WorldWideScience

Sample records for cag-pathogenicity island-dependent early

  1. Distinct Diversity of the cag Pathogenicity Island among Helicobacter pylori Strains in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Akiyo; Yamazaki, Shiho; Ohtani, Masahiro; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Muramatsu, Atsushi; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Yukinao; Keida, Yoshihide; Higashi, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    The severity of Helicobacter pylori-related disease is correlated with the presence of a cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Genetic diversity within the cag PAI may have a modifying effect on the pathogenic potential of the infecting strain. We analyzed the complete cag PAI sequences of 11 representative Japanese strains according to their vacA genotypes and clinical effects and examined the relationship between the diversity of the cag PAI and clinical features. The cag PAI genes were divided i...

  2. Distinct diversity of the cag pathogenicity island among Helicobacter pylori strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Akiyo; Yamazaki, Shiho; Ohtani, Masahiro; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Muramatsu, Atsushi; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Yukinao; Keida, Yoshihide; Higashi, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2004-06-01

    The severity of Helicobacter pylori-related disease is correlated with the presence of a cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Genetic diversity within the cag PAI may have a modifying effect on the pathogenic potential of the infecting strain. We analyzed the complete cag PAI sequences of 11 representative Japanese strains according to their vacA genotypes and clinical effects and examined the relationship between the diversity of the cag PAI and clinical features. The cag PAI genes were divided into two major groups, a Western and a Japanese group, by phylogenetic analysis based on the entire cag PAI sequences. The predominant Japanese strains formed a Japanese cluster which was different from the cluster formed by Western strains. The diversity of the cag PAI was associated with the vacA and cagA genotypes. All strains with the s1c vacA genotype were in the Japanese cluster. In addition, all strains with the East Asian-type cagA genotype were also in the Japanese cluster. Patients infected with the Japanese-cluster strain had high-grade gastric mucosal atrophy. These results suggest that a distinct diversity of the cag PAI of H. pylori is present among Japanese strains and that this diversity may be involved in the development of atrophic gastritis and may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:15184428

  3. Helicobacter pylori-induced IL-1β secretion in innate immune cells is regulated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and requires the cag pathogenicity island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, Raphaela P; Mejías-Luque, Raquel; Groß, Christina; Anderl, Florian; Müller, Anne; Vieth, Michael; Busch, Dirk H; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa; Ruland, Jürgen; Groß, Olaf; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Infection with the gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the most prevalent chronic bacterial infection, affecting ∼50% of the world's population, and is the main risk factor of gastric cancer. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β plays a crucial role in the development of gastric tumors and polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster leading to increased IL-1β production have been associated with increased risk for gastric cancer. To be active, pro-IL-1β must be cleaved by the inflammasome, an intracellular multiprotein complex implicated in physiological and pathological inflammation. Recently, H. pylori was postulated to activate the inflammasome in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells; however, the molecular mechanisms as well as the bacterial virulence factor acting as signal 2 activating the inflammasome remain elusive. In this study, we analyzed the inflammasome complex regulating IL-1β upon H. pylori infection as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. Our results indicate that H. pylori-induced IL-1β secretion is mediated by activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome. We also show that reactive oxygen species, potassium efflux, and lysosomal destabilization are the main cellular mechanisms responsible of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome activation upon H. pylori infection, and identify vacuolating cytotoxin A and cag pathogenicity island as the bacterial virulence determinants involved. Moreover, in vivo experiments indicate an important role for the inflammasome in the onset and establishment of H. pylori infection and in the subsequent inflammatory response of the host. PMID:25172489

  4. Early

    OpenAIRE

    Houssiau, F A; Vasconcelos, C; D'Cruz, D; G.D. Sebastiani; DE RAMON GARRIDO, E.; Danieli, M.G.; ABRAMOVICZ, D.; Blockmans, D; Mathieu, A; Direskeneli, H; Galeazzi, M; Gul, A; Levy, Y; Petera, P.; Popovic, R.

    2004-01-01

    Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Dec;50(12):3934-40. Early response to immunosuppressive therapy predicts good renal outcome in lupus nephritis: lessons from long-term followup of patients in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial. Houssiau FA, Vasconcelos C, D'Cruz D, Sebastiani GD, de Ramon Garrido E, Danieli MG, Abramovicz D, Blockmans D, Mathieu A, Direskeneli H, Galeazzi M, Gül A, Levy Y, Petera P, Popovic R, Petrovic R, Sinico RA, Cattaneo R, Font J, Depresseux G, Cosyns JP, Cervera R. Universi...

  5. Early literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Janže, Daša

    2013-01-01

    Investigating early literacy activities in the preschool period has become more and more important in the recent years. In different sources and researches it is said that the development of literacy starts at the time of the child's birth and that preschool period has a big impact on it. The diploma paper »Early literacy« consists of the theoretical and empirical part. In the theoretical part I defined the notions of literacy, early literacy, emergent literacy and explored the effects of...

  6. Early Menopause (Premature Menopause)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause > Early menopause (premature menopause) Menopause Early menopause (premature menopause) What is early menopause? How to know ... Return to top More information on Early menopause (premature menopause) Read more from womenshealth.gov Menopause and ...

  7. Early Retirement Pension Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy I. Bulow

    1981-01-01

    Early retirement options alter the accrual of pension benefits, increasing the fraction of total benefits accrued in the early years of work. This is true regardless of whether de facto no worker exercises the early retirement option. No currently used actuarial method correctly calculates the cost of an early retirement option. Early retirement options must be considered in calculating age/compensation profiles. Furthermore, the early retirement option can effectively be used to encourage le...

  8. Early Marriages in Diyarbakir

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoğlu, Hamit; Ceylan, Ali; Saka, Günay; Ertem, Melikşah

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Early marriages effect women and children health adversely. To determine the prevalence of early marriages and factors associated with early marriages, this study was conducted in Diyarbakir province which is in the Southeastern Region of Turkey. Material: The study was cross sectional and a questionnaire was applied to 966 women aged över 15 years, living in Diyarbakir province. Results: The prevalence of early marriage was 42.4%. As the early marriage prevalence was increase by age. ll...

  9. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  10. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

  11. Early-Onset Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Early-Onset Alzheimer’s What is early-onset Alzheimer’s disease? Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease is when Alzheimer’s affects a person younger than 65 years of age. People ...

  12. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer remains a common disease throughout the world. Here we review new knowledge about early breast cancer obtained during the past 5 years. The prognosis of early breast cancer is generally favorable. Especially, ductal carcinoma in situ has been regarded as a non-life-threatening disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and early onset of the treatment has been important. Early age at menarche, late age at first birth, and late age at menopause are related to breast cancer risk. Examination by mammography and ultrasonography is still the most effective means of detection for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Additionally, there have been important advances in MRI, sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast-conserving surgery, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Another approach to keeping the disease under control is the elucidation of breast cancer's molecular biological features. Assessment of potential molecular targets can lead to early diagnosis and molecular targeted treatment. (author)

  13. Early Retirement in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Paula; Arcanjo, Manuela; Escária, Vítor

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the early retirement decisions made by Portuguese workers aged 50 to 64. It investigates the main characteristics of early retirees, and the main determinants of their decision, based on the eight waves of the European Community Household Panel for Portugal, from 1994 to 2001. Several definitions of early retirement are considered in order to take into account the different pathways to retirement that workers may follow. Some results are robust to different methodologie...

  14. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  15. US EARLY PRIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service Department of Agriculture, hereby releases for propagation the US EARLY PRIDIE citrus scion selection, formerly tested as 1-62-122. US EARLY PRIDE resulted from irradiation of Fallglo budwood by C.J. Hearn in 1991 at the U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Or...

  16. Tanzania : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Tanzania. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and inte...

  17. Uganda : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Uganda and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework1 and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and ...

  18. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early......A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...

  19. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early......A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...

  20. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnosis Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search by state Get Weekly E-News Stay up-to-date on Alzheimer's treatments and care. First ...

  1. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  2. Early Mesozoic basin aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Early Mesozoic basin aquifers in the states of Massachusettes, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,...

  3. Overview of Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eligible babies and toddlers learn the basic and brand-new skills that typically develop during the first ... Services in Natural Environments Transition to Preschool Public Awareness & the Referral System Early Intervention, Then and Now ...

  4. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.;

    2011-01-01

    , depressive and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects......Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome. This...... study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...

  5. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . 2004;80:S199-S210. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician . 2009; ...

  6. Early Diagnosis, Timely Treatment

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known for over 20 years that he has glaucoma. In fact, his high normal pressures have been ... Phillips Eye Institute in Minneapolis. Dr. Bhasvar: When glaucoma is detected early you have a very good ...

  7. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  8. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  9. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  10. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  11. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  12. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007 and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake prevention is crucial. The earthquake early warning system can provide seconds to tens of seconds of warning time before an earthquake strikes. This paper introduces the  earthquake early warning system build by Taiwan National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering and a practice case happened in Yilan City, Taiwan.

  13. Early Reionization in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R

    1993-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies have turned out to represent one of the most stringent 'bottle necks' for scenarios of large scale structure formation. As a possibility to relax this constraint, it has been proposed that early reionization can damp CMB fluctuations on small scales due to photon diffusion in the ionized plasma. As an example, I investigate the recently proposed scenario with cold dark matter (CDM) and texture seeds. There, an analysis of CMB anisotropies shows that early reionization is a crucial ingredient for this scenario. Without damping, the small scale anisotropies would dominate and exceed observed limits. In this paper I present analytical and numerical results for the amount of damping due to early reionization for CMB perturbations induced by a collapsing texture. Furthermore, the spectral distortion of the CMB due to Compton scattering of the hotter plasma electrons is calculated. Next I discuss the physical processes which lead to a system of coupled ordinary dif...

  14. Early object rule acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D E

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625

  15. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  16. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of public..., is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and development, families..., researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and development for young...

  17. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants an...

  18. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing for...... considerable cultural and economic continuity rather than devastation and unrelenting decline. Much new, and increasingly non-elite, architectural evidence and an ever-growing corpus of material culture indicate that Syria-Palestine entered a new age of social richness in the early Islamic period, even if the...

  19. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  20. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  1. Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  2. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  3. Early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sarzi-Puttini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints damage and loss of the function. The ultimate goal in managing RA is to prevent joint damage and to maintain functional ability. Consequently, early diagnosis and treatment is important, but predictive markers for RA are still confined to auto- antibodies and also magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and sonography do not appear to sufficiently distinguish between early RA and non RA. Evidence shows that substantial and irreversible joint damage already occurs within the first 2 years after disease onset. This “window of opportunity” hypothesis for therapeutic intervention in RA is based on the existence of a time frame within which there is a potential for a greater response to therapy, resulting in sustained benefits or, perhaps most important, a chance of cure. There is increasing evidence for beneficial effects of early DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs therapy over delayed treatment in patients who present with arthritis of recent onset. However, no universal consensus exists concerning the choice of initial drug or whether single drug or combination should be given as initial treatments. Most studies demonstrated superiority of aggressive over conventional approaches. Because the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α inhibitors have proved to stop joint damage progression in severe progressive RA, the achievement of these agents in early RA are currently of great interest.

  4. Teachers in Early Christianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the idea that the Early Church supported teachers as one of the ministry offices within the local church. These teachers worked to mature the spiritual life of the congregation and so helped to free the pastoral ministry to focus on other duties, many of which fall on pastors. Most ministers, pastors, and others teach at one…

  5. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  6. DISABILITY AND EARLY INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a present reality of our time, much discussed, opposite which attempts to implement school and social policy based on equal opportunities. Reactions to disability were over time many: from rejection and extermination to tolerance and acceptance. Being a person with disabilities involves many processes of adaptation and assimilation of those considered typical in the world and a key role in the success of these processes turns to therapeutic intervention. To cope successfully with the demands and the expectations of society, to achieve a good relationship individual-society, the child should benefit as early as possible from the therapeutic-rehabilitation process appropriate to its specific disability, to take part in group activities. Therapeutic-rehabilitation process represents the foundation pillar of harmonious development, adequate to social and school norms. Early intervention is very important and represents a big win in rehabilitation and integration of disabled children.

  7. Samuel Goudsmit - Early Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudsmit, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, born in 1902 in The Hague, Netherlands, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in 1926 with Paul Ehrenfest. The present talk will describe some aspects of his background and early formative years in order to provide context for the broad range of his professional life. Sam belonged to a large tribe of paternal and maternal uncles, aunts and first cousins; including his parents, grandparents and sister Ro, they numbered forty. Sam was the first of the tribe to be educated beyond high school. Early interests as a child and later as a university student in the Netherlands prefigured his significant and diverse contributions in several realms including not only physics but also teaching, Egyptology and scientific Intelligence. Bibliographic sources will include: The American Institute of Physics' Oral History Transcripts and photographs from the Emilio Segre visual archives, memoirs and conversations of those who knew Sam and also letters to his daughter, Esther.

  8. Early uranium politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of early uranium politics, including personal reminiscences. The discovery of and early work on uranium is sketched, leading to the price war over the sale of radium. Details are given of the situation as it developed from the discovery of fission and the outbreak of war, when large quantities of ore were secured for use in the United States atomic bomb project. Negotiations with the Belgians for Belgian Congo ores are described. The post-war period is covered, with a near monopoly for the US-UK-Canada purchasing agency changing to an open market for uranium. The attempts to get agreement on safeguards, to avoid proliferation of atomic weapons, and the particular situation of the French government, are also covered. (U.K.)

  9. Early Stomal Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Kann, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of intestinal stomas for diversion of enteric contents is an important component of the surgical management of several gastroenterologic disease processes. Despite the frequency with which these procedures are performed, complications of stoma creation remain common, despite extensive measures aimed at reducing them. Early postoperative complications (those seen less than one month postoperatively) can lead to significant cost, both financially and psychologically, and incur sign...

  10. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  11. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  12. Early public banks

    OpenAIRE

    Roberds, William; Velde, François R.

    2014-01-01

    Publicly owned or commissioned banks were common in Europe from the fifteenth century. This survey argues that while the early public banks were characterized by great experimentation in their design, a common goal was to create a liquid and reliable monetary asset in environments where such assets were rare or unavailable. The success of these banks was however never guaranteed, and even well-run banks could become unstable over time as their success made them susceptible to fiscal exploitat...

  13. Algorithmics from early years

    OpenAIRE

    Jochemczyk, Wanda; Olędzka, Katarzyna; Samulska, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    We teach algorithmics at early stages of children development by means of various programming languages and ICT tools in order to develop their cognitive and mathematical skills. Computational thinking is not only a useful for computer scientists, but also a fundamental skill for other people. We should teach children computational skills along with reading, writing, and arithmetic. In this article we present our three-year experience of teaching courses, during which we combine face-to-fa...

  14. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  15. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  16. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  17. Planck early results. VII. The Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Désert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; En\\sslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Huynh, M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, Michael; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J. -B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubi\; Rusholme, B.; Sajina, A.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J. -L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J. -P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-01-01

    A brief description of the methodology of construction, contents and usage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC), including the Early Cold Cores (ECC) and the Early Sunyaev-Zeldovich (ESZ) cluster catalogue is provided. The catalogue is based on data that consist of mapping...

  18. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  19. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  20. Expenditures for Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Levin, Jesse; Perez, Maria; Lam, Irene; Chambers, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    What does it cost to provide early intervention services? Data collected as part of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study were used to determine expenditures for infants, toddlers, and their families receiving services through Part C programs. The study found that the national average total expenditure for early intervention services…

  1. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  2. The Perils of Early Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that preventing early childbearing among those who are still young and unmarried is likely to yield significant social benefits, including the restoration of marriage, discussing whether marriage is the solution to the problem of early motherhood. Explains the need for strong efforts to prevent early childbearing, examining teen pregnancy…

  3. The early terrestrial crust

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdon, Bernard; Caro, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    Recent geochemical evidence based on the ^(146)Sm–^(142)Nd system and Hadean zircons shows that the Earth's mantle experienced depletion approximately 100 Ma after the formation of the solar system, and possibly even before (earlier than 30 Ma), due to the extraction of a crust enriched in incompatible elements. Depending on the model ^(142)Nd abundance assumed for the Bulk Earth, the early crust may have been stored in the deep mantle, or may have been remixed in the mantle with a timescale ...

  4. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  5. Early history of strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses early experiments that led to the discovery that the compounds of Sr2- contain a peculiar earth (Sr0) different from barytes and lime. The characterization of strontium compounds and of strontium minerals was the result of experiments by Crawford and Cruickshank, Sulzer and Blumenbach, Kalproth, Kirwan, Schmeisser, Hope, A. Meyer, and Lowitz, each of whom contributed some new material or confirmed some experiments reported by predecessors. An account of their contributions is given. The attention of the author was drawn to the subject by the conflicting statements to be found in works of reference

  6. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot big-bang cosmology is based upon the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solution of general relativity. It is remarkably successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the history of the universe form about 10-2 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. It is so successful that it is known as the standard model of cosmology. It accommodates-and in some instances explains-most of the salient features of the observed universe, including the Hubble expansion, the 2.74 K cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the abundance of the light elements and the existence of structures like galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc. So now we are able to ask a new set of even more profound questions about the universe. These questions include: What is the origin of the baryon number of the universe? What is the origin of the primeval inhomogeneities that gave rise to the structure we see today? Why is the part of the universe we can see (our present Hubble volume) so isotropic and homogeneous - as evidenced by the uniformity of the CMBR temperature - and spatially flat? What is the structure of the universe beyond our Hubble volume? What is the nature of the ubiquitous dark matter? and so on. The contributed papers to this session included two early universe topics of interest, inflation and cosmological phase transitions. These, and other early universe topics are discussed. (author)

  7. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises, are...

  8. Early genital naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, M C; Nelson, E C; Wolf, A W; Lozoff, B

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical impression that young girls are given little or confusing information about their genitals, a sample of 117 mothers with 1- to 4-year-old children were asked which words for genitals, if any, they used with their children. The ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample was composed of 63 girls and 54 boys, with the average ages of 26 and 29 months, respectively. Neither boys nor girls were likely to be given a standard anatomical genital term, although many children received colorful colloquial expressions. However, girls were less likely than boys to receive a term for their genitals. Receiving names for genitals was related to certain family circumstances, such as higher parental education, exposure to adult male nudity, having a sibling of the opposite sex, and cosleeping. Pediatric health professionals have the opportunity to contribute to early sex education by conveying accurate information regarding genital terms in the course of routine physical examinations. PMID:1939685

  9. Artritis Temprana Early Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hasta la década de los años ochenta se consideraba a la artritis reumatoide (AR como una enfermedad poco frecuente, de gravedad leve a moderada, que tenía una evolución lentamente, progresiva hacia el daño articular y la incapacidad. El aborde terapéutico convencional hasta ese momento, era el tratamiento clásico de la pirámide.Until the early the eighties was considered rheumatoid arthritis to (RA as a rare disease of mild to moderate severity, which had a slowly evolution towards joint damage and disability. The conventional therapeutic option until then, was the classic treatment of the pyramid.

  10. Early retirement for weaponeers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore's operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress

  11. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  12. Icebergs on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth topography of the Martian northern lowlands has been classically equated to an ancient ocean basin. The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is providing unprecedented images of the Martian surface at scales of 25 to 32 cm per pixel. The analysis of this high-resolution imaging reveals the presence of three differentiated geomorphologies throughout the northern lowlands of Mars and the Hellas basin, which are informative of the presence of icebergs floating in ancient oceans and/or seas. These morphologies are: (i) scattered scour marks, including curvilinear furrows several km long and some meters deep; (ii) boulders ranging in size from 0.5 m to ~2 m in diameter, distributed forming clusters with sizes from several hundred meters to 1-2 km; and (iii) flat-topped and conical circular fractured mounds. The association of plough marks, clusters of boulders and mounds on the northern plains of Mars can be related to the dual processes of ice keel scouring and ice rafting of both glacial and non-glacial detritus by a floating ice canopy and icebergs. These processes are well documented on Earth and result in distinct morphologies on the ocean floor, which are analogous to features observed in the Martian basins. Importantly, the features are located in elevated areas of the northern plains and Hellas, near the dichotomy boundary and on local topographic highs. Such distribution is expected, as these relatively shoal areas are where the iceberg-related features should occur on Mars: these areas had shallow water depths, less than the iceberg's keel depth, and therefore keels reached through the full depth of the water column to impinge on the sediments below. The presence of icebergs floating in cold oceans early in Mars' history imply the occurrence of continental glaciers forming in the highlands and streaming northward towards the lowlands, and towards the Hellas and Argyre Basins. Glacier

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Belma Demirel; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Manuel E. Quintana; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2003-06-09

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  15. Early Repolarization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Sacher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiographic pattern of early repolarization (ER is common, with a particularly high prevalence reported amongst athletes and adolescents. It has long been associated with benign outcome [1-3]. Recently, an association between inferolateral ER pattern and sudden cardiac death (SCD has been established by different groups [4-7]. Population-based studies have also reported an increased mortality rate among patients with inferolateral ER pattern compared to controls [7-9]. To bring back together these differences, it is important to focus on the definition of ER pattern used in these different studies as well as the population included. The definition of ER pattern associated with sudden cardiac death was the presence of J point elevation more than or equal to 0.1mV in at least 2 contiguous inferior and/or lateral leads of a standard 12-lead ECG and not ST elevation as it was often the case in the studies with benign outcome. Any study dealing with ER should clearly indicate the definition used. Otherwise it cannot be interpreted. Talking about definition, ER syndrome is an ER pattern (as defined above associated with symptoms (syncope or aborted SCD and/or familial history of SCD as mentioned in the last HRS/EHRA/APHRS Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Inherited Primary Arrhythmia Syndromes [10]. It is important to recognise that having only an ER pattern is not a disease.

