531. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as 90.90% and 100%. Conclusions: Rifampicin-resistant genotypes were mainly found in codon positions 516, 526 and 531. PCR-SSCP seems to be an efficacious method of predicting rifampicin resistance and substantially reduces the time required for susceptibility testing from 4 to 6 weeks to a few weeks.

  12. Identification of novel candidate target genes in amplicons of Glioblastoma multiforme tumors detected by expression and CGH microarray profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Yolanda; Mollejo, Manuela; Ribalta, Teresa; Fiaño, Concepción; Camacho, Francisca I; Gómez, Elena; de Lope, Angel Rodríguez; Hernández-Moneo, Jose-Luis; Martínez, Pedro; Meléndez, Bárbara

    2006-09-26

    Conventional cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies in brain malignancies have shown that glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by complex structural and numerical alterations. However, the limited resolution of these techniques has precluded the precise identification of detailed specific gene copy number alterations. We performed a genome-wide survey of gene copy number changes in 20 primary GBMs by CGH on cDNA microarrays. A novel amplicon at 4p15, and previously uncharacterized amplicons at 13q32-34 and 1q32 were detected and are analyzed here. These amplicons contained amplified genes not previously reported. Other amplified regions containing well-known oncogenes in GBMs were also detected at 7p12 (EGFR), 7q21 (CDK6), 4q12 (PDGFRA), and 12q13-15 (MDM2 and CDK4). In order to identify the putative target genes of the amplifications, and to determine the changes in gene expression levels associated with copy number change events, we carried out parallel gene expression profiling analyses using the same cDNA microarrays. We detected overexpression of the novel amplified genes SLA/LP and STIM2 (4p15), and TNFSF13B and COL4A2 (13q32-34). Some of the candidate target genes of amplification (EGFR, CDK6, MDM2, CDK4, and TNFSF13B) were tested in an independent set of 111 primary GBMs by using FISH and immunohistological assays. The novel candidate 13q-amplification target TNFSF13B was amplified in 8% of the tumors, and showed protein expression in 20% of the GBMs. This high-resolution analysis allowed us to propose novel candidate target genes such as STIM2 at 4p15, and TNFSF13B or COL4A2 at 13q32-34 that could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors and which would require futher investigations. We showed that overexpression of the amplified genes could be attributable to gene dosage and speculate that deregulation of those genes could be important in the development and progression of GBM. Our findings highlight

  13. Identification of novel candidate target genes in amplicons of Glioblastoma multiforme tumors detected by expression and CGH microarray profiling

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    Hernández-Moneo Jose-Luis

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH studies in brain malignancies have shown that glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is characterized by complex structural and numerical alterations. However, the limited resolution of these techniques has precluded the precise identification of detailed specific gene copy number alterations. Results We performed a genome-wide survey of gene copy number changes in 20 primary GBMs by CGH on cDNA microarrays. A novel amplicon at 4p15, and previously uncharacterized amplicons at 13q32-34 and 1q32 were detected and are analyzed here. These amplicons contained amplified genes not previously reported. Other amplified regions containg well-known oncogenes in GBMs were also detected at 7p12 (EGFR, 7q21 (CDK6, 4q12 (PDGFRA, and 12q13-15 (MDM2 and CDK4. In order to identify the putative target genes of the amplifications, and to determine the changes in gene expression levels associated with copy number change events, we carried out parallel gene expression profiling analyses using the same cDNA microarrays. We detected overexpression of the novel amplified genes SLA/LP and STIM2 (4p15, and TNFSF13B and COL4A2 (13q32-34. Some of the candidate target genes of amplification (EGFR, CDK6, MDM2, CDK4, and TNFSF13B were tested in an independent set of 111 primary GBMs by using FISH and immunohistological assays. The novel candidate 13q-amplification target TNFSF13B was amplified in 8% of the tumors, and showed protein expression in 20% of the GBMs. Conclusion This high-resolution analysis allowed us to propose novel candidate target genes such as STIM2 at 4p15, and TNFSF13B or COL4A2 at 13q32-34 that could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of these tumors and which would require futher investigations. We showed that overexpression of the amplified genes could be attributable to gene dosage and speculate that deregulation of those genes could be important in the development

  14. Detection and linkage to mobile genetic elements of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Rabadan, Sonia; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Escherichia coli the genes involved in the acquisition of tetracycline resistance are mainly tet(A) and tet(B). In addition, tet(M) is the most common tetracycline resistance determinant in enterococci and it is associated with conjugative transposons and plasmids. Although tet(M) ...... expected. In our study, tet(M) detected in E. coli seems not to have been transferred from enterococci, although it can not be ruled out that the horizontal transfer of this gene occurred from other intestinal tract bacteria....... from pigs, as well as the detection of mobile genetic elements linked to tet(M) in E. coli and its possible transfer from enterococci. Results: tet(A) was the most frequently detected gene (87.9%) in doxycycline-resistant isolates. tet(M) was found in 13.1% E. coli isolates. The tet(M) gene......Background: In Escherichia coli the genes involved in the acquisition of tetracycline resistance are mainly tet(A) and tet(B). In addition, tet(M) is the most common tetracycline resistance determinant in enterococci and it is associated with conjugative transposons and plasmids. Although tet...

  15. High prevalence of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 gene variations detected by whole gene sequencing in patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes

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    Anish Kolly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: The aim is to study the prevalence and pattern of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 gene variations in patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD using whole gene sequencing. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 consecutive patients of FCPD were recruited for the study. Diagnosis of FCPD was based on the presence of diabetes mellitus in patients having chronic pancreatitis with radiological evidence of ductal calcifications, in the absence of other known causes for pancreatitis. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid samples were collected from all patients, and complete gene sequencing was performed for SPINK1 gene using Sanger technique. Results: Overall 35 patients (62.5% were detected to have genetic alterations in SPINK1 gene. N34S polymorphism was seen in 23 participants (41.07% out of which 3 were homozygous. N34S was seen to be in linkage disequilibrium with IVS1 − 37T>C (18/23 and IVS3-69insAAAA (19/23 polymorphisms. Seven patients (12.5% had a 272 C>T 3'UTR polymorphism while one patient (1.8% had a P55S polymorphism. Two patients (3.5% had an IVS3 + 2T>C mutation which has been shown to be associated with loss of function of SPINK protein. Overall 48.2% of FCPD patients had genetic variations that were significant compared to the control population. There was no difference in anthropometric and biochemical parameters between those with or without SPINK1 gene variations. Conclusions: Variations in SPINK1 gene are frequently observed in FCPD. N34S polymorphism was the most common variation followed by intronic variations. Two patients had the pathogenic intronic IVS3 + 2T>C mutation. Whole gene sequencing of the SPINK1 gene enabled detection of an additional 7.1% of patients with significant SPINK1 gene variations as compared to targeted screening for the N34S variation.

  16. PCR-RFLP to Detect Codon 248 Mutation in Exon 7 of "p53" Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liming; Ge, Chongtao; Wu, Haizhen; Li, Suxia; Zhang, Huizhan

    2009-01-01

    Individual genome DNA was extracted fast from oral swab and followed up with PCR specific for codon 248 of "p53" tumor suppressor gene. "Msp"I restriction mapping showed the G-C mutation in codon 248, which closely relates to cancer susceptibility. Students learn the concepts, detection techniques, and research significance of point mutations or…

  17. Detection of Salmonella spp. survival and virulence in poultry feed by targeting the hilA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Jarquin, R; Hanning, I; Almeida, G; Ricke, S C

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate immunomagnetic beads and a reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR method for the detection of Salmonella inoculated into feed. In addition, a reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR method was evaluated for quantifying virulence gene hilA expression of Salmonella ssp. in poultry feed matrices and utilized to determine the influence of poultry feed environmental factors on Salmonella hilA expression. An immunomagnetic separation technique was evaluated for increased recovery of Salmonella from feed. Salmonella cultures were inoculated into feed samples and exposed to heat treatments of 70°C and sampled periodically. From these samples, RNA was collected and hilA gene expression was measured relative to the housekeeping 16S rRNA gene. The immunomagnetic bead protocol increased recovery by 1 log. The up-regulation of hilA was demonstrated after 5 and 10 min of inoculated feed samples being exposed to heat treatment. From this work, the data indicate that the ability to detect live Salmonella cells in feed samples may be increased by targeting the hilA gene. Foodborne salmonellosis originating from poultry is a major problem, and feed is a leading source of contamination in poultry, but detection in feed is complicated by low concentrations. The assays and experiments in this study examine possible improvements to recovery and detection of Salmonella in feed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Detection of antibiotic resistance and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the Pearl rivers in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Ran [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Su Haochang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou Hongwei [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, 1838 North Guangzhou Street, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Sidhu, Jatinder P.S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia QLD 4067 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae family isolates from the Pearl rivers. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In Liuxi reservoir, with an exception to ampicillin resistant strains (11%) no other antibiotic resistance bacterial strains were detected. However, multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates from the other sites of Pearl rivers was observed which is possibly due to sewage discharge and input from other anthropogenic sources along the rivers. Four tetracycline resistance genes tet A, tet B, tet C and tet D were detected in the isolates from the rivers. The genes tet A and tet B were widely detected with the detection frequencies of 43% and 40% respectively. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistant enteric bacteria were also isolated from the pig and duck manures which suggest a wider distribution of human specific drugs in the environment. This investigation provided a baseline data on antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in the Pearl rivers delta. - High rates of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from river water are attributed to wastewater contamination.

  19. Evaluation of molecular detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin with GeneXpert® MTB/RIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, C; Smaoui, S; Kammoun, S; Slim, L; Messadi-Akrout, F

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the GeneXpert® MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The test simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and resistance to rifampicin. We analyzed 153 clinical samples collected in a tertiary hospital in Sfax, Tunisia, between 2013 and 2014. We performed the GeneXpert® test, a Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine staining, conventional culture on MGIT 960 and LJ media, and we tested the resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs on MGIT 960 and LJ media for each sample. Diagnosis was based on clinical, radiological, microbiological, pathological, and therapeutic data. We considered that 59 patients out of 153 presented with tuberculosis. PCR was positive in 50 samples and all of these samples were susceptible to rifampicin. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the GeneXpert® test were 84.7%, 96.8%, 94.3%, and 91%, respectively, compared with diagnosis. We observed a statistically significant difference between the direct test and the GeneXpert® test, and between culture and the GeneXpert® test. No statistically significant difference was observed between pathological results and the GeneXpert® test. Sensitivity of the GeneXpert® test was 87.5% in biopsies, 80% in pus and abscesses, and 66.7% in biological fluids. All strains were susceptible to rifampicin with culture and GeneXpert® test. The GeneXpert® test helped detect a higher proportion of M. tuberculosis complex. It does not replace conventional diagnostic methods but it is a useful addition to achieve better sensitivity and obtain rapid results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous mutation detection of three homoeologous genes in wheat by High Resolution Melting analysis and Mutation Surveyor®

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    Vincent Kate

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a powerful tool for reverse genetics, combining traditional chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput PCR-based mutation detection to discover induced mutations that alter protein function. The most popular mutation detection method for TILLING is a mismatch cleavage assay using the endonuclease CelI. For this method, locus-specific PCR is essential. Most wheat genes are present as three similar sequences with high homology in exons and low homology in introns. Locus-specific primers can usually be designed in introns. However, it is sometimes difficult to design locus-specific PCR primers in a conserved region with high homology among the three homoeologous genes, or in a gene lacking introns, or if information on introns is not available. Here we describe a mutation detection method which combines High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis of mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments and sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor® software, aimed at simultaneous detection of mutations in three homoeologous genes. Results We demonstrate that High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis can be used in mutation scans in mixed PCR amplicons containing three homoeologous gene fragments. Combining HRM scanning with sequence analysis using Mutation Surveyor® is sensitive enough to detect a single nucleotide mutation in the heterozygous state in a mixed PCR amplicon containing three homoeoloci. The method was tested and validated in an EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate-treated wheat TILLING population, screening mutations in the carboxyl terminal domain of the Starch Synthase II (SSII gene. Selected identified mutations of interest can be further analysed by cloning to confirm the mutation and determine the genomic origin of the mutation. Conclusion Polyploidy is common in plants. Conserved regions of a gene often represent functional domains and have high sequence

