Sample records for cag-pathogenicity island-dependent early

  1. Helicobacter pylori cag-Pathogenicity island-dependent early immunological response triggers later precancerous gastric changes in Mongolian gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Wiedemann

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori, carrying a functional cag type IV secretion system (cag-T4SS to inject the Cytotoxin associated antigen (CagA into gastric cells, is associated with an increased risk for severe gastric diseases in humans. Here we studied the pathomechanism of H. pylori and the role of the cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI for the induction of gastric ulcer and precancerous conditions over time (2-64 weeks using the Mongolian gerbil model. Animals were challenged with H. pylori B128 (WT, or an isogenic B128DeltacagY mutant-strain that produces CagA, but is unable to translocate it into gastric cells. H. pylori colonization density was quantified in antrum and corpus mucosa separately. Paraffin sections were graded for inflammation and histological changes verified by immunohistochemistry. Physiological and inflammatory markers were quantitated by RIA and RT-PCR, respectively. An early cag-T4SS-dependent inflammation of the corpus mucosa (4-8 weeks occurred only in WT-infected animals, resulting in a severe active and chronic gastritis with a significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines, mucous gland metaplasia, and atrophy of the parietal cells. At late time points only WT-infected animals developed hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia in parallel to gastric ulcers, gastritis cystica profunda, and focal dysplasia. The early cag-PAI-dependent immunological response triggers later physiological and histopathological alterations towards gastric malignancies.

  2. Relationship between gastric disease and deletion of cag pathogenicity island genes of Helicobacter pylori in gastric juice. (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Murakami, Masami; Araki, Osamu; Yamada, Takuro; Tomizawa, Sayaka; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Minashi, Keiko; Maeda, Masaki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Mori, Masatomo


    The cag pathogenicity island genes of Helicobacter pylori (ie, cag1, cag5, cagT, cagE, and cagA) were detected by PCR in DNA extracted from endoscopically collected gastric juice, and the relationship between these genes and gastric disease was studied in 25 patients with early gastric cancer, 9 patients with gastric ulcer, and 15 patients with chronic active gastritis. In three patients with early gastric cancer and one patient with gastric ulcer, cag pathogenicity island genes were amplified although H. pylori was not detected by conventional methods. Compared with conventional methods, the sensitivity of detection of cag genes was 92.3% (36/39) and the specificity was 60% (6/10). Among the patients with cagA amplification, only cagE was not amplified in one case each with early cancer and chronic active gastritis. In addition, none of cag1, cag5, cagT, and cagE were amplified in spite of cagA amplification in one patient with gastric ulcer. This method is a simple procedure, has a high sensitivity, and appears to be useful for accurate assessment of infection with cagA-positive strains. Because deletion of cag PAI genes was found in the patients with all three gastric diseases that we studied, it was suggested that the pathogenicity of H. pylori might not be determined by cag PAI genes in those cases.

  3. Composition, structure and function of the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island encoded type IV secretion system. (United States)

    Backert, Steffen; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Fischer, Wolfgang


    Many Gram-negative pathogens harbor type IV secretion systems (T4SS) that translocate bacterial virulence factors into host cells to hijack cellular processes. The pathology of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori strongly depends on a T4SS encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. This T4SS forms a needle-like pilus, and its assembly is accomplished by multiple protein-protein interactions and various pilus-associated factors that bind to integrins followed by delivery of the CagA oncoprotein into gastric epithelial cells. Recent studies revealed the crystal structures of six T4SS proteins and pilus formation is modulated by iron and zinc availability. All these T4SS interactions are crucial for deregulating host signaling events and disease progression. New developments in T4SS functions and their importance for pathogenesis are discussed.

  4. Pathogenicty and immune prophylaxis of cag pathogenicity island gene knockout homogenic mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Jian Lin; Jing Xue; Yang Bai; Ji-De Wang; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou


    AIM: To clarify the role of cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in the pathogenicity and immune prophylaxis of H pyloriinfection.METHODS: Three pairs of H pylori including 3 strains of cagPAI positive wildtype bacteria and their cagPAI knockout homogenic mutants were utilized. H pylori binding to the gastric epithelial cells was analyzed by flow cytometry assays.Apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by H pylori was determined by ELISA assay. Prophylaxis effect of the wildtype and mutant strains was compared by immunization with the sonicate of the bacteria into mice model.RESULTS: No difference was found in the apoptasis between cagPAI positive and knockout H pylori strains in respective of the ability in the binding to gastric epithelial cells as well as the induction of apoptosis. Both types of the bacteria were able to protect the mice from the infection of H pylori after immunization, with no difference between them regarding to the protection rate as well as the stimulation of the proliferation of splenocytes of the mice.CONCLUSION: The role of cagPAI in the pathogenicity and prophylaxis of H pylori infection remains to be cleared.

  5. Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island genotype diversity within the gastric niche of a single host. (United States)

    Matteo, Mario José; Granados, Gabriela; Pérez, Cecilia Valeria; Olmos, Martín; Sanchez, Cristian; Catalano, Mariana


    cag pathogenicity island (PAI) integrity was investigated in isolates from multiple biopsies recovered from 40 patients in an attempt to determine the co-existence of a varying cagPAI-positive to cagPAI-negative ratio in a single host. Six biopsies were obtained from each patient during the same endoscopic session. cagPAI analysis included amplification of seven loci (cagA, cagE, cagG, cagM, cagT, HP0527 and HP0524) and the left end of cagII (LEC). Absence of the island was confirmed by empty-site PCR. lspA-glmM RFLP and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR were used for strain delineation. The number of biopsies with Helicobacter pylori-positive culture ranged from three to six per patient and a total of 218 isolates were recovered. Mixed infection was only found in two patients. Nearly one-third of the 40 patients harboured isolates with an intact cagPAI in all niches, another third of the isolates were empty-site-positive in all niches, whilst the remaining third of the isolates had a disrupted cagPAI in all or at least one of the niches. Co-existence of variants of the same strain with different cagPAI genotypes was observed in one-quarter of patients. The variations in cagPAI genotype included co-existence of: diverse cagPAI deletions in different niches, variants with intact and with partially deleted islands, variants with empty-site-positive and with partially deleted cagPAIs, and variants with an intact cagPAI and with empty-site-positive. Half of the patients with different cagPAI genotypes harboured an intact cagPAI in at least one niche. Co-existence of diverse genotypes of putative virulence factors in a single host must be considered when drawing a correlation with clinical presentation.

  6. New approaches for genotyping of Helicobacter pylori based on amplification of polymorphisms in intergenic DNA regions and at the insertion site of the cag pathogenicity island. (United States)

    Bereswill, S; Schönenberger, R; Thies, C; Stähler, F; Strobel, S; Pfefferle, P; Wille, L; Kist, M


    The population of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori shows a high degree of genetic diversity. It is well established that heterogeneity at the isolate level is caused by nucleotide transitions within genes, differences in the gene order, and by genetic instability of single genes as well as of a large virulence-associated genomic DNA region, the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Analysis of intergenic regions with specific PCR-assays developed in this study, revealed that DNA polymorphisms in the noncoding DNA localized in front of the genes ribA and vacA and at the insertion site of the cag PAI contribute to the genetic diversity of H. pylori and are useful for differentiation of individual isolates. Thirteen individual genotypes were identified by PCR analysis of these polymorphic loci in 487, 241, and 182 clinical H. pylori isolates. Sequence analysis revealed that genetic variability in front of genes ribA and vacA, and in the intergenic region at the PAI insertion site is caused by insertion and deletions of so-far-unknown DNA sequences as well as by parts of the H. pylori IS elements IS605 and IS606, respectively. The new genotypes identified could be used to differentiate antrum and corpus isolates from the same patients. Their combination with vacA allele subtypes and with the cagA status allowed to differentiate 140 isolates in 51 subtypes. In 36 cases the corresponding genotype patterns were isolate specific. In summary, the results confirm that DNA polymorphisms in intergenic regions contribute to the genetic diversity of H. pylori. Although individual H. pylori genotypes were not associated with peptic ulcer disease, the PCR-based approaches for their detection developed here should be of use for further investigation of genetic diversity in H. pylori and for epidemiological purposes.

  7. Genomes of Helicobacter pylori from native Peruvians suggest admixture of ancestral and modern lineages and reveal a western type cag-pathogenicity island

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    Rahman Syed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is presumed to be co-evolved with its human host and is a highly diverse gastric pathogen at genetic levels. Ancient origins of H. pylori in the New World are still debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South America contributed to the evolution of strain diversity of H. pylori. The objective of our 'phylogeographic' study was to gain fresh insights into these issues through mapping genetic origins of H. pylori of native Peruvians (of Amerindian ancestry and their genomic comparison with isolates from Spain, and Japan. Results For this purpose, we attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC and the sequence analyses of the babB adhesin and oipA genes. The whole cag pathogenicity-island (cagPAI from these strains was analyzed using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. We observed that while European genotype (hp-Europe predominates in native Peruvian strains, approximately 20% of these strains represent a sub-population with an Amerindian ancestry (hsp-Amerind. All of these strains however, irrespective of their ancestral affiliation harbored a complete, 'western' type cagPAI and the motifs surrounding it. This indicates a possible acquisition of cagPAI by the hsp-Amerind strains from the European strains, during decades of co-colonization. Conclusion Our observations suggest presence of ancestral H. pylori (hsp-Amerind in Peruvian Amerindians which possibly managed to survive and compete against the Spanish strains that arrived to the New World about 500 years ago. We suggest that this might have happened after native Peruvian H. pylori strains acquired cagPAI sequences, either by new acquisition in cag-negative strains or by recombination

  8. Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI involved in bacterial internalization and IL-8 induced responses via NOD1- and MyD88-dependent mechanisms in human biliary epithelial cells.

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    Wongwarut Boonyanugomol

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection has been proposed to be associated with various diseases of the hepatobiliary tract, including cancer of the bile duct epithelial cells (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA. The ability of H. pylori bacteria to cause pathogenic effects in these cells has, however, yet to be investigated. Given that the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI is required for H. pylori pathogenesis in gastric epithelial cells, we investigated wild-type and cag mutant strains for their ability to adhere, be internalized and induce pro-inflammatory responses in two bile duct epithelial cell lines derived from cases of CCA. The findings from these experiments were compared to results obtained with the well-characterized AGS gastric cancer cell line. We showed that the cagPAI encodes factors involved in H. pylori internalization in CCA cells, but not for adhesion to these cells. Consistent with previous studies in hepatocytes, actin polymerization and α5β1 integrin may be involved in H. pylori internalization in CCA cells. As for AGS cells, we observed significantly reduced levels of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in CCA cells stimulated with either cagA, cagL or cagPAI bacteria, when compared with wild-type bacteria. Importantly, these IL-8 responses could be inhibited via either pre-treatment of cells with antibodies to α5β1 integrins, or via siRNA-mediated knockdown of the innate immune signaling molecules, nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 and myeloid differentiation response gene 88 (MyD88. Taken together, the data demonstrate that the cagPAI is critical for H. pylori pathogenesis in bile duct cells, thus providing a potential causal link for H. pylori in biliary tract disease.

  9. Analysis of the intactness of Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island in Iranian strains by a new PCR-based strategy and its relationship with virulence genotypes and EPIYA motifs. (United States)

    Yadegar, Abbas; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Zali, Mohammad Reza


    Variants of the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) and certain virulence genotypes have been proposed to be associated with different gastric disorders. In the present study, we designed a new PCR-based strategy to investigate the intactness of cagPAI in Iranian patients using highly specific primer sets spanning the cagPAI region. The possible relationship between the cagPAI status of the strains and clinical outcomes was also determined. We also characterized virulence genotypes (cagL, cagA, vacA, babA2 and sabA) and variants of CagA EPIYA motifs in these strains. H. pylori was detected in 61 out of 126 patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The cagL, cagA, vacA s1m1, vacA s1m2, vacA s2m2, babA2, and sabA genotypes were detected in 96.7%, 85.2%, 29.5%, 45.9%, 24.6%, 96.7%, and 83.6% of the strains, respectively. Among the 52 cagA-positive strains, EPIYA motifs ABC, ABCC, ABCCC, and mixed types were orderly detected in the 39, 7, 1, and 5 strains. The cagPAI positivity included both intact and partially deleted, with the overall frequencies of 70.5% and 26.2%, respectively. The majority of the strains from patients with PUD (87.5%), gastric erosion (83.3%) and cancer (80%) presented an intact cagPAI, while a lower frequency of cagPAI intactness was detected in gastritis patients (61.1%). However, no significant relationship was found between the possession of intact cagPAI and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we found that cagA and vacA s1m1 genotypes were significantly correlated with intact cagPAI (P=0.015 and P=0.012). A significant correlation was also found between EPIYA-ABC and intact cagPAI (P=0.010). The proposed PCR-based scheme was found to be useful for determining the intactness of cagPAI. Our findings also indicate that the cagPAI appears to be intact and rather conserved in majority of Iranian strains. Finally, our study proposed that H. pylori strains with partially deleted cagPAI were less likely to cause severe diseases

  10. Early

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    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed


    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  11. Characterization of the Cag pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori from naturally infected rhesus macaques. (United States)

    Skoog, Emma C; Deck, Samuel L; Entwistle, Hasan D; Hansen, Lori M; Solnick, Jay V


    Helicobacter pylori commonly infects the epithelial layer of the human stomach and in some individuals causes peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma or gastric lymphoma. Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse species, and the most important bacterial virulence factor that increases the risk of developing disease, versus asymptomatic colonization, is the cytotoxin associated gene pathogenicity island (cagPAI). Socially housed rhesus macaques are often naturally infected with H. pylori similar to that which colonizes humans, but little is known about the cagPAI. Here we show that H. pylori strains isolated from naturally infected rhesus macaques have a cagPAI very similar to that found in human clinical isolates, and like human isolates, it encodes a functional type IV secretion system. These results provide further support for the relevance of rhesus macaques as a valid experimental model for H. pylori infection in humans.

  12. Association between cag-pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori isolates from peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and nonulcer dyspepsia subjects with histological changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahaboob Ali; Aleem A Khan; Santosh K Tiwari; Niyaz Ahmed; L Venkateswar Rao; CM Habibullah


    AIM: To investigate the presence of the cay-pathogenicity island and the associated histological damage caused by strains with complete cay-PAI and with partial deletions in correlation to the disease status.METHODS: We analyzed the complete cag-PAI of 174representative Helicobacter pylori (H pylori ) clinical isolates obtained from patients with duodenal ulcer,gastric ulcer, gastric cancer, and non-ulcer dyspepsia using eight different oligonucleotide primers viz cagA1,cagA2, cagAP1, cagAP2, cagE, cagT, LEC-1, LEC-2spanning five different loci of the whole cag-PAI by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).RESULTS: The complete screening of the genes comprising the cag-PAI showed that larger proportions of subjects with gastric ulcer (97.8%) inhabited strains with complete cag-PAI, followed by gastric cancer (85.7%),non-ulcer dyspepsia (7.1%), and duodenal ulcer (6.9%),significant differences were found in the percentagedistribution of the genes in all the clinical groups studied.It was found that strains with complete cag-PAI were able to cause severe histological damage than with the partially deleted ones.CONCLUSION: The cay-PAI is a strong virulent marker in the disease pathogenesis as it is shown that a large number of those infected with strain with complete cag-PAI had one or the other of the irreversible gastric pathologies and interestingly 18.5% of them developed gastric carcinoma. The presence of an intact cayPAI correlates with the development of more severe pathology, and such strains were found more frequently in patients with severe gastroduodenal disease. Partial deletions of the cag-PAI appear to be sufficient to render the organism less pathogenic.

  13. Early clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamalski, Digna M. A.; Ter Braak, Edith W. M. T.; Ten Cate, Olle Th. J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.


    Background: Early clinical experience is being introduced in innovative, vertically integrated undergraduate medical curricula. While in many cases, this early clinical experience is limited to the presence of patients during lectures, in Utrecht students gain 'hands on' experience of daily clinical

  14. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver


    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  15. Early Astronomy (United States)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  16. Autism: Why Act Early? (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  17. Early Retirement Programs. (United States)

    Everett, Peter W.


    Early retirement programs offer individuals an alternative to the work ethic while allowing them to maintain job security. Examples are given of several early, partial, and phased retirement programs currently being used in universities and public school systems. (DF)

  18. Optimizing Early Retirement Decisions. (United States)


    the military. The U.S. Army’s early retirement program is a temporary one designed to allow some soldiers to leave the service prior to 20 years of...whether it makes financial sense for an officer to select early retirement . A spreadsheet formulation is developed and used to indicate if and officer should select early retirement . The program investigates the decision that various civilian salary levels and various assumed discount rates.

  19. Early Retirement Payoff (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.


    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  20. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  1. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  2. Early Head Start Evaluation (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  3. Biogeochemistry: Early phosphorus redigested (United States)

    Poulton, Simon W.


    Atmospheric oxygen was maintained at low levels throughout huge swathes of Earth's early history. Estimates of phosphorus availability through time suggest that scavenging from anoxic, iron-rich oceans stabilized this low-oxygen world.

  4. Early childhood aggression


    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  5. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver


    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet ( på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet ( på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  6. Early Mover Advantages


    Bijwaard, Govert; Janssen, Maarten; Maasland, Emiel


    This paper analyzes empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question a dynamic model of market share development and a series of static models are considered. There is clear evidence of early mover advantage, mainly caused by the influence of the penetration rate: it pays to enter when still few people have acquired a mobile telephone. Another import...

  7. Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona C. Poon


    Full Text Available Effective screening for the development of early onset preeclampsia (PE can be provided in the first-trimester of pregnancy. Screening by a combination of maternal risk factors, uterine artery Doppler, mean arterial pressure, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, and placental growth factor can identify about 95% of cases of early onset PE for a false-positive rate of 10%.

  8. How early is early dark energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Pettorino, Valeria; Wetterich, Christof


    We investigate constraints on early dark energy (EDE) from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy, taking into account data from WMAP9 combined with latest small scale measurements from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). For a constant EDE fraction we propose a new parametrization with one less parameter but still enough to provide similar results to the ones previously studied in literature. The main emphasis of our analysis, however, compares a new set of different EDE parametrizations that reveal how CMB constraints depend on the redshift epoch at which Dark Energy was non negligible. We find that bounds on EDE get substantially weaker if dark energy starts to be non-negligible later, with early dark energy fraction Omega_e free to go up to about 5% at 2 sigma if the onset of EDE happens at z < 100. Tight bounds around 1-2% are obtained whenever dark energy is present at last scattering, even if its effects switch off afterwards. We show that the CMB mainly constrains the presence of Dark Energy ...

  9. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang


    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  10. Early Reionization in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R


    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies have turned out to represent one of the most stringent 'bottle necks' for scenarios of large scale structure formation. As a possibility to relax this constraint, it has been proposed that early reionization can damp CMB fluctuations on small scales due to photon diffusion in the ionized plasma. As an example, I investigate the recently proposed scenario with cold dark matter (CDM) and texture seeds. There, an analysis of CMB anisotropies shows that early reionization is a crucial ingredient for this scenario. Without damping, the small scale anisotropies would dominate and exceed observed limits. In this paper I present analytical and numerical results for the amount of damping due to early reionization for CMB perturbations induced by a collapsing texture. Furthermore, the spectral distortion of the CMB due to Compton scattering of the hotter plasma electrons is calculated. Next I discuss the physical processes which lead to a system of coupled ordinary dif...

  11. Defining early mycosis fungoides. (United States)

    Pimpinelli, Nicola; Olsen, Elise A; Santucci, Marco; Vonderheid, Eric; Haeffner, Andreas C; Stevens, Seth; Burg, Guenter; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Dreno, Brigitte; Glusac, Earl; Guitart, Joan; Heald, Peter W; Kempf, Werner; Knobler, Robert; Lessin, Stuart; Sander, Christian; Smoller, Bruce S; Telang, Gladys; Whittaker, Sean; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Obitz, Erik; Takigawa, Masahiro; Turner, Maria L; Wood, Gary S


    This editorial review summarizes the results of 5 meetings sponsored by the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphoma at which the clinicopathologic and ancillary features of early mycosis fungoides were critically examined. Based on this analysis, an algorithm was developed for the diagnosis of early mycosis fungoides involving a holistic integration of clinical, histopathologic, immunopathologic, and molecular biological characteristics. A novel aspect of this algorithm is that it relies on multiple types of criteria rather than just one, for example, histopathology. Before its finalization, the proposed diagnostic algorithm will require validation and possibly further refinement at multiple centers during the next several years. It is anticipated that a more standardized approach to the diagnosis of early mycosis fungoides will have a beneficial impact on the epidemiology, prognostication, treatment, and analysis of clinical trials pertaining to this most common type of cutaneous lymphoma.

  12. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T. K.; Melle, I.; Auestad, B.


    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome.Method During 1997â€"2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... with public information campaigns and low-threshold psychosis detection teams was established in one healthcare area (ED-area), but not in a comparable area (no-ED area). Both areas ran equivalent treatment programmes during the first 2 years and need-adapted treatment thereafter.Results At the start...

  13. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria...... for considerable cultural and economic continuity rather than devastation and unrelenting decline. Much new, and increasingly non-elite, architectural evidence and an ever-growing corpus of material culture indicate that Syria-Palestine entered a new age of social richness in the early Islamic period, even...