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2000-10-26

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Jimmy O. Ong; Mike K. Porter; Randy Roberts; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly

    2002-11-22

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalit S. Shah; William K. Davis

    2000-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal or coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Test Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of Coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  20. Early Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic-Erceg, Andrea; Karlovic-Martinkovic, Diana; Santini, Marija; Persic, Zdenka; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT) covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively), while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:25002958

  1. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  2. Early tetrapod relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Marcello; Coates, Michael I; Quicke, Donald L J

    2003-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate differences between the most widely discussed hypotheses of early tetrapod relationships, we assembled a new data matrix including 90 taxa coded for 319 cranial and postcranial characters. We have incorporated, where possible, original observations of numerous taxa spread throughout the major tetrapod clades. A stem-based (total-group) definition of Tetrapoda is preferred over apomorphy- and node-based (crown-group) definitions. This definition is operational, since it is based on a formal character analysis. A PAUP* search using a recently implemented version of the parsimony ratchet method yields 64 shortest trees. Differences between these trees concern: (1) the internal relationships of aïstopods, the three selected species of which form a trichotomy; (2) the internal relationships of embolomeres, with Archeria crassidisca and Pholiderpeton scut collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Anthracosaurus russelli and Pholiderpeton attheyi; (3) the internal relationships of derived dissorophoids, with four amphibamid species forming an unresolved node with a clade consisting of micromelerpetontids and branchiosaurids and a clade consisting of albanerpetontids plus basal crown-group lissamphibians; (4) the position of albenerpetontids and Eocaecilia micropoda, which form an unresolved node with a trichotomy subtending Karaurus sharovi, Valdotriton gracilis and Triadobatrachus massinoti; (5) the branching pattern of derived diplocaulid nectrideans, with Batrachiderpeton reticulatum and Diceratosaurus brevirostris collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Diplocaulus magnicornis and Diploceraspis burkei. The results of the original parsimony run--as well as those retrieved from several other treatments of the data set (e.g. exclusion of postcranial and lower jaw data; character reweighting; reverse weighting)--indicate a deep split of early tetrapods between lissamphibian- and amniote-related taxa. Colosteids, Crassigyrinus

  3. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  4. Early amplification options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed. PMID:14648816

  5. Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

  6. Promoting Health in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…

  7. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  8. Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakheit, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is often difficult. The insidious onset of the disease, its slow progression and the lack of laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis contribute to this difficulty. Nevertheless, early diagnosis can be greatly facilitated by the systematic application of diagnostic clinical criteria and the selective use of radiological and laboratory tests.

  9. Early identification of rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nies, Jessica Annemarie Bernadette van

    2016-01-01

    The first part is focused on early recognition of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Two large early arthritis recognition clinics were started in Leiden and Groningen. The results showed that this initiative reduces the GP-delay significantly. Secondly, it was investigated whether an association between sh

  10. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is

  11. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader

    2004-01-26

    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and

  12. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity...

  13. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  14. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  15. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  16. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos

    2003-09-15

    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall

    2003-08-21

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst

  20. Benign Myoclonus of Early Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    To redefine benign myoclonus of early infancy (BMEI), clinical and neurophysiologic features in 102 infants (60 male) with brief paroxysmal abnormal movements and normal neurologic and psychomotor development were studied at one center in Argentina and two in Italy.

  1. Depression at an Early Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the crisis associated with adolescent affective disorders and probes potential genetics, environmental, and physiological factors. Reviews case examples of depression, eating disorders, and suicide among youths. States clinical implications and advocates early diagnosis and treatment. (ML)

  2. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  3. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  4. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  6. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational. We

  7. Epigenetics of Early Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChrisMurgatroyd

    2011-04-01

    To date, the study of gene-environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene-environment interactions can predispose individuals towards psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give raise to lasting epigenetic memories conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions.

  8. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Algorithm early diagnosis optic nevritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kasimova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluate the diagnostic value of specific methods of investigation for the early diagnosis of patients with optic neuritis (ON.Methods: 75 patients with ON were included into the study. Everyone were examined using static perimetry, optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve and thickness of peripapillary nerve fiber layer, visual evoked potentials to flash and pattern types.Results. In the early stage of defining the method was static perimetry (sensitivity 94 %, followed in descending order VEP and OCT (sensitivity 87 % and 84 % and MRI of the brain and orbits (sensitivity 82 %.Conclusion: VEP, static perimetry, MRI of the brain and orbits, as well as OCT allow establishing inflammation of the optic nerve at the early stages of the disease. Complex application of these methods revealed ON to 97 % of cases.

  10. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  11. The Climate of Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the early martian climate is one of the major unanswered questions of planetary science. Key challenges remain, but a new wave of orbital and in situ observations and improvements in climate modeling have led to significant advances over the past decade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence now point to an episodically warm surface during the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods 3–4 Ga. The low solar flux received by Mars in its first billion years and inefficiency of plausible greenhouse gases such as CO2 mean that the steady-state early martian climate was likely cold. A denser CO2 atmosphere would have caused adiabatic cooling of the surface and hence migration of water ice to the higher-altitude equatorial and southern regions of the planet. Transient warming caused melting of snow and ice deposits and a temporarily active hydrological cycle, leading to erosion of the valley networks and other fluvial features. Precise details of the warming mechanisms remain unclear, but impacts, volcanism, and orbital forcing all likely played an important role. The lack of evidence for glaciation across much of Mars's ancient terrain suggests the late Noachian surface water inventory was not sufficient to sustain a northern ocean. Though mainly inhospitable on the surface, early Mars may nonetheless have presented significant opportunities for the development of microbial life.

  12. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  13. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  14. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  15. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  16. Too Early to Cheer Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world economic recovery has stumbled since June due to the European debt crisis and lackluster performance in major Economics. Fears of a potential "double-dip" recession in the second half of this year or early next year are growing.

  17. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  18. TCF1 during early embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, O. van den

    2006-01-01

    TCF1 is one of the nuclear effectors of the canonical WNT pathway. By gene knockdown and gene knockout techniques we investigated its role during early development. As a readout we used the model system frog and zebrafish. We discovered that TCF1 is involved in mesoderm induction and directly regulates the expression of Foxd3

  19. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  20. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  1. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  2. Early warning network of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three subnetworks: EIS NEK, RAMS, and ROS form the basis of the Slovenian early warning network, named ROSS, which is under construction. Its aim is to detect any domestic or foreign incident where radioactive material was spread into environment. The system is planned to be completed in five years. (author)

  3. Early smoking experience in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urbán, Róbert

    2010-01-01

    Initial smoking experience is a potential predictor of later smoking. Our study has a twofold aim: (1) to provide further support for construct validity of retrospective measurement of an early smoking experience questionnaire (ESE) in a representative sample of adolescents; (2) to examine the association of initial smoking experience with sensation-seeking, current smoking and nicotine dependence.

  4. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  5. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries are...

  6. Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

  7. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the author has assembled his papers on elementary particle physics which are of importance for studying cosmology viz. the physics of the early universe. A rather detailed introduction reviewing basic principles and current trends in the relation particle physics/cosmology precedes the papers. (Auth.)

  8. Geodatabase visualizing for early warning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svatoňová, H.; Kolejka, Jaromír; Talhofer, V.

    Hannover : Leibniz Universität Hannover, 2009, s. 1-9. [AGILE 2009. Hannover (DE), 02.06.2009-05.06.2009] Grant ostatní: GA Mšk MSM0021622418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : geodatabase * visualising * early warning Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.ikg.uni-hannover.de/agile

  9. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  10. Malaria early warning in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Simon I. Hay; Rogers, David J.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Monica F. Myers; Robert W Snow

    2001-01-01

    Kenya displays large spatiotemporal diversity in its climate and ecology. It follows that malaria transmission will reflect this environmental heterogeneity in both space and time. In this article, we discuss how such heterogeneity, and its epidemiological consequences, should be considered in the development of early warning systems for malaria epidemics.

  11. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  12. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  13. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  15. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  16. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  17. Shocks in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pen, Ue-Li

    2015-01-01

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations, of the kind observed in great detail on large scales today, it also leads to the production of shock waves in the radiation fluid of the very early universe. At very early epochs, $1$ GeV$

  18. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  19. Sleep and Early Cortical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Salome; Olini, Nadja; Huber, Reto; LeBourgeois, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is increasingly recognized as a key process in neurodevelopment. Animal data show that sleep is essential for the maturation of fundamental brain functions, and growing epidemiological findings indicate that children with early sleep disturbance suffer from later cognitive, attentional, and psychosocial problems. Still, major gaps exist in understanding processes underlying links between sleep and neurodevelopment. One challenge is to translate findings from animal research to humans. I...

  20. Strengthening the Early Warning Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bessma Momani; Skylar Brooks; Michael Cockburn; Warren Clarke; Dustyn Lanz

    2013-01-01

    Following the 2007–2008 global financial crisis, the G20 leaders tasked the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the newly created Financial Stability Board (FSB) to jointly undertake Early Warning Exercises (EWEs) in order to identify vulnerabilities within the global financial system and encourage appropriate policy responses. This paper argues that a series of challenges have prevented the EWE from realizing its full potential. In particular, the advantages accruing from the joint natur...

  1. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kočevar, Zala

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  2. Early retirement and economic incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Hernæs, Erik; Sollie, Marte; Strøm, Steinar

    1999-01-01

    In Norway early retirement programs have gradually reduced the retirement age from 67 to 62 for a majority of the labor force. Based on micro data for 1990 and 1992, we estimate a competing risk models with three states: full retirement, partial retirement/part-time work, and full-time work, and we use the estimated model in simulations to study how financial incentives can be strengthened to extend working life. Both financial incentives, educational background and industry affiliation is fo...

  3. Early surgery for infantile esotropia

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, H.; Mori, Y; Dogru, M.; M. Yamamoto

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the postoperative eye alignment and binocular visual function after early surgery for infantile esotropia.
METHODS—Both the postoperative eye position and stereopsis were reviewed using the Titmus stereo test in nine patients who received uniocular medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection under general anaesthesia before 8 months of age and were followed up for a minimum of 4 years.
RESULTS—Orthophoria was attained in three cases, whereas esotropia was found in ...

  4. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  5. Early Cosmology and Fundamental Physics

    OpenAIRE

    De Vega, Hector

    2003-01-01

    Based on Lectures at the 9th. Chalonge School in Astrofundamental Physics, Palermo, September 2002, NATO ASI. To appear in the Proceedings, N. S'anchez and Yu. Parijskij editors, Kluwer. This is a pedagogical introduction to early cosmology and the host of fundamental physics involved in it (particle physics, grand unification andgeneral relativity). Inflation and the inflaton field are the centraltheme of this review. The quantum field treatment of the inflaton ispresented including its o...

  6. Recycling in early modern science

    OpenAIRE

    Werrett, S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This essay follows recent work in environmental history to explore the history of recycling in physical sciences in Britain and North America since the seventeenth century. The term 'recycling' is here used broadly to refer to a variety of practices that extended the life of material resources for doing science in the early modern period. These included practices associated with maintenance, repair, exchange and the adaptation or reuse of material culture. The essay argues that such...

  7. The Climate of Early Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the early Martian climate is one of the major unanswered questions of planetary science. Key challenges remain, but a new wave of orbital and in situ observations and improvements in climate modeling have led to significant advances over the last decade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence now point to an episodically warm surface during the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods 3-4 Ga. The low solar flux received by Mars in its first billion years and inefficiency of plausible greenhouse gases such as CO2 means that the steady-state early Martian climate was likely cold. A denser CO2 atmosphere would have caused adiabatic cooling of the surface and hence migration of water ice to the higher altitude equatorial and southern regions of the planet. Transient warming caused melting of snow and ice deposits and a temporarily active hydrological cycle, leading to erosion of the valley networks and other fluvial features. Precise details of the warming mechanisms remain unclear, but impacts, volca...

  8. Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Georg; Müller, Antje; Braune, Stefan; Büttner, Thomas; Benecke, Reiner; Greulich, Wolfgang; Klein, Wolfgang; Mark, Günter; Rieke, Jürgen; Thümler, Reiner

    2002-10-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) approximately 60 % of the nigrostriatal neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) are degenerated before neurologists can establish the diagnosis according to the widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. It is conceivable that neuroprotective therapy starting at such an 'advanced stage' of the disease will fail to stop the degenerative process. Therefore, the identification of patients at risk and at earlier stages of the disease appears to be essential for any successful neuroprotection. The discovery of several genetic mutations associated with IPD raises the possibility that these, or other biomarkers, of the disease may help to identify persons at risk of IPD. Transcranial ultrasound have shown susceptibility factors for IPD related to an increased iron load of the substantia nigra. In the early clinical phase, a number of motor and particularly non-motor signs emerge, which can be identified by the patients and physicians years before the diagnosis is made, notably olfactory dysfunction, depression, or 'soft' motor signs such as changes in handwriting, speech or reduced ambulatory arm motion. These signs of the early, prediagnostic phase of IPD can be detected by inexpensive and easy-to-administer tests. As one single instrument will not be sensitive enough, a battery of tests has to be composed measuring independent parameters of the incipient disease. Subjects with abnormal findings in this test battery should than be submitted to nuclear medicine examinations to quantify the extent of dopaminergic injury and to reach the goal of a reliable, early diagnosis. PMID:12522572

  9. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  10. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomanno, Geno; Bechtel, Joel J.

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the incidence of cigarette smoking is decreasing in the United States it appears to be increasing worldwide. The five-year survival rate has not improved in cases with advanced disease, but several articles have indicated that survival can be improved in cases diagnosed early by sputum cytology and chest x-ray. In cases diagnosed while the lesion is in the in-situ stage or measures less than 1 cm in diameter, surgical excision and/or radiation therapy improves survival; therefore, the early diagnosis of high-risk patients should be vigorously pursued. A recent study at a community hospital in Grand Junction, Colorado, presented 45 lung cancer cases diagnosed with positive sputum cytology and negative chest x-ray, and indicates that early diagnosis does improve survival. This study has been conducted during the past six years; 16 cases have survived three years and six cases show five-year survival.

  11. Planck early results. VII. The Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Huynh, M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sajina, A.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    A brief description of the methodology of construction, contents and usage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC), including the Early Cold Cores (ECC) and the Early Sunyaev-Zeldovich (ESZ) cluster catalogue is provided. The catalogue is based on data that consist of mapping the entire sky once and 60% of the sky a second time by Planck, thereby comprising the first high sensitivity radio/submillimetre observations of the entire sky. Four source detection algorithms were run as part of the ERCSC pipeline. A Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the injection and extraction of artificial sources into the Planck maps was implemented to select reliable sources among all extracted candidates such that the cumulative reliability of the catalogue is ≥90%. There is no requirement on completeness for the ERCSC. As a result of the Monte-Carlo assessment of reliability of sources from the different techniques, an implementation of the PowellSnakes source extraction technique was used at the five frequencies between 30 and 143GHz while the SExtractor technique was used between 217 and 857GHz. The 10σ photometric flux density limit of the catalogue at |b| > 30° is 0.49, 1.0, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33, 0.28, 0.25, 0.47 and 0.82 Jy at each of the nine frequencies between 30 and 857GHz. Sources which are up to a factor of ~2 fainter than this limit, and which are present in "clean" regions of the Galaxy where the sky background due to emission from the interstellar medium is low, are included in the ERCSC if they meet the high reliability criterion. The Planck ERCSC sources have known associations to stars with dust shells, stellar cores, radio galaxies, blazars, infrared luminous galaxies and Galactic interstellar medium features. A significant fraction of unclassified sources are also present in the catalogs. In addition, two early release catalogs that contain 915 cold molecular cloud core candidates and 189 SZ cluster candidates that have been generated using

  12. Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159116.html Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage' Normally, blood-brain barrier ... HealthDay News) -- People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease may have more "leaks" in the barrier ...

  13. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn;

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  14. Early rehabilitation and participation in focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Hanne; Buhl, Inge; Roenn-Smidt, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Early neurorehabilitation is an interdisciplinary field. Thus, in order to eliminate unnecessary barriers for individuals with severe acquired brain injury in early rehabilitation, we need rehabilitation science that supports both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Participation can b...

  15. Deep Brain Stimulation Tested for Early Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160137.html Deep Brain Stimulation Tested for Early Alzheimer's Although treatment seems safe, benefit isn't yet ... brain stimulation appears safe for people with early Alzheimer's disease -- and might even slow down memory loss ...

  16. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer Can ovarian cancer be found early? About 20% of ovarian ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a ...

  17. Can Multiple Myeloma Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma Can multiple myeloma be found early? It’s difficult to diagnose multiple myeloma early. Often, multiple myeloma causes no symptoms until it reaches an ...

  18. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

  19. Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159116.html Early Alzheimer's Linked to Brain 'Leakage' Normally, blood-brain barrier ... HealthDay News) -- People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease may have more "leaks" in the barrier ...

  20. Early predictors of boys’ antisocial trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke W.; Brennan, Lauretta M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies tracing patterns of youth antisocial behavior (AB) during adolescence, few have prospective data on the developmental precursors of AB beginning during infancy. Using a cohort of 268 low-income boys first assessed at 18 months, the current study examined predictors of early- and late-starting trajectories of AB assessed during early childhood and early adolescence. Four trajectory groups were identified, including early- and late-starting groups, a low stab...

  1. Challenges Facing Early Career Academic Cardiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Carl W.; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L.; Bunch, T. Jared; Damp, Julie B.; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A.; Hilliard, Anthony A.; Houser, Steven R.; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M.; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R.; Ryan, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Early-career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology (ACC) completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: (1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists, (2) gene...

  2. Early diagnosis of the Spondyloarthropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spondyloarthropathies are a cluster of chronic inflammatory diseases that primarily include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis; arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies. The most common subgroups of spondyloarthropathies are ankylosing spondylitis and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is mainly based on unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis of at least grade 2 bilaterally or grade 3 unilaterally. How ever, in the early phase of disease, conventional radiographs are often too insensitive to show sacroiliitis and it usually takes several years for definite radiographic sacroiliitis to evolve. Thus, the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is a commonly delayed by 8 to 11 years after the onset of symptoms. As a result, diagnosing axial spondyloarthropathy in the absence of radiographic sacroiliitis is very difficult to rheumatologists. In the early phase of disease, HLA B27 test and magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joints may be helpful to the early diagnosis. In the presence of chronic low back pain the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy is about 5% and is about 14% if the back pain is inflammatory. The presence of = 3 features of spondyloarthropathy (heel pain, uveitis, dactylitis, positive family history, alternating buttock pain, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, asymmetrical arthritis, positive response to anti-inflammatory drugs) increase the probability of axial spondyloarthropathy to 90%. Both, the positive HLA B27 and magnetic resonance imaging with signs of sacroiliitis increase the probability of spondyloarthropathy, particularly in patients without spondyloarthropathies features or with only 1 or 2 features. Since ankylosing spondylitis in association with psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease is often HLA B27 negative, this test is of limited value under theses circumstances. Is important to consider that

  3. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  4. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within the...

  5. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome. In...... addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  6. Evaluating and Supporting Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Angèle Sancho

    2015-01-01

    There's a lot of conversation in the early childhood community on evaluating teachers to improve their performance. Raising the quality of early care and education is a priority for policymakers and practitioners on local, state, and federal levels. As a result, much attention is being focused on early childhood educators to ensure that they do a…

  7. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  8. Perceived Stress and Canadian Early Childcare Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Forer, Barry; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Goelman, Hillel; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Wessel, Julie; Hertzman, Clyde; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational stress for early childcare educators is an area of apparent understudy in the literature. The present study attempted to address this gap and provide some updated data regarding the experiences of this occupational group. Methods: Early childhood workers across a variety of early childhood education settings (N = 69)…

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  10. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  11. Early Care and Education (ECE) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents several facts about the early care and education in Minnesota. These facts are organized according to the following topics: (1) Children age 5 and younger in Minnesota; (2) Number of early care and education programs and providers; (3) Children ages 0-2 and 3-5 enrolled in quality early childhood programs; (4) Number of…

  12. Strategies for Supporting Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Lindsay R.; Horn, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The development of early literacy skills is critical to children's later success in reading and reading-related activities; therefore, understanding how teachers can support early literacy development is equally important. In this article, the authors provide information on how early childhood teachers can use specific strategies and techniques as…

  13. The Importance of Betting Early

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Innocenti; Tommaso Nannicini; Roberto Ricciuti

    2012-01-01

    We analyze more than 1,250,000 bets on Italian soccer league matches. Our findings show that bettors do not improve their performance as the season progresses. We obtain evidence that early bettors, who place bets the days before the match, performed better then late bettors, who place bets on the same day of the event. We attribute this outcome to the increase of noisy information released the last day impairing late bettors’ capacity to use very simple prediction methods, such as team ranki...