  1. Detection of virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes in Campylobacter species using newly developed multiplex PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprade, Natacha; Cloutier, Michel; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward; Wilkes, Graham; Villemur, Richard; Khan, Izhar U H

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water. In each mPCR assay, a combination of two or three sets of primer pairs for virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes was used and optimized. Assay 1 was developed for the detection of dnaJ, racR and cdtC genes with expected amplification sizes of 720, 584 and 182bp. Assay 2 generated PCR amplicons for tet(O) and cdtA genes of 559 and 370bp. Assay 3 amplified cdtB ciaB, and pldA genes with PCR amplicon sizes of 620, 527 and 385bp. Assay 4 was optimized for flaA and flaB genes that generated PCR amplicons of 855 and 260bp. The primer pairs and optimized PCR protocols did not show interference and/or cross-amplification with each other and generated the expected size of amplification products for each target VAT gene for the C. jejuni ATCC 33291 reference strain. Overall, all ten target VAT genes were detected at a variable frequency in tested isolates of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. where cdtC, flaB, ciaB, cdtB, cdtA and pldA were commonly detected compared to the flaA, racR, dnaJ and tet(O) genes which were detected with less frequency. The developed mPCR assays are simple, rapid, reliable and sensitive tools for simultaneously assessing potential pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profiling in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The mPCR assays will be useful in diagnostic and analytical settings for routine screening of VAT characteristics of Campylobacter spp. as well as being applicable in epidemiological

  2. Fluorescence reporter gene platform applicable for the detection and quantification of horizontal gene transfer in anoxic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinilla Redondo, Rafael

    Background: The study of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbial communities has been revolutionized by advances in cultivation-independent methods based on fluorescence reporter-gene technologies. However, the use of fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP) and m...... of the impact the pH has on their fluorescence intensities. Validation of the dual-labelling system for the study of HGT in anoxic milieus. Methods: The time-course fluorescent recovery of mCherry and GFPmut3 in vivo, as well as the effect of the extracellular pH on fluorescence was monitored through flow...

  3. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tingyu; Liu, Fang; Lu, Xiaoling; Huang, Qingdong

    2017-04-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of GeneXpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in China. Methods This cross-sectional study included sputum specimens of 240 suspected TB cases. Specimens were examined by light microscopy for the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which were cultured by the BACTEC MGIT 960 (M960) system and detected by the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. The positive rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and average turnaround time of methods were evaluated. Results The positive rate was 36.6% (87/238) for the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and 34.0% (81/238) by M960 culture, with no significant difference between methods (χ 2  = 0.33, p > 0.05). According to culture results, sensitivity of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay was 84.0% (68/81), specificity was 87.8% (129/147), the PPV was 78.2% (68/87), and the NPV was 87.2% (129/148). The agreement for results between Gene Xpert MTB/RIF and the M960 system was 82.8% and the Kappa value was 0.73. Conclusion The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is a simple, rapid, and accurate test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens.

  4. Molecular detection and analysis of a novel metalloprotease gene of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens strains in infected Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, J T; Xu, R; Sadiku, A; Chen, Q; Badiss, A; Yu, Q

    2014-04-01

    Serratia marcescens strains isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditis sp.) were examined for their pathogenicity and establishment in wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae. All the Serratia strains were potently pathogenic to G. mellonella larvae, leading to death within 48 h. The strains were shown to possess a metalloprotease gene encoding for a novel serralysin-like protein. Rapid establishment of the bacteria in infected larvae was confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of a DNA fragment encoding for this protein. Detection of the viable Serratia strains in infected larvae was validated using the SYBR Green reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay targeting the metalloprotease gene. Nucleotide sequences of the metalloprotease gene obtained in our study showed 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and 3 insertions compared with the metalloprotease gene of S. marcescens E-15. The metalloprotease gene had 60 synonymous and 8 nonsynonymous substitutions relative to the closest GenBank entry, S. marcescens E-15. A comparison of the amino acid composition of the new serralysin-like protein with that of the serralysin protein of S. marcescens E-15 revealed differences at 11 positions and a new aspartic acid residue. Analysis of the effect of protein variation suggests that a new aspartic acid residue resulting from nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in the protein structure could have the most significant effect on its biological function. The new metalloprotease gene and (or) its product could have applications in plant agricultural biotechnology.

  5. OrgConv: detection of gene conversion using consensus sequences and its application in plant mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ancestry of mitochondria and chloroplasts traces back to separate endosymbioses of once free-living bacteria. The highly reduced genomes of these two organelles therefore contain very distant homologs that only recently have been shown to recombine inside the mitochondrial genome. Detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologs was previously impossible due to the lack of suitable computer programs. Recently, I developed a novel method and have, for the first time, discovered recurrent gene conversion between chloroplast mitochondrial genes. The method will further our understanding of plant organellar genome evolution and help identify and remove gene regions with incongruent phylogenetic signals for several genes widely used in plant systematics. Here, I implement such a method that is available in a user friendly web interface. Results OrgConv (Organellar Conversion is a computer package developed for detection of gene conversion between mitochondrial and chloroplast homologous genes. OrgConv is available in two forms; source code can be installed and run on a Linux platform and a web interface is available on multiple operating systems. The input files of the feature program are two multiple sequence alignments from different organellar compartments in FASTA format. The program compares every examined sequence against the consensus sequence of each sequence alignment rather than exhaustively examining every possible combination. Making use of consensus sequences significantly reduces the number of comparisons and therefore reduces overall computational time, which allows for analysis of very large datasets. Most importantly, with the significantly reduced number of comparisons, the statistical power remains high in the face of correction for multiple tests. Conclusions Both the source code and the web interface of OrgConv are available for free from the OrgConv website http

  6. Novel P450nor Gene Detection Assay Used To Characterize the Prevalence and Diversity of Soil Fungal Denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinscak, Amy; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Chantigny, Martin H; Filion, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Denitrifying fungi produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, as they generally lack the ability to convert N2O to dinitrogen. Contrary to the case for bacterial denitrifiers, the prevalence and diversity of denitrifying fungi found in the environment are not well characterized. In this study, denitrifying fungi were isolated from various soil ecosystems, and novel PCR primers targeting the P450nor gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for the conversion of nitric oxide to N2O, were developed, validated, and used to study the diversity of cultivable fungal denitrifiers. This PCR assay was also used to detect P450nor genes directly from environmental soil samples. Fungal denitrification capabilities were further validated using an N2O gas detection assay and a PCR assay targeting the nirK gene. A collection of 492 facultative anaerobic fungi was isolated from 15 soil ecosystems and taxonomically identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer sequence. Twenty-seven fungal denitrifiers belonging to 10 genera had the P450nor and the nirK genes and produced N2O from nitrite. N2O production is reported in strains not commonly known as denitrifiers, such as Byssochlamys nivea, Volutella ciliata, Chloridium spp., and Trichocladium spp. The prevalence of fungal denitrifiers did not follow a soil ecosystem distribution; however, a higher diversity was observed in compost and agricultural soils. The phylogenetic trees constructed using partial P450nor and nirK gene sequences revealed that both genes clustered taxonomically closely related strains together. A PCR assay targeting the P450nor gene involved in fungal denitrification was developed and validated. The newly developed P450nor primers were used on fungal DNA extracted from a collection of fungi isolated from various soil environments and on DNA directly extracted from soil. The results indicated that approximatively 25% of all isolated fungi possessed this gene and were able to convert nitrite to

  7. [A standardized protocol for detection of ALK protein expression and gene fusion in lung adenocarcinoma cytologic specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Wu, Xiaonan; Shi, Yuankai; Han, Xiaohong; Cheng, Gang; Li, Lin; Mu, Xinlin; Zhang, Yuhui; Cui, Di; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zaiwen; Zhu, Guangqing; Ma, Lingyun; Yang, Li; Di, Jing; Liu, Dongge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for detection of ALK protein expression and gene fusion in cytologic specimens. Lung adenocarcinoma cytologic specimens were collected from seven hospitals in Beijing city. A detection protocol for ALK protein expression and gene fusion was designed according to the results of comparative experiment. Ventana immunohistochemical (IHC) ALK(D5F3) detecting ALK protein expression was performed in 203 prepared formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cell blocks. ALK gene fusion in 98 EGFR gene wild type cytologic specimens and in 4 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BL) samples was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). ALK gene fusion in the Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3) positive samples was further tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Six patients with ALK IHC-positive result were followed up to analyze the responses of crizotinib therapy. Comparative experiments: (1) Comparison of the results of 4% neutral buffered formalin fixed for different time (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) on the Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3) staining was conducted in two cases of IHC ALK positive FFPE cell blocks; (2) Comparing qRT-PCR results for ALK fusion in samples from FFPE cell blocks and cytospin prepared slides in 10 cases of lung adenocarcinoma cytologic specimens. Among the specimens examined using the standardized protocol recommended by this study, 229 cases of cytologic specimens met the diagnostic criteria of lung adenocarcinoma. Among them, 207 cases obtained ALK gene test results (by at least one method), with an ALK test ratio of 90.4% (207/229). FFPE cell blocks were successfully prepared in 203 cases, Ventana IHC ALK (D5F3) were successfully performed in all the 203 FFPE cell blocks (100%), and the ALK protein positive detection rate was 10.3% (21/203). ALK fusion was tested in 98 FFPE cytologic samples of EGFR wild types by qRT-PCR, and 96 out of 98 (97.96%) cytologic samples were

  8. Detecting and weighting the true corridors of species kinetics and gene flows: Linkage Flow Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow connectivity (FC is a methodology, alternative and in opposition to both circuit theory and least-cost modelling, first introduced in 2013 to realistically forecast biotic flows over real landscapes. FC turns a static frictional map into a dynamical simulation of biotic flows from any source points indicated by the user. In this work, FC is further developed to find a solution to the problem of detecting the true corridors of species dispersals and gene flows. The output of this method is the realistic map of biotic corridors, determined in a bottom-up way by considering the interaction between landscape properties and species requirements, and not in a top-down approach based on the supposed expert knowledge of some researcher. Not only true corridors are mapped, but they are also automatically weighted based on their importance to support biotic flows. The same corridor can bear different levels of importance in different portions of its length. This outcome is pivotal from both conservation and management viewpoints. An applicative example is provided.

  9. Detection of MMTV-like LTR and LTR-env gene sequences in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Pelisson, I; Melana, S M; Holland, J F; Pogo, B G

    2001-05-01

    We have previously reported, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of a 660 bp sequence homologous to the env gene of MMTV in 38% of the human breast cancers studied, but not in normal breasts nor in other tumors or tissues. We have now investigated the presence of MMTV-like LTR sequences in human breast cancer and normal breast tissue. Primers were selected to amplify a 630 bp sequence homologous to MMTV, but not to the endogenous retrovirus HERV-K10. This sequence was detected in 41.5% of the breast cancers and none of the normal breasts. A larger 1.2 kb LTR fragment was also amplified with high homology to MMTV. Finally, a 1.6 kb fragment containing env and LTR sequences was amplified, cloned and sequenced from breast cancer DNA. The human LTRs were highly homologous to MMTV contain enhancer and promoter elements, the glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) and the superantigen (Sag) sequences. Presence of functional sequences implies involvement in transcriptional regulation, whereas presence of an env-LTR sequence indicates contiguity within the genome of a potential provirus. Their presence in breast cancer DNA, but not in normal tissue, suggest an exogenous origin.