  14. The Earth's early evolution. (United States)

    Bowring, S A; Housh, T


    The Archean crust contains direct geochemical information of the Earth's early planetary differentiation. A major outstanding question in the Earth sciences is whether the volume of continental crust today represents nearly all that formed over Earth's history or whether its rates of creation and destruction have been approximately balanced since the Archean. Analysis of neodymium isotopic data from the oldest remnants of Archean crust suggests that crustal recycling is important and that preserved continental crust comprises fragments of crust that escaped recycling. Furthermore, the data suggest that the isotopic evolution of Earth's mantle reflects progressive eradication of primordial heterogeneities related to early differentiation.

  15. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning (United States)


    ... Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of public..., is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and development, families..., researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and development for young...

  16. Early Adolescent Ego Development. (United States)

    James, Michael A.


    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  17. Early Childhood Trauma (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010


    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  18. Early Developments, 2002. (United States)

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.


    This document consists of the three 2002 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center (FPG) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Articles in the Winter 2002 issue highlight some current work at FPG on factors that enhance or inhibit social and…

  19. Early malignant syphilis* (United States)

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins


    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  20. Early Mover Advantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); E. Maasland (Emiel)


    textabstractIn this paper we analyze empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question we consider a series of static models and a dynamic model of market s

  1. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  2. Creativity: The Early Years (United States)

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett


    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  3. Early Cosmology Constrained

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Pigozzo, Cassio; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul


    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the $\\Lambda$CDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95\\% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter $\\Omega_{\\rm MR} < 0.006$ and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species $2.3 < N_{\\rm eff} < 3.2$ when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond $\\Lambda$CDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way ...

  4. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants an oppo...

  5. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik


    warrants careful analysis. The Third International Early Psychosis Conference proved to be a watershed and was the largest and most vibrant meeting to that point. This preface aims to set the scene for a selection of contributions, derived from the array of new evidence reported in Copenhagen, and recently...

  6. Early Learning in CRESPAR. (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Karweit, Nancy; Bond, Mary Alice; Woodruff, Lannette Burns; Jaeger, Gary; Adee, Sarah


    Summarizes research conducted by the Early Learning Program during the first 5 years of operation of the Center for Research on the Education of Children Placed At Risk (CRESPAR). Describes two integrated areas of research: practices that promote the development of language and literacy skills and systemic issues of school policy and teacher…

  7. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria


    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  8. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita


    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  9. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar


    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced.Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly.Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  10. Early Life Exposures and Cancer (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  11. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan


    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  12. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis


    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  13. Early Childhood Special Music Education (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann


    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  14. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus


    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  15. Artritis Temprana Early Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hasta la década de los años ochenta se consideraba a la artritis reumatoide (AR como una enfermedad poco frecuente, de gravedad leve a moderada, que tenía una evolución lentamente, progresiva hacia el daño articular y la incapacidad. El aborde terapéutico convencional hasta ese momento, era el tratamiento clásico de la pirámide.Until the early the eighties was considered rheumatoid arthritis to (RA as a rare disease of mild to moderate severity, which had a slowly evolution towards joint damage and disability. The conventional therapeutic option until then, was the classic treatment of the pyramid.

  16. Early times in tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    García-Calderón, G; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge


    Exact analytical solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation with the initial condition of an incident cutoff wave are used to investigate the traversal time for tunneling. The probability density starts from a vanishing value along the tunneling and transmitted regions of the potential. At the barrier width it exhibits, at early times, a distribution of traversal times that typically has a peak $\\tau_p$ and a width $\\Delta \\tau$. Numerical results for other tunneling times, as the phase-delay time, fall within $\\Delta \\tau$. The B\\"uttiker traversal time is the closest to $\\tau_p$. Our results resemble calculations based on Feynman paths if its noisy behaviour is ignored.

  17. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten;


    BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  18. Icebergs on early Mars (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.


    The smooth topography of the Martian northern lowlands has been classically equated to an ancient ocean basin. The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is providing unprecedented images of the Martian surface at scales of 25 to 32 cm per pixel. The analysis of this high-resolution imaging reveals the presence of three differentiated geomorphologies throughout the northern lowlands of Mars and the Hellas basin, which are informative of the presence of icebergs floating in ancient oceans and/or seas. These morphologies are: (i) scattered scour marks, including curvilinear furrows several km long and some meters deep; (ii) boulders ranging in size from 0.5 m to ~2 m in diameter, distributed forming clusters with sizes from several hundred meters to 1-2 km; and (iii) flat-topped and conical circular fractured mounds. The association of plough marks, clusters of boulders and mounds on the northern plains of Mars can be related to the dual processes of ice keel scouring and ice rafting of both glacial and non-glacial detritus by a floating ice canopy and icebergs. These processes are well documented on Earth and result in distinct morphologies on the ocean floor, which are analogous to features observed in the Martian basins. Importantly, the features are located in elevated areas of the northern plains and Hellas, near the dichotomy boundary and on local topographic highs. Such distribution is expected, as these relatively shoal areas are where the iceberg-related features should occur on Mars: these areas had shallow water depths, less than the iceberg's keel depth, and therefore keels reached through the full depth of the water column to impinge on the sediments below. The presence of icebergs floating in cold oceans early in Mars' history imply the occurrence of continental glaciers forming in the highlands and streaming northward towards the lowlands, and towards the Hellas and Argyre Basins. Glacier

  19. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood


    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan


    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; Jimmy O. Ong; Sarah J. Patel; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song


    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstock. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing Plan (RD and T) for implementation in Phase II. The objective of Phase II is to implement the RD and T as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq Ahmed; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Fred Brent; Belma Demirel; Ming He; Troy Raybold; Manuel E. Quintana; Lalit S. Shah; Kenneth A. Yackly


    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objectives of Phase I were to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song


    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  3. Freud's early clinical work. (United States)

    Vogel, L Z


    Freud became a medical practitioner because it was impossible for him to pursue the desired career of a microscopic researcher. His education and training had not prepared him for the task of being a practicing physician. In his private practice he began treating some very intelligent, chaotic, demanding, volatile and disturbed patients. Anna von Lieben was one of these patients whom Freud treated very intensively for a long period of time. Elise Gomperz was another talented and severely pained early patient of Freud. Over a number of years, Freud was her psychiatrist and provided her with attentive care using a variety of treatment methods that were available to him at that time. Emmy von N.'s condition was also fluctuating and very demanding. The dramatic sense and chronic clinical course of these patients is compatible with the contemporary diagnostic category of Borderline Personality Disorder. Freud provided these patients with long-term supportive care while he attempted to cure them. At the same time, Freud committed himself to the theory of radical cure and downplayed the supportive, draining and difficult clinical work that he was doing.

  4. Early reionization by miniquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P; Oh, S P; Rees, Martin J; Volonteri, M; Madau, Piero; Rees, Martin J.; Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco


    Motivated by the recent detection by WMAP of a large optical depth to Thomson scattering -- implying a very early reionization epoch -- we assess a scenario where the universe was reionized by `miniquasars' powered by intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), the remnants of the first generation of massive stars. Pregalactic IMBHs form within minihalos above the cosmological Jeans mass collapsing at z=24, get incorporated through mergers into larger and larger systems, sink to the center owing to dynamical friction, and accrete cold material. The merger history of dark halos and associated IMBHs is followed by Monte Carlo realizations of the merger hierarchy in a LCDM cosmology. While seed IMBHs that are as rare as the 3.5-sigma peaks of the primordial density field evolve largely in isolation, a significant number of black hole binary systems will form if IMBHs populate the more numerous 3-sigma peaks instead. In the case of rapid binary coalescence a fraction of IMBHs will be displaced from galaxy centers and ...

  5. Early Repolarization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Sacher


    Full Text Available The electrocardiographic pattern of early repolarization (ER is common, with a particularly high prevalence reported amongst athletes and adolescents. It has long been associated with benign outcome [1-3]. Recently, an association between inferolateral ER pattern and sudden cardiac death (SCD has been established by different groups [4-7]. Population-based studies have also reported an increased mortality rate among patients with inferolateral ER pattern compared to controls [7-9]. To bring back together these differences, it is important to focus on the definition of ER pattern used in these different studies as well as the population included. The definition of ER pattern associated with sudden cardiac death was the presence of J point elevation more than or equal to 0.1mV in at least 2 contiguous inferior and/or lateral leads of a standard 12-lead ECG and not ST elevation as it was often the case in the studies with benign outcome. Any study dealing with ER should clearly indicate the definition used. Otherwise it cannot be interpreted. Talking about definition, ER syndrome is an ER pattern (as defined above associated with symptoms (syncope or aborted SCD and/or familial history of SCD as mentioned in the last HRS/EHRA/APHRS Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Inherited Primary Arrhythmia Syndromes [10]. It is important to recognise that having only an ER pattern is not a disease.

  6. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, C. [West Coast Environmental Law Research Foundation, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M. [Hamburg Institute for Economic Research, Hamburg, (Germany)


    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emssions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  7. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  8. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna


    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema


    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  10. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs. (United States)

    Research Dialogues, 1988


    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  11. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina


    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  12. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012


    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  13. Early intervention services in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi


    AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme...

  14. Early sound distribution in auditorium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guorong; WANG Jiqing


    The importance of early sound, i.e., the direct sound and the first reflections, has long been recognized in auditorium design, but the distributions of early sound in auditorium received less investigation in the past. As we know, the early sound level in the audience area varies not only with the source/receiver distance and room constant, but also related with the room geometry, the absorption arrangement and the location of the source and receiver. The early reflections are of discrete components, so it can not be predicted by the diffused field theory. This paper presents the results of measurement in four halls showing the attenuation rates of early sound level with the source/receiver distance are often much larger than the theoretical predictions. Therefore, they may give overestimated results in acoustical design.

  15. Early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna eHadders-Algra


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio; Ming He; Lalit Shah; Charles Schrader; Earl Berry; Peter Ricci; Belma Demirel; Charles Benham; Mark Bohn


    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Charles Schrader


    In 1999, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Cooperative Agreement to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. to provide a preliminary engineering design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award, continuous and diligent work has been undertaken to achieve the design of an economical facility that makes strides toward attaining the goal of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to power while coproducing transportation fuels, chemicals, and useful utilities such as steam. This objective is being pursued in a three-phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems, LLC. (TES), the successor to Texaco Energy Systems, Inc. The key subcontractors to TES include General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root. ChevronTexaco provided gasification technology and Rentech Inc.'s Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology that has been developed for non-natural gas sources. GE provided gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair provided air separation technology and KBR provided engineering to integrate the facility. A conceptual design was completed in Phase I and the report was accepted by the DOE in May 2001. The Phase I work identified risks and critical research, development, and testing that would improve the probability of technical success of the EECP. The objective of Phase II was to mitigate the risks by executing research, development, and testing. Results from the Phase II work are the subject of this report. As the work of Phase II concluded, it became evident that sufficient, but not necessarily complete, technical information and data would be available to begin Phase III - Preliminary Engineering Design. Work in Phase II requires additional technical development work to correctly apply technology at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and

  18. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study" (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013


    The study examined in this quick review concerns whether attending Early College High Schools increased postsecondary outcomes. This study is a randomized experiment examining the impact of Early Colleges on a number of outcomes. The study had relatively low attrition rates (approximately 7% in the intervention group and 13% in the comparison…

  19. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.


    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  20. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu


    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  1. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben


    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  2. Early traumatic events in psychopaths. (United States)

    Borja, Karina; Ostrosky, Feggy


    The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders.

  3. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL


    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Benham; Mark Bohn; John Anderson; Earl Berry; Fred Brent; Ming He; Randy Roberts; Lalit Shah; Marjan Roos


    The 1999 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) award to Texaco Energy Systems Inc. (presently Texaco Energy Systems LLC, a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco) was made to provide a Preliminary Engineering Design of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). Since the award presentation, work has been undertaken to achieve an economical concept design that makes strides toward the DOE Vision 21 goal. The objective of the EECP is to convert coal and/or petroleum coke to electric power plus transportation fuels, chemicals and useful utilities such as steam. The use of petroleum coke was added as a fuel to reduce the cost of feedstock and also to increase the probability of commercial implementation of the EECP concept. This objective has been pursued in a three phase effort through the partnership of the DOE with prime contractor Texaco Energy Systems LLC and subcontractors General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR). ChevronTexaco is providing gasification technology and Rentech's Fischer-Tropsch technology that has been developed for non-natural gas feed sources. GE is providing gas turbine technology for the combustion of low energy content gas. Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering to integrate the facility. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was completed in 2000. The Phase I Preliminary Concept Report was prepared based on making


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Anderson; Mark Anselmo; Earl Berry; Mark Bohn; Roko Bujas; Ming He; Ken Kwik; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit Shah; Dennis Slater; Donald Todd; Don Wall


    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC (TES), a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco, General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc. GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified catalyst/wax separation as a potential technical and economic risk. To mitigate risks to the proposed EECP, Phase II RD&T included tests of an alternative (to Rentech's Dynamic Settler) primary catalyst


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart


    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  7. Early Retiree Reinsurance Program Reports (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) was established by section 1102 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) enacted on...

  8. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program (United States)

    Smith, H. D.


    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  9. NGIPS Early Design Space Assessment (United States)


    cycles). The results of this case are shown in Fig. 4. It can be seen that the fault causes a momentary outage of some loads and that the system...perform shipboard power system performance metric refinements, early- stage assessment computational tool investigation, and the application of these...early-stage design space exploration methods and tools were pursued in support of the Navy’s Next Generation Integrated Power Systems (NGIPS


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman


    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman


    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  12. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder]. (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F


    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation.

  13. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.


    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational. We

  14. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early? (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early? About 20% of ovarian cancers ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a pelvic ...

  15. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU


    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  17. Do Early Outs Work Out? Teacher Early Retirement Incentive Plans. (United States)

    Brown, Herb R.; Repa, J. Theodore


    School districts offer teacher early retirement incentive plans (TERIPs) as an opportunity to hire less expensive teachers, reduce fringe benefits costs, and eliminate teaching positions. Discusses reasons for teachers to accept TERIP, and describes a computer model that allows school officials to calculate and compare costs incurred if an…

  18. Early exit: Estimating and explaining early exit from drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Melony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early exit (drop-out from drug treatment can mean that drug users do not derive the full benefits that treatment potentially offers. Additionally, it may mean that scarce treatment resources are used inefficiently. Understanding the factors that lead to early exit from treatment should enable services to operate more effectively and better reduce drug related harm. To date, few studies have focused on drop-out during the initial, engagement phase of treatment. This paper describes a mixed method study of early exit from English drug treatment services. Methods Quantitative data (n = 2,624 was derived from three English drug action team areas; two metropolitan and one provincial. Hierarchical linear modelling (HLM was used to investigate predictors of early-exit while controlling for differences between agencies. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 53 ex-clients and 16 members of staff from 10 agencies in these areas to explore their perspectives on early exit, its determinants and, how services could be improved. Results Almost a quarter of the quantitative sample (24.5% dropped out between assessment and 30 days in treatment. Predictors of early exit were: being younger; being homeless; and not being a current injector. Age and injection status were both consistently associated with exit between assessment and treatment entry. Those who were not in substitution treatment were significantly more likely to leave treatment at this stage. There were substantial variations between agencies, which point to the importance of system factors. Qualitative analysis identified several potential ways to improve services. Perceived problems included: opening hours; the service setting; under-utilisation of motivational enhancement techniques; lack of clarity about expectations; lengthy, repetitive assessment procedures; constrained treatment choices; low initial dosing of opioid substitution treatment; and the routine requirement

  19. Shocks in the Early Universe. (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil


    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  20. Gesturing in the early universities. (United States)

    O'Boyle, C


    Research into the oral and literary traditions of scholastic education usually emphasizes the significance of the world in late medieval pedagogy. This paper suggests that coded hand signals provided early university scholars with an important non-verbal means of communication too. Using illustrations of classroom scenes from early university manuscripts, this paper analyzes the artistic conventions for representating gestures that these images embody. By building up a typology of these gesticulations, it demonstrates that the producers of these images and their audience shared a perception of scholastic education that embraced a sophisticated understanding of the activities associated with university education.

  1. Early Modern English:Morphology



    By the end of the Middle English period there is already considerable loss of inflectional morphology, and in Early Modern English we see the last reflexes of a shift from synthetic Old English to analytic Modern English (Lass 1999: 139). In fact, the inflectional system of Early Modern English is not very different from what we have today (Go¨rlach 1991: 79). The changes in inflection which do take place between 1500 and 1700 show marked sociolinguistic differentiation and are the subject of...

  2. Early Planetary Differentiation: Comparative Planetology (United States)

    Jones, John H.


    We currently have extensive data for four different terrestrial bodies of the inner solar system: Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the Eucrite Parent Body [EPB]. All formed early cores; but all(?) have mantles with elevated concentrations of highly sidero-phile elements, suggestive of the addition of a late "veneer". Two appear to have undergone extensive differentiation consistent with a global magma ocean. One appears to be inconsistent with a simple model of "low-pressure" chondritic differentiation. Thus, there seems to be no single, simple paradigm for understand-ing early differentiation.

  3. Early life origins of obesity. (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G


    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  4. Early Childhood Intervention in China (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane


    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja


    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.


    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  7. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.


    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  8. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van


    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  9. Intraovarian Control of Early Folliculogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsueh, Aaron J. W.; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Cheng, Yuan; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.


    Although hormonal regulation of ovarian follicle development has been extensively investigated, most studies concentrate on the development of early antral follicles to the preovulatory stage, leading to the successful use of exogenous FSH for infertility treatment. Accumulating data indicate that p

  10. Early Writing: A Developmental Approach. (United States)

    Goetz, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document consists of four papers on the acquisition of writing skills by young children. The first paper provides a historical and developmental perspective on early writing. Children's development of manual dexterity is briefly overviewed and aspects of the educational approaches of Pestalozzi, Montessori, Chomsky, Rogers and Ashton-Warner…

  11. Effects of Early Sun Exposure (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  12. Early Learning Theories Made Visible (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa


    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  13. Bullying in Early Educational Settings (United States)

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina


    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  14. Early Intervention Approaches. Chapter 9. (United States)


    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on early intervention approaches. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Child Maltreatment and Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs: Some Preliminary Findings" (Patrick A. Curtis and Mary Wood Schneider); (2) "Evaluation…

  15. Choreography of early thalamocortical development. (United States)

    Molnár, Zoltán; Higashi, Shuji; López-Bendito, Guillermina


    Thalamic axons, which carry most of the information from the sensory environment, are amongst the first projections to reach the cerebral cortex during embryonic development. It has been proposed that the scaffold of early generated cells in the ventral thalamus, internal capsule and preplate play a pivotal role in their deployment through sharp gene expression boundaries. These ideas were recently evaluated in various strains of mutant mice. In Tbr1, Gbx2, Pax6 KO both thalamic and corticofugal projections fail to traverse the striatocortical junction. In both Emx2 and Pax6 KO brains, the misrouted thalamic afferents are accompanied by displacements of the pioneering projections from the internal capsule. Regardless of their altered route, thalamic afferents in the reeler and L1 KO mice seem to be able to redistribute themselves on the cortical sheet and establish normal periphery-related representation in the somatosensory cortex. Early neural activity delivered through the thalamic projections is thought to be involved in the realignment process of thalamic axons at the time of their accumulation in the subplate layer. However, axonal growth and the early topographic arrangement of thalamocortical fiber pathways appear normal in the Snap25 KO, where action potential mediated synaptic vesicle release is disrupted. We therefore suggest that intercellular communication mediated by constitutive secretion of transmitters or growth factors might play a dominant role during early thalamocortical development.

  16. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas;


    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...

  17. Sustainable early-career networks (United States)

    Rauser, Florian; Schemann, Vera; Sonntag, Sebastian


    A truly global science community for the next generation of researchers will be essential if we are to tackle Earth system sustainability. Top-down support from funders should meet bottom-up initiatives -- at a pace fast enough to meet that of early-career progress.

  18. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives. (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.


    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  19. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Multimedia


    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  20. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo


    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality as ...

  1. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood (United States)

    Drummond, Murray


    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  2. Early Children's Literature and Aging (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.


    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  3. The Climate of Early Mars (United States)

    Wordsworth, Robin D.


    The nature of the early martian climate is one of the major unanswered questions of planetary science. Key challenges remain, but a new wave of orbital and in situ observations and improvements in climate modeling have led to significant advances over the past decade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence now point to an episodically warm surface during the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods 3-4 Ga. The low solar flux received by Mars in its first billion years and inefficiency of plausible greenhouse gases such as CO2 mean that the steady-state early martian climate was likely cold. A denser CO2 atmosphere would have caused adiabatic cooling of the surface and hence migration of water ice to the higher-altitude equatorial and southern regions of the planet. Transient warming caused melting of snow and ice deposits and a temporarily active hydrological cycle, leading to erosion of the valley networks and other fluvial features. Precise details of the warming mechanisms remain unclear, but impacts, volcanism, and orbital forcing all likely played an important role. The lack of evidence for glaciation across much of Mars's ancient terrain suggests the late Noachian surface water inventory was not sufficient to sustain a northern ocean. Though mainly inhospitable on the surface, early Mars may nonetheless have presented significant opportunities for the development of microbial life.