  14. The evolution of early neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Volker; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2015-02-23

    The foundation of the diverse metazoan nervous systems is laid by embryonic patterning mechanisms, involving the generation and movement of neural progenitors and their progeny. Here we divide early neurogenesis into discrete elements, including origin, pattern, proliferation, and movement of neuronal progenitors, which are controlled by conserved gene cassettes. We review these neurogenetic mechanisms in representatives of the different metazoan clades, with the goal to build a conceptual framework in which one can ask specific questions, such as which of these mechanisms potentially formed part of the developmental "toolkit" of the bilaterian ancestor and which evolved later. PMID:25710527

  15. Fuel Consumption Optimization: Early Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia; Nagy, Ivan; Pavelková, Lenka

    Brussels: IFAC, 2012, s. 751-756. ISBN 978-3-902823-06-9. [16th IFAC Symposium on System Identification The International Federation of Automatic Control. Brussels (BE), 11.07.2012-13.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030123 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fully probabilistic design * fuel consumption minimization * closed-loop control Subject RIV: BC - Control System s Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/suzdaleva-fuel consumption optimization early experiments.pdf

  16. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Badgwell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most deadly of the gynecological cancers. Less than 30% of women with advanced stage disease survive long-term. When diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with conventional surgery and chemotherapy. At present, only 25% of ovarian cancers are detected in stage I due, in part, to the absence of specific symptoms and to lack of an effective screening strategy. Early detection of ovarian cancer might significantly improve the overall survival rate of women with ovarian cancer if 1 most cancers are clonal and unifocal, arising in the ovary rather than in the peritoneum, 2 metastatic disease results from progression of clinically detectable stage I lesions, and 3 cancers remain localized for a sufficient interval to permit cost-effective screening. Given the prevalence of ovarian cancer, strategies for early detection must have high sensitivity for early stage disease (> 75%, but must have extremely high specificity (99.6% to attain a positive predictive value of at least 10%. Transvaginal sonography (TVS, serum markers and a combination of the two modalities have been evaluated for early detection of ovarian cancer. Among the serum markers, CA125 has received the most attention, but lacks the sensitivity or specificity to function alone as a screening test. Greater specificity can be achieved by combining CA125 and TVS and/or by monitoring CA125 over time. Two stage screening strategies promise to be cost effective, where abnormal serum assays prompt TVS to detect lesions that require laparotomy. Accrual has been completed for a 200,000 woman trial in the United Kingdom that will test the ability of a rising CA125 to trigger TVS and subsequent exploratory surgery. Given the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, it is unlikely that any single marker will be sufficiently sensitive to provide an effective initial screen. Sensitivity of serum assays might be enhanced by utilizing a

  17. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality as...... well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may not...

  18. Early events of DNA photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Wolfgang J; Gilch, Peter; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a leading external hazard to the integrity of DNA. Exposure to UV radiation triggers a cascade of chemical reactions, and many molecular products (photolesions) have been isolated that are potentially dangerous for the cellular system. The early steps that take place after UV absorption by DNA have been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. The review focuses on the evolution of excited electronic states, the formation of photolesions, and processes suppressing their formation. Emphasis is placed on lesions involving two thymine bases, such as the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, the (6-4) lesion, and its Dewar valence isomer. PMID:25664840

  19. VERITAS: Status and Early Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of observatories have revolutionized the study of the very high energy gamma-ray sky. The recently-commissioned VERITAS observatory, an array of four 12 m diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes designed to search for gamma-ray sources in the energy band between 100 GeV and 50 TeV, is one of these new instruments. VERITAS has been taking scientific data with three or more telescopes since November 2006. We discuss the thrust of the VERITAS observation program and present results from these early observations, including new results on the sources IC433, LSI+61 303, 1ES 1218+304 and M87. (author)

  20. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  1. Early stage fractal growth in thin films below the percolation limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, R.; Mahato, J. C.; Das, Debolina; Dev, B. N.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate the fractal growth of epitaxial Ag thin films on Si(111) surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The initial stage growth of Ag thin films provides islands of compact shape. These compact-shaped two-dimensional (2D) islands follow the Euclidian dimension 2. As the islands grow they become fractal in nature. The fractal (Hausdorff) dimension of the islands depends on the coverage of the Ag thin films. The mechanism responsible for this fractal nature of the Ag nanostructures varies from diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) to diffusion limited cluster aggregation (DLCA).

  2. Early citizen participation in plannings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration, jurisdiction, and science are increasingly dealing with citizen participation in overall plannings and expert plannings. The juridical discussion got an essential impetus by the Muelheim-Kaerlich ruling stipulated by the Federal Constitutional Court on December 20, 1979, which emphasized the relevance of basic rights of atomic energy rules on the participation of third parties - having the right action - in licensing procedures. The topicality and the attractiveness of this subject led to the 49. scientific-political advanced training meeting on ''early citizen participation in plannings'' which was held ley the University for Administrative Law, and in which almost 300 persons participated. This volume contains the papers and abstracts of the discussions of this meeting. Among other things it was pointed out that the demand for an early or improved citizen participation in plannings cannot merely be accepted or rejected but that distinctions must be made according to the respective kind of planning. Moreover it has become clear that the Ferm citizen must be made concrete. What kind of participation the legislator will envisage in future: he will have to take into special account the protection of the basic rights by means of procedure shaping. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  4. Characterizing the Early Impact Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Donald D.

    2005-01-01

    The early bombardment revealed in the larger impact craters and basins on the moon was a major planetary process that affected all bodies in the inner solar system, including the Earth and Mars. Understanding the nature and timing of this bombardment is a fundamental planetary problem. The surface density of lunar impact craters within a given size range on a given lunar surface is a measure of the age of that surface relative to other lunar surfaces. When crater densities are combined with absolute radiometric ages determined on lunar rocks returned to Earth, the flux of large lunar impactors through time can be estimated. These studies suggest that the flux of impactors producing craters greater than 1 km in diameter has been approximately constant over the past approx. 3 Gyr. However, prior to 3.0 - 3.5 Gyr the impactor flux was much larger and defines an early bombardment period. Unfortunately, no lunar surface feature older than approx. 4 Gyr is accurately dated, and the surface density of craters are saturated in most of the lunar highlands. This means that such data cannot define the impactor flux between lunar formation and approx. 4 Gyr ago.

  5. Early history of scapular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939. PMID:26133287

  6. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Doo [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies.

  8. Early Earth differentiation [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.

    2004-09-01

    The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation ( t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal-melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10-15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally

  9. Early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midthun, David E

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  10. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  11. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children......This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage in...

  12. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  13. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... complications requiring laparotomy after transplantation with outcomes for patients at increased risk. METHODS: In this study we performed a retrospective analysis of data of patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012. The study period was limited to the first 90 days after...... transplantation. RESULTS: Lung transplantation was performed in 258 patients, including 51 patients with α1-anti-trypsin deficiency (A1AD). Seventy-eight patients (30%) had an X-ray of the abdomen, and 23 patients (9%) required laparotomy during the first 90 days after transplantation. Patients with A1AD...

  14. Atypical manifestations of early syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koranne R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 36 untreated patients with early syphilis revealed atypical variations namely; long incubation period of 101 days in I patient, more than 3 chancres in 1, undermined margin of the chancre along with tenderness in 1 and moderate to severe tenderness of the ulcers in 2 cases. In 3 patients there was no indurations of the ulcers. Three patients with primary syphilis had unilateral lymphadenitis, and in I case the lymph nodes were not only tender but showed tendency towardsmatingawell. Insecondarysyphilis, 11 out of 16 patients having condylomata lata had no other muco-cutaneous lesions. Concomitant presence of other venereal disease to account for the atypical manifestations was discounted- by appropriate laboratory tests, response to therapeutic agents and follow up.

  15. Myelopoiesis during Zebrafish Early Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xu; Linsen Du; Zilong Wen

    2012-01-01

    Myelopoiesis is the process of producing all types of myeloid cells including monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes.Myeloid cells are known to manifest a wide spectrum of activities such as immune surveillance and tissue remodeling.Irregularities in myeloid cell development and their function are known to associate with the onset and the progression of a variety of human disorders such as leukemia.In the past decades,extensive studies have been carried out in various model organisms to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myelopoiesis with the hope that these efforts will yield knowledge translatable into therapies for related diseases.Zebrafish has recently emerged as a prominent animal model for studying myelopoiesis,especially during early embryogenesis,largely owing to its unique properties such as transparent embryonic body and external development.This review introduces the methodologies used in zebrafish research and focuses on the recent research progresses of zebrafish myelopoiesis.

  16. Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Fiona M

    2013-08-01

    Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone extraordinary change in recent years and new techniques are now available to help the clinician diagnose and manage patients much more effectively than previously. While established modalities such as plain radiography (X-Ray) remain important, especially for detection of erosions and determining the progression of joint damage, there are many instances where ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scanning provide added information. MRI and US are now used regularly by clinicians to help diagnose RA in the pre-radiographic stage as they offer improved visualisation of joint erosions. They also have the potential to provide prognostic information as MRI bone oedema/osteitis is linked to the later development of erosions and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) joint positivity is also a predictor of joint damage. Nuclear imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are also highly sensitive for detecting joint change in early RA and pre-RA but not yet used clinically mainly because of accessibility and radiation exposure. MRI, US, scintigraphy, SPECT and PET have all been shown to detect sub-clinical joint inflammation in patients in clinical remission, a state that is now the goal of most treat-to-target management strategies. Thus, imaging may be used to direct therapeutic decision making and MRI is also now being used in clinical trials to determine the impact of disease-suppressing therapy on the course of synovitis and osteitis. As is the case for all tests, it would be unwise to rely completely on any one imaging result, as false positives and negatives can occur for all modalities. Thus, the clinician needs to choose the most relevant and reliable imaging test, while also striving to minimise patient discomfort, radiation burden and economic impact. PMID:24315051

  17. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  18. EARLY COMPLICATIONS OF CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Constantin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are different complications of the cataract surgery described in the literature. The impact of these complications on the visual function is in correlation with many factors, some of them being imprecise and unable to be used as prognostic factors before and after the surgery. The modern technique and the surgeon’s experience lowers the complications incidence to a minimum, but even so, some problems cannot be avoided. AIM: The aim of this study is to analyse the early cataract surgery complications for patients operated in 2012 at the Ophthalmology Unit, Railway Hospital, Iaşi. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of the patients who underwent cataract surgery in 2012. There were a total of 480 cataract surgeries, the majority of them (92,7% being age related cataracts in different stages of evolution, of which 31.45% being mature cataracts. In 476 eyes, artificial lens was inserted per-primam (474 eyes with posterior chamber intraocular lens and 2 eyes with anterior chamber intraocular lens, in one case the posterior chamber intraocular lens was sutured to the sclera, in 3 cases the eyes remained without lens. RESULTS: The incidence of severe complications or with potential of severe development was: severe corneal oedema 0.83% (4 cases, remaining lens fragments in the vitreous cavity 0.62% (3 cases, toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS 0.41% (2 cases. There were no endophthalmitis, expulsive haemorhage or retinal detachment after cataract surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The number of early complications of our patients is the same with numbers shown in other studies. With a better surgical technique, a good examination of the patient, a thorough explanation of the procedure to the patient, the use of high quality substances during surgery and proper technology we can lower even more the incidence of the complications.

  19. Early recognition of chemical dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, R C

    1993-03-01

    Chemical dependence is a leading cause of morbidity and death in the United States. At least 20% of patients seen by primary care physicians in both the outpatient and inpatient setting are chemically dependent. Up to 90% of these patients go undiagnosed by their primary physicians. Chemical dependence is defined as a chronic, progressive illness characterized by the repeated and persistent use of alcohol or drugs despite negative health, family, work, financial, or legal consequences. Primary care physicians are in an ideal position to detect chemical dependence at its earliest stages, when irreversible medical consequences and death are most likely preventable. Alcohol is the most common drug of abuse. Improving the rate of recognition of chemical dependence depends on being familiar with the constellation of physical, mental, and social indicators. Early medical manifestations of alcoholism common in the primary care setting include: gastric complaints, elevated blood pressure, palpitations, traumatic injuries, headaches, impotence, and gout. Early psychosocial manifestations common in both alcohol and drug dependence include anxiety, depression, insomnia, persistent relationship conflicts, work or school problems, and financial or legal problems. Particularly useful laboratory indicators of alcoholism include elevated levels of GGT and MCV, both displaying high specificity, with the GGT level being the most sensitive. Similarly specific laboratory tests for drug dependence are not available. Any patient presenting with any of the above medical, psychosocial, or laboratory manifestations should be screened for chemical dependence. The CAGE questionnaire for alcoholism, a four-question test, is particularly well suited to the primary care setting, where it can be administered in fewer than 60 seconds. The CAGE has demonstrated high sensitivity (in the 80% range) and specificity (approximately 85%) for alcoholism. Comparably convenient instruments do not yet exist

  20. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2009-01-01

    Early antisocial behavior has its origins in childhood behavior problems, particularly those characterized by aggressive and destructive behavior. Deficits in self-regulation across multiple domains of functioning, from the physiological to the cognitive, are associated with early behavior problems, and may place children at greater risk for the development of later antisocial behavior. Data are presented from a longitudinal study of early self-regulation and behavior problems, the RIGHT Track Research Project, demonstrating that children at greatest risk for early and persistent problem behavior display patterns of physiological and emotional regulation deficits early in life. Parenting behavior and functioning have also been examined as predictors of trajectories of early problem behavior, and some data support the interaction of parenting and self-regulation as significant predictors of patterns of problematic behavior and ongoing problems with the regulation of affect. Peer relationships also affect and are affected by early self-regulation skills, and both may play a role in academic performance and subsequent school success. These data provide evidence that the social contexts of early family and peer relationships are important moderators of the more proximal mechanism of self-regulation, and both types of processes, social and biobehavioral, are likely implicated in early antisocial tendencies. Implications of these findings on self-regulation and early behavior problems are discussed in terms of future research and treatment approaches. PMID:19825259

  1. Early prevention of dental caries in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Kharitonova T.L.; Kazakova L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries

  2. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2009-01-01

    Early antisocial behavior has its origins in childhood behavior problems, particularly those characterized by aggressive and destructive behavior. Deficits in self-regulation across multiple domains of functioning, from the physiological to the cognitive, are associated with early behavior problems, and may place children at greater risk for the development of later antisocial behavior. Data are presented from a longitudinal study of early self-regulation and behavior problems, the RIGHT Trac...

  3. Early career training of quantity surveying professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cynthia Chin Tian; Hogg, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This research project addresses the issue of learning and development for new graduates in their early career. It is recognized that early career experience can play a significant part in lifelong professional capability and the support and knowledge gained during the early years of post graduate employment can influence future career direction and success. As a consequence, there is a need for stakeholders, including employers and professional bodies, to contribute to the transition from uni...

  4. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS AFTER RADICAL CYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Mager

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy (RCE is associated with a considerable number of early postoperative complications as before. Based on 10 years’ experience, this paper demonstrates the frequency (33.9 % and types of early complications following RCE, as well as postoperative mortality (5.5 % and its resulting causes. Although postoperative mortality is relatively low today, the frequency of early postoperative complications remains high as before.

  5. Early Childhood Education and Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Denboba, Amina; Hasan, Amer; Wodon, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, Indonesia has taken a number of steps to prioritize early childhood development – ranging from the inclusion of Early Childhood Development (ECD) in the National Education System Law No. 20 in 2003 to a Presidential Declaration on Holistic and Integrated ECD and the launch of the country’s first ever ECD Census in 2011. These policy milestones have occurred in parallel with sustained progress on outcomes included in the Millennium Development Goals, including for child ...

  6. Early innovation - NRX and NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovation has been an integral part of the entire histories of both the NRX and NRU reactors, their systems and the programs conducted in them. I have chosen to emphasize the period of the first decade of NRX operation because it was such a time of discovery. What might be considered obvious today was unknown then. It was at the end of this period that NRU's operation began. This is not a technical paper nor is it intended to be. Rather, it is my version of an oral history of the time recorded from my memory of events or from information told to me by others. The basic facts have been verified through reference to Dr. D.A. Keys' excellent reports and the other progress reports of the time. Some of my old colleagues might have chosen different examples. I do believe that what is included is a reasonable cross-section of examples of early innovation. To help orient those who are not familiar with NRX and NRU and perhaps jog the memories of others, appended are a cutaway view and simple cross-section of each reactor as well as a schematic view of the uranium fuel rod originally used in NRX. With the startup of NRX in 1947 Canada became a major player on the world's nuclear stage. Much work had been done before this date. There was early research by Canadian scientists such as Dr. G.C. Laurence at NRC. As part of the war effort, through the collaborative efforts with our allies led by the U.K. and the U.S. the program to build NRX evolved. At the time the primary purpose of the reactor was to produce Plutonium-239 and Uranium-233. ZEEP was the first reactor to operate outside the U.S. as a step in the development of NRX. The Canadian nuclear industry owes much to those who contributed to the design and building of NRX. They did an outstanding job. A reactor that was built with war in mind was so astonishingly flexible that it became one of the world's renowned contributors to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  7. Early Life Bereavement and Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hong; Olsen, Jørn; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingus, Sven; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether early life bereavement, as indicator of severe stress, was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life.Based on population registers, we established a cohort of all children born in Denmark (N = 1 686 416) and Sweden (N = 2 563 659) from 1973 to 1997....... Children were categorized as exposed if they lost a first-degree relative during the first 18 years of life. Outcome is the first diagnosis of schizophrenia as either inpatient or outpatient. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs).A total of 188,850 children...... (4.6%) experienced death of a first-degree relative from birth to 18 years of age. Compared with unexposed children, those exposed had overall a 39% higher risk of schizophrenia (= 1.39, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.32-1.47). The IRR was particularly high if the family member committed suicide (a...

  8. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author)

  9. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  10. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  11. The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Charles L; Masters, Dan; Speagle, Josh S

    2015-01-01

    The current hierarchical merging paradigm and $\\Lambda$CDM predict that the $z \\sim 4-8$ universe should be a time in which the most massive galaxies are transitioning from their initial halo assembly to the later baryonic evolution seen in star-forming galaxies and quasars. However, no evidence of this transition has been found in many high redshift galaxy surveys including CFHTLS, CANDELS and SPLASH, the first studies to probe the high-mass end at these redshifts. Indeed, if halo mass to stellar mass ratios estimated at lower-redshift continue to $z \\sim 6-8$, CANDELS and SPLASH report several orders of magnitude more $M \\sim 10^{12-13} M_\\odot$ halos than are possible to have formed by those redshifts, implying these massive galaxies formed impossibly early. We consider various systematics in the stellar synthesis models used to estimate physical parameters and possible galaxy formation scenarios in an effort to reconcile observation with theory. Although known uncertainties can greatly reduce the disparit...

  12. The Impossibly Early Galaxy Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles. L.; Capak, Peter; Masters, Dan; Speagle, Josh S.

    2016-06-01

    The current hierarchical merging paradigm and ΛCDM predict that the z˜ 4-8 universe should be a time in which the most massive galaxies are transitioning from their initial halo assembly to the later baryonic evolution seen in star-forming galaxies and quasars. However, no evidence of this transition has been found in many high-redshift galaxy surveys including CFHTLS, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Survey (CANDELS), and Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH), which were the first studies to probe the high-mass end at these redshifts. Indeed, if halo mass to stellar mass ratios estimated at lower-redshift continue to z˜ 6-8, CANDELS and SPLASH report several orders of magnitude more M˜ {10}12-13{M}ȯ halos than is possible to have been formed by those redshifts, implying that these massive galaxies formed impossibly early. We consider various systematics in the stellar synthesis models used to estimate physical parameters and possible galaxy formation scenarios in an effort to reconcile observation with theory. Although known uncertainties can greatly reduce the disparity between recent observations and cold dark matter merger simulations, there remains considerable tension with current theory even if taking the most conservative view of the observations.