  10. erm gene distribution among Norwegian Bacteroides isolates and evaluation of phenotypic tests to detect inducible clindamycin resistance in Bacteroides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Bjørn Odd; Handal, Nina; Meisal, Roger; Bjørnholt, Jørgen Vildershøj; Gaustad, Peter; Leegaard, Truls Michael

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the distribution of the most common erm genes in a collection of Norwegian Bacteroides isolates and to investigate whether the phenotypic tests for determining inducible clindamycin resistance among Bacteroides species recommended by EUCAST, NordicAST and the manufacturer of E-test(®), are effective. We investigated 175 unique Bacteroides isolates for the presence of erm(B), erm(F) and erm(G) genes, determined their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to clindamycin and categorised their susceptibility according to EUCAST breakpoints. 27 isolates were resistant to clindamycin. Furthermore, we investigated whether these recommended methods could detect inducible resistance in the Bacteroides isolates: 1) EUCAST recommendation: Dissociated resistance to erythromycin (clindamycin susceptible with erythromycin MIC > 32 mg/L), 2) NordicAST recommendation: Double disk diffusion test (DDD) or 3) Manufacturer of E-test(®)'s recommendation: prolonged incubation of clindamycin E-test(®) for 48 h. erm genes were detected in 30 (17%, 95% CI 12%-23%) of 175 Bacteroides isolates with erm(F) as the dominating gene. There were six (4%, 95% CI 1%-7%) of 148 clindamycin susceptible isolates harbouring erm genes, they were considered inducibly resistant to clindamycin. None of the methods for phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance performed satisfactory with sensitivities of 33%, 17% and 0% and specificities of 90%, 99% and 97% for dissociated resistance, DDD and prolonged incubation of clindamycin E-test(®), respectively. In our view, the scientific basis for investigating every Bacteroides isolate for inducible resistance to clindamycin is weak. Molecular detection of erm genes may prove a better option than the phenotypic methods we evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MimiLook: A Phylogenetic Workflow for Detection of Gene Acquisition in Major Orthologous Groups of Megavirales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sourabh; Panda, Arup; Colson, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Pontarotti, Pierre

    2017-04-07

    With the inclusion of new members, understanding about evolutionary mechanisms and processes by which members of the proposed order, Megavirales, have evolved has become a key area of interest. The central role of gene acquisition has been shown in previous studies. However, the major drawback in gene acquisition studies is the focus on few MV families or putative families with large variation in their genetic structure. Thus, here we have tried to develop a methodology by which we can detect horizontal gene transfers (HGTs), taking into consideration orthologous groups of distantly related Megavirale families. Here, we report an automated workflow MimiLook, prepared as a Perl command line program, that deduces orthologous groups (OGs) from ORFomes of Megavirales and constructs phylogenetic trees by performing alignment generation, alignment editing and protein-protein BLAST (BLASTP) searching across the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) protein sequence database. Finally, this tool detects statistically validated events of gene acquisitions with the help of the T-REX algorithm by comparing individual gene tree with NCBI species tree. In between the steps, the workflow decides about handling paralogs, filtering outputs, identifying Megavirale specific OGs, detection of HGTs, along with retrieval of information about those OGs that are monophyletic with organisms from cellular domains of life. By implementing MimiLook, we noticed that nine percent of Megavirale gene families (i.e., OGs) have been acquired by HGT, 80% OGs were Megaviralespecific and eight percent were found to be sharing common ancestry with members of cellular domains (Eukaryote, Bacteria, Archaea, Phages or other viruses) and three percent were ambivalent. The results are briefly discussed to emphasize methodology. Also, MimiLook is relevant for detecting evolutionary scenarios in other targeted phyla with user defined modifications. It can be accessed at

  12. [Values of JAZF1 gene rearrangement detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization in diagnosis of endometrial stromal tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Q M; Chang, B; Tu, X Y; Bi, R; Cheng, Y F; Huang, D; Zhu, X L; Wu, L J; Zhang, X; Zhou, X Y; Yang, W T

    2017-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the role of JAZF1 gene rearrangement in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of endometrial stromal sarcomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methods: JAZF1 gene rearrangement was analyzed by FISH in 129 cases of ESS diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2016 including 105 cases of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS), 21 cases of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG-ESS) and 3 cases of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS). Sixteen cases of the related tumours in uterus were also collected as control group. The results were compared with our previous studies of JAZF1/JJAZ1 fusion gene in ESS by RT-PCR. Results: Detection of JAZF1 gene rearrangement by FISH was successfully analyzed in 144 cases. JAZF1 gene alteration was detected in 63 cases, all of which were LG-ESS, with an overall positivity of 60.6% (63/104), while no JAZF1 gene rearrangement was found in all other cases. JAZF1 gene rearrangement was present in LG-ESS with classic histology (69.3%, 52/75), smooth muscle differentiation (2/10), sex cord-like differentiation (4/5), fibromyxoid change (1/5), clear cell change (0/1), skeletal muscle differentiation (0/1), and schwannoma-like palisading pattern (0/1). The different components in all the cases of LG-ESS with variant histology had the clonal origin, with or without JAZF1 gene alteration. Compared to the results of JAZF1/JJAZ1 fusion gene by RT-PCR, the positive rate of JAZF1 gene rearrangement in LG-ESS by FISH (61.9%, 26/42) was significantly higher than that of RT-PCR (30.0%, 12/40; P endometrial stromal and their variant morphologic components have the same clonal origin. Detection of JAZF1 gene rearrangement by FISH is very useful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ESS.

  13. Ultra-fast electronic detection of antimicrobial resistance genes using isothermal amplification and Thin Film Transistor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunxiao; Kalsi, Sumit; Zeimpekis, Ioannis; Sun, Kai; Ashburn, Peter; Turner, Carrie; Sutton, J Mark; Morgan, Hywel

    2017-10-15

    A low cost thin-film transistor (TFT) nanoribbon (NR) sensor has been developed for rapid real-time detection of DNA amplification using an isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) method. The semiconductor chip measures DNA amplification through a pH change, rather than via fluorescence. The utility of the method was demonstrated by amplifying CTX-M and NDM, two genes that confer bacterial resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems, respectively. It is shown that this approach provides extremely fast and sensitive detection. It can detect <10 copies of the gene in genomic DNA extracted from E. coli or K. pneumoniae clinical isolates within a few minutes. A differential readout system was developed to minimize the effect of primer-dimer amplification on the assay. The simple device has the potential for low cost, portable and real-time nucleic acid analysis as a Point of Care device. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Detection of hemophilia A carriers by PCR analysis of hind III polymorphism in the factor VIII gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S; Li, Y; Cui, H; Xie, Y; Zheng, J; Pan, X; Zhang, H; Zhao, R; Zhang, Q

    1998-04-10

    To explore a scheme of using PCR analysis in the detection of carriers of Hind III polymorphism of factor VIII gene of hemophilia A. Implicating intron 19 of the factor VIII gene of 6 patients with the hemophilia A and 207 unrelated X-chromosomes were amplified by PCR and were analysed by means of Amp-RFLPs of Hind III. The incidence of the polymorphic Hind III sites in the given population was found to be 0.29. The frequence of the Hind III heterozygotes in women calculated according to Hardy-Weinberg equation was 0.41, which proved to be informative enough for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia A. 2 out of 6 families (33%)examined in this study were informative. The new scheme proved to be effective for hemophilia A carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  15. Deletion of the "OPHN1" Gene Detected by aCGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, I.; Rodriguez-Revenga, L.; Badenas, C.; Sanchez, A.; Mila, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The oligophrenin 1 gene ("OPHN1") is an Rho-GTPase-activating protein involved in the regulation of the G-protein cycle required for dendritic spine morphogenesis. Mutations in this gene are implicated in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Methods: We report a deletion spanning exons 21 and 22 of the "OPHN1" gene identified by a…

  16. Detection of bacterial blight resistant gene xa5 using linked marker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... important recessive bacterial blight resistant gene, which is effective and important in Asian rice breeding program. It was also used in combination by incorporation with various recessive and dominant BB resistant genes. The purpose of our study was to identify the bacterial blight resistant genes xa5 in ...

  17. Detection of nptII (kanamycin resistance) genes in genomes of transgenic plants by marker-rescue transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J; Wackernagel, W

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a novel system for the sensitive detection of nptII genes (kanamycin resistance determinants) including those present in transgenic plant genomes. The assay is based on the recombinational repair of an nptII gene with an internal 10-bp deletion located on a plasmid downstream of a bacterial promoter. Uptake of an nptII gene by transformation restores kanamycin resistance. In Escherichia coli, promoterless nptII genes provided by electroporation were rescued with high efficiency in a RecA-dependent recombinational process. For the rescue of nptII genes present in chromosomal plant DNA, the system was adapted to natural transformation, which favours the uptake of linear DNA. When competent Acinetobacter sp. BD413 (formerly A. calcoaceticus) cells containing the mutant nptII gene on a plasmid were transformed with DNA from various transgenic plants carrying nptII as a marker gene (Solanum tuberosum, Nicotiana tabacum, Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lycopersicon esculentum), kanamycin-resistant transformants were obtained roughly in proportion to the concentration of nptII genes in the plant DNA. The rescue of nptII genes occurred in the presence of a more than 6 x 10(6)-fold excess of plant DNA. Only 18 ng of potato DNA (2.5 x 10(3) genome equivalents, each with one copy of nptII) was required to produce one kanamycin-resistant transformant. These experiments and others employing DNA isolated from soil samples demonstrate that the system allows reliable and highly sensitive monitoring of nptII genes in transgenic plant DNA and in DNA from environmental sources, such as soil, without the need for prior DNA amplification (e.g. by PCR).

  18. Detecting variable (V, diversity (D and joining (J gene segment recombination using a two-colour fluorescence system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Gina B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diversity of immunoglobulins and the T cell antigen receptors is achieved via the recombination activating gene (RAG-mediated rearrangement of variable (V, diversity (D and joining (J gene segments, and this underpins the efficient recognition of a seemingly limitless array of antigens. Analysis of V(DJ recombination activity is typically performed using extrachromosomal recombination substrates that are recovered from transfected cells and selected using bacterial transformation. We have developed a two-colour fluorescence-based system that simplifies detection of both deletion and inversion joining events mediated by RAG proteins. Results This system employs two fluorescent reporter genes that differentially mark unrearranged substrates and those that have undergone RAG-mediated deletion or inversion events. The recombination products bear the hallmarks of true V(DJ recombination and activity can be detected using fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry. Recombination events can be detected without the need for cytotoxic selection of recombination products and the system allows analysis of recombination activity using substrates integrated into the genome. Conclusions This system will be useful in the analysis and exploitation of the V(DJ recombination machinery and suggests that similar approaches could be used to replace expression of one gene with another during lymphocyte development.

  19. Simultaneous Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes on Paper-Based Chip Using [Ru(phen)2dppz]2+Turn-on Fluorescence Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bofan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Liu, Hongxing; Deng, Huaping; Huang, Ru; Xing, Da

    2018-02-07

    Antibiotic resistance, the ability of some bacteria to resist antibiotic drugs, has been a major global health burden due to the extensive use of antibiotic agents. Antibiotic resistance is encoded via particular genes; hence the specific detection of these genes is necessary for diagnosis and treatment of antibiotic resistant cases. Conventional methods for monitoring antibiotic resistance genes require the sample to be transported to a central laboratory for tedious and sophisticated tests, which is grueling and time-consuming. We developed a paper-based chip, integrated with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the "light switch" molecule [Ru(phen) 2 dppz] 2+ , to conduct turn-on fluorescent detection of antibiotic resistance genes. In this assay, the amplification reagents can be embedded into test spots of the chip in advance, thus simplifying the detection procedure. [Ru(phen) 2 dppz] 2+ was applied to intercalate into amplicons for product analysis, enabling this assay to be operated in a wash-free format. The paper-based detection device exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) as few as 100 copies for antibiotic resistance genes. Meanwhile, it could detect antibiotic resistance genes from various bacteria. Noticeably, the approach can be applied to other genes besides antibiotic resistance genes by simply changing the LAMP primers. Therefore, this paper-based chip has the potential for point-of-care (POC) applications to detect various gene samples, especially in resource-limited conditions.