  4. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook. (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  5. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyon Janet Kim


    Full Text Available Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  6. Planck Early Results: The Early Release Compact Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Cantalupo, C M; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Dörl, U; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R J; Huffenberger, K M; Huynh, M; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Leroy, C; Lilje, P B; Linden-V\\ornle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Maris, M; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Piffaretti, R; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubi\; Rusholme, B; Sajina, A; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, P; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Torre, J -P; Tristram, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A


    A brief description of the methodology of construction, contents and usage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC), including the Early Cold Cores (ECC) and the Early Sunyaev-Zeldovich (ESZ) cluster catalogue is provided. The catalogue is based on data that consists of mapping the entire sky once and 60% of the sky a second time by Planck. A Monte-Carlo algorithm based on the injection and extraction of artificial sources into the Planck maps was implemented to select reliable sources among all extracted candidates such that the cumulative reliability of the catalogue is >=90%. As a result of the Monte-Carlo assessment of the reliability of sources from different techniques, the PowellSnakes source extraction technique was used at the 5 frequencies between 30 and 143 GHz while the SExtractor technique was used between 217 and 857 GHz. The 10 sigma photometric flux density limit of the catalogue at |b|>30 deg is 0.49, 1.0, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33, 0.28, 0.25, 0.47 and 0.82 Jy at each of the nine f...

  7. Pompe disease: early diagnosis and early treatment make a difference. (United States)

    Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lee, Ni-Chung


    Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II or acid maltase deficiency) is a lysosomal disorder in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiencies lead to intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen in all tissues; most notably in skeletal muscles. Both the patient's age at the onset of Pompe disease symptoms and the rate of deterioration caused by the disease can vary considerably. In classical infant-onset Pompe disease (IOPD), symptoms start very early in life, and death occurs soon afterward if the disease remains untreated. In later-onset Pompe disease, symptoms are slower to appear, and patients often progress to wheelchair confinement and eventual respiratory failure. A diagnosis can be made by screening for GAA in dried blood samples, followed either by GAA assessment in lymphocytes or in fibroblasts or by the genetic analysis of mutations. Treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa was approved for human use in 2006. In classical IOPD, treatment significantly lengthens survival and improves motor development and cardiac function. The sooner ERT begins, the better are the results. Newborn screening aims to take advantage of different technologies for diagnosing and treating newborns early on and it yields better outcomes. However, newborns diagnosed early and other long-term survivors may encounter fresh problems, making up a new phenotype of IOPD patients. Further modifications of the treatment, such as a decrease in immune responses to ERT, a higher dosage, a better uptake formulation, and gene therapy delivered locally or systemically are being explored.

  8. Epidemiology of early neonatal mortality. (United States)

    Tyagi, N K; Bharambe, M S; Garg, B S; Mathur, J S; Goswami, K


    During 1981-1991 at a rural teaching hospital (Kasturba Hospital) of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences in Sevagram, Wardha, India, 454 of 13,939 newborns died during the early neonatal period for an early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) of 33.7/1000 live births. The ENMR for boys was not significantly different from that for girls (36.1 vs. 28.6). Community medicine specialists analyzed data on these early neonatal deaths to examine distribution of early neonatal mortality, especially its relationship with prematurity, low birth weight, birth order, and by sex. They calculated average percent deaths (APD) per hour to examine the dynamics in early neonatal mortality. The mean age at death was lower among newborns of birth order greater than 2 than those of birth order less than 2 (23.47 vs. 26.85 hours; p 0.001). ENMR was higher for newborns of birth order greater than 2 than those of birth order less than 2 (41.74% vs. 27.35%; P 0.001). The mean age at death increased as gestation increased (10.34 for 28 weeks; 24.27 for 28-33 weeks, 31.53 for 33-37 weeks, and 34.43 for 37 weeks; p 0.001). ENMR decreased as gestation increased (850 for 28 weeks; 375 for 28-33 weeks, 147.02 for 33-37 weeks, and 8.77 for 37 weeks; p 0.001). The mean age at death increased as birth weight increased for newborns weighing less than 1500 gms through 2000-2500 gms (23.36-37.13 hours; p 0.001). It was lowest among those weighing more 3000 gms (11.55 gms). ENMR fell as birth weight increased (614.33 for 1500 gms, 116.19 for 1500-2000 gms, 19.38 for 2000-2500 gms, 10.99 for 2500-3000 gms, and 5.41 for 3000 gms; p 0.001). The APD/hour for the first hour of life was 3.74% for a relative risk of 12.9. It decreased steadily as the hours of life increased (3.08% for 1-6 hours, 1.19% for 6-24 hours, 0.67% for 24-72 hours, and 0.29% for 72-168 hours). Knowledge of time of likely death can help providers know where they need to focus their attention to prevent early neonatal deaths.

  9. Early detection of tubular dysfunction. (United States)

    Piscator, M


    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  10. Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisenberg Carl-Philipp


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (D. rerio has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS, including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.

  11. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park


    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  12. Embryology of the early foregut. (United States)

    Metzger, Roman; Wachowiak, Robin; Kluth, Dietrich


    In embryology, no agreement exists how the early foregut differentiates into the respiratory tract and the intestinal tract. In particular, the formation of the early lung anlage as well as the process of separation of trachea and esophagus remains unclear. This process is explained in a rather schematic way and aims more to explain pathologic findings, whereas true embryologic investigations are extremely rare in this field. Here, scanning electron microscopy of the normal foregut development illustrates the steps, which finally leads to the development of larynx and trachea on the one hand, and pharynx and esophagus on the other hand. This study was performed in chicken embryos in accordance to the developmental stages described. As the main results from these illustrations show, we found no evidence for lateral foregut ridges inside the undivided foregut chamber and no fusion of lateral foregut components to form a trachea-esophageal septum.

  13. Health lifestyles in early childhood. (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula


    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  14. Shocks in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pen, Ue-Li


    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations, of the kind observed in great detail on large scales today, it also leads to the production of shock waves in the radiation fluid of the very early universe. At very early epochs, $1$ GeV$

  15. Early Management and Fluid Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yorgancı


    Full Text Available Initial management of severely burned patient is similar with a trauma victim. Determination of airway patency, evaluation of respiration and circulation, early recognition of concomitant trauma has vital importance in burn patients. In the early phase, mortality mainly depends on missed or un-treated severe injuries or pathologies, but not burn injury itself.In patients that have TBSA greater than 15 %, fluid resuscitation should be started. In the first 24 hours, crystalloid solutions should be preferred. .Several formulas can guide fluid resuscitation; however the amount of fluid that is given to the patient should be individualized according to the patient’s need. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 7-10

  16. Early Detection of Disease Outbreaks



    BACKGROUND: The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance dispatch calls, or pharmacy sales for which population-at-risk information is unavailable or irrelevant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We propose a pr...

  17. Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood



    Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...

  18. The Climate of Early Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin


    The nature of the early Martian climate is one of the major unanswered questions of planetary science. Key challenges remain, but a new wave of orbital and in situ observations and improvements in climate modeling have led to significant advances over the last decade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence now point to an episodically warm surface during the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods 3-4 Ga. The low solar flux received by Mars in its first billion years and inefficiency of plausible greenhouse gases such as CO2 means that the steady-state early Martian climate was likely cold. A denser CO2 atmosphere would have caused adiabatic cooling of the surface and hence migration of water ice to the higher altitude equatorial and southern regions of the planet. Transient warming caused melting of snow and ice deposits and a temporarily active hydrological cycle, leading to erosion of the valley networks and other fluvial features. Precise details of the warming mechanisms remain unclear, but impacts, volca...

  19. Planets in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Shchekinov, Yu A; Murthy, J


    Several planets have recently been discovered around old and metal-poor stars, implying that the planets are also old, formed in the early universe. The canonical theory suggests that the conditions for their formation could not have existed at such early epochs. The required conditions such as sufficiently high dust-to-gas ratio, could in fact have existed in the early universe immediately following the first episode of metal production. Metal-rich regions may have existed in multiple isolated pockets of enriched and weakly-mixed gas close to the massive stars. Observations of quasars and gamma-ray bursts show a very wide spread of metals in absorption from $\\rm [X/H] \\simeq -3$ to $\\simeq -0.5$. This suggests that physical conditions in the metal-abundant clumps could have been similar to where protoplanets form today. However, planets could have formed even in low-metallicity environments, where formation of stars is expected to proceed at higher densities. In such cases, the circumstellar accretion disks ...

  20. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution (United States)

    Xiao, S.


    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  1. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early? (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early? Many cases of thyroid cancer ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. An Early Retirement Option for Australian Academics? (United States)

    Over, Ray


    Issues of early retirement of college and university faculty are examined as they relate to Australia's aging faculty population, and the conditions necessary to promote early retirement successfully in this context are considered. (MSE)

  3. Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? (United States)

    ... Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? Late-to-bed types ... 2017 FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Early birds may have a leg up over night owls ...

  4. Can Thymus Cancer Be Found Early? (United States)

    ... Thymus Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Thymus Cancer Be Found Early? Screening is testing for ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  5. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn


    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  6. Early Identification of Psychosis: A Primer


    Early Psychosis Initiative of British Columbia


    This document is an educational resource concerning the early identification of psychosis. Primary topics addressed include: an outline of the importance of early intervention; signs and symptoms of psychosis; and strategies for recognizing psychosis.  

  7. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early? (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early? Most testicular cancers can be ... Ask Your Doctor About Testicular Cancer? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. Early School Dropout: Configurations and Determinants. (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others


    Examined behavioral, cognitive, and demographic factors associated with early school dropout in 475 seventh graders. Clusters of students most vulnerable to early school dropout were characterized by high levels of aggressiveness and low levels of academic performance. (RJC)

  9. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions early-onset glaucoma early-onset glaucoma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which ...

  10. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  11. Early detection of contagious diseases (United States)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John


    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  12. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Badgwell


    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most deadly of the gynecological cancers. Less than 30% of women with advanced stage disease survive long-term. When diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with conventional surgery and chemotherapy. At present, only 25% of ovarian cancers are detected in stage I due, in part, to the absence of specific symptoms and to lack of an effective screening strategy. Early detection of ovarian cancer might significantly improve the overall survival rate of women with ovarian cancer if 1 most cancers are clonal and unifocal, arising in the ovary rather than in the peritoneum, 2 metastatic disease results from progression of clinically detectable stage I lesions, and 3 cancers remain localized for a sufficient interval to permit cost-effective screening. Given the prevalence of ovarian cancer, strategies for early detection must have high sensitivity for early stage disease (> 75%, but must have extremely high specificity (99.6% to attain a positive predictive value of at least 10%. Transvaginal sonography (TVS, serum markers and a combination of the two modalities have been evaluated for early detection of ovarian cancer. Among the serum markers, CA125 has received the most attention, but lacks the sensitivity or specificity to function alone as a screening test. Greater specificity can be achieved by combining CA125 and TVS and/or by monitoring CA125 over time. Two stage screening strategies promise to be cost effective, where abnormal serum assays prompt TVS to detect lesions that require laparotomy. Accrual has been completed for a 200,000 woman trial in the United Kingdom that will test the ability of a rising CA125 to trigger TVS and subsequent exploratory surgery. Given the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, it is unlikely that any single marker will be sufficiently sensitive to provide an effective initial screen. Sensitivity of serum assays might be enhanced by utilizing a

  13. Early management of acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Schepers, Nicolien J; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; Bruno, Marco J


    Acute pancreatitis is the most common gastro-intestinal indication for acute hospitalization and its incidence continues to rise. In severe pancreatitis, morbidity and mortality remains high and is mainly driven by organ failure and infectious complications. Early management strategies should aim to prevent or treat organ failure and to reduce infectious complications. This review addresses the management of acute pancreatitis in the first hours to days after onset of symptoms, including fluid therapy, nutrition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. This review also discusses the recently revised Atlanta classification which provides new uniform terminology, thereby facilitating communication regarding severity and complications of pancreatitis.

  14. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary


    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  15. Early planetary differentiation: Geophysical consequences (United States)

    Schubert, G.


    Differentiation of a planet can have profound consequences for its structure and thermal evolution, including core formation and crystal growth. Recent theories for the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets and the Moon have all these bodies forming hot and cooling thereafter. Early core formation, and in the cases of Earth and Moon, a deep magma ocean possibly encompassing the entire mantle are characteristic features of these models. Secular cooling of Mars from a hot origin and cooling of Moon from a hot initial state with a deep magma ocean have been criticized on the basis of their tectonic implications. The cases of Mars and the Moon are discussed.

  16. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn


    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  17. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild


    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  18. Project ELI: Improving Early Literacy Outcomes (United States)

    Young, Robin Miller; Chandler, Lynette K.; Shields, LuAnn; Laubenstein, Pam; Butts, Jill; Black, Kristine


    Early childhood and elementary-level educators are engaging in conversations about how to coordinate their efforts to develop fluent readers. There is evidence that key early literacy skills that are predictive of subsequent literacy achievement in kindergarten and first grade can be taught to preschool-age children. Moreover, early childhood…

  19. Early Smoking, Education, and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali


    This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market perf

  20. Early identification and intervention in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within the fi...

  1. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;


    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  2. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief (United States)

    Lee, Joan


    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  3. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy]. (United States)

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György


    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  4. Early history of scapular fractures. (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B


    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  5. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin


    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  6. Mission to Very Early Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheon, I D; Weber, P K; Fallon, S J; Smith, J B; Aleon, J; Ryerson, F J; Harrison, T M; Cavosie, A J; Valley, J W


    The Hadean Earth is often viewed as an inhospitable and, perhaps, unlikely setting for the rise of primordial life. However, carbonaceous materials supplied by accreting meteorites and sources of chemical energy similar to those fueling life around modern deep-sea volcanic vents would have been present in abundance. More questionable are two other essential ingredients for life - liquid water and clement temperatures. Did the Hadean Earth possess a hydrosphere and temperate climate compatible with the initiation of biologic activity? If so, the popular model of an excessively hot planetary surface characterized by a basaltic crust, devoid of continental material is invalid. Similarly, establishment of an Hadean hydrosphere prior to the cessation of heavy asteroid bombardment may mean that primitive life could have evolved and then been extinguished, only to rise again. The most effective means of determining the environmental conditions on this young planet is through geochemical analysis of samples retrieved from the Early Earth. While rocks older than 4 billion years (4 Ga) have not been found, individual zircon grains, the detritus of rocks long since eroded away, have been identified with ages as old as 4.4 Ga - only {approx}160 million years younger than the Earth itself. If we can use the geochemical information contained in these unique samples to infer the nature of their source rocks and the processes that formed them, we can place constraints on the conditions prevailing at the Earth's surface shortly after formation. This project utilizes a combined analytical and experimental approach to gather the necessary geochemical data to determine the parameters required to relate the zircons to their parent materials. Mission to Early Earth involves dating, isotopic and chemical analyses of mineral and melt inclusions within zircons and of the zircons themselves. The major experimental activity at LLNL focused on the partitioning of trace elements between

  7. Early sexual experience and prostitution. (United States)

    James, J; Meyerding, J


    The authors compared several aspects of early sexual experience found in two earlier studies of prostitutes with results of research on "normal" women. The prostitutes had in common many negative experiences not found or found less often in other populations of young women. These include incestuous and/or coerced sex, lack parental guidance, intercouse at a young age, and few or no meaningful relationships with males. These women had discovered that sex could lead to a kind of status, even though that status is negatively labeled by the wider culture. In a society that values women on the basis of their sexuality, a woman who views herself as "debased" may see prostitution as a viable alternative--perhaps the only alternative.

  8. Myelopoiesis during Zebrafish Early Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xu; Linsen Du; Zilong Wen


    Myelopoiesis is the process of producing all types of myeloid cells including monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes.Myeloid cells are known to manifest a wide spectrum of activities such as immune surveillance and tissue remodeling.Irregularities in myeloid cell development and their function are known to associate with the onset and the progression of a variety of human disorders such as leukemia.In the past decades,extensive studies have been carried out in various model organisms to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myelopoiesis with the hope that these efforts will yield knowledge translatable into therapies for related diseases.Zebrafish has recently emerged as a prominent animal model for studying myelopoiesis,especially during early embryogenesis,largely owing to its unique properties such as transparent embryonic body and external development.This review introduces the methodologies used in zebrafish research and focuses on the recent research progresses of zebrafish myelopoiesis.

  9. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration


    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  10. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia


    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  11. [Early outcomes of Asperger's syndrome]. (United States)

    Bobrov, A E; Somova, V M


    Mental state of adult patients, who since childhood had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS), was studied. We examined 107 patients (89 men and 18 women). At the moment of inclusion in the study, all the patients met criteria of ICD=10 for AS. This was confirmed by the examination of the patients with the help of ASDASQ and ASDI scales. Based on the results of psychopathological and psychological five variants of AS outcomes in the age of early adulthood were identified as follows: integrated, inhibitory, peculiar, border-line and hypernormative. At the moment of examination, psychosocial compensation was observed in 38% of patients, only 28% of patients were on treatment and 20% had a history of transitory psychotic episodes. The authors conclude that the results of the study suggest the relatively favorable prognosis of AS. The differential clinical evaluation of this group as well as implication of adequate psychosocial and psychotherapeutic methods in their treatment is needed.

  12. Early passive acquisition in Inuktitut. (United States)

    Allen, S E; Crago, M B


    Passive structures are typically assumed to be one of the later acquired constructions in child language. English-speaking children have been shown to produce and comprehend their first simple passive structures productively by about age four and to master more complex structures by about age nine. Recent crosslinguistic data have shown that this pattern may not hold across languages of varying structures. This paper presents data from four Inuit children aged 2;0 to 3;6 that shows relatively early acquisition of both simple and complex forms of the passive. Within this age range children are productively producing truncated, full, action and experiential passives. Some possible reasons for this precociousness are explored including adult input and language structure.

  13. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael;


    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... complications requiring laparotomy after transplantation with outcomes for patients at increased risk. METHODS: In this study we performed a retrospective analysis of data of patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012. The study period was limited to the first 90 days after...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  14. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... multiple barriers to their agency in particular due to multiple forms of discrimination and living in poverty on the margins of society. In such contexts of disempowerment, programme responses are likely to meet with limited success if they seek to teach mothers about child care and rearing, without...

  15. How early and how long?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Løvgren


    Full Text Available Abstract: Day care centres have become a normal part of Norwegian childhood, even among quite small children. In 1970 less than 3 per cent of Norwegian children of pre-school were enrolled. At the end of 2009 as much as 70 per cent of children aged 12 to 24 months were enrolled and for 90 per cent of them a full day stay had been arranged. Norwegian children with small children opt for an early start at a day care centre. However, the day care centre employees do not share the same views as the users of the services they provide. Only one third of them express the opinion that children may start at the age of one and have a full day stay at this age. The article discusses this discrepancy between the users and providers of public financed day care.

  16. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  17. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano


    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  18. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in 2...... effusions, lung hypoplasia, or hydrops. CONCLUSION: Persistent early chylothorax is a condition with a high mortality rate and no established treatment option. Use of OK-432 is a promising therapy for selected fetuses with persistent chylothorax early in the second trimester....

  19. Noncommutativity in the early universe (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, G.; Silva de Oliveira, M.; Monerat, G. A.; Corrêa Silva, E. V.

    In the present work, we study the noncommutative version of a quantum cosmology model. The model has a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry, the matter content is a radiative perfect fluid and the spatial sections have zero constant curvature. In this model, the scale factor takes values in a bounded domain. Therefore, its quantum mechanical version has a discrete energy spectrum. We compute the discrete energy spectrum and the corresponding eigenfunctions. The energies depend on a noncommutative parameter β. We compute the scale factor expected value () for several values of β. For all of them, oscillates between maxima and minima values and never vanishes. It gives an initial indication that those models are free from singularities, at the quantum level. We improve this result by showing that if we subtract a quantity proportional to the standard deviation of a from , this quantity is still positive. The behavior, for the present model, is a drastic modification of the behavior in the corresponding commutative version of the present model. There, grows without limits with the time variable. Therefore, if the present model may represent the early stages of the universe, the results of the present paper give an indication that may have been, initially, bounded due to noncommutativity. We also compute the Bohmian trajectories for a, which are in accordance with , and the quantum potential Q. From Q, we may understand why that model is free from singularities, at the quantum level.

  20. Early vision and focal attention (United States)

    Julesz, Bela


    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  1. Cosmology and the early universe (United States)

    Joshi, Abhigna


    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  2. Early flavor experiences: research update. (United States)

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K


    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  3. Early detection of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schade, Götz


    Full Text Available The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS is currently spreading in Germany, as well, even though there can be no talk of a comprehensive establishment. The introduction of UNHS in several federal states such as Hamburg, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein can be ascribed to the personal commitment of individual pediatric audiologists. Apart from the procurement of the screening equipment and the training of the staff responsible for the examination of the newborns, the tracking, i.e. the follow-up on children with conspicuous test results, is of utmost importance. This involves significant administration effort and work and is subject to data protection laws that can differ substantially between the various federal states. Among audiologists, there is consensus that within the first three months of a child’s life, a hearing loss must be diagnosed and that between the age of 3 and 6 months, the supply of a hearing aid must have been initiated. For this purpose, screening steps 1 (usually a TEOAE measurement and 2 (AABR testing need to be conducted in the maternity hospital. The follow-up of step 1 then comprises the repetition of the TEOAE- and AABR measurement for conspicuous children by a specialized physician. The follow-up of step 2 comprises the confirmatory diagnostics in a pediatric audiological center. This always implies BERA diagnostics during spontaneous sleep or under sedation. The subsequent early supply of a hearing aid should generally be conducted by a (pediatric acoustician specialized on children.