  13. On a chaotic early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theories regarding the origin of galaxies and elements are reviewed in this paper, and the assumptions made for these theories are discussed. It has been assumed that the universe has always been isotropic and homogeneous from the beginning of cosmic expansion. At the stage of very high density that any local irregularities such as galaxies cannot exist, the admissible deviation in this case from the mean value is only the statistical or quantum fluctuation of matter density, spatial curvature or their growth. It should be considered that the chemical composition of matters at the earliest stage consisted of most fundamental particles. However, if the fluctuation of matter density is statistical, the present values are too small. As for the origin of elements, it depends strongly on the period when cosmic radiation appeared. The final mass ratios of elements are given from the present baryon mass density, and are in agreement with observed values. The assumption of hot universe seems good. However, the time-independent ratio of photon number to baryon number is hardly understood. It is reasonable to assume for the early universe an inhomogeneous model whose space-time curvature is of turbulent character, according to weak cosmological principle. The inhomogeneous models to be considered are weakly non-linear perturbation theory, anti-Newtonian approximation and post anti-Newtonian approximation. Smoothing-out process, the origin of cosmic microwave radiation, the origin of galaxies and the origin of chemical elements are discussed. (Kato, T.)

  14. Early complications of renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied with duplex-Doppler US28 renal transplant recipients in 31 clinically different episodes, during the early postoperative period. Morphological data were thus obtained, as well as hemodinamic information. According to the literature on the subject, a pulsatility index (PI) >1.5 was considered as abnormal. US diagnosis was retrospectively compared with final clinical diagnosis and with response to therapy. In one case, the kidney was surgically removed. We evaluated US sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute rejection with real-time US, Doppler alone and combined with duplex. A PI ≥1.5 corresponded to acute rejection, with 60% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. With a PI >1.8, sensitivity decreased to 50%, but specificity increased to100%. The severest changes in Doppler waveform had a bad prognostic significance. Besides poor specificity- which is so often emphasized in literature- our results chiefly demonstrated sensitivity limitations, partly corrigible with a real-time US signs, together with Doppler PI (sensitivity: 90%, specificity: 85.7%). Duplex-Doppler US, in spite of its well-known limitations, remains therefore a simple, rather reliable and non-invasive technique to study renal transplant complications

  15. Is early intervention worth it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the largest components of costs associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease, were hospitalizations, principally for joint replacement surgery, and work loss. Thus, for expensive interventions such as biological agents to be "worthwhile," they must reduce the prevalence of joint replacement and assist persons with RA in maintaining employment. However, joint replacement surgery and work losses tend to occur at least several years after onset of disease, even in severe cases. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of expenditures becomes computationally and politically difficult when the expenditure and the outcome are separated in time. The computational issue concerns the translation of future benefits--surgeries avoided and jobs held onto years from now--into present monetary values. The computational issue may be even more complex when the benefits are less tangible than surgery and wages; for example, when measured by quality-adjusted life-years. The political issue concerns the disjuncture between the agents making the expenditures--provincial health insurance in Canada or an employer's health plan in the US--and the agents reaping the benefits, a private disability insurance company or provincial or state workers' compensation fund. In addition, there is an ethical dilemma. In the US, many of the advances in the care for RA such as the biological agents derive, at least in part, from federal research expenditures. Such expenditures are financed by increasingly regressive taxes. Yet the individuals bearing an increasing share of the tax burden find themselves relegated to more restrictive health insurance plans less likely to provide access to those agents. Thus, whether expenditures for early interventions are worthwhile may turn on such issues as how long the expenditure and the benefits are separated in time, how well the interests of the agent making the expenditure and the agent reaping the rewards are

  16. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Gasification Technologies and Transportation Fuels and Chemicals programs, DOE and Texaco are partners through Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40658 to determine the feasibility of developing, constructing and operating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). The overall objective of the project is the three-phase development of an EECP that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The specific work requirements of Phase I included: Prepare an EECP Preliminary Concept Report covering Tasks 2-8 specified in the Cooperative Agreement; Develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan as specified in Task 9 of the Cooperative Agreement for implementation in Phase II; and Develop a Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the EECP Project as specified in Task 10 of the Cooperative Agreement. This document is the Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the design, construction, and operation of the EECP at the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery

  17. Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

    2011-01-01

    Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

  18. Early Childhood Practice and Refrains of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood practice has often been described as complex in both policy documents and research literature; however, less attention has been given to exploring the nature and consequences of complexity in early childhood practice. At a time of intense policy attention in many national contexts, there is the potential for closing down, as well…

  19. UNESCO Policy Briefs on Early Childhood, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    This document consists of eight double-sided briefs addressing aspects of the field of early childhood education. Titles of the briefs are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Care? Development? Education?," outlining the distinctions between these terms; (2) "Planning for Access: Develop a Data System First," highlighting Brazil's census to collect…

  20. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  1. The Starting Early Starting Smart Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey Family Programs, Seattle, WA.

    Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) is an early childhood public/private initiative designed to identify new, empirical knowledge about the effectiveness of integrating substance abuse prevention, addictions treatment, and mental health services with primary health care and childcare service settings (e.g., Head Start, day care, preschool) to…

  2. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki;

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cypern...

  3. Drugs, guns and early motherhood in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Millán-Quijano, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of violent crime on the prevalence of early motherhood in Colombia. To instrument for the predominance of violent crime I use geographical and temporal variation in drug trafficking networks. My results suggest that one standard deviation increase in the homicide rate induces a 2.55 percentage points increase in the probability of early motherhood

  4. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  5. Equivalence and Equations in Early Years Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Elizabeth; Mollinson, Annette; Oestrich, Kym

    2009-01-01

    Early algebraic thinking in a primary context is not about introducing formal algebraic concepts into the classroom but involves reconsidering how one thinks about arithmetic. Early algebraic thinking assists young students to engage effectively with arithmetic in ways that support engagement with arithmetic structure rather than arithmetic as a…

  6. Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Specializing too early in life can lead to emotional stress, loss of motivation, and burnout, but the research is inadequate to resolve the question of whether early specialization or diversification is more beneficial from a psychological perspective. Nevertheless, some best practices are recommended based on the known benefits and detriments.…

  7. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  8. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.; Gardmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A.; Moellmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of...

  9. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  10. Diversity and Inclusion in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriwskyj, A.

    2010-01-01

    The emphasis on inclusion of diverse learners presents challenges to early-years teachers, particularly those whose understandings have been framed by notions of school readiness and of special education for children with disabilities. This mixed-method study of children and teachers in early-years classes across three school sites in Australia…

  11. Early Childhood Teachers' Sustainment in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of Australian early childhood teachers' sustainment in their profession, focussing on those factors which enhance professional commitment, job satisfaction and occupational motivation. Utilizing qualitative methodology this study also identified key factors early childhood teachers consider crucial to…

  12. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  13. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  14. Towards Ecologically Valid Assessment in Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article explores aspects of early language and literacy that may predict later literacy development. It explores a range of assessment procedures used for oral language, vocabulary, sentence structure and phonology and early reading and writing. The article then describes a small-scale study which highlights the disconnections between the…

  15. Leadership Choices in Early Care and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Stacie G.; Washington, Valora

    2008-01-01

    After more than a century of evolution, early care and education is in transition. No longer is it a narrow endeavor of relative obscurity and of limited interest to leaders from outside the field. Early care and education has become of interest to K-12 leaders seeking to bolster school reform efforts; to corporate entrepreneurs and stockholders…

  16. Kingdom of Tonga : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies which affect young children in the Kingdom of Tonga. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection poli...

  17. Fatigue in early Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦朝晖

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence,character-istics and risk factors of fatigue in a large cohort of subjects with early Parkinson’s disease (PD).Methods A total of 391 individuals with PD,recrutied in Linzhi trial, were re-screened. Early, non-depressed subjects

  18. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  19. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

  20. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  1. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  2. Early Feeding After a Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Flesher

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral fluids and food are traditionally introduced slowly after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH. This descriptive study examined the effect and tolerance of early oral intake following this surgery. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 164 patients who had been on a clinical pathway following TAH. Comparisons in initiation of fluids and foods, and gastrointestinal effects were made between the early fed group (n=82 and the traditionally fed group (n=82. Results: Both groups had the similar gastrointestinal symptoms postoperatively, but the early fed group had an earlier bowel movement. The early fed group had a statistically significant shorter length of stay. Similar usage of anti-nausea medication and pain medication usage was noted between the two groups, except for a lower usage of Tylenol #3 (acetaminophen with codeine in the early fed group. Conclusions: This study found that early feeding could be tolerated well in TAH patients, with statistically significant improvements in usage of some pain medication and length of stay were noted in the early fed group.

  3. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.; Magrini, S.M.; Santarelli, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the early addition of prophylactic chemotherapy improves survival. Arguments in favour of early chemotherapy are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a...... relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against early chemotherapy is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out...

  4. System Autonomy Modeling During Early Concept Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosteslaw M. Husar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid systems engineering design methods, such as AGILE, significantly reduce the development time. This results in the early availability of incremental capabilities, increases the importance of accelerating and effectively performing early concept trade studies. Current system autonomy assessment tools are level based and are used to provide the levels of autonomy attained during field trials. These tools have limited applicability in earlier design definition stages. An algorithmic system autonomy tool is needed to facilitate trade off studies, analyses of alternatives and concept of operations performed during those very early phases. We developed our contribution to such a tool and described it in this paper.

  5. Bilingual Education in Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys literature of research based on several early childhood bilingual education programs and guidelines. Common findings of each are outlined. It also includes a case study of instructional discourse in teaching language minority kindergarten children. (JL)

  6. A reduced atmosphere for early Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    One-dimensional, radiative-convective climate calculations indicate that the old model of a warm, dense, CO2 atmosphere on early Mars is no longer viable. The magnitude of the greenhouse effect in a CO2/H2O atmosphere is limited by condensation of CO2 clouds; this phenomenon is not important for Mars today, but has a pronounced cooling effect at the low solar luminosities thought to apply during early solar system history. The failure of this model indicates one of four things: (1) the new climate calculations are incorrect; (2) current solar evolution models are incorrect; (3) the idea that early Mars was warm and wet is incorrect; or (4) the atmosphere of early Mars contained other greenhouse gases (or particles) in addition to CO2 and H2O. Of these explanations, the most plausible is number (4) and the rest of the investigation is a further explanation of number (4).

  7. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  8. Prevent Vision Loss with Early Diagnosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist. The exam will include a visual acuity test to determine if ... eye for early signs of disease signs that will occur long before loss of vision. A comprehensive ...

  9. Alchemy--A History of Early Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of alchemy including personalities and methods. Discusses the philosophy associated with various early chemists and alchemists. Attempts to show that it was not unreasonable for ancient alchemists to believe in the possibility of transmutation. (CW)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical conditions including high blood pressure (hypertension) and diabetes mellitus, as well as family history. The risk of early-onset glaucoma depends mainly on heredity. Structural abnormalities that impede ...

  11. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  12. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  13. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  14. Brain Aneurysm: Early Detection and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Screening A- A A+ Early Detection and Screening Brain aneurysms can be similar to heart attacks. ... aneurysm is about to rupture. Fortunately, through imaging screening techniques, individuals at high risk of harboring a ...

  15. Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer Can pancreatic cancer be found early? Pancreatic cancer is hard to ... Testing: What You Need to Know . Testing for pancreatic cancer in people at high risk For people in ...

  16. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F.; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T.; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S.; Myer, Gregory D.; Nissen, Carl W.; Philippon, Marc J.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. Purpose: To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Study Design: Think tank, roundtable discussion. Results: The primary outcome of this think tank was that there is no evidence that young children will benefit from early sport specialization in the majority of sports. They are subject to overuse injury and burnout from concentrated activity. Early multisport participation will not deter young athletes from long-term competitive athletic success. Conclusion: Youth advocates, parents, clinicians, and coaches need to work together with the sport governing bodies to ensure healthy environments for play and competition that do not create long-term health issues yet support athletic competition at the highest level desired. PMID:27169132

  17. Do Psychological Variables Affect Early Surgical Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Mavros, Michael N.; Athanasiou, Stavros; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.; Polyzos, Konstantinos A.; Peppas, George; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. Results We identified 1...

  18. Supersymmetry: Early Roots That Did Not Grow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Jarlskog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about early roots of supersymmetry, as found in the literature from 1940s and early 1950s. There were models where the power of “partners” in alleviating divergences in quantum field theory was recognized. However, other currently known remarkable features of supersymmetry, such as its role in the extension of the Poincaré group, were not known. There were, of course, no supersymmetric nonabelian quantum field theories in those days.

  19. EARLY PREDICTORS OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Samta Bali; Jawahira; Siddharth Singh; Shiv Lal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate role of early pregnancy BMI and diastolic BP as predictors of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia and to estimate early pregnancy serum uric acid levels and correlate it with gestational hypertension and pre eclampsia. METHOD: 100 pregna nt women with singleton gestation in first trimester of pregnancy(8 – 12 weeks) coming for their first antenatal check - up in the antenatal clinic of Mahatma Gandhi Medical college and Hospita...

  20. Early steps of retrovirus replicative cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Saïb Ali; Nisole Sébastien

    2004-01-01

    Abstract During the last two decades, the profusion of HIV research due to the urge to identify new therapeutic targets has led to a wealth of information on the retroviral replication cycle. However, while the late stages of the retrovirus life cycle, consisting of virus replication and egress, have been partly unraveled, the early steps remain largely enigmatic. These early steps consist of a long and perilous journey from the cell surface to the nucleus where the proviral DNA integrates in...

  1. Birth and Early Development of Indian Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kak, Subhash

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the birth and early development of Indian astronomy. Taking account of significant new findings from archaeology and literary analysis, it is shown that early mathematical astronomy arose in India in the second millennium BC. The paper reviews the astronomy of the period of the Vedas, the Brahmanas, and the Vedanga Jyotisha. The origins of Puranic cosmology are also explained.

  2. Early markers of adult obesity: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Brisbois, T D; Farmer, A P; McCargar, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors in early childhood (≤5 years of age) that are the most significant predictors of the development of obesity in adulthood. Factors of interest included exposures/insults in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) or birth place that could impact all three time periods. An extensive electronic and systematic search initially resulted in 8,880 citat...

  3. Disparity of Early Cretaceous Lamniformes sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Söderblom, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The geological range of lamniform sharks stretches from present day species such as Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark) back to the at the moment oldest undoubted fossil finds during the Early Cretaceous. In this paper a geometric morphometric analysis was performed on images of Early Cretaceous lamniform teeth collected from published literature in order to examine the change in disparity (range of morphological variation within a group) throughout the time period. Due to limited avai...

  4. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald;

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  5. The SuperNova Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholberg, K.

    2008-01-01

    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  6. Evolution of early embryogenesis in rhabditid nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchle, Michael; Kiontke, Karin; MacMenamin, Philip; Fitch, David H. A.; Piano, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The cell biological events that guide early embryonic development occur with great precision within species but can be quite diverse across species. How these cellular processes evolve and which molecular components underlie evolutionary changes is poorly understood. To begin to address these questions, we systematically investigated early embryogenesis, from the one- to the four-cell embryo, in 34 nematode species related to C. elegans. We found 40 cell-biological characters that captured th...

  7. Early x-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femur head and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially, there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign is shown to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis.

  8. Early Nutrition and Cognition in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Outes-Leon, Ingo; Porter, Catherine; Sanchez, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the causal link between early childhood nutrition and cognition, applying instrumental variables to sibling-differences for a sample of pre-school aged Peruvian children. Child-specific shocks in the form of food price changes and household shocks during the critical developmental period of a child are used as instruments. The analysis shows significant and positive returns to early childhood nutritional investments. An increase in the Height-for-Age z-score of one standar...

  9. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system. The...... early anlagen of the circular body wall muscles does not show the anterior-posterior mode of formation that is typical for annelids, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a non-segmented ancestry of Mollusca....

  10. Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Daalen, E. van

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of the SOSO-project (Screenings Onderzoek Sociale Ontwikkeling), which provided the basis for the largest part of this thesis, was to evaluate the early signs and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in children identified through screening and by surveillance and to determine their potential biological, behavioural, cognitive, and environmental correlates. This particular thesis has its focus on the early diagnosis of ASDs. This subject is divided into 3 separate part...

  11. Job satisfaction trends during nurses' early career

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths Peter; Robinson Sarah; Murrells Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Job satisfaction is an important component of nurses' lives that can impact on patient safety, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the profession. Little is known about job satisfaction in early career and how it varies for different groups of nurses. This paper investigates how the components of job satisfaction vary during early career in newly qualified UK nurses. Methods Nurses were sampled using a c...

  12. The chronic wound in early neurological rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Rollnik, Jens Dieter; Wolff, Brigitte; Bertomeu-Knopp, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wounds, especially decubitus ulcers, present a substantial problem in early neurological rehabilitation. Although many of these problem wounds are avoidable through appropriate nursing care (positioning techniques), a cross-sectional examination of our group of patients revealed a prevalence of chronic wounds of 9.2%. This chiefly included older (average age ca. 65 years), severely affected patients (average early-rehabilitation Barthel's total index of -208.0 (± 47.7) points), i.e., ...

  13. Perfects, resultatives and auxiliaries in early English

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Thomas; Alexiadou, Artemis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will argue for a novel analysis of the auxiliary alternation in Early English, its development and subsequent loss which has broader consequences for the way that auxiliary selection is looked at cross-linguistically. We will present evidence that the choice of auxiliaries accompanying past participles in Early English differed in several significant respects from that in the familiar modern European languages. Specifically, while the construction with have became a full-fle...

  14. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald; Dollerup, Jens; Hansen, Gert; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population. Methods Participating general practitioners (G...

  15. Assessment of cognition in early dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Silverberg, Nina B.; Ryan, Laurie M; Carrillo, Maria C.; Sperling, Reisa; Petersen, Ronald C.; Posner, Holly B.; Snyder, Peter J; Hilsabeck, Robin; Gallagher, Michela; Raber, Jacob; Rizzo, Albert; Possin, Katherine; King, Jonathan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Ott, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    Better tools for assessing cognitive impairment in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are required to enable diagnosis of the disease before substantial neurodegeneration has taken place and to allow detection of subtle changes in the early stages of progression of the disease. The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association convened a meeting to discuss state of the art methods for cognitive assessment, including computerized batteries, as well as new approaches in ...

  16. Analog "neuronal" networks in early vision

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, C; Marroquin, J; Yuille, A.

    1986-01-01

    Many problems in early vision can be formulated in terms of minimizing a cost function. Examples are shape from shading, edge detection, motion analysis, structure from motion, and surface interpolation. As shown by Poggio and Koch [Poggio, T. & Koch, C. (1985) Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 226, 303-323], quadratic variational problems, an important subset of early vision tasks, can be "solved" by linear, analog electrical, or chemical networks. However, in the presence of discontinuities, the...

  17. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  18. Music as therapy in early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. PMID:25725914

  19. CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT findings of the acute cerebral infarction are well known. However the CT findings of early stroke within 24 hours of the onset have not been sufficiently reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate early acute cerebral infarction on CT within 24 hours after ictus. The early and accurate CT diagnosis could lead to the appropriate therapy and improved outcome of the patients. Authors retrospectively analyzed 16 patients with early acute cerebral infarction. Acute cerebral infarction was confirmed by follow-up CT in 11 patients, SPECT in 4 patients, and MRI in 1 patient. The CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction include effacement of cortical sulci or cistern (n = 16, 100%), hyperattenuation of MCA (n = 3), obscuration of lentiform nucleus (n = 6), loss of insular ribbon (n = 6) and subtle low density in hemisphere (n = 5). The most frequent finding was effacement of cortical sulci in our study, and it was thought to be the most important sign of early acute cerebral infarction

  20. MEASURING EARLY LIFE DISPARITY IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akansha; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2016-08-01

    Early life disparity - defined as the average life years lost due to death by the age of 60 years - can be used to assess more systematically the effect of savings from death at a young age. In addition, it can give valuable insight into the consequences of death in the early stages of life. Early life disparity can further be categorized into child life disparity (0-14 years) and adult life disparity (15-60 years). This study estimated early life disparity using complete life tables for the period 1970-1975 to 2006-2010, which were constructed from abridged life tables and death rates provided by the Sample Registration System (SRS) in India. The contribution of premature deaths to the difference in life disparity was estimated using a replacement algorithm. The findings clearly indicated an overall declining trend in early life disparity in India, with a notable reduction in child life disparity, and a deceleration of adult life disparity during the period 1970-1975 to 2006-2010. Interstate variations in early life disparity were seen to converge with time. Decomposition analysis suggested that these variations could be minimized further by averting death during childhood. PMID:26537823

  1. Role of early audiological screening and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Preet Tuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study is to find out whether early identification and intervention prevents severe linguistic and communication delays, minimizing the need for more elaborate rehabilitation during the school years. Design and Study Sample: A Cross-sectional study was carried out on one hundred and eleven children with documented deaf-mutism presenting at the Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology in two different geographical regions of India. Detailed history, clinical and audiological assessment along with assessment of the language and communication skills according to American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA guidelines was done. Results: The children were predominantly male, of low socio-economic background, presented for rehabilitation, mostly after the age of six years. They commonly had more than 70dBHL (decibel hearing level hearing threshold. The study found that the children who presented early for diagnosis and hearing aid usage had better response to rehabilitation. Conclusion: It is important that hearing loss be detected at an early age and amplification should be introduced as early as possible once there has been a diagnosis of a hearing loss. So that early intervention can have an impact on speech and language development. Without concurrent follow-up program, identification of hearing loss early in children is meaningless.