  20. Detection of differentially expressed genes between Erhualian and Large White placentas on day 75 and 90 of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental efficiency is strongly associated with litter size, fetal weight and prenatal mortality. Together with its rapid growth during late gestation, the Large White pig breed shows a significant increase in placental size and weight, but this does not occur in the highly prolific Chinese pig breeds. To understand the molecular basis of placental development during late gestation in Chinese indigenous and Western breeds with different placental efficiency, female placental samples were collected from six pregnant Erhualian gilts at gestation day 75 (E75 and day 90 (E90 and from six pregnant Large White gilts at gestation day 75 (L75 and day 90 (L90. Two female placentas from one sow were used to extract RNA and then pooled in equal volumes. Twelve pooled samples were hybridized to the porcine Affymetrix GeneChip. Results A total of 226 and 577 transcripts were detected that were differentially expressed between E75 and L75 and between E90 and L90 (p VEGF pathway was also detected between the breeds. A search of chromosomal location revealed that 44 differentially expressed genes located to QTL regions related to reproduction. Differential expression of six candidate imprinted genes was also confirmed. Three of the six genes (PLAGL1, DIRAS3, and SLC38A4 showed monoallelic expression in the porcine placenta. Conclusion Our study detected many genes that showed differential expression between placentas of two divergent breed of pigs, and confirmed the imprinting of three genes. These findings help to elucidate the genetic control of placental efficiency and improve the understanding of placental development.

  1. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis at peripheral tuberculosis clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yan; Peng, Hong; Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Ji, Ming; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Wei; Zhai, Xiang Jun; Lu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases in China, while delayed patient finding obstructed disease control, especially for smear-negative patients. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF compared with conventional methods in the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A total of 295 spot sputum samples from confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were evaluated from September 2014 to June 2015. Each sample was examined by acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy, culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF. The sputum culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) was considered as the gold-standard. After testing by smear, 68.81% (203/295) was negative and 31.19% (92/295) was positive. As the gold-standard, L-J culture detected 37.97% (112/295) positive of all specimens, while the positivity for GeneXpert MTB/RIF was 46.44% (137/295). Compared with L-J culture, the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for GeneXpert MTB/RIF were 94.64%, 82.97%, 77.37% and 96.18% respectively. For smear-negative specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for GeneXpert MTB/RIF were 96.00%, 83.05%, 44.44% and 99.32%; while for smear-positive specimens, the corresponding accuracy values were 94.25%, 80.00%, 98.80% and 44.44%. The findings of study indicated that GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay demonstrated a high sensitivity in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to smear method and a high NPV among smear negative patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous detection of 45 fusion genes in leukemia by dual-color fluorescence real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z; Zhang, P; He, G; Liao, K; Wang, Z; Pan, J; Du, K; Du, J; Li, B-A

    2017-04-01

    Detection of recurrent genetic abnormalities is of great significance for a refined diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in leukemia. Conventional nested reverse transcription PCR is labor intensive and time-consuming. We have developed a novel dual-color TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR method for the simultaneous screening of 45 fusion transcripts in 12 parallel reactions. The method was tested and validated with cell lines carrying known fusion transcripts and patient samples. A multiplex real-time PCR method was successfully developed for rapid detection of 45 fusion genes and validated for 15 of the more commonly detected fusion genes. Intra-assay reproducibility assessed for the most frequent rearrangements ranged from 0.41% to 0.74% for the coefficient of variation (CV) of cycle threshold (Ct) and the interassay reproducibility ranged from 1.62% to 2.83% in five separate experiments. The lowest detection limit for the translocations tested ranged between 1 : 16 000 and 1 : 32 000. Validation of the method with 213 patient samples showed 100% specificity and excellent consistence with conventional nested RT-PCR. Overall, we believe that this method is easily applicable, cost-effective, and clinically useful for a rapid screening of fusion genes in the initial diagnostic phase of leukemia. Its use can also be extended to the monitoring of minimal residual disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Direct Detection and Differentiation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species Using a Multi-Gene Targeted Real Time PCR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Costa, Pedro; Rocha, Teresa; Amaro, Ana; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Ahmed, Ahmed; Thompson, Gertrude; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a growing public and veterinary health concern caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira. Rapid and reliable laboratory tests for the direct detection of leptospiral infections in animals are in high demand not only to improve diagnosis but also for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. In this work we describe a novel and simple TaqMan-based multi-gene targeted real-time PCR approach able to detect and differentiate Leptospira interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpeteresenii and L. noguchii, which constitute the veterinary most relevant pathogenic species of Leptospira. The method uses sets of species-specific probes, and respective flanking primers, designed from ompL1 and secY gene sequences. To monitor the presence of inhibitors, a duplex amplification assay targeting both the mammal β-actin and the leptospiral lipL32 genes was implemented. The analytical sensitivity of all primer and probe sets was estimated to be Leptospira strains and other non-related bacteria revealed a 100% analytical specificity. Additionally, pathogenic leptospires were successfully detected in five out of 29 tissue samples from animals (Mus spp., Rattus spp., Dolichotis patagonum and Sus domesticus). Two samples were infected with L. borgpetersenii, two with L. interrogans and one with L. kirschneri. The possibility to detect and identify these pathogenic agents to the species level in domestic and wildlife animals reinforces the diagnostic information and will enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of leptopirosis. PMID:25398140

  4. Rapidly evolving genes in pathogens: methods for detecting positive selection and examples among fungi, bacteria, viruses and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Refrégier, Guislaine; Yockteng, Roxana; Fournier, Elisabeth; Giraud, Tatiana

    2009-07-01

    The ongoing coevolutionary struggle between hosts and pathogens, with hosts evolving to escape pathogen infection and pathogens evolving to escape host defences, can generate an 'arms race', i.e., the occurrence of recurrent selective sweeps that each favours a novel resistance or virulence allele that goes to fixation. Host-pathogen coevolution can alternatively lead to a 'trench warfare', i.e., balancing selection, maintaining certain alleles at loci involved in host-pathogen recognition over long time scales. Recently, technological and methodological progress has enabled detection of footprints of selection directly on genes, which can provide useful insights into the processes of coevolution. This knowledge can also have practical applications, for instance development of vaccines or drugs. Here we review the methods for detecting genes under positive selection using divergence data (i.e., the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates, d(N)/d(S)). We also review methods for detecting selection using polymorphisms, such as methods based on F(ST) measures, frequency spectrum, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure. In the second part, we review examples where targets of selection have been identified in pathogens using these tests. Genes under positive selection in pathogens have mostly been sought among viruses, bacteria and protists, because of their paramount importance for human health. Another focus is on fungal pathogens owing to their agronomic importance. We finally discuss promising directions in pathogen studies, such as detecting selection in non-coding regions.

  5. PCR detection of oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B) in tetracycline-resistant streptomycete isolates from diverse habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolakopoulou, T; Egan, S; van Overbeek, L; Guillaume, G; Heuer, H; Wellington, EMH; van Elsas, JD; Collard, JM; Smalla, K; Karagouni, A

    2005-01-01

    A range of European habitats was screened by PCR for detection of the oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B), found in the oxytetracycline-producing strain Streptomyces rimosus. Primers were developed to detect these otr genes in tetracycline-resistant (Tc-R) streptomycete isolates from

  6. Methods and significance of the combined detection of HER2 gene amplification and chemosensitivity in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang-Kun; Wang, Su-Nan; Li, Ying-Ying; Wang, Gong-Ping; Yun, Tian; Zhu, Chao-Ya; Yang, Bin-Feng; Li, Cong-Yang; Jiang, Bo; Zhu, Mei-Ling

    2018-02-06

    This study aims to investigate the significance of combined detection of HER2 gene amplification and chemosensitivity in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorescence reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to analyze the expression of HER2 protein, HER2 gene amplification and the mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS genes in 135 cases of gastric carcinoma. The expression rate of HER2 protein was 39.3% (53/135). Among these positive cases, patients with HER2 protein (3+) accounted for 9.6% (13/135), patients with HER2 protein (2+) accounted for 13.3% (18/135), and patients with HER2 protein (1+) accounted for 16.3% (22/135). The amplification rate of the HER2 gene was 35.8% (19/53). In the detection of the mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS, 45 patients had low and moderate single gene expression, 50 patients had low and moderate double gene expression, 22 patients had low and moderate mRNA expression for ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS, and 18 patients had no low and moderate expression. Among the 53 patients with HER2 protein expression and 22 patients with low and moderate mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS, 12 patients received chemotherapy and trastuzumab. Follow-up results revealed that HER2 gene status was positively correlated with the therapeutic effect of the combined treatment in patients with low mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS. Among these patients, five patients with extensive HER2 (3+), HER2 cluster-specific amplification, and low mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS had a total survival of up to 19.1 months. The detection of HER2 in gastric cancer is highly heterogeneity, and the combined detection of HER2 protein expression, HER2 gene amplification and chemosensitivity can provide important reference markers for the benefit of antitumor drugs.

  7. Sensitivity and Frequencies of Dystrophin Gene Mutations in Thai DMD/BMD Patients As Detected by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyachai Sura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, a lethal X-linked disease affecting 1 in 3500 male births, and its more benign variant, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Because of its large size, analysing the whole gene is impractical. Methods have been developed to detect the commonest mutations i.e. the deletions of the exons. Although these tests are highly specific, their sensitivity is inherently limited by the prevalence of deletions, which differs among different populations.

  8. Detection of virulence-associated genes of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cases of fowl cholera by multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Q. Furian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current systems of breeding poultry, based on high population density, increase the risk of spreading pathogens, especially those causing respiratory diseases and those that have more than one host. Fowl Cholera (FC is one such pathogen, and even though it represents one of several avian diseases that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of notifiable diseases that present with sudden death, the pathogenesis and virulence factors involved in FC are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate twelve genes related to virulence in 25 samples of Pasteurella multocida isolated from FC cases in the southern region of Brazil through the development of multiplex PCR protocols. The protocols developed were capable of detecting all of the proposed genes. The ompH, oma87, sodC, hgbA, hgbB, exBD-tonB and nanB genes were present in 100% of the samples (25/25, the sodA and nanH genes were present in 96% (24/25, ptfA was present in 92% (23/25, and pfhA was present in 60% (15/25. Gene toxA was not identified in any of the samples studied (0/25. Five different genetic profiles were obtained, of which P1 (negative to toxA was the most common. We concluded that the multiplex-PCR protocols could be useful tools for rapid and simultaneous detection of virulence genes. Despite the high frequency of the analyzed genes and the fact that all samples belonged to the same subspecies of P. multocida, five genetic profiles were observed, which should be confirmed in a study with a larger number of samples.

  9. Temperature-induced phase transitions for stuffed tridymites SrGa2O4 and CaGa2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fuwei; Jiang, Pengfei; Yue, Mufei; Gao, Wenliang; Cong, Rihong; Yang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Temperature-induced phase transitions for stuffed tridymite AGa2O4 (A = Sr, Ca) were investigated by experimental and theoretical calculations. A simple annealing of SrCO3 and Ga2O3 led to the formation of γ-SrGa2O4 (P21/n) below 1200 °C, and transform to β-SrGa2O4 (P21/c) when heated at 1200 °C. A similar phenomenon was found for CaGa2O4, and the temperature boundary between α-CaGa2O4 (Pna21) and the high temperature polymorph β-CaGa2O4 (P21/c) was about 1350 °C. Rietveld refinements provided detailed structural information for these polymorphs and suggest that the driving force of these phase transitions is the under-bonded nature of the alkaline earth cations. In other words, the need of larger space for Sr2+/Ca2+ in the high temperature β-phase forces the 6-membered-ring channel expand through increasing the Ga-O-Ga angles. Density functional theory calculations proved the formation energies for γ-SrGa2O4 and α-CaGa2O4 were both lower than their high temperature β-polymorphs, in accordance with the experimental observations.