  4. Theories of early language acquisition. (United States)

    Plunkett, K


    What features of brain processing and neural development support linguistic development in young children? To what extent is the profile and timing of linguistic development in young children determined by a pre-ordained genetic programme? Does the environment play a crucial role in determining the patterns of change observed in children growing up? Recent experimental, neuroimaging and computational studies of developmental change in children promise to contribute to a deeper understanding of how the brain becomes wired up for language. In this review, the muttidisciplinary perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, experimental psycholinguistics and neural network modelling are brought to bear on four distinct areas in the study of language acquisition: early speech perception, word recognition, word learning and the acquisition of grammatical inflections. It is suggested that each area demonstrates how linguistic development can be driven by the interaction of general learning mechanisms, highly sensitive to particular statistical regularities in the input, with a richly structured environment which provides the necessary ingredients for the emergence of linguistic representations that support mature language processing. Similar epigenetic principles, guiding the emergence of linguistic structure, apply to all these domains, offering insights into phenomena ranging from the precocity of young infant's sensitivity to speech contrasts to the complexities of the problem facing the young child learning the arabic plural.

  5. VIRUS early installation and commissioning (United States)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Lee, Hanshin; Drory, Niv; Kelz, Andreas; Ramsey, Jason; Peterson, Trent; Noyola, Eva; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin; Fabricius, Maximilian; Farrow, Daniel; Good, John M.; Haynes, Dionne M.; Indahl, Briana; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Nicklas, Harald; Montesano, Francesco; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Roth, Martin M.; Savage, Richard; Snigula, Jan M.


    VIRUS is a massively replicated spectrograph built for HETDEX, the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. It consists of 156 channels within 78 units fed by 34944 fibers over the 22 arcminute field of the upgraded HET. VIRUS covers a relatively narrow bandpass (350-550nm) at low resolution (R 700) to target the emission of Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) for HETDEX. VIRUS is a first demonstration of industrial style assembly line replication in optical astronomy. Installation and testing of VIRUS units began in November of 2015. This winter we celebrated the first on sky instrument activity of the upgraded HET, using a VIRUS unit and LRS2-R (the upgraded facility Low Resolution Spectrograph for the HET). Here we describe progress in VIRUS installation and commissioning through June 2016. We include early sky data obtained to characterize spectrograph performance and on sky performance of the newly upgraded HET. As part of the instrumentation for first science light at the HET, the IFU fed spectrographs were used to test a full range of telescope system functionality including the field calibration unit (FCU).We also use placement of strategic IFUs to map the new HET field to the fiber placement, and demonstrate actuation of the dithering mechanism key to HETDEX observations.

  6. Casebooks in Early Modern England: (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren


    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  7. Early detection of materials degradation (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert


    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  8. Early to Bed, Early to Rise a Back-To-School Challenge (United States)

    ... Early to Bed, Early to Rise a Back-to-School Challenge ... idea. Allow your kids some quiet time before bed to unwind. "That can include relaxing activities, such ...

  9. Seeing Touches Early in Life (United States)

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara


    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  10. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Addabbo

    Full Text Available The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand and/or an object (spoon. In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts.

  11. Is early intervention worth it? (United States)

    Yelin, Edward


    Historically, the largest components of costs associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease, were hospitalizations, principally for joint replacement surgery, and work loss. Thus, for expensive interventions such as biological agents to be "worthwhile," they must reduce the prevalence of joint replacement and assist persons with RA in maintaining employment. However, joint replacement surgery and work losses tend to occur at least several years after onset of disease, even in severe cases. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of expenditures becomes computationally and politically difficult when the expenditure and the outcome are separated in time. The computational issue concerns the translation of future benefits--surgeries avoided and jobs held onto years from now--into present monetary values. The computational issue may be even more complex when the benefits are less tangible than surgery and wages; for example, when measured by quality-adjusted life-years. The political issue concerns the disjuncture between the agents making the expenditures--provincial health insurance in Canada or an employer's health plan in the US--and the agents reaping the benefits, a private disability insurance company or provincial or state workers' compensation fund. In addition, there is an ethical dilemma. In the US, many of the advances in the care for RA such as the biological agents derive, at least in part, from federal research expenditures. Such expenditures are financed by increasingly regressive taxes. Yet the individuals bearing an increasing share of the tax burden find themselves relegated to more restrictive health insurance plans less likely to provide access to those agents. Thus, whether expenditures for early interventions are worthwhile may turn on such issues as how long the expenditure and the benefits are separated in time, how well the interests of the agent making the expenditure and the agent reaping the rewards are

  12. WMAP Detection of Early Reionization (United States)

    Kogut, A.


    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WMAP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic density perturbations. The data for $\\ell > 20$ agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. The existence of correlations on super-horizon scales provides significant support for inflationary cosmologies. We detect excess power on large angular scales compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift $11 reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit $\\Lambda$CDM model, with best fit value $\\tau = 0.17 \\pm 0.04$ at 68\\% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history. I will discuss the WMAP data and its implications for reionization in the early universe.

  13. The Early History of Life (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.


    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  14. Early life factors and adult mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.


    Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In

  15. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering. (United States)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.


    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  16. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly


    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  17. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers. (United States)

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.


    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  18. Predictors of Early Retirement Among University Faculty. (United States)

    Monahan, Deborah J.; Greene, Vernon L.


    Interviews with faculty at a university having an incentive early retirement plan revealed that those choosing to retire early were in poorer health, faced smaller proportional income decrement upon retirement, were less satisfied with teaching assignments, and considered themselves lower in research productivity and higher in teaching and…

  19. Mid-Career Change and Early Retirement. (United States)

    Patton, Carl V.


    An NSF study suggests that important qualitative changes in the faculty may be obtained through increased attention to mid-career change and early retirement programs. Interest in career options, early retirement alternatives, evaluation criteria, mid-career change alternatives, internship, fellowship programs, and retraining programs are…

  20. Preschool Teachers' Constructions of Early Reading (United States)

    Walker, Karen E.


    Research concerning preschool teachers' constructions of early reading has potential to influence teachers' curricular decisions and classroom practice. Six preschool teachers in North Texas were interviewed in regard to what they think about early reading and how they develop these understandings or constructions. The systematic, inductive…

  1. Early Fives Program Evaluation: Farmington Public Schools. (United States)

    Peper, H. Robert

    An evaluation of the Early Fives program of the Farmington (Michigan) Public Schools is reported. This extra-year program began in the 1980-81 school year. By the 1982-83 school year, tuition was no longer charged, and a systematic screening effort was implemented. Each Early Fives classroom contains a maximum of 15 children with a certified…

  2. Fatigue in early Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the prevalence,character-istics and risk factors of fatigue in a large cohort of subjects with early Parkinson’s disease (PD).Methods A total of 391 individuals with PD,recrutied in Linzhi trial, were re-screened. Early, non-depressed subjects

  3. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena


    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  4. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki;

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cyper...

  5. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth


    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  6. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald


    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  7. Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective (United States)

    Gould, Daniel


    Specializing too early in life can lead to emotional stress, loss of motivation, and burnout, but the research is inadequate to resolve the question of whether early specialization or diversification is more beneficial from a psychological perspective. Nevertheless, some best practices are recommended based on the known benefits and detriments.…

  8. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.


    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  9. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  10. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer


    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  11. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity (United States)

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos


    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  12. 23 CFR 710.501 - Early acquisition. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Early acquisition. 710.501 Section 710.501 Highways... REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.501 Early acquisition. (a) Real property acquisition. The State may initiate acquisition of real property at any time it has the legal authority to...

  13. Linking Families and Early Childhood Education. (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna


    Discusses and uses a global human ecological system framework to analyze family needs in relation to early childhood education. Topics emphasized include family support systems, population trends, health care, employment patterns, and political systems. Suggestions for meeting these needs are addressed to early childhood educators. (DST)

  14. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers (United States)

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon


    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  15. Music and the Baby's Brain: Early Experiences. (United States)

    Fox, Donna Brink


    States that brain research may be too immature to use it as the only rationale for early music education. Proposes integrated instruction for music education and addresses the need for teacher preparation in early childhood music education. Discusses future collaborations providing three examples of models of childhood music collaborations and…

  16. Isocurvature fluctuations induce early star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugiyama, N; Zaroubi, S; Silk, J


    The early reionization of the Universe inferred from the WMAP polarization results, if confirmed, poses a problem for the hypothesis that scale-invariant adiabatic density fluctuations account for large-scale structure and galaxy formation. One can only generate the required amount of early star for

  17. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd


    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  18. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran (United States)

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba


    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  19. Reforming Ontario Early Learning: A Review (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin


    Herein, we address the reformation of Ontario early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in Ontario (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of Ontario Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…

  20. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K


    males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas......, qualitatively, the relative proportion of type IIX muscle fibers decreased. Multiple regression analysis showed that while increased MVC positively influenced both early and late RFD, decreased-type IIX negatively influenced early RFD only. In conclusion, early and late RFD responded differently to high...

  1. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation. (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E


    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  2. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods. (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C


    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  3. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China. (United States)

    Nappi, Carla


    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  4. Early Retirement. A New Issue in Higher Education: The Financial Consequences of Early Retirement. (United States)

    Jenny, Hans H.; Acton, Mary Ann

    This essay attempts to do the following: first, offer a definition of early retirement in order to establish boundaries for the discussion. Second, sketch some of the background and reasons why early retirement may be desirable; also it suggests why early retirement might not always be a constructive practice. Then the essay turns to the main…

  5. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students (United States)

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.


    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  6. Early diastolic filling dynamics in diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crean Peter A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of peak early mitral inflow velocity and the peak early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocities in normal controls and to compare them with subjects with diastolic dysfunction. Methods The relationship between early passive diastolic transmitral flow and peak early mitral annular velocity in the normal and in diastolic dysfunction was studied. Two groups comprising 22 normal controls and 25 patients with diastolic dysfunction were studied. Results Compared with the normal group, those with diastolic dysfunction had a lower E/A ratio (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5, p 2 vs. 871 ± 128.1 cm/sec2, p Conclusions This investigation provides information on the acceleration of early diastolic filling and its relationship to mitral annular peak tissue velocity (Ea recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. It supports not only the premise that recoil is an important mechanism for rapid early diastolic filling but also the existence of an early diastolic mechanism in normal.

  7. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild


    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...... people to lead a healthier life and non-detection could be considered neglectful. It may, however, cause anxiety, interfere with people’s integrity, focus only on individual causes and responsibilities, cause stigmatization and have adverse effects by inducing weight gain. Conclusions: Documentation...

  8. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.;


    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face......Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited...

  9. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus]. (United States)

    Mojon, Daniel


    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base.

  10. Diastolic and autonomic dysfunction in early cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Møller, Søren; Kjær, Andreas


    cirrhosis during maximal β-adrenergic drive. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Nineteen patients with Child A (n = 12) and Child B cirrhosis (n = 7) and seven matched controls were studied during cardiac stress induced by increasing dosages of dobutamine and atropine. RESULTS. Pharmacological responsiveness was similar...... indicate that patients with early stage cirrhosis exhibit early diastolic and autonomic dysfunction as well as elevated pro-ANP. However, the cardiac chronotropic and inotropic responses to dobutamine stress were normal. The dynamics of ventricular repolarization appears normal in patients with early stage...

  11. Preclinical lung disease in early rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Robles-Perez, Alejandro; Luburich, Patricio; Rodriguez-Sanchon, Benigno; Dorca, Jordi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Molina-Molina, Maria; Narvaez-Garcia, Javier


    Early detection and treatment of lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may ameliorate disease progression. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic lung abnormalities in early RA patients and the potential association of positive RA blood reactive biomolecules with lung involvement. A prospective observational study was performed in a cohort of patients with early RA (joint symptoms disease with a baseline chest radiograph (CR) and complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs). In those patients with lung abnormalities on the CR or PFTs, a high-resolution chest computed tomography scan (HRCT) was performed. We included 40 patients (30 women). Altered PFTs were detected in 18 (45%) of these patients. These cases had a diffusion lung transfer capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) of disease is present in up to 45% of early RA patients and can be determined by PFTs and ACPA levels.

  12. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  13. Survey and Analysis of Early Retirement Policies (United States)

    Taylor, Alton L.; Coolidge, Herbert E.


    Presents data from a study of member institutions of the Association of American Universities to determine the extent to which early retirement is being used in the nation's higher education institutions. (Editor/PG)

  14. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning. (United States)

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.


    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  15. Early Retirement: A Need for Reassessment. (United States)

    Morrell, Louis


    Institutions must provide good counseling regarding retirement program benefits, since when in doubt about their financial position faculty members are inclined to remain employed. Colleges should consider offering nonfinancial incentives for early retirement as well as financial. (MLW)

  16. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf


    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  17. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  18. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  19. Current early diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qu


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Mishra


    Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology serves to reinforce the educational bedrock of any country. Technology has revolutionized the teaching learning process by integrating different source of knowledge - clearly visible from primary to post-tertiary level. This paper examines the introduction of ICT in early childhood years centred on the relationship of ICT with the cognitive, emotional and social development of children. The paper discusses various aspects of the ongoing debate around ICT usage in the early years and tries to answer some of the relevant issues namely, the rationale for early introduction of ICT, the perceived risks and benefits involved in its usage, the role of the parents, and fostering appropriate application of ICT in the early childhood classrooms.

  1. Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K


    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. The phonetic level of language is especially accessible to experimental studies that document the innate state and the effect of learning on the brain. The neural signatures of learning at the phonetic level can be documented at a remarkably early point in development. Continuity in linguistic development from infants' earliest brain responses to phonetic stimuli is reflected in their language and prereading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and clinical impact. There is evidence that early mastery of the phonetic units of language requires learning in a social context. Neuroscience on early language learning is beginning to reveal the multiple brain systems that underlie the human language faculty.

  2. Moral Development Interventions in Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Enright, Robert D; And Others


    Strategies for promoting moral development in early adolescence reviewed include the "plus-one" model, Deliberate Psychological Education, didactic courses in social studies, and a high school Just Community on moral reasoning. (CJ)

  3. New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial (United States)

    ... page: New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial Nemolizumab significantly ... the appearance of moderate to severe eczema, a new, preliminary trial finds. Nemolizumab is a man-made, ...

  4. [Diagnosis and early treatment of juvenile delinquency]. (United States)

    Barbagallo, A; Bellia, A; Benvenuto, G; Cosentino, F; Riggio, T M


    Longitudinal research has shown that social failure to adjust can be prevented by early removal of ambiental factors encouraging pathological development of the Ego, and the detection and treatment of psychological tendencies towards the acquisition of deviant stimuli.

  5. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS


    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  6. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald


    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  7. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy


    Levente L. Orbán; Farhad N. Dastur


    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to...

  8. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer


    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella


    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  9. Solar Index prediction methodology for early delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.


    Since the beginning of the Solar Index project in 1978, it has been one of the primary objectives to deliver the Indices in mid-afternoon local standard time. This was desirable because it would make it possible to have the numbers broadcast in the early evening news. A short description of the current project is presented and then a summary of the work that led to the early delivery of the Solar Index is given.

  10. Early x-ray diagnosis of coxarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.

    Radiological and pathological comparisons on specimen of femur head and neck at autopsy have shown a statistical relationship between osteophytosis of the femoral head and ulcerations of the joint cartilage. Especially, there are highly significant relationships between the length of osteophytes and the diameter of the ulcera. The 'plaque'-sign is shown to be a very sensitive indicator of early arthrosis. So there exist semiquantitative parameters for the X-ray diagnosis of early coxarthrosis.

  11. Persistent akathisia associated with early tardive dyskinesia.


    Barnes, T. R.; Braude, W M


    Two psychiatric patients developed moderate or severe oro-facial dyskinesia, and limb dyskinesia, at a relatively young age and within a year of starting antipsychotic drug-treatment. This early appearance of tardive dyskinesia was preceded by akathisia that had developed at the beginning of drug therapy and persisted, despite the reduction of their drug doses to maintenance levels. The possibility that persistent akathisia may herald the early onset of tardive dyskinesia, is discussed.

  12. The SuperNova Early Warning System


    Scholberg, K.


    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  13. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard;


    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...... of the early anlagen of the circular body wall muscles does not show the anterior-posterior mode of formation that is typical for annelids, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a non-segmented ancestry of Mollusca....

  14. Supersymmetry: Early Roots That Did Not Grow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Jarlskog


    Full Text Available This paper is about early roots of supersymmetry, as found in the literature from 1940s and early 1950s. There were models where the power of “partners” in alleviating divergences in quantum field theory was recognized. However, other currently known remarkable features of supersymmetry, such as its role in the extension of the Poincaré group, were not known. There were, of course, no supersymmetric nonabelian quantum field theories in those days.

  15. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  16. Music as therapy in early history. (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H


    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated.

  17. [Early neurological-neurosurgical rehabilitation. Current state]. (United States)

    Bertram, M; Brandt, T


    In German neurorehabilitation, the ambiguous term "early rehabilitation" reflects the multidisciplinary, rehabilitative treatment of severely impaired patients in continuing need of acute and intensive care (including weaning from the respirator in selected cases). The actual definition of this treatment is discussed, which hitherto corresponded to Phase B according to recommendations of the German Federal Study Group for Rehabilitation (BAR) and now has started to be integrated into the diagnosis-related group system. The tasks and aims of early rehabilitation are to support and enhance neuroplastic remission of nervous system functional loss and continued medical care, improve vigilance, establish cooperativity, and evaluate the rehabilitation potential including compensatory and adaptive strategies organizing posthospital care, reducing the need of nursing support, and improving quality of life. Some special aspects of early rehabilitative care are presented here in more detail. To fulfill these tasks, a multidisciplinary team is required including various therapists qualified for neurorehabilition, physicians (including a neurologist), nurses, and social workers. Outcome data were assessed using our 5-year prospective early rehabilitation registry. Fifty-five percent of patients improved to reach the next step of neurorehabilitation (Phase C), with significant gain in function even in the subgroup of aged and most severely disabled patients. The trend to transfer patients very early in the postacute Phase to early rehabilitation facilities, with open medical problems and increased risk of complications, makes close cooperation and interaction with acute medical centers necessary.

  18. Role of early audiological screening and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Preet Tuli


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study is to find out whether early identification and intervention prevents severe linguistic and communication delays, minimizing the need for more elaborate rehabilitation during the school years. Design and Study Sample: A Cross-sectional study was carried out on one hundred and eleven children with documented deaf-mutism presenting at the Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology in two different geographical regions of India. Detailed history, clinical and audiological assessment along with assessment of the language and communication skills according to American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA guidelines was done. Results: The children were predominantly male, of low socio-economic background, presented for rehabilitation, mostly after the age of six years. They commonly had more than 70dBHL (decibel hearing level hearing threshold. The study found that the children who presented early for diagnosis and hearing aid usage had better response to rehabilitation. Conclusion: It is important that hearing loss be detected at an early age and amplification should be introduced as early as possible once there has been a diagnosis of a hearing loss. So that early intervention can have an impact on speech and language development. Without concurrent follow-up program, identification of hearing loss early in children is meaningless.

  19. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model. (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W


    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  20. Early Career Support Program: Telecommunication Mentoring for Rural Teachers. (United States)

    Thoresen, Carol


    Describes the Early Career Support Program (STEP) which uses the Montana Educational Telecommunication Network (METNET) to connect early career teachers in Montana with mentors. Contains 20 references. (DDR)

  1. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch


    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  2. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  3. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit


    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  4. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio


    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  5. Early Detection of Alzheimer's - A Crucial Requirement

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhari, Ijaz


    Alzheimer's, an old age disease of people over 65 years causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. This disease progresses very slow and its identification in early stages is very difficult. The symptoms of Alzheimer's appear slowly and gradually will have worse effects. In its early stages, not only the patients themselves but their loved ones are generally unable to accept that the patient is suffering from disease. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm to detect patients of Alzheimer's at early stages by comparing the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the patients with normal persons of their age. The progress of the disease can also be monitored by periodic comparison of the previous and current MRI.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Berdichevskaia


    Full Text Available Studying cerebral hemispheric interaction and the principles of their coordination allow to understand the central adaptational and compensatory mechanisms in the early developmental process of children. Objectification of the level of motor function development in children in early ontogenesis, its relationship with the profile of interhemispheric organization of the brain, and its dynamics with age is highly relevant today. With the participation of 260 practically healthy children, including 74 children age 3 to 4 years and 186 age 6 to 7 years, we studied intra- and interhemispheric relations in the motor domain using the test of finger synkinesis in the early stages of childhood. Results showed that the amount of finger synkineses, and consequently the level of integration of intra- and interhemispheric relations in the brain of the child, depended on the child’s age. Besides, the magnitude, character, positive and negative dynamics of synkineses in the process of adaptation to school depend on the lateral phenotype.

  7. Interactive early warning technique based on SVDD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    After reviewing current researches on early warning,it is found that"bad" data of some systems is not easy to obtain,which makes methods proposed by these researches unsuitable for monitored systems.An interactive early warning technique based on SVDD(support vector data description)is proposed to adopt"good" data as samples to overcome the difficulty in obtaining the"bad"data.The process consists of two parts:(1)A hypersphere is fitted on"good"data using SVDD.If the data object are outside the hypersphere,it would be taken as"suspicious";(2)A group of experts would decide whether the suspicious data is"bad"or"good",early warning messages would be issued according to the decisions.And the detailed process of implementation is proposed.At last,an experiment based on data of a macroeconomic system is conducted to verify the proposed technique.

  8. Early Universes with Effective Discrete Time

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, Laurent


    The mechanism for triggering the universe inflation could be that at very early periods the time variable was discrete instead of smooth. Alternatively, and perhaps equivalently, it could be the consequence that the metrics of the early universe was a strongly concentrated gravitational coherent state with very high frequency oscillations, allowing local pair creations by a generalisation to gravity of the Schwinger mechanism, perhaps by creation of black holes of masses superior to the Planck scale. The lattice spacing between two clicks in the discrete time picture corresponds to the inverse frequency of the gravitational coherent state in the other picture. In both cases, a much lower time than the Planck time might represent a new fundamental scale, giving new type of physics. To make possible a concrete estimation of the pair production probability, we propose that the oscillating coherent state metrics that defines this very early geometry minimises the Einstein gravity action coupled to interacting 1-,...