  2. Early psychosis in Asia: Insights from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masafumi; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Funatogawa, Tomoyuki; Takeshi, Kiyoaki

    2012-03-01

    The largest task for psychiatry in Japan today is the deinstitutionalization of patients with psychiatric disorders. In Japan, all citizens are covered by a national health plan, and about 70% of the total cost is covered by the national health insurance scheme. At present, however, there is still no category for early intervention in the national health reimbursement schedule. Recent research has shown that the mean duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) at seven university hospitals in Japan was 17.6 months. We present data using case vignettes suggesting that pharmacotherapy might be overused in prodromal cases. The concept of an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS)/prodromal state might not yet be widely recognized among Japanese psychiatrists. We outline early intervention initiatives in Japan; The Japanese Society for Prevention and Early Intervention in Psychiatry (JSEIP), and a representative early intervention facility for young people is the "Il Bosco" in Tokyo. There are several leading centers for early intervention research and practice in Japan. Most of them are driven by university departments of psychiatry with respect to both research and clinical activities. The development of services for early intervention is expected to reduce stigmatization, prevent suicide among young persons, and promote general knowledge about mental health. There are several common or similar issues among Asian countries, including service systems, community attitudes to psychiatric illness including stigma, and dependence on pharmacotherapy. PMID:26878953

  3. [Early neurological-neurosurgical rehabilitation. Current state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, M; Brandt, T

    2007-10-01

    In German neurorehabilitation, the ambiguous term "early rehabilitation" reflects the multidisciplinary, rehabilitative treatment of severely impaired patients in continuing need of acute and intensive care (including weaning from the respirator in selected cases). The actual definition of this treatment is discussed, which hitherto corresponded to Phase B according to recommendations of the German Federal Study Group for Rehabilitation (BAR) and now has started to be integrated into the diagnosis-related group system. The tasks and aims of early rehabilitation are to support and enhance neuroplastic remission of nervous system functional loss and continued medical care, improve vigilance, establish cooperativity, and evaluate the rehabilitation potential including compensatory and adaptive strategies organizing posthospital care, reducing the need of nursing support, and improving quality of life. Some special aspects of early rehabilitative care are presented here in more detail. To fulfill these tasks, a multidisciplinary team is required including various therapists qualified for neurorehabilition, physicians (including a neurologist), nurses, and social workers. Outcome data were assessed using our 5-year prospective early rehabilitation registry. Fifty-five percent of patients improved to reach the next step of neurorehabilitation (Phase C), with significant gain in function even in the subgroup of aged and most severely disabled patients. The trend to transfer patients very early in the postacute Phase to early rehabilitation facilities, with open medical problems and increased risk of complications, makes close cooperation and interaction with acute medical centers necessary. PMID:17457558

  4. New Early Cycladic Figurine At Nea Styra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, M.

    The existence of an Early Bronze Age coastal site in the district of Nea Styra has been known since the end of the 19th century when three marble figurines of early Cycladic type had been found in the area. During the 20th century survey investigations conducted by Greek and foreign archaeologists offered new evidence which demonstrated the significance of the site during the Early and Middle Helladic periods. A new figurine of early Cycladic type, which recently came to light at Nea Styra due to the control of building permits by the 11th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, reaffirms the identification of the area as one of the three most important sites on Euboea during the Early Helladic II period. This paper focuses on a newly discovered figurine and its typological character. The new find is compared to the figurines that had been found in the 19th century at Nea Styra. We hope that the scheduled excavations on the private land plot where the new figurine was found will offer new data leading to a better understanding of the character of the Early Helladic settlement in this part of southern Euboea.

  5. Early pancreatic carcinogenesis - risk factors, early symptoms, and the impact of antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frič, Přemysl; Škrha, Jan; Šedo, Aleksi; Bušek, Petr; Kmochová, Klára; Laclav, Martin; Solař, Svatopluk; Bunganič, Bohuš; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-07-01

    Risk factors (long-term diabetes, obesity) and early symptoms (new-onset diabetes, loss of weight, or persistent low body mass) are the initial symptoms of pancreatic carcinogenesis. They may be influenced by antidiabetic drugs and their correct evaluation is a prerequisite for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). We review the risk factors, early symptoms, and the impact of antidiabetic drugs on early pancreatic carcinogenesis. The main source of data was the database Medline/PubMed and abstracts of international congresses (DDW, UEGW). The risk factors and early symptoms are integral components of the familial PC surveillance and sporadic PC screening. Preventive programs should always be include multistep and multidisciplinary procedures. The correct evaluation of antidiabetic drugs and their interactions with other components of pancreatic carcinogenesis may influence the early diagnosis of PC. PMID:27120389

  6. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using str...

  7. Duration of Early Maternal Separation and Prediction of Schizotypal Symptoms from Early Adolescence to Midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Anglin, Deidre M.; Cohen, Patricia R.; Chen, Henian

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood experiences influence the capacity for healthy social and emotional development. The present study uses longitudinal data to determine whether early maternal separation predicted the subsequent development of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms assessed repeatedly from early adolescence over the following 20 years. Within this community sample (N=766), multilevel linear regression analyses revealed the duration of separation from mother in the first 2 years of life...

  8. The association between early conduct problems and early marijuana use in college students

    OpenAIRE

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: 1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; n=126), 2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; n=607), and 3) non-users (never used marijuana; n=343). A conduct problem inventory used in previous studies was adapted for use in the present study. Early conduct...

  9. Hydrogen Escape from early Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugger, M. E.; Ramirez, R. M.; Kasting, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    A controversy regarding hydrodynamic escape rates arose when Tian et al. (2005) published transonic escape rates for an atmosphere composed of pure H2. Tian et al. concluded that the hydrogen escape rate from early Earth would have been a factor of 20 or more slower than the diffusion limit, even if the solar EUV (extreme ultraviolet) flux was enhanced by a factor of 5 relative to today. This conclusion was challenged by Catling (2006), who pointed out that solar EUV fluxes could have been much higher than this so that plenty of energy should have been available to power escape. This controversy has remained unresolved to date. Hydrogen escape from early Mars is also of interest. As discussed in this session in a complementary paper by Ramirez et al., collision-induced absorption by molecular hydrogen could have helped to warm early Mars, perhaps explaining the formation of valleys and valley networks. Ramirez et al. have shown that a mixture of 90% CO2 and 10% H2 is capable raising early Mars' surface temperature above the freezing point of water, for surface pressures exceeding ~3 bar. However, we need to understand whether H2 mixing ratios of 10% are physically plausible. The H2 partial pressure in Mars' early atmosphere would have been determined by the balance between volcanic outgassing and escape to space. The 10% mixing ratio is high compared to the value of ~10-3 typically assumed for early Earth. But Mars' early atmosphere may have been more reduced than Earth's (Wadwha, 2001); if the hydrogen escape rate on Mars was also slower than on Earth, then additional increases in atmospheric hydrogen concentration are possible. To answer these questions about the early atmospheres of Earth and Mars, we have modified an existing model of hydrodynamic escape, developed by F. Tian, J. Kasting, and others, to converge for atmospheres with a wide range of hydrogen mixing ratios. The model finds subsonic solutions to the hydrodynamic equations; these can be shown to

  10. Optimal early refill rules for Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water levels in reservoirs are generally not allowed to exceed the flood-limited water level during the flood season, which means that huge amounts of water spill in order to provide adequate storage for flood prevention and that it is difficult to fill the reservoir fully at the end of year. Early reservoir refill is an effective method for addressing the contradiction between the needs of flood control and of comprehensive utilization. This study selected the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the water source for the middle route of the South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP in China, as a case study, and analyzed the necessity and operational feasibility of early reservoir refill. An early reservoir refill model is proposed based on the maximum average storage ratio, optimized by the progressive optimality algorithm, and the optimal scheduling schemes were obtained. Results show that the best time of refill operation for the Danjiangkou Reservoir is September 15, and the upper limit water level during September is 166 m. The proposed early refill scheme, in stages, can increase the annual average storage ratio from 77.51% to 81.99%, and decrease spilled water from 2.439 × 109 m3 to 1.692 × 109 m3, in comparison to the original design scheme. The suggested early reservoir refill scheme can be easily operated with significant comprehensive benefits, which may provide a good reference for scheduling decision-making.

  11. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  12. Magnetism in massive early-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    In the last five years our knowledge of magnetism in early-type stars has significantly improved because of the new gen- eration of high-resolution spectropolarimeters (ESPaDOnS@CFHT, Narval@TBL, HARPSpol@ESO). The success of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project, for example, has greatly improved our understanding of the magnetic properties of massive early-type stars; however, it was mainly focused on single stars. Summarized here is our general understanding of stellar magnetism in early-type stars and the recent findings from the MiMeS project. As recent results suggest a significant fraction of early-type stars are in binaries, this implies that the interplay between magnetic fields and binarity has yet to be investigated in any significant detail. To this end, the current analysis of the recently discovered magnetic field in the rapidly-rotating secondary star of the close, massive binary system known as Plaskett's star - a unique system that is testing our current theories of binarity and magnetism in early-type stars, and a target for investigation in the recently accepted Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars (BinaMIcS) Large Programs at CFHT and TBL - is discussed.

  13. Early environment influences later performance in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

    2014-08-01

    Conditions fish encounter during embryogenesis and early life history can leave lasting effects not only on morphology, but also on growth rate, life-history and behavioural traits. The ecology of offspring can be affected by conditions experienced by their parents and mother in particular. This review summarizes such early impacts and their ecological influences for a variety of teleost species, but with special reference to salmonids. Growth and adult body size, sex ratio, egg size, lifespan and tendency to migrate can all be affected by early influences. Mechanisms behind such phenotypically plastic impacts are not well known, but epigenetic change appears to be one central mechanism. The thermal regime during development and incubation is particularly important, but also early food consumption and intraspecific density can all be responsible for later life-history variation. For behavioural traits, early experiences with effects on brain, sensory development and cognition appear essential. This may also influence boldness and other social behaviours such as mate choice. At the end of the review, several issues and questions for future studies are given. PMID:24961386

  14. Optimal early refill rules for Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun WANG; Sheng-lian GUO; Guang YANG; Xing-jun HONG; Ting HU

    2014-01-01

    Water levels in reservoirs are generally not allowed to exceed the flood-limited water level during the flood season, which means that huge amounts of water spill in order to provide adequate storage for flood prevention and that it is difficult to fill the reservoir fully at the end of year. Early reservoir refill is an effective method for addressing the contradiction between the needs of flood control and of comprehensive utilization. This study selected the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the water source for the middle route of the South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) in China, as a case study, and analyzed the necessity and operational feasibility of early reservoir refill. An early reservoir refill model is proposed based on the maximum average storage ratio, optimized by the progressive optimality algorithm, and the optimal scheduling schemes were obtained. Results show that the best time of refill operation for the Danjiangkou Reservoir is September 15, and the upper limit water level during September is 166 m. The proposed early refill scheme, in stages, can increase the annual average storage ratio from 77.51% to 81.99%, and decrease spilled water from 2.439×109 m3 to 1.692×109 m3, in comparison to the original design scheme. The suggested early reservoir refill scheme can be easily operated with significant comprehensive benefits, which may provide a good reference for scheduling decision-making.

  15. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  16. The Influence of the Early Retirement Process on Satisfaction with Early Retirement and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiro, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group norms about early retirement as antecedents of the early retirement process and subsequent satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-bei...

  17. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base. PMID:26982644

  18. Interactive early warning technique based on SVDD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing current researches on early warning,it is found that"bad" data of some systems is not easy to obtain,which makes methods proposed by these researches unsuitable for monitored systems.An interactive early warning technique based on SVDD(support vector data description)is proposed to adopt"good" data as samples to overcome the difficulty in obtaining the"bad"data.The process consists of two parts:(1)A hypersphere is fitted on"good"data using SVDD.If the data object are outside the hypersphere,it would be taken as"suspicious";(2)A group of experts would decide whether the suspicious data is"bad"or"good",early warning messages would be issued according to the decisions.And the detailed process of implementation is proposed.At last,an experiment based on data of a macroeconomic system is conducted to verify the proposed technique.

  19. Evaluation of Patients with Early Repolarization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saagar Mahida MBChB; Frederic Sacher, MD; Benjamin Berte, MD; Seigo Yamashita, MD, PhD; Han Lim, MBBS, PhD; Nicolas Derval, MD; Arnaud Denis, MD; Ashok Shah, MD; Sana Amraoui, MD; Meleze Hocini, MD; Pierre Jais, MD; Michel Haissaguerre, MD.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The early repolarization pattern as long been regarded as a benign ECG variant. However in recent years, compelling evidence has emerged from a number of studies to suggest that early repolarization is associated with an increased risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The identification of the subset of patients who are at high risk of sudden death represents a significant challenge to the clinician. Multiple clinical and ECG features have been associated with an increased risk of sudden death in however the majority of risk factors confer a small increase in absolute risk. The present article reviews current evidence and potential management strategies in patients with early repolarization.

  20. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  1. DYNAMICS OF INTERHEMISPHERIC RELATIONSHIPS IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Berdichevskaia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying cerebral hemispheric interaction and the principles of their coordination allow to understand the central adaptational and compensatory mechanisms in the early developmental process of children. Objectification of the level of motor function development in children in early ontogenesis, its relationship with the profile of interhemispheric organization of the brain, and its dynamics with age is highly relevant today. With the participation of 260 practically healthy children, including 74 children age 3 to 4 years and 186 age 6 to 7 years, we studied intra- and interhemispheric relations in the motor domain using the test of finger synkinesis in the early stages of childhood. Results showed that the amount of finger synkineses, and consequently the level of integration of intra- and interhemispheric relations in the brain of the child, depended on the child’s age. Besides, the magnitude, character, positive and negative dynamics of synkineses in the process of adaptation to school depend on the lateral phenotype.

  2. Fractional Brane State in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, B D; Chowdhury, Borun D.; Mathur, Samir D.

    2006-01-01

    In the early Universe matter was crushed to high densities, in a manner similar to that encountered in gravitational collapse to black holes. String theory suggests that the large entropy of black holes can be understood in terms of fractional branes and antibranes. We assume a similar physics for the matter in the early Universe, taking a toroidal compactification and letting branes wrap around the cycles of the torus. We find an equation of state p_i=w_i rho, for which the dynamics can be solved analytically. For black holes, fractionation can lead to non-local quantum gravity effects across length scales of order the horizon radius; similar effects in the early Universe might change our understanding of Cosmology in basic ways.

  3. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  4. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (<100 ms) and later phases (>200 ms) of rising muscle...... force. Fifteen healthy young males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle...... biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area...

  5. Early Detection of Alzheimer's - A Crucial Requirement

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhari, Ijaz

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's, an old age disease of people over 65 years causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. This disease progresses very slow and its identification in early stages is very difficult. The symptoms of Alzheimer's appear slowly and gradually will have worse effects. In its early stages, not only the patients themselves but their loved ones are generally unable to accept that the patient is suffering from disease. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm to detect patients of Alzheimer's at early stages by comparing the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the patients with normal persons of their age. The progress of the disease can also be monitored by periodic comparison of the previous and current MRI.

  6. Early emergency prognosis and response centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emergency early warning system for the fourteen nuclear generating units in the country has been developed at the Nuclear Research Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. All units are connected to the host computer in the emergency center of the State Nuclear Power Authority in Kiew and interconnected with each other. The early warning system is to make another reactor accident of the magnitude of Chernobyl impossible. Installation of the hardware is to begin at the South Ukraine 3 nuclear generating unit in 1997; the costs of the pilot project are estimated at U.S. Dollar 40 million. After subsequent feasibility studies, the software and the hardware may be modified; the early warning system could be in operation countrywide by 1999. (orig.)

  7. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  8. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...

  9. Early Detection of SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahriar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SQL Injection (SQLI is a common vulnerability found in web applications.The starting point of SQLIattack is the client-side (browser. If attack inputs can be detected early at the browse side, then it could bethwarted early by not forwarding the malicious inputs to the server-side for further processing.This paperpresents a client-side approach to detect SQLI attacks1. The client-side accepts shadow SQL queries fromthe server-side and checks any deviation betweenshadow queries with dynamic queries generated withuser supplied inputs. We measure the deviation of shadow query and dynamic query based on conditionalentropy metrics and propose four metrics in this direction. We evaluate the approach with three PHPapplications containing SQLI vulnerabilities. The evaluation results indicate that our approach can detectwell-known SQLI attacks early at the client-side and impose negligible overhead.

  10. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  11. When Early Childhood and School Meet: Exploring Potential within Early Childhood-School Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Recent policy shifts have re-positioned early childhood within educational processes aimed at fostering coherence for children across the different phrases of education. In turn, this has placed a necessary demand on the early childhood-school relationship, drawing attention to existing tensions within the relationships. This paper explores…

  12. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the individual…

  13. Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

  14. The Early Communication Indicator for Infants and Toddlers: Early Head Start Growth Norms from Two States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Buzhardt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Early Communication Indicator (ECI) is a measure relevant to intervention decision making and progress monitoring for infants and toddlers. With increasing recognition of the importance of quality early childhood education and intervention for all children, measurement plays an important role in documenting children's progress and outcomes of…

  15. Is it still correct to differentiate between early and very early onset psychosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; De Crescenzo, Franco; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Wood, Stephen J; Beavan, Amanda; Armando, Marco

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether very early onset psychosis (VEOP; ≤12years of age) and early onset psychosis (EOP; onset 13-17years of age) are homogeneous in their clinical presentation. We investigated the predictive value of age of psychosis onset for severity, functioning and demographic v

  16. Early Family Transitions and Depressive Symptom Changes from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Rustenbach, Elisa; McHale, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Some research and theory suggest that early cohabitation, parenthood, and marriage have negative long-term implications. Nevertheless, in the context of their resources and opportunities, early transitions may represent positive choices for some individuals. We studied the family and personal characteristics of young adults (N = 8,172) who did,…

  17. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  18. Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Policy in Senegal. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    As part of a UNESCO-sponsored series of studies examining how integrated and coordinated early childhood policies are implemented, this case study focuses on Senegal's integrated early childhood policy. The case study examines the context for policy development and analyzes the structure and resources of the Ministry for the Family and Early…

  19. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  20. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  1. A Survey Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Confidence about Teaching Early Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; McCray, Jennifer; Adams, Margaret; Leow, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on results from the Early Mathematics Beliefs and Confidence Survey, administered to 346 preschool teachers in a large public school system in the Midwest. Survey results depict a much more positive view of teachers' beliefs and confidence in early math teaching than previously reported. Results also suggest that teacher…

  2. Improved early identification of arthritis : evaluating the efficacy of Early Arthritis Recognition Clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nies, Jessica A. B.; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van Gaalen, Floris A.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Posthumus, Marcel D.; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Only 31% of Dutch rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-patients visit a rheumatologist within 12weeks after symptom onset; this is mainly due to delay at the level of the general practitioner (GP). In order to reduce delay of GPs in identifying early arthritis, we initiated an Early Arthritis Recogni

  3. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits...... the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting....

  4. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  5. Early Literacy Promotion in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navsaria, Dipesh; Sanders, Lee M

    2015-10-01

    School readiness and educational success is strongly mediated by early literacy skills. In both exam-room and community-based settings, child-health providers can affect the trajectory of early literacy by implementing evidence-based, culturally appropriate interventions that support child development, parenting skills, and child-caregiver interaction. Despite limited research on the subject, these interventions should also attend to the evolving role of digital-media exposure (both positive and negative) on the developmental health of children. PMID:26318952

  6. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  7. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel the...... causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional on...

  8. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  9. Early labour market returns to college subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Buonanno, Paolo

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  10. The early use of radiotracers in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the historical background to the use of radiotracers, pioneered by de Hevesy and Paneth before World War I. It traces their early use in ion and metal interchange in electrolysis, self-diffusion rates, early biochemical experiments on lead uptake in plants, phosphorus metabolism in rats, through to their wider use with the production of artificial radioisotopes after World War II. Photosynthesis experiments using carbon-11 and carbon-14 are described and their present-day widespread use in kinetics, metabolic pathway studies and therapeutics is discussed. (UK)

  11. Sulphur tales from the early Archean world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montinaro, A.; Strauss, H.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentary and magmatic rocks and their distinct sulphur isotopic signatures indicate the sources and processes of sulphur cycling, in particular through the analysis of all four stable sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S). Research over the past 15 years has substantially advanced our understanding of sulphur cycling on the early Earth, most notably through the discovery of mass-independently fractionated sulphur isotopic signatures. A strong atmospheric influence on the early Archean global sulphur cycle is apparent, much in contrast to the modern world. Diverse microbially driven sulphur cycling is clearly discernible, but its importance for Earth surface environments remains to be quantified.