  10. Candidate genes detected in transcriptome studies are strongly dependent on genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Sarup

    Full Text Available Whole genome transcriptomic studies can point to potential candidate genes for organismal traits. However, the importance of potential candidates is rarely followed up through functional studies and/or by comparing results across independent studies. We have analysed the overlap of candidate genes identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same genetic backgrounds. Putative candidates found using transcriptomics therefore appear very sensitive to genetic background and this can mask or override effects of treatments. The functional importance of putative candidate genes emerging from transcriptome studies needs to be validated through additional experiments and in future studies we suggest a focus on the genes, networks and pathways affecting traits in a consistent manner across backgrounds.

  11. Candidate Genes Detected in Transcriptome Studies are Strongly Dependent on Genetic Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2011-01-01

    identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same...... experiments and in future studies we suggest a focus on the genes, networks and pathways affecting traits in a consistent manner across backgrounds....

  12. Gene probes to detect cross-culture contamination in hormone producing cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuba, I; Lernmark, A; Madsen, Ole Dragsbæk

    1988-01-01

    sequence probe, BLUR, and lacked restriction fragment length polymorphism typical for the human HLA-DQ beta-chain gene. Although a human insulin gene probe showed a weak, nonhuman hybridization pattern, a cDNA probe for the Syrian hamster insulin gene hybridized strongly consistent with a single copy...... hamster insulin gene. Karyotyping confirmed the absence of human chromosomes in the Clone-16 cells while sizes, centromere indices, and banding patterns were identical to Syrian hamster fibroblasts. We conclude that the insulin-producing Clone-16 cells are of Syrian hamster origin and demonstrate...

  13. FuMa: reporting overlap in RNA-seq detected fusion genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogstrate, Youri; Böttcher, René; Hiltemann, Saskia; van der Spek, Peter J; Jenster, Guido; Stubbs, Andrew P

    2016-04-15

    A new generation of tools that identify fusion genes in RNA-seq data is limited in either sensitivity and or specificity. To allow further downstream analysis and to estimate performance, predicted fusion genes from different tools have to be compared. However, the transcriptomic context complicates genomic location-based matching. FusionMatcher (FuMa) is a program that reports identical fusion genes based on gene-name annotations. FuMa automatically compares and summarizes all combinations of two or more datasets in a single run, without additional programming necessary. FuMa uses one gene annotation, avoiding mismatches caused by tool-specific gene annotations. FuMa matches 10% more fusion genes compared with exact gene matching due to overlapping genes and accepts intermediate output files that allow a stepwise analysis of corresponding tools. The code is available at: https://github.com/ErasmusMC-Bioinformatics/fuma and available for Galaxy in the tool sheds and directly accessible at https://bioinf-galaxian.erasmusmc.nl/galaxy/ y.hoogstrate@erasmusmc.nl or a.stubbs@erasmusmc.nl Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Detection of oestrogenic chemicals by assaying the expression level of oestrogen regulated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M; Hummel, R; Bévort, M

    1998-01-01

    or the yeast E-screen, with methods that are based on mammalian cells or whole animals. An alternative is to assay gene expression directly by methods such as differential display, where the expression of both genes known to be regulated directly by the receptor and genes regulated by other pathways can...... by dimerisation and binding of their corresponding response elements. By interacting with the transcriptional apparatus they then either activate or repress the transcription of target genes. However, this is a highly simplified view, since the activated oestrogen receptor interacts with other signal transduction...

  15. Characterization of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in River Water by Simultaneous Detection and Sequencing of 14 Virulence Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Fujimori, Yuji; Harada, Hidenori; Matsui, Yasuto; Yoneda, Minoru

    2015-06-02

    The occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli in environmental waters increases the risk of waterborne disease. In this study, 14 virulence genes in 669 E. coli isolates (549 isolates from the Yamato River in Japan, and 30 isolates from each of the following hosts: humans, cows, pigs, and chickens) were simultaneously quantified by multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing to determine the prevalence of potentially pathogenic E. coli. Among the 549 environmental isolates, 64 (12%) were classified as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) while eight (1.5%) were classified as intestinal pathogenic E. coli (InPEC). Only ExPEC-associated genes were detected in human isolates and pig isolates, and 11 (37%) and five (17%) isolates were classified as ExPEC, respectively. A high proportion (63%) of cow isolates possessed Shiga-toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) and they were classified as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the chicken isolates, 14 (47%) possessed iutA, which is an ExPEC-associated gene. This method can determine the sequences as well as the presence/absence of virulence genes. By comparing the sequences of virulence genes, we determined that sequences of iutA were different among sources and may be useful for discriminating isolates, although further studies including larger numbers of isolates are needed. Results indicate that humans are a likely source of ExPEC strains in the river.

  16. Detection of selected antibiotic resistance genes using multiplex PCR assay in mastitis pathogens in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pyatov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of aminoglycoside (strA, strB, sulphonamide (sulI, sulII, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetK, tetM, tetO, macrolide and lincosamide (msrA, ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA/E genes of resistance in mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Applying the established assays, we investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the above mentioned species isolated from milk samples in the Czech Republic. Each assay consisted of seven pairs of primers. Six of them amplified fragments of antibiotic resistance genes and one pair a fragment of a species specific gene. Polymerase chain reaction conditions were optimized to amplify seven gene fragments simultaneously in one reaction. In total, 249 isolates were used, among which 111 were positive for E. coli, 52 for S. aureus and 86 for Streptococcus spp. The majority (60.2% of bacteria carried at least one antibiotic resistance gene and 44.6% were multidrug-resistant. The designed multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays may be applied as diagnostic method to replace or complement standard techniques of antibiotic susceptibility testing in the mentioned pathogens.

  17. Short communication: Detection of stx2 and elt genes in bovine milk by using a multiplex PCR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, R D S; Campos, A C; Puño-Sarmiento, J J; Maluta, R P; Rocha, S P D; Kobayashi, R K T; Nakazato, G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect 2 important toxin genes from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in bovine milk using a new multiplex PCR. To standardize the multiplex PCR, the stx2 and elt genes were investigated for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), respectively. The DNA template was prepared with a thermal procedure (boiling) and a commercial kit. Samples consisted of UHT and pasteurized milk, both skimmed, and STEC and ETEC were tested in concentrations between 10 1 and 10 9 cfu/mL. With the thermal procedure, the multiplex PCR system detected both pathotypes of E. coli at 10 9 cfu/mL in UHT and pasteurized milk. When the commercial kit was used for template preparation, STEC and ETEC could be detected at concentrations as low as 10 4 cfu/mL in UHT and pasteurized milk. Negative controls (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli strain APEC 13) were not amplified with the multiplex PCR. These results indicate that the multiplex PCR was a rapid (less than 6 h) and efficient method to detect STEC and ETEC in milk using different methods for DNA preparation; however, the commercial kit was more sensitive than the thermal procedure. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequence diversity in the glycoprotein B gene complicates real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Melinda B; Leman, Adam R; Meyer, Michelle E; Menegus, Marilyn A; Rothberg, Paul G

    2005-10-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR systems (Q-PCR) for the rapid detection and quantification of microorganisms in clinical specimens employ oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers and probes for specificity, which makes them vulnerable to false negatives caused by sequence diversity in the template. Schaade et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:3809, 2001) reported a sequence variant (C630T) in the cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B (gB) gene that, although detectable in their Q-PCR assay, could not be accurately quantified. In an effort to evaluate the impact of CMV sequence variants in our patient population by use of a similar Q-PCR assay, we surveyed 54 isolates of CMV, each from a different patient. We detected evidence for the C630T variant in 4 of 54 (7.4%) patients. Furthermore, isolates from two additional patients were completely negative in the test. Sequencing of these false-negative isolates revealed multiple mutations within the probe hybridization sites. A Q-PCR that targeted the CMV polymerase gene instead of gB detected all 54 isolates. We suggest that Q-PCR assays for viral load be rigorously tested on large panels of viral isolates to assess the impact of sequence diversity on detection as well as quantification.

  19. Horizontal transfer of archaeal genes into the deinococcaceae: detection by molecular and computer-based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendzenski, L.; Liu, L.; Zhaxybayeva, O.; Murphey, R.; Shin, D. G.; Gogarten, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the Deinococcaceae (e.g., Thermus, Meiothermus, Deinococcus) contain A/V-ATPases typically found in Archaea or Eukaryotes which were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Two methods were used to quantify the extent to which archaeal or eukaryotic genes have been acquired by this lineage. Screening of a Meiothermus ruber library with probes made against Thermoplasma acidophilum DNA yielded a number of clones which hybridized more strongly than background. One of these contained the prolyl tRNA synthetase (RS) gene. Phylogenetic analysis shows the M. ruber and D. radiodurans prolyl RS to be more closely related to archaeal and eukaryal forms of this gene than to the typical bacterial type. Using a bioinformatics approach, putative open reading frames (ORFs) from the prerelease version of the D. radiodurans genome were screened for genes more closely related to archaeal or eukaryotic genes. Putative ORFs were searched against representative genomes from each of the three domains using automated BLAST. ORFs showing the highest matches against archaeal and eukaryotic genes were collected and ranked. Among the top-ranked hits were the A/V-ATPase catalytic and noncatalytic subunits and the prolyl RS genes. Using phylogenetic methods, ORFs were analyzed and trees assessed for evidence of horizontal gene transfer. Of the 45 genes examined, 20 showed topologies in which D. radiodurans homologues clearly group with eukaryotic or archaeal homologues, and 17 additional trees were found to show probable evidence of horizontal gene transfer. Compared to the total number of ORFs in the genome, those that can be identified as having been acquired from Archaea or Eukaryotes are relatively few (approximately 1%), suggesting that interdomain transfer is rare.

  20. Evaluating the Detection of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB play a key role in the biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons in marine and other environments. A small number of taxa have been identified as obligate HCB, notably the Gammaproteobacterial genera Alcanivorax, Cycloclasticus, Marinobacter, Neptumonas, Oleiphilus, Oleispira, and Thalassolituus, as well as the Alphaproteobacterial genus Thalassospira. Detection of HCB in amplicon-based sequencing surveys relies on high coverage by PCR primers and accurate taxonomic classification. In this study, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to identify 16S rRNA gene sequence regions that represent the breadth of sequence diversity within these taxa. Using validated sequences, we evaluated 449 universal 16S rRNA gene-targeted bacterial PCR primer pairs for their coverage of these taxa. The results of this analysis provide a practical framework for selection of suitable primer sets for optimal detection of HCB in sequencing surveys.