  9. Early executive function predicts reasoning development. (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R


    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  10. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K


    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  11. Automatic earthquake confirmation for early warning system (United States)

    Kuyuk, H. S.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.; Allen, R. M.; Erdik, M. O.


    Earthquake early warning studies are shifting real-time seismology in earthquake science. They provide methods to rapidly assess earthquakes to predict damaging ground shaking. Preventing false alarms from these systems is key. Here we developed a simple, robust algorithm, Authorizing GRound shaking for Earthquake Early warning Systems (AGREEs), to reduce falsely issued alarms. This is a network threshold-based algorithm, which differs from existing approaches based on apparent velocity of P and S waves. AGREEs is designed to function as an external module to support existing earthquake early warning systems (EEWSs) and filters out the false events, by evaluating actual shaking near the epicenter. Our retrospective analyses of the 2009 L'Aquila and 2012 Emilia earthquakes show that AGREEs could help an EEWS by confirming the epicentral intensity. Furthermore, AGREEs is able to effectively identify three false events due to a storm, a teleseismic earthquake, and broken sensors in Irpinia Seismic Network, Italy.

  12. Bursts from the very early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail:


    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of pheno associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse.

  13. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter


    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...... in the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting....

  14. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682-83 the Danish king a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...

  15. A Survey Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Confidence about Teaching Early Math (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; McCray, Jennifer; Adams, Margaret; Leow, Christine


    This study reports on results from the Early Mathematics Beliefs and Confidence Survey, administered to 346 preschool teachers in a large public school system in the Midwest. Survey results depict a much more positive view of teachers' beliefs and confidence in early math teaching than previously reported. Results also suggest that teacher…

  16. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.


    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  17. Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Policy in Senegal. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series. (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    As part of a UNESCO-sponsored series of studies examining how integrated and coordinated early childhood policies are implemented, this case study focuses on Senegal's integrated early childhood policy. The case study examines the context for policy development and analyzes the structure and resources of the Ministry for the Family and Early…

  18. Early treatment of trans-tibial amputees: retrospective analysis of early fitting and elastic bandaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van A.D.; Nederhand, M.J.; Emmelot, C.H.; IJzerman, M.J.


    This study investigates the effects of early fitting in trans-tibial amputees. The assumption is that compared to elastic bandaging, the use of a rigid dressing in early fitting will result in quicker wound healing and earlier ambulation. A retrospective file search was carried out in three differen

  19. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi


    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  20. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht


    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...... in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated....

  1. A Survey Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Confidence about Teaching Early Math (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; McCray, Jennifer; Adams, Margaret; Leow, Christine


    This study reports on results from the Early Mathematics Beliefs and Confidence Survey, administered to 346 preschool teachers in a large public school system in the Midwest. Survey results depict a much more positive view of teachers' beliefs and confidence in early math teaching than previously reported. Results also suggest that teacher…

  2. Early Holocene environmental change, the presence and disappearance of early Mesolithic habitation near Zutphen (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.A.A.; Geel, B. van; Groenewoudt, B.J.; Lauwerier, R.C.G.M


    The Early Holocene landscape near Zutphen (The Netherlands) is reconstructed by means of microfossil, macroremain and bone analyses. In this area early Mesolithic sites were found on a river dune along a former river channel. AMS14C dating provided a detailed chronology for the sites and river chann

  3. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric


    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  4. Early Head Start: Research Findings. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 1, Issue 2 (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010


    Early Head Start is a federally funded community-based program for low-income families with infants and toddlers and for low-income pregnant women. Created in 1995, Early Head Start strives to promote healthy prenatal outcomes for pregnant women, to enhance the development of children ages birth to three, and to promote healthy family functioning.…


    Venti, Steven; Wise, David A


    The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the long lasting effect of education on economic outcomes. We use the relationship between education and two routes to early retirement - the receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and the early claiming of Social Security retirement benefits - to illustrate the long-lasting influence of education. We find that for both men and women with less than a high school degree the median DI participation rate is 6.6 times the participation rate for those with a college degree or more. Similarly, men and women with less than a high school education are over 25 percentage points more likely to claim Social Security benefits early than those with a college degree or more. We focus on four critical "pathways" through which education may indirectly influence early retirement - health, employment, earnings, and the accumulation of assets. We find that for women health is the dominant pathway through which education influences DI participation. For men, the health, earnings, and wealth pathways are of roughly equal magnitude. For both men and women the principal channel through which education influences early Social Security claiming decisions is the earnings pathway. We also consider the direct effect of education that does not operate through these pathways. The direct effect of education is much greater for early claiming of Social Security benefits than for DI participation, accounting for 72 percent of the effect of education for men and 67 percent for women. For women the direct effect of education on DI participation is not statistically significant, suggesting that the total effect may be through the four pathways.

  6. Early Pavlovian conditioning impairs later Pavlovian conditioning. (United States)

    Lariviere, N A; Spear, N E


    Four experiments tested the effects in the rat of very early experience with stimuli to be used later for Pavlovian conditioning. Beginning on postnatal Day 12, prior to the development of substantial detection and effective perception of visual and auditory stimuli, rats were given five daily experiences with either lights or tones and a footshock known to be an effective unconditioned stimulus at these ages. Twenty-four hours after the last of these experiences, pairings of either the light or tone and the unconditioned stimulus were given with parameters established to yield a moderate degree of conditioning in untreated preweanlings (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 determined that early experience with paired or unpaired presentations of either the light or tone and the unconditioned stimulus resulted in a failure to condition to these same lights or tones on postnatal Day 17, although nontreated pups from the same litters conditioned quite effectively. Experiment 3 determined that this early conditioning experience with either paired or unpaired presentations of the lights or tones and the unconditioned stimulus yielded impaired conditioning on postnatal Day 17 in the alternative sensory modality as well, although again nontreated siblings conditioned quite effectively. Experiment 4 replicated the results of each of Experiments 2 and 3 and determined in addition that despite the impairment in conditioning that resulted from early paired or unpaired experience with the stimuli of conditioning, early experience with the individual stimuli of conditioning-with only the CS, the US, or the context-did not result in a similar impairment in conditioning. Although the results were unexpected, they may be understood in part in terms of intersensory competition during development, and there is precedent in the literature for similar interfering effects of early learning on later learning in a variety of species.

  7. Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists (United States)

    Wiener, Richard


    This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

  8. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne


    OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate new parents׳ experiences of early postnatal discharge. DESIGN: a meta-synthesis including 10 qualitative studies was conducted using Noblit and Hare׳s method of meta-synthesis development. SETTING: qualitative studies performed in western...... postnatal care that included both parents, having influence on time of discharge, and getting individualised and available support focused on developing and recognising their own experiences of taking care of the baby. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the new parents׳ experiences of early...

  9. Sulphur tales from the early Archean world (United States)

    Montinaro, A.; Strauss, H.


    Sedimentary and magmatic rocks and their distinct sulphur isotopic signatures indicate the sources and processes of sulphur cycling, in particular through the analysis of all four stable sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S). Research over the past 15 years has substantially advanced our understanding of sulphur cycling on the early Earth, most notably through the discovery of mass-independently fractionated sulphur isotopic signatures. A strong atmospheric influence on the early Archean global sulphur cycle is apparent, much in contrast to the modern world. Diverse microbially driven sulphur cycling is clearly discernible, but its importance for Earth surface environments remains to be quantified.

  10. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  11. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario


    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  12. Early labour market returns to college subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Buonanno, Paolo

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  13. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  14. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia....... Focusing on a crucial period of global history that has been neglected in the field of International Relations, the book reveals profound differences between the early modern era and the more familiar colonial conquests of the second half of the nineteenth century. It will be interest to students...

  15. New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The NSFC funded Key Program project"A real-time analysis of the early diagnosis of cancer mark-ers",undertaken by Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),re-cently received recognition from an expert team for assessment.Experts pointed out that the research was of great value for the fast ascertain of cancer markers and the early warning and diagnosis.The research team was headed by Academician Wang Erkang,CAS and Prof.Kong Jilie,Fudan University.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Martynova


    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of delayed diagnosis of early congenital syphilis in a child whose mother was observed in prenatal clinic starting from the 14th week of pregnancy. The child had specific skin rash already in maternity. The child was discharged home without examination in the hospital. Only manifestations of nephritis lead to admission of the child into an inpatient hospital. Only at the age of 1 month and 23 days the child was suspected of early congenital syphilis with severe polisimptomnym, and the patient was transferred to specialized hospital. 

  17. Early Home Supported Discharge of Stroke Patients:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Olsen, T. Skyhøj; Sørensen, Jan


    OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive and systematic assessment (HTA) of early home-supported discharge by a multidisciplinary team that plans, coordinates, and delivers care at home (EHSD) was undertaken and the results were compared with that of conventional rehabilitation at stroke units. METHODS......: A systematic literature search for randomized trials (RCTs) on "early supported discharge" was closed in April 2005. RCTs on EHSD without information on (i) death or institution at follow-up, (ii) change in Barthél Index, (iii) length of hospital stay, (iv) intensity of home rehabilitation, or (v) baseline...

  18. WMAP - A Glimpse of the Early Universe (United States)

    Wollack, Edward


    The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the "Big Bang" and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. The history of this intriguing cosmological detective story will be reviewed. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.

  19. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    In early conceptual design the design team is working in an uncertain situation, where the understanding of a need is limited and not much is known about the solution space. In this situation the design team has to both analyse need and explore solution space. Thus, the team has to formulate design...... specification in early conceptual design consists of few specification statements, which express value, important aspects of product context and articulate key functions. A product design specification, which contains a lot of specification statements about product properties, is not productive to support...

  20. Early mathematics intervention in a Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Weng, Peter


    We describe a pilot project 2009 – 2010 about early intervention in second grade mathematics (about 8 years old) in Frederiksberg, a Danish urban municipality. We shortly describe the background of the pilot project, aims and organisation in four design cycles. We explore the pilot teachers' feed...... as a starting point. We find an urgent need to develop and research projects on early intervention in Nordic school culture, preferably in critical dialogue with international research in this field. , while critically discussing ideas and experiences from other countries....

  1. Early Paralysis for the Management of ARDS. (United States)

    Grawe, Erin S; Bennett, Suzanne; Hurford, William E


    The use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) early in the development of ARDS has been a strategy of interest for many years. The use of NMBAs with a concomitant deep sedation strategy can increase oxygenation and possibly decrease mortality when used in the early stages of ARDS. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear but probably involves a combination of factors, such as improving patient-ventilator synchrony, decreasing oxygen consumption, and decreasing the systemic inflammatory response associated with ARDS. The use of NMBA and deep sedation for these patients is not without consequence. This discussion describes the rationale and evidence behind the use of NMBAs in the setting of ARDS.

  2. Gamma-Ray Burst Early Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B


    The successful launch and operation of NASA's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer open a new era for the multi-wavelength study of the very early afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRB early afterglow information is essential to explore the unknown physical composition of GRB jets, the link between the prompt gamma-ray emission and the afterglow emission, the GRB central engine activity, as well as the immediate GRB environment. Here I review some of the recent theoretical efforts to address these problems and describe how the latest Swift data give answers to these outstanding questions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov


    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  4. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R


    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez...... of existing visible and radiographical systems to monitor lesions over time. Using low-cost intra-oral cameras facilitates the recording of lesion appearance in the patient record and may be of significant benefit in monitoring early lesions over time following their detection. This benefit extends...

  5. Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Howard L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. Results CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. Conclusions While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the finding of strong genetic differentiation between islands do not support this view. Therefore, our study is a nice example of how recently developed analytical tools such as Bayesian clustering analysis and DNA sequence-based demographic analyses can overcome potential biases introduced by simply relying on FST estimates from markers with different inheritance patterns.

  6. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin


    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  7. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning (United States)

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar


    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  8. Geometry in the Early Years: A Commentary (United States)

    Dindyal, Jaguthsing


    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a commentary on the teaching and learning of geometry in the early years of schooling with the set of papers in this issue as a guiding factor. It is structured around issues about geometry education of young learners, such as: what should we teach in geometry and why; representation of geometrical…

  9. Elegiac moods: Early Greek elegy and more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bartol


    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships and correlations between early Greek elegy (7th—5th c. BC and the elegiac mood of a poem understood today as a nostalgic and melancholic attitude of the subject evoked in a poem. The known surviving ancient texts prove the thematic heterogeneity of the elegiac genre at its early stage of development, while this elegiac emotionality is by no means a distinctive feature of this particular poetical category within the archaic parental context even though it does occur in some works composed in distichs that are traditionally labeled as elegiac (e.g. works of Archilochus and Mimnermus. Elegiac attitude, within modern understanding of the term, is also to be fundin the melic poetry of early Greek poets (such as Sappho, Anacreon and Simonides of Ceos which were, in fact, considered by ancient theoreticians as non elegiac as far as their genre was concerned. The attribution of the elegiac character, not linked genetically with any of genres, to one poetical category is thus a result of multilayered processes of cultural interaction and the reception of the early Greek literature rather than the substance of the genre.

  10. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós


    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  11. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne


    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...

  12. The discovery and early understanding of leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.


    The early history of leukemia reaches back 200 years. In 1811, Peter Cullen defined a case of splenitis acutus with unexplainable milky blood. Alfred Velpeau defined the leukemia associated symptoms, and observed pus in the blood vessels (1825). Alfred Donne detected a maturation arrest of the white

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.


    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  14. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.;


    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a glob...

  15. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan


    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  16. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.


    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  17. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies (United States)

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez


    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  18. English-speaking in early Surinam?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, N.S.H.; Selbach, R.; Cardoso, H.C.; van den Berg, M.


    I assess the opportunities of English-learning for slaves in early Surinam. Under the gradualist approach no creole could develop until the population balance had shifted significantly in favour of the slaves. With the population figures given by Arends for the years 1675, 1684 and 1695, I calculate

  19. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans Boch


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics in ...

  20. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists (United States)

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet


    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  1. Early Onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The clinical signs and genetic analysis of early-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT in a 2-year-old boy and members of his family are reported from the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, and Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  2. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development. (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin


    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development.

  3. The Effect of Early Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam


    The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of early entrepreneurship education. To this end, we conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate a leading entrepreneurship education program that is taught worldwide in the final grade of primary school. We focus on pupils׳ development ...

  4. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams (United States)

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.


    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  5. Anti-early pregnancy by PDT (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hui-Ling


    The effect of laser on anti-early pregnancy in rabbits showed that laser in combination with HPD could induce necrosis of blastocysts and complete absorption. The anti-fertility efficiency of the combined treatment was more effective than that of the He-Ne laser or the HPD treatment alone. The fluorescence spectrum of HPD determined by PNQ3 showed that its affinity to embryonic tissue was about 4 times greater than that to uterine tissue. This may underlie the mechanisms of anti-early pregnancy of the laser. The operation of artificial abortion is a routine method to terminate early pregnancy. Though it is simple and easy, its syndrome and complications can not be absolutely avoided. Many antifertility drugs have been reported, however, they often bring in general reaction. Our present work is to explore a new way of anti-early pregnancy in rabbits by means of the light inhibitory and light sensitive effects of laser. It is a quite safe and painless treatment without expanding and scraping of the uterus.

  6. The role of semantics in early reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsel, M.A.R.


    The aim of the dissertation was to obtain insight in semantic effects in word identification of Dutch children. Chapter 2 focused on the predictive value of risk factors, cognitive factors, and teachers' judgments in a sample of 462 kindergartners for their early reading skills in Grade 1. The discr

  7. A new perspective on early cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Alesci, Emanuele


    We present a new perspective on early cosmology based on Loop Quantum Gravity. We use projected spinnetworks, coherent states and spinfoam techniques, to implement a quantum reduction of the full Kinematical Hilbert space of LQG, suitable to describe inhomogeneous cosmological models. Some preliminary results on the solutions of the Scalar constraint of the reduced theory are also presented.

  8. Stellar Relics from the Early Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Sivarani


    We reviewed the recent progress in the field of stellar/galactic archeology, which is a study of the relics from the early galaxy. The oldest and most pristine objects that can be observed in the galaxy are the low mass metal poor stars of the Milky Way. They were formed during the early phases, when the ISM might have been polluted only by the Pop-III supernovae. With the recent large spectroscopic surveys (e.g. HK survey by Beers and collaborators, the Hamburg-ESO survey by Christlieb and collaborators and Sloan Digital Sky Survey) it has been possible to get clues on the nature of the first stars that has contributed to the heavy elements. Most of these metal-poor low mass stars also retain their signature of the early dynamical evolution of the galaxy, which can be studied through their orbits around the galaxy and spatial distribution. Here, we discuss the connection between the chemical and the kinematical properties of metal-poor stars in order to probe the early galaxy formation. We also discuss about the globular clusters, the satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and its possible contribution to the formation of the galaxy halo.

  9. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders (United States)

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner


    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  10. Impact Factor: Early Career Research & Digital Scholarship (United States)

    Pasquini, Laura A.; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Roman, Tiffany


    It is becoming increasingly vital to publish and share research as well as get citations for the purpose of researcher visibility. The publishing options available for research distribution seem endless. It really is an academic jungle out there! This article reviews why early career researchers and graduate scholars should consider their research…

  11. American Sign Language and Early Intervention (United States)

    Snoddon, Kristin


    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the introduction in several countries of universal neonatal hearing screening programs has changed the landscape of education for deaf children. Due to the increasing provision of early intervention services for children identified with hearing loss, public education for deaf children often starts…

  12. Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. (United States)

    Corso, Robert M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Roof, Virginia


    This article summarizes guidelines developed by the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Early Childhood Research Institute for selecting and adapting materials for young children and their families. Recommendations are provided that community teams should consider in collecting, selecting, and reflecting on materials. Tips are also…

  13. Luncheon address: Early days of CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)


    This will briefly describe how the original dimensions of the fuel bundle were defined and how that early designs of fuel evolved. I will also touch on some of the historical events of the materials and experiments which effected the fuel programme. Also how I became with Canada's Nuclear Fuel programme. (author)

  14. Early word recognition and later language skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne


    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of

  15. Multiple early gastric cancer with duodenal invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okino Tetsuya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early gastric cancers with duodenal invasion are rare, and no previous case of multiple early gastric cancer, one invading the duodenal bulb, has been reported. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman was investigated for upper abdominal discomfort. Endoscopic examination revealed an irregular nodulated lesion in the antrum area, and a reddish aggregated-type semi-circumferential nodulated lesion extending from the prepyloric area to the duodenal bulb through the normal mucosa with the antrum lesion. Biopsy revealed a tubular adenoma for the antrum lesion and a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma for the prepyloric lesion. Distal gastrectomy with sufficient duodenal resection was performed. Microscopically, the antrum lesion appeared as a papillary adenocarcinoma, and the prepyloric lesion as a mainly papillary adenocarcinoma which partially invaded the submucosa without any sequential elongation for endoscopic findings. The lesion extended into the duodenal bulb, and was 12 mm in length from the oral end of Brunner's gland's area and limited within the duodenal mucosa. Conclusion Here, we present an unusual case of multiple early gastric cancer, one of which invaded the duodenum with relative wide mucosal spreading. This case illustrates that even early stage cancers located in the gastric antrum, particularly in the prepyloric area can invade the duodenum directly.

  16. Just Say Yes to Early Algebra! (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy


    Mathematics educators have argued for some time that elementary school students are capable of engaging in algebraic thinking and should be provided with rich opportunities to do so. Recent initiatives like the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) have taken up this call by reiterating the place of early algebra in…

  17. Early Recollections of First-Borns. (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.


    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  18. Word Segmentation in Early Written Narratives. (United States)

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Pontecorvo, Clotilde


    Examines the difficulties children face in word segmentation in early writings. Rules about word separation have evolved over many years and are ow normative in the languages these children are trying to write: Italian, Portuguese, Spanish. Children were asked to write a story well-known in all three cultures. Quantitative analysis was done of…

  19. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii


    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  20. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting (United States)

    Graville, Iris


    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavco CADIEV


    Full Text Available The problem of early detection of children with sense of hearing is very complicate. If the damage of sense of hearing is not detected on time and if You don’t take adequate treatment, after seven year that is impossible. Audiometry is one step to reestablishment diagnostic with help of electronic technology.

  2. Early attention processes and anxiety in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallen, V. L.; Ferdinand, R. F.; Tulen, J. H. M.


    It has been hypothesized that anxiety in children is associated with attentional bias in the early stages of information processing. Bias towards threat indicates the tendency of an individual to direct attention towards threatening information. The airn of the present study was to investigate wheth

  3. Erikson's Psychosocial Theories Help Explain Early Adolescence. (United States)

    Manning, M. Lee


    Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…

  4. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement (United States)

    Hakyemez, Sevcan


    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  5. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne


    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  6. The Referent of Children's Early Songs (United States)

    Mang, Esther


    Musical creativity during early childhood is readily exemplified in vocal behaviours. This paper is a discussion of observations on children's performance of learned songs and self-generated songs. Longitudinal observations suggest that self-generated songs may be seen as referent-guided improvisation using source materials derived from learned…

  7. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM


    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  8. Computer simulation of early embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezem, J.J.; Raven, Chr.P.


    A simple model, formulated in terms of elementary geometry, is presented, describing the early development of Lymnaea stagnalis. It includes the main morphogenetic processes active at this stage: cell division, cell flattening and differentiation. Though the model has been designed primarily to fit

  9. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents (United States)

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis


    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Objective-To assess the impact of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on work status. Methods-The employment status of 119 patients who had jobs before the onset of RA was examined. Patients with work disability were compared with those without, for several disease characteristics, therapeutic regimen,

  11. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms? (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.