  12. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    In early conceptual design the design team is working in an uncertain situation, where the understanding of a need is limited and not much is known about the solution space. In this situation the design team has to both analyse need and explore solution space. Thus, the team has to formulate design...... structure and content of design specifications during early ideation activities, where initial design specifications are formulated and a product idea is synthesised. We have analysed specification documents of 19 teams of novice designers. Our analysis indicates that a productive product design...

  13. Measuring time during early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Patrick L; Deneke, Victoria E; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In most metazoans, embryonic development is orchestrated by a precise series of cellular behaviors. Understanding how such events are regulated to achieve a stereotypical temporal progression is a fundamental problem in developmental biology. In this review, we argue that studying the regulation of the cell cycle in early embryonic development will reveal novel principles of how embryos accurately measure time. We will discuss the strategies that have emerged from studying early development of Drosophila embryos. By comparing the development of flies to that of other metazoans, we will highlight both conserved and alternative mechanisms to generate precision during embryonic development. PMID:26994526

  14. Early Childhood Development in the SDGs

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Agreement on the Sustainable Development Goals signals that early childhood development (ECD) will be a priority focus for the twenty-first century. Explicit mention is made in Target 4.2 which states that by 2030 countries should: ‘ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education’. But SDG commitments to ECD are much broader than this education- focused target. This Policy Brief offe...

  15. Shared services: strengthening early care and education

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Stoney; Naman Libbie Poppick

    2010-01-01

    Early learning lasts a lifetime. We now have a strong body of evidence that learning is especially significant in the first five years of life and affects brain architecture for years to come.1 That’s why high-quality early care and education (ECE) is vital for children’s academic and social success.2 And given that more than 60 percent of U.S. mothers of children younger than 5 years old are working and that 73 percent of those children are regularly in child care, making sure that ECE is a ...

  16. Supersymmetry in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetric flat directions can have a number of important consequences in the very early universe. Depending on the form of the SUSY breaking potential arising from the finite energy density at early times, coherent production of scalar condensates can result along such directions. This leads a cosmological disaster for Polonyi type flat directions with only Planck suppressed couplings, but can give rise to the baryon asymmetry for standard model flat directions. Flat directions are also natural candidates to act as inflatons. Achieving density fluctuations of the correct magnitude generally requires an additional hidden SUSY breaking sector

  17. The discovery of early pottery in China:

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Zhang

    2002-01-01

    During the transitional period from the Upper Pleistocene to the onset of the Holocene, there were two different cultural traditions in southern and northern China.The pottery appeared in both cultures.The earliest pottery in southern China might be dated back to 16 000 b.p.The early pottery found in the North is later than the earliest pottery in southern China,the Russian FarEast, and Japan,but its character bears some similarity with the early pottery from other areas,especially from the R...

  18. Cherry Tree Restaurant: Early Bird Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry Tree Restaurant, Ballina

    2012-01-01

    The Cherry Tree restaurant was opened by chef/proprietor Harry McKeogh in Ballina, Co. Mayo in 2000. It is a contemporary style restaurant with waterside views. Produce is sourced from the local area where possible and a range of menus are offered from early bird to à la carte. The restaurant has won a number of awards and recommendations Restaurant website available here The Early Bird Menu is available 6-9 p.m. Wednesday to Thursday and 6 p.m to 7.30 p.m. Friday and Saturday. Three co...

  19. Quantum coherent oscillations in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovski, Igor; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Cosmic inflation is commonly assumed to be driven by quantum fields. Quantum mechanics predicts phenomena such as quantum fluctuations and tunneling of the field. Here, we show an example of a quantum interference effect which goes beyond the semiclassical treatment and which may be of relevance in the early Universe. We study the quantum coherent dynamics for a tilted, periodic potential, which results in genuine quantum oscillations of the inflaton field, analogous to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter and atomic systems. The underlying quantum superpositions are typically very fragile but may persist in the early Universe giving rise to quantum interference phenomena in cosmology.

  20. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  1. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar

    2011-01-01

    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  2. New Directions in Intercultural Early Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melinda; Petriwskyj, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early education in Australia encompasses both early education and care (ECEC) and the early years of school. Educational approaches to cultural and linguistic diversity have varied not only by sector but also by jurisdiction based on distinct curriculum frameworks and policies. In Australian early education, provision for cultural and linguistic…

  3. Functional Categories in Early Child German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the representation of phrase structure in early child German through the investigation of longitudinal data from seven German-speaking toddlers with respect to verb placement, verb inflection, negation, /wh/ pronouns, and complementizers. It is argued that children construct phrase-structure trees in a gradual fashion, on the basis of…

  4. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…

  5. Putting Early Academics in Their Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyson, Marilou

    2003-01-01

    Reviews a research project of 15 years ago that investigated whether children were better or worse off when they attended preschools that emphasized adult-directed instruction and the basics of reading and math rather than preschools that focused on play and exploration. Now, the most effective early childhood classrooms nurture both children's…

  6. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  7. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  8. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  9. Physics of the Very Early Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    1995-01-01

    In this report of the workshop on `Physics of the Very Early Universe' held at GR14, the recent status and open problems in a selected number of major areas of interest are reviewed, focusing on attempts to develop a superstring cosmology and on progress in understanding current theories of structure formation.

  10. The quantum echo of the early universe

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco; Garay, L J; Martín-Benito, M; Martin-Martinez, E.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the fluctuations of quantum fields as seen by late comoving observers are significantly influenced by the history of the early Universe, and therefore they transmit information about the nature of spacetime in timescales when quantum gravitational effects were non-negligible. We discuss how this may be observable even nowadays, and thus used to build falsifiability tests of quantum gravity theories.

  11. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  12. Sexism and Early Parenting: Cause and Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Theresa

    1987-01-01

    Sexism and sex role stereotyping exacerbate teen pregnancy rates in several ways. This article attempts to synthesize relevant research and uses existing research to detail the specific ways sexism abets early parenting. Several recommendations for addressing teen pregnancy issues are made. (IAH)

  13. Early Language Milestones and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed appearance of early language milestones can be one of the first signs of a developmental disorder. In this study, we investigated how well late acquisition of language milestones predicted an outcome of specific language impairment (SLI). The sample included 150 children (76 SLI), aged 4 to 7 years old. Milestone information was collected…

  14. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  15. Emergent Literacy and Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice; Vezzani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors aimed to assess the short- and long-term predictive power of the various components of an emergent literacy model on early writing abilities in a language with a mainly transparent orthography (Italian). Emergent literacy skills were assessed in 72 children (M age = 5.05 years, SD = plus or minus 0.03) who were…

  16. EARLY PREDICTORS OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta Bali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate role of early pregnancy BMI and diastolic BP as predictors of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia and to estimate early pregnancy serum uric acid levels and correlate it with gestational hypertension and pre eclampsia. METHOD: 100 pregna nt women with singleton gestation in first trimester of pregnancy(8 – 12 weeks coming for their first antenatal check - up in the antenatal clinic of Mahatma Gandhi Medical college and Hospital , Sitapura Jaipur were included in the study and their body mass index , diastolic pressure and serum uric acid were recorded. RESULT: Out of the 100 pregnant women studied , 8 developed pre eclampsia in later half of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation of high BMI (>23 kg/m2 in early pregnancy with later dev elopment of PIH (p = 0.000.Similarly women with elevated serum uric acid levels (>5mg/dl in the first trimester were also more likely to develop PIH (p =0.010 while the relationship of higher diastolic BP (>80mmHg in early pregnancy to later developmen t of PIH was found to be not statistically significant (p =0.117. CONCLUSION: There is a need for high quality , large scale multi - center trials which enroll patients with different risks of developing the syndrome and throughout multi - ethnical background , in order to assess the predictive value of different markers and finally propose the best marker combination for a routine use in clinical settings

  17. Prevent Vision Loss with Early Diagnosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inside the eye. But here's the catch -- the treatments are only helpful if the disease is discovered early and although this may not always be easy, sometimes there are obvious signs of trouble -- Like a change in how colors look or a blurring at the center of ...

  18. Work Disability in Early Systemic Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandqvist, Gunnel; Hesselstrand, Roger; Petersson, Ingemar F;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study work disability (WD) with reference to levels of sick leave and disability pension in early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with SSc living in the southern part of Sweden with onset of their first non-Raynaud symptom between 2003 and 2009 and with a followup of 36...

  19. Early Identification of Cushing's Syndrome in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Pediatric Cushing’s Adrenal Cancer Early Identification of Cushing’s Syndrome in Children Meg Keil, MS, CNP, Dalia Batista, ... NICHD, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Cushing’s Syndrome in Children The incidence of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome ...

  20. Transforming Early Childhood Education through Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…

  1. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.43 Early... score in the very good risk category and has completed two continuous years of supervision free from an incident of new criminal behavior or serious parole violation; or (ii) Has a salient factor score in a...

  2. Preclinical lung disease in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Perez, Alejandro; Luburich, Patricio; Rodriguez-Sanchon, Benigno; Dorca, Jordi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Molina-Molina, Maria; Narvaez-Garcia, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Early detection and treatment of lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may ameliorate disease progression. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic lung abnormalities in early RA patients and the potential association of positive RA blood reactive biomolecules with lung involvement. A prospective observational study was performed in a cohort of patients with early RA (joint symptoms < 2 years) without respiratory symptoms, who were included in a screening program for lung disease with a baseline chest radiograph (CR) and complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs). In those patients with lung abnormalities on the CR or PFTs, a high-resolution chest computed tomography scan (HRCT) was performed. We included 40 patients (30 women). Altered PFTs were detected in 18 (45%) of these patients. These cases had a diffusion lung transfer capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) of <80% of predicted, without a significant reduction in the forced vital capacity. The HRCT detected abnormalities in 11 of the 18 patients. Diffuse bronchiectasis was the main finding. An inverse correlation between the anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) levels and DLCO was found. Asymptomatic lung disease is present in up to 45% of early RA patients and can be determined by PFTs and ACPA levels. PMID:26846584

  3. Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…

  4. The Quantum Underground: Early quantum theory textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2011-04-01

    Quantum theory had its beginnings in 1900, when Max Planck derived his famous formula for the energy density of black-body radiation. But the early quantum theory textbooks we remember today--for example, those of Arnold Summerfeld (1919), Fritz Reiche (1921), and a shorter Report by James Jeans (1914), did not appear until some years later, and all were written by physicists who were themselves active participants in early quantum theory. Surprisingly, not all early texts fit this pattern. Reiche himself had written a review article on quantum theory for general readers in Die Naturwissenschaften in 1913, long before his research had shifted to quantum topics. And a year later, textbooks by Hermann Sieveking and Sigfried Valentiner treated quantum theory for students and non-specialists, although neither was active in quantum theoretical research. A third and better known author, Owen Richardson, also treated quantum theory in a 1914 book on electromagnetism. I will describe these early and little-known treatments of quantum theory, all of which were written by physicists whose primary research and professional interests lay elsewhere.

  5. Sexual Socialization during Early Adolescence: The Menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann-Gainotti, Merete

    1986-01-01

    Explored early socialization of beliefs and attitudes toward menarche in 258 adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, male and female pre- and postmenarcheal, from southern Italy. Results showed a consistent lack of accurate information by a high percentage of subjects, both male and female; negative beliefs were held only by girls, boys tended to ignore…

  6. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the employer, the time involved must be added to the employee's tour of duty and treated as... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early... pursuant to employee agreement, either expressed or implied. This practice will not have the effect...

  7. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  8. Measuring in support of early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Clyde; Clinton, Jean; Lynk, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    A child's early experiences and environments have a significant, measurable effect on later life trajectories of health and well-being. Each child's own world, especially parents and other caregivers, literally sculpts the brain and impacts stress pathways. Effective early childhood interventions exist that can improve adult and societal outcomes. In this statement, the Canadian Paediatric Society calls on federal and provincial/territorial governments to measure and monitor the developmental progress of children in Canada, which can vary widely among communities and demographic groups. The statement explores the objectives for collecting quality information about early child development, its determinants and long-term outcomes. It also examines four approaches to collecting population-based, person-specific and longitudinal data, both in young children and later in life. A key outcome of monitoring development is timely intervention. Linking individual data to the home and community levels is a critical step, so that communities and governments can monitor and take actions that support early child development. PMID:23204908

  9. Hungry for Early Spatial and Algebraic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Dionne I.; Adefope, Olufunke; Lee, Mi Yeon; Perez, Arnulfo

    2012-01-01

    Tasks that develop spatial and algebraic reasoning are crucial for learning and applying advanced mathematical ideas. In this article, the authors describe how two early childhood teachers used stories as the basis for a unit that supports spatial reasoning in kindergartners and first graders. Having mathematical experiences that go beyond…

  10. Kendall Square multiprocessor: Early experiences and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1992-04-01

    Initial performance results and early experiences are reported for the Kendall Square Research multiprocessor. The basic architecture of the shared-memory multiprocessor is described, and computational and I/O performance is measured for both serial and parallel programs. Experiences in porting various applications are described.

  11. Sharing Alphabet Books in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Jones, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To achieve academically, young children need a strong foundation in literacy. Alphabet knowledge is one aspect of early literacy. This article presents the importance of and the components of alphabet knowledge. An exploratory study in which prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers read aloud three different alphabet books to their students in a…

  12. Planck Early Results: I. The Planck mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2011-01-01

    an overview of the history of Planck in its first year of operations, and describe some of the key performance aspects of the satellite. This paper is part of a package submitted in conjunction with Planck’s Early Release Compact Source Catalogue, the first data product based on Planck to be released...

  13. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  14. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia, the...

  15. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  16. Total respiratory impedance and early emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, E; Demedts, M; Van de Woestijne, K P

    1993-09-01

    It can be postulated that patients in early stages of pulmonary emphysema have normal values of total respiratory resistance and reactance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema, detected functionally by a decrease of the single breath diffusing capacity (DLCO) by at least 25% of predicted, and an increase of the static lung compliance (CLst) by at least 50% of predicted, can be accompanied by normal values of respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), measured between 2 and 24 Hz by the forced oscillation technique. In a prospective study, we determined CLst in 26 patients, who had been selected on the basis of normal values of Rrs and Xrs, and a DLCO of less than 75% of predicted. In 17 of these patients, CLst was more than 150% of predicted. Since there were only minor abnormalities on routine lung function tests and chest X-ray, it is likely that these patients presented early emphysema. In the nine other patients, CLst was within normal limits: four suffered from interstitial lung disease; the remaining five were probably in a preliminary stage of early emphysema. In conclusion, early emphysema should systematically be considered as the first diagnosis in patients with normal values of Rrs and Xrs, and a decrease of DLCO. Onset of interstitial lung disease is a possible alternative. PMID:8224134

  17. Stellar Relics from the Early Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Sivarani

    2013-03-01

    We reviewed the recent progress in the field of stellar/galactic archeology, which is a study of the relics from the early galaxy. The oldest and most pristine objects that can be observed in the galaxy are the low mass metal poor stars of the Milky Way. They were formed during the early phases, when the ISM might have been polluted only by the Pop-III supernovae. With the recent large spectroscopic surveys (e.g. HK survey by Beers and collaborators, the Hamburg-ESO survey by Christlieb and collaborators and Sloan Digital Sky Survey) it has been possible to get clues on the nature of the first stars that has contributed to the heavy elements. Most of these metal-poor low mass stars also retain their signature of the early dynamical evolution of the galaxy, which can be studied through their orbits around the galaxy and spatial distribution. Here, we discuss the connection between the chemical and the kinematical properties of metal-poor stars in order to probe the early galaxy formation. We also discuss about the globular clusters, the satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and its possible contribution to the formation of the galaxy halo.

  18. Luncheon address: Early days of CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I will briefly describe how the original dimensions of the fuel bundle were defined and how that early designs of fuel evolved. I will also touch on some of the historical events of the materials and experiments which effected the fuel programme. Also how I became with Canada's Nuclear Fuel programme. (author)

  19. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M.A.; Andriole, G.; Brawley, O.W.; Brown, P.H.; Culig, Z.; Eeles, R.A.; Ford, L.G.; Hamdy, F.C.; Holmberg, L.; Ilic, D.; Key, T.J.; Vecchia, C. La; Lilja, H.; Marberger, M.; Meyskens, F.L.; Minasian, L.M.; Parker, C.; Parnes, H.L.; Perner, S.; Rittenhouse, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmid, H.P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schroder, F.H.; Stenzl, A.; Tombal, B.; Wilt, T.J.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-speci

  20. Erikson's Psychosocial Theories Help Explain Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, M. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…

  1. Coping and Mental Health in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique

    1995-01-01

    Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)

  2. Speculations on the early course of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Darnell, J E; Doolittle, W F

    1986-01-01

    The proposal that RNA preceded DNA in evolution is more than 15 years old. In light of recent studies on RNA processing (including protein-free reactions), present knowledge about eukaryotic gene structure, and studies comparing ribosomal RNA sequences, we propose a train of events for precellular and early cellular evolution.

  3. Implementing Children's Rights in Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te One, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Recent research (Te One, 2009) investigated perceptions of children's rights in a New Zealand early childhood care and education service (the Creche) for under-two-year-olds. Focus group interviews, interviews with teachers, observational field notes, photographs and a researcher's journal were used to generate data. Findings revealed that…

  4. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  5. Understanding Early Educators' Readiness to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shira M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the fields of humanistic psychology, counseling, organizational change, and implementation science have been asking a question that is at the heart of today's early care and education quality improvement efforts: When it comes to changing one's behavior, what makes a person ready to change? Although the concept of readiness to…

  6. Early word recognition and later language skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of

  7. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  8. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  9. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is a…

  10. Following Watery Relations in Early Childhood Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…

  11. Early Complementopathy after Multiple Injuries in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burk, Anne-Maud; Martin, Myriam; Flierl, Michael A; Rittirsch, Daniel; Helm, Matthias; Lampl, Lorenz; Bruckner, Uwe; Stahl, Gregory L.; Blom, Anna M.; Perl, Mario; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After severe tissue injury, innate immunity mounts a robust systemic inflammatory response. However, little is known about the immediate impact of multiple trauma on early complement function in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that multiple trauma results in immediate activation, consumption and dysfunction of the complement cascade and that the resulting severe “complementopathy” may be associated with morbidity and mortality.

  12. Automated early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abràmoff, M.D.; Reinhardt, J.M.; Russell, S.R.; Folk, J.C.; Mahajan, V.B.; Niemeijer, M.; Quellec, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, the Challenge2009, against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project. Desig

  13. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  14. Trajectories of Autism Severity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about trajectories of autism severity using calibrated severity scores (CSS) from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, but characterizing these trajectories has important theoretical and clinical implications. This study examined CSS trajectories during early childhood. Participants were 129 children with autism…

  15. Early pregnancy assessment in multiple pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Francesco; Bhide, Amar

    2014-02-01

    Early ultrasound assessment and accurate determination of chorionicity is crucial so that appropriate care of multiple pregnancy can be provided. It is best achieved in the first trimester of pregnancy using the Lambda 'λ' and 'T' signs. Accurate labelling of the twins is needed to ensure that the same individual fetus is measured through the pregnancy so that the longitudinal growth pattern can be correctly assessed. Discrepancy in crown-rump length indicates a possibility for future development of selective intrauterine growth restriction. Careful early ultrasound assessment is needed to identify structural and chromosomal anomalies, as twin pregnancies are at increased risk. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, selective intrauterine growth restriction and congenital abnormalities represent the major determinants of perinatal loss in monochorionic pregnancies, and diagnosis and prognosis are discussed in detail. Treatment of twin reverse arterial perfusion sequence is more effective in early pregnancy, so early identification is needed. Outcome of conjoined twins is guarded, and is dependent on the extent of fusion, degree of sharing of organs, associated anomalies, and presence of cardiac failure in utero. PMID:24355992

  16. Four Seasons Hotel: Early Supper Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Four Seasons Hotel

    2013-01-01

    The Four Seasons Hotel located at Simmonscourt Road in Dublin 4 offers a wide range of fine dining experiences. This Early Bird menu is available from 18.00 -1900 hours and offers two courses for €25 and three courses for €30.

  17. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.; Magrini, S.M.; Santarelli, M.T.

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a glob...