  1. A Nonsynonymous SNP Catalog of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence Genes and Its Use for Detecting New Potentially Virulent Sublineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheecheva, Natalya E; Zaychikova, Marina V; Melerzanov, Alexander V; Danilenko, Valery N

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is divided into several distinct lineages, and various genetic markers such as IS-elements, VNTR, and SNPs are used for lineage identification. We propose an M. tuberculosis classification approach based on functional polymorphisms in virulence genes. An M. tuberculosis virulence genes catalog has been established, including 319 genes from various protein groups, such as proteases, cell wall proteins, fatty acid and lipid metabolism proteins, sigma factors, toxin-antitoxin systems. Another catalog of 1,573 M. tuberculosis isolates of different lineages has been developed. The developed SNP-calling program has identified 3,563 nonsynonymous SNPs. The constructed SNP-based phylogeny reflected the evolutionary relationship between lineages and detected new sublineages. SNP analysis of sublineage F15/LAM4/KZN revealed four lineage-specific mutations in cyp125, mce3B, vapC25, and vapB34. The Ural lineage has been divided into two geographical clusters based on different SNPs in virulence genes. A new sublineage, B0/N-90, was detected inside the Beijing-B0/W-148 by SNPs in irtB, mce3F and vapC46. We have found 27 members of B0/N-90 among the 227 available genomes of the Beijing-B0/W-148 sublineage. Whole-genome sequencing of strain B9741, isolated from an HIV-positive patient, was demonstrated to belong to the new B0/N-90 group. A primer set for PCR detection of B0/N-90 lineage-specific mutations has been developed. The prospective use of mce3 mutant genes as genetically engineered vaccine is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Detecting selection in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, using DNA sequence data from multiple nuclear protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yednock, Bree K; Neigel, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes involved in the adaptive evolution of non-model organisms with uncharacterized genomes constitutes a major challenge. This study employed a rigorous and targeted candidate gene approach to test for positive selection on protein-coding genes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Four genes with putative roles in physiological adaptation to environmental stress were chosen as candidates. A fifth gene not expected to play a role in environmental adaptation was used as a control. Large samples (n>800) of DNA sequences from C. sapidus were used in tests of selective neutrality based on sequence polymorphisms. In combination with these, sequences from the congener C. similis were used in neutrality tests based on interspecific divergence. In multiple tests, significant departures from neutral expectations and indicative of positive selection were found for the candidate gene trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (tps). These departures could not be explained by any of the historical population expansion or bottleneck scenarios that were evaluated in coalescent simulations. Evidence was also found for balancing selection at ATP-synthase subunit 9 (atps) using a maximum likelihood version of the Hudson, Kreitmen, and Aguadé test, and positive selection favoring amino acid replacements within ATP/ADP translocase (ant) was detected using the McDonald-Kreitman test. In contrast, test statistics for the control gene, ribosomal protein L12 (rpl), which presumably has experienced the same demographic effects as the candidate loci, were not significantly different from neutral expectations and could readily be explained by demographic effects. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of the candidate gene approach for investigating adaptation at the molecular level in a marine invertebrate for which extensive genomic resources are not available.

  3. Detecting selection in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, using DNA sequence data from multiple nuclear protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bree K Yednock

    Full Text Available The identification of genes involved in the adaptive evolution of non-model organisms with uncharacterized genomes constitutes a major challenge. This study employed a rigorous and targeted candidate gene approach to test for positive selection on protein-coding genes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Four genes with putative roles in physiological adaptation to environmental stress were chosen as candidates. A fifth gene not expected to play a role in environmental adaptation was used as a control. Large samples (n>800 of DNA sequences from C. sapidus were used in tests of selective neutrality based on sequence polymorphisms. In combination with these, sequences from the congener C. similis were used in neutrality tests based on interspecific divergence. In multiple tests, significant departures from neutral expectations and indicative of positive selection were found for the candidate gene trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (tps. These departures could not be explained by any of the historical population expansion or bottleneck scenarios that were evaluated in coalescent simulations. Evidence was also found for balancing selection at ATP-synthase subunit 9 (atps using a maximum likelihood version of the Hudson, Kreitmen, and Aguadé test, and positive selection favoring amino acid replacements within ATP/ADP translocase (ant was detected using the McDonald-Kreitman test. In contrast, test statistics for the control gene, ribosomal protein L12 (rpl, which presumably has experienced the same demographic effects as the candidate loci, were not significantly different from neutral expectations and could readily be explained by demographic effects. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of the candidate gene approach for investigating adaptation at the molecular level in a marine invertebrate for which extensive genomic resources are not available.

  4. GeneScissors: a comprehensive approach to detecting and correcting spurious transcriptome inference owing to RNA-seq reads misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Huang, Shunping; Wang, Jack; Zhang, Xiang; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; McMillan, Leonard; Wang, Wei

    2013-07-01

    RNA-seq techniques provide an unparalleled means for exploring a transcriptome with deep coverage and base pair level resolution. Various analysis tools have been developed to align and assemble RNA-seq data, such as the widely used TopHat/Cufflinks pipeline. A common observation is that a sizable fraction of the fragments/reads align to multiple locations of the genome. These multiple alignments pose substantial challenges to existing RNA-seq analysis tools. Inappropriate treatment may result in reporting spurious expressed genes (false positives) and missing the real expressed genes (false negatives). Such errors impact the subsequent analysis, such as differential expression analysis. In our study, we observe that ~3.5% of transcripts reported by TopHat/Cufflinks pipeline correspond to annotated nonfunctional pseudogenes. Moreover, ~10.0% of reported transcripts are not annotated in the Ensembl database. These genes could be either novel expressed genes or false discoveries. We examine the underlying genomic features that lead to multiple alignments and investigate how they generate systematic errors in RNA-seq analysis. We develop a general tool, GeneScissors, which exploits machine learning techniques guided by biological knowledge to detect and correct spurious transcriptome inference by existing RNA-seq analysis methods. In our simulated study, GeneScissors can predict spurious transcriptome calls owing to misalignment with an accuracy close to 90%. It provides substantial improvement over the widely used TopHat/Cufflinks or MapSplice/Cufflinks pipelines in both precision and F-measurement. On real data, GeneScissors reports 53.6% less pseudogenes and 0.97% more expressed and annotated transcripts, when compared with the TopHat/Cufflinks pipeline. In addition, among the 10.0% unannotated transcripts reported by TopHat/Cufflinks, GeneScissors finds that >16.3% of them are false positives. The software can be downloaded at http

  5. Detection of bacterial blight resistant gene xa5 using linked marker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Xoo) decreases rice production by 20 – 30% and up to about 90% loss of grain weight. xa5 is an important recessive bacterial blight resistant gene, which is effective and important in Asian rice breeding program. It was also used in combination by incorporation with various recessive and dominant BB resistant genes.

  6. Identification of shiga toxin and intimin genes in Escherichia coli detected from canary (Serinus canaria domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

    2014-09-01

    The pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains is, in large part, due to shiga toxin (Stx) genes (Stx1 and Stx2) and/or intimin (eae) gene. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of domestic canaries (Serinus canaria domestica) as a reservoir of Stx and intimin producing strains of E. coli. For this study, a total of 50 cloacal swabs were collected from 50 healthy domestic canaries. Cloacal swabs were cultured and tested using standard methods of microbiology. After primary identification of E. coli, DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for Stx1, Stx2 and eae genes. In this study, three of 50 samples were found to be Stx2 positive. In the present study, nine (18%) of 50 canaries tested were positive for eae gene. Only 2% of total canaries tested were positive for simultaneous Stx and eae genes. By considering the presence of Stx genes in E. coli isolated from cloacal contents of canary, this hypothesis expressed that the canaries may be the carriers of virulence genes that can risk human health. Canary was considered to be a reservoir of Stx and intimin genes and make these birds important vehicles for the spread of zoonosis infection. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengxi Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated and 84 (downregulated genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates.

  8. Detection of bacterial blight resistant gene xa5 using linked marker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... 5, (having xa5 gene) and IR-24 (with no xa5 gene) were grown in pots at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic. Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad. Total genomic DNA extraction. Total genomic DNA was extracted using young leaves at seedling stage as described by Dellaporta et al. (1983).

  9. Ultrafiltration and Microarray for Detection of Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J.; Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to c...

  10. A highly selective G-quadruplex-based luminescent switch-on probe for the detection of gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-10-04

    A G-quadruplex-based switch-on luminescence assay has been developed for the detection of gene deletion using a cyclometallated iridium(III) complex as a G-quadruplex-selective probe. Upon hybridization with the target DNA, the two split G-quadruplex-forming sequences assemble into a split G-quadruplex, which greatly enhances the luminescence emission of the iridium(III) probe. The assay is simple and highly selective.

  11. Label-free colorimetric detection of cancer related gene based on two-step amplification of molecular machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huo; Wu, Dong; Li, Chen-Qiao; Lu, Zheng; Liao, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Jie; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2017-04-15

    Highly sensitive detection of K-ras gene is of great significance in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Here, we developed a colorimetric biosensing system for the detection of proto-oncogene K-ras based on enhanced amplification effect of DNA molecular machine, where dual isothermal circular strand-displacement amplification (D-SDA) occurs on two arms in one-to-one correspondence. Specifically, we designed a primer-locked hairpin probe (HP) and a primer-contained linear polymerization template (PPT). In the presence of target gene, HP can hybridize with PPT, forming a DNA molecular machine with dual functional arms (called DFA-machine). Each of the two probes in this machine is able to be extended by polymerase on its counterpart species. Moreover, with the help of nicking endonuclease, the dual isothermal polymerization is converted into dual circular strand-displacement amplification, generating a large amount of anti-hemin aptamer-contained products. After binding to hemins, the aptamer/hemin duplex, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme, was formed and catalyzed the oxidation of colorless ABTS by H 2 O 2 , producing a visible green color. The proposed colorimetric assay exhibits a wide linear range from 0.01 to 150nM with a low detection limit of 10pM. More interestingly, the mutations existing in target gene are easily observed by the naked eye. It should be noted that this colorimetric system was proved by the analysis of K-ras gene of SW620 cell lines. The simple and powerful DFA-machine is expected to provide promising potential in the sensitive detection of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Gut Microbial Community of Antarctic Fish Detected by 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Wei; Li, Lingzhi; Huang, Hongliang; Jiang, Keji; Zhang, Fengying; Chen, Xuezhong; Zhao, Ming; Ma, Lingbo

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities are highly relevant to the digestion, nutrition, growth, reproduction, and a range of fitness in fish, but little is known about the gut microbial community in Antarctic fish. In this study, the composition of intestinal microbial community in four species of Antarctic fish was detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As a result, 1 004 639 sequences were obtained from 13 samples identified into 36 phyla and 804 genera, in which Proteobacteria, Actinobacter...

  13. ارتباط حضور ژن cagA در عفونت هليكوباكتر پيلوري با بيماريهای گاستريت و زخمهای دئودنال و آدنوکارسينومای Correlation of cagA positive Helicobacter pylori Infection with clinical outcomes in Alzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei

    2008-08-01

    اد که بين ژنوتيپ cagA و سن، ميزان تحصيلات، محل سکونت و مثبت بودن تست اوره­آز سريع، رابطه معنی داری وجود نداشت(pvalue>0.05. ولی بين سن و بيماری آدنوکارسينوما ارتباط معنی داری وجود داشت.  (pvalue>0.05

    • BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori causes chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, non-cardia gastric cancer and mucosal– associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. Different genotypes of  Helicobacter pylori are confirmed from disease geographical areas. Its association with clinical disease remained controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of the cagA genotype of Helicobacter pylori isolates with clinical manifestations and its relation to age and sex of patients.
    • METHODS: A total of 100 patients (60 male and 40 female biopsy specimens were obtained from 3 groups of patients (40 chronic active gastritis, 40 duodenal ulcers and 20 non-gastric gastric cancers. Biopsies were cultured on specific medium and after growth colonies were confirmed as Helicobacter pylori. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to detect the presence or absence of cagA gene.>
    • RESULTS: From a total of 100

    • Detection of OXA-Type Carbapenemase Genes in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Nosocomial Infections in Isfahan Hospitals, Iran

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vajihe Karbasizade

      2016-02-01

      Full Text Available "> Background: Acinetobacter baumannii as one of the causes of nosocomial infections has becomeresistant to almost all antimicrobial agents. The emergence of resistance to carbapenems, one ofthe last drugs on the shelf, is the major concern about A. baumannii antimicrobial resistance.Resistance to carbapenems is mediated by production of class B and D carbapenemases. The aimof this study was to detect the resistance genes including blaOXA-23, 24, 51, and 58 in A. baumanniiisolates from nosocomial infections in Isfahan hospitals.Methods: A total number of 456 clinical specimens were collected from nosocomial infections andevaluated in order to isolate A. baumannii strains. After identification of the isolates, the antibioticsensitivity to carbapenems was assessed using disk diffusion method. The resistance genes of blaOXA-23, 24, 51, and 58 were detected by multiplex PCR method.Results: Fifty A. baumannii isolates were isolated from clinical specimens. Fifty two percent ofthe isolates showed phenotypic resistance to the carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem.According to PCR results, 88% of resistant isolates had ≥1 blaOXA gene. The frequency of resistantisolates bearing blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58 were 77%, 38% and 15% respectively.Conclusions: This study showed the high frequency of carbapenem resistance genes among A.baumannii isolates. Therefore, adopting an appropriate strategy to confine the spreading of thesestrains and also implementing new treatment regimens are necessary.