    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…

  12. Work Disability in Early Systemic Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandqvist, Gunnel; Hesselstrand, Roger; Petersson, Ingemar F


    OBJECTIVE: To study work disability (WD) with reference to levels of sick leave and disability pension in early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with SSc living in the southern part of Sweden with onset of their first non-Raynaud symptom between 2003 and 2009 and with a followup of 36...

  13. Early math intervention for marginalized students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck


    This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...

  14. Waiting-time targets. Early learners. (United States)

    Moore, Alison


    Thirteen 'early achiever' sites have volunteered to deliver the new 18-week target ahead of schedule. The sites have highlighted recurring issues for trusts aiming for 18 weeks: orthopaedics, audiology, endoscopy and some smaller specialties have all proved challenging. The target should be seen as a vital step towards a 'no unnecessary delay' system of working and thinking.

  15. The Early Years: Composting with Children (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy


    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  16. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  17. An Early Childhood Movement Laboratory Model: Kindergym (United States)

    Marston, Rip


    Early childhood motor activity programs at institutions of higher learning can operate within the tripartite mission of the university while serving a vital function in providing leadership and guidance to educators. This article describes the University of Northern Iowa's Kindergym model. Within this model, curricular areas of games/sports,…

  18. Emergent Literacy and Early Writing Skills (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice; Vezzani, Claudio


    In the present study, the authors aimed to assess the short- and long-term predictive power of the various components of an emergent literacy model on early writing abilities in a language with a mainly transparent orthography (Italian). Emergent literacy skills were assessed in 72 children (M age = 5.05 years, SD = plus or minus 0.03) who were…

  19. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update (United States)

    Schiller, Pam


    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  20. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.


    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probabi

  1. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg (United States)

    Bagwell, Angela Catania


    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  2. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education? (United States)

    Warming, Hanne


    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…

  3. New early indica variety Zhongyouzao 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGFasong; HUPeisong; TANGShaoqing; LUOJu


    Rice variety Zhongyouzao 3 was developed by CNRRI and Hunan Rice Research Institute,Hunan Province, from the cross 84-240/Hongtu 5 made in 1986. The 84-240 is the second season indica line with superior grain quality and multl-reslstance to rice pests, and the Hongtu 5 is early indica variety with highyielding.

  4. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences (United States)

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen


    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  5. Agentive and Communitarian Play in Early Childhood (United States)

    Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann


    Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…

  6. Double Pomeron Exchange: the early years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, Michael G. [Fermilab


    I review the early experimental searches for double pomeron exchange, the first observations at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) and further studies at the SPS and Tevatron (fixed target). I only have space for a superficial coverage of some highlights, and will not cover later colliders with √s > GeV.

  7. Competency-Based Early Childhood Teacher Education. (United States)

    Rosberg, Merilee

    This paper describes the competency-based early childhood preservice program at Iowa's Mount Mercy College, which is for people working with children from birth through age 8, including children with special needs. Program content encompasses five competency areas: child growth and development; developmentally appropriate learning; health, safety,…

  8. 75 FR 24450 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (United States)


    ... viewing by the public, including any personally identifiable or confidential business information that is... terminology, and have the same or similar requirements for the RDS Program and the Early Retiree Reinsurance... regulatory terminology and concepts should be the same or similar between the RDS Program and the...

  9. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics (United States)

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon


    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…

  10. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria


    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methods Use was made of 38 human embryos and fetus

  11. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut? (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.


    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  12. The Early Years: Integrating Digital Tools (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy


    This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue discusses how digital media and robotics fit into the early childhood curriculum, and how time on devices supports learning goals and developmentally appropriate practice.

  13. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)


    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  14. The Quantum Echo of the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Blasco, Ana; Martin-Benito, Mercedes; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo


    We show that the fluctuations of quantum fields as seen by late comoving observers are significantly influenced by the history of the early Universe, and therefore they transmit information about the nature of spacetime in timescales when quantum gravitational effects were non-negligible. We discuss how this may be observable even nowadays, and thus used to build falsifiability tests of quantum gravity theories.

  15. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile. (United States)

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  16. Variation among early North American crania. (United States)

    Jantz, R L; Owsley, D W


    The limited morphometric work on early American crania to date has treated them as a single, temporally defined group. This paper addresses the question of whether there is significant variability among ancient American crania. A sample of 11 crania (Spirit Cave, Wizards Beach, Browns Valley, Pelican Rapids, Prospect, Wet Gravel male, Wet Gravel female, Medicine Crow, Turin, Lime Creek, and Swanson Lake) dating from the early to mid Holocene was available. Some have recent accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates, while others are dated geologically or archaeologically. All are in excess of 4500 BP, and most are 7000 BP or older. Measurements follow the definitions of Howells [(1973) Cranial variation in man, Cambridge: Harvard University). Some crania are incomplete, but 22 measurements were common to all fossils. Cranial variation was examined by calculating the Mahalanobis distance between each pair of fossils, using a pooled within sample covariance matrix estimated from the data of Howells. The distance relationships among crania suggest the presence of at least three distinct groups: 1) a middle Archaic Plains group (Turin and Medicine Crow), 2) a Paleo/Early Archaic Great Lakes/Plains group (Browns Valley, Pelican Rapids, Lime Creek), and 3) a spatially and temporally heterogeneous group that includes the Great Basin/Pacific Coast (Spirit Cave, Wizards Beach, Prospect) and Nebraska (Wet Gravel specimens and Swanson Lake). These crania were also compared to Howells' worldwide recent sample, which was expanded by including six additional American Indian samples. None of the fossils, except for the Wet Gravel male, shows any particular affinity to recent Native Americans; their greatest similarities are with Europe, Polynesia, or East Asia. Several crania would be atypical in any recent population for which we have data. Browns Valley, Pelican Rapids, and Lime Creek are the most distinctive. They provide evidence for the presence of an early population that

  17. Early-onset Lafora body disease (United States)

    Turnbull, Julie; Girard, Jean-Marie; Lohi, Hannes; Chan, Elayne M.; Wang, Peixiang; Tiberia, Erica; Omer, Salah; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Bennett, Christopher; Chakrabarty, Aruna; Tyagi, Atul; Liu, Yan; Pencea, Nela; Zhao, XiaoChu; Scherer, Stephen W.; Ackerley, Cameron A.


    The most common progressive myoclonus epilepsies are the late infantile and late infantile-variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (onset before the age of 6 years), Unverricht–Lundborg disease (onset after the age of 6 years) and Lafora disease. Lafora disease is a distinct disorder with uniform course: onset in teenage years, followed by progressively worsening myoclonus, seizures, visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, leading to a vegetative state in status myoclonicus and death within 10 years. Biopsy reveals Lafora bodies, which are pathognomonic and not seen with any other progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Lafora bodies are aggregates of polyglucosans, poorly constructed glycogen molecules with inordinately long strands that render them insoluble. Lafora disease is caused by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding the laforin phosphatase and the malin ubiquitin ligase, respectively, two cytoplasmically active enzymes that regulate glycogen construction, ensuring symmetric expansion into a spherical shape, essential to its solubility. In this work, we report a new progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with Lafora bodies, early-onset Lafora body disease, map its locus to chromosome 4q21.21, identify its gene and mutation and characterize the relationship of its gene product with laforin and malin. Early-onset Lafora body disease presents early, at 5 years, with dysarthria, myoclonus and ataxia. The combination of early-onset and early dysarthria strongly suggests late infantile-variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, not Lafora disease. Pathology reveals no ceroid lipofuscinosis, but Lafora bodies. The subsequent course is a typical progressive myoclonus epilepsy, though much more protracted than any infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, or Lafora disease, patients living into the fourth decade. The mutation, c.781T>C (Phe261Leu), is in a gene of unknown function, PRDM8. We show that the PRDM8 protein interacts with laforin and malin and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar


    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the breast is one of the commonest cancers occurring in female and accounts for 1/3rd of all the malignant diseases occurring in them. It is mainly a disease of the developed countries and accounts for 1,00,000 deaths annually. Breast carcinoma is classified as Early breast cancer, Locally advanced breast cancer and Metastatic breast cancer. By definition early stage breast cancer constitutes breast tumors of clinical stages I, IIa and T2N1M0. Early breast cancer is the one diagnosed by mammography. Women when approaches at this stage, they can go for breast conservation surgery. Not all women are candidates for this approach, and some require mastectomy as part of their treatment. AIM To observe the incidence of early breast carcinoma with particular reference to the time taken by the patients to seek medical advice after the symptoms have developed i.e. the average time taken by the patients to seek medical advice, their appropriate management and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted over a period of 2 years from Oct-2012 to Oct-2014 in 30 female patients aged between 25-65 years who were presented with lump in breast of size ≤5cms with or without pain, with or without lymph nodes to the outpatient department. All the patients were thoroughly asked about history, examined clinically, investigated, staged and managed by surgery either Breast Conservation Surgery or Modified Radical Mastectomy. Postoperative complications were recorded and followed up regularly. RESULTS The incidence of early breast cancer in this study was 0.98% with peak age incidence between 40-60 years and duration of symptoms <6 months in 18 patients. Breast Conservation Surgery + axillary dissection + Radiotherapy was done in 23%. Prognosis was good in these patients with no local recurrence and death. CONCLUSION The prognosis of early stage breast carcinoma patients in this study was good. To have long term tumor free and

  19. The Effect of Early Marriages and Early Childbearing on Women's Nutritional Status in India. (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti


    The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5.

  20. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses. (United States)

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie


    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  1. The consequences of early marriage on marital dissolution. (United States)

    Witt, D D; Davidson, B; Sollie, D L; Lowe, G D; Peek, C W


    This study is concerned with the negative effects of early marriage on marital stability. "The focus on this paper is an analysis of a path model which includes the estimated effects of antecedents of early marriage, early marriage and education on the probability of divorce. Findings using the [U.S.] General Social Surveys support research that suggests that early marriage is the most important varialbe influencing divorce. Further, little influence of the early marriage measure through education was found."


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar CORDIC


    Full Text Available Clinical defectological diagnostics, related to diagnostics of each individual's impairment of his cognitive and socializing abilities, has been applied in our country for a long time. Since it is a new area in the clinical defectological work and a new form of research in defectology, it poses a series of problems which have not been met so far. We shall to recognize some of them in this paper and to aim at their solution.This time we shall consider only the most prominent problems towards which we direct our interventions:· When does defectological diagnostics take part in diagnosis as treatment of impairments of the handicapped person? When does it function in the process of rehabilitation? For example, is working with a dyslexic child treatment or rehabilitation?· When does the early diagnostics reveal a problem arising from inappropriate intersection of different development courses, which can sometimes be solved without any particular treatment (early stuttering, various convulsions, and when does it reveal actual condition, such as oligophrenia or autism. Thereby we ask ourselves if early stimulative treatment of oligophrenic children or children with early childhood psychosis is treatment or rehabilitation.We tried to classify end explain the problems of diagnostics in the context of treatment and rehabilitation and to define the theoretical grounds for our standpoints.We wanted to point out the unity of the process of any impairment of the handicapped person from early childhood to the end of his life. Treatment and rehabilitation should be a united process and follow the course of development of early disorders which sometimes end up as handicaps, and sometimes, thanks to the treatment, may end up in successful socialization, for example, persons with impaired hearing or sight.We establish defectology as a complete theoretical standpoint and expert procedure which is parallel to and complementary with medicine. The only difference we

  3. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood? (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E


    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  4. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway


    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric


    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and ...

  5. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi


    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  6. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  7. A survey of early warning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.D.; Arlowe, H.D.; Williams, J.D.


    This paper presents a survey of technologies useful in providing early warning in physical security systems. Early warning is important in virtually all types of security systems whether they are used for temporary (tactical, portable, or semi-permanent) applications, border warning, fixed-site detection, or standoff surveillance detection. With the exception of the standoff surveillance detection systems, all systems discussed in this paper usually involve a moving target. The fact that a person(s) to be detected in a standoff surveillance scenario is not moving presents challenging problems and requires different applications of technology. The technologies commonly used to detect moving targets and some suggestions for detection of stationary targets are addressed in this paper.

  8. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P;


    areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study......BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...

  9. Early Language Learning and the Social Brain. (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K


    Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures. The resulting data offer both expected results and surprises that are altering theory. As we uncover what it means to be human through the lens of young children, and their ability to speak, what we learn will not only inform theories of human development, but also lead to the discovery of neural biomarkers, early in life, that indicate risk for language impairment and allow early intervention for children with developmental disabilities involving language.

  10. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results......The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores...

  11. Early supported discharge following mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Stina; Carstensen, Kathrine; Møldrup, Marie;


    BACKGROUND: Early supported discharge (ESD) allows mild-to-moderate stroke patients to return home as soon as possible and continue rehabilitation at their own pace in familiar surroundings. Thus, the main responsibility for continued rehabilitation is in the hands of patients and their partners......, who must collaborate to adjust to poststroke everyday life. However, couples' joint experiences of stroke, early discharge and rehabilitation at home remain minimally investigated. AIM: To investigate how mild stroke patients' and their partners' experience and manage everyday life in a context of ESD....... METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 22 ESD patients and 18 partners. Interviews were conducted 3-6 weeks after stroke, and we used thematic analysis to analyse the data. FINDINGS: The analysis identified three themes. First, 'Home as a healing place' involved...

  12. Early events in axon/dendrite polarization. (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-lin; Poo, Mu-ming


    Differentiation of axons and dendrites is a critical step in neuronal development. Here we review the evidence that axon/dendrite formation during neuronal polarization depends on the intrinsic cytoplasmic asymmetry inherited by the postmitotic neuron, the exposure of the neuron to extracellular chemical factors, and the action of anisotropic mechanical forces imposed by the environment. To better delineate the functions of early signals among a myriad of cellular components that were shown to influence axon/dendrite formation, we discuss their functions by distinguishing their roles as determinants, mediators, or modulators and consider selective degradation of these components as a potential mechanism for axon/dendrite polarization. Finally, we examine whether these early events of axon/dendrite formation involve local autocatalytic activation and long-range inhibition, as postulated by Alan Turing for the morphogenesis of patterned biological structure.

  13. Early arthrosis of the digital joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.


    Arthrosis of the digital joints begins predominantly on the volar joint surface and the volar-proximal margin of the head. Because of this localisation, and in order to obtain adequate contrast and definition, these early changes are best shown by means of low R.V. radiographs in three views. The early changes consist of the following local processes: intrachondral sclerosis, exomarginal and endomarginal subchondral sclerosis, discreet increase in the spongiosa; this leads to disrounding and hooklike form of the head; thickening or disappearance of the sub-marginal spongiosa and marginal defects. Artifacts produced by the projections or local bone variants must be recognised, as well as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. 21 figs.

  14. Early development and regression in Rett syndrome. (United States)

    Lee, J Y L; Leonard, H; Piek, J P; Downs, J


    This study utilized developmental profiling to examine symptoms in 14 girls with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome and whose families were participating in the Australian Rett syndrome or InterRett database. Regression was mostly characterized by loss of hand and/or communication skills (13/14) except one girl demonstrated slowing of skill development. Social withdrawal and inconsolable crying often developed simultaneously (9/14), with social withdrawal for shorter duration than inconsolable crying. Previously acquired gross motor skills declined in just over half of the sample (8/14), mostly observed as a loss of balance. Early abnormalities such as vomiting and strabismus were also seen. Our findings provide additional insight into the early clinical profile of Rett syndrome.

  15. John Dewey and early Chicago functionalism. (United States)

    Backe, A


    John Dewey and James Angell are regarded respectively as the founder and systematizer of the Chicago school of functional psychology. The early Chicago school traditionally has been portrayed as a unified theoretical approach based primarily on William James's naturalist theory of mental processes. It is argued in this article that although the psychology systematized by Angell bore a close affinity to James's naturalism, Dewey's own psychology was based primarily on the neo-Hegelian philosophy of Thomas Hill Green. Through a review of a number of Dewey's major writings, Green's neo-Hegelian philosophy is shown to have influenced Dewey's views on psychological concepts such as reaction, emotion, and perception during the formative period of the Chicago school. The interpretation of Dewey's psychology developed in this article leads to the conclusion that early Chicago functionalism should not be regarded as a unified theoretical approach.

  16. Unusual early-onset Huntingtons disease. (United States)

    Vargas, Antonio P; Carod-Artal, Francisco J; Bomfim, Denise; Vázquez-Cabrera, Carolina; Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela


    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and behavioral disorders leading to functional disability. In contrast to patients with adult onset, in which chorea is the major motor abnormality, children often present with spasticity, rigidity, and significant intellectual decline associated with a more rapidly progressive course. An unusual early-onset Huntington's disease case of an 11-year-old boy with severe hypokinetic/rigid syndrome appearing at the age of 2.5 years is presented. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction study of the expanded IT-15 allele with a compatible size of 102 cytosine-adenosine-guanosine repeats L-Dopa mildly ameliorated rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia. We conclude that Huntington's disease should be included in the differential diagnoses of regressive syndromes of early childhood.

  17. WMAP - A Portrait of the Early Universe (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.


    A host of astrophysical observations suggest that early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the 'Big Bang' and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. A brief history of the evolution of the microwave radiometer systems and map making approaches used in advancing these aspects our understanding of cosmological will be reviewed. In addition, an overview of the results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy (WMAP) will be presented.

  18. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R.


    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  19. Patterns and mechanisms of early Pliocene warmth. (United States)

    Fedorov, A V; Brierley, C M; Lawrence, K T; Liu, Z; Dekens, P S; Ravelo, A C


    About five to four million years ago, in the early Pliocene epoch, Earth had a warm, temperate climate. The gradual cooling that followed led to the establishment of modern temperature patterns, possibly in response to a decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentration, of the order of 100 parts per million, towards preindustrial values. Here we synthesize the available geochemical proxy records of sea surface temperature and show that, compared with that of today, the early Pliocene climate had substantially lower meridional and zonal temperature gradients but similar maximum ocean temperatures. Using an Earth system model, we show that none of the mechanisms currently proposed to explain Pliocene warmth can simultaneously reproduce all three crucial features. We suggest that a combination of several dynamical feedbacks underestimated in the models at present, such as those related to ocean mixing and cloud albedo, may have been responsible for these climate conditions.

  20. Particle physics in the very early universe (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.


    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  1. Nonsurgical Management of Early-onset Scoliosis. (United States)

    Thorsness, Robert J; Faust, John R; Behrend, Caleb J; Sanders, James O


    Early-onset scoliosis is potentially fatal if left untreated. Although surgical management with growing instrumentation may be necessary, this is not a panacea and is associated with high complication rates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that nonsurgical treatment can be an effective early management strategy in delaying or even precluding the need for surgery, especially surgery with growing instrumentation. The goal of both nonsurgical and surgical management is to control or correct the spinal curve to allow appropriate pulmonary development while delaying definitive fusion until an appropriate skeletal age. Although more commonly used to delay surgery, serial cast correction using the Cotrel and Morel elongation-derotation-flexion technique may result in complete correction in patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and smaller curve magnitudes.

  2. Several early interventions for ectopic maxillary canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Astorga


    Full Text Available Maxillary canine impactation is often encountered in orthodontic clinical practice and the aetiology is associated to genetic factors as well as local space factors. If preventive treatment is not started in ectopic maxillary canines, some possible consequences may occur, such as resorption of the roots of the neighboring permanent teeth, cysts, ankylosis and expensive surgical and orthodontic treatment. The aim of this review was to preset several early treatment modalities for ectopic maxillary canines based on recent scientific evidence. Four are the most important: Only extractions intervention, extraction of deciduous canines with cervical pull headgear, active intervention in late mixed dentition and active intervention in early mixed dentition. These different modalities showed a greater increasing the rate of normal eruption of ectopic canines ( 80-97%. The extraction of primary canine alone is still an effective method to prevent canine impactation, whose success rate would be increased if some other method interceptive is added.

  3. Photochemical Escape of Oxygen from Early Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jinjin


    Photochemical escape is an important process for oxygen escape from present Mars. In this work, a 1-D Monte-Carlo Model is developed to calculate escape rates of energetic oxygen atoms produced from O2+ dissociative recombination reactions (DR) under 1, 3, 10, and 20 times present solar XUV fluxes. We found that although the overall DR rates increase with solar XUV flux almost linearly, oxygen escape rate increases from 1 to 10 times present solar XUV conditions but decreases when increasing solar XUV flux further. Analysis shows that atomic species in the upper thermosphere of early Mars increases more rapidly than O2+ when increasing XUV fluxes. While the latter is the source of energetic O atoms, the former increases the collision probability and thus decreases the escape probability of energetic O. Our results suggest that photochemical escape be a less important escape mechanism than previously thought for the loss of water and/or CO2 from early Mars.

  4. Laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennich, Gitte; Rudnicki, M.; Lassen, P. D.


    IntroductionThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate learning curves and short-term outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer in women of different body mass index (BMI) classes. Material and methodsData from 227 women planned for laparoscopic surgery for presumed...... stage I endometrial cancer were collected retrospectively from a Danish gynecologic oncology unit. Surgery included laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLA). ResultsMedian length of operations was 60 min (range, 30-197) and 120 min (range...... peri- and postoperative outcomes were independent of BMI classes. ConclusionsOur data suggest that laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer is feasible and safe. With increasing surgeon's experience there is a significant decrease in operative time and increase in the number of lymph nodes...

  5. Early Life Adversity, Genomic Plasticity, and Psychopathology (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan


    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201

  6. RFamide peptides in early vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Katrine Sandvik


    Full Text Available RFamides (RFa are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play.

  7. How do researchers decide early clinical trials? (United States)

    Grankvist, Hannah; Kimmelman, Jonathan


    Launch of clinical investigation represents a substantial escalation in commitment to a particular clinical translation trajectory; it also exposes human subjects to poorly understood interventions. Despite these high stakes, there is little to guide decision-makers on the scientific and ethical evaluation of early phase trials. In this article, we review policies and consensus statements on human protections, drug regulation, and research design surrounding trial launch, and conclude that decision-making is largely left to the discretion of research teams and sponsors. We then review what is currently understood about how research teams exercise this discretion, and close by laying out a research agenda for characterizing the way investigators, sponsors, and reviewers approach decision-making in early phase research.

  8. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Freiesleben Hansen, Per


    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete which includes the transitional thermal effect. The model govern both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model are assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of the water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  9. Transitional Thermal Creep of Early Age Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard, A. B.; Damkilde, L.; Hansen, Per Freiesleben


    Couplings between creep of hardened concrete and temperature/water effects are well-known. Both the level and the gradients in time of temperature or water content influence the creep properties. In early age concrete the internal drying and the heat development due to hydration increase the effect...... of these couplings. The purpose of this work is to set up a mathematical model for creep of concrete that includes the transitional thermal effect. The model governs both early age concrete and hardened concrete. The development of the material properties in the model is assumed to depend on the hydration process...... and the thermal activation of water in the microstructure. The thermal activation is assumed to be governed by the Arrhenius principle, and the activation energy of the viscosity of water is found applicable in the analysis of the experimental data. Changes in temperature create an imbalance in the microstructure...

  10. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    specifications, which express attractive product goals, and has to synthesise the product idea. The authors of this paper see a challenge to enhance and improve our understanding of the nature of design specifications as a means to support the synthesis of a product idea. In this empirical study we analyse...... the structure and content of design specifications during early ideation activities, where initial design specifications are formulated and a product idea is synthesised. We have analysed specification documents of 19 teams of novice designers. Our analysis indicates that a productive product design...... specification in early conceptual design consists of few specification statements, which express value, important aspects of product context and articulate key functions. A product design specification, which contains a lot of specification statements about product properties, is not productive to support...

  11. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex. (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner


    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity.

  12. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament. (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi


    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  13. Early dust evolution in protostellar accretion disks



    We investigate dust dynamics and evolution during the formation of a protostellar accretion disk around intermediate mass stars via 2D numerical simulations. Using three different detailed dust models, compact spherical particles, fractal BPCA grains, and BCCA grains, we find that even during the early collapse and the first 10,000 yr of dynamical disk evolution, the initial dust size distribution is strongly modified. Close to the disk's midplane coagulation produces dust particles of sizes ...

  14. Early vigour improves phosphate uptake in wheat. (United States)

    Ryan, Peter R; Liao, Mingtan; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Rebetzke, Gregory J; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang; James, Richard A


    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for shoot biomass were identified in wheat grown on a soil high in total phosphorus (P) but low in plant-available P. The two populations screened included recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from Chuan-Mai 18/Vigour 18 and doubled-haploid lines from Kukri/Janz. Glasshouse-grown plants were harvested at the five-leaf stage. Seven QTLs for shoot biomass were identified in the RILs, with the largest on chromosome 7A accounting for 7.4% of the phenotypic variance. RILs from the upper tail had larger embryos than RILs from the lower tail. Tail lines were then grown in non-limiting P and the results indicated that early vigour and the capacity to access P contributed to the initial distribution. The influence of early vigour on P nutrition was examined further with advanced vigour lines (AVLs). The AVLs accumulated more shoot biomass, maintained lower shoot P concentrations, and showed greater P-acquisition efficiency than Vigour 18. Nine QTLs for shoot biomass were identified in the Kukri/Janz population. Two on chromosomes 4B and 4D accounted for 24.8% of the variance. Candidates underlying these QTLs are the Rht genes. We confirmed the influence of these genes using near-isogenic lines with different Rht alleles. The dwarf and semi-dwarf alleles affected shoot and root biomass at high and low P but not the efficiency of P acquisition. We conclude that early vigour contributed to the distributions in both populations. Early vigour can increase plant growth at suboptimal P and some sources can also improve the efficiency of P acquisition.

  15. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis (United States)

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard


    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

  16. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet


    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi,K.


    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probability of dike failure, the ensuing scenarios of dike breaching, predicted flood spreading and escape routes for people from the affected areas. Results are presented on interactive decision support ...

  17. Thrombocytopenic purpura: Importance of early diagnosis


    Linklater, David M.; Voth, Arnold


    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome are important diagnostic considerations for family physicians because therapy can be lifesaving. Treatment with plasmapheresis is usually successful. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential. A patient with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is described. Diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease was confirmed after the initial episode. The case highlights the important role of family physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of uncommon he...

  18. Evaluation of nomograms in early breast cancer



    Background and aims: Since the introduction of the sentinel node biopsy in the treatment of early breast cancer, the axillary lymph node dissection became the norm in case of sentinel node métastatic. Although it is associated with an important risk of nervous complications of the upper limb and lymphoedema. The use of scores or abacuses, allowed the deletion of axillary lymph node dissection on patients with good pronostic. Scores and abacuses were developed to estimate the risk of invasion ...

  19. Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborra, Irene [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Tram, Thomas [Institut de Théorie des Phénomenènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Recent cosmological data favor additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons. Light sterile neutrinos are prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived assuming that they are thermalized at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch and such assumption is not justified a priori. We will discuss the evolution of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe and their thermalization just before BBN begins.

  20. Syndromic (phenotypic) diarrhea in early infancy


    Bodemer Christine; Brousse Nicole; Roquelaure Bertrand; Vinson Christine; Goulet Olivier; Cézard Jean-Pierre


    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD), also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD) or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE), is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorph...

  1. Cytoskeleton and Early Development in Fucoid Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions play important roles during development in many multicellular eukaryotes.Fucoid algae have a long history as models for studying early developmental processes, probably because of the ease with which zygotes can be observed and manipulated in the laboratory. This review discusses cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions in fucoid algal zygotes with an emphasis on the roles played by the cytoskeleton.

  2. The History of Early Polar Ice Cores (United States)


    1930, through the trying efforts of three international core drilling projects mounted around 1950. The paper continues with a broad overview of the...the glacier/sub-ice boundary, when the glacier/sub-ice interface meltwater unexpectedly gushed up into the borehole and froze in the core core drilling projects mounted around 1950. The paper continues with a broad overview of the early role and achievements made by two related U.S

  3. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro


    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  4. Another look at tarsometatarsi of early penguins


    Jadwiszczak Piotr


    The tarsometatarsus, a compound bone from the lower leg in birds, is the most important skeletal element in fossil penguin taxonomy, especially in the case of early members of this group. However, any attempt to go beyond the problem of mere classification obviously requires the better understanding of osteological traits under consideration. This in turn touches on the issue of interplay between bone and concomitant soft-tissue structures, such as muscles, tendons and vessels. This paper foc...

  5. Mother and infant: early emotional ties. (United States)

    Klaus, M


    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  6. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺


    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  7. Early SP-100 flight mission designs (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.


    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  8. Early diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome.


    Hague, R A; Rassam, S; Morgan, G; Cant, A. J.


    Infants with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS) have a greatly improved prognosis if diagnosed and treated before they develop overwhelming infection. Clinical and laboratory data on 45 patients with SCIDS were retrospectively reviewed to assess the value of absolute lymphocyte counts in making an early diagnosis. Ninety infants matched for age, sex, and presenting symptoms were used as controls. Thirteen (29%) infants with SCIDS were diagnosed at birth as previous siblings had...

  9. The early history of Dupuytren's disease. (United States)

    Elliot, D


    Dupuytren's disease may have originated among the Vikings of northern Europe. Possible association of the disease with the Scottish bagpipe-playing MacCrimmon clan and the Papal Sign of Benediction also are examined. The evolution of pathologic understanding and the advent of surgical treatment of the disease in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in Europe and North America are reviewed in detail.

  10. Palaeontology: early Neolithic tradition of dentistry. (United States)

    Coppa, A; Bondioli, L; Cucina, A; Frayer, D W; Jarrige, C; Jarrige, J-F; Quivron, G; Rossi, M; Vidale, M; Macchiarelli, R


    Prehistoric evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo has so far been limited to isolated cases from less than six millennia ago. Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500-9,000 years ago. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture.

  11. Early millet use in northern China


    Yang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Zhiwei; Perry, Linda; Lu, Houyuan; WANG Qiang; Zhao, Chaohong; Li, Jun; Xie, Fei; Yu, Jincheng; Cui, Tianxing; WANG Tao; Li, Mingqi; Ge, Quansheng


    It is generally understood that foxtail millet and broomcorn millet were initially domesticated in Northern China where they eventually became the dominant plant food crops. The rarity of older archaeological sites and archaeobotanical work in the region, however, renders both the origins of these plants and their processes of domestication poorly understood. Here we present ancient starch grain assemblages recovered from cultural deposits, including carbonized residues adhering to an early p...

  12. Early trauma and mood disorders in youngsters


    Caroline Elizabeth Konradt; Karen Jansen; Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro; Flávio Pereira Kapczinski; Ricardo Azevedo da Silva; Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza


    OBJECTIVE: To verify early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect among young with bipolar disorder (BD), major depression (MDD), and controls. METHOD: Case-control study nested to a population-based cross-sectional study. The diagnosis was performed via the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Traumatic events were analyzed using the Portuguese version - Questionário sobre Traumas na Infância (CTQ) - based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: The s...

  13. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes


    Bolbocean, Corneliu


    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  14. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.


    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  15. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.


    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  16. Pulmonary involvement in early rheumatoid arthritis patients. (United States)

    Habib, Hisham M; Eisa, Ashraf A; Arafat, Waleed R; Marie, Mohamed A


    Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is common and can be due to the disease itself as well as to the therapies used to treat it. The purpose of this study was to disclose the pulmonary involvement in early RA patients not more than 2 years disease duration using the computed tomography (CT) as well as the pulmonary function tests as ways of pulmonary involvement assessment. Forty patients aged 37.6 ± 10.3 with early rheumatoid arthritis not more than 2 years of disease duration were recruited for the study. All patients were assessed clinically for their RA with DAS28, which was utilized for disease activity determination. Ten percent of our patients were found to be clinically involved by interstitial lung disease (ILD), where 27% have abnormal HRCT finding and 32.5% with abnormal PFT. Predilection for clinically manifest ILD was evident in active RA patients with high DAS28 score, seropositive RA patients, and in patients receiving steroids and anti-TNFα therapy. ILD occurs early in the course of RA, with more predilection for clinically active RA disease.

  17. Early retirement and mortality in Germany. (United States)

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda


    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  18. Expression of nebulette during early cardiac development. (United States)

    Esham, Michael; Bryan, Kourtney; Milnes, Jennifer; Holmes, William B; Moncman, Carole L


    Nebulette, a cardiac homologue of nebulin, colocalizes with alpha-actinin in the pre-myofibrils of spreading cardiomyocytes and has been hypothesized to play a critical role in the formation of the thin-filament-Z-line complex early during myofibrillogenesis. Data from mesodermal explants or whole tissue mounts of developing hearts suggest that the pattern of myofibrillogenesis in situ may differ from observations of spreading cardiomyocytes. To evaluate the role of nebulette in myofibrillogenesis, we have analyzed the expression of nebulette in chicken heart rudiments by immunoblots and immunofluorescence. We detect the 110 kDa nebulette in heart rudiments derived from stage 9-10 using the anti-nebulin mAb, N114, or polyclonal anti-nebulette Abs by immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence analysis of explants stained with anti-nebulette and anti-alpha-actinin Abs demonstrates that both proteins localize along actin filaments in punctate to continuous manner at early stages of cardiac development and later give rise to striations. In both cases, the punctate staining had a periodicity of approximately 1.0 microm indicating a pre-myofibrils distribution at the earliest time points examined. We demonstrate that nebulette is indeed associated with premyofibrils in very early stages of myofibrillogenesis and suggest that nebulette may play an important role in the formation of these structures.

  19. Integrating Crystallography into Early Metabolism Studies (United States)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Aristei, Yasmin; Goracci, Laura; Carosati, Emanuele

    Since bioavailability, activity, toxicity, distribution, and final elimination all depend on metabolic biotransformations, it would be extremely advantageous if this information to be produced early in the discovery phase. Once obtained, researchers can judge whether or not a potential candidate should be eliminated from the pipeline, or modified to improve chemical stability or safety. The use of in silico methods to predict the site of metabolism in Phase I cytochrome-mediated reactions is a starting point in any metabolic pathway prediction. This paper presents a new method, which provides the site of metabolism for any CYP-mediated reaction acting on unknown substrates. The methodology can be applied automatically to all the cytochromes whose Xray 3D structure is known, but can be also applied to homology model 3D structures. The fully automated procedure can be used to detect positions that should be protected in order to avoid metabolic degradation, or to check the suitability of a new scaffold or pro-drug. Therefore the procedure is also a valuable new tool in early ADME-Tox, where drug-safety and metabolic profile patterns must be evaluated as soon, and as early, as possible.

  20. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan


    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  1. Transient reducing greenhouse warming on early Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin; Lokshtanov, Sergei; Vigasin, Andrei; Ehlmann, Bethany; Head, James; Sanders, Cecilia; Wang, Huize


    The evidence for abundant liquid water on early Mars despite the faint young Sun is a long-standing problem in planetary research. Here we present new ab initio spectroscopic and line-by-line climate calculations of the warming potential of reduced atmospheres on early Mars. We show that the strength of both CO2-H2 and CO2-CH4 collision-induced absorption (CIA) has previously been significantly underestimated. Contrary to previous expectations, methane could have acted as a powerful greenhouse gas on early Mars due to CO2-CH4 CIA in the critical 250-500 cm^-1 spectral window region. In atmospheres of 0.5 bar CO2 or more, percent levels of H2 or CH4 raise annual mean surface temperatures by tens of degrees, with temperatures reaching 273 K for pressures of 1.25-2 bar and 2-10% of H2 and CH4. Methane and hydrogen produced following aqueous alteration of Mars' crust could have combined with volcanically outgassed CO2 to form transient atmospheres of this composition 4.5-3.5 Ga. This scenario for the late Noachia...

  2. Dentinogenesis imperfecta: an early treatment strategy. (United States)

    Sapir, S; Shapira, J


    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) type 2 is a disease inherited in a simple autosomal dominant mode. As soon as the teeth erupt the parents may notice the problem and look for a pediatric dentist's advice and treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of DI is recommended, as it may prevent or intercept deterioration of the teeth and occlusion and improve esthetics. The purpose of this article is to present the objectives, treatment options, and problems encountered in the treatment of DI in the early primary dentition. A two-stage treatment of a toddler under general anesthesia is described and discussed. This paper recommends for severe cases of DI two treatment stages performed under general anesthesia. Stage 1 is early (around age 18-20 months) and is directed to covering the incisors with composite restorations and the first primary molars with preformed crowns. Stage 2 (around age 28-30 months) seeks to protect the second primary molars with preformed crowns and cover the canines with composite restorations.

  3. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra


    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  4. Transient reducing greenhouse warming on early Mars (United States)

    Wordsworth, R.; Kalugina, Y.; Lokshtanov, S.; Vigasin, A.; Ehlmann, B.; Head, J.; Sanders, C.; Wang, H.


    The evidence for abundant liquid water on early Mars despite the faint young Sun is a long-standing problem in planetary research. Here we present new ab initio spectroscopic and line-by-line climate calculations of the warming potential of reduced atmospheres on early Mars. We show that the strength of both CO2-H2 and CO2-CH4 collision-induced absorption (CIA) has previously been significantly underestimated. Contrary to previous expectations, methane could have acted as a powerful greenhouse gas on early Mars due to CO2-CH4 CIA in the critical 250-500 cm-1 spectral window region. In atmospheres of 0.5 bar CO2 or more, percent levels of H2 or CH4 raise annual mean surface temperatures by tens of degrees, with temperatures reaching 273 K for pressures of 1.25-2 bars and 2-10% of H2 and CH4. Methane and hydrogen produced following aqueous alteration of Mars' crust could have combined with volcanically outgassed CO2 to form transient atmospheres of this composition 4.5-3.5 Ga. Our results also suggest that inhabited exoplanets could retain surface liquid water at significant distances from their host stars.

  5. Early interventions in asthma with inhaled corticosteroids. (United States)

    Laitinen, L A; Altraja, A; Karjalainen, E M; Laitinen, A


    We have earlier shown epithelial damage in the airway mucosa in patients with asthma. Later other structural changes have been recognized in asthma, such as deposition of collagen and tenascin in the subepithelial basement membrane and changes in the laminin subchain composition. These processes are modified by an inflammatory process in the airways. Both the United States National Institutes of Health and the British Thoracic Society guidelines on the management of asthma emphasize the need for early use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Many clinical studies that used airway biopsy specimens have shown a decrease in airway inflammatory cell numbers after inhaled corticosteroid therapy. However, there is very little information on the effects of asthma medication on the structural components of the airways. Both the synthesis and degradation of many extracellular matrix components may be affected by the disease process and the drugs resulting in altered remodeling and gene expression in the airways. Because there are only a few studies that try to identify early changes in asthma, it is not known whether the anti-inflammatory treatment of asthma proposed by the guidelines is started early enough.

  6. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China. (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo


    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  7. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fei Xu; Zuo-Jin Liu; Jian-Ping Gong


    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and is one of the most aggressive human tumors. At present, surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. Early neck division is inadequate when invasion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is suspected or in cases of replaced or accessory right hepatic artery. Malignant periampullary tumors often invade retroperitoneal peripancreatic tissues and a positive resection margin is associated with a poor long-term survival. DATA SOURCES: English-language medical databases, PubMed, ELSEVIER and SPRINGERLINK, were searched for articles on"posterior approach pancreaticoduodenectomy","superior mesenteric artery ifrst approach", "retroperitoneal tissue","hanging maneuver", and related topics. RESULTS:The modiifcation allowed the surgeon to early identify the nonresectability of a replaced right hepatic artery if present, enabling complete dissection of the right side of the SMA and portal vein as well as complete excision of the retroportal pancreatic lamina. CONCLUSION: Pancreaticoduodenectomy with early retro-pancreatic dissection is a useful and safe technical variant, which is indicated for the improvement of the safety and curative effect of the procedure.

  8. Discovery Mondays: The very early Universe

    CERN Multimedia


    Copyright NASARetracing the very early Universe to understand why there is "something rather than nothing" is one of the challenges facing astrophysics today. It is also the theme of the third Discovery Monday, to be held in the Microcosm on 7 July, where you will be welcomed by a number of scientists. A professional astronomer will allow you to look through his telescope and explain how it works. A cosmologist will talk to you about the very early Universe and a CERN physicist will show you how it's possible to trap antimatter. The mirror of matter, antimatter should have existed in the same quantities as matter in the very early stages of the Universe but today it seems to have virtually disappeared. Perhaps the research being done at CERN will one day explain how an infinitesimal predominance of matter over antimatter resulted in such a richly structured Universe. Come along to the Microcosm on Monday, 7 July between 7.30 p.m. and 9.00 p.m. Entrance is free N.B.: The Discove...

  9. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments. (United States)

    Weaver, Ian C G


    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  10. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Early Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J T; Konstantopoulos, I S; Bryant, J J; Sharp, R; Cecil, G N; Fogarty, L M R; Foster, C; Green, A W; Ho, I -T; Owers, M S; Schaefer, A L; Scott, N; Bauer, A E; Baldry, I; Barnes, L A; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bloom, J V; Brough, S; Colless, M; Cortese, L; Couch, W J; Drinkwater, M J; Driver, S P; Goodwin, M; Gunawardhana, M L P; Hampton, E J; Hopkins, A M; Kewley, L J; Lawrence, J S; Leon-Saval, S G; Liske, J; López-Sánchez, Á R; Lorente, N P F; Medling, A M; Mould, J; Norberg, P; Parker, Q A; Power, C; Pracy, M B; Richards, S N; Robotham, A S G; Sweet, S M; Taylor, E N; Thomas, A D; Tonini, C; Walcher, C J


    We present the Early Data Release of the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is an ongoing integral field spectroscopic survey of ~3400 low-redshift (z<0.12) galaxies, covering galaxies in the field and in groups within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey regions, and a sample of galaxies in clusters. In the Early Data Release, we publicly release the fully calibrated datacubes for a representative selection of 107 galaxies drawn from the GAMA regions, along with information about these galaxies from the GAMA catalogues. All datacubes for the Early Data Release galaxies can be downloaded individually or as a set from the SAMI Galaxy Survey website. In this paper we also assess the quality of the pipeline used to reduce the SAMI data, giving metrics that quantify its performance at all stages in processing the raw data into calibrated datacubes. The pipeline gives excellent results throughout, with typical sky subtraction residuals of 0.9-1...

  11. Origin and early evolution of photosynthesis (United States)

    Blankenship, R. E.