  18. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  19. The California State University Early Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Ruth E.; Zitzer-Comfort, Carol; Quirk, Matthew; Alexander, Pia

    2008-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) requires entering freshmen to be proficient in English reading and writing, as demonstrated on proficiency measures. Currently, approximately 46 percent of incoming college freshmen need remediation in English reading and writing. To assist these students, CSU instituted an Early Assessment Program (EAP),…

  20. Early Childhood Music Education Research: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…

  1. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staged? Testicular cancer survival rates Previous Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Next Topic Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular ... Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  2. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  3. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  4. Early Childhood Education at the Cultural Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Marguerite; Buxton, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The "Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" emphasises that children's own identity is constructed within their given context of family and community. This article presents the findings of a multiple case study project undertaken within five remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. Community Elders were…

  5. Operating Principles and Early Lexical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.

    Two types of operating principles thought to play an important role in early lexical development are discussed. The principles are those concerned with: (1) assignment of reference or meaning to words; and (2) formation and evolution of categories. Discussion also addresses related issues, such as the developmentally important relationship between…

  6. Vaginal Misoprostol in Early Pregnancy Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Suguna R Kumar; Vidya A Thobbi; Shafia Shafi

    2010-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure (EPF) occurs in 10-15% of clinically diagnosed pregnancies. 65% of these women are not willing for surgical evacuation. Medical evacuation is gaining acceptance as a treatment of option than surgical or expectant management. This is a prospective clinical trial of 150 pregnant women with EPF of

  7. Diversity in Early Childhood Services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory

    This study used structured interviews to examine the views of 101 South Australian immigrant families, grouped by country of origin, concerning their educational expectations for their children ages birth to 8 years. The overall research questions were: (1) What are the parental expectations of immigrant groups for the early education of their…

  8. Creativity in Music and Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)

  9. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  10. Amorites in the Early Old Babylonian Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Rients de

    2014-01-01

    The Amorites are known throughout the history of the Ancient Near East: they occur in texts from the Ur III empire (2100–2000 bc), but also in the Bible. In the Old Babylonian period (2000–1600 bc), several dynasties of Amorite kings ruled all over the Middle East. They came to power in the early Ol

  11. Mentoring Early Career Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Carty, Breda

    2009-01-01

    For some time, special education has been plagued by shortages of qualified teaching staff and by high turnover rates for these staff. While several factors--external, employment and personal--are largely responsible for this situation, the research demonstrates that the initial professional experiences of early career teachers are closely…

  12. Analog "neuronal" networks in early vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C; Marroquin, J; Yuille, A

    1986-01-01

    Many problems in early vision can be formulated in terms of minimizing a cost function. Examples are shape from shading, edge detection, motion analysis, structure from motion, and surface interpolation. As shown by Poggio and Koch [Poggio, T. & Koch, C. (1985) Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 226, 303-323], quadratic variational problems, an important subset of early vision tasks, can be "solved" by linear, analog electrical, or chemical networks. However, in the presence of discontinuities, the cost function is nonquadratic, raising the question of designing efficient algorithms for computing the optimal solution. Recently, Hopfield and Tank [Hopfield, J. J. & Tank, D. W. (1985) Biol. Cybern. 52, 141-152] have shown that networks of nonlinear analog "neurons" can be effective in computing the solution of optimization problems. We show how these networks can be generalized to solve the nonconvex energy functionals of early vision. We illustrate this approach by implementing a specific analog network, solving the problem of reconstructing a smooth surface from sparse data while preserving its discontinuities. These results suggest a novel computational strategy for solving early vision problems in both biological and real-time artificial vision systems. PMID:3459172

  13. Analog ``Neuronal'' Networks in Early Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christof; Marroquin, Jose; Yuille, Alan

    1986-06-01

    Many problems in early vision can be formulated in terms of minimizing a cost function. Examples are shape from shading, edge detection, motion analysis, structure from motion, and surface interpolation. As shown by Poggio and Koch [Poggio, T. & Koch, C. (1985) Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 226, 303-323], quadratic variational problems, an important subset of early vision tasks, can be ``solved'' by linear, analog electrical, or chemical networks. However, in the presence of discontinuities, the cost function is nonquadratic, raising the question of designing efficient algorithms for computing the optimal solution. Recently, Hopfield and Tank [Hopfield, J. J. & Tank, D. W. (1985) Biol. Cybern. 52, 141-152] have shown that networks of nonlinear analog ``neurons'' can be effective in computing the solution of optimization problems. We show how these networks can be generalized to solve the nonconvex energy functionals of early vision. We illustrate this approach by implementing a specific analog network, solving the problem of reconstructing a smooth surface from sparse data while preserving its discontinuities. These results suggest a novel computational strategy for solving early vision problems in both biological and real-time artificial vision systems.

  14. Just Say Yes to Early Algebra!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics educators have argued for some time that elementary school students are capable of engaging in algebraic thinking and should be provided with rich opportunities to do so. Recent initiatives like the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) have taken up this call by reiterating the place of early algebra in…

  15. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  16. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  17. Early history of NMR at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has developed into an important research tool in chemistry. More recently, NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy promise to produce a revolution in medicine and biochemistry. Early experiments at Los Alamos led to DOE programs involving stable isotopes of importance to biology and to medicine. These events are briefly recounted. 2 refs

  18. The challenge of early surgery for cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Jensen, C.L.; Langballe, O;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In congenital cryptorchidism, a recent Nordic Consensus report recommends surgical correction at 6–12 months of age to prevent male infertility. In published series of orchiopexies the median age at surgery is often 3 years or more. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early...

  19. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  20. Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Howard L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. Results CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. Conclusions While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the finding of strong genetic differentiation between islands do not support this view. Therefore, our study is a nice example of how recently developed analytical tools such as Bayesian clustering analysis and DNA sequence-based demographic analyses can overcome potential biases introduced by simply relying on FST estimates from markers with different inheritance patterns.

  1. THE PROBLEMS OF EARLY CLINICAL DEFECTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar CORDIC

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical defectological diagnostics, related to diagnostics of each individual's impairment of his cognitive and socializing abilities, has been applied in our country for a long time. Since it is a new area in the clinical defectological work and a new form of research in defectology, it poses a series of problems which have not been met so far. We shall to recognize some of them in this paper and to aim at their solution.This time we shall consider only the most prominent problems towards which we direct our interventions:· When does defectological diagnostics take part in diagnosis as treatment of impairments of the handicapped person? When does it function in the process of rehabilitation? For example, is working with a dyslexic child treatment or rehabilitation?· When does the early diagnostics reveal a problem arising from inappropriate intersection of different development courses, which can sometimes be solved without any particular treatment (early stuttering, various convulsions, and when does it reveal actual condition, such as oligophrenia or autism. Thereby we ask ourselves if early stimulative treatment of oligophrenic children or children with early childhood psychosis is treatment or rehabilitation.We tried to classify end explain the problems of diagnostics in the context of treatment and rehabilitation and to define the theoretical grounds for our standpoints.We wanted to point out the unity of the process of any impairment of the handicapped person from early childhood to the end of his life. Treatment and rehabilitation should be a united process and follow the course of development of early disorders which sometimes end up as handicaps, and sometimes, thanks to the treatment, may end up in successful socialization, for example, persons with impaired hearing or sight.We establish defectology as a complete theoretical standpoint and expert procedure which is parallel to and complementary with medicine. The only difference we

  2. Early Mother-Child Separation, Parenting, and Child Well-Being in Early Head Start Families

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Kimberly; Martin, Anne; Berlin, Lisa J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on theories of attachment and family instability, this study examined associations between early mother-child separation and subsequent maternal parenting behaviors and children’s outcomes in a sample of 2080 families who participated in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, the vast majority of whom were poor. Multiple regression models revealed that, controlling for baseline family and maternal characteristics and indicators of family instability, the occurrence of a...

  3. The Impact of Early Childhood Education on Early Achievement Gaps in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Haeil; Hasan, Amer

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses whether the Indonesia Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) project had an impact on early achievement gaps as measured by an array of child development outcomes and enrolment. First, using a fixed-effects model with a difference-in-difference estimator that compares children in project villages with those in non-project villages, we find that the positive impacts are concentrated among poor children. Second, extending our fixed-effects model, we also find that ...

  4. Practices for Parent Participation in Early Intervention/ Early Childhood Special Education

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Serra; Akamoğlu, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which practices for parent participation in early intervention/ early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs. The role of parents in the EI/ECSE is important and supported through the literature. The changing traditional family picture in the classrooms, the importance of evolving laws and regulations and recommended practices regarding parent participation are highlighted. The conceptual framework is based on the children, parents, and practitioners...

  5. Photochemical Escape of Oxygen from Early Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical escape is an important process for oxygen escape from present Mars. In this work, a 1-D Monte-Carlo Model is developed to calculate escape rates of energetic oxygen atoms produced from O2+ dissociative recombination reactions (DR) under 1, 3, 10, and 20 times present solar XUV fluxes. We found that although the overall DR rates increase with solar XUV flux almost linearly, oxygen escape rate increases from 1 to 10 times present solar XUV conditions but decreases when increasing solar XUV flux further. Analysis shows that atomic species in the upper thermosphere of early Mars increases more rapidly than O2+ when increasing XUV fluxes. While the latter is the source of energetic O atoms, the former increases the collision probability and thus decreases the escape probability of energetic O. Our results suggest that photochemical escape be a less important escape mechanism than previously thought for the loss of water and/or CO2 from early Mars.

  6. Particle physics in the very early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  7. Liriodenine, early antimicrobial defence in Annona diversifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Chacón, Iván; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa; Guevara Fefer, Patricia; Jímenez Garcia, Luis Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Annonaceae aporphine alkaloids, of which liriodenine is the most abundant, have not been extensively studied from a biological standpoint. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of liriodenine in antimicrobial defense during early developmental stages in Annona diversifolia. The fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus glaucus, which are responsible for seed deterioration, were isolated during imbibition, and their antifungal activity was determined by diffusion, macrodilution, and metabolic inhibition assays using purified liriodenine and alkaloid extracts obtained from embryos, radicles, and roots at early developmental stages. The presence of liriodenine in extracts was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Purified liriodenine and alkaloidal extracts inhibited both fungi, and there was a positive relationship between extract activity and amount of liriodenine contained therein. The quantity of liriodenine present in extracts suggests its importance in controlling other phytopathogens. PMID:21950162

  8. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up to...... investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  9. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Aagaard, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    Objective the aim of this study was to investigate new parents׳ experiences of early postnatal discharge. Design a meta-synthesis including 10 qualitative studies was conducted using Noblit and Hare׳s method of meta-synthesis development. Setting qualitative studies performed in western countries...... from 2003–2013 were included. Participants the 10 included studies involved 237 mothers and fathers, first time parents as well as multiparous. Findings we identified four overlapping and mutually dependent themes reflecting the new parents׳ experiences of early postnatal discharge: Feeling and taking...... responsibility; A time of insecurity; Being together as a family; and Striving to be confident. The mothers׳ and fathers׳ experiences of responsibility, security and confidence in their parental role, were positively influenced by having the opportunity to be together as a family, receiving postnatal care that...

  10. The early days of splints and splinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-07-01

    There can be little doubt that fractures and wounds would have been among the first problems that the healers within primitive communities would have been called upon to treat. Indeed, this has been amply confirmed by anthropologists and archaeologists. The Australian aboriginals seem to have taken the adage 'splint the patient where he lies' quite literally. Early observers saw the relatives take it in turns simply to hold the injured leg still until union occurred, a shelter being erected over the patient and his succession of 'human splints'. The excavation of ancient Egyptian burial sites by Sir Grafton Elliot Smith in the early years of the 20th century revealed fractures of some 5000 years ago, bound up in splints of bark, wrapped in linen and held by bandages. Where the fractures were compound, dressings of vegetable fibre were used to plug the wound and some still showed traces of 50 century old blood! PMID:21874991

  11. Chemical evolution of the early Martian hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the early Martian hydrosphere is discussed. The early Martian ocean can be modeled as a body of relatively pure water in equilibrium with a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. The chemical weathering of lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and impact melt sheets would have the effect of neutralizing the acidity of the juvenile water. As calcium and other cations are added to the water by chemical weathering, they are quickly removed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate and other minerals, forming a deposit of limestone beneath the surface of the ocean. As the atmospheric carbon dioxide pressure and the temperature decrease, the Martian ocean would be completely frozen. Given the scenario for the chemical evolution of the northern lowland plains of Mars, it should be possible to draw a few conclusions about the expected mineralogy and geomorphology of this regions.

  12. Early comprehension of the Spanish plural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M; Smith, Linda B; Alva Canto, Elda A

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement markers, may facilitate early understanding of how plural linguistic cues map to novel referents. Two-year-old Mexican children correctly identified multiple novel object referents when multiple verbal cues in a phrase indicated plurality as well as in instances when the noun morphology in novel nouns was the only indicator of plurality. These results demonstrate Spanish-speaking children's ability to use plural noun inflectional morphology to infer novel word referents which may have implications for their word learning. PMID:24560441

  13. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Freiesleben Hansen, Per

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete which includes the transitional thermal effect. The model govern both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model are assumed to depend on the...... imbalance in the microstructure termed the microprestresses, which reduces the stiffness of the concrete and increase the creep rate. The aging material is modelled in an incremental way reflecting the hydration process in which new layers of cement gel solidifies in a stress free state and add stiffness to...

  14. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard, A. B.; Damkilde, L.; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete that includes the transitional thermal effect. The model governs both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model is assumed to depend on the...... imbalance in the microstructure termed the microprestresses, which reduce the stiffness of the concrete and increase the creep rate. The aging material is modeled in an incremental way reflecting the hydration process in which new layers of cement gel solidify in a stress free state and add stiffness to the...

  15. Early Failures Benefit Subsequent Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igata, Hideyoshi; Sasaki, Takuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Animals navigate using cognitive maps. However, how they adaptively exploit these maps in changing environments is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the problem-solving behaviors of mice in a complicated maze in which multiple routes with different intersections were available (Test 1). Although all mice eventually settled on the shortest route, mice that initially exhibited more trial-and-error exploration solved the maze more rapidly. We then introduced one or two barriers that obstructed learned routes such that mice had to establish novel roundabout detours (Tests 2/3). Solutions varied among mice but were predictable based on individual early trial-and-error patterns observed in Test 1: mice that had initially explored more extensively found better solutions. Finally, when the barriers were removed (Test 4), all mice reverted to the best solution after active exploration. Thus, early active exploration helps mice to develop optimal strategies. PMID:26883387

  16. Structure Formation in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations generated in its very early history. Recent observations of the cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, and distant supernovae determined the energy content of the Universe and the basic statistics of the initial density field with great accuracy. It has become possible to make accurate predictions for the formation and nonlinear growth of structure from early to the present epochs. We review recent progress in the theory of structure formation in the universe. We focus on the formation of the first cosmological objects. Results from state-of-the-art numerical simulations are presented. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars and galaxies.

  17. Early arthrosis of the digital joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthrosis of the digital joints begins predominantly on the volar joint surface and the volar-proximal margin of the head. Because of this localisation, and in order to obtain adequate contrast and definition, these early changes are best shown by means of low R.V. radiographs in three views. The early changes consist of the following local processes: intrachondral sclerosis, exomarginal and endomarginal subchondral sclerosis, discreet increase in the spongiosa; this leads to disrounding and hooklike form of the head; thickening or disappearance of the sub-marginal spongiosa and marginal defects. Artifacts produced by the projections or local bone variants must be recognised, as well as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. (orig.)

  18. Early arthrosis of the digital joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1984-05-01

    Arthrosis of the digital joints begins predominantly on the volar joint surface and the volar-proximal margin of the head. Because of this localisation, and in order to obtain adequate contrast and definition, these early changes are best shown by means of low R.V. radiographs in three views. The early changes consist of the following local processes: intrachondral sclerosis, exomarginal and endomarginal subchondral sclerosis, discreet increase in the spongiosa; this leads to disrounding and hooklike form of the head; thickening or disappearance of the sub-marginal spongiosa and marginal defects. Artifacts produced by the projections or local bone variants must be recognised, as well as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. 21 figs.

  19. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment, non qualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle. (author)

  20. The Effect of Early Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of early entrepreneurship education. To this end, we conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate a leading entrepreneurship education program that is taught worldwide in the final grade of primary school. We focus on pupils׳ development of...... entrepreneurship knowledge and a set of non-cognitive skills relevant for entrepreneurial activity. The results indicate that knowledge is unaffected by the program. However, the program has a robust positive effect on non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills. This is surprising since previous evaluations found zero...... or negative effects. Because these earlier studies all pertain to entrepreneurship education for adolescents, our result tentatively suggests that non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills are best developed at an early age. As the entrepreneurship program has various features besides its entrepreneurship...

  1. Early word meanings: perceptually or functionally based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomikawa, S A; Dodd, D H

    1980-12-01

    The issue of whether early word meaning is based on perceptual (Eve Clark) or functional (Katherine Nelson) features has not been satisfactorily resolved by previous research. The present experiments addressed this issue by presenting young children (2- and 3-year-olds) with novel objects in which perceptual and functional features varied independently. Given choices of how to sort novel artificial objects varying in both aspects, children in experiments 1 and 2 chose perceptual features with few exceptions. Experiments 3 and 4 presented the same objects to children in a concept-learning task, where nonsense labels were to be learned for perceptually or functionally based categories; the latter were much more difficult. Experiment 5 was an extension of the first 2 experiments, except that more familiar objects were employed; comparable results were found. All of the results support 1 conclusion: early conceptualizations and word meanings are perceptually based when perceptual and functional features are independently available. PMID:7471919

  2. Early days of X-ray crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Authier, André

    2013-01-01

    This book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world. It explains how the first crystal structures were determined, and recounts which were the early applications of X-ray crystallography. It also tells how the concept of space lattice has developed since ancient times, and how our understanding of the nature of light has changed over time. The contributions of the main actors of the story, prior to the discovery, at the time of the discovery and immediately afterwards, are described through their writings and are put into the context of the time, accompanied by brief biographical details.

  3. Radiotherapy of early glottic cancer. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed retrospective analysis of the results and complications of treatment of early glottic cancers is presented. Two hundred and four patients treated by radiotherapy at the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis in Amsterdam are reviewed. The results are analyzed in terms of local control, cure and complication rates. These data are compared and contrasted with a similar group of patients treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital during the same time period. It is concluded that the risk of major complications in the larynx from radiotherapy rises very rapidly once the dose of 2050 ret is exceeded. The presence of diabetes and/or hypertension and the severity of acute reaction are related to the subsequent risk of major complications. The dose cure curve for early glottic cancer has been found to be flat over the dose range considered

  4. Early damage index in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Andrianova

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize early damage index (EDI and prove its usefulness for prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE outcome. Material and methods. 154 SLE pts followed up at the Institute of Rheumatology (1R of RAMS between 1982 and 2001 were included. 47 from 154 pts examined at the 1R during the first 1,5 years from the beginning of SLE ("early disease period" were selected. Results. High frequency of cardiovascular (27,7% and nervous (26% system damage during the first 1,5 years of the disease was revealed. Musculoskeletal (12,8%, renal (10,6% and eye (8,5% damage was less frequent. EDI significance for prognosis of SLE outcome was shown.

  5. Early events in axon/dendrite polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-lin; Poo, Mu-ming

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of axons and dendrites is a critical step in neuronal development. Here we review the evidence that axon/dendrite formation during neuronal polarization depends on the intrinsic cytoplasmic asymmetry inherited by the postmitotic neuron, the exposure of the neuron to extracellular chemical factors, and the action of anisotropic mechanical forces imposed by the environment. To better delineate the functions of early signals among a myriad of cellular components that were shown to influence axon/dendrite formation, we discuss their functions by distinguishing their roles as determinants, mediators, or modulators and consider selective degradation of these components as a potential mechanism for axon/dendrite polarization. Finally, we examine whether these early events of axon/dendrite formation involve local autocatalytic activation and long-range inhibition, as postulated by Alan Turing for the morphogenesis of patterned biological structure. PMID:22715881

  6. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in...... 2003-2005. Fetuses were injected with 0.2-1.0 mg of OK-432 into the pleural cavity. The treatment was repeated if there were persistent or increasing pleural effusions after 1-3 weeks. The main outcome measures included remission of pleural effusions and fetal and infant morbidity and mortality....... RESULTS: Total remission of pleural effusions was obtained in all fetuses after one or two intrapleural injections of OK-432. No adverse effects of the treatment were observed. No fetus developed hydrops, and all experienced an uncomplicated third trimester. All children were born healthy without pleural...

  7. Early origin of the bilaterian developmental toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens and the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis have confirmed results from comparative evolutionary developmental studies that much of the developmental toolkit once thought to be characteristic of bilaterians appeared much earlier in the evolution of animals. The diversity of transcription factors and signalling pathway genes in animals with a limited number of cell types and a restricted developmental repertoire is puzzling, particularly in light of claims that such highly conserved elements among bilaterians provide evidence of a morphologically complex protostome–deuterostome ancestor. Here, I explore the early origination of elements of what became the bilaterian toolkit, and suggest that placozoans and cnidarians represent a depauperate residue of a once more diverse assemblage of early animals, some of which may be represented in the Ediacaran fauna (c. 585–542 Myr ago). PMID:19571245

  8. Early life of inshore fishes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus

    reported from numerous fjords in Norway, Canada and Greenland, very little is known about their early life history and the physical-biological mechanisms impacting their survival in such inshore areas. To better understand the processes of importance to the early life success of fish, I carried out a...... from the area was limited. Later, the seasonal breakup of ice in a connecting river resulted in an increased freshwater outflow, then enhancing the dispersal of the older larvae. Throughout the study, marked spatial and temporal differences in the zooplankton community composition were observed. The...... conditions may result in a strong recruitment, which again might be the background of the relatively high cod spawning stock biomass found in Kapisigdlit. Since different species of fish may vary in their spawning strategies and adaptations to physical and biological conditions, the larval assemblages in...