    • The thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Sequence variation and implications for detection and function.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nilsson, William B; Turner, Jeffrey W

      2016-07-01

      Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of bacterial food-related illness associated with the consumption of undercooked seafood. Only a small subset of strains is pathogenic. Most clinical strains encode for the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or the TDH-related hemolysin (TRH). In this work, we amplify and sequence the trh gene from over 80 trh+strains of this bacterium and identify thirteen genetically distinct alleles, most of which have not been deposited in GenBank previously. Sequence data was used to design new primers for more reliable detection of trh by endpoint PCR. We also designed a new quantitative PCR assay to target a more conserved gene that is genetically-linked to trh. This gene, ureR, encodes the transcriptional regulator for the urease gene cluster immediately upstream of trh. We propose that this ureR assay can be a useful screening tool as a surrogate for direct detection of trh that circumvents challenges associated with trh sequence variation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    • Construction of a marker rescue system in Bacillus subtilis for detection of horizontal gene transfer in food.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kharazmi, Mitra; Hammes, Walter P; Hertel, Christian

      2002-12-01

      A marker rescue system based on the repair of the kanamycin resistance gene nptII was constructed for use in Gram-positive bacteria and established in Bacillus subtilis 168. Marker rescue was detected in vitro using different types of donor DNA containing intact nptII. The efficiency of marker rescue using chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure as well as plasmids pMR2 or pSR8-30 ranged from 3.8 x 10(-8) to 1.5 x 10(-9) transformants per nptII gene. Low efficiencies of ca. 10(-12) were obtained with PCR fragments of 792 bp obtained from chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure or DNA from a transgenic potato. B. subtilis developed competence during growth in milk and chocolate milk, and marker rescue transformation was detected with frequencies of ca. 10(-6) and 10(-8), respectively, using chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure as donor DNA. Although the copy number of nptII genes of the plant DNA exceeded that of chromosomal E. coli DNA in the marker rescue experiments, a transfer of DNA from the transgenic plant to B. subtilis was detectable neither in vitro nor in situ.

    • Detection and Diversity of Fungal Nitric Oxide Reductase Genes (p450nor) in Agricultural Soils.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Higgins, Steven A; Welsh, Allana; Orellana, Luis H; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Chee-Sanford, Joanne C; Sanford, Robert A; Schadt, Christopher W; Löffler, Frank E

      2016-05-15

      Members of the Fungi convert nitrate (NO3 (-)) and nitrite (NO2 (-)) to gaseous nitrous oxide (N2O) (denitrification), but the fungal contributions to N loss from soil remain uncertain. Cultivation-based methodologies that include antibiotics to selectively assess fungal activities have limitations, and complementary molecular approaches to assign denitrification potential to fungi are desirable. Microcosms established with soils from two representative U.S. Midwest agricultural regions produced N2O from added NO3 (-) or NO2 (-) in the presence of antibiotics to inhibit bacteria. Cultivation efforts yielded 214 fungal isolates belonging to at least 15 distinct morphological groups, 151 of which produced N2O from NO2 (-) Novel PCR primers targeting the p450nor gene, which encodes the nitric oxide (NO) reductase responsible for N2O production in fungi, yielded 26 novel p450nor amplicons from DNA of 37 isolates and 23 amplicons from environmental DNA obtained from two agricultural soils. The sequences shared 54 to 98% amino acid identity with reference P450nor sequences within the phylum Ascomycota and expand the known fungal P450nor sequence diversity. p450nor was detected in all fungal isolates that produced N2O from NO2 (-), whereas nirK (encoding the NO-forming NO2 (-) reductase) was amplified in only 13 to 74% of the N2O-forming isolates using two separate nirK primer sets. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the value of p450nor-targeted PCR to complement existing approaches to assess the fungal contributions to denitrification and N2O formation. A comprehensive understanding of the microbiota controlling soil N loss and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions is crucial for sustainable agricultural practices and addressing climate change concerns. We report the design and application of a novel PCR primer set targeting fungal p450nor, a biomarker for fungal N2O production, and demonstrate the utility of the new approach to assess fungal denitrification potential in

    • Development of a novel multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of virulence associated genes of Pasteurella multocida from pigs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rajkhowa, S

      2015-09-01

      As the pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida is associated with various virulence factors (VFs), the aim of the study was to develop a novel multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay for the rapid detection of important virulence associated genes (VAGs) of P. multocida isolates from pigs. The target recognized VFs used in the study were diverse adhesins (ptfA and pfhA), toxins (toxA), siderophores (tonB and hgbA), sialidases (nanB, nanH) and outer membrane proteins (ompA, ompH, oma87 and plpB). The primers for the genes encoding these VFs were designed by primer3 software (http://bioinfo.ut.ee/primer3-0.4.0/) using gene sequences available in Genbank. The detection limit of the developed assay was 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) . The m-PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against Bordetella bronchiseptica which also commonly infects pigs. We applied m-PCR to the field samples, and the results obtained were the same as the single PCR results. The developed assay would be very useful for veterinary diagnostic laboratories and for others interested in the rapid virulence profiling of porcine P. multocida isolates circulating in the piggeries. The study reports the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of 11 important VAGs of Pasteurella multocida isolates from pigs. Rapid and simultaneous detection of recognized VFs of the organism are essential to know the virulo-types of P. multocida isolates circulating in the piggeries. The developed novel assay will be very useful for the rapid detection of VAGs of P. multocida isolates from pigs. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

    • Detection of 140 clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes in the plasmid metagenome of wastewater treatment plant bacteria showing reduced susceptibility to selected antibiotics.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Szczepanowski, Rafael; Linke, Burkhard; Krahn, Irene; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Gützkow, Tim; Eichler, Wolfgang; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

      2009-07-01

      To detect plasmid-borne antibiotic-resistance genes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bacteria, 192 resistance-gene-specific PCR primer pairs were designed and synthesized. Subsequent PCR analyses on total plasmid DNA preparations obtained from bacteria of activated sludge or the WWTP's final effluents led to the identification of, respectively, 140 and 123 different resistance-gene-specific amplicons. The genes detected included aminoglycoside, beta-lactam, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, macrolide, rifampicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfonamide resistance genes as well as multidrug efflux and small multidrug resistance genes. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and WWTP bacteria. Sequencing of selected resistance-gene-specific amplicons confirmed their identity or revealed that the amplicon nucleotide sequence is very similar to a gene closely related to the reference gene used for primer design. These results demonstrate that WWTP bacteria are a reservoir for various resistance genes. Moreover, detection of about 64 % of the 192 reference resistance genes in bacteria obtained from the WWTP's final effluents indicates that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant.

    • A validated gene expression profile for detecting clinical outcome in breast cancer using artificial neural networks.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lancashire, L J; Powe, D G; Reis-Filho, J S; Rakha, E; Lemetre, C; Weigelt, B; Abdel-Fatah, T M; Green, A R; Mukta, R; Blamey, R; Paish, E C; Rees, R C; Ellis, I O; Ball, G R

      2010-02-01

      Gene expression microarrays allow for the high throughput analysis of huge numbers of gene transcripts and this technology has been widely applied to the molecular and biological classification of cancer patients and in predicting clinical outcome. A potential handicap of such data intensive molecular technologies is the translation to clinical application in routine practice. In using an artificial neural network bioinformatic approach, we have reduced a 70 gene signature to just 9 genes capable of accurately predicting distant metastases in the original dataset. Upon validation in a follow-up cohort, this signature was an independent predictor of metastases free and overall survival in the presence of the 70 gene signature and other factors. Interestingly, the ANN signature and CA9 expression also split the groups defined by the 70 gene signature into prognostically distinct groups. Subsequently, the presence of protein for the principal prognosticator gene was categorically assessed in breast cancer tissue of an experimental and independent validation patient cohort, using immunohistochemistry. Importantly our principal prognosticator, CA9, showed that it is capable of selecting an aggressive subgroup of patients who are known to have poor prognosis.

  1. Phylogenomic detection and functional prediction of genes potentially important for plant meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoyan; Kong, Hongzhi; Ma, Hong; Yang, Ji

    2018-02-15

    Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. A better understanding of the cytological procedures of meiosis has been achieved by comprehensive cytogenetic studies in plants, while the genetic mechanisms regulating meiotic progression remain incompletely understood. The increasing accumulation of complete genome sequences and large-scale gene expression datasets has provided a powerful resource for phylogenomic inference and unsupervised identification of genes involved in plant meiosis. By integrating sequence homology and expression data, 164, 131, 124 and 162 genes potentially important for meiosis were identified in the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Selaginella moellendorffii and Pogonatum aloides, respectively. The predicted genes were assigned to 45 meiotic GO terms, and their functions were related to different processes occurring during meiosis in various organisms. Most of the predicted meiotic genes underwent lineage-specific duplication events during plant evolution, with about 30% of the predicted genes retaining only a single copy in higher plant genomes. The results of this study provided clues to design experiments for better functional characterization of meiotic genes in plants, promoting the phylogenomic approach to the evolutionary dynamics of the plant meiotic machineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of differentially expressed genes in healing mouse corneas, using cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyi; Wu, Helen K; Bruce, Amenda; Wollenberg, Kurt; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2002-09-01

    To identify differentially expressed genes in healing mouse corneas by using cDNA microarrays. Transepithelial excimer laser ablations were performed on mouse corneas, and the wounds were allowed to heal partially in vivo for 18 to 22 hours. Total RNA was isolated from both normal and healing corneas and was used for synthesis of cDNA probes. 33P-labeled exponential cDNA probes were hybridized to mouse cDNA nylon arrays. Of the 1176 genes on the nylon arrays, the expression of 37 was upregulated and that of 27 was downregulated more than fivefold in the healing corneas compared with the normal, uninjured corneas. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, laminin-5, and thrombospondin-1, which have been shown to be upregulated in healing corneas, were all found to be induced in the corneas in response to excimer laser treatment. Many genes were identified for the first time to be differentially regulated during corneal wound healing. Among the upregulated genes were intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, macrophage inflammatory proteins, suppressors of cytokine signaling proteins (SOCS), IL-10 receptor, and galectin-7. Among the downregulated genes were connexin-31, a gap junction protein; ZO1 and occludin, tight junction proteins; and Smad2, a key component in the TGFbeta signaling pathway. Microarray data were validated on a limited number of genes by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Gene array technology was used to identify for the first time many genes that are differentially regulated during corneal wound healing. These differentially expressed genes have not previously been investigated in the context of wound healing and represent novel factors for further study of the mechanism of wound healing.

  3. Detection of RTX toxin genes in gram-negative bacteria with a set of specific probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnert, P; Heyberger-Meyer, B; Burnens, A P; Nicolet, J; Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The family of RTX (RTX representing repeats in the structural toxin) toxins is composed of several protein toxins with a characteristic nonapeptide glycine-rich repeat motif. Most of its members were shown to have cytolytic activity. By comparing the genetic relationships of the RTX toxin genes we established a set of 10 gene probes to be used for screening as-yet-unknown RTX toxin genes in bacterial species. The probes include parts of apxIA, apxIIA, and apxIIIA from Actinobacillus pleuropne...

  4. DNA probes for detection of copper resistance genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, S.; Bender, C.L. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1991-08-01

    The copper resistance (Cu{sup r}) genes encoded on pXV10A, a 190-kb plasmid in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria XV10, were isolated on a 44-kb cosmid clone designated pCuR1. Tn5 mutagenesis of pCuR1 indicated that a 4.0-kb region was required for copper resistance. Three restriction fragments located within the 4.0-kb region demonstrated high specificity for the Cu{sup r} genes present in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and will be useful in monitoring the presence of these genes in the environment.