    Photosynthesis was well-established on the earth at least 3.5 thousand million years ago, and it is widely believed that these ancient organisms had similar metabolic capabilities to modern cyanobacteria. This requires that development of two photosystems and the oxygen evolution capability occurred very early in the earth's history, and that a presumed phase of evolution involving non-oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms took place even earlier. The evolutionary relationships of the reaction center complexes found in all the classes of currently existing organisms have been analyzed using sequence analysis and biophysical measurements. The results indicate that all reaction centers fall into two basic groups, those with pheophytin and a pair of quinones as early acceptors, and those with iron sulfur clusters as early acceptors. No simple linear branching evolutionary scheme can account for the distribution patterns of reaction centers in existing photosynthetic organisms, and lateral transfer of genetic information is considered as a likely possibility. Possible scenarios for the development of primitive reaction centers into the heterodimeric protein structures found in existing reaction centers and for the development of organisms with two linked photosystems are presented.

  12. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán


    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  13. Early Management Experience of Perforation after ERCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Li


    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a rare complication, but it is associated with significant mortality. This study evaluated the early management experience of these perforations. Patients and Methods. Between November 2003 and December 2011, a total of 8504 ERCPs were performed at our regional endoscopy center. Sixteen perforations (0.45% were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Results. Nine of these 16 patients with perforations were periampullary, 3 duodenal, 1 gastric fundus, and 3 patients had a perforation of an afferent limb of a Billroth II anastomosis. All patients with perforations were recognized during ERCP by X-ray and managed immediately. One patient with duodenal perforation and three patients with afferent limb perforation received surgery, others received medical conservative treatment which included suturing lesion, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD, endoscopic retrograde pancreatic duct drainage (ERPD, gastrointestinal decompression, fasting, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and so on. All patients with perforation recovered successfully. Conclusions. We found that: (1 the diagnosis of perforation during ERCP may be easy, but you must pay attention to it. (2 Most retroperitoneal perforations can recover with only medical conservative treatment in early phase. (3 Most peritoneal perforations need surgery unless you can close the lesion up under endoscopy in early phase.

  14. Early institutionalization: neurobiological consequences and genetic modifiers. (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret; Drury, Stacy; McLaughlin, Kate; Almas, Alisa


    Children raised in the profound deprivation associated with institutionalization are at elevated risk for negative outcomes across a host of social and cognitive domains. This risk appears to be mitigated by early foster care or adoption into a family setting. Although pervasive developmental problems have been noted in a substantial proportion of previously institutionalized children, marked variation exists in the nature and severity of these deficits. Increasing evidence suggests that institutional deprivation impacts the developing brain, potentially underlying the wide range of outcomes with which it is associated. In the current review we examine the neural consequences of institutionalization and genetic factors associated with differences in outcome in an effort to characterize the consequences of early deprivation at a neurobiological level. Although the effects of institutional deprivation have been studied for more than 50 years much remains unanswered regarding the pathways through which institutionalization impacts child development. Through a more complete and nuanced assessment of the neural correlates of exposure and recovery as well as a better understanding of the individual factors involved we will be better able to delineate the impact of early adversity in the setting of severe social deprivation.

  15. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund


    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  16. Selective phosphorylation during early macrophage differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huoming


    The differentiation of macrophages from monocytes is a tightly controlled and complex biological process. Although numerous studies have been conducted using biochemical approaches or global gene/gene profiling, the mechanisms of the early stages of differentiation remain unclear. Here we used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform temporal phosphoproteome profiling of early macrophage differentiation. We identified a large set of phosphoproteins and grouped them as PMA-regulated and non-regulated phosphoproteins in the early stages of differentiation. Further analysis of the PMA-regulated phosphoproteins revealed that transcriptional suppression, cytoskeletal reorganization and cell adhesion were among the most significantly activated pathways. Some key involved regulators of these pathways are mTOR, MYB, STAT1 and CTNNB. Moreover, we were able to classify the roles and activities of several transcriptional factors during different differentiation stages and found that E2F is likely to be an important regulator during the relatively late stages of differentiation. This study provides the first comprehensive picture of the dynamic phosphoproteome during myeloid cells differentiation, and identifies potential molecular targets in leukemic cells.

  17. Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.


    The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants

  18. ATLIS. Early Childhood Development and the Electronic Age. (United States)

    Alexander, Nancy P.


    Describes the America Tomorrow Leadership Information Service (ATLIS) and how this information can benefit early childhood professionals. Discusses the future of telecommunications in the early childhood profession and includes a glossary of telecommunications terms. (HTH)

  19. Characteristics of early spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, name

  20. Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia (United States)

    ... html Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia A screen is still in development stages but ... doctors to tell the difference between depression and schizophrenia, especially early on. Now, researchers say they're ...

  1. Early Interactions with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind (United States)

    ... Logout Menu Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Archived Webinars Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind by DB-LINK on Apr 1, 2008 ...

  2. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History. (United States)

    DuPlessis, Robert S.


    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  3. Acute pancreatitis in early postpartum period: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma


    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP during peripartum is a rare life-threatening condition which poses as a real challenge for clinician to diagnose it early. Here, we present a case of severe AP occurring in early postpartum period.

  4. Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under Health Reform.. (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under Health Reform, Interviews with Medicaid Officials In a new study entitled Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under...

  5. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong


    Interpretation: Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC.

  6. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios


    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  7. [The early history of the artificial kidney]. (United States)

    Benedum, J


    Only very few remember Georg Haas as the scientist who--in 1924--was the first to successfully conduct an extracorporal hemodialysis on a patient in Giessen. Haas began his experiments in 1914 shortly after joining the Medical Clinic of the University of Giessen. Neither protocols nor any of the set-ups were preserved from these early experiments. In addition, the WW1 interrupted Haas' early experiments between 1917-1919. Until 1923 Haas himself never mentioned his early experiments. "Outside circumstances" and a "shortage of materials" (hirudin) prevented Haas from continuing his work on hemodialysis. Also, the early trials had disappointing results as the experimental animals, mostly dogs, died after a few hours. The hirudin preparations Haas had used turned out to be toxic. While the toxicity of the hirudin preparations prevented the application of dialysis in humans early on, the war with its many cases of nephritis provided new inspiration to develop dialyzing techniques. Haas experimented with reed tubes, calf peritoneum and paper membranes. None of these worked satisfactorily. Not until Pregl introduced collodion tubes was the first barrier overcome. Haas started experimenting with collodion tubes produced by himself. However, the toxicity problem with the hirudin preparations remained. Haas resumed the hemodialysis experiments in 1923. Significantly, 1923 was the year when Necheles published his work describing an alleged purified leech extract. Necheles' paper also described American experiments that focused on dialysis in animal trials. It was J. Abel of Baltimore who informed Haas that purified hirudin was available. After learning of this availability through the American studies in 1924, Haas conducted his first hemodialysis on a uremic patient in late 1924. This experiment lasted only 15 minutes and was without complications. A second dialysis attempt followed in 1925 and even lasted 30 minutes. Finally, four further experiments followed in 1926. The

  8. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion


    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen


    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  9. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J


    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  10. Early extubation after congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Halimić


    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent advances in anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass and surgical techniques, children undergoing congenital heart surgery require postoperativemechanical ventilation. Early extubation was definedas ventilation shorter than 12 hours. Aim of this study is to identify factors associated with successful early extubation after pediatric cardiac surgery.Methods: The study was performed during period from January 2006 to January 2011 at Pediatric Clinic and Heart Center University Clinical center Sarajevo. One hundred children up to 5 years of age, who have had congenital heart disease, with left–right shunt and obstructive heart disease were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I - patients extubated within 12 hours after surgery and Group II - patients extubated 12 or more hours after surgery. Results: The most frequently encountered preoperative variables were age with odds ratio 4% 95%CI (1-7%, Down's syndrome 8.5 95%CI (1.6-43.15, failure to thrive 4.3 95%CI( 1-18. Statistically significant postoperative data included lung disease (reactive airways, pneumonia, atelectasis, pneumothorax and with odds ratio 35.1 95 %CI (4-286 and blood transfusion with odds ratio 4.6 95%CI (2-12. Blood transfusion (p=0.002 (Wald=9.2 95%CI (2-12, during as well as after operation procedure has statistically significant influence on prediction time of extubation. Proven markers were age with cut of 21.5 months (sensitivity 74% and specificity 70% and extracorporeal circulation (ECC with cut-of 45.5 minutes (sensitivity 71% and specificity 65%.Conclusion: Early extubation is possible in many children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Younger age and prolonged ECC time are markers associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

  11. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis]. (United States)

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I


    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  12. Rad51 activates polyomavirus JC early transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn K White

    Full Text Available The human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV causes the fatal CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. JCV infection is very common and after primary infection, the virus is able to persist in an asymptomatic state. Rarely, and usually only under conditions of immune impairment, JCV re-emerges to actively replicate in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of the brain causing PML. The regulatory events involved in the reactivation of active viral replication in PML are not well understood but previous studies have implicated the transcription factor NF-κB acting at a well-characterized site in the JCV noncoding control region (NCCR. NF-κB in turn is regulated in a number of ways including activation by cytokines such as TNF-α, interactions with other transcription factors and epigenetic events involving protein acetylation--all of which can regulate the transcriptional activity of JCV. Active JCV infection is marked by the occurrence of rapid and extensive DNA damage in the host cell and the induction of the expression of cellular proteins involved in DNA repair including Rad51, a major component of the homologous recombination-directed double-strand break DNA repair machinery. Here we show that increased Rad51 expression activates the JCV early promoter. This activation is co-operative with the stimulation caused by NF-κB p65, abrogated by mutation of the NF-κB binding site or siRNA to NFκB p65 and enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. These data indicate that the induction of Rad51 resulting from infection with JCV acts through NF-κB via its binding site to stimulate JCV early transcription. We suggest that this provides a novel positive feedback mechanism to enhance viral gene expression during the early stage of JCV infection.

  13. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness. (United States)

    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R


    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity.

  14. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists (United States)

    Saia, S. M.


    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  15. Pulmonary dysfunction in obese early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Supriyatno


    Full Text Available Aim Obesity leads to various complications, including pulmonary dysfunction. Studies on pulmonary function of obese children are limited and the results are controversial. This study was aimed to determine proportion of pulmonary dysfunction on early adolescents with obesity and to evaluate correlation between obesity degree with pulmonary dysfunction degree.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Indonesia, from November 2007 to December 2008. Subjects were 10 to 12 year-old adolescents with obesity. Subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT to assess FEV1/FVC, FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25.Results 110 subjects fulfilled study criteria, 83 (75.5% were male and 27 (24.5% were female with median BMI 26.7 (22.6-54.7 kg/m2; 92 subjects (83.6% were superobese. History of asthma and allergic rhinitis were found in 32 (29.1% and 46 (41.8% subjects, respectively. 64 (58.2% subjects had abnormal PFT results consisting of restrictive type in 28 (25.5% subjects, obstructive in 3 (2.7%, and combined type in 33 (30%. Mean FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25 values were below normal, while mean FEV1/FVC ratio was normal. There was no statistically significant correlation between BMI and PFT parameters. No significant correlation was found between degree of obesity and the severity of pulmonary dysfunction.Conclusions Pulmonary dysfunction occurs in 58.2% obese early adolescents. The most common abnormality was combined type (30%, followed by restrictive (25.5%, and obstructive type (2.7%. There was no correlation between BMI and pulmonary function test parameters. (Med J Indones 2010;19:179-84Key words: early adolescents, obesity, pulmonary function test

  16. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti


    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  17. The early history of food irradiation (United States)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.


    Immediately after the discovery of ionizing radiation speculations arose to use it for therapeutic treatment and also for food preservation. However, at that time no radiation sources suitable for such applications had been available. With the development of (military) nuclear technologies suitable radiation sources became more and more available. This article narrates the many early ideas developed and the approaches taken. However, on the level of industrial exploitation of radiation processing of food, several such great ideas could not survive; some are still playing a niche role today as described in the respective articles. Nevertheless and today, radiation processing of food has become a standard technology world-wide.

  18. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz


    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen

  19. The amazing growth of the early church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer


    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  20. Early wind engineering experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Franck, Niels


    distribution around bodies ranging from bird wings to buildings. The experiments shed light on the importance of suction on the overall wind loading. Martin Jensen combined field measurements of pressure distributions to model scale experiments to write "The Model-Law for Phenomena in Natural Wind......A review of works by Danish wind engineers is presented to commemorate the 100th year anniversary of the first wind tunnel experiments. Pioneer tests by Irminger and Nøkkentved in "artificial" wind on scaled models are described. The early experiments aimed at measuring the surface pressure...

  1. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P;


    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up to in...... endpoints include time to clinical progression, overall survival and tolerability. RESULTS: 8113 men aged 38 to 93 years (mean 66.9) were randomized over a 3-year period. 67.4% of the enrolled patients had localized disease (T1-2) and 66.4% had a Gleason score...

  2. The stochastic dance of early HIV infection (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J.


    The stochastic nature of early HIV infection is described in a series of models, each of which captures aspects of the dance of HIV during the early stages of infection. It is to this highly variable target that the immune response must respond. The adaptability of the various components of the immune response is an important aspect of the system's operation, as the nature of the pathogens that the response will be required to respond to and the order in which those responses must be made cannot be known beforehand. As HIV infection has direct influence over cells responsible for the immune response, the dance predicts that the immune response will be also in a variable state of readiness and capability for this task of adaptation. The description of the stochastic dance of HIV here will use the tools of stochastic models, and for the most part, simulation. The justification for this approach is that the early stages and the development of HIV diversity require that the model to be able to describe both individual sample path and patient-to-patient variability. In addition, as early viral dynamics are best described using branching processes, the explosive growth of these models both predicts high variability and rapid response of HIV to changes in system parameters.In this paper, a basic viral growth model based on a time dependent continuous-time branching process is used to describe the growth of HIV infected cells in the macrophage and lymphocyte populations. Immigration from the reservoir population is added to the basic model to describe the incubation time distribution. This distribution is deduced directly from the modeling assumptions and the model of viral growth. A system of two branching processes, one in the infected macrophage population and one in the infected lymphocyte population is used to provide a description of the relationship between the development of HIV diversity as it relates to tropism (host cell preference). The role of the immune

  3. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F


    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  4. Early Work on Defect Driven Phase Transitions (United States)

    Kosterlitz, J. Michael; Thouless, David J.


    This article summarizes the early history of the theory of phase transitions driven by topological defects, such as vortices in superfluid helium films or dislocations and disclinations in two-dimensional solids. We start with a review of our two earliest papers, pointing out their errors and omissions as well as their insights. We then describe the work, partly done by Kosterlitz but mostly done by other people, which corrected these oversights, and applied these ideas to experimental systems, and to numerical and experimental simulations.

  5. Palaeoclimatology: evidence for hot early oceans? (United States)

    Shields, Graham A; Kasting, James F


    The oxygen isotopes in sedimentary cherts (siliceous sediments) have been used to argue that the Precambrian oceans were hot--with temperatures of up to 70 degrees C at 3.3 Gyr before present. Robert and Chaussidon measure silicon isotopes in cherts and arrive at a similar conclusion. We suggest here that both isotope trends may be caused by variations in seawater isotope composition, rather than in ocean temperatures. If so, then the climate of the early Earth may have been temperate, as it is today, and therefore more consistent with evidence for Precambrian glaciations and with constraints inferred from biological evolution.

  6. Early black hole signals at the LHC (United States)

    Koch, Ben; Bleicher, Marcus; Stöcker, Horst


    The production of mini black holes due to large extra dimensions is a speculative but possible scenario. We survey estimates for di-jet suppression, and multi-mono-jet emission due to black hole production. We further look for a possible sub-scenario which is the formation of a stable or meta-stable black hole remnant (BHR). We show that the beauty of such objects is, that they are relatively easy to observe, even in the early phase of LHC running.

  7. Membrane heredity and early chloroplast evolution. (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T


    Membrane heredity was central to the unique symbiogenetic origin from cyanobacteria of chloroplasts in the ancestor of Plantae (green plants, red algae, glaucophytes) and to subsequent lateral transfers of plastids to form even more complex photosynthetic chimeras. Each symbiogenesis integrated disparate genomes and several radically different genetic membranes into a more complex cell. The common ancestor of Plantae evolved transit machinery for plastid protein import. In later secondary symbiogeneses, signal sequences were added to target proteins across host perialgal membranes: independently into green algal plastids (euglenoids, chlorarachneans) and red algal plastids (alveolates, chromists). Conservatism and innovation during early plastid diversification are discussed.

  8. Quantum coherent oscillations in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pikovski, Igor


    Cosmic inflation is commonly assumed to be driven by quantum fields. Quantum mechanics predicts phenomena such as quantum fluctuations and tunneling of the field. Here we show an example of a quantum interference effect which goes beyond the semi-classical treatment and which may be of relevance in the early universe. We study the quantum coherent dynamics for a tilted, periodic potential, which results in genuine quantum oscillations of the inflaton field, analogous to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter and atomic systems. Our results show that quantum interference phenomena may be of relevance in cosmology.

  9. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Carde, P; Mauch, P;


    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out testing chemotherapy alone. The results of these trials are however conflicting. In order not to jeopardize the good results achieved with the standard treatments developed over the last three decades, newer treatment approaches should...... be carefully tested in large randomized trials before being implemented for general clinical use....

  10. Early Stage of Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新培; 潘垣; 刘克富; 刘明海; 张寒虹


    The bubble radius at the early stage of discharge in water is investigated using high-speed photography. Some simulation results on the bubble radius are presented, which are in agreement with the experimental results, with a maximum difference of about 10%. The reasons why the peak pressure of the first shock wave is only related to the energy released in the bubble during the first half period are addressed. The energy released in the bubble after the first half period increases the bubble pulsation period, but it produces no more than 10% under the peak pressure of the second shock wave.

  11. Early Acute Kidney Injury in Military Casualties (United States)


    myocardial infarction . Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:609Y616. 22. van Kuijk JP, Flu WJ, Chonchol M, Chonchol M, Hoeks SE, Winkel TA, Verhagen HJ, Bax JJ...the purposes of this study, we defined early AKI in our study population as the development of a new diagnosis of AKI within 14 days of admission to a...Because the development of AKI is time dependent and requires that a creatinine be drawn to make the diagnosis , we chose to model risk of AKI using Cox

  12. Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, Ralf P; Parnas, Josef


    It was first suggested that disordered proprioception was a core feature of schizophrenia by Sandor Rado in 1953. Using a recently designed proprioceptive event-related potential paradigm based on a change of load, we studied 12 unmedicated male out-patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls. In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies, including psychiatric controls, are necessary to verify the specificity of the abnormality.

  13. Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, RP; Parnas, Josef;


    It was first suggested that disordered proprioception was a core feature of schizophrenia by Sandor Rado in 1953. Using a recently designed proprioceptive event-related potential paradigm based on a change of load, we studied 12 unmedicated male out-patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls....... In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies...

  14. Early Mobilization of Mechanically Ventilated Patients. (United States)

    Hruska, Pam


    Critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation are least likely to be mobilized and, as a result, are at-risk for prolonged complications from weakness. The use of bed rest and sedation when caring for mechanically ventilated patients is likely shaped by historical practice; however, this review demonstrates early mobilization, with little to no sedation, is possible and safe. Assessing readiness for mobilization in context of progressing patients from passive to active activities can lead to long-term benefits and has been achievable with resource-efficient implementations and team work.

  15. Stories and narratives in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Fatima dos Santos Morais


    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of oral and written narrative for the maintenance of tradition and history of each one of us, in a society that seems to valorize the information more than the stories lived and told. It stresses the need, at school, of the teachers to read stories to children from early childhood education to boys and girls love to the world of literature. The text also contains situations en countered in schools that show the value of reading and the magic that literature provides in the lives of children.

  16. Early phytocannabinoid chemistry to endocannabinoids and beyond. (United States)

    Mechoulam, Raphael; Hanuš, Lumír O; Pertwee, Roger; Howlett, Allyn C


    Isolation and structure elucidation of most of the major cannabinoid constituents--including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), which is the principal psychoactive molecule in Cannabis sativa--was achieved in the 1960s and 1970s. It was followed by the identification of two cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s and the early 1990s and by the identification of the endocannabinoids shortly thereafter. There have since been considerable advances in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system and its function in the brain, which reveal potential therapeutic targets for a wide range of brain disorders.

  17. Analysis of Early Military Attrition Behavior. (United States)


    Quitting,’ Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 62., August 1980, pp. 388-398. Vroom , Victor , Work and Motivation, Wiley, New York, 1974. Warner, John...and older recruits are more attrition-prone than younger recruits. 4M gg~~mi~yCLAIPICTIOWOF H S AGK(’ 0 g~tr.E R-3069-MIL Analysis of Early Military...marginal revenue product (MRP). Thus, lit - h (MRPit - wit) (2) where lit is the probability of a worker with t years of tenure being laid off a job i

  18. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C


    regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... significant benefits of bisphosphonates on the development of bone metastases and breast cancer mortality in post-menopausal women or those receiving ovarian suppression therapy. Therefore, the panel recommends that bisphosphonates (either intravenous zoledronic acid or oral clodronate) are considered as part...

  19. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, S.


    The Third International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer afforded a further opportunity for scientists from all over the world to come together and present important papers concerning breast cancer and early diagnosis procedures. The symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultra-sonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and significant contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist.

  20. Early continuous video electroencephalography in neonatal stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Brian H


    Perinatal stroke is the second most common cause of neonatal seizures, and can result in long-term neurological impairment. Diagnosis is often delayed until after seizure onset, owing to the subtle nature of associated signs. We report the early electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in a female infant with a perinatal infarction, born at 41 weeks 2 days and weighing 3.42 kg. Before the onset of seizures, the EEG from 3 hours after delivery demonstrated occasional focal sharp waves over the affected region. After electroclinical seizures, focal sharp waves became more frequent, complex, and of higher amplitude, particularly in \\'quiet sleep\\'. In \\'active sleep\\