  9. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner

    2014-06-01

    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity. PMID:24434608

  10. Early History and Challenges of Implantable Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Wen H.

    2012-01-01

    Implantable systems for biomedical research and clinical care are now a flourishing field of activities in academia as well as industrial institutions. The broad field includes experimental explorations in electronics, mechanical, chemical, and biological components and systems, and the combination of all these. Today virtually all implants involve both electronic circuits and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS). This article offers a very brief glance back at the early history of implant...

  11. Conceptions of Analysis in Early Analytic Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Beaney, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Over the last few years, within analytic philosophy as a whole, there has developed a wider concern with methodological questions, partly as a result of the increasing interest in the foundations - both historical and philosophical - of analytic philosophy, and partly due to the resurgence of metaphysics in reaction to the positivism that dominated major strands in the early analytic movement. In this paper I elucidate the key conceptions of analysis that arose during the formative years of a...

  12. Topological Defects: Fossils from the Early Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    1998-01-01

    In the context of current particle physics theories, it is quite likely that topological defects may be present in our universe. An observation of these fossils from the early universe would lead to invaluable insight into cosmology and particle physics, while their absence provides important constraints on particle-cosmology model building. I describe recent efforts to address cosmological issues in condensed matter systems such as He-3 and a possible solution to the magnetic monopole proble...

  13. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Castilho, Paula; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The present study compares core beliefs between a group of patients with social phobia (n = 62), other anxiety disorders (n = 41) and a group of non-psychiatric controls (n = 55). Participants completed measures to assess social anxiety and the Young’s Schema Questionnaire (123-items version) that is designed to assess 15 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). Results suggest that the schematic structure of patients with social phobia differs from the one of patients with other anxiety d...

  14. Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborra, Irene [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Tram, Thomas [Institut de Théorie des Phénomenènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    Recent cosmological data favor additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons. Light sterile neutrinos are prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived assuming that they are thermalized at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch and such assumption is not justified a priori. We will discuss the evolution of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe and their thermalization just before BBN begins.

  15. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Untch; Christian Jackisch

    2008-01-01

    Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocri...

  16. Early neolithic social networks in western Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Claßen, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Applications of the social network approach in archaeology have been conducted in the course of a PhD thesis at the University of Cologne (Classen 2006). These analyses dealt with exchange mechanisms involved in the distribution of raw material for flint artefact production, as well as with similarities in pottery decoration, which serve as an indicator of “communication networks” between settlements of the Early Neolithic “Bandkeramik” in the Rhineland. Network analytical methods were used t...

  17. Early British synchrotrons, an informal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An historical account of the design and construction of early synchrotrons in the United Kingdom, based partly on personal reminiscences, is presented. Material is also drawn from archives at Birmingham and CERN. The document covers the period from plans for the world's first synchrotron at Malvern after the Second World War to work done at Harwell Laboratory for CERN in the period 1951-1953. (UK)

  18. Early Direct Detection of Gravity Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Fakir, Redouane

    1993-01-01

    Recently, the possibility has emerged of an early detection of astrophysical gravity waves. In certain astronomical configurations, and through a new light-deflection effect, gravity waves can cause apparent shifts in stellar angular positions as large as $10^{-7}arcsec$. In these same configurations, the magnitude of the gravity-wave-induced time-delay effect can exceed $10^{-14}$. Both these figures lie just at present-day theoretical limits of detectability. For instance, cases are describ...

  19. Early comprehension of the Spanish plural*

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M.; Smith, Linda B.; Alva Canto, Elda A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement marke...

  20. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a focus on clarifying the role of gender. Participants were 138 adoles...

  1. Early treatment of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of society, the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is increasing year by year, and the treatment is very difficult with a high disability rate. Correct prehospital first aid transportation can greatly reduce secondary injury of spinal cord caused by improper transportation. Early application of high dose methylprednisolone, internal fixation by using screw-rod system, as well as intramedually and extramedually decompression can protect the residual neurolog...

  2. Early experience with simulated trauma resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, Barry A.

    1999-01-01

    Although trauma resuscitation is best taught through direct exposure with hands-on experience, the opportunities for this type of teaching in Canada are limited by the relatively low incidence of serious injury and the consolidation of trauma care to a small number of centres. Simulators have been used extensively outside the health care environment and more recently have been used by anesthetists to simulate intraoperative crises. In this paper early experience using a realistic mannequin, c...

  3. Economics of farmer early retirement policy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, John; Caskie, Paul; Wallace, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We estimate the structural effects, costs and potential efficiency gains that might arise from the introduction of an Early Retirement Scheme for farmers in Northern Ireland using data from the Farm Business Survey and a separate survey of 350 farmers aged between 50 and 65. Modelling results suggest that farm scale is a significant determinant of profit per hectare but that operator age is not. The economic gains from releasing land through a Scheme were conditional on tr...

  4. Puppets in early foreign language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jelnikar, Tjaša

    2012-01-01

    Examining theoretical aspects and practical examples, the thesis demonstrates the importance of using puppets in the early teaching of English. It leads to the conclusion that the use of puppets is invaluable, as they significantly contribute to creating good atmosphere in the group and the child-friendly environment for learning English. Their use helps children lose the fear of loud pronunciation as the puppets, their friends, present to them “their” English language through game. Practical...

  5. Early Immune Senescence in HIV Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Seema; Landay, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Non-AIDS–defining comorbidities that occur despite viral suppression and immune reconstitution using antiretroviral therapy depict early aging process in HIV-infected individuals. During aging, a reduction in T-cell renewal, together with a progressive enrichment of terminally differentiated T cells, translates into a general decline of the immune system, gradually leading to immunosenescence. Inflammation is a hallmark of age-associated comorbidities, and immune activation is a hallmark of H...

  6. Early morphogenesis of heterodont dentition in minipigs

    OpenAIRE

    Štembírek, J. (Jan); Buchtová, M. (Marcela); Král, T.; Matalová, E.; Lozanoff, S.; Míšek, I. (Ivan)

    2010-01-01

    The minipig provides an excellent experimental model for tooth morphogenesis because its diphyodont and heterodont dentition resemble that of humans. However, little information is available on the processes of tooth development in the pig. The purpose of this study was to classify the early stages of odontogenesis in minipigs from the initiation of deciduous dentition to the late bell stage when the successional dental lamina begins to develop. To analyze the initiation of teeth anlagens and...

  7. Altered Fractional Anisotropy in Early Huntington's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Silky; Mehta, Hasit; Fekete, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease best known for chorea. The disorder includes numerous other clinical features including mood disorder, eye movement abnormalities, cognitive disturbance, pendular knee reflexes, motor impersistence, and postural instability. We describe a mild case of HD early in the disease course with depression and subtle neurological manifestations. In addition, we review MRI and diffusion tensor imaging features in this patient...

  8. : Theatricality in early modern alchemical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeir, Koen

    2010-01-01

    This paper treats of early modern alchemy and theatricality. I focus on the theatrical characteristics of some kinds of alchemy, in relation with natural magic and other practices, by exploring a case study: I investigate the story of the baron and baroness of Beausoleil, who were famous for their mining, divining and alchemical practices in the first half of the seventeenth century. First, I show that their contemporary Francis Bacon considered alchemy an 'imaginative science', and that this...

  9. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming. PMID:17869580

  10. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    Nischal, K; Chowdhary, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. ...

  11. Early yaws: a light microscopic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Engelkens, H J; Vuzevski, V.D.; Judanarso, J; Van Lier, J.B.; van der Stek, J; van der Sluis, J J; Stolz, E

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the light microscopic findings in biopsies of skin lesions from 45 patients, in whom a diagnosis of early yaws was suspected. In 27 cases typical light-microscopic features of yaws were observed, consisting of parakeratosis or crust containing exudate, marked acanthosis with widening and elongation of the rete ridges or pseudo-carcinomatous hyperplasia and spongiosis. Intraepidermal microabscesses consisting of polymorphonuclear leucocytes were frequently encountered. In a...

  12. Early yaws, imported in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Engelkens, H J; Oranje, A P; Stolz, E

    1989-01-01

    Early yaws in a 9 year old girl from Ghana, diagnosed as imported disease in The Netherlands is reported. She had lived in The Netherlands for six months. Tropical non-venereal treponematoses are rarely seen in Europe, and only a few case reports have been published. Migration and travelling may confront the medical profession with cases of tropical diseases such as yaws. Positive serological reactions in non-venereal tropical or venereal treponematoses cannot be distinguished at present.

  13. Re-evaluating early breast neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moulis, Sharon; Sgroi, Dennis Charles

    2008-01-01

    Historically, histomorphological and epidemiological data suggested that atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ are the earliest recognizable neoplastic stages of breast cancer progression. Over the past several years, detailed high-throughput molecular genetic, gene expression and epigenetic analyses have enhanced our understanding of these early neoplastic lesions and have re-shaped our view of human breast cancer progression to include multiple distinct pathways of evolut...

  14. Early history of physics with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early history of physics at accelerators is reviewed, with emphasis on three experiments which have had a profound influence on our veiw of the structure of matter: The Franck and Hertz experiment opening practical ways of studying nuclear disintegration, and the discovery of the del++ isobar of the proton by Fermi and collaborators, revealing structure in the nucleon. Fermi's work is illustrated by pages from his notebooks

  15. Early Performance Prediction of Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Ch Ram Mohan; Geetha, D. Evangelin; Srinivasa, K. G.; Kumar, T. V. Suresh; Kanth, K. Rajani

    2012-01-01

    Web Service is an interface which implements business logic. Performance is an important quality aspect of Web services because of their distributed nature. Predicting the performance of web services during early stages of software development is significant. In this paper we model web service using Unified Modeling Language, Use Case Diagram, Sequence Diagram, Deployment Diagram. We obtain the Performance metrics by simulating the web services model using a simulation tool Simulation of Mult...

  16. Transforming PICU Culture to Facilitate Early Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Choong, Karen; Zebuhr, Carleen A.; Kudchadkar, Sapna R.

    2015-01-01

    Children who survive a critical illness are at risk of developing significant, long-lasting morbidities that may include neuromuscular weakness, cognitive impairments, and new mental health disorders. These morbidities, collectively known as post–intensive care syndrome (PICS), may lead to functional impairments, difficulty in school and social settings, and reduced quality of life. Interventions aimed at rehabilitation such as early mobilization, sedation minimization and prevention of ICU-a...

  17. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Napari, Sami

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  18. Early Tournaisian ammonoids from Timimoun (Gourara, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ebbighausen; Bockwinkel, J.; Korn, D; Weyer, D.

    2004-01-01

    A small ammonoid fauna, of probable middle Early Tournaisian age, is described from the Gara el Kahla near Timimoun, Gourara, Algerian Sahara. The following taxa are described: Acutimitoceras algeriense n. sp., Acutimitoceras sinulobatum n. sp., Acutimitoceras sp. A, Hasselbachia gourara n. sp., Gattendorfia jacquelinae n. sp., Gattendorfia cf. crassa Schmidt. 1924, Kahlacanites n. gen., Kahlacanites meyendorfi n. sp., Kahlacanites mariae n. sp., and Kahlacanites timimounensis n. sp. E...

  19. Christian Values in Vilhelm Kyukhelbekker's Early Prose

    OpenAIRE

    Fedoseeva T.V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines Vilhelm Kyukhelbekker's narrative prose of the first half of the 1820s. For the analysis we have chosen the most significant works of this period — his book of travel notes The Journey and the novel Ado. The study reveals the writer's attitude to Christianity and Christian values in his early period of work. In this research the axiological approach is used, as well as the methods of historical, typological, structural and semiotic study of literary texts. Studying The J...

  20. Early-onset neonatal infection in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa Tamelienė; Dalia Stonienė; Laura Russetti; Aušrelė Kudrevičienė; Virginija Gedvilienė; Rita Tvarijonavičienė; Albina Bulaukienė; Irena Nedzelskienė

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the etiology of early-onset neonatal infection (EONI), the risk factors, the forms and the time of its manifestation, and the tactics and outcomes of antibacterial treatment. Methods: During the prospective investigation, cases of newborns with diagnosed EONI and initial treatment in 2011 were analyzed. Four in-patient departments of Lithuania took part in the investigation. Results: In total, 18,778 newborns were included in the investigation. During ...

  1. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    LynneG.Duncan; PascaleColé

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and...

  2. Housing First: exploring participants’ early support needs

    OpenAIRE

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; O’Campo, Patricia; Holtby, Alixandra R; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Tsemberis, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing First has become a popular treatment model for homeless adults with mental illness, yet little is known about program participants’ early experiences or trajectories. This study used a mixed methods design to examine participant changes in selected domains 6 months after enrolment in a Canadian field trial of Housing First. Methods The study sample included 301 participants receiving the Housing First intervention at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi project. This st...

  3. Early detection of Myocardial Infarction using WBAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjem, Medina; Salem, Osman; Naït-Abdesselam, Farid; Ahmed, Mehaoua

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world, and Myocardial Infarction (MI) is the most serious one among those diseases. Patient monitoring for an early detection of MI is important to alert medical assistance and increase the vital prognostic of patients. With the development of wearable sensor devices having wireless transmission capabilities, there is a need to develop real-time applications that are able to accurately detect MI non-invasively. In this paper, we pr...

  4. Early millet use in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Zhiwei; Perry, Linda; Lu, Houyuan; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Chaohong; Li, Jun; XIE, FEI; Yu, Jincheng; Cui, Tianxing; Wang, Tao; Li, Mingqi; Ge, Quansheng

    2012-01-01

    It is generally understood that foxtail millet and broomcorn millet were initially domesticated in Northern China where they eventually became the dominant plant food crops. The rarity of older archaeological sites and archaeobotanical work in the region, however, renders both the origins of these plants and their processes of domestication poorly understood. Here we present ancient starch grain assemblages recovered from cultural deposits, including carbonized residues adhering to an early p...

  5. Determinants in early life for asthma development

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bever Hugo PS

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A reliable screening test in newborns for the subsequent development of bronchial asthma (BA) has not been found yet. This is mainly due to the complexity of BA, being made up by different types and underlying mechanisms. In different studies, a number of risk factors for BA have been identified. These include a positive family history of BA, passive smoking (also during pregnancy), prematurity (including pulmonary infections, RDS and BPD), early viral respiratory infections (such as...

  6. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  7. Imaging early demineralization with PS-OCT

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hobin; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with...

  8. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention. (orig.)

  9. Preplanning of early cleanup. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pre-study 'Pre-planning of early cleanup after fallout of radioactive material' made by Studvik EcoSafe has pointed out the need and request for pre-planning of actions. Based on the pre-study this project was started with the goal to work out guidelines and checklists. Because of the common interest between the Nordic countries NKS is the organization responsible for the project. The results of the project will be a document pointing out what can be planned in advance, including guidelines and checklists, regarding early cleanup actions after a nuclear plant accident in or in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. In this work 'early' means the three first weeks after an accident. The project only deals with questions concerning external radiation. The document shall be usable by persons in charge of planning or decision makers on the appropriate level of organization for each country. The document shall principally be aimed towards persons without professional competence in the field of radiology. The result will be presented for a limited number of generalized environments and fallout situations: urban/suburban/rural (concentrating on urban/suburban); regional differences (in for example house types and constructing material); dry or wet deposition. Five housing environments, ten cleanup actions and wet or dry deposition are treated. For 66 combinations calculations are made and the results are documented as data sheets, each describing the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. This data forms the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. (EG)

  10. Dynamical CP Violation in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, K R S; Brandenberger, Robert H; London, David; Brandenberger, Robert H.; London, David

    2004-01-01

    We show that the asymmetrical dynamical evolution of fields in the early Universe provides a new source for CP violation. This can lead to baryogenesis without any additional CP-violating interactions. The magnitude of this CP violation is time-dependent. In particular, it vanishes (or is very small) in the late Universe after the fields have relaxed (or are in their final approach) to their vacuum values. We provide an explicit example in which our mechanism is realized.

  11. Use of progestagens during early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Dante, G.; Vaccaro, V.; Facchinetti, F.

    2013-01-01

    The term “progestagens” covers a group of molecules including both the natural female sex hormones Progesterone and 17-hydroxy Progesterone as well as several synthetic forms, all displaying the ability to bind Progesterone receptors. Several studies have used Progesterone and related steroids in the attempt to prevent spontaneous miscarriage, and treat recurrent miscarriage. The present paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the literature on progestagens effects during early pregna...

  12. An Introduction to “Early College”

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic J. Brewer; Stefanie Stern; June Ahn

    2007-01-01

    Several national and international assessments have demonstrated that there has been little improvement in the performance of American high school students in recent decades. High school students are increasingly underprepared for transition into college-level course-work. One new approach to high school redesign, “early college,” seeks to address these issues. The model features a rigorous academic course of study that engages students in college-level work in grades nine through fourteen. E...

  13. Early androgen exposure and human gender development

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Melissa; Mihaela CONSTANTINESCU; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevat...

  14. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  15. Cranial morphometry of early hominids: facial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, A; Wood, B A

    1988-05-01

    We report here on early hominid facial diversity, as part of a more extensive morphometric survey of cranial variability in Pliocene and early Pleistocene Hominidae. Univariate and multivariate techniques are used to summarise variation in facial proportions in South and East African hominids, and later Quaternary groups are included as comparators in order to scale the variation displayed. The results indicate that "robust" australopithecines have longer, broader faces than the "gracile" form, but that all australopithecine species show comparable degrees of facial projection. "Robust" crania are characterised by anteriorly situated, deep malar processes that slope forwards and downwards. Smaller hominid specimens, formally or informally assigned to Homo (H. habilis, KNM-ER 1813, etc.), have individual facial dimensions that usually fall within the range of Australopithecus africanus, but which in combination reveal a significantly different morphological pattern; SK 847 shows similarly hominine facial proportions, which differ significantly from those of A. robustus specimens from Swartkrans. KNM-ER 1470 possesses a facial pattern that is basically hominine, but which in some respects mimics that of "robust" australopithecines. Early specimens referred to H. erectus possess facial proportions that contrast markedly with those of other Villafranchian hominids and which suggest differing masticatory forces, possibly reflecting a shift in dietary niche. Overall the results indicate two broad patterns of facial proportions in Hominidae: one is characteristic of Pliocene/basal Pleistocene forms with opposite polarities represented by A. boisei and H. habilis; the other pattern, which typifies hominids from the later Lower Pleistocene onwards, is first found in specimens widely regarded as early representatives of H. erectus, but which differ in which certain respects from the face of later members of that species. PMID:3136656

  16. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alistair Crame

    Full Text Available The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability.

  17. Water delivery in the Early Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Eggl, Siegfried; Süli, Áron; Sándor, Zsolt; Galiazzo, Mattia; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    As part of the national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitable Worlds' the delivery of water onto terrestrial planets is a key question since water is essential for the development of life as we know it. After summarizing the state of the art we show some first results of the transport of water in the early Solar System for scattered main belt objects. Hereby we investigate the questions whether planetesimals and planetesimal fragments which have gained considerable inclination due to the ...

  18. Figures of Voice in Early Modern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Helou, Ariane Nada

    2015-01-01

    This multidisciplinary dissertation explores theories of vocality in modern and early modern sources and examines the status of voice as a nexus of lyrical expression, affect, and embodiment in Renaissance poetry, drama, and music. Renaissance writers were keenly aware of the power of the human voice: its persuasiveness, its capacity to move the affections, its uniqueness to the body from which it emanates. Yet modern philosophy and critical theory, fields that substantially inform Renaissanc...

  19. The Economy of the Early Roman Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Temin

    2006-01-01

    Many inhabitants of ancient Rome lived well. Tourists marvel at the temples, baths, roads and aqueducts that they built. Economists also want to understand the existence of a flourishing and apparently prosperous economy two millennia ago. Market institutions and a stable government appear to have been the combination that produced this remarkable result. This essay provides an economist's view of the Roman economy that emphasizes the role of markets. I focus on the early Roman Empire, from 2...

  20. Early Standard Model measurements with ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Ince, T.; Collaboration, for the ATLAS

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of Standard Model processes will be an important first step towards exploiting the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider, the highest energy accelerator ever built that will begin operation in the fall 2009. This paper presents a summary of the early physics analyses for understanding the performance of the detector as well as the Standard Model at the ATLAS experiment at 14 TeV centre of mass energy.