  5. DNA probes for detection of copper resistance genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    OpenAIRE

    Garde, S; Bender, C L

    1991-01-01

    The copper resistance (Cur) genes encoded on pXV10A, a 190-kb plasmid in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria XV10, were isolated on a 44-kb cosmid clone designated pCuR1. Tn5 mutagenesis of pCuR1 indicated that a 4.0-kb region was required for copper resistance. Three restriction fragments located within the 4.0-kb region demonstrated high specificity for the Cur genes present in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and will be useful in monitoring the presence of these genes in the environment.

  6. DNA probes for detection of copper resistance genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, S; Bender, C L

    1991-08-01

    The copper resistance (Cur) genes encoded on pXV10A, a 190-kb plasmid in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria XV10, were isolated on a 44-kb cosmid clone designated pCuR1. Tn5 mutagenesis of pCuR1 indicated that a 4.0-kb region was required for copper resistance. Three restriction fragments located within the 4.0-kb region demonstrated high specificity for the Cur genes present in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and will be useful in monitoring the presence of these genes in the environment.

  7. Comparison of Chromogenic Media to BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nasal Swabs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Larry J.; Lapsley, Linda; Fontecchio, Karen; Jacosalem, Dollie; Young, Carol; Hankerd, Rosemary; Newton, Duane W.

    2009-01-01

    To select a method for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal swabs, we compared BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR and various culture media (mannitol salt agar with cefoxitin, MRSASelect, CHROMagar MRSA, and Spectra MRSA). While PCR detection of MRSA was more rapid, MRSASelect and Spectra MRSA demonstrated performance equivalent to that of PCR with maximal detection at 24 h.

  8. Helicobacter pylori-induced posttranscriptional regulation of H-K-ATPase α-subunit gene expression by miRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Mei; Noto, Jennifer M; Hammond, Charles E; Barth, Jeremy L; Argraves, W Scott; Backert, Steffen; Peek, Richard M; Smolka, Adam J

    2014-04-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells induces CagA oncoprotein- and peptidoglycan (SLT)-dependent mobilization of NF-κB p50 homodimers that bind to H-K-ATPase α-subunit (HKα) promoter and repress HKα gene transcription. This process may facilitate gastric H. pylori colonization by induction of transient hypochlorhydria. We hypothesized that H. pylori also regulates HKα expression posttranscriptionally by miRNA interaction with HKα mRNA. In silico analysis of the HKα 3' untranslated region (UTR) identified miR-1289 as a highly conserved putative HKα-regulatory miRNA. H. pylori infection of AGS cells transfected with HKα 3' UTR-Luc reporter construct repressed luciferase activity by 70%, whereas ΔcagA or Δslt H. pylori infections partially abrogated repression. Transfection of AGS cells expressing HKα 3' UTR-Luc construct with an oligoribonucleotide mimetic of miR-1289 induced maximal repression (54%) of UTR activity within 30 min; UTR activity was unchanged by nontargeting siRNA transfection. Gastric biopsies from patients infected with cagA(+) H. pylori showed a significant increase in miR-1289 expression compared with uninfected patients or those infected with cagA(-) H. pylori. Finally, miR-1289 expression was necessary and sufficient to attenuate biopsy HKα protein expression in the absence of infection. Taken together, these data indicate that miR-1289 is upregulated by H. pylori in a CagA- and SLT-dependent manner and targets HKα 3' UTR, affecting HKα mRNA translation. The sensitivity of HKα mRNA 3' UTR to binding of miR-1289 identifies a novel regulatory mechanism of gastric acid secretion and offers new insights into mechanisms underlying transient H. pylori-induced hypochlorhydria.

  9. Spectral Analysis on Time-Course Expression Data: Detecting Periodic Genes Using a Real-Valued Iterative Adaptive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo S. Agyepong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-course expression profiles and methods for spectrum analysis have been applied for detecting transcriptional periodicities, which are valuable patterns to unravel genes associated with cell cycle and circadian rhythm regulation. However, most of the proposed methods suffer from restrictions and large false positives to a certain extent. Additionally, in some experiments, arbitrarily irregular sampling times as well as the presence of high noise and small sample sizes make accurate detection a challenging task. A novel scheme for detecting periodicities in time-course expression data is proposed, in which a real-valued iterative adaptive approach (RIAA, originally proposed for signal processing, is applied for periodogram estimation. The inferred spectrum is then analyzed using Fisher’s hypothesis test. With a proper -value threshold, periodic genes can be detected. A periodic signal, two nonperiodic signals, and four sampling strategies were considered in the simulations, including both bursts and drops. In addition, two yeast real datasets were applied for validation. The simulations and real data analysis reveal that RIAA can perform competitively with the existing algorithms. The advantage of RIAA is manifested when the expression data are highly irregularly sampled, and when the number of cycles covered by the sampling time points is very reduced.

  10. Sensitive Detection of Francisella tularensis Directly from Whole Blood by Use of the GeneXpert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banada, Padmapriya P; Deshpande, Srinidhi; Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Russo, Riccardo; Occi, James; Meister, Gabriel; Jones, Kelly J; Gelhaus, Carl H; Valderas, Michelle W; Jones, Martin; Connell, Nancy; Alland, David

    2017-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a potential bioterrorism agent that is highly infectious at very low doses. Diagnosis of tularemia by blood culture and nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests is insufficiently sensitive. Here, we demonstrate a highly sensitive F. tularensis assay that incorporates sample processing and detection into a single cartridge suitable for point-of-care detection. The assay limit of detection (LOD) and dynamic range were determined in a filter-based cartridge run on the GeneXpert system. F. tularensis DNA in buffer or CFU of F. tularensis was spiked into human or macaque blood. To simulate detection in human disease, the assay was tested on blood drawn from macaques infected with F. tularensis Schu S4 at daily intervals. Assay detection was compared to that with a conventional quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay and blood culture. The assay LOD was 0.1 genome equivalents (GE) per reaction and 10 CFU/ml F. tularensis in both human and macaque blood. In infected macaques, the assay detected F. tularensis on days 1 to 4 postinfection in 21%, 17%, 60%, and 83% of macaques, respectively, compared to conventional qPCR positivity rates of 0%, 0%, 30%, and 100% and CFU detection of blood culture at 0%, 0%, 0%, and 10% positive, respectively. Assay specificity was 100%. The new cartridge-based assay can rapidly detect F. tularensis in bloodstream infections directly in whole blood at the early stages of infection with a sensitivity that is superior to that of other methods. The simplicity of the automated testing procedures may make this test suitable for rapid point-of-care detection. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. [Detection of TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations among patients with tuberous sclerosis complex by Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguo; Lin, Ying; Luo, Chunyu; Liang, Dong; Ji, Xiuqing; Jiang, Tao; Ma, Dingyuan; Xu, Zhengfeng

    2016-04-01

    To develop and validate a method for mutation screening and prenatal diagnosis of TSC1/TSC2 mutations among patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) by Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing. Potential mutations of SC1/TSC2 gene was detected in 2 TSC families and 1 sporadic TSC patient using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. Candidate variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. The corresponding site of TSC2 in the fetus of family 2 was also detected with Sanger sequencing. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing has identified a probably pathogenic TSC2 mutation (c.311-312insGCTG) in the patient from family 1, and a probably pathogenic TSC2 mutation (c.1790A>G) in the patient of family 2. Targeted Ion Torrent PGM sequencing is an accurate and efficient method to detect TSC1/TSC2 mutations in TSC.

  12. Next generation sequencing approach for detecting 491 fusion genes from human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Kenichi; Shimoda, Yuji; Ohshima, Keiichi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Serizawa, Masakuni; Tanabe, Tomoe; Saito, Junko; Usui, Tamiko; Watanabe, Yuko; Naruoka, Akane; Ohnami, Sumiko; Ohnami, Shumpei; Mochizuki, Tohru; Kusuhara, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) of the genomes of cancer cells is contributing to new discoveries that illuminate the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. To this end, the International Cancer Genome Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas are investigating novel alterations of genes that will define the pathways and mechanisms of the development and growth of cancers. These efforts contribute to the development of innovative pharmaceuticals as well as to the introduction of genome sequencing as a component of personalized medicine. In particular, chromosomal translocations that fuse coding sequences serve as important pharmaceutical targets and diagnostic markers given their association with tumorigenesis. Although increasing numbers of fusion genes are being discovered using NGS, the methodology used to identify such fusion genes is complicated, expensive, and requires relatively large samples. Here, to address these problems, we describe the design and development of a panel of 491 fusion genes that performed well in the analysis of cultured human cancer cell lines and 600 clinical tumor specimens.

  13. Detection of enteric Adenoviruses in South-African waters using gene probes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene probes developed locally for both enteric Adenoviruses 40 and 41 were used to determine whether these viruses were present in both raw and treated waters. Approximately sixty water samples were concentrated by ultra filtration and analysed...

  14. Detection and Preliminary Analysis of Motifs in Promoters of Anaerobically Induced Genes of Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Krishnan, S. P. T.; Swarup, Sanjay; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants can suffer from oxygen limitation during flooding or more complete submergence and may therefore switch from Kreb's cycle respiration to fermentation in association with the expression of anaerobically inducible genes coding for enzymes involved in glycolysis and fermentation. The aim of this study was to clarify mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of these anaerobic genes by identifying motifs shared by their promoter regions.

  15. Development of PCR assays to detect ampicillin resistance genes in cerebrospinal fluid samples containing Haemophilus influenzae.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenover, F C; Huang, M B; Rasheed, J K; Persing, D H

    1994-01-01

    We developed PCR primers specific for the blaTEM and blaROB ampicillin resistance genes. The specificity of the primers was confirmed by testing a series of Escherichia coli isolates containing a variety of ampicillin resistance genes and a series of ampicillin-resistant and ampicillin-susceptible Haemophilus influenzae isolates. There was a perfect correlation between ampicillin MICs, the presence of beta-lactamase (as determined by the nitrocefin test), and the results with the blaTEM and b...

  16. Detection of interruptions in the GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FXN gene of Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Timothy P; Rowley, Simone M; Delatycki, Martin B; Sarsero, Joseph P

    2011-03-01

    Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a GAA trinucleotide repeat sequence within the first intron of the FXN gene. Interruptions in the GAA repeat may serve to alleviate the inhibitory effects of the GAA expansion on FXN gene expression and to decrease pathogenicity. We have developed a simple and rapid PCR- and restriction enzyme-based assay to assess the purity of GAA repeat sequences.

  17. Survey and rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples targeting the rcsA gene in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong eDong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a wide-spread nosocomial pathogen. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of K. pneumoniae in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In this study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulating gene rcsA from K. pneumoniae in clinical samples by using two methods including real-time turbidity monitoring and fluorescence detection to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of K. pneumoniae strains was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospitals in Beijing, China. The results showed that the detection limit of the LAMP method was 0.115 pg/µl DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (61°C, a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared with conventional PCR. All 30 non- K. pneumoniae strains tested were negative for LAMP detection, indicating the high specificity of the LAMP reaction. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay to clinical diagnosis, of 110 clinical sputum samples collected from ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections in China, a total of 32 K. pneumoniae isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of rcsA. All isolates belonged to nine different K. pneumoniae multilocus sequence typing (MLST groups. Strikingly, of the 32 K. pneumoniae strains, 18 contained the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC-encoding gene blaKPC-2 and had high resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, K. pneumoniae WJ-64 was discovered to contain blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 genes simultaneously in the isolate. Our data showed the high prevalence of blaKPC-2 among K. pneumoniae and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal a rapid and continuing evolution of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive visual K. pneumoniae detection LAMP assay, which could be a useful tool for clinical screening

  18. High Resolution Melting Analysis for Detecting p53 Gene Mutations in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer