WorldWideScience

Sample records for caffeic acid ascorbyl

  1. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...

  2. Caffeic acid derivatives from Bupleurum chinense

    OpenAIRE

    Haghi, G.; Hatami, A.; Mehran, M.; Hosseini, H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, caffeic acid (CA) and its three derivatives including 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA, neochlorogenic acid), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA, cryptochlorogenic acid), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, chlorogenic acid) were identified in Bupleurum chinense aerial parts using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector, reference compounds and chemical reactions. Separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution wit...

  3. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Marija M.; Carević Milica B.; Mihailović Mladen D.; Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Bezbradica Dejan I.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully use...

  4. Caffeic acid derivatives in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Makiko; Yan, Xiaojun; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Nagata, Tadahiro; Nakanishi, Tateo

    2003-01-29

    Five caffeic acid derivatives were found in the roots of yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, as the major water-soluble phenolic compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Two of these were chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, common phenolic compounds in plants of the family Asteraceae. Three were esters of caffeic acid with the hydroxy groups of aldaric acid, derived from hexose. The structure of the aldaric moiety was determined by hydrolysis and comparison of NMR spectra with those of standard aldaric acids. The compounds were novel caffeic acid esters of altraric acid: 2,4- or 3,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, 2,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, and 2,3,5- or 2,4,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid. PMID:12537459

  5. Improved Delivery of Caffeic Acid through Liposomal Encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Katuwavila, Nuwanthi P.; A. D. L. Chandani Perera; V. Karunaratne; Gehan A. J. Amaratunga; D. Nedra Karunaratne

    2016-01-01

    Photoageing resulting from long term exposure of the skin to UV light can be minimized by scavenging the reactive photochemical intermediates with antioxidants. For effective photoprotection, the antioxidant must overcome the barrier properties of the skin and reach the target site in significant amounts. The present study aims to improve the skin penetration of caffeic acid, a very effective free radical scavenger, by encapsulating in liposomes. Caffeic acid loaded liposomes prepared using t...

  6. Novel Caffeic Acid Nanocarrier: Production, Characterization, and Release Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Fathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of novel nanocarriers using layer by layer carbohydrate coating of caffeic acid loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs to improve stability and colon delivery of the poorly water-soluble caffeic acid. Three biopolymers (chitosan, alginate, and pectin in different concentrations (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5% were electrostatically coated over the SLN surface. The size and zeta potential of produced nanocarriers were measured using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mathematical models (i.e., zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Ritger-Peppas, reciprocal powered time, Weibull, and quadratic models were used to describe the release and kinetic modeling in gastrointestinal solution (GIS. Also, antioxidant activity of caffeic acid during the release in GIS was investigated using DPPH and reducing activity methods. The prepared treatments coated by alginate-chitosan as well as pectin-chitosan coated SLN at the concentration of 0.1% showed nanosized bead; the latter efficiently retarded the release of caffeic acid in gastric media up to 2.5 times higher than that of SLN. Zeta potential values of coated samples were found to significantly increase in comparison to SLN indicating the higher stability of produced nanocarriers. Antioxidant activity of caffeic acid after gastric release did not result in the same trend as observed for caffeic acid release from different treatments; however, in line with less caffeic acid release in the intestine solution by the effect of coating, lower antioxidant activity was determined at the end stage of the experiment.

  7. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully used as a reaction medium, since commonly used solvents with high Log P values are inapplicable due to ascorbic acid high polarity. Acylation of vitamin C using fatty acids, their methyl-, ethyl-, and vinyl esters, as well as triglycerides has been performed, whereas application of the activated acyl donors enabled higher molar conversions. In each case, majority of authors reported that using excessive amount of the acyl donor had positive effect on yield of product. Furthermore, several strategies have been employed for shifting the equilibrium towards the product by water content control. These include adjusting the initial water activity by pre-equilibration of reaction mixture, enzyme preparation with water vapor of saturated salt solutions, and the removal of formed water by the addition of molecular sieves or salt hydrate pairs. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the procedures described so far for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ascorbyl esters with emphasis on the potential application in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the main obstacles for process commercialization are long reaction times, lack of adequate purification methods, and high costs of lipases. Thus, future challenges in this area are testing new catalysts, developing continuous processes for esters production, finding cheaper acyl donors and reaction mediums, as well as identifying standard procedures for

  8. Adsorption of caffeic acid on titanium dioxide: A spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wagner José; Ando, Rômulo A.; Estevão, Bianca Martins; Zanoni, Kassio Papi da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Caffeic acid is an ortho-phenol found in vegetable tissues presenting important properties such as carcinogenesis inhibitor, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic actions. It was observed that caffeic acid was not degraded in daylight during the adsorption on TiO2 at pH 4.8. The adsorption fit very well to a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm equation with a monolayer coverage of 68.15 mg gTiO-1 and saturation coverage of 195.4 mg gTiO-1. A strong adsorption of caffeic acid was verified on TiO2 for the dry solid obtained from the mixture. The Raman and IR spectroscopies revealed that the adsorption should occur through the interaction of the diphenol oxygens with contribution of CC double bond of the acrylic group, however, the carboxylic acid group did not have participation in the adsorption.

  9. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  10. Enzymatic Synthesis of l-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters Under Ultrasonic Irradiation and Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activity and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Lu, Yuyun; Li, Zhuo; Li, Cunzhi; Yan, Rian

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were synthesized by catalization of Novozym(®) 435 under ultrasonic irradiation and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Their properties especially antioxidant activity and stability were investigated. The results showed that the reducing power, the scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were decreased with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in fatty acid. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were better than that of tert-butylhydroquinone. The induction period in lipid oxidation of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters and tert-butylhydroquinone were longer than that of l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters and l-ascorbic acid both in soybean oil and lard. Besides, the l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters showed different stabilities in different conditions by comparing with l-ascorbic acid, and the l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were more stable than l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters in ethanol solution. PMID:27100741

  11. Application of l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) in topical cosmetic formulations: stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to formulate and subsequently evaluate a topical skin-care cream (o/w emulsion) from l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) at 2% versus its vehicle (Control). Formulations were developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of o/w emulsion and were stored at 8 degree C, 25 degree C and 40 degree C (in incubator) for a period of four weeks to investigate their stability. In the physical analysis, the evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, centrifugation, and liquefaction. Chemical stability of both derivatives was established by HPLC analysis. In the chemical analysis, the formulation with sodium ascorbyl phosphate was more stable than those with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and l-ascorbic acid. The microbiological stability of the formulations was also evaluated. The findings indicated that the formulations with l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives were efficient against the proliferation of various spoilage microorganisms, including aerobic plate counts as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast and mold counts. The results presented in this work showed good stability throughout the experimental period. Newly formulated emulsion proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the construction of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. (author)

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with c...

  13. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc; Durand, Erwann; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1–C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic c...... be an optimum alkyl chain length for each phenolipid in each type of emulsion systems....

  14. Effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Wang, Yutong; Li, Jinfeng; Hua, Linlin; Han, Bing; Zhang, Yuzhen; Yang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Zhilei; Bai, Hongying; Yin, Honglei; Lou, Jiyu

    2016-09-01

    Caffeic acid is a type of phenolic acid and organic acid. It is found in food (such as tomatoes, carrots, strawberries, blueberries and wheat), beverages (such as wine, tea, coffee and apple juice) as well as Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rats were randomly divided into three groups: i) control group, ii) AD model group and iii) caffeic acid group. Caffeic acid significantly rescued learning deficits and increased cognitive function in the rats with AD as demonstrated by the Morris water maze task. Furthermore, caffeic acid administration resulted in a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and nitrite generation in the rats with AD compared with the AD model group. Furthermore, caffeic acid suppressed oxidative stress, inflammation, nuclear factor‑κB‑p65 protein expression and caspase‑3 activity as well as regulating the protein expression of p53 and phosphorylated (p-)p38 MAPK expression in the rats with AD. These experimental results indicate that the beneficial effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of AD were due to the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27430591

  15. Caffeic Acid Inhibits NFkappaB Activation of Osteoclastogenesis Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Sandra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids is involved in various green plants. Based on our previous report, a major component of sweet potato extracts, possibly caffeic acid, was shown as a promising inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. However, the effect of caffeic acid in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis needs to be confirmed. The underlying mechanism needs to be disclosed as well. METHODS: Caffeic acid in various concentrations was added to in vitro osteoclastogenesis of receptor activator nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α-macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF-induced bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs and RANKL-TNF-α-induced RAW264 cells D-Clone (RAW-D cells. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining was performed and TRAP-positive polynucleated cells (PNCs were counted. For apoptosis analysis, caffeic acid-treated BMMs, RAW-D cells and osteoclast-like PNCs were subjected to Sub-G1 Apoptosis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays. To measure NFkB activity, RAW-D cells were transfected with pNFkB-TA-Luc and subjected to Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System. RESULTS: Caffeic acid inhibited osteoclastogenesis of RANKL-TNF-α-M-CSF-induced BMMs as well as RANKL-TNF-α-induced RAW-D cells in a dose dependent manner. Caffeic acid did not induce apoptosis in BMMs, RAW-D cells and osteoclast-like PNCs. RANKL-TNF-α-induced NFkB activity in RAW-D was diminished by caffeic acid in a dose dependent manner. Significant NFkB activity inhibtion was observed starting from 1µg/mL caffeic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeic acid could be a potent osteoclastogenesis inhibitor through inhibition of NFkB activity. Our present study should be further followed up to disclose caffeic acid's possible overlying signaling pathways in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. KEYWORDS: caffeic acid, osteoclastogenesis, NFkB, RANKL, TNF-α.

  16. Synthesis of labelled compound of ferulic acid and caffeic acid with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective components of Chinese traditional herbs consist of many compounds, but some of the compounds usually contain unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds. The unsaturated organic compounds 3H-Ferulic acid and 3H-Caffeic acid are prepared with their tritiated intermediates made by electric-dischange exposure method, which ensures the compounds contaning double bonds not hydrogenated. The 3H-Ferulic acid is composed of 3H-vanillin and Malonic acid. The 3H-Caffeic acid is composed of 3H-protocatechuyl aldehyde and Malonic acid and the specific activity of the products is 0.2 mCi/mg. The radiochemicaly purity is greater than 90%

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers. Sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is unlikely to be a skin sensitiser. This conclusion is extrapolated to sodium ascorbyl phosphate. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking. Since ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate are authorised for use as antioxidants in food and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is considered necessary.

  18. Simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, alantolactone and isoalantolactone in Inula helenium by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhao, Yong-ming; Zhang, Man-li; Shi, Qing-wen

    2015-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, alantolactone and isoalantolactone in Inula helenium. The HPLC separation was performed on an Elite Hypersil C18 column (200 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) with a gradient elution of solvent A (acetonitrile) and solvent B (0.1% phosphoric acid in water) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was monitored at 225 nm. The recovery of chlorogenic acid ranged from 95.6 to 107.7%, the recovery of caffeic acid ranged from 95.4 to 104.2%, the recovery of alantolactone ranged from 95.8 to 100.8% and the recovery of isoalantolactone ranged from 96.5 to 102.3%. The retention times for chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, alantolactone and isoalantolactone were 5.2, 7.1, 25.6 and 26.6 min with the limits of detection of 0.069, 0.021, 0.039 and 0.051 µg/mL, respectively. Relative standard deviation for the intra-day and inter-day was ≤2.5%. The validated method is reliable for the routine control of these four compounds in I. helenium. PMID:24996657

  19. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y......) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R 2 = 0.96, P <0.0001. The kinetics of caffeic acid formation with time in response to initial p-coumaric acid levels and at different grape skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o......-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K m of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid....

  20. Preparation and characterization of SPION functionalized via caffeic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B.Çekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Amir, Md., E-mail: mda.fatih@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B.Çekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Günerb, S. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, B.Çekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Sözeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-12-01

    Caffeic acid coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION-CFA) was synthesized by reflux method. The structural, spectroscopic and magnetic properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of CA on the surface of SPION. The theoretical analyzes performed on recorded room temperature VSM spectrum confirmed the formation of superparamagnetic nature of SPION-CFA. The particle size dependent Langevin function was applied to determine the average magnetic particle dimension (D{sub mag}) around 11.93 nm. In accordance, the average crystallite and particle sizes were obtained as 11.40 nm and ~12.00 nm from XRD and TEM measurements. The extrapolated specific saturation magnetization (σ{sub s}) is 44.11 emu/g and measured magnetic moment is 1.83 µ{sub B}. These parameters assign small order of magnetization for NPs with respect to bulk Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Magnetic anisotropy was offered as uniaxial and calculated effective anisotropy constant (K{sub eff}) is 34.82×10{sup 4} Erg/g. The size-dependent saturation magnetization suggests the existence of a magnetically inactive layer as 1.035 nm for SPION-CFA. - Highlights: • The effects of CFA on the microstructure and magnetic properties of SPION have been investigated. • Product was structurally and magnetically characterized. • Product presented superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  1. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Natarelli

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG. In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3 and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  2. Biosynthesis of caffeic acid in Escherichia coli using its endogenous hydroxylase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid is a natural phenolic compound derived from the plant phenylpropanoid pathway. Caffeic acid and its phenethyl ester (CAPE have attracted increasing attention for their various pharmaceutical properties and health-promoting effects. Nowadays, large-scale production of drugs or drug precursors via microbial approaches provides a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and extraction from plant sources. Results We first identified that an Escherichia coli native hydroxylase complex previously characterized as the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (4HPA3H was able to convert p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid efficiently. This critical enzymatic step catalyzed in plants by a membrane-associated cytochrome P450 enzyme, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H, is difficult to be functionally expressed in prokaryotic systems. Moreover, the performances of two tyrosine ammonia lyases (TALs from Rhodobacter species were compared after overexpression in E. coli. The results indicated that the TAL from R. capsulatus (Rc possesses higher activity towards both tyrosine and L-dopa. Based on these findings, we further designed a dual pathway leading from tyrosine to caffeic acid consisting of the enzymes 4HPA3H and RcTAL. This heterologous pathway extended E. coli native tyrosine biosynthesis machinery and was able to produce caffeic acid (12.1 mg/L in minimal salt medium. Further improvement in production was accomplished by boosting tyrosine biosynthesis in E. coli, which involved the alleviation of tyrosine-induced feedback inhibition and carbon flux redirection. Finally, the titer of caffeic acid reached 50.2 mg/L in shake flasks after 48-hour cultivation. Conclusion We have successfully established a novel pathway and constructed an E. coli strain for the production of caffeic acid. This work forms a basis for further improvement in production, as well as opens the possibility of microbial synthesis

  3. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted

  4. Degradation of caffeic acid in subcritical water and online HPLC-DPPH assay of degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Suaylam, Boonyanuch; Adachi, Shuji

    2014-02-26

    Caffeic acid was subjected to degradation under subcritical water conditions within 160-240 °C and at a constant pressure of 5 MPa in a continuous tubular reactor. Caffeic acid degraded quickly at these temperatures; the main products identified by liquid chromatography-diode array detection/mass spectrometry were hydroxytyrosol, protocatechuic aldehyde, and 4-vinylcatechol. The reaction rates for the degradation of caffeic acid and the formation of products were evaluated. Online high-performance liquid chromatography/2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity of each product in the solution. It was found that the overall antioxidant activity of the treated solution did not change during the degradation process. This study showed a potential of formation of antioxidants from natural phenolic compounds under these subcritical water conditions, and this may lead to a discovering of novel antioxidants compounds during the extraction by this technique. PMID:24483598

  5. Activity of caffeic acid in different fish lipid matrices: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Isabel; Undeland, Ingrid; Larsson, Karin;

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid, a hydroxycinnamic acid common in different vegetable sources, has been employed as a natural antioxidant for inhibiting oxidation of fish lipids present in different food matrices. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in the antioxidative and prooxidative eff...

  6. Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

    2010-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum...

  7. Solubilities of p-coumaric and caffeic acid in ionic liquids and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► New solubility data of p-coumaric and caffeic acid in ionic liquids and organic solvents. ► Normal melting point temperature and enthalpy of fusion of p-coumaric and caffeic acid. ► Thermogravimetric analysis for p-coumaric and caffeic acid. ► Correlation with UNIQUAC and NRTL. -- Abstract: The solubilities of two cinnamic acid derivatives, namely p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, in six 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium based ionic liquids composed of the PF6−, BF4−, TFO− and TF2N− anions, and in two organic solvents, t-pentanol and ethyl acetate, have been measured at the temperature range of about (303 to 317) K. The p-coumaric acid was found to be more soluble than caffeic acid in all studied solvents. Higher solubilities of both acids were observed in the ionic liquids composed of the BF4− and TFO− anions. The increase of the alkyl chain length on the cation invokes a decrease in solubility in the case of hydrophilic ionic liquids composed of BF4− anion, while in the case of hydrophobic ones composed of PF6− anion an increase in the solubility is observed. Between the two organic solvents t-pentanol is better solvent than ethyl acetate for both acids. Moreover, using the van’t Hoff equations the apparent Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution were calculated. Finally, successful correlation of the experimental data was achieved with the UNIQUAC and the NRTL activity coefficient models, while poor predictions of the solubility of the two acids in the organic solvents were obtained with two UNIFAC models

  8. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion and repair of adenosine radicals by caffeic acid in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sudha Swaraga; L Charitha; M Adinarayana

    2005-07-01

    The photooxidation of adenosine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) has been studied by spectrophotometrically measuring the absorbance of adenosine at 260 nm. The rates of oxidation of adenosine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in [caffeic acid] is found to decrease the rate of oxidation of adenosine suggesting that caffeic acid acts as an efficient scavenger of $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ and protects adenosine from it. Sulphate radical anion competes for adenosine as well as for caffeic acid. The quantum yields of photooxidation of adenosine have been calculated from the rates of oxidation of adenosine and the light intensity absorbed by PDS at 254 nm, the wavelength at which PDS is activated to sulphate radical anion. From the results of experimentally determined quantum yields (exptl) and the quantum yields calculated (cal) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ show that exptl values are lower than cal values. The ' values, which are experimentally found quantum yield values at each caffeic acid concentration and corrected for $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ scavenging by caffeic acid, are also found to be greater than exptl values. These observations suggest that the transient adenosine radicals are repaired by caffeic acid in addition to scavenging of sulphate radical anions.

  9. Caffeic acid as active principle from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F L; Chen, Y C; Cheng, J T

    2000-04-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of caffeic acid, one of the phenolic compounds contained in the fruit of Xanthium strumarium, was investigated. After an intravenous injection of caffeic acid into diabetic rats of both streptozotocin-induced and insulin-resistant models, a dose-dependent decrease of plasma glucose was observed. However, a similar effect was not produced in normal rats. An insulin-independent action of caffeic acid can thus be considered. Otherwise, this compound reduced the elevation of plasma glucose level in insulin-resistant rats receiving a glucose challenge test. Also, glucose uptake into the isolated adipocytes was raised by caffeic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. Increase of glucose utilization by caffeic acid seems to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose. PMID:10821047

  10. Determination of caffeic acid in root and rhizome of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifuga racemosa, is a plant with a diverse and long history of medicinal use. Caffeic acid, bioactive compound, which often occurs with other polyphenols can influence the biological activity of this plant. The aim of our work was quantitative analysis of caffeic acid in roots and rhizomes of two varieties of C. racemosa. Analysis was performed by HPLC method. The extracts were separated on C18 reversed-phase column using mixture of methanol, water and formic acid (25:75:0.5 v/v/v as a mobile phase. The flow rate of eluent was 1.0 ml·min-1. The obtained validation parameters such as linearity, linear regression equation and precision expressed as a relative standard deviation were adequate for quantitative determination. Caffeic acid was found in all tested extracts. The highest total amount of caffeic acid was determined in C. racemosa var. racemosa (255.3 μg·g-1 while its concentration in C. racemosa var. cordifolia was significantly lower (213.0 μg·g-1.

  11. Mechanism and kinetics in reactions of caffeic acid with radicals by pulse radiolysis and calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of caffeic acid with eaq-, (CH3)2(OH) CCH2·, CO2·-, H·, ·OH and N3· radicals were studied by γ-, pulse radiolysis and molecular orbital calculation. UV-visible spectra of electron/·OH adducts, semi-quinone radicals of caffeic ions, and the stable products from the reactions were derived. The rate constants were determined. The attacked sites and the most favorable structures of the transient radicals were predicted. Reaction mechanisms were proposed. (author)

  12. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  13. Synthesis and bioactivity of novel caffeic acid esters from Zuccagnia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, M S; Subbaraju, G V

    2006-12-01

    Synthesis of novel caffeic acid esters (1 and 2) was accomplished starting from appropriately substituted benzaldehydes (3 and 9). While compound 2 exhibited potent anti-oxidative activity in both the nitroblue tetrazolium and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging models, compound 1 showed moderate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. PMID:17145655

  14. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  15. Highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of an ascorbyl unstaturated fatty acid ester with ecofriendly biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran as cosolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying-Dan; Qin, Ye-Zhi; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl undecylenate, an unsaturated fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid, was reported with biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as the cosolvent. Of the immobilized lipases tested, Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) showed the highest activity for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl undecylenate. Effect of reaction media on the enzymatic reaction was studied. The cosolvent mixture, t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4, v/v) proved to be the optimal medium, in which not only ascorbic acid had moderate solubility, but also CAL-B showed a high activity, thus addressing the major problem of the solvent conflict for dissolving substrate and keeping satisfactory enzyme activity. In addition, the enzyme was much more stable in MeTHF and t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4) than in previously widely used organic solvents, t-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and acetone. The much higher initial reaction rate in this cosolvent mixture may be rationalized by the much lower apparent activation energy of this enzymatic reaction (26.6 vs. 38.1-39.1 kJ/mol) and higher enzyme catalytic efficiency (Vmax /Km , 8.4 vs. 1.3-1.4 h(-1) ). Ascorbyl undecylenate was obtained with the yields of 84-89% and 6-regioselectivity of >99% in t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4) at supersaturated substrate concentrations (60 and 100 mM) after 5-8 h. PMID:24891225

  16. Caffeic acid attenuates oxidative stress, learning and memory deficit in intra-cerebroventricular streptozotocin induced experimental dementia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Rahul; Kaundal, Madhu; Bansal, Vikas; Samardeep

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in cognitive decline as seen during normal aging and in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caffeic acid, a polyphenolic compound, has been reported to possess potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The role of caffeic acid in experimental dementia is not fully understood. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered intracerebroventrically (ICV) on day 1 and 3 (3mg/kg, ICV bilaterally) in Wistar rats. Caffeic acid was administered (10, 20 and 40mg/kg/day p.o.) 1h following STZ infusion upto 21st day. Morris water maze and object recognition task were used to assess learning and memory in rats. Terminally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the levels of oxido-nitrosative stress markers were determined in cortical and hippocampal brain regions of rats. STZ produced significant (plearning and memory impairment, oxido-nitrosative stress and cholinergic deficit in rats. Whereas, caffeic acid treatment significantly (p<0.001) and dose dependently attenuated STZ induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. The observed cognitive improvement following caffeic acid in STZ treated rats may be due to its antioxidant activity and restoration of cholinergic functions. Our results suggest the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in cognitive disorders such as AD. PMID:27261577

  17. Kinetic observation of rapid electron transfer between thymine and thymidine anion radicals and caffeic acid: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid electron transfer from thymine or thymidine anion radicals to caffeic acid with rate constant of 1 x 109 M-1s-1 was observed by pulse radiolysis, leading to the formation of anion radicals of caffeic acid which is characterized with absorption maximum at 360nm. Caffeic acid has a higher one-electron reduction potential than the target molecule (thymine or thymidine) and acts as a electrophilic protector which prevent the target anion radical from its irreversible protonation at C6 leading to its 5-yl radical via fast electron transfer. The kinetic demonstrations have provided dynamic evidence of charge transfer protection mechanism. (author)

  18. Synthesis of ascorbyl oleate by transesterification of olive oil with ascorbic acid in polar organic media catalyzed by immobilized lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Perez, Sonia; Filice, Marco; Guisan, Jose M; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of transesterification between oils (e.g., olive oil) and ascorbic acid in polar anhydrous media (e.g., tert-amyl alcohol) catalyzed by immobilized lipases for the preparation of natural liposoluble antioxidants (e.g., ascorbyl oleate) was studied. Three commercial lipases were tested: Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB), Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) and Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML). Each lipase was immobilized by three different protocols: hydrophobic adsorption, anionic exchange and multipoint covalent attachment. The highest synthetic yields were obtained with CALB adsorbed on hydrophobic supports (e.g., the commercial derivative Novozym 435). The rates and yields of the synthesis of ascorbyl oleate were higher when using the solvent dried with molecular sieves, at high temperatures (e.g. 45°C) and with a small excess of oil (2 mol of oil per mol of ascorbic acid). The coating of CALB derivatives with polyethyleneimine (PEI) improved its catalytic behavior and allowed the achievement of yields of up to 80% of ascorbyl oleate in less than 24h. CALB adsorbed on a hydrophobic support and coated with PEI was 2-fold more stable than a non-coated derivative and one hundred-fold more stable than the best TLL derivative. The best CALB derivative exhibited a half-life of 3 days at 75°C in fully anhydrous media, and this derivative maintained full activity after 28 days at 45°C in dried tert-amyl alcohol. PMID:23891831

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymer for caffeic acid by precipitation polymerization and its application to extraction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Chitose; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for caffeic acid (CA) were prepared using 4-vinylpyridine and methacrylamide (MAM) as functional monomers, divinylbenzene as a crosslinker and acetonitrile-toluene (3:1, v/v) as a porogen by precipitation polymerization. The use of MAM as the co-monomer resulted in the formation of microsphere MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) with ca. 3- and 5-μm particle diameters, respectively. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that the binding capacity and affinity of the MIP to CA are higher than those of the NIP. The retention and molecular-recognition properties of the prepared MIPs were evaluated using water-acetonitrile and sodium phosphate buffer-acetonitrile as mobile phases in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase chromatography, respectively. In HILIC mode, the MIP showed higher molecular-recognition ability for CA than in reversed-phase mode. In addition to shape recognition, hydrophilic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CA on the MIP in HILIC mode, while hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CA in reversed-phase mode. The MIP had a specific molecular-recognition ability for CA in HILIC mode, while other structurally related compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CGA), gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, could not be recognized by the MIP. Furthermore, the MIP was successfully applied for extraction of CA and CGA in the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies in HILIC mode. PMID:26776340

  20. Possible molecular targets for therapeutic applications of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Of the various derivatives of caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a hydrophobic, bioactive polyphenolic ester obtained from propolis extract. The objective in writing this review article was to summarize all published studies on therapeutics of CAPE in inflammation and cancer to extract direction for future research. The possible molecular targets for the action of CAPE, include various transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB, tissue necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, Nrf2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor of activated T cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and signal transducers and activators of transcription. Based on the valuable data on its therapeutics in inflammation and cancer, clinical studies of CAPE should also be conducted to explore its toxicities, if any.

  1. Bioactivity and Chemical Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxuan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, as one of the main active ingredients of the natural product propolis, shows the unique biological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, and so on. These have attracted the attention of many researchers to explore the compound with potent biological activities. This review aims to summarize its bioactivities, synthetic methods and derivatives, which will be helpful for further study and development of CAPE and its derivatives.

  2. Regulatory Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Neuroinflammation in Microglial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Fang Tsai; Yueh-Hsiung Kuo; Wei-Lan Yeh; Caren Yu-Ju Wu; Hsiao-Yun Lin; Sheng-Wei Lai; Yu-Shu Liu; Ling-Hsuan Wu; Jheng-Kun Lu; Dah-Yuu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current ...

  3. Effect of Caffeic Acid and Low-Power Laser Light Co-Exposure on Viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheibi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is a big problem, especially in burns and wound infections. Laser irradiation affects microorganisms by denaturing their proteins, which involves changes in the chemical or physical properties of the protein. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeic acid and low-power laser light co-exposure on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn wounds. Materials and Methods Ten bacterial samples were collected from patients with burn wound infections at Shahid Motahhari medical center of Tehran. The He-Ne laser was used in this study with output power of 2 mW. Results The data significantly indicated that both the caffeic acid and laser treatment alone reduced the number of colony-forming units compared to control cultures. Co-exposure of bacterial suspensions to caffeic acid and laser at three time points showed the following number of colony-forming units 240.23 ± 60.15, 148.13 ± 52.66 and 84.57 ± 35, respectively. The best concentrations of caffeic acid to achieve countable colonies were 1.5 and 1.75 mM. At the concentration of 1.5 mM of caffeic acid, the number of colonies significantly reduced to 280.78 ± 59 (P = 0.008 while at 1.75 mM the number of colonies reduced to 234.07 ± 72.28 (P = 0.0001. Conclusions Caffeic acid treatment reduced bacterial growth and resulted in a decreased number of colony formation. The simultaneous effect of caffeic acid and laser at three time courses showed a synergic effect in reducing colony formation compared to the control and caffeic acid, and laser alone.

  4. Au nanoparticles/poly(caffeic acid) composite modified glassy carbon electrode for voltammetric determination of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Xu, Juan; Zhao, Lei; Shen, Shaofei; Yuan, Maosen; Liu, Wenming; Tu, Qin; Yu, Ruijin; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-10-01

    An Au nanoparticles/poly(caffeic acid) (AuNPs/PCA) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was prepared by successively potentiostatic technique in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution containing 0.02mM caffeic acid and 1.0mM HAuCl4. Electrochemical characterization of the AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen (AP) at the AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. Compared with bare GC and poly(caffeic acid) modified GC electrode, the AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode was exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of AP. The plot of catalytic current versus AP concentration showed two linear segments in the concentration ranges 0.2-20µM and 50-1000µM. The detection limit of 14 nM was obtained by using the first range of the calibration plot. The AuNPs/PCA-GC electrode has been successfully applied and validated by analyzing AP in blood, urine and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:27474318

  5. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  6. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to screen suitable reaction systems for the modification of antioxidants through enzy-matic synthesis. Enzymatic esterification of ascorbic acid with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated as a mod-el. Four organic solvents and five different enzymes were evaluated....... Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans-ferred to an...... ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  7. Influence of fatty acid on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl esters and their free radical scavenging capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Marija; Carević, Milica; Mihailović, Mladen; Veličković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) ascorbyl esters are recently emerging food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical additives, which can be prepared in an eco-friendly way by using lipases as catalysts. Because they are amphiphilic molecules, which possess high free radical scavenging capacity, they can be applied as liposoluble antioxidants as well as emulsifiers and biosurfactants. In this study, the influence of a wide range of acyl donors on ester yield in lipase-catalyzed synthesis and ester antioxidant activity was examined. Among saturated acyl donors, higher yields and antioxidant activities of esters were achieved when short-chain FAs were used. Oleic acid gave the highest yield overall and its ester exhibited a high antioxidant activity. Optimization of experimental factors showed that the highest conversion (60.5%) in acetone was achieved with 5 g L(-1) of lipase, 50 mM of vitamin C, 10-fold molar excess of oleic acid, and 0.7 mL L(-1) of initial water. Obtained results showed that even short- and medium-chain ascorbyl esters could be synthesized with high yields and retained (or even exceeded) free radical scavenging capacity of l-ascorbic acid, indicating prospects of broadening their application in emulsions and liposomes. PMID:25224149

  8. Effects of roasting temperatures and gamma irradiation on the content of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and soluble carbohydrates of coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two varieties of Puerto Rican coffee, Coffea canephora L. var. Robusta, and Coffea arabica L. var. Borbon, were subjected to four different doses of radiation and roasted at two different temperatures. Aqueous extracts of the ground coffee beans were analyzed for chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid at 324 nm and 360 nm wavelength settings, respectively. Samples subjected to the roasting treatments in conjuction with irradiation treatments were treated with basic lead acetate prior to the colorimetric analyses in order to eliminate interfering substances. The total carbohydrate content was also determined by colorimetric techniques with anthrone reagent. The total nitrogen content of the pulverized samples were determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method. While roasting treatments caused a reduction in the concentrations of the chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and the carbohydrates, the radiation treatments increased the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates without affecting the concentrations of chlorogenic acid or caffeic acid. It therefore appears that radiation treatments seem to cause degradation of the acid-polysaccharide complexes liberating soluble sugars. There were no noticable changes in the total content of nitrogen caused by roasting or the radiation treatments as indicated by the statistical analysis employing the split plot design. (author)

  9. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects lung alveolar epithelial cellsfrom cigarette smoke-induced damage

    OpenAIRE

    BARLAS, FIRAT BARIŞ; ERDOGAN, SUAT

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: To evaluate the influence of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cell damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells. Materials and methods: A549 alveolar epithelial cells were divided into control, CS exposure, CAPE, and CS+CAPE treatment groups. Undiluted CS-exposed medium (100%) and three dilutions (50%, 25%, and 10%) of CS-exposed media were applied to cultured A549 cells, which were analyzed after 3 h of inc...

  10. Protective role of caffeic acid in an Aβ25-35-induced Alzheimer's disease model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Wang, Qian; Choi, Ji Myung; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in memory and cognitive functions. The accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and oxidative stress in the brain are the most common causes of AD. MATERIALS/METHODS Caffeic acid (CA) is an active phenolic compound that has a variety of pharmacological actions. We studied the protective abilities of CA in an Aβ25-35-injected AD mouse model. CA was administered at an oral dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. Behavi...

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  12. Can propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE be promising agents against cyclophosphamide toxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeyya Akyol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a mixture having hundreds of polyphenols including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE. They have been using in several medical conditions/diseases in both in vitro and in vivo experimental setup. Cyclophosphamide has been used to treat a broad of malignancies including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgking's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Ewing's sarcoma, breast cancer, testicular cancer, etc. It may cause several side effects after treatment. In this mini review, the protective effects of propolis and CAPE were compared each other in terms of effectiveness against cyclophosphamide-induced injuries. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 105-107

  13. L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯抗氧化活性%Study on the Antioxidant Activities of L-ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建伟; 赵海珍; 吕凤霞; 别小妹; 张充; 陆兆新; 彭杨

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were studied by the items of hydroxyl radical system, superoxide anion free radical system, system of DPPH · , and reducing power.Its antioxidant effects was further evaluated by adding into the lard and bead oil.The results indicated that L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters within the given concentration range in doseeffect relationship showed good antioxidant activities on both the clearance of hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion free radical and DPPH · and the reducing power.Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were comparable with that of L-ascorbyl palmitate.When 0.2% (w/w) of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were added in the lard for a 20 h forced oxidation at 100 ℃, the POV of lard was 42.8 meq/kg, which illustrated L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters had significant antioxidant activities.When 0.2% (w/w) of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were added in the soybean oil for a 14 h forced oxidation at 100 ℃, the POV of soybean oil was 11.9 meq/ kg.The antioxidant ability of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters for soybean oil was higher than that of TBHQ, but was close with that of L-ascorbyl palmitate.Thus, L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were demonstrated to be potential food antioxidants.%从羟基自由基体系、超氧阴离子自由基体系、二苯苦味肼基自由基体系及还原力测试等方面研究L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯(VC脂肪酸酯)体外抗氧化活性,并将其添加到猪油和大豆油当中,评价其抗氧化效果.结果表明,在一定的质量浓度范围内,VC脂肪酸酯对羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、DPPH自由基均有较好的清除效果,还原能力也较强,并呈一定量效关系,其抗氧化活性与L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯相当.VC脂肪酸酯在猪油中的添加质量分数为0.2%,100℃下强制氧化20h时,猪油的过氧化值为42.8 meq/kg,具有明显的抗氧化活性;在大豆油中添加质量分数0.2%,

  14. Regulatory Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Neuroinflammation in Microglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current study intended to probe the effects of CAPE on microglia activation by using in vitro and in vivo models. Western blot and Griess reaction assay revealed CAPE significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and the production of nitric oxide (NO. Administration of CAPE resulted in increased expressions of hemeoxygenase (HO-1and erythropoietin (EPO in microglia. The phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK-α was further found to regulate the anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid. In vivo results from immunohistochemistry along with rotarod test also revealed the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of CAPE in microglia activation. The current study has evidenced several possible molecular determinants, AMPKα, EPO, and HO-1, in mediating anti-neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells.

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Caffeic acid Phenethyl Ester and 4-Vinylcatechol in Stripped Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cai-Hua; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Qi, Jin-Feng; Hong, Soon-Taek; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid was used to synthesize 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) by thermal decarboxylation and to prepare caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) by esterification reaction. The identities of synthesized products were confirmed by (1)H NMR. Antioxidative activities of 4-VC and CAPE were compared with α-tocopherol and BHT in stripped soybean oil at 60 °C under the dark. To evaluate the degrees of oxidation at different concentrations and combinations, peroxide value (PV) and (1)H NMR were performed. From the results of PV, the formation of primary oxidation products (i.e., hydroperoxides) in stripped soybean oil containing 200 ppm CAPE was the slowest. The relative oxidation degree of 200 ppm CAPE (9.5%) was lower than other samples on 9 d. Similar results were obtained by (1)H NMR analysis. After 15 d of storage, levels of conjugated diene forms and aldehydes of 200 ppm CAPE sample (57.3 and 0.9 mmol/mol oil) were also lower than other treatments. In addition, 4-VC and α-tocopherol were found to have a synergistic antioxidant effect. PMID:26641978

  16. Regulatory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on neuroinflammation in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Caren Yu-Ju; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Lai, Sheng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Shu; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lu, Jheng-Kun; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current study intended to probe the effects of CAPE on microglia activation by using in vitro and in vivo models. Western blot and Griess reaction assay revealed CAPE significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Administration of CAPE resulted in increased expressions of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1and erythropoietin (EPO) in microglia. The phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α was further found to regulate the anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid. In vivo results from immunohistochemistry along with rotarod test also revealed the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of CAPE in microglia activation. The current study has evidenced several possible molecular determinants, AMPKα, EPO, and HO-1, in mediating anti-neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells. PMID:25768341

  17. Homogeneous and heterogeneous degradation of caffeic acid using photocatalysis driven by UVA and solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Eliana; Santander, Paola; Contreras, David; Yáñez, Jorge; Cornejo, Lorena; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2016-01-01

    Waste water from the wine industry is characterized by a high concentration of dissolved organic matter and the presence of natural phenolic compounds with low biodegradability. High concentrations of phenolic compounds may cause environmental pollution and risks to human health. In this article caffeic acid (CA) was used as a model compound of wine effluent because it is refractory to the conventional wastewater treatments. The oxidation of caffeic acid in water solution (0.01 g L(-1)) by heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reaction was studied using UVA. The optimal conditions for each treatment were performed by multivariate experimental design. The optimal conditions for heterogeneous photocatalysis were pH 5.3 and 0.9 g L(-1) TiO2. In the case of photo-Fenton treatment, optimized variable were 82.4 μmol L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 558.6 μmol L(-1) of H2O2. The degradation profiles of CA were monitored by UV-Vis, HPLC, TOC and COD. To reach 90% of CA removal, 40 and 2 min of reaction, respectively, were required by heterogeneous and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. For comparison purposes, the reactions were also performed under solar light. The use of solar light does not change the efficiency of the photo-Fenton reaction, yet the performance of the heterogeneous process was significantly improved, reaching 90% of degradation in 15 min. PMID:26548918

  18. Photoproduction of glyoxylic acid in model wine: Impact of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-01-15

    Glyoxylic acid is a tartaric acid degradation product formed in model wine solutions containing iron and its production is greatly increased by exposure to UV-visible light. In this study, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature on the light-induced (⩾300nm) production of glyoxylic acid in model wine containing tartaric acid and iron was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). Glyoxylic acid produced in the irradiated model wine was present in free and hydrogen sulfite adduct forms and the measured total, free and percentage free glyoxylic acid values were modeled using RSM. Sulfur dioxide significantly decreased the total amount of glyoxylic acid produced, but could not prevent its production, while caffeic acid showed no significant impact. The interaction between pH and temperature was significant, with low pH values and low temperatures giving rise to higher levels of total glyoxylic acid. PMID:27542478

  19. Thermal transformation of bioactive caffeic acid on fumed silica seen by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry and quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Tetiana V; Lipkovska, Natalia O; Barvinchenko, Valentyna M; Palyanytsya, Borys B; Kazakova, Olga A; Dudik, Olesia O; Menyhárd, Alfréd; László, Krisztina

    2016-05-15

    Thermochemical studies of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and their surface complexes are important for the pharmaceutical industry, medicine and for the development of technologies of heterogeneous biomass pyrolysis. In this study, structural and thermal transformations of caffeic acid complexes on silica surfaces were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) and quantum chemical methods. Two types of caffeic acid surface complexes are found to form through phenolic or carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions of caffeic acid on silica surface are calculated. The mechanisms of thermal transformations of the caffeic chemisorbed surface complexes are proposed. Thermal decomposition of caffeic acid complex chemisorbed through grafted ester group proceeds via three parallel reactions, producing ketene, vinyl and acetylene derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Immobilization of phenolic acids on the silica surface improves greatly their thermal stability. PMID:26939077

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

  1. Engineering alfalfa to accumulate useful caffeic acid derivatives and characterization of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases from legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some forages crops, such as red clover, accumulate high levels of caffeic acid derivatives. Oxidation of these o-diphenols to quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and the subsequent reactions of these quinones (probably with endogenous plant proteases) result in a significant reduction ...

  2. Fungal biotransformation of chlorogenic and caffeic acids by Fusarium graminearum: New insights in the contribution of phenolic acids to resistance to deoxynivalenol accumulation in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Léa; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noelle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Ducos, Christine; Richard-Forget, Florence; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela

    2016-03-16

    Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot, mainly caused by the fungi Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, are two of the most devastating diseases of small-grain cereals and maize. In addition to yield loss, these diseases frequently result in contamination of kernels with toxic type B trichothecenes. The potential involvement of chlorogenic acid in cereal resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Gibberella Ear Rot and to trichothecene accumulation was the focus of this study. The effects of chlorogenic acid and one of its hydrolyzed products, caffeic acid, on fungal growth and type B trichothecenes biosynthesis were studied using concentrations close to physiological amounts quantified in kernels and a set of F. graminearum and F. culmorum strains. Both chlorogenic and caffeic acids negatively impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production, with caffeic acid being significantly more toxic. Inhibitory efficiencies of both phenolic acids were strain-dependent. To further investigate the antifungal and anti "mycotoxin" effect of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, the metabolic fate of these two phenolic acids was characterized in supplemented F. graminearum broths. For the first time, our results demonstrated the ability of F. graminearum to degrade chlorogenic acid into caffeic, hydroxychlorogenic and protocatechuic acids and caffeic acid into protocatechuic and hydroxycaffeic acids. Some of these metabolic products can contribute to the inhibitory efficiency of chlorogenic acid that, therefore, can be compared as a "pro-drug". As a whole, our data corroborate the contribution of chlorogenic acid to the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum and its production of mycotoxins. PMID:26812586

  3. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazancioglu HO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hakki Oguz Kazancioglu,1 Sertac Aksakalli,2 Seref Ezirganli,1 Muhammet Birlik,2 Mukaddes Esrefoglu,3 Ahmet Hüseyin Acar1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, 3Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Narrow maxilla is a common problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. To solve this problem, a procedure called rapid maxillary expansion (RME has been used. However, relapse tendency is a major problem of RME. Although relapse tendency is not clearly understood, various treatment procedures and new application has been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the possible effectiveness of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on new bone formation in rat midpalatal suture after RME.Materials and methods: Twenty male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two groups as control and CAPE group. In CAPE group, CAPE was administered systemically via intraperitoneal injection. RME procedure was performed on all animals. For this purpose, the springs were placed on the maxillary incisors of rats and activated for 5 days. After then, the springs were removed and replaced with short lengths of rectangular retaining wire for consolidation period of 15 days. At the end of the study, histomorphometric analysis was carried out to assess of new bone formation.Results: New bone formation was significantly greater in CAPE group than the control group (P<0.05. CAPE enhances new bone formation in midpalatal suture after RME.Conclusion: These results show that CAPE may decrease the time needed for retention. Keywords: rapid maxillary expansion, bone formation, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, midpalatal suture, histopathology

  4. Synthesis and Biological Properties of Caffeic Acid-PNA Dimers Containing Guanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fiorentino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid (CA; 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid is endowed with high antioxidant activity. CA derivatives (such as amides have gained a lot of attention due to their antioxidative, antitumor and antimicrobial properties as well as stable characteristics. Caffeoyl-peptide derivatives showed different antioxidant activity depending on the type and the sequence of amino acid used. For these reasons, we decided to combine CA with Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA to test whether the new PNA-CA amide derivatives would result in an improvement or gain of CA’s biological (i.e., antioxidant, cytotoxic, cytoprotective properties. We performed the synthesis and characterization of seven dimer conjugates with various combinations of nucleic acid bases and focused NMR studies on the model compound ga-CA dimer. We demonstrate that PNA dimers containing guanine conjugated to CA exhibited different biological activities depending on composition and sequence of the nucleobases. The dimer ag-CA protected HepG2, SK-B-NE(2, and C6 cells from a cytotoxic dose of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2.

  5. Blood contact properties of ascorbyl chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalinca, Z; Yilmaz, E; Taneri, B; Bullici, F; Tuzmen, S

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbyl chitosan was synthesized by heating chitosan with ascorbic acid in isopropanol. The products were characterized by FTIR and C-13 NMR spectroscopies, SEM, and elemental analysis. Blood contact properties of ascorbyl chitosans were evaluated. The ascorbyl chitosans demonstrated to have increased lipid-lowering activity in comparison to chitosan alone upon contact with human blood serum in in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL ratio was improved towards the desirable ideal values after three hours contact with ascorbyl chitosan samples. The lipid-lowering activity increased with ascorbyl substitution. The inherent nonspecific adsorption capability of chitosan due to its chelating power with several different functional groups was exhibited by ascorbyl chitosans as well. This behavior was exemplified in a simultaneous decrease in the total iron values of the volunteers together with lower lipid levels. Furthermore, ascorbyl chitosans were observed to have less hemocompatibility but increased anticoagulant activity when compared to chitosan alone. Additional in vivo studies are necessary to support these results and to investigate further the advantages and disadvantages of these materials to prove their safety prior to clinical applications. PMID:23862665

  6. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  7. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  8. Effects of caffeic acid and bovine serum albumin in reducing the rate of development of rancidity in oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Enma; Gordon, Micheal H.; Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of caffeic acid and bovine serum albumin in oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions were studied. Caffeic acid (5 mmol/kg emulsion) showed good antioxidant properties in both 30% sunflower oil-in-water (OW) and 20% water-in-sunflower oil emulsions (WO), pH 5.4, during storage at 50 ºC. Although bovine serum albumin (BSA) (0.2%) had a slight antioxidant effect, the combination of caffeic acid and BSA showed a synergistic reduction in the rate of development of rancid...

  9. Experimental design as a tool to evaluate chlorogenic and caffeic acids extracted from Cecropia glaziovii Sneth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Daniela P; dos Santos, Talitha Caldas; Sonaglio, Diva; Dos Santos, Ana Lúcia Gomes; Reginatto, Flávio H; de Campos, Angela M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different parameters, including ethanol concentration, time of drug:solvent contact, temperature and the presence of a preservative, on chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CFA) yields in Cecropia glaziovii Sneth extracts were investigated using an experimental design. In order to quantify the phenolic acids in these extracts a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated. Extracts with 80% ethanol presented a higher CGA content, but low amounts of CFA. Extracts with 20% ethanol showed a higher CFA concentration, but a sharp reduction in CGA extraction yield. The presence of a preservative, under the same extraction conditions, resulted in a slight difference or no difference in the CGA and CFA extraction yields. When the temperature was controlled at refrigerator or room temperature, a slight alteration in the concentrations of the phenolics studied was observed. The present approach can be applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of C. glaziovii Sneth extracts based on CGA or CFA extraction yield as a chemical marker. PMID:20837386

  10. Effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids in sweet potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Oki, Tomoyuki; Kai, Yumi; Nishiba, Yoichi; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid (CA) and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in sweet potato leaves using a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography method. Six cultivars and two breeding lines were used in this study. Leaves were collected at monthly intervals from 1st harvest (May) to 4th harvest (August) in 2011 and 2012. ANOVA analysis revealed that the contents of CQAs were significantly different among all cultivars and breeding lines, but no significant differences were found for CA. No annual variation was confirmed in CA and CQAs. Repeated harvest of sweet potato leaves affected the content of only 4-CQA and 5-CQA. Post-hoc comparisons using Tukey's method indicated that the contents of 4-CQA and 5-CQA in sweet potato leaves harvested at first time were significantly higher compared to those at the other harvest times. PMID:25971339

  11. Histopathological, morphometric and stereological studies of ascorbic acid and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in a skin care formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G M; Maia Campos, P M

    2000-06-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been widely used in cosmetics and dermatological formulations due to its inhibitory effect on melanogenesis by affecting collagen synthesis and scavenger properties. However, ascorbic acid (AA) is quickly oxidized and decomposes in aqueous solution and to solve this problem, vitamin C derivatives were synthesized. In the present investigation, histopathological, morphometric and stereological studies were carried out to investigate the possible alterations caused by formulations containing AA or magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) in the epidermis. Gel creams either with or without 2% AA or its derivative were selected for investigation. Guinea-pigs were shaved on the back, and four areas of 1.5 cm(2) each were used for the experiments. One untreated area was used for control and the others for the application of gel cream formulations either with or without AA or its derivatives. The formulations were applied daily for 2, 4 and 8 weeks and biopsies were then obtained from each area using a dermatological punch. The material collected was analysed by histopathological, morphometric and stereological techniques. We observed that, under the present experimental conditions, whole formulations acted on the epidermis causing a thickening of the epithelium, with cells of larger volume in the granulose and spinous layers. PMID:18503473

  12. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester as a Protective Agent against Nephrotoxicity and/or Oxidative Kidney Damage: A Detailed Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeyya Akyol; Veli Ugurcu; Aynur Altuntas; Rukiye Hasgul; Ozlem Cakmak; Omer Akyol

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has been attracting the attention of different medical and pharmaceutical disciplines in recent years because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antiviral, antifungal, and antineoplastic properties. One of the most studied organs for the effects of CAPE is the kidney, particularly in the capacity of this ester to decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by several drugs and the oxidative injury ...

  13. Effect of Caffeic Acid and Low-Power Laser Light Co-Exposure on Viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gheibi; Divan Khosroshahi; Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Background The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is a big problem, especially in burns and wound infections. Laser irradiation affects microorganisms by denaturing their proteins, which involves changes in the chemical or physical properties of the protein. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeic acid and low-power laser light co-exposure on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from b...

  14. Redox Cycles of Caffeic Acid, alpha-Tocopherol, and Ascorbate: Implications for Protection of Low-Density Lipoproteins Against Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjinha, João; Cadenas, Enrique

    1999-01-01

    This study addresses the dynamic interactions among alpha-tocopherol, caffeic acid, and ascorbate in terms of a sequence of redox cycles aimed at accomplishing optimal synergistic antioxidant protection. Several experimental models were designed to examine these interactions: UV irradiation of alpha-tocopherol-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, one-electron oxidations catalyzed by the hypervalent state of myoglobin, ferrylmyoglobin, and autoxidation at appropriate pHs. These models w...

  15. Separation of chlorogenic acid and concentration of trace caffeic acid from natural products by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    LU, YUANYUAN; Dong, Genlai; Gu, Yanxiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a major compound among phenolic acids of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze and Flos lonicerae, was successfully separated by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid were selected as test samples, which represent as phenolic acids for separation by the pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The separation of these test samples was performed with two-phase solvent system composed of methyl-tert.-butyl-ether-acetonitrile-water at...

  16. Biocatalytic properties of a peroxidase-active cell-free extract from onion solid wastes: caffeic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agha, Ayman; Abbeddou, Souheila; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2009-04-01

    The exploitation of food residual sources consists of a major factor in reducing the polluting load of food industry wastes and developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bio-organic molecules with potential phytotoxicity, including hydrolases, peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained interest in studies pertaining to bioremediation applications, plant enzymes have been given less attention or even disregarded. In this view, this study aimed at the investigating the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from onion solid by-products for oxidising caffeic acid, a widespread o-diphenol, whose various derivatives may occur in food industry wastes, such as olive mill waste waters. Increased enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 5, but considerable activity was also retained for pH up to 7. Favourable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated caffeic acid solution revealed the existence of a tetramer as major oxidation product. Based on the data generated, a putative pathway for the formation of the peroxidase-mediated caffeic acid tetramer was proposed. PMID:18670892

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers combination with deep eutectic solvents for solid-phase extraction of caffeic acid from hawthorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Tang, Weiyang; Cao, Weimin; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with caffeic acid as template and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) materials were prepared in the same procedure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and adsorption capacity test were used to evaluate characteristic of the new materials. MIPs, NIPs and C18 were used for rapid purification of caffeic acid from hawthorn with solid-phase extraction ( SPE) , and extract yields of caffeic acid with the proposed materials were 3.46 µg/g, 1.01 µg/g and 1.17 µg/g, respectively. To optimize the MIPs-SPE procedures, different kinds of elution solutions were studied. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared by choline chloride (ChCl)-glycerol (1/2, n/n) and choline chloride-urea (1/ 2, n/n). Methanol was mixed with the two kinds of DESs (glycerol-based DESs, urea-based DESs) in different ratios (0.5:1, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, v/v), and they were used to investigated as elution solutions in the above MIPs-SPE procedures. The results showed that MIPs were potential SPE materials, and methanol/ glycerol-based DESs (3 :1, v/v) had the best elution capability with the recovery of 82.32%. PMID:26749853

  18. Modulation of Tamoxifen Cytotoxicity by Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawi, Tarek K; Abdelazim, Samy A; Darwish, Hebatallah A; Elbaz, Eman M; Shouman, Samia A

    2016-01-01

    Although Tamoxifen (TAM) is one of the most widely used drugs in managing breast cancer, many women still relapse after long-term therapy. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a polyphenolic compound present in many medicinal plants and in propolis. The present study examined the effect of CAPE on TAM cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of TAM and/or CAPE for 48 h. This novel combination exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cells via induction of apoptotic machinery with activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation, along with downregulation of Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 expression levels. However, the mammalian microtubule-associated protein light chain LC 3-II level was unchanged. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was also decreased, whereas levels of glutathione and nitric oxide were increased. In conclusion, CAPE augmented TAM cytotoxicity via multiple mechanisms, providing a novel therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment that can overcome resistance and lower toxicity. This effect provides a rationale for further investigation of this combination. PMID:26697130

  19. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER AFTER CHRONIC EXERCISE RAT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Alp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand whether exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has an effect on obesity and weight control, we investigated the effects of CAPE, and exercise on lipid parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin in rats. 40 male rat were randomly assigned into 4 groups. It was determined that CAPE does not have any significant effect on these parameters but that lipid parameters and leptin values in exercise groups decreased considerably, while no significant change occurred in resistin levels. In order to understand whether diet has an effect on exercise, body weights of all animal groups in pre and post-exercise were compared. A significant weight gain was observed (p = 0.005 in all groups. This study concluded that exercise has a considerable effect on leptin and lipid parameters; however, exercise alone was not sufficient for weight control and could be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet.

  20. Modulation of Tamoxifen Cytotoxicity by Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek K. Motawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Tamoxifen (TAM is one of the most widely used drugs in managing breast cancer, many women still relapse after long-term therapy. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a polyphenolic compound present in many medicinal plants and in propolis. The present study examined the effect of CAPE on TAM cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of TAM and/or CAPE for 48 h. This novel combination exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cells via induction of apoptotic machinery with activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation, along with downregulation of Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 expression levels. However, the mammalian microtubule-associated protein light chain LC 3-II level was unchanged. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was also decreased, whereas levels of glutathione and nitric oxide were increased. In conclusion, CAPE augmented TAM cytotoxicity via multiple mechanisms, providing a novel therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment that can overcome resistance and lower toxicity. This effect provides a rationale for further investigation of this combination.

  1. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, Luca; Tibullo, Daniele; Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Russo, Alessandra; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic obesity inhibits activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), considered the key mediator of the fully differentiated and insulin sensitive adipocyte phenotype. We examined the effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (Cape), isolated from propolis, a honeybee hive product, on Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) differentiation to the adipocyte lineage. Finally we tested the effects of Cape on insulin-resistant adipocytes. Quantification of Oil Red O-stained cells showed that lipid droplets decreased following Cape treatment as well as radical oxygen species formation. Additionally, exposure of ASC to high glucose levels decreased adiponectin and increased proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels, which were reversed by Cape-mediated increase of insulin sensitivity. Cape treatment resulted in decreased triglycerides synthesis and increased beta-oxidation. Exposure of ASCs to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a reduction of PPARγ, an increase of IL-6 levels associated with a well-known stimulation of lipolysis; Cape partially attenuated the LPS-mediated effects. These observations reveal the main role of PPARγ in the adipocyte function and during ASC differentiation. As there is now substantial interest in functional food and nutraceutical products, the observed therapeutic value of Cape in insulin-resistance related diseases should be taken into consideration. PMID:26904104

  2. Early Treatment of radiation-Induced Heart Damage in Rats by Caffeic acid phenethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study designed to determine the therapeutic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in minimising radiation-induced injuries in rats. Rats were exposed to 7 Gy γ-rays, 30 minutes later; rats were injected with CAPE (10μmol/ kg body, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed at 8 and 15 days after starting the experiment. Gamma-irradiation induced significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrate (NO (x)) level and glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)and catalase (CAT) activities in heart tissue and augmented activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. Irradiated rats early treated with CAPE showed significant decrease in MDA, XO and ADA and significant increase in group. Cardiac enzymes were restored. Conclusion, CAPE could exhibits curable effect on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac-oxidative impairment in rats. (Author)

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Caffeic Acid against Iron-Induced Free Radical Generation--A Chemical Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago C Genaro-Mattos

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid (CA is a phenolic compound widely found in coffee beans with known beneficial effects in vivo. Many studies showed that CA has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antibacterial and anti-carcinogenic properties, which could be linked to its antioxidant activity. Taking in consideration the reported in vitro antioxidant mechanism of other polyphenols, our working hypothesis was that the CA antioxidant activity could be related to its metal-chelating property. With that in mind, we sought to investigate the chemical antioxidant mechanism of CA against in vitro iron-induced oxidative damage under different assay conditions. CA was able to prevent hydroxyl radical formation promoted by the classical Fenton reaction, as determined by 2-deoxyribose (2-DR oxidative degradation and DMPO hydroxylation. In addition to its ability to prevent hydroxyl radical formation, CA had a great inhibition of membrane lipid peroxidation. In the lipid peroxidation assays CA acted as both metal-chelator and as hydrogen donor, preventing the deleterious action promoted by lipid-derived peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. Our results indicate that the observed antioxidant effects were mostly due to the formation of iron-CA complexes, which are able to prevent 2-DR oxidation and DMPO hydroxylation. Noteworthy, the formation of iron-CA complexes and prevention of oxidative damage was directly related to the pH of the medium, showing better antioxidant activity at higher pH values. Moreover, in the presence of lipid membranes the antioxidant potency of CA was much higher, indicating its enhanced effectiveness in a hydrophobic environment. Overall, our results show that CA acts as an antioxidant through an iron chelating mechanism, preventing the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and, therefore, inhibiting Fenton-induced oxidative damage. The chemical properties of CA described here--in association with its reported signaling effects--could be an explanation to its

  4. Effects of novel hybrids of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and NSAIDs on experimental ocular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittalà, Valeria; Salerno, Loredana; Romeo, Giuseppe; Siracusa, Maria Angela; Modica, Maria Nunziata; Romano, Giovanni Luca; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we report the design and synthesis of novel hybrids of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We assessed their effects on an experimental ocular inflammation in New Zealand rabbits. The formulations of CAPE-aspirin and CAPE-indomethacin hybrids were topical instilled in the rabbit׳s eye. Afterwards, the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by grading the clinical signs and by assessing the inflammatory cell count, protein, PGE2 and TNFα levels in the aqueous humor. Furthermore, ocular tolerability of hybrids formulations was evaluated in a separate set of animals by using a modified Draize test. The ocular inflammation in the control group was significantly higher than in both the hybrid-treated groups, as indicated by clinical grading and biomarkers assessment. However, only the CAPE-aspirin hybrid reduced, in a significant dose-dependent manner, the ocular inflammation elicited by paracentesis. CAPE-indomethacin hybrid was able to significantly attenuate the clinical grading and the PGE2 aqueous levels only at the highest dose (0.1%). CAPE-aspirin significantly reduced PGE2 and TNFα levels in the aqueous humor as well as proteins and PMNs. Finally, all formulations showed no ocular irritation compared with vehicle-treated group. In conclusion, CAPE-aspirin shows full anti-inflammatory efficacy in experimental model of ocular inflammation demonstrating an optimal pharmacological and safety profile. Taken together these data indicate that CAPE-aspirin hybrid represents a valid and safe new chemical entity potentially useful for the treatment of ocular inflammation. PMID:25704612

  5. Oxidative stress, polarization of macrophages and tumour angiogenesis: Efficacy of caffeic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oršolić, Nada; Kunštić, Martina; Kukolj, Marina; Gračan, Romana; Nemrava, Johann

    2016-08-25

    Macrophage polarization is a process when macrophage expresses different functional programs in response to microenvironmental signals and two extreme forms exist; M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 macrophages are highly microbicidal and anticancer with enhanced ability to kill and phagocytose pathogens, upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive molecular species, and present antigens; M2 macrophages and the related tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) regulate tissue remodelling and promote tissue repair and angiogenesis and can amplification of metabolic pathways that can suppress adaptive immune responses. It is demonstrated that ROS production, critical for the activation and functions of M1 macrophages, is necessary for the differentiation of M2 macrophages and TAMs, and that antioxidant therapy blocks TAMs differentiation and tumorigenesis in mouse models of cancer. In order to study how caffeic acid (CA), a natural antioxidant, affects macrophage function, polarization, angiogenesis and tumour growth we injected mice with Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells and treated them for 10 days with CA in a dose of 40 and/or 80 mg kg(-1.) Macrophage polarization was further characterized by quantifying secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide and arginase 1 activity. CA may increase the cytotoxic actions of M1 macrophages and inhibit tumour growth; inhibitory activity on TAMs may be mediated through its antioxidative activity. Taken together, we conclude that the antitumour activity of CA was the result of the synergistic activities of different mechanisms by which CA acts on proliferation, angiogenesis, immunomodulation and survival. The continuous administration of CA efficiently blocked the occurrence of TAMs and markedly suppressed tumorigenesis in mouse cancer models. Targeting TAMs by antioxidants can be a potentially effective method for cancer treatment. PMID:27378625

  6. Potential Effects of Caffeic Acid in Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinases Activities in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great Number of researches on the potential role of antioxidant nutrients and phenolic compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases has been accumulated over the past several decades. Despite this effort, there is much that remains uncertain. Bio markers research in this field has the potential to help fill the gaps in current knowledge. The present study was designed to evaluate, in one aspect, the probable direction expression of proteolytic enzymes as indices for gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and their relationship, in other aspect with one antioxidant micro nutrient phenolic compound: caffeic acid (CA). Sprague Dawley male albino rats were administrated CA intraperitoneally (i.p.) 10 μmol/ kg body wt/ day for 8 consecutive days pre irradiation exposure (fractionated doses, instalment as 1 Gy every day up to total dose of 8 Gy). The treatment was continued for 15 successive days following irradiation processing. Quantitative assay of gelatinolytic zymo graphic analysis of serum and hepatic tissues showed that exposure to gamma-rays yields a marked significant increase in the activities of both latent and active MMP-9 (92 and 86 kDa), respectively, and both latent and active MMP-2 (72 and 66 kDa), respectively. Administration of CA significantly decreased the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: the present findings demonstrated that irradiation-exposure leads to enhancement of enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in their inactive and active forms in the serum and liver. Meanwhile, administration of CA exhibits protective effects in gamma-irradiated rats through down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulatory activities of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Cheng-chin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (CA and ellagic acid (EA are phenolic acids naturally occurring in many plant foods. Cardiac protective effects of these compounds against dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were examined. Methods Diabetic mice were divided into three groups (15 mice per group: diabetic mice with normal diet, 2% CA treatment, or 2% EA treatment. One group of non-diabetic mice with normal diet was used for comparison. After 12 weeks supplement, mice were sacrificed, and the variation of biomarkers for hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice were measured. Results The intake of CA or EA significantly increased cardiac content of these compounds, alleviated body weight loss, elevated plasma insulin and decreased plasma glucose levels in diabetic mice (p p p p p p p Conclusion These results support that CA and EA could provide triglyceride-lowering, anti-coagulatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory protection in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. Thus, the supplement of these agents might be helpful for the prevention or attenuation of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: Consequences of Its Hydrophobicity in the Oxidative Functions and Cytokine Release by Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Chiquetto Paracatu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, an active component of propolis. NADPH oxidases are multienzymatic complexes involved in many inflammatory diseases. Here, we studied the importance of the CAPE hydrophobicity on cell-free antioxidant capacity, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase and hypochlorous acid production, and release of TNF-α and IL-10 by activated leukocytes. The comparison was made with the related, but less hydrophobic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. Cell-free studies such as superoxide anion scavenging assay, triene degradation, and anodic peak potential (Epa measurements showed that the alterations in the hydrophobicity did not provoke significant changes in the oxidation potential and antiradical potency of the tested compounds. However, only CAPE was able to inhibit the production of superoxide anion by activated leukocytes. The inhibition of the NADPH oxidase resulted in the blockage of production of hypochlorous acid. Similarly, CAPE was the more effective inhibitor of the release of TNF-α and IL-10 by Staphylococcus aureus stimulated cells. In conclusion, the presence of the catechol moiety and the higher hydrophobicity were essential for the biological effects. Considering the involvement of NADPH oxidases in the genesis and progression of inflammatory diseases, CAPE should be considered as a promising anti-inflammatory drug.

  9. Potential in vitro Protective Effect of Quercetin, Catechin, Caffeic Acid and Phytic Acid against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress in SK-Hep-1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ki-Mo; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Yun, Chul-Ho; Kwak, Hahn-Shik

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemicals have been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity. This study examined cytoprotective effects of phytochemicals including quercetin, catechin, caffeic acid, and phytic acid against oxidative damage in SK-Hep-1 cells induced by the oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol. Exposure of the cells to excess ethanol resulted in a significant increase in cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme activity. E...

  10. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives. PMID:25973494

  11. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as a remedial agent for reproductive functions and oxidative stress-based pathologies of gonads

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeyya Akyol; Ali Akbas; Ilknur Butun; Muhsin Toktas; Huseyin Ozyurt; Semsettin Sahin; Omer Akyol

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the studies on the roles of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in several disease models and cell cultures are tremendously growing. It is such a great molecule that was used by ancient times to ameliorate some diseases and nowadays, it is used by modern medicine to test the effectiveness. In this mini-review article, the protection capability of CAPE, as a liposoluble antioxidant and a potent Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF and #954;B) inhibitor, on oxidative and non-oxidative o...

  12. Development of an Electrochemical Sensor for NADH Determination Based on a Caffeic Acid Redox Mediator Supported on Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zanardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Screen-printed electrode (SPE modified with carbon black nanoparticles (CB has been tested as a new platform for the stable deposition of caffeic acid (CFA on the electrode surface. The electrochemical performance from varying the amount of CFA/CB composite has been tested with respect to NADH determination. The electrocatalytic activity of CFA/CB has also been compared with that of SPEs modified by a single component of the coating, i.e., either CFA or CB. Finally, glycerol dehydrogenase, a typical NADH-dependent enzyme, was deposited on the CFA/CB coating in order to test the applicability of the sensor in glycerol determination.

  13. Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in Rat Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Uzar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because oxidative stress is related to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, modulation of oxygen free radical production may represent a new approach to the management of cerebral I/R. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been determined to have neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CAPE has a protective effect on cerebral I/R damage, and to determine the possible effects of CAPE on total antioxidant/oxidant status. METHODS: A total of 30 rats were randomly divided into three groups as control group, I/R group, and I/R + CAPE. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI levels and histopathological cellular structures were evaluated in cerebral tissues obtained after the experiment procedure in all groups. RESULTS: In the brain tissue, TOS and OSI levels were found to be significantly increased in the I/R group compared to the controls (p= 0.023, p= 0.001, respectively. Significantly decreased TAS levels were found in the I/R group compared to the controls (p= 0.001. CAPE treatment prevented the increase in TOS and OSI that is produced by cerebral I/R (p= 0.041, p= 0.001, respectively. TAS was found to be increased in the CAPE + I/R group compared with the I/R group (p= 0.002. In the I/R group, the brain sections showed findings of cerebral I/R damage including inflammation, vascular congestion and necrosis (for both variables, p= 0.001. These histopathological cerebral damage findings were found to be significantly reduced in the CAPE + I/R group compared to the I/R group (for both parameters, p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was found that oxidative stress had an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral I/R damage, and histopathological and biochemical evaluations showed significantly decreased I/R damage following CAPE treatment in rats.

  14. Modulation of phenytoin teratogenicity and embryonic covalent binding by acetylsalicylic acid, caffeic acid, and alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone: implications for bioactivation by prostaglandin synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teratogenicity of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin is thought to involve its bioactivation by cytochromes P-450 to a reactive arene oxide intermediate. We hypothesized that phenytoin also may be bioactivated to a teratogenic free radical intermediate by another enzymatic system, prostaglandin synthetase. To evaluate the teratogenic contribution of this latter pathway, an irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), was administered to pregnant CD-1 mice at 9:00 AM on Gestational Days 12 and 13, 2 hr before phenytoin, 65 mg/kg ip. Other groups were pretreated 2 hr prior to phenytoin administration with either the antioxidant caffeic acid or the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). Caffeic acid and PBN were given ip in doses that respectively were up to 1.0 to 0.05 molar equivalents to the dose of phenytoin. Dams were killed on Day 19 and the fetuses were assessed for teratologic anomalies. A similar study evaluated the effect of ASA on the in vivo covalent binding of radiolabeled phenytoin administered on Day 12, in which case dams were killed 24 hr later on Day 13. ASA pretreatment produced a 50% reduction in the incidence of fetal cleft palates induced by phenytoin (p less than 0.05), without significantly altering the incidence of resorptions or mean fetal body weight. Pretreatment with either caffeic acid or PBN resulted in dose-related decreases in the incidence of fetal cleft palates produced by phenytoin, with maximal respective reductions of 71 and 82% at the highest doses of caffeic acid and PBN (p less than 0.05)

  15. Anti-tyrosinase kinetics and antibacterial process of caffeic acid N-nonyl ester in Chinese Olive (Canarium album) postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-Long; Zheng, Jing; Yu, Feng; Cai, Yi-Xiang; Zhan, Xi-Lan; Wang, Hui-Fang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-10-01

    Enzymatic browning and bacterial putrefaction are mainly responsible for quality losses of Chinese Olive (Canarium album) postharvest and lead to very short shelf life on average. Screening anti-browning and anti-bacterial agents is important for preservation of Chinese Olive. Caffeic acid N-nonyl ester (C-9) and caffeic acid N- Heptyl ester (C-7) was synthesized as inhibitors of tyrosinase, which is a key enzyme in browning process. The compound of C-9 could inhibit the activity of tyrosinase strongly and its IC50 value was determined to be 37.5μM, while the compound of C-7 had no inhibitory ability. Kinetic analyses showed that compound of C-9 has been a reversible inhibitory mechanism below 50μM and been irreversible mechanisms above 50μM. For the reversible inhibitory mechanism, the values of inhibitory constants (KI and KIS) were determined to be 24.6 and 37.4μM, respectively. The results of Chinese Olive fruit postharvest showed that the compound of C-9 could effectively anti-browning and anti-bacterial putrefaction. In addition, this compound had strong antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella. Therefore, C-9 could be a potential anti-browning and anti-bacterial reagent. PMID:27246378

  16. Lipase-catalyzed Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in Ionic Liquids:Effect of Specific Ions and Reaction Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 李晶; 张磊霞; 顾双双; 吴福安

    2013-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a rare, naturally occurring phenolic food additive. This work systematically reported fundamental data on conversion of caffeic acid (CA), yield of CAPE, and reactive selectiv-ity during the lipase-catalyzed esterification process of CA and phenylethanol (PE) in ionic liquids (ILs). Sixteen ILs were selected as the reaction media, and the relative lipase-catalyzed synthesis properties of CAPE were meas-ured in an effort to enhance the yield of CAPE with high selectivity. The results indicated that ILs containing weakly coordinating anions and cations with adequate alkyl chain length improved the synthesis of CAPE. [Emim][Tf2N] was selected as the optimal reaction media. The optimal parameters were as follows by response surface methodology (RSM):reaction temperature, 84.0 °C;mass ratio of Novozym 435 to CA, 14︰1;and molar ratio of PE to CA, 16︰1. The highest reactive selectivity of CAPE catalyzed by Novozym 435 in [Emim][Tf2N] reached 64.55%(CA conversion 98.76%and CAPE yield 63.75%, respectively). Thus, lipase-catalyzed esterifica-tion in ILs is a promising method suitable for CAPE production.

  17. Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekoldina, Tatiana; Aider, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI) is a promising food additive in different matrices. However, the uses of SMPI are limited because of the presence of antinutritional compounds like polyphenolic substances. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are the dominants polyphenolics in the SMPI. These substances cause significant changes of the colour of the meal, proteins and food matrices during their extraction and use as food additives. Moreover, these substances lower the nutritional value of the end product due to their interaction with some amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Thus, the removal of these substances is important to enable the use of the SMPI and meal in general in a greater extent in food applications and replacing more expensive protein sources such as soy proteins. The aim of this work was to study the production of functional bread by supplementing wheat flour with sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI). SMPI with low content of chlorogenic and caffeic acid was usefully produced following alkaline extraction and purification with succinic acid. Purified SMPI showed well balanced amino acid profile and was characterized by high water and fat absorption capacities. It was incorporated to dough formula at 8-12 % of the total wheat flour. The results showed that production of bread supplemented with SMPI was technologically feasible. The supplemented bread had high mass volume and nutritional quality compared to the control bread. The optimal SMPI to incorporate into dough formula without significant alteration of the final bread colour was established at 10 %. This study will be helpful to find economic ways to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat bread and to improve the profitability of sunflower meal residue. PMID:25328173

  18. Design, synthesis and evaluation of semi-synthetic triazole-containing caffeic acid analogues as 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Daniela; Lucio, Oscar Méndez; Musio, Biagia; Bender, Andreas; Listing, Monika; Dennhardt, Sophie; Koeberle, Andreas; Garscha, Ulrike; Rizzo, Roberta; Manfredini, Stefano; Werz, Oliver; Ley, Steven V

    2015-08-28

    In this work the synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and biological evaluation of a novel series of triazole-containing 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors are described. The use of structure-guided drug design techniques provided compounds that demonstrated excellent 5-LO inhibition with IC50 of 0.2 and 3.2 μm in cell-based and cell-free assays, respectively. Optimization of binding and functional potencies resulted in the identification of compound 13d, which showed an enhanced activity compared to the parent bioactive compound caffeic acid 5 and the clinically approved zileuton 3. Compounds 15 and 16 were identified as lead compounds in inhibiting 5-LO products formation in neutrophils. Their interference with other targets on the arachidonic acid pathway was also assessed. Cytotoxicity tests were performed to exclude a relationship between cytotoxicity and the increased activity observed after structure optimization. PMID:26197161

  19. Redox intermediates of flavonoids and caffeic acid esters from propolis: an EPR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapta, P; Misík, V; Stasko, A; Vrábel, I

    1995-05-01

    The redox properties of flavonoids: chrysin (1), tectochrysin (2), galangin (3), isalpinin (4), pinostrobin (5), pinobanksin (6), pinobanksin-3-acetate (7), and of caffeic acid ester (8) and diacetylcaffeic acid ester (9), all isolated from propolis, were investigated by cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile. The choice of aprotic solvent lowered the reactivity of the radical intermediates and made possible to identify redox steps and intermediates not detected so far. The oxidation potentials (vs. saturated calomel electrode) of the investigated compounds were in the region of 1.5 V for 3 and 4; 1.9 V for 1, 2, and 5; 2.0 V for 6 and 7; 1.29 V for 8; and 2.3 V for 9. These oxidation potentials were mainly influenced by the presence of a double bond in 2,3-position and substituent R1 in position 3. Comparison with our earlier data revealed that flavonoids, 1-4, and caffeic acid ester 8 with lower oxidation potentials showed the maximal lipid antioxidant activity, whereas those with higher potentials (5, 6, 7, and 9) are less active. On reduction of 1-9 several one-electron-steps were typically observed in the potential regions: -1.5 V, -1.8 V, and -2 V. where in simultaneous EPR experiments anion radicals of 1 and 3 were observed with the center of unpaired spin density on ring A. Upon oxidation of flavonoids 1-4 carbonyl carbon-centered radicals, .C(O)R, were identified as consecutive products using the EPR spin trapping technique. PMID:7797098

  20. CO₂ enrichment can produce high red leaf lettuce yield while increasing most flavonoid glycoside and some caffeic acid derivative concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a common practice in greenhouses to increase crop yields up to 30%. Yet, reports on the effect on foliar phenolic compounds vary. We studied the effect on two red leaf lettuce cultivars, grown for 25 days in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 200 or 1,000 ppm, with some plants exchanged between treatments after 11 days. As expected, head mass increased with higher CO2 concentration. Regression analysis, corrected for head mass, showed increased concentrations of most flavonoid glycosides at high CO2 concentrations while only some caffeic acid derivatives were increased, and not uniformly in both cultivars. Sugar concentrations increased with CO2 concentration. Generally, conditions in the 10 days before harvest determined concentrations. We suspect that phenolic compounds were mainly accumulated because plenty of precursors were available. The results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in high yields of red leaf lettuce rich in phenolic compounds. PMID:26776031

  1. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester as a Protective Agent against Nephrotoxicity and/or Oxidative Kidney Damage: A Detailed Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeyya Akyol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, an active component of propolis, has been attracting the attention of different medical and pharmaceutical disciplines in recent years because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antiviral, antifungal, and antineoplastic properties. One of the most studied organs for the effects of CAPE is the kidney, particularly in the capacity of this ester to decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by several drugs and the oxidative injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. In this review, we summarized and critically evaluated the current knowledge regarding the protective effect of CAPE in nephrotoxicity induced by several special medicines such as cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclosporine, gentamycin, methotrexate, and other causes leading to oxidative renal injury, namely, I/R models and senility.

  2. Anti-apoptotic activity of caffeic acid, ellagic acid and ferulic acid in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a Bcl-2 independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Avti, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Surender; Mittal, Nidhi; Sohi, Kiranjit Kaur; Pathak, Chander Mohan

    2006-02-01

    Polyphenols have been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells including leukemia both in vitro and in vivo. However, their action on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during oxidative stress remains to be explored. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-apoptotic and radical scavenging activities of dietary phenolics, namely caffeic acid (CA), ellagic acid (EA) and ferulic acid (FA). H2O2-induced apoptosis in normal human PBMCs was assayed by phosphotidylserine externalization, nucleosomal damage and DNA fragmentation. Incubation of PBMCs with 5 mM H2O2 led to increased Annexin-V binding to externalized phosphatidyl serine (PS), an event of pre-apoptotic stage of the cell. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells pretreated with phenolics could resist H2O2-induced apoptotic damage. Caffeic acid (60 and 120 microM) and EA (100 and 200 microM) caused no change in externalization of PS, whereas FA (100 and 200 microM) increased externalization of PS in PBMCs treated with H2O2. The effects of phenolics were abolished to a large extent by culturing the PBMCs for 24 h after washing the phenolics from the medium. Inhibitory activities of these phenolics on lipid peroxidation were in the order of EA

  3. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25 Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH, taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue. Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid.

  4. Research progress of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-ascorbyl organic acid ester%脂肪酶催化合成L-抗坏血酸有机酸酯的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋相军; 胡燚; 刘维明; 黄和

    2011-01-01

    To broaden the applications of L-ascorbic acid, it is an economical and feasible way to convert L-aseorbic acid into L-ascorbyl organic acid ester. The recent research progress of enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl organic acid ester is summarized, by focusing on enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid ester, unsaturated fatty acid ester and mixed fatty acid ester in organic solvents. The types of lipase, organic solvents and methods of separation and purification in the synthesis are discussed. Furthermore, the prospect of enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl organic acid ester is also presented.%为了拓宽L-抗坏血酸酯在维护人体健康中的应用,将L-抗坏血酸转化成L-抗坏血酸酯是经济可行的手段。综述了近年来酶催化L-抗坏血酸有机酸酯的研究进展,重点介绍了有机相中L-抗坏血酸饱和脂肪酸酯、不饱和脂肪酸酯、脂肪酸混合酯的酶促合成,对于酶的种类、有机溶剂的选择及分离纯化方法进行了探讨,并对酶催化L-抗坏血酸有机酸酯合成前景进行了展望。

  5. Down-regulation of the Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase Gene in Switchgrass Reveals a Novel Monolignol Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Sangha, Amandeep K [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Samuel, Reichel [ORNL; Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Ragauskas, A J [Georgia Institute of Technology; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Fu, Chunxiang [Noble Foundation; Wang, Zeng-Yu [Noble Foundation; Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Dixon, Richard A [Noble Foundation; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors, confirming the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol) in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. Although there was no indication that iso-sinapyl alcohol was integrated into the cell wall, diversion of substrates from sinapyl alcohol to free iso-sinapyl alcohol, its glucoside, and associated upstream lignin pathway changes, including increased phenolic aldehydes and acids, are associated with more facile cell wall deconstruction, and to the observed inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  8. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester downregulates phospholipase D1 via direct binding and inhibition of NFκB transactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi Hee; Kang, Dong Woo [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yunjin [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kang-Yell [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Do Sik, E-mail: minds@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •We found CAFÉ, a natural product that suppresses expression and activity of PLD1. •CAPE decreased PLD1 expression by inhibiting NFκB transactivation. •CAPE rapidly inhibited PLD activity via its binding to a Cys837 of PLD1. •PLD1 downregulation by CAPE inhibited invasion and proliferation of glioma cells. -- Abstract: Upregulation of phospholipase D (PLD) is functionally linked with oncogenic signals and tumorigenesis. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active compound of propolis extract that exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antineoplastic properties. In this study, we demonstrated that CAPE suppressed the expression of PLD1 at the transcriptional level via inhibition of binding of NFκB to PLD1 promoter. Moreover, CAPE, but not its analogs, bound to a Cys837 residue of PLD1 and inhibited enzymatic activity of PLD. CAPE also decreased activation of matrix metalloproteinases-2 induced by phosphatidic acid, a product of PLD activity. Ultimately, CAPE-induced downregulation of PLD1 suppressed invasion and proliferation of glioma cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that CAPE might contribute to anti-neoplastic effect by targeting PLD1.

  9. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Increases Radiosensitivity of Estrogen Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Prolonging Radiation-Induced DNA Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Khoram, Nastaran Masoudi; Bigdeli, Bahareh; Nikoofar, Alireza; Goliaei, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is an important cause of death among women. The development of radioresistance in breast cancer leads to recurrence after radiotherapy. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a polyphenolic compound of honeybee propolis, is known to have anticancer properties. In this study, we examined whether CAPE enhanced the radiation sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative) and T47D (estrogen receptor-positive) cell lines. Methods The cytotoxic effect of CAPE on MDA-MB-2...

  10. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Market Available Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh basil leaves contain chicoric acid, the principal phenolic compound of Echinacea purpurea and purportedly the active ingredient in its dietary supplements. Our group discovered and first reported chicoric acid in basil. This following study examined the distribution of chicoric acid within the...

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a Lys49-phospholipase A2 complexed with caffeic acid, a molecule with inhibitory properties against snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piratoxin I, a noncatalytic and myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2 from B. pirajai venom, was cocrystallized with the inhibitor caffeic acid and a data set was collected to a resolution of 1.65 Å. The electron-density map unambiguously indicated that three inhibitor molecules interact with the C-terminus of the protein. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are one of the main components of bothropic venoms; in addition to their phospholipid hydrolysis action, they are involved in a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Caffeic acid is an inhibitor that is present in several plants and is employed for the treatment of ophidian envenomations in the folk medicine of many developing countries; as bothropic snake bites are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy, it may be useful as an antivenom. In this work, the cocrystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Lys49-PLA2 piratoxin I from Bothrops pirajai venom in the presence of the inhibitor caffeic acid (CA) are reported. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.65 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques. The electron-density map unambiguously indicated the presence of three CA molecules that interact with the C-terminus of the protein. This is the first time a ligand has been observed bound to this region and is in agreement with various experiments previously reported in the literature

  12. Evaluation of anti-allergic properties of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in a murine model of systemic anaphylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of honeybee propolis extracts. It has several positive effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and immunomodulatory effects. In particular, the suppressive effect of NF-κB may disrupt a component of allergic induction. The principal objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of CAPE on the active systemic anaphylaxis induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in mice. Mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and intravenously challenged with OVA. Histopathological analysis, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, and the plasma levels of histamine and total IgE after allergen challenge were evaluated. After challenges, all of the sham-treated mice developed anaphylactic symptoms, increased plasma levels of histamine and OVA-specific IgE, marked vascular leakage, NF-κB activation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) production, and histological changes including pulmonary edema and hemorrhage in the renal medullae within 20 min. By way of contrast, a reduction in the plasma levels of histamine and OVA-specific IgE and an inhibition of NF-κB activation and PAF release were observed in the CAPE-treated mice. In addition, a significant prevention of hemoconcentration and OVA-induced pathological changes were noted. These results indicate that CAPE demonstrates an anti-allergic effect, which may be the result of its protective effects against IgE-mediated allergy

  13. Melatonin production in Escherichia coli by dual expression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Yeong; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin is a well-known bioactive molecule produced in animals and plants and a well-studied natural compound. Two enzymatic steps are required for the biosynthesis of melatonin from serotonin. First, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) catalyzes serotonin to N-acetylserotonin (NAS) followed by the action of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), resulting in the synthesis of O-methylated NAS, also known as melatonin. Attempts to document melatonin production in Escherichia coli have been unsuccessful to date due to either low enzyme activity or inactive ASMT expression. Here, we employed caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) instead of ASMT, as COMT is a multifunctional enzyme that has ASMT activity as well. Among several combinations of dual expression cassettes, recombinant E. coli that expressed sheep SNAT with rice COMT produced a high quantity of melatonin, which was measured in a culture medium (1.46 mg/L in response to 1 mM serotonin). This level was several orders of magnitude higher than that produced in transgenic rice and tomato overexpressing sheep SNAT and ASMT, respectively. This heterologous expression system can be widely employed to screen various putative SNAT or ASMT genes from animals and plants as well as to overproduce melatonin in various useful microorganisms. PMID:27005412

  14. Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Elnager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM. After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM. The 50% effective dose (ED50 of CAPE (based on DD was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.

  15. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment. PMID:27042260

  16. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  17. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment. PMID:27042260

  18. A single dose of caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents initiation in a medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Esther Carrasco-Legleu; Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez; Lucrecia Márquez-Rosado; Samia Fattel-Fazenda; Evelia Arce-Popoca; Sergio Hernández-García; Saú1 Villa-Trevi(n)o

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To study of the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the initiation period in a medium-term assay of hepatocarcinogenesis.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to a carcinogenic treatment (CT) and sacrificed at 25th d;altered hepatic foci (AHF) were generated efficiently.To a second group of rats a single 20 mg/kg doses of CAPE was given 12 h before initiation with CT and were sacrificed at 25th d. We evaluated the expression of preneoplastic markers as y-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and glutathione S-transferase type pi protein (GSTp) by histochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. We measured thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in homogenates of liver and used Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (UDS) assay by incorporation of [3H] thymidine (3HdT) in primary hepatocyte cultures (PHC).RESULTS:At 25th d after CT CAPE reduced the observed increase of GGT+AHF by 84% and liver expression of ggt mRNA by 100%. In case of the GSTp protein, the level was reduced by 90%. As indicative of oxidative stress generated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) 12 h after its administration, we detected a 68% increase of TBARS.When CAPE was administered before DEN, it completely protected from liver TBARS induction. To have an indication of the sole effect of CAPE on initiation, two carcinogens were tested in a UDS assay in PHC, we used methyl-n-nitrosoguanidine as a direct carcinogen and DEN, as indirect carcinogen. In this assay, genotoxic damage caused by carcinogens was abolished at 5μM CAPE concentration.CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrated that CAPE possesses anti-genotoxic and antineoplastic capabilities,by an anti-oxidative and free-radical scavenging mechanism.

  19. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in switchgrass reveals a novel monolignol analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschaplinski Timothy J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.68 (COMT gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors. Results GCMS confirmed the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of microbial fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. iso-Sinapyl alcohol and its glucoside were subsequently generated by organic synthesis and the identity of natural and synthetic materials were confirmed by mass spectrometric and NMR analyses. The additional novel presence of iso-sinapic acid, iso-sinapyl aldehyde, and iso-syringin suggest the increased activity of a para-methyltransferase, concomitant with the reduced COMT activity, a strict meta-methyltransferase. Quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the most likely homodimeric lignans generated from dehydration reactions, but these products were not evident in plant samples. Conclusions Down-regulation of COMT activity in switchgrass resulted in the accumulation of previously undetected metabolites resembling sinapyl alcohol and its related metabolites, but that are derived from para

  20. A new matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) from methanol extract of Euonymus alatus: isolation and structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous paper [Cha, B.Y., Park, C.J., Lee, D.G., Lee, Y.C., Kim, D.W., Kim, J.D., Seo, W.G., Moon, S.K., Kim, C.H., 2003. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract from Euonymus alatus on matrix metalloproteinase-9, J. Ethnopharm. 85, 163-167], methanol extracts prepared from stems of Euonymus alatus showed a strong inhibitory effect of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity, which is known to be involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis, in a concentration-dependent manner on zymography. Assay guided fractionation led to the isolation of a caffeic acid (CA) as the compound responsible for the anti-MMP-9 activity. CA was finally obtained by reversed-phase HPLC, and its structure was elucidated by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The purified CA inhibited MMP-9 activity with the IC50 of 10-20 nM

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester preferentially sensitizes CT26 colorectal adenocarcinoma to ionizing radiation without affecting bone marrow radioresponse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, was reported capable of depleting glutathione (GSH). We subsequently examined the radiosensitizing effect of CAPE and its toxicity. Methods and Materials: The effects of CAPE on GSH level, GSH metabolism enzyme activities, NF-κB activity, and radiosensitivity in mouse CT26 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were determined. BALB/c mouse with CT26 cells implantation was used as a syngeneic in vivo model for evaluation of treatment and toxicity end points. Results: CAPE entered CT26 cells rapidly and depleted intracellular GSH in CT26 cells, but not in bone marrow cells. Pretreatment with nontoxic doses of CAPE significantly enhanced cell killing by ionizing radiation (IR) with sensitizer enhancement ratios up to 2.2. Pretreatment of CT26 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine reversed the GSH depletion activity and partially blocked the radiosensitizing effect of CAPE. CAPE treatment in CT26 cells increased glutathione peroxidase, decreased glutathione reductase, and did not affect glutathione S-transferase or γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Radiation activated NF-κB was reversed by CAPE pretreatment. In vivo study revealed that pretreatment with CAPE before IR resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of survival in comparison with IR alone. Pretreatment with CAPE neither affected body weights nor produced hepatic, renal, or hematopoietic toxicity. Conclusions: CAPE sensitizes CT26 colorectal adenocarcinoma to IR, which may be via depleting GSH and inhibiting NF-κB activity, without toxicity to bone marrow, liver, and kidney

  2. The Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Fortification on the Liver Element Distribution that Occurs After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Mustafa; Coban, Funda Karabag; Yalcinkaya, Ozcan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) fortification applied to the rats, which were made to exercise, on the liver elements. The study was conducted on 32 Sprague-Dawley male rats. The experimental animals were divided into 4 groups in equal numbers. Group 1 is the group which was applied 10 μmol/kg/day CAPE as intraperitoneal (IP) for 4 weeks, and they were not made to exercise at the end of the application. Group 2 is the group which was applied 10 μmol/kg/day CAPE as IP for 4 weeks, and they were made to exercise at the end of the 4th week. Group 3 is the general control group. Group 4 is the swimming control group. A 10 mmol/kg CAPE application dissolved in ethyl alcohol of 10 % was applied to the CAPE group. Sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), chrome (Cr), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) levels were identified in the liver samples at the end of the application. The results of the study suggest that exercise and CAPE fortification in rats cause changes in the Na, Zn, Ca, Fe and Cr parameters in liver tissues, and it does not affect Cd, Cu, Mg and K element distribution. It is thought that CAPE fortification would be helpful for preserving those parameters whose levels are known to be changing with exercise. PMID:26743862

  3. Synthesis and effects of new caffeic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Liu-Xin; Xu, Xu-Sheng; Li, Bo-Wei; Wang, Rui; Fu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 20 new derivatives of caffeic acid esters were synthesized and their inhibitory activities against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages were determined. Compounds 3l, 3r, 3s and 3t were found to decrease nitrite levels in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-induced cells and showed potent inhibitory activities against the NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 7.4, 5.9, 3.3 and 2.2 μM, respectively. They could b...

  4. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and erdosteine on radiocontrast media-induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in rat testicular tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, H. Ramazan; Uz, Efkan; Yeşildağ, Ahmet; Özden, Ahmet; Sırmalı, Rana; Agackiran, Yetkin; Vural, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possible protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and erdosteine on testicular toxicity of radiocontrast media (RCM) in rats. A total of thirty-five male Wistar albino rats were included in this study. All animals were equally and randomly divided into four groups as follows: Controls (n=10), RCM-treated (n=8), RCM + erdosteine-treated (n=7) and RCM + CAPE-treated (n=10) groups. RCM was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered ...

  5. Separation of chlorogenic acid and concentration of trace caffeic acid from natural products by pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Dong, Genlai; Gu, Yanxiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2013-07-01

    Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were selected as test samples for separation by the pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The separation of these test samples was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of methyl-tert-butyl-ether/acetonitrile/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5 v/v/v where trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; 8 mM) was added to the organic stationary phase as a retainer and NH4 OH (10 mM) to the aqueous mobile phase as an eluter. Chlorogenic acid was successfully separated from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze (F. bidentis) and Lonicerae Flos by pH-zone-refining CCC, a slightly polar two-phase solvent system composed of methyl-tert-butyl-ether/acetonitrile/n-butanol/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:1:5 v/v/v/v was selected where TFA (3 mM) was added to the organic stationary phase as a retainer and NH4 OH (3 mM) to the aqueous mobile phase as an eluter. A 16.2 mg amount of chlorogenic acid with the purity of 92% from 1.4 g of F. bidentis, and 134 mg of chlorogenic acid at the purity of 99% from 1.3 g of crude extract of Lonicerae Flos have been obtained. These results suggest that pH-zone-refining CCC is suitable for the isolation of the chlorogenic acid from the crude extracts of F. bidentis and Lonicerae Flos. PMID:23625646

  6. Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RARα assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RARα, C/EBPε, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

  7. Effects of solvent polarity on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds: determination of the dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abebe; Libnedengel, Ermias; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-02-01

    The effects of solvent polarity on absorption and fluorescence spectra of biologically active compounds (chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acids (CA)) have been investigated. In both spectra pronounced solvatochromic effects were observed with shift of emission peaks larger than the corresponding UV-vis electronic absorption spectra. From solvatochromic theory the ground and excited-state dipole moments were determined experimentally and theoretically. The differences between the excited and ground state dipole moment determined by Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt equations are quite similar. The ground and excited-state dipole moments were determined by theoretical quantum chemical calculation using density function theory (DFT) method (Gaussian 09) and were also similar to the experimental results. The HOMO-LUMO energy band gaps for CGA and CFA were calculated and found to be 4.1119 and 1.8732 eV respectively. The results also indicated the CGA molecule is more stable than that of CFA. It was also observed that in both compounds the excited state possesses a higher dipole moment than that of the ground state. This confirms that the excited state of the hydroxycinnamic compounds is more polarized than that of the ground state and therefore is more sensitive to the solvent. PMID:25991491

  8. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Ascorbyl palmitate. (a) Product. Ascorbyl palmitate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3149 Ascorbyl palmitate. (a) Product. Ascorbyl palmitate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. Cells Deficient in the Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCD2 are Hypersensitive to the Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Induced by Coffee and Caffeic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Burgos-Morón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between coffee consumption and a lower risk of cardiovascular disorders, some cancers, diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Coffee consumption, however, has also been linked to an increased risk of developing some types of cancer, including bladder cancer in adults and leukemia in children of mothers who drink coffee during pregnancy. Since cancer is driven by the accumulation of DNA alterations, the ability of the coffee constituent caffeic acid to induce DNA damage in cells may play a role in the carcinogenic potential of this beverage. This carcinogenic potential may be exacerbated in cells with DNA repair defects. People with the genetic disease Fanconi Anemia have DNA repair deficiencies and are predisposed to several cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. Defects in the DNA repair protein Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2 also play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers (e.g., bladder cancer in people without this genetic disease. This communication shows that cells deficient in FANCD2 are hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity (clonogenic assay and DNA damage (γ-H2AX and 53BP1 focus assay induced by caffeic acid and by a commercial lyophilized coffee extract. These data suggest that people with Fanconi Anemia, or healthy people who develop sporadic mutations in FANCD2, may be hypersensitive to the carcinogenic activity of coffee.

  11. Cells Deficient in the Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCD2 are Hypersensitive to the Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Induced by Coffee and Caffeic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Orta, Manuel Luis; Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between coffee consumption and a lower risk of cardiovascular disorders, some cancers, diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Coffee consumption, however, has also been linked to an increased risk of developing some types of cancer, including bladder cancer in adults and leukemia in children of mothers who drink coffee during pregnancy. Since cancer is driven by the accumulation of DNA alterations, the ability of the coffee constituent caffeic acid to induce DNA damage in cells may play a role in the carcinogenic potential of this beverage. This carcinogenic potential may be exacerbated in cells with DNA repair defects. People with the genetic disease Fanconi Anemia have DNA repair deficiencies and are predisposed to several cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. Defects in the DNA repair protein Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2) also play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers (e.g., bladder cancer) in people without this genetic disease. This communication shows that cells deficient in FANCD2 are hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity (clonogenic assay) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX and 53BP1 focus assay) induced by caffeic acid and by a commercial lyophilized coffee extract. These data suggest that people with Fanconi Anemia, or healthy people who develop sporadic mutations in FANCD2, may be hypersensitive to the carcinogenic activity of coffee. PMID:27399778

  12. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Medina, R.; García-Moreno, P. J.; Muñío, M. M.; Guadix, A.; Guadix, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate) for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV), which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm), high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm) and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV), which minimizes secondary oxi...

  13. Formulation and evaluation of hydrous and anhydrous skin whitening products containing sodium ascorbyl phosphate and kojic acid dipalmitate / Marike Ganz

    OpenAIRE

    Ganz, Marike

    2006-01-01

    In Asia skin lightening products have grown to be the best selling skin care products, whereas in the Western hemisphere, including Europe and North America, the main demand is for the treatment of age spots and skin even toning. For African and Asian women, skin lightening is part of their culture, as lighter skin signifies increased wealth and social status. It is believed that blending vitamin C, or its derivates, with kojic acid, or its esters, could synergistically inhibit...

  14. Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Amides Bearing 2,3,4,5-Tetra-hydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocine Moieties and Their Biological Evaluation as Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wen Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of caffeic acid amides D1-D17 bearing 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo-[b][1,4]dioxocine units has been synthesized and their biological activities evaluated for potential antiproliferative and EGFR inhibitory activity. Of all the compounds studied, compound D9 showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.79 μM for HepG2 and IC50 = 0.36 μM for EGFR. The structures of compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. Among all, the structure of compound D9 ((E-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxocin-8-ylacrylamide was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound D9 was found to be a potential antitumor agent according to biological activity, molecular docking, apoptosis assay and inhibition of HepG2.

  15. Humic substances can modulate the allelopathic potential of caffeic, ferulic, and salicylic acids for seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Monaci, Linda; Senesi, Nicola

    2005-11-30

    The capacity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA), a soil humic acid (SHA), and a soil fulvic acid (SFA) in modulating the allelopathic potential of caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and salicylic acid (SA) on seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated. Lettuce showed a sensitivity greater than that of tomato to CA, FA, and SA phytotoxicity, which was significantly reduced or even suppressed in the presence of SHA or SFA, especially at the highest dose, but not LHA. In general, SFA was slightly more active than SHA, and the efficiency of the action depended on their concentration, the plant species and the organ examined, and the allelochemical. The daily measured residual concentration of CA and FA decreased drastically and that of SA slightly in the presence of germinating seeds of lettuce, which were thus able to absorb and/or enhance the degradation of CA and FA. The adsorption capacity of SHA for the three allelochemicals was small and decreased in the order FA > CA > SA, thus suggesting that adsorption could be a relevant mechanism, but not the only one, involved in the "antiallelopathic" action. PMID:16302757

  16. Study of Enzymatic Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters in Tert-amyl Alcohol%叔戊醇体系中酶法合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪勇; 钱俊青

    2011-01-01

    研究以棕榈油为酰基供体和L-抗坏血酸在有机相中利用脂肪酶催化酯交换反应合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯.对催化合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的反应介质进行了比较,系统考察了底物浓度、溶剂用量、底物摩尔比、温度、水活度、分子筛加入时间和加入量对酶催化反应的影响,确定了最适反应条件:在20 mL用分子筛充分除水的叔戊醇中,0.352g·L-1抗坏血酸和4.535 g棕榈油(L-抗坏血酸和脂肪酸的底物摩尔比为1∶8)在14.2%(w/w,酶/L-抗坏血酸)的脂肪酶Novo435催化作用下,反应初始加入50 g·L-1的分子筛,温度55℃,摇床转速200 r ·min-1,反应24 h后底物转化率可达65%,产物浓度可达22 g·L-1.%The synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters through transesterification of ascorbic acid and palm oil in tert-amy\\ alcohol catalyzed by immobilized lipase was studied. A series of solvents used for the reaction were investigated, among them the tert-amyl alcohol was found to be the most suitable reaction media for the enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters. The addition of the molecular sieves was found to be helpful for reaction system to keep the water activity and to make the equilibrium go to the product. The factors affecting catalytic leaction, such as the substrate concentration, amount of solvent, substrate molar ratio, temperature, water activity and the addition of molecular sieve, were investigated. The results show that, when 0.352 g ascorbic acid and 4.535 g palm oil (the molar ratio of ascorbic acid to fatty acid is 1:8) are catalyzed by 14.2% Novo435 (weight % of ascorbic acid) in 20 mL terf-amyl alcohol with 50 g·L-1 molecular sieve added and rotation speed of 200 r·min-1, the conversion of ascorbic acid can reach 65% and the concentration of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters is 22 g·L-1 after 24 h reaction at 55℃.

  17. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Hee [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ji Hye; Lee, Eun Ji; Jin, Sun Woo [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.

  18. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Taken together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression

  19. Polygonum aviculare L. and its active compounds, quercitrin hydrate, caffeic acid, and rutin, activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induce cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seol Hwa; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2016-05-01

    Polygonum aviculare L. is a member of the Polygonaceae family of plants, which has been known for its antioxidant and anti-obesity effects. However, the wound healing function of P. aviculare extract has not been assessed. In this study, we identified a novel property of P. aviculare extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator based on a screen of 350 plant extracts using HEK293-TOP cells retaining the Wnt/β-catenin signaling reporter gene. P. aviculare extract accelerated the migration of HaCaT keratinocytes without showing significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, P. aviculare extract efficiently re-epithelized wounds generated on mice. Additionally, ingredients of P. aviculare extract, such as quercitrin hydrate, caffeic acid, and rutin, also accelerated the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, based on our findings, P. aviculare extract and its active ingredients could be potential therapeutic agents for wound healing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26929003

  20. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: A Review of Its Antioxidant Activity, Protective Effects against Ischemia-reperfusion Injury and Drug Adverse Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Mai F; Omar, Hany A; Azab, Samar S; Khalifa, Amani E; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2016-10-01

    Propolis, a honey bee product, has been used in folk medicine for centuries for the treatment of abscesses, canker sores and for wound healing. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is one of the most extensively investigated active components of propolis which possess many biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. CAPE is a polyphenolic compound characterized by potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities and protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury in multiple tissues such as brain, retina, heart, skeletal muscles, testis, ovaries, intestine, colon, and liver. Furthermore, several studies indicated the protective effects of CAPE against chemotherapy-induced adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including several antibiotics (streptomycin, vancomycin, isoniazid, ethambutol) and chemotherapeutic agents (mitomycin, doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate). Due to the broad spectrum of pharmacological activities of CAPE, this review makes a special focus on the recently published data about CAPE antioxidant activity as well as its protective effects against I/R-induced injury and many adverse drug reactions. PMID:25365228

  1. Development of novel antibacterial active, HaCaT biocompatible and biodegradable CA-g-P(3HB-EC biocomposites with caffeic acid as a functional entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. N. Iqbal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed novel composites by grafting caffeic acid (CA onto the P(3HB-EC based material and laccase from Trametes versicolor was used for grafting purposes. The resulting composites were designated as CA-g-P(3HB-EC i.e., P(3HB-EC (control, 5CA-g-P(3HB-EC, 10CA-g-P(3HB-EC, 15CA-g-P(3HB-EC and 20CA-g-P(3HB-EC. FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to examine the functional and elemental groups of the control and laccase-assisted graft composites. Evidently, 15CA-g-P(3HB-EC composite exhibited resilient antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Moreover, a significant level of biocompatibility and biodegradability of the CA-g-P(3HB-EC composites was also achieved with the human keratinocytes-like HaCaT cells and soil burial evaluation, respectively. In conclusion, the newly developed novel composites with multi characteristics could well represent the new wave of biomaterials for medical applications, and more specifically have promising future in the infection free would dressings, burn and/or skin regeneration field due to their sophisticated characteristics.

  2. Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid on Paclitaxel Induced Anti-Proliferation and Apoptosis of Lung Cancer Cells Involves NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Fong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid (CA, a natural phenolic compound, is abundant in medicinal plants. CA possesses multiple biological effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-cancer growth. CA was also reported to induce fore stomach and kidney tumors in a mouse model. Here we used two human lung cancer cell lines, A549 and H1299, to clarify the role of CA in cancer cell proliferation. The growth assay showed that CA moderately promoted the proliferation of the lung cancer cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment of CA rescues the proliferation inhibition induced by a sub-IC50 dose of paclitaxel (PTX, an anticancer drug. Western blot showed that CA up-regulated the pro-survival proteins survivin and Bcl-2, the down-stream targets of NF-κB. This is consistent with the observation that CA induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Our study suggested that the pro-survival effect of CA on PTX-treated lung cancer cells is mediated through a NF-κB signaling pathway. This may provide mechanistic insights into the chemoresistance of cancer calls.

  3. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Ethanol Extract of Propolis Induce the Complementary Cytotoxic Effect on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy of breast cancer could be improved by bioactive natural substances, which may potentially sensitize the carcinoma cells’ susceptibility to drugs. Numerous phytochemicals, including propolis, have been reported to interfere with the viability of carcinoma cells. We evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP and its derivative caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE towards two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T, by implementation of the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. The morphological changes of breast carcinoma cells were observed following exposure to EEP and CAPE. The IC50 of EEP was 48.35 µg∙mL−1 for MDA-MB-23 cells and 33.68 µg∙mL−1 for Hs578T cells, whereas the CAPE IC50 was 14.08 µM and 8.01 µM for the MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cell line, respectively. Here, we report that propolis and CAPE inhibited the growth of the MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T lines in a dose-dependent and exposure time-dependent manner. EEP showed less cytotoxic activity against both types of TNBC cells. EEP and, particularly, CAPE may markedly affect the viability of breast cancer cells, suggesting the potential role of bioactive compounds in chemoprevention/chemotherapy by potentiating the action of standard anti-cancer drugs.

  4. Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on matrix molecules and angiogenetic and anti-angiogenetic factors in gastric cancer cells cultured on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosova, F; Kurt, F O; Olmez, E; Tuğlu, I; Arı, Z

    2016-01-01

    Migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis associated with cancer depend on the surrounding microenvironment. Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillaries, is a regulator of cancer growth and a useful target for cancer therapy. We examined matrix protein interactions in a gastric cancer cell culture that was treated with different doses of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) phenethyl ester (CAPE). We also investigated the relations among the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), endostatin (ES) and trombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Cytotoxity of CAPE was measured using the 3-(4,5-dmethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. We examined the behavior of cells on laminin and collagen I coated surfaces in response to the angiogenic effect of these matrix molecules. We examined the protein alterations of these matrix molecules immunohistochemically and measured the levels of VEGF, MMP-9, ES and TSP-1 using the ELISA test. We showed that application of CAPE to the gastric cancer cell line on tissue culture plastic, laminin and collagen I significantly decreased the VEGF and MMP-9 protein levels. We found that TSP-1 levels were increased significantly in the gastric cancer cells after application of CAPE. The protein levels of gastric cancer cells also were increased significantly when tissue was cultured on laminin and collagen I. Application of CAPE to cells on laminin or collagen I coated surfaces significantly increased all of the proteins except ES. ES levels were increased on the collagen I covered surfaces, but the laminin surface decreased the levels of ES significantly. We demonstrated the beneficial effect of CAPE on a gastric cancer cell line including inhibition of proliferation and induction of some proteins that might be related to decreased angiogenesis. PMID:26523612

  5. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of vinyl and l-ascorbyl phenolates and their inhibitory effects on advanced glycation end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    This study successfully established the feasibility of a two-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis of l-ascorbyl phenolates. Intermediate vinyl phenolates were first chemically produced and then underwent trans-esterification with l-ascorbic acid in the presence of Novozyme 435® (Candida Antarctica lipase B) as a catalyst. Twenty vinyl phenolates and 11 ascorbyl phenolates were subjected to in vitro bioassays to investigate their inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Among them, vinyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (17VP), vinyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (18VP), vinyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamate (20VP), ascorbyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (18AP) and ascorbyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate (19AP) showed 2-10 times stronger inhibitory activities than positive control (aminoguanidine and its precursors). These results indicated that chemo-enzymatically synthesized compounds have AGE inhibitory effect and thus are effective in either preventing or retarding glycation protein formation. PMID:27507531

  6. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures of Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin for the Production of Biomass and Caffeic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain transformed roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides and evaluate their phytochemical profile. Hairy roots were induced from leaf explants by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4 and ATCC 15834. The best response (43% was achieved by infection with A4 strain. The effects of different liquid media (WPM, B5, SH with full and half-strength concentrations of macro- and micronutrients on biomass accumulation of the best grown hairy root line (RC3 at two different lighting conditions (light or dark were investigated. The highest biomass (93 g L−1 of the fresh weight after 35 days was obtained in WPM medium under periodic light. UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 and HPLC-PDA analyses of 80% aqueous methanol extracts from the obtained hairy roots revealed the presence of eleven caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives and five flavonoid glycosides. The production of caffeoylquinic acids and their derivatives was elevated in hairy roots grown in the light. Only light-grown hairy roots demonstrated the capability for the biosynthesis of such flavonoid glycosides as quercetagetin, quercetin, luteolin, and patuletin hexosides. Chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and a tentatively identified tricaffeoylquinic acid derivative were detected as the major compounds present in the transformed roots.

  7. TALEN mediated targeted mutagenesis of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in highly polyploid sugarcane improves cell wall composition for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Je Hyeong; Altpeter, Fredy

    2016-09-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating in sugarcane stems as well as cell wall bound sugars for commercial ethanol production. Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional mutagenesis is not expected to confer reduction in lignin content in sugarcane due to its high polyploidy (x = 10-13) and functional redundancy among homo(eo)logs. Here we deploy transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to induce mutations in a highly conserved region of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) of sugarcane. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was validated by pyrosequencing as reliable and inexpensive high throughput method for identification and quantitative characterization of TALEN mediated mutations. Targeted COMT mutations were identified by CE in up to 74 % of the lines. In different events 8-99 % of the wild type COMT were converted to mutant COMT as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mutation frequencies among mutant lines were positively correlated to lignin reduction. Events with a mutation frequency of 99 % displayed a 29-32 % reduction of the lignin content compared to non-transgenic controls along with significantly reduced S subunit content and elevated hemicellulose content. CE analysis displayed similar peak patterns between primary COMT mutants and their vegetative progenies suggesting that TALEN mediated mutations were faithfully transmitted to vegetative progenies. This is the first report on genome editing in sugarcane. The findings demonstrate that targeted mutagenesis can improve cell wall characteristics for production of lignocellulosic ethanol in crops with highly complex genomes. PMID:27306903

  8. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester modifies the Th1/Th2 balance in ileal mucosa after γ-irradiation in the rat by modulating the cytokine pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier Grémy; Marc Benderitter; Christine Linard

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To pharmacologically modulate Th polarization in the ileum exposed to ionizing radiation by using the immuno-modulatory/apoptotic properties of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE).METHODS: Rats received CAPE (30 mg/kg) treatment ip 15 min prior to intestinal 10 Gy γ-irradiation and once a day for a 6 d period after irradiation. Expression of genes implicated in Th differentiation in ileal mucosa (IL-23/IL12Rβ2), Th cytokine responses (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13),Th migratory behaviour (CXCR3, CCR5, CCR4), Th signailing suppressors (SOCS1, SOCS3), transcription factor (T-Bet, GATA-3) and apoptosis (FasL/Fas, TNF/TNFR,XIAP, Bax, caspase-3) was analyzed by RT-PCR 6 h and 7 d post-irradiation. CD4+ and TUNEL positive cells were visualized by immunostaining.RESULTS: The expression of Th1-related cytokine/chemokine receptors (IFN-γ, IL-2, CXCR3, CCR5) was repressed at 7 d post-irradiation while Th2 cell cytokine/chemokines (IL-4, IL-13, CCR4) were not repressed or even upregulated. The irradiation-induced Th2 profile was confirmed by the upregulation of both Th2-specific transcription factor GATA-3 and SOCS3. Although an apoptosis event occurred 6 h after 10 Gy of intestinal γ-irradiation, apoptotic mediator analysis showed a tendency to apoptotic resistance 7 d post-irradiation. CAPE amplified apoptotic events at 6h and normalized Bax/FasL expressions at 7 d.CONCLUSION: CAPE prevented the ileal Th2 immune response by modulating the irradiation-influenced cytokine environment and apoptosis.

  9. Role of the caffeic acid oxidation products on the iron mobilization at the soil-root interface

    OpenAIRE

    Deiana, Salvatore Andrea; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Pilo, Maria Itria; Premoli, Alessandra Maria; Solinas, Vincenzo

    1995-01-01

    Previous results show that the reduction of Fe(III) by caffeiic acid (CAF) is strongly influenced by the pH of the reaction medium (DEIANA et al., 1995). In particular, it has been found that al pH > 3.8 the reducing activity of CAF towards the Fe(III) ions in solution is low, but it increases when Fe(III) is complexed as Fe(III)-polygalacturonate. The mobilization of the Fe(II) ions, which form upon the Fe(III) reduction, has been shown to depend mainly on the nature of the Fe(II...

  10. Clinical observation on treating postoperative chemotherapy-induced neutropenia with caffeic acid tablets%咖啡酸片治疗食管癌术后化疗引起白细胞减少的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆军

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of caffeic acid tablets on treating postoperative chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Methods: 64 cases were divided into two groups, the treated group was given caffeic acid tablets, the control group was given batilol, vitamin B4, Li Ke-jun. Reviewed blood routine once a week before treatment, in treatment and after treatment, observed rise in white blood cells. Results: The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Caffeic acid tablets have good efficacy on treating postoperative chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.%目的:探讨咖啡酸片治疗食管癌术后白细胞减少的疗效及作用。方法:将食管癌术后白细胞减少患者64例随机分成两组,治疗组给予咖啡酸片;对照组给予鲨肝醇、维生素B4、利可君。两组在治疗前、治疗中、治疗后每周复查1次血常规,观察白细胞上升情况。结果:两组疗效间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:咖啡酸片对食管癌术后化疗白细胞减少有很好的疗效。

  11. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate on oxidative stability of chemically interesterified cottonseed and olive oils

    OpenAIRE

    Javidipour, Issa; Tüfenk, Remzi; Baştürk, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of 400 ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP) on fatty acids composition, tocopherol, peroxide value (PV) and malonaldehyde (MAD) contents of refined cottonseed oil (CO) and virgin olive oil (OO) during chemical interesterification (CI), and storage at 60 °C for 28 days were investigated. CI significantly decreased (p 

  12. Simultaneous determination of caffeic acid derivatives by UPLC-MS/MS in rat plasma and its application in pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouquan; Ju, Wenzheng; Meng, Minxin; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2014-02-15

    The current study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic study of eight caffeic acid derivatives (forsythoside A, isoforsythoside, forsythoside B, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid) following oral administration of Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb combination in rats. A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the eight caffeic acid derivatives simultaneously in rat plasma. After mixing with the internal standard (IS) tinidazole, plasma samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with n-butyl alcohol/ethyl acetate (7:3, v/v). The separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1), and acetonitrile/methanol (4:1, v/v)-0.4% formic acid was used as mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) via electrospray ionization (ESI) source with positive and negative ionization modes. All calibration curves had good linearity (r>0.991) over the concentration ranges of 1.097-2246ngmL(-1) for neochlorogenic acid, 6.535-6692ngmL(-1) for chlorogenic acid, 2.103-2153ngmL(-1) for cryptochlorogenic acid, 0.5058-129.5ngmL(-1) for 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 0.3205-82.05ngmL(-1) for 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1.002-512.8ngmL(-1) for isoforsythoside, 0.4795-982.1ngmL(-1) for forsythoside A and 0.7587-776.9ngmL(-1) for forsythoside B, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precisions were all within 15% and the accuracy (relative error, RE%) all ranged from 85.68% to 114.7%. It was shown from pharmacokinetic parameters that the rank order of AUC0-t, Cmax and T1/2k for phenolic acids was chlorogenic acid>neochlorogenic acid≥cryptochlorogenic acid>3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid≥3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (most of them had significant differences), which

  13. Ameliorating Role of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE Against Methotrexate-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Sciatic Nerve, Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Tissues of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Uzar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX-associated neurotoxicity is an important clinical problem in cancer patients, but the mechanisms of MTX-induced neurotoxicity are not yet known exactly. The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the possible role of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced neurotoxicity and (2 to determine whether there is a putative protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE on MTX-induced neurotoxicity in the spinal cord, brainstem and sciatic nerve of rats. METHODS: A total of 19 adult Wistar male rats were divided into three experimental groups. Group I, control group; Group II, MTX-treated group; and Group III, MTX + CAPE-treated group. MTX was administered to the MTX and MTX + CAPE groups intraperitoneally (IP with a single dose of 20 mg/kg on the second day of the experiment. CAPE was administered to the MTX + CAPE group IP with a dose of 10 μmol/kg for 7 days. RESULTS: In the sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissue, CAT and GSH-Px activities were increased in the MTX group in comparison with the control group. CAPE treatment with MTX significantly decreased CAT and GSH-Px activities in the neuronal tissues of rats in comparison with the MTX group. In the spinal cord and brainstem tissues, SOD activity in the MTX group was decreased in comparison with the control group, but in the sciatic nerve, there was no significant difference. In the spinal cord and brainstem of rats, SOD activity was increased in the CAPE + MTX group when compared with the MTX group. The level of MDA was higher in the MTX group than in the control group. CAPE administration with MTX injection caused a significant decrease in MDA level when compared with the MTX group. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that MTX increases oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve, spinal cord and brainstem of rats and that CAPE has a preventive effect on the

  14. 抗坏血酸及抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的稳定性研究%Study on stability of ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕博; 任国谱

    2012-01-01

    The effects of light, temperature, pH, oxidant, antioxidant, metal ions, saccharides on stabilities of ascorbic acid(AA) and ascorbyl palmitate(AP) were studied.Results showed that they were destroyed by sunlight, high temperature, oxidant in different extent and sensitive in neutral and alkaline conditions and AP was more stable than AA.Vitamin E (VE) could protect AP effectively.Cu^2 + , Fe^3+ and Mn^2 + could lead to large loss of AA, Mn^2+ had obvious effect on AP.They were stable when glucose and sucrose existed.%研究了光照、温度、pH、氧化剂、抗氧化剂、金属离子、糖类对抗坏血酸(AA)及抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯(AP)稳定性的影响。结果表明:目光、高温、氧化剂、中性及碱性环境都会不同程度地对两者造成损失,其中抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的稳定性要强于抗坏血酸。维生素E可以有效保护AP。铜离子、铁离子、锰离子会引起AA较大的损失,锰离子对AP稳定性有显著影响。糖类对两者稳定性基本没有影响。

  15. 酶催化合成维生素C脂肪酸酯的反应条件优化%Optimization of the enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秋红; 王熙; 田平芳

    2009-01-01

    以维生素C(Vc)和若干种脂肪酸为底物,采用自制假丝酵母Candida sp. 99-125固定化脂肪酶,催化合成维生素C脂肪酸酯.结果表明,在该酯化反应中,油酸为最佳脂肪酸底物,丙酮为最佳反应介质.同时研究了各反应因素对Vc转化率的影响,优化后的反应条件为:当Vc浓度为0.06mol/L时,温度40*#℃,固定化酶量1.5*#g,油酸与Vc物质的量比为5∶1,反应时间48*#h,分子筛添加量0.5*#g,底物Vc分4次流加,Vc转化率可达91%,批次实验表明该固定化酶在重复使用10次后仍具较高活力.%The enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters (AFAE) has been studied using a self-made immobilized lipase generated by Candida sp. 99 - 125 as the biocatalyst. Oleic acid was found to be the best source of a fatty acid acyl group in the synthesis of AFAEs. Through screening of different reaction media, ace-tone was found to be the most suitable solvent for the esterification. The effects of various other factors on the synthesis of AFAEs were also investigated. Under the following optimized reaction conditions: initial ascorbic acid (vitamin C) concentration (Vc) of 0.06mol/L at 40℃, 1.5g of immobilized enzyme, substrate molar ratio of 5:1, reaction time of 48 h, content of molecular sieve of 0.5 g and four times fed-batch addition of the sub-strate, an esterification ratio of 91 % was obtained. Furthermore, repeated batch reactions revealed the durabili-ty of the immobilized lipase, which retained high activity after sequential reaction for 10 rounds.

  16. Evaluation of the antiaggregant activity of ascorbyl phenolic esters with antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Esther; del Carmen Ortega-Liébana, María; Salido, Sofía; Salido, Ginés M; Altarejos, Joaquín; Rosado, Juan A; Redondo, Pedro C

    2015-09-01

    Beneficial effects of the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid (Asc) in human health are well known. Its particular role in hemostasis deserves further consideration, since it has been described a dose-dependent effect of Asc in platelet activity. Contrary, it has been demonstrated that phenolic compounds have inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by the physiological agonist thrombin (Thr). Here, we have evaluated the actions of three synthetic phenolic esters of Asc: L-ascorbyl 6-protocatechuate (Prot Asc), L-ascorbyl 6-gallate (Gal Asc), and L-ascorbyl 6-caffeate (Caf Asc). All these Asc derivatives exhibited greater radical scavenging activity than Asc, and in experiments using human platelets from healthy subjects, they do not evoke changes in platelet viability upon their administration. Nevertheless, these compounds altered platelet calcium homeostasis in response to Thr, although Prot Asc induced a smaller effect than Gal Asc, Caf Asc, and Asc. As a consequence, platelet aggregation was also impaired by these compounds, reporting Prot Asc and Caf Asc a weaker antiaggregant action than Gal Asc and Asc. Treatments with Gal Asc and Caf Asc altered in larger extent the phosphorylation pattern of pp60(Src) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) evoked by stimulating human platelets with Thr. Summarizing, Prot Asc is the ascorbyl phenolic ester with the strongest antioxidant properties and weakest antiaggregant actions, and its use as antioxidant may be safer than the rest of derivatives in order to prevent thrombotic alteration in patients that need treatment with antioxidant therapies. PMID:26081024

  17. 白色紫锥菊不定根诱导及咖啡酸衍生物积累研究%Induction of adventitious roots of Echinacea pallida and accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春华; 黄韬; 崔锡花; 白基烨

    2012-01-01

    以白色紫锥菊试管苗子叶为外植体,研究了植物生长素2,4-D,IAA,IBA,NAA对不定根诱导以及IBA浓度对液体悬浮培养中不定根的生长及咖啡酸衍生物积累的影响,并进行了生物反应器培养.结果表明,对白色紫锥不定根诱导最适合植物生长素是IBA1.0mg· L-1,不定根诱导数目达到22.5根/培养皿.液体悬浮培养中IBA 1.0 mg·L-1最适合不定根生长及咖啡酸衍生物的积累.白色紫锥菊不定根在5L气升式生物反应器中培养30 d后可获得8.98 g· L-1干重,是三角瓶悬浮培养干重4.38 g·L-1的2.05倍;生物反应器培养的不定根中紫锥菊苷质量分数为14.08 mg·g-1(干重),是栽培根的2.4倍;氯原酸,菊苣酸,总咖啡酸衍生物含量是栽培根的4.0 ~25.6倍.该研究为大量生产紫锥菊药品可提供富含紫锥菊苷等咖啡酸衍生物的高品质生物医学药材.%Objective:To investigate the effect of auxins 2,4-D, IAA, IBA, NAA on induction of adventitious roots as well as that of IBA concentrations on the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives, with test-tube seedling leaves Echinacea pallida as the explant,and cultivate adventitious roots in bioreactors. Result: 1.0 mg·L-1 IBA was found the best for the induction of adventitious roots,with the numer of induced adventitious roots up to 22. 5 in each culture dish. Among different concentrations for suspension cultivation of IBA tested, 1. 0 mg·L-1lBA was found the most suitable for the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives. In a 5 L balloon type bubble bioreactor,8. 98 g·L-1 dry weight was achieved after one month,which was 2. 05 times of 4. 38 g·L-1 dry weight cultivated in a triangular flask. The content of echinacoside cultivated in a bioreactor was 14. 08 mg g -1 DW, which was 2. 4 times of cultivated roots. The contents of chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid and total caffeic acid derivatives were

  18. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...

  19. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  20. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters and D-isoascorbyl fatty acid esters%脂肪酶催化合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯和D-异抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑大贵; 祝显虹; 余泗莲; 彭化南; 张小兰

    2012-01-01

    The lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L.-ascorbyl fatty acid esters and D-isoascorbyl fatty acid esters were studied by direct es-terification and transesterification,respectively. The structures of products were confirmed by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR and MS. It was found that the yield of the direct esterification were higher than that of the corresponding transesterification under the similar synthetic conditions. The raw material fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters could be recycled and reused.%用固定化脂肪酶Lipozyme 435作催化剂,分别用直接酯化法和酯交换法合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯和D-异抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯.产物结构经IR、1HNMR、13CNMR和MS表征.结果表明,对于同一目标化合物,相似条件下,直接酯化法的效果优于酯交换法,原料脂肪酸和脂肪酸甲酯均可回收循环使用.

  1. Preparation of CLA ascorbyl ester with improved volumetric productivity by an ionic liquid-based reaction system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.L.; Guo, Zheng; Let, M.B.;

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the enzymatic production Of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ascorbyl ester with a remarkably high volumetric productivity (120-200 g L-1) has been developed, in which strong solvation by tOMA-TFA (methyltrioctylammonium trifluoroacetate) enables a high concentration of ascorbic...

  2. Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA; Gosenca, Mirjam; Bešter-Rogač, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystalline systems with a lamellar structure have been extensively studied as dermal delivery systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) is one of the most studied and used ascorbic acid derivatives and is employed as an antioxidant to prevent skin aging. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize skin-compliant dermal delivery systems with a liquid crystalline structure for AP. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram was constructed using Tween 80/lecithin/isopropyl myristate/water at ...

  3. Glycation of bovine serum albumin by ascorbate in vitro: Possible contribution of the ascorbyl radical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Stefaniuk, Ireneusz; Galiniak, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been reported to be both pro-and antiglycating agent. In vitro, mainly proglycating effects of AA have been observed. We studied the glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by AA in vitro. BSA glycation was accompanied by oxidative modifications, in agreement with the idea of glycoxidation. Glycation was inhibited by antioxidants including polyphenols and accelerated by 2,​2'-​azobis-​2-​methyl-​propanimidamide and superoxide dismutase. Nitroxides, known to oxidize AA, did not inhibit BSA glycation. A good correlation was observed between the steady-state level of the ascorbyl radical in BSA samples incubated with AA and additives and the extent of glycation. On this basis we propose that ascorbyl radical, in addition to further products of AA oxidation, may initiate protein glycation. PMID:26202868

  4. A green ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent for the HPLC-UV determination of ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic acid from olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2016-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method based on deep eutectic solvent (UALLME-DES) was used for the extraction of three phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic) from vegetable oils. In a typical experiment, deep eutectic solvent as green extraction solvent was added to n-hexane (as a typical oil medium) containing target analytes. Subsequently, the extraction was accelerated by sonication. After the extraction, phase separation (DES rich phase/n-hexane phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase (lower phase) was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the method has good linear calibration ranges (between 1.30 and 1000 µg L(-1)), coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.9949) and low limits of detection (between 0.39 and 0.63 µg L(-1)). This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 94.7% to 104.6%. PMID:26838445

  5. Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP. PMID:23247266

  6. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinant Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3 mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225, and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying and ear (younger lignifying internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the

  7. Anti-catabolic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an active component of honeybee propolis on bone loss in ovariectomized mice: a micro-computed tomography study and histological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Wangping; Wang Qing; Li Fang; Xiang Chuan; Zhou Lin; Xu Jiake; Feng Haotian

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis (OP) is a common bone disease,which adversely affects life quality.Effective treatments are necessary to combat both the loss and fracture of bone.Recent studies indicated that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural chemical compound from honeybee propolis which is capable of attenuating osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.Therefore,this study aimed to investigate the effect of CAPE on bone loss in OP mice using micro-computed tomography (CT) and histology.Methods Eighteen mice were prepared and evenly divided into three groups.The six mice in the sham+PBS group did not undergo ovariectomy and were intraperitoneally injected with PBS during the curing period.Twelve mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to induce OP.Six of them in the OVX+CAPE group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg CAPE twice per week for 4 weeks after ovariectomy.The other six OVX mice in OVX+PBS group were treated with PBS.All the mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after ovariectomy.The tibias were bilaterally excised for micro-CT scan and histological analysis.The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the statistical differences among groups.Results Bone loss occurred in OVX mice.Compared with the sham+PBS group,mice in the OVX+PBS group exhibited a significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD,P <0.05),bone volume fraction (BV/TV,P <0.01),trabecular thickness (Tb.Th,P <0.05),and trabecular number (Tb.N,P <0.01),as well as a non-insignificant increase in the number of osteoclasts (N.Oc/B.Pm).With CAPE treatment,the microarchitecture of the tibial metaphyses was significantly improved with a reduction of osteoclast formation.Compared with the OVX+PBS group,BV/TV in the OVX+CAPE group was significantly increased by 33.9% (P <0.05).Conclusion CAPE therapy results in the protection of bone loss induced by OVX.

  8. Ascorbyl palmitate interaction with phospholipid monolayers: electrostatic and rheological preponderancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Milagro; Wilke, Natalia; Benedini, Luciano; Oliveira, Rafael Gustavo; Fanani, Maria Laura

    2013-11-01

    Ascorbyl palmitate (ASC16) is an anionic amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest due to its antioxidant properties. We found that ASC16 strongly interacted with model membranes. ASC16 penetrated phospholipid monolayers, with a cutoff near the theoretical surface pressure limit. The presence of a lipid film at the interface favored ASC16 insertion compared with a bare air/water surface. The adsorption and penetration time curves showed a biphasic behavior: the first rapid peak evidenced a fast adsorption of charged ASC16 molecules to the interface that promoted a lowering of surface pH, thus partially neutralizing and compacting the film. The second rise represented an approach to the equilibrium between the ASC16 molecules in the subphase and the surface monolayer, whose kinetics depended on the ionization state of the film. Based on the Langmuir dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine+ASC16 monolayer data, we estimated an ASC16 partition coefficient to dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of 1.5×10(5) and a ΔGp=-6.7kcal·mol(-1). The rheological properties of the host membrane were determinant for ASC16 penetration kinetics: a fluid membrane, as provided by cholesterol, disrupted the liquid-condensed ASC16-enriched domains and favored ASC16 penetration. Subphase pH conditions affected ASC16 aggregation in bulk: the smaller structures at acidic pHs showed a faster equilibrium with the surface film than large lamellar ones. Our results revealed that the ASC16 interaction with model membranes has a highly complex regulation. The polymorphism in the ASC16 bulk aggregation added complexity to the equilibrium between the surface and subphase form of ASC16, whose understanding may shed light on the pharmacological function of this drug. PMID:23806650

  9. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  10. Improved production of postlarval white shrimp through supplementation of L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate in their diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kontara, E.K.M.; Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Robles, R; Nelis, H.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (ApP) was used as a vitamin C source to study the ascorbic acid (AA) requirements for the early postlarval stages of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). First the stability of ApP in the diets was determined: ApP losses after pelletizing and 10 min immersion in seawater were 25-35% and 30%, respectively. Semipurified diets with five levels of ApP (0, 20, 40, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 expressed as active AA were fed ad libitum to P. vannamei (PL-14 stage, mean dry weight 0.73...

  11. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES R.; Salam, M.; Pérez, P.; Goicoechea, E.; Ortiz, J; Romero, N; Urra, C.; Dobarganes, M. C.; Robert, P.; Masson, L

    2002-01-01

    Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S): 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20), and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of ...

  12. Ascorbyl coumarates as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents that inhibit melanogenesis and enhance collagen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jun Yup; Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-09-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA) are naturally occurring antioxidants that are known to enhance collagen synthesis and inhibit melanin synthesis, respectively. The purpose of this study was to examine hybrid compounds between AA and p-CA as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents. Ascorbyl 3-p-coumarate (A-3-p-C), ascorbyl 2-p-coumarate (A-2-p-C), and their parent compounds were tested for their effects on cellular melanin synthesis and collagen synthesis. At 100 μM, A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C decreased melanin content of human dermal melanocytes stimulated by L-tyrosine, by 65 and 59%, respectively, compared to 11% inhibition of AA and 70% inhibition of p-CA. A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C were less effective than p-CA but more effective than AA at inhibiting tyrosinase activity. A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C were more effective than p-CA at inhibiting the autoxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. At 100-300 μM, A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C augmented collagen release from human dermal fibroblasts by 120-144% and 125-191%, respectively, compared to 126-133% increase of AA and 120-146% increase of p-CA. They increased procollagen type I C-peptide release (A-3-p-C, and A-2-p-C) like AA, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase 1 level (A-2-p-C) like p-CA, implicating that they might regulate collagen metabolism by multiple mechanisms. This study suggests that A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C could be used as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents for the attenuation of certain aspects of skin aging. PMID:26078014

  13. Phylogenetic, molecular, and biochemical characterization of caffeic aicd O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene family in Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the important enzymes controlling lignin monomer production in plant cell wall synthesis. Analysis of the genome sequence of new grass model Brachypodium distachyon identified four COMT gene homologues, designated as BdCOMT1, BdCOMT2, BdCOMT3, and ...

  14. Electron Spin Resonance of Ascorbyl (Vitamin C) Radicals in Synthetic CaCO3 by UV Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hideo; Tani, Atsushi; Ikeya, Motoji

    2003-02-01

    Free radicals ascribed to ascorbic acid (AscH2), vitamin C, in the solid matrix of synthetic calcium carbonate have been studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) after UV irradiation. A new ESR signal with g-factors of g\\|=2.0024 and g\\bot=2.0053 was found together with a broad singlet signal around g=2.005 and a doublet signal at g=2.0053 separated by 0.18 mT due to the ascorbyl radical (Asc•-). The molecular orbitals of Asc•- and two other types of ascorbyl radical (AscH•-) were calculated using the semi-empirical PM3 unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) method, which indicated that the hyperfine splitting due to hydrogen bonded to one of the carbons in the pentagonal ring was dominant. The axial signal was ascribed to AscH•-, while the doublet signal was ascribed to Asc•- in CaCO3. Possible pharmaceutical and nutritional applications of embedding unstable active molecules into the crystalline lattice of CaCO3 and a new nondestructive method for determination of vitamin C contents are discussed because the vitamin C has higher thermal stability in the carbonate than that in aqueous solution.

  15. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate on oxidative stability of chemically interesterified cottonseed and olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidipour, Issa; Tüfenk, Remzi; Baştürk, Ayhan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of 400 ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP) on fatty acids composition, tocopherol, peroxide value (PV) and malonaldehyde (MAD) contents of refined cottonseed oil (CO) and virgin olive oil (OO) during chemical interesterification (CI), and storage at 60 °C for 28 days were investigated. CI significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the tocopherol contents of CO and OO. PVs and MAD contents of oil samples considerably increased up to 20 min of CI, followed by a reduction at 30 min. The unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) ratios of the samples showed slight but significant (p < 0.05) reduction during accelerated oxidation process. Oils with added 400 ppm AP had higher tocopherol, and lower PVs and MAD contents than their counterparts without AP during CI, and storage at 60 °C. AP increased the oxidative stability of interesterified and non-interesterified CO and OO. PMID:25694696

  16. Ascorbyl palmitate/DSPE-PEG nanocarriers for oral iron delivery: preparation, characterisation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariwala, M Gulrez; Farnaud, Sebastien; Merchant, Zahra; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Renshaw, Derek

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to encapsulate iron in nanocarriers formulated with ascorbyl palmitate and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) for oral delivery. Blank and iron (Fe) loaded nanocarriers were prepared by a modified thin film method using ascorbyl palmitate and DSPE-PEG. Surface charge of the nanocarriers was modified by the inclusion of chitosan (CHI) during the formulation process. Blank and iron loaded ascorbyl palmitate/DSPE nanocarriers were visualised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and physiochemical characterisations of the nanocarriers carried out to determine the mean particle size and zeta potential. Inclusion of chitosan imparted a net positive charge on the nanocarrier surface and also led to an increase in mean particle size. Iron entrapment in ascorbyl palmitate-Fe and ascorbyl palmitate-CHI-Fe nanocarriers was 67% and 76% respectively, suggesting a beneficial effect of chitosan on nanocarrier Fe entrapment. Iron absorption was estimated by measuring Caco-2 cell ferritin formation using ferrous sulphate as a reference standard. Iron absorption from ascorbyl palmitate-Fe (592.17±21.12 ng/mg cell protein) and ascorbyl palmitate-CHI-Fe (800.12±47.6 ng/mg, cell protein) nanocarriers was 1.35-fold and 1.5-fold higher than that from free ferrous sulphate, respectively (505.74±23.73 ng/mg cell protein) (n=6, p<0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time preparation and characterisation of iron loaded ascorbyl palmitate/DSPE PEG nanocarriers, and that engineering of the nanocarriers with chitosan leads to a significant augmentation of iron absorption. PMID:24333557

  17. Electrochemical assay of the antioxidant ascorbyl palmitate in mixed medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneva, Olga; Dimcheva, Nina

    2016-07-15

    Electrooxidation of ascorbyl palmitate (AP) over gold screen-printed electrode (AuSPE) and gold nanoparticles modified graphite (AuNPs/gr) was examined in mixed water-alcohol medium. Voltammetric and amperometric studies showed that: (i) AP oxidation on the AuSPE proceeds at higher potential than on AuNPs/gr; (ii) the current density on AuNPs/gr was 2.4 times higher than on AuSPE; (iii) the linear dynamic range for AuNPs/gr doubled that for AuSPE. At the optimal for AuNPs/gr operating potential (250 mV) the following operational parameters were determined: sensitivity 1.627 ± 0.138 μA mM(-1) mm(-2); linearity up to 500 μM; LOD=5.8 μM. Quantification of the AP content in a real sample - stabilised flaxseed oil, was performed. PMID:26948586

  18. Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosenca, Mirjam; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2013-09-27

    Liquid crystalline systems with a lamellar structure have been extensively studied as dermal delivery systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) is one of the most studied and used ascorbic acid derivatives and is employed as an antioxidant to prevent skin aging. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize skin-compliant dermal delivery systems with a liquid crystalline structure for AP. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram was constructed using Tween 80/lecithin/isopropyl myristate/water at a Tween 80/lecithin mass ratio of 1/1, and the region of lamellar liquid crystals was identified. Second, selected unloaded and AP-loaded lamellar liquid crystal systems were physicochemically characterized with polarizing optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and rheology techniques. The interlayer spacing and rheological parameters differ regarding quantitative composition, whereas the microstructure of the lamellar phase was affected by the AP incorporation, resulting either in additional micellar structures (at 25 and 32 °C) or being completely destroyed at higher temperature (37°C). After this, the study was oriented towards in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of lamellar liquid crystal systems on a keratinocyte cell line. The results suggest that the lamellar liquid crystals that were developed could be used as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system. PMID:23643736

  19. Palmitato de ascorbil e acetato de tocoferol como antioxidantes metabólicos em larvas de dourado Ascorbyl palmitate and tocopherol acetate as metabolic antioxidants in dourado larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Okamura

    2008-08-01

    palmitate, ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid, total length, weight and height of the head. Ascorbyl palmitate provided an increase in the total length and in the weight of the larvae after 15 days of feeding. For head height, differences were observed among the three doses of tested ascorbyl palmitate. The supplementation of ascorbyl palmitate increased the vitamin C concentrations. Although vitamin E has not influenced the development sizes, it acted as a metabolic pro-oxidant, which increased the dehydroascorbic acid.

  20. Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, Maud N; Trip, Mieke D; Pritchard, P. Haydn; Tam, Patrick; Lukic, Tatjana; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G.; de Barse, Martina; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate (DASP) and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate (DACP). Methods In phase 1, 30 men received a single dose of 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 2,000 mg FM-VP4 or placebo. In phase 2, 100 men were treated with 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/day of FM-VP4 or placebo for 4 weeks. Results The drug was well tolera...

  1. Surprisingly Long-Lived Ascorbyl Radicals in Acetonitrile: Concerted Proton-Electron Transfer Reactions and Thermochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Jeffrey J.; Mayer, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions and thermochemistry of 5,6-isopropylidene ascorbate (iAscH−) have been examined in acetonitrile solvent.iAscH− is oxidized by 2,4,6-tBu3C6H2O• and by excess TEMPO• to give the corresponding 5,6-isopropylidene ascorbyl radical anion (iAsc•−), which persists for hours at 298 K in dry MeCN solution. The stability of iAsc•− is surprising in light of the transience of the ascorbyl radical in aqueous solutions, and is due to the lack of the protons ...

  2. The Effect for Lengths of the Alkyl Side Chain on the Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester%碳链长度对咖啡酸酯的抗氧化及抗增殖活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗辉; 王琪

    2012-01-01

      咖啡酸苯乙酯(caffeic acid phenethyl ester, CAPE)是蜂胶中的主要活性成分,具有显著的抗氧化及抗肿瘤活性。研究了具有不同边链长度的CAPE类似物(咖啡酸丁酯、咖啡酸己酯、咖啡酸辛酯和咖啡酸十六烷基酯)对水溶性偶氮引发剂2,2′-偶氮二(2-脒基丙烷)二盐酸盐(AAPH)诱导的血红细胞膜氧化损伤的保护作用。其抗氧化活性顺序为:咖啡酸辛酯>CAPE~咖啡酸丁酯>咖啡酸己酯>咖啡酸十六烷基酯。同时,测定了这些化合物抑制人肺癌细胞 A549增殖活性,其活性顺序为:咖啡酸丁酯>CAPE>咖啡酸辛脂>咖啡酸己脂>咖啡酸十六烷基脂。研究结果表明:与CAPE相比,咖啡酸辛酯的抗氧化活性和咖啡酸丁酯抑制A549细胞增殖活性优于母体分子。咖啡酸酯的抗氧化活性和抑制 A549细胞增殖的活性与其边链长度(亲脂性)并不呈简单的线性关系。“合适”的亲脂性和胞内的定位是影响化合物这些活性的重要因素。

  3. A New Approach for Increasing Ascorbyl Palmitate Stability by Addition of Non-irritant Co-antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Obreza, Aleš; Pečar, Slavko; Gosenca, Mirjam; GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test innovative approach for enhancing ascorbyl palmitate stability in microemulsions for topical application by addition of newly synthesized co-antioxidant 4-(tridecyloxy)benzaldehyde oxime (TDBO) and to investigate its antioxidant activity and finally to evaluate cytotoxicity of TDBO-loaded microemulsions on keratinocyte cells. TDBO significantly increased ascorbyl palmitate stability in oil-dispersed-in-water (o/w) microemulsions, most presumably due to reducti...

  4. A Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...

  5. HPLC法快速测定乳粉中VC棕榈酸酯的含量%Rapid Determination of Content of Ascorbyl Palmitate in Milk Powder by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜淑霞; 徐丽; 廖延智; 司徒满泉; 李文清

    2015-01-01

    建立了利用高效液相色谱仪快速测定乳粉中Vc棕榈酸酯含量的方法。以含0.1%草酸的乙醇溶液为提取剂,以甲醇和0.15%草酸(体积比为90∶10)为流动相,经Inertsil ODS-SP色谱柱分离,采用二极管阵列检测器,在245 nm波长下进行测定。VC棕榈酸酯的质量浓度在0.5μg/mL~100μg/mL浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系。以3倍基线噪声所对应的浓度计算VC棕榈酸酯的检出限为2μg/g。加标回收率在92.01%~105.84%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)在1.02%~2.70%之间。%The method for rapid determination of the content of ascorbyl palmitate in milk powder by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was established. It was separated through Inertsil ODS-SP chromatographic column with ethanol containing 0.1%oxalic acid as extraction agent and with methanol and 0.15%oxalic acid ( vol/vol=90∶10) as mobile phase, and then was measured under 245 nm wavelength with a diode array detector. There was a good linear relationship between mass concentration of ascorbyl palmitate and peak area when the mass concentration was from 0.5 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL. Detection limit of ascorbyl palmitate was calculated as 2μg/g by the concentration which corresponded to 3 times baseline noise. Standard addition recovery was 92.01%-105.84%, and relative standard deviation (n=6) was 1.02%-2.70%.

  6. 维生素C多聚磷酸酯合成工艺研究%Synthesis of Ascorbyl Polyphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬臣; 崔凤霞; 曹琳青; 郑利宇; 曹晓伟

    2011-01-01

    采用单因素及正交试验研究了在敞开系统中,各种因素对以维生素C为原料在水溶液体系中直接酰化反应生成维生素C多聚磷酸酯的影响,结果表明,最佳反应条件:维生素C含量95%~100%,三偏磷酸钠含量70%,维生素C与三偏磷酸钠的质量比1∶1∶1,维生素C与氯化钙的摩尔比1∶0.075,反应温度40—50℃,反应溶液pH=10维生素C多聚磷酸酯的效价可达到36.87%,收率达96.84%.%Taking the ascorbic acid as raw material, through single factor and orthogonal experiment in the open systems, various factors is disscussed in aqueous solution of ascorbic acid directly acylation reaction of polyphosphate, the results show that the optimum reaction conditions: the ascorbic acid content is 95% ~100%, the sodium trimetaphosphat content is 70%, ascorbic acid and sodium trimetaphosphatin in the mass ratio of 1 : 1, ascorbic acid and calcium chloride in the molar ratio of 1 : 0. 075, the reaction temperature is 40~50 ℃ , the reaction solution pH of 10, the content of ascorbyl polyphosphate is up to 36. 87% and the yield is up to 96. 84%.

  7. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate Regulates the Expression of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Cultured Sebocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Sang Lim; Choe, Yoon Seok; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is an inflammatory skin disorder caused by inflammatory biomarkers. Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) is a stable precursor of vitamin C. It achieves a constant delivery of vitamin C into the skin and has antioxidative effects. Objective We performed this study to evaluate the effect of MAP on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers in cultured sebocytes. Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed fo...

  8. Dermal delivery of ascorbyl palmitate: the potential of colloidal delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gosenca, Mirjam; GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the suitability of various colloidal systems for ascorbyl palmitate (AP) skin delivery. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram for Tween 80/lecithin/butanol, isopropyl myristate (IPM), and water was constructed and regions of lipophilic (w/o) or hydrophilic (o/w) microemulsions (MEs), and emulsions (EMs) were identified. Afterwards, various phase transition systems on the selected dilution line, as well as liquid crystal (LC) as a delivery system on the same dilution line (b...

  9. Mechanisms of Ascorbyl Radical Formation in Human Platelet-Rich Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kou-Gi Shyu; Chao-Chien Chang; Yu-Chieh Yeh; Joen-Rong Sheu; Duen-Suey Chou

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many clinical reports have suggested that the ascorbyl free radical (Asc∙) can be treated as a noninvasive, reliable, real-time marker of oxidative stress, but its generation mechanisms in human blood have rarely been discussed. In this study, we used upstream substances, enzyme inhibitors, and free radical scavengers to delineate the mechanisms of Asc∙ formation in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our results show that the doublet signal was detected in PRP samples by using electr...

  10. Oxidized Caffeic Acid Cross-linked Whey Protein Films: Thermal Properties, Light Transmittance, Water Barrier Properties and in vitro Digestibility%氧化咖啡酸交联乳清蛋白膜的热学、光学特性及水汽渗透率、消化率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀松; 熊幼翎; 陈洁

    2012-01-01

    采用氧化咖啡酸作为交联剂,研究其对乳清蛋白交联所成膜的热、光、水汽渗透和消化等功能特性。咖啡酸溶液经氧化后以质量分数2%和4%的量(以蛋白量为基础)加入到6g/100mL、90℃热变性的乳清蛋白溶液(pH8.0),采用铺展法制备蛋白膜。利用SDS—PAGE、差示扫描量热法、热重技术等方法来表征氧化咖啡酸对乳清蛋白的交联性和膜功能性的影响。结果表明:氧化咖啡酸主要通过促进二硫键和部分非还原共价键交联蛋白,使蛋白成膜的热稳定性提高。此外,这种交联处理能显著降低膜材料的光通透率和透明性,但对水汽渗透率无显著性降低作用。体外消化实验结果显示较高质量分数的氧化咖啡酸处理可显著降低膜的消化性。%Oxidized caffeic acid (OCA) was employed to induce cross-linking in whey protein-based films. The thermal properties, light transmittance, water barrier properties, and in vitro digestibility of the resultant whey protein films were analyzed. OCA at 2% and 4% (based on protein content) application levels was incorporated into 6 g/100 mL heat-denatured (90 ℃) whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions before casting to form films. The protein cross-linking behavior and film functionality were characterized by electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry. The results showed that OCA promoted whey protein cross-linking primarily via disulfide bonds and partial non-reducible covalent bonds, leading to an improved thermal stability of the resultant films. OCA treatment significantly lowered the light transmittance and transparency, but slightly reduced the water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films. The in vitro digestion experiments carried out using pepsin and pancreatin showed that hydrolysis of the films was inhibited when higher concentrations of OCA were incorporated.

  11. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources. PMID:27413218

  12. L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的酶法合成%Synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate catalyzed by lipase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 陶静; 李颖

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate catalyzed by lipase in organic phase was studied.The optimized process conditions,such as enzyme,solvent,temperature,reactants and additive were determined.In the presence of 0.05g Novozyme435 as catalyst,0.3g of 4A molecular sieve and 0.3g of n-Bu4NBr as additive in 3mL tert-amyl alcohol at 50℃,16.6mg/mL of L-ascorbyl palmitate was obtained in the reaction of palmitic acid and VC with the molar ratio of 3:1 after 72h.%详细研究了脂肪酶在有机溶剂中催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的反应,并且对影响产物浓度的几种主要因素进行讨论(如脂肪酶、溶剂、温度、底物比、添加剂),首次通过加入相转移剂提高反应产物浓度,确定了合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的最适反应条件:3mL叔戊醇为溶剂,催化剂为Novozyme435,其最佳用量为0.05g,底物棕榈酸与抗坏血酸摩尔比3:1,0.3g4A分子筛作为吸水剂,0.3g四丁基溴化铵作为相转移剂,反应温度50℃,反应时间72h,得到产物浓度为16.6mg/mL。

  13. Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1 of...... antioxidant, and overall peroxide values and volatiles were reduced by approximately 70 and 77-86%, respectively. Conversely, prooxidant effects were observed with a high concentration of ascorbyl palmitate (300 µg g-1 of fish oil), whereas a low concentration was slightly antioxidative (50 µg/g of fish oil......). Finally, a combination of all three antioxidants completely inhibited oxidation during storage, indicating that the prooxidant effects of ascorbyl palmitate were reverted or overshadowed by EDTA and γ-tocopherol....

  14. Electrochemical behavior of antioxidants: Part 3. Electrochemical studies of caffeic Acid–DNA interaction and DNA/carbon nanotube biosensor for DNA damage and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode biosensor was used for electrochemical studies of caffeic acid–dsDNA interaction in phosphate buffer solution at pH 2.12. Caffeic acid, CAF, shows a well-defined cyclic voltammetric wave. Its anodic peak current decreases and the peak potential shifts positively on the addition of dsDNA. This behavior was ascribed to an interaction of CAF with dsDNA giving CAF–dsDNA complex by intercalative binding mode. The apparent binding constant of CAF–dsDNA complex was determined using amperometric titrations. The oxidative damage caused to DNA was detected using the biosensor. The damage caused by the reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radical (·−OH generated by the Fenton system on the DNA-biosensor was detected. It was found that CAF has the capability of scavenging the hydroxide radical and protecting the DNA immobilized on the GCE surface.

  15. Dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging at low ESR irradiation frequency for ascorbyl free radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Shinji Ito; Fuminori Hyodo

    2016-01-01

    Highly water-soluble ubiquinone-0 (CoQ0) reacts with ascorbate monoanion (Asc) to mediate the production of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR). Using aqueous reaction mixture of CoQ0 and Asc, we obtained positively enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-magnetic resonance (MR) images of the AFR at low frequency (ranging from 515 to 530 MHz) of electron spin resonance (ESR) irradiation. The shape of the determined DNP spectrum was similar to ESR absorption spectra with doublet spectral peaks. T...

  16. Lipophilization of ascorbic acid: a monolayer study and biological and antileishmanial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrat, Nadia; Aissa, Imen; Sghaier, Manel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sellami, Mohamed; Laouini, Dhafer; Gargouri, Youssef

    2014-09-17

    Ascorbyl lipophilic derivatives (Asc-C2 to Asc-C(18:1)) were synthesized in a good yield using lipase from Staphylococcus xylosus produced in our laboratory and immobilized onto silica aerogel. Results showed that esterification had little effect on radical-scavenging capacity of purified ascorbyl esters using DPPH assay in ethanol. However, long chain fatty acid esters displayed higher protection of target lipids from oxidation. Moreover, compared to ascorbic acid, synthesized derivatives exhibited an antibacterial effect. Furthermore, ascorbyl derivatives were evaluated, for the first time, for their antileishmanial effects against visceral (Leishmania infantum) and cutaneous parasites (Leishmania major). Among all the tested compounds, only Asc-C10, Asc-C12, and Asc-C(18:1) exhibited antileishmanial activities. The interaction of ascorbyl esters with a phospholipid monolayer showed that only medium and unsaturated long chain (Asc-C10 to Asc-C(18:1)) derivative esters were found to interact efficiently with mimetic membrane of leishmania. These properties would make ascorbyl derivatives good candidates to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical lipophilic formulations. PMID:25148258

  17. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone: optimization of reaction conditions and lipase reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Marija; Velićković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed ascorbyl oleate synthesis is eco-friendly and selective way of production of liposoluble biocompatible antioxidants, but still not present on an industrial level due to the high biocatalyst costs. In this study, response surface methodology was applied in order to estimate influence of individual experimental factors, identify interactions among them, and to determine optimum conditions for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone, in terms of limiting substrate conversion, product yield, and yield per mass of consumed enzyme. As a biocatalyst, commercial immobilized preparation of lipase B from Candida antarctica, Novozym 435, was used. In order to develop cost-effective process, at reaction conditions at which maximum amount of product per mass of biocatalyst was produced (60°C, 0.018 % (v/v) of water, 0.135 M of vitamin C, substrates molar ratio 1:8, and 0.2 % (w/v) of lipase), possibilities for further increase of ester yield were investigated. Addition of molecular sieves at 4(th) hour of reaction enabled increase of yield from 16.7 mmol g⁻¹ to 19.3 mmol g⁻¹. Operational stability study revealed that after ten reaction cycles enzyme retained 48 % of its initial activity. Optimized synthesis with well-timed molecular sieves addition and repeated use of lipase provided production of 153 mmol per gram of enzyme. Further improvement of productivity was achieved using procedure for the enzyme reactivation. PMID:23985489

  18. Effect of the alkyl chains and of the headgroups on the thermal behavior of ascorbic acid surfactants mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Chiara; Pomposi, Cristina; Ambrosi, Moira; Carretti, Emiliano; Fratini, Emiliano; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-03-20

    The role of the alkyl chain length and of the headgroup on the thermal behavior of mixtures of ASC8 (ascorbyl octanoate) and ASC16 (ascorbyl hexadecanoate) was investigated through differential scanning calorimetry, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. The formation of two eutectics and of a peritectic point was found from the phase diagram, and their structural properties were studied. The results were compared by investigating the thermal behavior of mixtures of octanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The findings provide insights into the role of the ascorbyl headgroups on the intermolecular interactions that determine the phase behavior of the two ascorbic acid based surfactants in the solid state. PMID:24555769

  19. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and...

  20. VC复合脂肪酸酯的合成及抗氧化性能%SYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF ASCORBYL COMPOSITE ALIPHATIC ESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光炷; 谢文磊

    2001-01-01

    猪油与甲醇进行酯交换制备复合脂肪酸甲酯,得率97.2%.再以浓硫酸为溶剂和催化剂,VC和复合脂肪酸甲酯进行酯交换合成VC复合脂肪酸酯.考察了反应时间、反应物配比及浓硫酸用量对酯交换反应的影响,结果表明,最适宜的反应条件为:n(VC)∶n(复合脂肪酸酯)为1∶1.2,反应时间为26h,n(浓H2SO4)∶n(VC+复合脂肪酸酯)为1∶0.15,反应温度为25℃,产率达76%.产品的抗氧化性能测试表明VC复合脂肪酸酯是一种优良的无毒抗氧化剂.%Ascorbyl composite aliphatic ester was synyhesized by transesterificantion of L-ascorbic acid with methyl composite aliphatic ester which is synthesized from lard and methyl alcohol using concentrated sulfuric acid as sol ve nt and catalyst. The yield was up to 76%. The effects of reaction temperature, r atio of reactant, amount of concentrated sulfuric acid on transesterification ha ve been investigated. The optimum synthetic conditions are that the ratio of Vc to composite aliphatic ester is 1∶1.2,reaction time is 26 h, the ratio of conce ntrated H2SO4 to composite aliphatic ester is 1∶0.15,reaction temperatur e is 25 ℃ .The test of antioxidant shows that Ascorbyl composite aliphatic ester is a good oxidant without poison.

  1. Radiolytical oxidation of ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Ascorbic acid, AsA (vitamin c), has been widely studied as an antioxidant or as an initiator of some technological processes, for example polymerization or nanoparticles formation. AsA can be easily oxidized to ascorbyl radical, in the first stage, and to dehydroascorbic acid, DHA, in the second stage. It has been found that several different ascorbyl radicals are formed during AsA oxidation but the main radical exists as the anion with the unpaired electron delocalized on a highly conjugated tricarbonyl system. Absorption spectrum of ascorbyl radical shows two bands with maxima at 300 and 360 nm, however only that at 360 nm is proportional to the dose and thus this wavelength was chosen for observations. We studied the oxidation of AsA by the following oxidizing radicals generated by the pulse radiolysis method ·OH, (SCN)2-·, Cl2-·, N3· and NO2·. The observed dependence of the yield and the formation rate of the AsA radical on the reduction potential of the oxidizing radical is discussed. The results obtained in water are compared with those obtained with AsA enclosed in the water pools of reverse micelles formed by AOT in n-heptane or by Igepal CO-520 in c-hexane. Somewhat surprising observation of different ascorbyl radical in pulse irradiated reverse micelles containing DHA is also commented.

  2. Stability evaluation of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate in isolation and incorporated in cosmetic formulations using thermal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Mandelli de Almeida; Cibele Rosana Ribeiro de Castro Lima; Joyce Santos Quenca-Guillen; Elder Moscardini Filho; Lucildes Pita Mercuri; Maria Inês Rocha Miritello Santoro; Erika Rosa Maria Kedor-Hackmann

    2010-01-01

    In view of the increase in the number of cosmetic preparations containing antioxidant vitamins, chiefly, due to their action in preventing the process of skin aging, there is a need to develop pre-formulation studies and to validate analytical methods in order to obtain high quality products. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the thermal behavior of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate as raw materials, and incorporated into a base cream. Thermograv...

  3. Enzyme-controlled scavenging of ascorbyl and 2,6-dimethoxy-semiquinone free radicals in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Pethig, R; Gascoyne, P R; McLaughlin, J. A.; Szent-Györgyi, A

    1985-01-01

    The rate of scavenging by Ehrlich ascites cells of anionic ascorbyl and 2,6-dimethoxy-p-semiquinone free radicals has been investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy both for viable cells and for subcellular fractions obtained by differential centrifugation. The scavenging activity is concluded to be associated with an NAD(P)H enzyme containing an active sulfhydryl group. Attempts to identify the enzyme with the reported properties of either semi-dehydro-ascorbate reductase or DT-di...

  4. 棕榈酸维生素C酯的酶催化合成%Enzymatic Synthesis of Ascorbyl Palmitate by Transesterification in Non-Aqueous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安庆大; 董晓丽; 王少君; 马金辉

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of ascorbyl palmitate from methyl palmitate and ascorbic acid was studied. The reaction was carried out in non-aqueous medium with an immobilized Lipase-LIPOZYM IM as biocatalyst. The influence of the initial molar ratio of substrates, the amount of Lipase, reaction temperature and time was investigated, the optimum of reaction conditions were established. The reaction product has perfectly regioselective.%以棕榈酸甲酯和维生素C为原料,以脂肪酶(LIPOZYM IM)为催化剂,催化合成了棕榈酸维生素C酯.详细研究了几种因素(维生素C与棕榈酸甲酯的摩尔比,反应温度,反应时间及脂肪酶用量)对合成反应的影响,确立了棕榈酸维生素C酯的较佳合成条件:底物摩尔比为3:1,反应温度55℃,反应时间8h,脂肪酶用量为反应体系的3%(重量),产品一次收率为68.2%.

  5. Synthesis of lipase-catalyzed L-ascorbyl decanoate in ultrasonic field and determination of its antioxidant activity%超声波强化酶法合成L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓; 晏日安; 曾永青

    2013-01-01

    The esterification of decanoic acid with L-ascorbic acid in the presence of tert-butanol acid as the solvent and immobilized lipase (Novozym(R) 435) as the catalyst by means of ultrasonic irradiation to obtain L-ascorbyl decanoate (L-AD) was studied. By using ultrasound the dissolution rate of the reactants could be accelerated greatly,the reaction time of esterification could be reduced from 48 to 4h. The optimal actual yield was 78.48%.The purity of target product was above 98.6% after recrystallized. The immobilized lipase could be reused 4 times in ultrasonic field. In antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl decanoate were studied by the items of hydroxyl radical system, system of DPPH· ,and reducing power. Its antioxidant effect were further evaluated by adding into the soybean and sunflower oil. The result indicated that L-ascorbyl decanoate within the given concentration range in dose-effect relationship showed good antioxidant activities on the clearance of hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion free radical and the reducing power of DPPh·.Furthermore,antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl decanoate were comparable with that of L-ascorbyl palmitate,and the first two indexes were higher than that of TBHQ. Thus,L-ascorbyl decanoate was demonstrated to be a potential food antioxidant.%研究了在超声波场中以固定化脂肪酶(Novozvm(R)435)为催化剂,在叔丁醇中合成L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯.超声波可以显著加速底物的溶解,并使反应时间由48h缩短到4h.产率可达到78.48%,产物纯度为98.6%,超声波处理下固定化脂肪酶可重复利用的次数为4次.抗氧化实验结果表明在一定质量浓度范围内,L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯具有很强的还原力、清除羟自由基、DPPH自由基能力能力,在等质量浓度下与L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯相当,且前两个指标优于TBHQ;将L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯添加到油脂中,其抗氧化能力也较优,说明L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯是一种很有潜力的抗氧化剂.

  6. 1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑三氟甲磺酸盐催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯%Chemical synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate in [ BMIM] OTF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞瑾; 纪俊敏

    2011-01-01

    L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯是一种高效安全的脂溶性抗氧化剂,是近几年被国际上认可的一种新型食品添加剂,广泛地用于粮油、食品、医药、保健品化妆品等领域.1 -丁基-3-甲基咪唑三氟甲磺酸盐( [BMIM] OTF)是一种常用的室温离子液体催化剂,可有效催化乙酰化反应,具有高效、底物普适性好和对水稳定的特点,本文研究了 [BMIM] OTF催化棕榈酸与L-抗坏血酸合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯,考察了[BMIM] OTF的用量、反应物摩尔比、反应温度、反应时间、对反应转化率的影响.采用正交设计实验法优化工艺条件,得到较佳工艺条件,离子液体用量为反应物质量的3%,棕榈酸∶维生素C为1∶1.2,反应温度为30℃,反应时间为24h,产率达到66.44%.产品质量符合GB16314 - 1996标准.%L - ascorbyl palmitate is a safe and highly efficient lipophilic antioxidant. It is an widely accepted new food antioxidant in recent years and can be used in oil, food, medicine, health protection and cosmetics. 1 - butyl - 3 -methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ( [ BMIM] OTF) is a versatile ionic liquid promoter in the room temperature. It can effectively improve acetylization and has the advantage on substrate universality and water soluble stability. In this paper we use [ BMIM ] OTF as a promoter to synthesise L - ascorbyl palmitate. We discussed the impact of dosage of ionic liquid, mole ratio of reaction, temperature and time on the conversion rate. The optimized conditions by orthogonal experiment was: the amount of ionic liquids for the quality of reactant was 3% , the ratio of palmitic acid : VC was 1 : 1. 2, the reaction temperature was 30℃ , and the reaction time was 24h. Under the above condition, L - ascorbyl palmitate conversion rate was 66. 44% . The product was met the requirement of GB16314 - 1996.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of sodium ascorbyl phosphate and kojic acid containing products / Anita van Rensburg

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rensburg, Anita

    2004-01-01

    The skin, our main defence against harmful substances such as wind, dirt, bacteria and ultraviolet radiation has also the important functions of preventing water loss, regulating temperature and receiving external stimuli. Skin colour varies depending on racial background, sex and the season of the year due to the exposure to sunlight. Skin colour is primarily determined by the amount of melanin produced by the melanocytes. For this reason, research for the development of white...

  8. Lauroyl/palmitoyl glycol chitosan gels enhance skin delivery of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Chun; Huang, Yan-Ling; Hou, Sheng-Shu; Chou, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Palmitoyl glycol chitosan (GCP) hydrogel has been reported as erodible controlled-release systems for the delivery of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. In this study we prepared lauroyl/palmitoyl glycol chitosan (GCL/GCP) in gel form and evaluated their application for skin delivery of the hydrophilic compound, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), which is widely used in cosmetic formulations. Release of MAP from the polymer gels was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of GCL/GCP in the formulations in comparison with glycol chitosan (GC). In both aqueous and 10% ethanol vehicles, MAP flux was increased 1.58- to 3.96-fold of 1% GC from 1% GCL/GCP. Increase in MAP flux was correlated to the increase in GCL/GCP concentration prepared in 10% ethanol vehicle. GCL/GCP, in either water or 10% ethanol vehicles, increased the skin penetration and skin deposition of MAP in comparison with GC, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and carbopol, while sustaining its release from the polymer gels. Both the enhancement in skin penetration/deposition and sustained release of MAP were depended on polymer concentration. Also, with increase in polymer concentration, epidermal to dermal drug deposition ratio tended to increase, which will be beneficial to its activity in the epidermis, such as inhibition of tyrosinase and protection from UV damage. These data suggested both GCL and GCP can be applied as delivery vehicles to improve percutaneous absorption of MAP. PMID:23931090

  9. Mechanisms of ascorbyl radical formation in human platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Kou-Gi; Chang, Chao-Chien; Yeh, Yu-Chieh; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Chou, Duen-Suey

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many clinical reports have suggested that the ascorbyl free radical (Asc(∙)) can be treated as a noninvasive, reliable, real-time marker of oxidative stress, but its generation mechanisms in human blood have rarely been discussed. In this study, we used upstream substances, enzyme inhibitors, and free radical scavengers to delineate the mechanisms of Asc(∙) formation in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our results show that the doublet signal was detected in PRP samples by using electron spin resonance, and the hyperfine splitting of the doublet signal was a(H) = 1.88 gauss and g-factor = 2.00627, which was determined to be the Asc(∙). We observed that the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (NOX), cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 (CYP450), mitochondria complex III, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but not xanthine oxidase, diminished the intensity of the Asc(∙) signal dose dependently. All enzyme inhibitors showed no obvious antioxidant activity during a Fenton reaction assay. In summary, the obtained data suggest that Asc(∙) formation is associated with NOX, COX, LOX, CYP450, eNOS, and mitochondria in human PRP. PMID:24696859

  10. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) for the study of ascorbyl radical and lipid radicals in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula Mariela; Aguiar, María Belén; Malanga, Gabriela; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-08-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy detects the presence of radicals of biological interest, such as ascorbyl radical (A(•)) and lipid radicals. A(•) is easily detectable by EPR even in aqueous solution at room-temperature. Under oxidative conditions leading to changes in total ascorbate (AH(-)) content, the A(•)/AH(-) ratio could be used to estimate early oxidative stress in the hydrophilic milieu. This methodology was applied to a wide range of aquatic systems including algae, sea urchin, limpets, bivalves and fish, under physiological and oxidative stress conditions as well. The A(•)/AH(-) ratio reflected the state of one part of the oxidative defense system and provided an early and simple diagnosis of environmental stressing conditions. Oxidative damage to lipids was assessed by the EPR-sensitive adduct formation that correlates well with cell membrane damage with no interference from other biological compounds. Probe instability, tissue metabolism, and lack of spin specificity are drawback factors for employing EPR for in vivo determination of free radicals. However, the dependability of this technique, mostly by combining it with other biochemical strategies, enhances the value of these procedures as contributors to the knowledge of oxidative condition in aquatic organisms. PMID:23485428

  11. Dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging at low ESR irradiation frequency for ascorbyl free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinji; Hyodo, Fuminori

    2016-02-01

    Highly water-soluble ubiquinone-0 (CoQ0) reacts with ascorbate monoanion (Asc) to mediate the production of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR). Using aqueous reaction mixture of CoQ0 and Asc, we obtained positively enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-magnetic resonance (MR) images of the AFR at low frequency (ranging from 515 to 530 MHz) of electron spin resonance (ESR) irradiation. The shape of the determined DNP spectrum was similar to ESR absorption spectra with doublet spectral peaks. The relative locational relationship of spectral peaks in the DNP spectra between the AFR (520 and 525 MHz), 14N-labeled carbamoyl-PROXYL (14N-CmP) (526.5 MHz), and Oxo63 (522 MHz) was different from that in the X-band ESR spectra, but were similar to that in the 300-MHz ESR spectra. The ratio of DNP enhancement to radical concentration for the AFR was higher than those for 14N-CmP, Oxo63, and flavin semiquinone radicals. The spectroscopic DNP properties observed for the AFR were essentially the same as those for AFR mediated by pyrroloquinoline quinone. Moreover, we made a success of in vivo DNP-MR imaging of the CoQ0-mediated AFR which was administered by the subcutaneous and oral injections as an imaging probe.

  12. Mechanisms of Ascorbyl Radical Formation in Human Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Gi Shyu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many clinical reports have suggested that the ascorbyl free radical (Asc∙ can be treated as a noninvasive, reliable, real-time marker of oxidative stress, but its generation mechanisms in human blood have rarely been discussed. In this study, we used upstream substances, enzyme inhibitors, and free radical scavengers to delineate the mechanisms of Asc∙ formation in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Our results show that the doublet signal was detected in PRP samples by using electron spin resonance, and the hyperfine splitting of the doublet signal was aH=1.88 gauss and g-factor = 2.00627, which was determined to be the Asc∙. We observed that the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (NOX, cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX, cytochrome P450 (CYP450, mitochondria complex III, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS, but not xanthine oxidase, diminished the intensity of the Asc∙ signal dose dependently. All enzyme inhibitors showed no obvious antioxidant activity during a Fenton reaction assay. In summary, the obtained data suggest that Asc∙ formation is associated with NOX, COX, LOX, CYP450, eNOS, and mitochondria in human PRP.

  13. Molecular encapsulation of ascorbyl palmitate in preformed V-type starch and amylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyan; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-10-13

    In the present study, we introduce a simple method to prepare inclusion complexes by "inserting" guest molecules into preformed "empty" V-type amylose helices. Ascorbyl palmitate (AscP) was used as a model guest material to investigate the effect of solvent environment, complexation temperature, annealing and guest concentration on inclusion complex formation. High complexation temperature was not necessary for encapsulating guest molecules in amylose helices, avoiding thermal degradation of guest compounds. This method would also avoid the wasting of guest materials because uncomplexed guest can be reused. It was found in the study that intermediate ethanol and acetone concentrations (generally 40-60%, v/v) at room temperature were appropriate for the complexation between V-amylose and AscP. Annealing, i.e. heat treatment in ethanol solutions at elevated temperatures (45-70 °C), was able to significantly increase the crystallinity of V-amylose and V-starch to as high as 65% and facilitate greater complexation evidenced from higher enthalpies, probably due to more regularly arranged helical cavities in larger crystalline phase. The complexation between V-amylose and AscP was also found to be enhanced with AscP concentration, while the dissociation temperature experienced a slight decrease. PMID:25037350

  14. Assessment of penetration of Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate into biological membranes by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, N C F; Dos Santos, L; Carvalho, B G; Singh, P; Téllez Soto, C A; Azoia, N G; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Martin, A A; Favero, P P

    2016-08-01

    The present work, involves the simulation of the transport of a vitamin C derivative, Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (ATI), through human skin by molecular dynamics. Percutaneous absorption of the ATI molecule through the infundibulum, an important route of absorption into the hair follicle of the human skin, has been modeled and compared with the stratum corneum membrane. The comparative study was done using molecular dynamics with Martini force field. In infundibulum, a single ATI molecule require more time to penetrate, and the data obtained suggested that a high concentration of ATI molecule accelerated the process of penetration. In conclusion, the ATI molecule was found to have more affinity towards the stratum corneum as compared with the infundibulum, and it followed a straight pathway to penetrate (until 600ns of simulation). In the infundibulum, it showed less affinity, more mobility and followed a lateral pathway. Thus, this work contributes to a better understanding of the different molecular interactions during percutaneous absorption of active molecules in these two different types of biological membranes. PMID:27289538

  15. Study of the influence of ascorbyl palmitate and amiodarone in the stability of unilamellar liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini, Luciano; Antollini, Silvia; Fanani, Maria Laura; Palma, Santiago; Messina, Paula; Schulz, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMI) is a low water-solubility drug, which is very useful in the treatment of severe cardiac disease. Its adverse effects are associated with toxicity in different tissues. Several antioxidants have been shown to reduce, and prevent AMI toxicity. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomal carriers doped with ascorbyl palmitate (Asc16) as antioxidant, in order to either minimize or avoid the adverse effects produced by AMI. The employment of liposomes would avoid the use of cosolvents in AMI formulations, and Asc16 could minimize the adverse effects of AMI. To evaluate the partition and integration of AMI and Asc16 in lipid membranes, penetration studies into DMPC monolayers were carried out. The disturbance of the liposomes membranes was studied by generalized polarization (GP). The stability of liposomes was evaluated experimentally and by means of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The size particle and zeta potential (ζ) values of the liposomes were used for application in calculations for attractive and repulsive forces in DLVO theory. In experimental conditions all of these vesicles showed stability at time 0, but only DMPC + Asc16 10% + AMI 10% liposomes kept their size stable and ζ during 28 days. These results are encouraging and suggest that such systems could be suitable for AMI delivery formulations. PMID:24650150

  16. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs. PMID:23775704

  17. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  18. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  19. EPR characterization of ascorbyl and sulfur dioxide anion radicals trapped during the reaction of bovine Cytochrome c Oxidase with molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Michelle A.; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Rousseau, Denis L.; Gerfen, Gary J.

    2010-04-01

    The reaction intermediates of reduced bovine Cytochrome c Oxidase (C cO) were trapped following its reaction with oxygen at 50 μs-6 ms by innovative freeze-quenching methods and studied by EPR. When the enzyme was reduced with either ascorbate or dithionite, distinct radicals were generated; X-band (9 GHz) and D-band (130 GHz) CW-EPR measurements support the assignments of these radicals to ascorbyl and sulfur dioxide anion radical ( SO2-rad ), respectively. The X-band spectra show a linewidth of 12 G for the ascorbyl radical and 11 G for the SO2-rad radical and an isotropic g-value of 2.005 for both species. The D-band spectra reveal clear distinctions in the g-tensors and powder patterns of the two species. The ascorbyl radical spectrum displays approximate axial symmetry with g-values of g x = 2.0068, g y = 2.0066, and g z = 2.0023. The SO2-rad radical has rhombic symmetry with g-values of g x = 2.0089, g y = 2.0052, and g z = 2.0017. When the contributions from the ascorbyl and SO2-rad radicals were removed, no protein-based radical on C cO could be identified in the EPR spectra.

  20. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  1. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  2. Synthesis, Anti-HCV, Antioxidant and Reduction of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Generation of a Chlorogenic Acid Analogue with an Amide Bond Replacing the Ester Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Na Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid is a well known natural product with important bioactivities. It contains an ester bond formed between the COOH of caffeic acid and the 3-OH of quinic acid. We synthesized a chlorogenic acid analogue, 3α-caffeoylquinic acid amide, using caffeic and quinic acids as starting materials. The caffeoylquinc acid amide was found to be much more stable than chlorogenic acid and showed anti-Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV activity with a potency similar to chlorogenic acid. The caffeoylquinc acid amide potently protected HepG2 cells against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

  3. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-ascorbyl octanoate in non-aqueous phase and its structural characterization%非水相酶促合成L-抗坏血酸辛酸酯及其结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑青; 潘丽军; 姜绍通; 操丽丽

    2015-01-01

    L-ascorbyl octanoate was synthesized through lipase-catalyzed esterification in organic sys-tem with mid-chain fatty acid n-octanoic acid as acyl donor. The reaction parameters that highly influ-enced the conversion rate of L-ascorbic acid were selected as main variables to design the response sur-face experiment on the basis of preliminary experiments, then a regression model was established and the optimal synthesis conditions were obtained. The results indicated that reaction time, reaction tempera-ture, interaction between reaction time and reaction temperature and interaction between reaction time and substrate concentration had significant effects on the conversion rate of L-ascorbic acid ( p<0 . 05 ) , and the regression model could be used to predict the conversion rate of L-ascorbic acid. The optimal enzymatic synthesis conditions of L-ascorbyl octanoate were obtained as follows:reaction time 11. 45 h, substrate(L-ascorbic acid) concentration 0. 24 mol/L, reaction temperature 55. 3℃, dosage of lipase ( based on the mass of L-ascorbic acid) 19. 18%. Under these conditions,the conversion rate of L-ascor-bic acid reached 83. 31%. In addition, the product was characterized by IR, MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR, and the result showed that n-octanoic acid was introduced into the sixth hydroxyl of L-ascorbic acid.%以中链脂肪酸正辛酸为酰基供体,在有机相体系中利用脂肪酶催化酯化反应合成L-抗坏血酸辛酸酯。根据初步试验结果,选取对L-抗坏血酸酯化转化率影响显著的因素,进行响应面试验设计,建立回归模型,得到最优参数组合。结果表明:反应时间、反应温度、反应时间和反应温度的交互作用以及反应时间和底物浓度的交互作用对 L -抗坏血酸酯化转化率均有显著影响(p <0.05),回归模型可用。 L-抗坏血酸辛酸酯酶法合成最优工艺条件为反应时间11.45 h、底物(L-抗坏血酸)浓度0.24 mol/L、反应温度55.3℃、脂

  4. Differential metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by two Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains grown in red wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively) are found in red wines in varying concentrations depending on cultivars and other factors. While some Brettanomyces form volatile phenols...

  5. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize non–esterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p–coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p–coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines fr...

  6. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture

    OpenAIRE

    Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Hakki Oguz Kazancioglu,1 Sertac Aksakalli,2 Seref Ezirganli,1 Muhammet Birlik,2 Mukaddes Esrefoglu,3 Ahmet Hüseyin Acar1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, 3Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Narrow maxilla is a common problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. To solve this problem, a procedure called rapid maxillary expansion (RME) has been us...

  7. Antifungal chalcones and new caffeic acid esters from Zuccagnia punctata acting against soybean infecting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetaz, Laura; Tapia, Alejandro; López, Silvia N; Furlán, Ricardo L E; Petenatti, Elisa; Pioli, Rosanna; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Zacchino, Susana A

    2004-06-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Zuccagnia punctata was active toward the fungal pathogens of soybean Phomopsis longicolla and Colletotrichum truncatum. Assay guided fractionation led to the isolation of two chalcones, one flavanone and a new caffeoyl ester derivative as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity. Another new caffeoyl ester derivative was isolated from the antifungal chloroform extract but proved to be inactive against the soybean infecting fungi up to 50 microg/mL PMID:15161186

  8. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. PMID:26593529

  9. Tea Flavanols Block Advanced Glycation of Lens Crystallins Induced by Dehydroascorbic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingdong; Zhao, Yantao; Wang, Pei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-01-20

    Growing evidence has shown that ascorbic acid (ASA) can contribute to protein glycation and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), especially in the lens. The mechanism by which ascorbic acid can cause protein glycation probably originates from its oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid (DASA), which is a reactive dicarbonyl species. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that four tea flavanols, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC), could significantly trap DASA and consequently form 6C- or 8C-ascorbyl conjugates. Among these four flavanols, EGCG exerted the strongest trapping efficacy by capturing approximate 80% of DASA within 60 min. We successfully purified and identified seven 6C- or 8C-ascorbyl conjugates of flavanols from the chemical reaction between tea flavanols and DASA under slightly basic conditions. Of which, five ascorbyl conjugates, EGCGDASA-2, EGCDASA-2, ECGDASA-1, ECGDASA-2 and ECDASA-1, were recognized as novel compounds. The NMR data showed that positions 6 and 8 of the ring A of flavanols were the major active sites for trapping DASA. We further demonstrated that tea flavanols could effectively inhibit the formation of DASA-induced AGEs via trapping DASA in the bovine lens crystallin-DASA assay. In this assay, 8C-ascorbyl conjugates of flavanols were detected as the major adducts using LC-MS. This study suggests that daily consumption of beverages containing tea flavanols may prevent protein glycation in the lens induced by ascorbic acid and its oxidized products. PMID:25437149

  10. Dietary ascorbic acid requirements during the hatchery production of turbot larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Dhert, Ph.; Garcia Ulloa Gómez, M.; Nelis, H.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the high ascorbic acid (AA) levels transferred through enriched live food was evaluated for turbot Scophthalmus maximus larvae in two consecutive feeding experiments. The same feeding strategy was applied to all treatments, except for the AA content in the live food which was manipulated through bioencapsulation with ascorbyl palmitate. This resulted finally in a low, medium and high-AA treatment. The AA incorporation levels in the turbot larvae (up to 1400 µg AA g DW-1) were co...

  11. Phenolic Acid Composition, Antiatherogenic and Anticancer Potential of Honeys Derived from Various Regions in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concen...

  12. Hydroxycinnamic acid antioxidants: an electrochemical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E. Manuela; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (such as ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) are a group of compounds highly abundant in food that may account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids have gained an increasing interest in health because they are known to be potent antioxidants. These compounds have been described as chain-breaking antioxidants acting through radical scavenging activity, that is related to their hydrogen or electron donating ...

  13. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Antioxidants: An Electrochemical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Borges; E. Manuela Garrido; José Teixeira; Jorge Garrido; Alexandra Gaspar

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (such as ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) are a group of compounds highly abundant in food that may account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids have gained an increasing interest in health because they are known to be potent antioxidants. These compounds have been described as chain-breaking antioxidants acting through radical scavenging activity, that is related to their hydrogen or electron donating capacity ...

  14. Effects of Abscisic Acid, Gibberellin, Ethylene and Their Interactions on Production of Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Hairy Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zongsuo; Ma, Yini; Xu, Tao; Cui, Beimi; Liu, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Yang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal plants because of its excellent performance in treating coronary heart disease. Phenolic acids mainly including caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are a group of active ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza. Abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and ethylene are three important phytohormones. In this study, effects of the three phytohormones and their interactions on phenolic production in S. miltiorrhiz...

  15. Efficacy of transdermal magnesium ascorbyl phosphate delivery after ultrasound treatment with microbubbles in gel-type surrounding medium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Lu, Ying-Jui; Hung, Chi-Ray; Yang, Meng-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Liquid microemulsions appropriate for topical application were obtained by increasing their viscosity through the addition of thickening agents. The present study first assessed the usefulness of ultrasound (US) plus US contrast agent, microbubbles (MBs), in agarose gel for enhancing transdermal drug delivery. The effect of US plus MBs in agarose gel on the penetration of the skin by magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) was explored both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiments, the stability of MBs was investigated by examining the penetration of MAP by the model drug, Evans blue, in two media: an agarose phantom and pig skin. The penetration depth in the agarose phantom and pig skin increased by 40% and 195%, respectively, when treated with US plus MBs in 0.1% agarose solution combined with MAP (UMB1), and by 48% and 206%, respectively, when treated with US plus MBs in 0.15% agarose solution and MAP (UMB2). The skin-whitening effects in C57BL/6J mice in the UMB1 and UMB2 groups over a 4-week experimental period were significantly increased by 63% and 70%, respectively, in the fourth week. The findings of this study suggest that the survival of MBs with US is affected by the viscosity of the surrounding medium, and that in mice, treatment with US plus MBs in a suitable agarose gel can increase skin permeability and enhance transdermal MAP delivery. PMID:26838887

  16. Induction of nodD Gene in a Betarhizobium Isolate, Cupriavidus sp. of Mimosa pudica, by Root Nodule Phenolic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dutta, Suhrid R; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R; Korpole, Suresh; Paul, Debarati

    2016-06-01

    A range of phenolic acids, viz., p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid have been isolated and identified by LC-MS analysis in the roots and root nodules of Mimosa pudica. The effects of identified phenolic acids on the regulation of nodulation (nod) genes have been evaluated in a betarhizobium isolate of M. pudica root nodule. Protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most effective in inducing nod gene, whereas caffeic acid had no significant effect. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were estimated, indicating regulation and metabolism of phenolic acids in root nodules. These results showed that nodD gene expression of betarhizobium is regulated by simple phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid present in host root nodule and sustains nodule organogenesis. PMID:26897126

  17. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  18. Interaction of the 2,6-dimethoxysemiquinone and ascorbyl free radicals with Ehrlich ascites cells: a probe of cell-surface charge.

    OpenAIRE

    Pethig, R; Gascoyne, P R; McLaughlin, J. A.; Szent-Györgyi, A

    1984-01-01

    The rate of quenching by Ehrlich ascites cells of anionic 2,6-dimethoxy-p-semiquinone and ascorbyl free radicals is investigated as a function of cell concentration, the blocking of cell-surface sulfhydryl groups by N-ethylmaleimide, and the reduction of cell-surface charge by neuraminidase. The rate of quenching is found to be proportional to cell viability and to the number of free cell-surface sulfhydryl groups. The enzymatic action of neuraminidase results in an increase of the free radic...

  19. l-Ascorbyl-2-phosphate attenuates NF-κB signaling in SZ95 sebocytes without affecting IL-6 and IL-8 secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeno, Hiroshi; Apel, Mara; Zouboulis, Christos; Luger, Thomas A; Böhm, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Acne is the most common inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is at the beginning of the cytokine signaling cascade and may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. It activates redox-sensitive transcription factors, which induce IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Interestingly, l-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS) was shown to have beneficial effects in patients with acne vulgaris. The mechanism of action of this agent remains unknown. Here, we investigated if APS attenuates IL-1β- or TNF-...

  20. Re-evaluation of the Optimum Dietary Vitamin C Requirement in Juvenile Eel, Anguilla japonica by Using L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jun-Young; Park, Gun-Hyun; Yoo, Kwang-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Dae-Jung; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to re-evaluate the dietary vitamin C requirement in juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica by using L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (AMP) as the vitamin C source. Five semi-purified experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (AMP0), 30 (AMP24), 60 (AMP52), 120 (AMP108) and 1,200 (AMP1137) mg AMP kg-1 diet on a dry matter basis. Casein and defatted fish meal were used as the main protein sources in the semi-purified experimental diets. After a 4-week conditioning period, fish...

  1. Effect of amino acids on the interaction between cobalamin(II) and dehydroascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereven'kov, I. A.; Thi, Thu Thuy Bui; Salnikov, D. S.; Makarov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between one-electron-reduced cobalamin (cobalamin(II), Cb(II)) and the two-electron-oxidized form of vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) with amino acids in an acidic medium is studied by conventional UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the oxidation of Cbl(II) by dehydroascorbic acid proceeds only in the presence of sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine, acetylcysteine). A proposed reaction mechanism includes the step of amino acid coordination on the Co(II)-center through the sulfur atom, along with that of the interaction between this complex and DHA molecules, which results in the formation of ascorbyl radical and the corresponding Co(III) thiolate complex.

  2. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA; RATH, MATTHIAS

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition...

  3. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action

    OpenAIRE

    Kampa, Marilena; Alexaki, Vassilia-Ismini; Notas, George; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe; Nistikaki, Anastassia; Hatzoglou, Anastassia; Bakogeorgou, Efstathia; Kouimtzoglou, Elena; Blekas, George; Boskou, Dimitrios; Gravanis, Achille; Castanas, Elias

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The oncoprotective role of food-derived polyphenol antioxidants has been described but the implicated mechanisms are not yet clear. In addition to polyphenols, phenolic acids, found at high concentrations in a number of plants, possess antioxidant action. The main phenolic acids found in foods are derivatives of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Methods This work concentrates on the antiproliferative action of caffeic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, protocatech...

  4. Differential effects of the ascorbyl and tocopheryl derivative on the methamphetamine-induced toxic behavior and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous study showed that high doses of methamphetamine induce self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. Furthermore, the combination of methamphetamine and morphine increased lethality in mice. We recently surmised that the rise in SIB and mortality induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine may be related to oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine whether an antioxidant could inhibit SIB or mortality directly induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine. The SIB induced by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine was abolished by the administration of Na L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS: 300 mg/kg), but not Na DL-α-tocopheryl phosphate (TPNa: 200 mg/kg). In contrast, APS (300 mg/kg) and TPNa (200 mg/kg) each significantly attenuated the lethality induced by methamphetamine and morphine. The present study showed that the signal intensity of superoxide adduct was increased by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine in the heart and lungs, and methamphetamine plus morphine tended to increase superoxide adduct in all of the tissues measured by ESR spin trap methods. Adduct signal induced in brain by methamphetamine administration increased in significance, but in mouse administrated methamphetamine plus morphine. There are differential effects of administration of methamphetamine and coadministration of methamphetamine plus morphine on adduct signal. These results suggest that APS and TPNa are effective for reducing methamphetamine-induced toxicity and/or toxicological behavior. While APS and TPNa each affected methamphetamine- and/or morphine-induced toxicology and/or toxicological behavior, indicating that both drugs have antioxidative effects, their effects differed

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic investigation of enzymatic L-ascorbyl acetate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Li, Chao; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2013-12-01

    Kinetics and thermodynamics of lipase-catalyzed esterification of l-ascorbic acid in acetone were investigated by using vinyl acetate as acyl donor. The results showed that l-ascorbic acid could generate inhibition effect on lipase activity. A suitable model, Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism having substrate inhibition, was thus introduced to describe the enzymatic kinetics. Furthermore, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated from a series of experimental data according to the kinetic model. The inhibition constant of L-ascorbic acid was also obtained, which seemed to imply that enhancing reaction temperature could depress the substrate inhibition. Besides, the activation energy values of the first-step and the second-step reaction were estimated to be 37.31 and 4.94 kJ/mol, respectively, demonstrating that the first-step reaction was the rate-limiting reaction and could be easily improved by enhancing temperature. PMID:24211407

  6. Adsorption and inhibition effect of Ascorbyl palmitate on corrosion of carbon steel in ethanol blended gasoline containing water as a contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Inhibition performance was studied using weight loss and EIS methods. •The addition of ethanol and water to gasoline increase the corrosion rate of C-steel. •Ascorbyl palmitate has good inhibition efficiency for C-steel in blend fuel. •Efficiency more than 96% was obtained with 120 mg l−1 AP at 298 K. •The adsorption of AP on C-steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The adsorption and inhibition effect of Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) on carbon steel in ethanol blended gasoline containing water as a contaminant (GE10 + 1%water) was studied by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) techniques. The results showed that the addition of ethanol and water to gasoline increase the corrosion rate of carbon steel. AP inhibits the corrosion of carbon steel in (GE10 + 1% water) solution to a remarkable extent. The adsorption of AP on the carbon steel surface was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The values of activation energy (Ea) and various thermodynamic parameters were calculated and discussed

  7. Simultaneous detection of seven phenolic acids in Danshen injection using HPLC with ultraviolet detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-zhong XU; Jie SHEN; Yi-yu CHENG; Hai-bin QU

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detector had been developed for simultaneous quantification of danshensu, protocatechuie aldehyde, caffeic acid, salvianolic acid D, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid A in Danshen injection. According to the UV spectra of these components, three detection wavelengths have been selected as follows: 280 nm for danshensu and protocatechuic aldehyde, 326 nm for caffeic acid, salvianolic acid D and rosmarinic acid, 286 nm for salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid A. The limit of detection (LOD) was improved to be in the range of 0.008~0.160 μg/ml. Moreover, excellent linear behavior over the investigated concentration range was observed, with R>0.999 for all the analytes.

  8. Phenolic acids in leaves of Secamone afzelii (Rhoem.) Schult. (Asclepiadaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Nowak; Sławomir Kawka

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the sets of free and liberated by hydrolysis phenolic acids in the leaves of, Secamone afzelii (Rhoem.) Schult. was conducted by 2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods. Sixteen phenolic acids were identified: chlorogenic, gallic, protocatechuic, homoprotacatechuic, caffeic, gentysic, α-resorcylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-hydroxyphenylacetic, syryngic, vanillic, synapic, ferulic and salicylic. By means of the RP-HPLC the contents of major phenolic acids was d...

  9. Glycation of bovine serum albumin by ascorbate in vitro: Possible contribution of the ascorbyl radical?

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Stefaniuk, Ireneusz; Galiniak, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been reported to be both pro-and antiglycating agent. In vitro, mainly proglycating effects of AA have been observed. We studied the glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by AA in vitro. BSA glycation was accompanied by oxidative modifications, in agreement with the idea of glycoxidation. Glycation was inhibited by antioxidants including polyphenols and accelerated by 2,​2′-​azobis-​2-​methyl-​propanimidamide and superoxide dismutase. Nitroxides, known to oxid...

  10. Identification of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Monofloral Honey from Bangladesh by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Determination of Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic ...

  11. Stability evaluation of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate in isolation and incorporated in cosmetic formulations using thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mandelli de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increase in the number of cosmetic preparations containing antioxidant vitamins, chiefly, due to their action in preventing the process of skin aging, there is a need to develop pre-formulation studies and to validate analytical methods in order to obtain high quality products. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the thermal behavior of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate as raw materials, and incorporated into a base cream. Thermogravimetry (TG / DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used for this purpose. Both vitamins were found to be stable up to 250ºC. The base cream (placebo and the sample (base cream containing the vitamins presented different weight loss. Thermal analysis has shown itself to be an excellent tool for the characterization of these vitamins and can be used in routine analysis for quality control of this type of cosmetic formulation.Considerando o potencial antioxidante das vitaminas utilizadas em produtos cosméticos, seu uso na prevenção do processo de envelhecimento da pele e a necessidade de estudos de pré-formulação que garantam o desenvolvimento de cosméticos de qualidade, foi objetivo deste trabalho avaliar e comparar o comportamento térmico dos ativos acetato de tocoferila e tetraisopalmitato de ascorbila, matérias-primas, isoladamente e incorporados em creme base. As técnicas termogravimetria/termogravimetria derivada (TG/DTG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC foram utilizadas para tal finalidade. Verificou-se que as vitaminas mantiveram-se estáveis até a temperatura de, aproximadamente, 250 ºC, observando-se diferença na perda de massa entre o creme base e o creme base associado às vitaminas. Assim sendo, a análise térmica mostrou-se como excelente ferramenta para caracterização das vitaminas e do creme base, podendo ser empregada em análises de rotina no controle de qualidade deste tipo de formulação cosmética.

  12. Metabolism of food phenolic acids by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Landete, José María; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Phenolic acids account for almost one third of the dietary phenols and are associated with organoleptic, nutritional and antioxidant properties of foods. This study was undertaken to assess the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T to metabolize 19 food phenolic acids. Among the hydroxycinnamic acids studied, only p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and m-coumaric acids were metabolized by L. plantarum. Cultures of L. plantarum produced ethyl and vinyl derivatives from p-coumaric and...

  13. Bioactive Caffeic Glycoside Ester and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Extracts from the Leaf of Stachytarpheta angustifolia Mill Vahl (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction and isolation of the Caffeic glycoside ester Compound 1. [mp222-224 0C], C29H26O15, [M]+624.594 (EIMS from the n-BuoH soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia (verbenaceae. It was characterized on the basis of spectral analysis (UV, FTIR, 1and 2D NMR techniques as –β-(31, 41- dihydroxyphenyl -ethyl-O-α-L- rhamnopyranosyl- (1-3-β-D- (4-O-Caffeoyl -glucopyranoside. Antimicrobial properties of Compound 1 and other extracts were tested against some microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgari,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniaer, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium digitatum, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysorum and Penicillium nototum. The antimicrobial sensitivity test indicated that the extract inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Penicillium digitatum, Candida albicans and Penicillium nototum with 30mm, 29mm, 35mm, 34mm, 36mm, 28mm, 24mm, 25mm while the highest activity of caffeic glycoside ester was exhibited by the n-BuoH fraction against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi with34mm, 36mm and 36mm respectively.

  14. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oncoprotective role of food-derived polyphenol antioxidants has been described but the implicated mechanisms are not yet clear. In addition to polyphenols, phenolic acids, found at high concentrations in a number of plants, possess antioxidant action. The main phenolic acids found in foods are derivatives of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. This work concentrates on the antiproliferative action of caffeic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (PAA) on T47D human breast cancer cells, testing their antioxidant activity and a number of possible mechanisms involved (interaction with membrane and intracellular receptors, nitric oxide production). The tested compounds showed a time-dependent and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth with the following potency: caffeic acid > ferulic acid = protocatechuic acid = PAA > sinapic acid = syringic acid. Caffeic acid and PAA were chosen for further analysis. The antioxidative activity of these phenolic acids in T47D cells does not coincide with their inhibitory effect on tumoral proliferation. No interaction was found with steroid and adrenergic receptors. PAA induced an inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, while caffeic acid competes for binding and results in an inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced CYP1A1 enzyme. Both agents induce apoptosis via the Fas/FasL system. Phenolic acids exert a direct antiproliferative action, evident at low concentrations, comparable with those found in biological fluids after ingestion of foods rich in phenolic acids. Furthermore, the direct interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the nitric oxide synthase inhibition and their pro-apoptotic effect provide some insights into their biological mode of action

  15. 维生素C糖苷类衍生物的研究进展%Research progress of ascorbyl glucoside derivates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶建华; 韩璐; 张自萍

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin C is listed in the essential nutrition elements of human beings or animals, and plays an important role in protecting human health and animal growth. The well-known susceptibility of vitamin C to oxida-tive degradation has led to great interest in its derivatives with increased stability in recent years. The vitamin C derivatives can be classified as salt, ester and saccharide derivatives. Ascorbyl glucoside derivates represent a kind of important vitamin C derivatives. Many domestic and overseas research papers have reported various saccharide derivatives of vitamin C. Therefore, in this review we summarized the latest research progress of ascorbyl glucoside derivates with chemical modification of hydroxyl group at the C2-, C5- and C6-position of vitamin C.%维生素C( vitamin C,VC)是人体的必需营养元素,在保护人类健康和动物生长过程中起到不可代替的重要作用.由于VC自身易被氧化降解,开发稳定的高附加值VC衍生物就成为人们研究的热点.目前,VC衍生物主要有VC盐、VC酯和VC糖苷3种形式,其中VC糖苷类衍生物稳定性高,生理活性与VC 最接近,近年来备受国内外学者的关注.因此,本文就VC上的C2-,C5-及C6-糖苷类衍生物的国内外研究进展进行了归纳总结.

  16. AM symbiosis alters phenolic acid content in tomato roots

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ráez, Juan A.; Flors, Victor; García, Juan M.; Pozo, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize the roots of most plants to establish a mutualistic symbiosis leading to important benefits for plant health. We have recently shown that AM symbiosis alters both transcriptional and hormonal profiles in tomato roots, many of these changes related to plant defense. Here, we analytically demonstrate that the levels of other important defense-related compounds as phenolic acids are also altered in the symbiosis. Both caffeic and chlorogenic acid levels...

  17. Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaková, Alica; Brandsteterová, Eva; Blahová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes. PMID:12568390

  18. The effect of two novel cholesterol-lowering agents, disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphate (DAPP) and nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS) on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein within Caco-2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Darlington, Jerald W; Wasan, Kishor M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many drugs are substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and interactions involving P-gp may be relevant to clinical practice. Co-administration with P-gp inhibitors or inducers changes the absorption profile as well as the risk for drug toxicity, therefore it is important to evaluate possible P-gp alterations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two novel cholesterol-lowering agents, disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphate (DAPP) and nanostructured aluminium sili...

  19. The cellular protective effects of rosmarinic acid: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most common household herbs, used as spices in a variety of foods, and employed in traditional medicine for its healing properties. Rosemary is a rich source of active antioxidant constituents such as phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid are the most important bioactive constituents. Rosmarinic acid is the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and is widely identified in different plant species. Chemical structure of rosmarinic acid contains two phenolic rings: one of them is derived from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Its large-scale production is obtained from plant cell cultures of Coleus blumei Benth. It is easily absorbed through gastrointestinal tract as well as the skin. Rosmarinic acid is one of the most important and well known natural antioxidant compounds, which possesses neuroprotective effects in different models of neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, as well as chemicalinduced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, in present review, we aim to discuss about chemistry, sources, biotechnological production and neuroprotective actions of rosmarinic acid with emphasis on its possible molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection. PMID:25578431

  20. Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation of Lipophilic Ascorbic Acid Derivatives and Extract from Kadsura Coccinea Using Hydrophobic Organic-Aqueous Two-Phase Solvent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Li, Heran; Kitanaka, Susumu; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Countercurrent chromatographic (CCC) separation of lipophilic ascorbic acid derivatives and the crude extract from Kadsura Coccinea was performed using the type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge with a hydrophobic organic-aqueous two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/aqueous 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at the volume ratio of (5 : 5 : 6 : 2). The lipophilic ascorbic acid derivatives were separated in the order of L-ascrobyl 2,6-dibutyrate, L-ascorbyl 6-palmitate a...

  1. Identification and characterization of 4 missense mutations in brown midrib 12 (Bmr12); the caffeic O-methyltranferase (COMT) of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modifying lignin content and composition are targets to improve bioenergy crops for cellulosic conversion to biofuels. In sorghum and other C4 grasses, the brown midrib mutants have been shown to reduce lignin content and alter its composition. Bmr12 encodes the sorghum caffeic O-methyltransferase...

  2. Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by HPLC with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pirjo; Kumpulainen, Jorma

    2002-06-19

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with diode-array detection (DAD) was used to identify and quantify free and total phenolic acids (m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ellagic acid) in plant foods. Free phenolic acids were extracted with a mixture of methanol and 10% acetic acid. Bound phenolic acids were liberated using first alkaline and then acid hydrolysis followed by extraction with diethyl ether/ethyl acetate (1:1). All fractions were quantified separately by HPLC. After HPLC quantification, results of alkali and acid hydrolysates were calculated to represent total phenolic acids. Ellagic acid was quantified separately after long (20 h) acid hydrolysis. The methods developed were effective for the determination of phenolic acids in plant foods. DAD response was linear for all phenolic acids within the ranges evaluated, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. Coefficients of variation for 4-8 sample replicates were consistently below 10%. Recovery tests of phenolic acids were performed for every hydrolysis condition using several samples. Recoveries were generally good (mean >90%) with the exceptions of gallic acid and, in some cases, caffeic acid samples. PMID:12059140

  3. Determination of major phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes and triterpenes in Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry:

    OpenAIRE

    Vončina, Ernest; Doleček, Valter; Islamčević Razboršek, Maša; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka

    2007-01-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of seven major phenolic and terpenic compounds in Rosmarinus officinalis L. was developed. The compounds were identified as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of phenolic acids (caffeic and rosmarinic acid), phenolic diterpene (carnosic acid), and pentacyclic triterpenes (ursolic, oleanolic, betulinic acid and betulin). These compounds have been identified by retention time and compari...

  4. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai)

    OpenAIRE

    LUTHRIA, DEVANAND L.; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Ayaz Ali Memon; Najma Memon

    2012-01-01

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE) using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids) w...

  5. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and PLGA nanoparticle formulation by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasoglu, Tülin; Derman, Serap; Mansuroglu, Banu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of nanoparticle and free formulations of the CAPE compound using different methods and comparing the results in the literature for the first time. In parallel with this purpose, encapsulation of CAPE with the PLGA nanoparticle system (CAPE-PLGA-NPs) and characterization of nanoparticles were carried out. Afterwards, antimicrobial activity of free CAPE and CAPE-PLGA-NPs was determined using agar well diffusion, disk diffusion, broth microdilution and reduction percentage methods. P. aeroginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were chosen as model bacteria since they have different cell wall structures. CAPE-PLGA-NPs within the range of 214.0 ± 8.80 nm particle size and with an encapsulation efficiency of 91.59 ± 4.97% were prepared using the oil-in-water (o-w) single-emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microbiological results indicated that free CAPE did not have any antimicrobial activity in any of the applied methods whereas CAPE-PLGA-NPs had significant antimicrobial activity in both broth dilution and reduction percentage methods. CAPE-PLGA-NPs showed moderate antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and MRSA strains particularly in hourly measurements at 30.63 and 61.25 μg ml-1 concentrations (both p 0.05). In the reduction percentage method, in which the highest results of antimicrobial activity were obtained, it was observed that the antimicrobial effect on S. aureus was more long-standing (3 days) and higher in reduction percentage (over 90%). The appearance of antibacterial activity of CAPE-PLGA-NPs may be related to higher penetration into cells due to low solubility of free CAPE in the aqueous medium. Additionally, the biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles could be an alternative to solvents such as ethanol, methanol or DMSO. Consequently, obtained results show that the method of selection is extremely important and will influence the results. Thus, broth microdilution and reduction percentage methods can be recommended as reliable and useful screening methods for determination of antimicrobial activity of PLGA nanoparticle formulations used particularly in drug delivery systems compared to both agar well and disk diffusion methods.

  6. Structural Basis for the Inhibition of a Phospholipase A2-Like Toxin by Caffeic and Aristolochic Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A H Fernandes

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in toxicology today is to develop therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of snake venom injuries that are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. Venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2s and PLA2-like proteins play a fundamental role in skeletal muscle necrosis, which can result in permanent sequelae and disability. This leads to economic and social problems, especially in developing countries. In this work, we performed structural and functional studies with Piratoxin-I, a Lys49-PLA2 from Bothropspirajai venom, complexed with two compounds present in several plants used in folk medicine against snakebites. These ligands partially neutralized the myotoxic activity of PrTX-I towards binding on the two independent sites of interaction between Lys49-PLA2 and muscle membrane. Our results corroborate the previously proposed mechanism of action of PLA2s-like and provide insights for the design of structure-based inhibitors that could prevent the permanent injuries caused by these proteins in snakebite victims.

  7. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat,...

  8. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate and Kinetic Analysis%酶法水解VC磷酸酯镁及其动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎爱花; 刘惠青; 车影; 闫果兰; 靳利娥

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the process of enzymatic hydrolysis of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), the best hydrolysis condition was chosen and the kinetics was analyzed through the experiments. With phosphoesterase complex (PC) as catalyst, the effect on the degree of MAP hydrolysis by some influenced factors such as substrate concentration, reaction time, pH, temperature, enzyme content was investigated and the hydrolysis kinetics was studied. The results show that hydrolysis degree of MAP reached the largest, to (32. 64 + 0. 42) % under the conditions of 1. 72g/L substrate concentration by 5% enzyme, 37 °C , pH 5. 5,hydrolysis time 4h. The established kinetics followed the equation of Michealis-Menten, km and vmax of which were 25. 82 g/L and 126. 26 g/(L · h), respectively.%考察酶法水解Vc磷酸酯镁(Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate,MAP)过程,采用复合磷酸酯酶( Phosphoesterase Complex,PC)为催化剂,以水解产物Vc的含量(水解率)为指标考察底物浓度、反应时间、pH值、反应温度、酶用量等因素对MAP水解程度的影响,选择最佳水解条件并对其进行动力学分析.结果表明,在底物MAP的质量浓度为1.72 g/L、酶和底物的体积分数为5%、温度37℃、pH5.5条件下水解4h,水解率最大,可达(32.64 ±0.42)%.动力学分析表明:水解动力学符合米氏方程,其中km=25.82 g/L,vmax=126.26 g/(L·h).

  9. Protective effects of equimolar mixtures of monomer and dimer of dehydrozingerone with α-tocopherol and/or ascorbyl palmitate during bulk lipid autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Vessela; Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Delogu, Giovanna; Janiak, Michał; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2014-08-15

    Protective effects of recently synthesised dehydrozingerone, M1OH (which is one half of the molecule of curcumin) and dimer of dehydrozingerone, D1(OH)2, as individual compounds (1 mM) and as equimolar binary (1:1) and ternary (1:1:1) mixtures with α-tocopherol (TOH) and/or ascorbyl palmitate (AscPH), were studied during bulk lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. The highest oxidation stability of lipid substrate, in the presence of individual compounds, was found for TOH, followed by D1(OH)2 and M1OH, determined from the main kinetic parameters (antioxidant efficiency, reactivity and capacity). AscPH did not show any protective effect. Synergism was obtained for the binary mixtures of (TOH+AscPH) [42.4%], (M1OH+TOH) [32.4%] and (M1OH+AscPH) [35.6%] and for the ternary mixture of (M1OH+TOH+AscPH) [28.7%]. Different protective effects observed were explained on the basis (of results) of TOH regeneration and its content determined by HPLC. These antioxidant binary and ternary mixtures can be used as functional components of foods with health-promoting effects. PMID:24679780

  10. HCT2, a Novel Hydroxycinnamoyl-Malate Transferase, is Responsible for Phaselic Acid (2-O-Caffeoyl-L-Malate) Biosynthesis in Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    In red clover, post-harvest oxidation of o-diphenol caffeic acid derivatives to o-quinones by an endogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage (1). Agronomically important forages like alfalfa lack both PPO and o-diphenols. Consequently, breakdown of their p...

  11. Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (pHoney extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (phoneys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherogenic activities which may be attributed, at least in part, to their phenolic acid content. PMID:24752205

  12. Gel electrophoresis study of radioprotective effect of hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect exerted by hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives on the radiation damage of DNA, such as double-strand break (DSB) and intermolecular crosslinking (CL), has been studied by gel electrophoresis. The molecular length distribution of DNA can be measured by this method, and by comparing average molecular length of DNA before and after irradiation, the frequency of DSB and CL can be determined quantitatively. The radioprotective effect of caffeic acid and sinapine on calf thymus DNA in binary system at room temperature have been determined. Both caffeic acid and sinapine reveal apparent protective effects and the former is stronger than the latter. The mechanism of radioprotection at room temperature has been discussed. Based on this finding, combined with the previous ESR study and an analysis of the molecular structure on these two protectors, it is suggested that the target is protected as a result of hydrogen atom transfering from protector to target

  13. Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Spilioti

    Full Text Available The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey. We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3 and breast cancer (MCF-7 cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC. ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01, vanillic acid (p<0.05, caffeic acid (p<0.01, p-coumaric acid (p<0.001 and their total phenolic content (p<0.001. Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively. Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively. In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  14. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  15. 3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic Acid Inhibits LPS-Induced iNOS Expression by Suppressing NF-κB Activation in BV2 Microglial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Won; Bae, Chang Jun; Choi, Yong-Jun; Kim, Song-In; Kim, Nam-Ho; Lee, Hee Jae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Chun, Wanjoo

    2012-01-01

    Although various derivatives of caffeic acid have been reported to possess a wide variety of biological activities such as neuronal protection against excitotoxicity and anti-inflammatory property, the biological activity of 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid (THC), a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acids, has not been clearly examined. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of THC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. THC significantly...

  16. The significance of electron spin resonance of the ascorbic acid radical in freeze dried human brain tumours and oedematous or normal periphery.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, H. W.; Tannert, S.

    1986-01-01

    The ESR spectrum, attributed to the ascorbic acid (ascorbyl) radical and obtained by exposing freeze dried material to air, can not be used as proof for the occurrence of in vivo free radical reactions. Depending on the method of freeze drying, the content of blood or hemolyzed blood is the dominant factor in creating higher than normal ESR signals in brain or related tissue. These findings explain why the signal, though larger in many human brain tumours than in their surroundings, is not in...

  17. General oxidative stress during doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: absence of cardioprotection and low antioxidant efficiency of alpha-lipoic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghibu, Steliana; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Richard, Carole; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Martin, Laurent; Gambert, Ségolène; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (AL) in a model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity, male Wistar rats were treated with DOX (1 mg/kg/d; 10 d) in combination or not with AL (50 mg/kg/d; 15 d). Plasma oxidative stress was determined by hydroperoxides (ROOH) and the ascorbyl radical/ascorbate ratio. One and two months later, the functional parameters of the hearts were determined in vivo by catheterization and cardiac oxidative stress was assessed by malonedialdehyde (MDA) a...

  18. Optimization of extraction procedure and determination by high performance liquid chromatography of flavonols and phenolic acids from Hypericum Perforatum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant which has been known in traditional medicine as an antiinflammatory and healing agent. Nowadays the use of Hypericum extracts is concerned mainly with antidepressive applications. In the present work, HPLC – RP- C18 column chromatography with photodiode array detection was applied for the determination of the derivatives of cinnamic and benzoic acid (e.g., caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, sinapic, gallic acids) (Fig.1.) and flavonols - quercetine deriva...

  19. Investigation of phenolic acids in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves and tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Andrensek, Samo; Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2003-10-17

    Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) screening of crude extracts of dried leaves and tubers of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) and products of acid hydrolysis of tubers on the silica gel HPTLC plates using the developing solvents ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (85:10:15, v/v/v) and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-formic acid (20:19:1, v/v/v) proved the presence of chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acid. These phenolic acids were isolated from the crude extract of yacon leaves by preparative TLC, and identified after elution by HPLC/MS, as well as by direct injection of the crude extract into the HPLC/MS system. Acid hydrolysis of tubers released the increased amount of phenolic acids (e.g. caffeic acid and ferulic acid), flavonoid quercetin and an unidentified flavonoid, which was detected by TLC analysis. Ferulic acid, isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid and still an unidentified derivative of chlorogenic acid (Mr = 562) as constituents of yacon leaves and ferulic acid as constituent of yacon tubers are reported here for the first time. These acids gave significant contribution to the radical scavenging activity detected directly on the TLC plate sprayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). PMID:14601830

  20. Study of the Synthesis of L - ascorbyl - 2 - triphosphate with Asscorbic Acid and Hexmetaphosphate%六偏磷酸钠与Vc合成Vc多聚磷酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金显春; 赵敏; 王锦堂

    2003-01-01

    报导了Vc与六偏磷酸钠在水介质中合成Vc多聚磷酸酯(LAPP)的方法,研究了不同反应条件对LAPP产率与质量的影响.当Vc/六偏磷酸钠/催化剂(物质的量比)=1:1.30:0.15,溶液pH=9时LAPP的收率为85.6%.

  1. L-Ascorbyl-2-phosphate attenuates NF-κB signaling in SZ95 sebocytes without affecting IL-6 and IL-8 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hiroshi; Apel, Mara; Zouboulis, Christos; Luger, Thomas A; Böhm, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Acne is the most common inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is at the beginning of the cytokine signaling cascade and may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. It activates redox-sensitive transcription factors, which induce IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Interestingly, L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS) was shown to have beneficial effects in patients with acne vulgaris. The mechanism of action of this agent remains unknown. Here, we investigated if APS attenuates IL-1β- or TNF-α-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 expression in SZ95 sebocytes, whereas TNF-α was used as control. We also explored NF-κB activation which is known to orchestrate IL-1β- and TNF-α-mediated cytokine expression in many cell types. Both IL-1β and TNF-α increased IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in SZ95 sebocytes. However, only IL-1β induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. IL-1β but not TNF-α activated NF-κB canonical signaling as demonstrated by Iκ-Bα phosphorylation and degradation as well as by nuclear accumulation of NF-κB/p65. Concomitant treatment of SZ95 sebocytes with APS attenuated the effect of IL-1β and TNF-α on IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression as well as on IL-1β-mediated NF-κB signaling. In contrast, APS failed to reduce IL-1β-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, presumably by maintained IL-1β-mediated p38 activation, which is known to control IL-8 secretion. Our findings shed light into the impact of IL-1β on the inflammatory cytokine response and its molecular mechanisms in human sebocytes. Our data further suggest that the beneficial effect of APS in acne patients involves attenuation of NF-κB signaling but not reduction of IL-6 or IL-8 secretion. PMID:25894228

  2. 抗坏血酸磷酸酯镁及熊果苷的检测方法进展%Advances in detection method of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and arbutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨园园; 郁荣华; 李勤; 周泽琳

    2014-01-01

    Whitening mechanism and effects on the human body of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and arbutin are introduced in this paper. The various detection methods currently used for magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and arbutin were summarized, compared and analyzed. The common detection method is liquid chromatography, which can detect five whitening ingredients containing magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and arbutin;in addition, GC/MS and LC/MS/MS method can also detect arbutin, and the detection limit and recov-ery are better than HPLC. The mass spectrometry and simultaneous detection of multiple components will be the mainstream in the future.%本文简要介绍了近年应用十分广泛的美白成分抗坏血酸磷酸酯镁及熊果苷的作用机制以及对人体的影响,综述了目前采用的多种检测方法,并对各种检测方法进行比较及分析。目前较为常用的检测方法为液相色谱法,可以同时检测包含抗坏血酸磷酸酯镁及熊果苷在内的五种美白成分;另外,气相色谱-质谱联用法以及液相色谱-质谱联用法也能够检测熊果苷,而且能得到更低的检出限和较高的回收率,灵敏度高,能提高分析效率。但是由于方法中流动相、检测基质等因素,仍需进一步完善改进检测方法。综合上述方法考虑,质谱联用以及同时检测多种成分是今后美白成分检测的主要发展方向。

  3. Analysis of phenolic acids in barley by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Vasanthan, T; Temelli, F

    2001-09-01

    Phenolic acids from 30 barley varieties (combination of hulled/hulless/two-row/six-row/regular/waxy) were investigated by HPLC following four different sample treatments: (a) simple hot water extraction, (b) extraction after acid hydrolysis, (c) acid plus alpha-amylase hydrolysis, and (d) acid plus alpha-amylase plus cellulase hydrolysis treatments. The benzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids) and cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and chlorogenic acids) were identified, and some of the phenolic acids were quantified after each above-mentioned treatment. The data indicated that a combination of sequential acid, alpha-amylase, and cellulase hydrolysis treatments might be applicable for release of more phenolic acids from barley. PMID:11559137

  4. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  5. Amino acid peroxyl radicals. Formation and reaction with ascorbate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Proteins are significant targets for partly reduced oxygen species in vivo. This results in random formation of radicals on the amino acid residues (AA·) of the protein, which in turn, in the presence of oxygen, can yield the corresponding peroxyl radicals (AAOO·). Both radical types can cause further biological damage. We studied the N-acetylamide derivatives of the amino acids glycine, alanine and proline as models of these residues in proteins. We generated the amino acid radicals specifically by reaction with hydroxyl radicals produced in solutions irradiated with 2 MeV electrons in the presence of N2O. In the absence of oxygen the amino acid radicals decayed with rate constants in the narrow range (0.9-1.3) x 109 M-1s-1, while in the presence of oxygen they were converted very rapidly to the corresponding peroxyl radicals with rate constants that vary between 6.3 x 108 and 5.5 x 109 M-1s-1, depending on the amino acid. The corresponding N-acetylated amino acids were also studied and showed similar behaviour but with slightly smaller rate constants. Antioxidants are able to repair tyrosyl and tryptophanyl radicals in various proteins in vitro. For ascorbate, the principal endogenous biological antioxidant, we have measured rate constants in the range 105-108 M-1s-1. The peroxyl radicals of all amino acids studied here were reduced by oxidizing ascorbate to the ascorbyl radical. The reaction was followed at 360 nm, where ascorbyl radical has an absorption coefficient of 3300 M-1cm-1, and the derived rate constants were all close to 107 M-1s-1. However, the spontaneous decay of peroxyl radicals is also fast and competes with the reaction with ascorbate. It is to be stressed that reaction of AAOO· and ascorbate gives rise to hydroperoxides (AAOOH) that are also reactive molecules. Our study suggests that reaction with protein radicals may be responsible for the ascorbate loss reported in organisms exposed to oxidative

  6. Variation of free phenolic acids in medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgórka, G; Głowniak, K

    2001-08-01

    Ten species belonging to the family Lamiaceae and representing the most popular medicinal plants used in Polish phytotherapy were examined for the content of free phenolic acids (PhAs). Two depsides, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids, as well as eight simple PhAs, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, in different qualitative and quantitative proportions depending on the plant examined were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:11451645

  7. Ionic liquid-assisted solublization for improved enzymatic esterification of phenolic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    in a binary system, which is composed of ionic liquid tOMA•TFA (trioctylmethylammonium Trifluoroacetate) and octanol. Ionic liquid tOMA•TFA has great solubility towards most of phenolic acid. The strategy of increasing the solubility of phenolic in ionic liquid tOMA•TFA was proved to be an efficient way...... was also higher than the parallel experiment where no ionic liquid was applied for increasing solubility of DHCA. Relative high conversion of ferulic and caffeic acids was achieved when similar reactions were conducted with these two phenolic acids, and the conversion in the system containing ionic liquid...... was significant higher than the system without ionic liquid....

  8. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Michel D. Santos; Norberto P. Lopes; Yassuko Iamamoto

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules.

  9. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel D. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules.

  10. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples. PMID:26749805

  11. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. PMID:21903215

  12. Neuraminidase inhibition of Dietary chlorogenic acids and derivatives - potential antivirals from dietary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Mohamed; Matei, Marius-Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Illenberger, Susanne; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-04-20

    Plants rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs), caffeic acids and their derivatives have been found to exert antiviral effects against influenza virus neuroaminidase. In this study several dietary naturally occurring chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives were screened for their inhibitory activity against neuroaminidases (NAs) from C. perfringens, H5N1 and recombinant H5N1 (N-His)-Tag using a fluorometric assay. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the different NA enzymes. The enzyme inhibition results indicated that chlorogenic acids and selected derivatives, exhibited high activities against NAs. It seems that the catechol group from caffeic acid was important for the activity. Dietary CGA therefore show promise as potential antiviral agents. However, caffeoyl quinic acids show low bioavailibility and are intensly metabolized by the gut micro flora, only low nM concentrations are observed in plasma and urine, therefore a systemic antiviral effect of these compounds is unlikely. Nevertheless, gut floral metabolites with a catechol moiety or structurally related dietary phenolics with a catechol moiety might serve as interesting compounds for future investigations. PMID:27010419

  13. Challenges when developing omega-3 enriched foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACOBSEN Charlotte

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the polyunsaturated nature of omega-3 fatty acids, lipid oxidation is a major challenge when developing omega-3 enriched foods. In multiphase food systems, several factors can affect lipid oxidation and efficacy of antioxidants, added to prevent lipid oxidation. This review discusses the influence of important factors such as oil quality, delivery systems for omega-3 fatty acids, processing conditions, composition of the food matrix on lipid oxidation in different omega-3 enriched foods (milk, yoghurt, mayonnaise and mayonnaise-based salads, dressing, energy bar and fish paté. Moreover, the effect of different antioxidants (tocopherol, EDTA, lactoferrin, caffeic acid, ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, propyl gallate, gallic acid, as well as lipophilized antioxidants is compared in different food systems.

  14. 一锅法合成反-β-正烷氧羰基丙烯酸-6-L-抗坏血酸酯及其性能研究%One-pot synthesis of 6-L-ascorbyl trans-β-n-alkoxycarbonyl acrylates and their properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑大贵; 祝显虹; 周安西; 张勇

    2014-01-01

    A general one-pot procedure was described that converted trans-β-n-alkoxycarbonyl( C1-C8 n-alkoxycarbonyl) acrylic acid (1a-1h)to 6-L-ascorbyl trans-β-n-alkoxycarbonyl acrylates(2a-2h) upon sequential treatment of the acid in N,N-dimethylacet-amide(DMAc)with thionyl chloride and L-ascorbic acid. The structures of 2a-2h were confirmed by 1H NMR、13C NMR、MS and IR. The scavenging activity of 2f on DPPH free-radical was tested by UV-Vis spectrophotometry,and the anti-microbial activities of 2a-2h were tested by peptide-agarose diffusion assay. It was fond that when the molar concentration of the tested samples was the same,the scavenging activity on DPPH radical(1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical)of 2f was a little higher than that of L-ascor-bic acid and TBHQ(Tertiary butylhydroquinone)at higher concentration range. The diameters of antibacterial active ring of 2a-2h against Staphyloccocus aureus,Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were between 5. 00-6. 25 mm,and those of 2a-2h against Streptomyces microflavus were between 15. 50-17. 25 mm,when the concentration of tested samples were in 2 mg·mL-1 .%在N,N-二甲基乙酰胺(DMAc)中,反-β-正烷氧羰基丙烯酸(1a-1h,a-h分别对应于C1-C8正烷氧羰基)与SOCl2在0℃下反应,生成的酰氯不经分离,采用一锅法,直接与L-抗坏血酸反应得到反-β-正烷氧羰基丙烯酸-6-L-抗坏血酸酯(2a-2h)。2a-2h的结构经1 H NMR、13 C NMR、MS和IR确证。用分光光度法测试了2f清除二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH·)的活性,用孔穴扩散法测试了2a-2h的抗菌活性。结果表明,受试物摩尔浓度相等时,在较高浓度范围内,2f对DPPH·的清除率略高于L-抗坏血酸和叔丁基对苯二酚(TBHQ);在给药量2 mg·mL-1时,2a-2h对金黄葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌的抑菌圈直径在5.00-6.25 mm之间,对细黄链霉菌的抑菌圈直径在15.50-17.25 mm之间。

  15. Caffeic Acid, a Phenol Found in White Wine, Modulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Production and Protects from Oxidative Stress-Associated Endothelial Cell Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Migliori, M.; V. Cantaluppi; C. Mannari; A. BERTELLI; D. Medica; A. D. Quercia; Navarro, V.; A. Scatena; Giovannini, L; Biancone, L; V. Panichi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several studies demonstrated that endothelium dependent vasodilatation is impaired in cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases because of oxidant stress-induced nitric oxide availability reduction. The Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by food containing phenols, was correlated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases and delayed progression toward end stage chronic renal failure. Previous studies demonstrated that both red and white wine exert cardioprotect...

  16. Lignin and Fiber digestibility in Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase Downregulated Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forages in the United States. Increasing alfalfa fiber digestibility would improve forage management and ration formulation flexibility. Currently, growers and breeders rely on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict forage quality tra...

  17. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  18. Lignification and structural biomass production in tobacco with suppressed caffeic/5-hydroxy ferulic acid-O-menthyl transferase activity under ambien and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, L. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Legrand, M. [Univ. Louis Pasteur, Inst. de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes du Centre National, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Mai, C.; Polle A. [Georg-August Univ., Forstbotanisches Inst., Goettingen (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between growth, biomass partitioning and lignification we used tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in which O-methyl transferase (OMT) activity, an enzyme involved in the pathway of sinapyl alcohol formation for lignin synthesis, was suppressed by antisense transformation. To modulate growth, controls and transformed tobacco plants were grown under ambient (approximately 380 p.p.m) or elevated CO{sub 2} (700 p.p.m), respectively. Lignin concentrations and composition were determined with spectrophotometric methods (thioglycolate and acetyl bromide) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. A comparison of the thioglycolate and acetylbromide method suggested that the thioglycolate method was sensitive to changes in the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G)-ratio in lignin and therefore not suitable for quantification in tissues with altered lignin composition. Growth under elevated CO{sub 2} increased leaf and stem biomass of both genotypes by 40 and 20%, respectively, compared with ambient CO{sub 2} and had no effect on root biomass. OMT suppression did not affect lignin concentrations in the leaves but caused a shift in biomass partitioning from the structural to the non-structural fraction. Elevated CO{sub 2} caused a shift towards production of structural compounds resulting in decreased foliar lignin concentrations and indicating that the lignin/structural mass ratio is flexible in leaves. By contrast, the lignin concentrations of stems were unaffected by elevated CO{sub 2} or OMT suppression and increased about three-fold from the apex to the base. Antisense-OMT plants produced more stem biomass than controls but showed no changes of the relative partitioning of biomass to the different pools. This indicates that the metabolic control of carbon fluxes to the production of structural versus non-structural fractions is tighter in stems than in leaves. FTIR spectroscopy indicated a relative increase in guaiacyl- as compared with syringyl-units in antisense-OMT tobacco, which was more pronounced under elevated as compared with ambient CO{sub 2}. Since there was no evidence for decreased lignin concentrations in the antisense-OMT plants but increased biomass formation we suggest that less methylated lignins are 'cheaper' in biosynthetic carbon and energy demand and, thus, may enable plants to allocate increased resources to growth. (au)

  19. Propolis and its constituent caffeic acid suppress LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory response by blocking NF-κB and MAPK activation in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Búfalo, Michelle Cristiane; Ferreira, Isabel; Costa, Gustavo; Francisco, Vera; Liberal, Joana; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Batista, Maria Teresa; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Propolis is a bee product with numerous biological and pharmacological properties, such as immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. It has been used in folk medicine as a healthy drink and in food to improve health and prevent inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its mechanism of action. Thus, the goal of this study was to verify the antioxidant activity and to explore the anti-inflammatory properties of propolis by addressing its i...

  20. Application of anion-exchange imidazolium silica for the multiphase dispersive extraction of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the application of a multiphase dispersive extraction method to the extraction, separation, and determination of the phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. using silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbents. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid extraction and separation was first identified based on the adsorption behavior of the phenolic acids on different silica-confined ionic liquids. The sample was then mixed with the optimized sorbent and solvent to achieve multiphase dispersive extraction. The sample/sorbent ratio was optimized using theoretical calculations from the adsorption isotherm and experiments. After transferring the supernatant to an empty cartridge, an SPE process was used to separate the three phenolic acids from the other interference. Through systematic optimization, the optimal conditions produced high recovery rates of protocatechuic acid (91.20%), caffeic acid (94.03%), and ferulic acid (91.33%). Overall, the proposed method is expected to have wide applicability. PMID:23861179

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of phenolic acids in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) during wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of phenolic acids formed during wound healing of gamma-irradiated and nonirradiated potato tubers was determined by HPLC. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were detected in small quantities in resting whole tubers of irradiated and nonirradiated potatoes. During wound healing their content increased many fold, and in addition, the neo and crypto isomers of chlorogenic acid accumulated in the wound healing tissue. The increased formation of phenolics was accompanied by a parallel rise in phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity. Chlorogenic acid contributed about 56% and together with the neo and crypto isomers accounted for 88% of the phenolics formed. Tubers irradiated to 100 Gy for sprout inhibition showed significantly lower levels of chlorogenic acid and its isomers during the first 8 days of wound healing. The results point to an impairment of wound-induced biosynthesis of phenolics in general and chlorogenic acid and its isomers in particular by irradiation

  2. Ruminal Methane Production on Simple Phenolic Acids Addition in in Vitro Gas Production Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane production from ruminants contributes to total global methane production, which is an important contributor to global warming. In this experiment, six sources of simple phenolic acids (benzoic, cinnamic, phenylacetic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at two different levels (2 and 5 mM added to hay diet were evaluated for their potential to reduce enteric methane production using in vitro Hohenheim gas production method. The measured variables were gas production, methane, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA. The results showed that addition of cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at 5 mM significantly (P p-coumaric > ferulic > cinnamic. The addition of simple phenols did not significantly decrease OMD. Addition of simple phenols tends to decrease total SCFA production. It was concluded that methane decrease by addition of phenolic acids was relatively small, and the effect of phenolic acids on methane decrease depended on the source and concentration applied.

  3. Electrochemical examination of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, M.; Honda, K.; Kondo, T.; Rao, T.N.; Tryk, D.A.; Fujishima, A

    2002-10-15

    A quasi-reversible redox reaction involving ascorbic acid was observed in non-aqueous electrolytes at conductive diamond electrode. The chemical reversibility of these reactions is consistent with ascorbic acid being reduced to the ascorbic acid radical anion in a one-electron process, with subsequent reoxidation to ascorbic acid. This is the first report on the electrochemical production of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes. Ascorbyl 6-stearate and 4-hydroxy 2(5H)-furanone, which have somewhat similar structures as ascorbic acid, also showed one-electron transfer reduction reaction producing radicals with a single negative charge, suggesting that these compounds follow the same electrochemical behavior as ascorbic acid. The double bond and hydroxyl substituent on the five-membered ring are shown to be necessary for the stabilization of the radical anions. It was confirmed by the calculation of the total energy using molecular orbital methods that resonance structures involving the double-bond and hydroxyl group provide significant stabilization of the radical anions. Electrochemical preparation may be a useful method for the detailed study of radicals, their molecular structure and reactivity.

  4. Electrochemical examination of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quasi-reversible redox reaction involving ascorbic acid was observed in non-aqueous electrolytes at conductive diamond electrode. The chemical reversibility of these reactions is consistent with ascorbic acid being reduced to the ascorbic acid radical anion in a one-electron process, with subsequent reoxidation to ascorbic acid. This is the first report on the electrochemical production of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes. Ascorbyl 6-stearate and 4-hydroxy 2(5H)-furanone, which have somewhat similar structures as ascorbic acid, also showed one-electron transfer reduction reaction producing radicals with a single negative charge, suggesting that these compounds follow the same electrochemical behavior as ascorbic acid. The double bond and hydroxyl substituent on the five-membered ring are shown to be necessary for the stabilization of the radical anions. It was confirmed by the calculation of the total energy using molecular orbital methods that resonance structures involving the double-bond and hydroxyl group provide significant stabilization of the radical anions. Electrochemical preparation may be a useful method for the detailed study of radicals, their molecular structure and reactivity

  5. Studies on Lipase-catalyzed Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Palmitate in Non-aqueous Phase%非水相脂肪酶催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的研究Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤鲁宏; 张浩

    2000-01-01

    The investigation on the reaction media and lipases (NOVO435、MML、LIPOLASE、PPL) for enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate as well as the factors effecting initial rate of synthesis reaction (rotation speed, temperature, water content,enzyme concentration,and substrate concentration) is presented. Among these investigated solvents and lipases, amyl alcohol and NOVO435 is the optimum pair. The reaction conditions have been optimized:200r/min, 55℃ , water content = 0, the amount of enzyme= 12.5 % of the substrate' s quantity.%对催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯反应的脂肪酶(NOVO435、MML、LIPOLASE、PPL)和反应介质进行比较,得出最佳酶种为NOVO435,最佳介质为叔戊醇;同时对影响合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯反应的初速度的因素(转速、温度、水分含量、酶浓度和底物浓度)进行了探讨,确定了最适反应条件:转速为200r/min,温度为55℃,水分含量为0,酶浓度为12.5%。

  6. Conversion of hydroxycinnamic acids into volatile phenols in a synthetic medium and in red wine by Dekkera bruxellensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Cabrita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid into 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylcatechol was studied in Dekkera bruxellensis ISA 1791 under defined conditions in a synthetic medium and in a red wine. Liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD was used to quantify the phenolic acids, and gas chromatography (GC coupled to a FID detector was used to quantify volatile phenols using a novel analytical methodology that does not require sample derivatization. Identification was achieved by gas chromatography-mass detection (GC-MS. The results show that phenolic acids concentration decreases while volatile phenols concentration increases. The proportion of caffeic acid taken up by Dekkera bruxellensis is lower than that for p-coumaric or ferulic acid; therefore less 4-ethylcatechol is formed. More important, 4-ethylcathecol synthesis by Dekkera bruxellensis in wine has never been demonstrated so far. These results contribute decisively to a better understanding of the origin of the volatile phenols in wines. The accumulation of these compounds in wine is nowadays regarded as one of the key factors of quality control.

  7. The Synthesis of 6-L-ascorbyl Trans-β-alkoxycarbonylacrylate and Study of Its Antimicrobial Activity%反丁烯二酸-6-L-抗坏血酸甲酯的合成及抑菌性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚凉; 宁正祥

    2009-01-01

    A new asymmetrical ester,6-L-ascorbyl trans-β-alkoxycarbonylacrylate,containing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group structure was prepared via esterification. The antimicrobial activity of 6-L-ascorbyl trans-β-alkoxycar-bonylacrylate was studied. Results showed that 53.45% yield could be obtained. The minimum inhibition concentration and inhibition rate of 6-L-ascorbyl trans-β-alkoxycarbonylacrylate to Escherichia coli,Bacillus subtilis,Saccharo-myces cerevisiae was 1.0 g/L,88. 83% ; 0. 75 g/L,80. 47% ; 0. 75 g/L,82. 12% respectively. Its antimicrobial activity was much better than sodium benzoate and postassium benzoate,besides the antimicrobial activity did not changed obviously under heat treatment. It was also seen that 6-L-ascorbyl trans-β-alkoxycarbonylacrylate had strong antimicrobial effects for bacteria and yeasts. It is worth the exploration of further development and application.%采用直接酯化法合成了一种新型抗坏血酸衍生物并具有α,β-不饱和羰基结构的化学防腐剂--反丁烯二酸-6-L-抗坏血酸甲酯(V_c酯),合成产率可达53.45%,并对其抑菌效果进行了研究.结果表明,V_c酯对大肠杆菌、枯草杆菌、啤酒酵母的最低抑菌浓度及抑菌率分别为1.0g/L,88.83%;0.75g/L,80.47%;0.75g/L,82.12%;其抑菌效果显著优于常用防腐剂苯甲酸钠及山梨酸钾,且高温处理对其抑菌效果无明显影响,表明V_c酯对细菌、酵母均具有较强的抑制作用.

  8. Minor iridoids from Scutellaria albida ssp albida. Inhibitory potencies on lipoxygenase, linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of iridoids from Scutellaria sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Matsa, Marina;

    2013-01-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, 6'-O-E-caffeoyl-mussaenosidic acid, in addition to one known aglycon, four known triterpenes and one known flavonoid, were isolated from the aerial parts of Scutellaria albida subsp. albida. Furthermore, 12 iridoids with similar structures isolated from Scutellariasp., were...... examined for their inhibitory potency on lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation, as well as their antioxidant activity, in comparison to known antioxidants e. g. caffeic acid, nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA) and trolox. AAPH, DPPH and soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) assays were used for the tests. This...

  9. HPLC method validated for the simultaneous analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides in Echinacea purpurea plants and products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Per; Johnsen, Søren; Christensen, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to determine caffeic acid derivatives, for example, cichoric acid, and alkamides in plant parts and herbal products of Echinacea purpurea. The method consists of an extraction procedure whereby the hydrophilic...... used as an internal standard, as no other flavanones are present in the extract and it does not interfere with any of the compounds under investigation. Analysis of Danish-grown plant material shows that it is possible to raise plants of a very high chemical quality in Denmark. A selection...

  10. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  11. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  12. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zambonin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL, whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach.

  13. Release of Propolis Phenolic Acids from Semisolid Formulations and Their Penetration into the Human Skin In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestas Žilius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects are attributed to phenolic compounds present in propolis, and when delivered to the skin surface and following penetration into epidermis and dermis, they can contribute to skin protection from damaging action of free radicals that are formed under UV and premature skin aging. This study was designed to determine the penetration of phenolic acids and vanillin into the human skin in vitro from experimentally designed vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated the ability of propolis phenolic acids (vanillic, coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids and vanillin to penetrate into skin epidermis and dermis. The rate of penetration and distribution is affected both by physicochemical characteristics of active substances and physical structure and chemical composition of semisolid vehicle. Vanillin and vanillic acid demonstrated relatively high penetration through epidermis into dermis where these compounds were concentrated, coumaric and ferulic acids were uniformly distributed between epidermis and dermis, and caffeic acid slowly penetrated into epidermis and was not determined in dermis. Further studies are deemed relevant for the development of semisolid topically applied systems designed for efficient delivery of propolis antioxidants into the skin.

  14. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC, found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively. ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds.

  15. A New Homogenizing Technology to Obtain Rosmarinic Acid from Perilla Oil Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei-zhuo; LIU Yan-ze; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of the active component,rosmarinic acid,an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid,in perilla oil meal for the first time by a new homogenizing technology called smashing tissue extraction (STE).Methods Orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction condition.The content of rosmarinic acid was quantified from the methanol crude extract with the help of HPLC.Results The optimization of STE process to get rosmarinic acid from the perilla oil meal was the ratio of liquid to solid material at 10∶1 and the power of extraction at 150 V,extracting twice (2 min for each time).Conclusion STE could be applied to extracting the active ingredients from the oil meals due to its high extraction efficiency.This new homogenizing technology has advantages on saving extraction time,raising extraction efficiency,and maintaining the temperature sensitive constituents.

  16. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design. PMID:26188153

  17. Anticancer effects of 6-o-palmitoyl-ascorbate combined with a capacitive-resistive electric transfer hyperthermic apparatus as compared with ascorbate in relation to ascorbyl radical generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Shinya; ASADA, RYOKO; KAGEYAMA, KATSUHIRO; SAITOH, YASUKAZU; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the anti-proliferative activity of 6-o-palmitoyl-l-ascorbic acid (Asc6Palm) that is a lipophilic derivative of l-ascorbic acid (Asc), on human tongue squamous carcinoma HSC-4 cells by combined use of hyperthermia in comparison to Asc. Asc6Palm or Asc were administered to HSC-4 cells for 1 h, to which hyperthermia at 42 °C was applied for initial 15 min. After further 1–72 h incubation at 37 °C, cell proliferation was determined with Crystal Violet ...

  18. Interactive enhancements of ascorbic acid and iron in hydroxyl radical generation in quinone redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhu, Tong; Zhao, Jincai; Xu, Bingye

    2012-09-18

    Quinones are toxicological substances in inhalable particulate matter (PM). The mechanisms by which quinones cause hazardous effects can be complex. Quinones are highly active redox molecules that can go through a redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species. Electron spin resonance spectra have been reported for semiquinone radicals in PM, indicating the importance of ascorbic acid and iron in quinone redox cycling. However, these findings are insufficient for understanding the toxicity associated with quinone exposure. Herein, we investigated the interactions among anthraquinone (AQ), ascorbic acid, and iron in hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation through the AQ redox cycling process in a physiological buffer. We measured ·OH concentration and analyzed the free radical process. Our results showed that AQ, ascorbic acid, and iron have synergistic effects on ·OH generation in quinone redox cycling; i.e., ascorbyl radical oxidized AQ to semiquinone radical and started the redox cycling, iron accelerated this oxidation and enhanced ·OH generation through Fenton reactions, while ascorbic acid and AQ could help iron to release from quartz surface and enhance its bioavailability. Our findings provide direct evidence for the redox cycling hypothesis about airborne particle surface quinone in lung fluid. PMID:22891791

  19. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. PMID:27052717

  20. The Blocking Effect of Phenolic Acid on N—Nitrosomorholine Formation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIPING; WANGHuai-Zhou; 等

    1994-01-01

    Phenolic acid(PAs) are widely found in many daily consumed vegetables and fruits.The inhibitory effects of PAs on N-nitrosomorpholine(NMOR)formation in vitro under simulated gastric juice condition were studied.The results showed that the inhibitory potncy of thirteen varieties of PAs differed greatly,which may be related to their chemical structures;the blockine rate(BR)of different kinds of PAs were as follows:caffeic acid,92.5%;tannic acid,90.0%;gallic acid,86.8%;sinapinic acid,86.2%;ferulic acid,81.1%;chlorogenic acid,69.4%;gentisic acid,69.2%;syringic acid,62.1%;protocatechuic acid,56.0%;p-coumaric acid,52.5%;vannilic acid,35.4%;moreover,p-hydroxybenzoic acid and m-coumaric acid had the least blocking effect or even slight catalyzing effect.The results also demonstrated that amounts of NMOR formed were negatively correlated with molar ratio of PAs to nitrite and that the optimum pH for inhibition was betwwen 2 and 3 .

  1. Influence of sample preparation on assay of phenolic acids from eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthria, Devanand L; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan

    2006-01-11

    Sample preparation is often overlooked and is frequently considered as "a means to an end". This systematic study with a phenolic-enriched substrate, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), was undertaken to evaluate the substantial variations in the extraction techniques, solvents, and parameters as described in the published literature. Direct comparison of over 10 extraction procedures or conditions was performed to show the importance and influence of sample preparation on the assay of phenolic compounds. Chlorogenic acid (CA) was the most abundant phenolic acid accounting for >75% of the total phenolic acids content extracted from the eggplant sample. Optimum extraction of CA and total phenolics (TP) from Black Bell cultivar of eggplant were obtained when extractions were performed with a mixture of MeOH/H2O at a ratio of 80:20% v/v using a pressurized liquid extractor (PLE) at 100 degrees C. The amount of CA and TP extracted from eggplant by the previously reported procedures using a wrist shaker, rotary shaker, stirring, sonication, or reflux with different extraction solvents (acetone or varying composition of MeOH/H2O solvent mixtures) varied significantly between 5 and 95% as compared to PLE. The predominant phenolic acids in the free phenolic acid fraction of Black Beauty cultivar of eggplant were CA isomers. However, caffeic acid isomers were the major phenolic acids extracted from the base-hydrolyzed fraction. The total amount of caffeic acid extracted from the Italian Neon cultivar was more that twice that of four other eggplant cultivars (Orient Express, Calliope Zebra Stripe, Orient Charm Neon, and Black Beauty). PMID:16390175

  2. Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modnicki, Daniel; Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide as well as free aglycones luteolin and apigenin have been isolated from lemon catnip herb (Nepeta cataria L. var citriodora). Luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside is probably a new compound, for the first time described. Two minor constituents of flavonoid fraction have been identified as apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside by means of HPLC method. The percentage of total flavonoids determined by use of spectrophotometric method was in the range from 0.30 to 0.46% of dry mass. In phenolic acid fraction, caffeic, rosmarinic and p-coumaric acids have been identified. Total amount of phenolic acids determined by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 0.75% to 1.4 % and the content of rosmarinic acid quantified by HPLC method fluctuated in the wide range from 0.06% to 0.15% depending on the sample. The results of the investigations showed that the composition of flavonoid compounds and phenolic acids in lemon catnip are similar to those in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). The amount of flavonoids are similar in both plants, and the percentage of rosmarinic acid is about ten times lower in lemon catnip than in lemon balm. The presence of luteolin, apigenin and their glycosides, caffeic acid as well as the previously described terpenoids (ursolic acid, citral, nerol. geraniol) suggests the possibility of the use of lemon catnip herb as a constituent of phytopharmaceutical preparations with mild sedative, antispasmodic, antioxidative and antiinflammatory action. PMID:17695148

  3. Acidic-alkaline ferulic acid esterase from Chaetomium thermophilum var. dissitum: Molecular cloning and characterization of recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Tong, Xiaoxue; Pilgaard, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    A novel ferulic acid esterase encoding gene CtFae, was successfully cloned from a highly esterase active strain of the thermophile ascomycetous fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. dissitum; the gene was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71H. The recombinant enzyme (CtFae) was purified...... to homogeneity and subsequently characterized. CtFae was active towards synthetic esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids, as well as towards wide range of p-nitrophenyl substrates. Its temperature and pH optima were 55 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. Enzyme rare features were broad pH optimum......, high stability at extended acidic-alkaline pH region, and noticeable thermostability. CtFae released ferulic acid from wheat insoluble arabinoxylan, as well as ferulic and p-coumaric acids from wheat straw and ryegrass, indicating potentials for industrial applications like biomass conversion in...

  4. Enzymatic Lipophilization of Phenolic Acids through Esterification with Fatty Alcohols in Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated and optimized the synthesis of lipophilized esters between selected phenolic acids and fatty alcohols in a binary solvent system, which is composed of hexane and butanone. The effect of different proportion of hexane and butanone was firstly studied by changing the...... volume ratio from 85:15 to 45:55. It was found that the conversion strongly depended on the proportion of hexane and butanone in the reaction system. Following the effect of carbons of fatty alcohol chains on estererification performance with dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) was evaluated by choosing different...... octadecenol respectively. However, the conversions of ferulic and caffeic acids under the same conditions were much lower than DHCA. The optimal mixture ratio of hexane to butanone was found to be 65:35. Using octanol and DHCA as model, the reaction parameters, such as temperature, enzyme load, reaction time...

  5. Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Yilmaz, Volkan A; Brandolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions. PMID:26787973

  6. Evaluation of hepatocyteprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus properties of Cichoric acid from Cichorium intybus leaves in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Li; Dai, Ling-Hao; Wu, Yi-Hang; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Guan, Rong-Fa; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world. To date, there is still no complete cure for chronic hepatitis B. Natural caffeic acid analogues possess prominent antiviral activity, especially anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) and anti-human immunodeficiency virus effects. Cichoric acid is a caffeic acid derivative from Cichorium intybus. In the study, the anti-hepatitis B property of cichoric acid was evaluated by the D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced normal human HL-7702 hepatocyte injury model, the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV)-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and the HBV-transfected cell line HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. The results showed that cichoric acid attenuated significantly D-GalN-induced HL-7702 hepatocyte injury at 10-100 µg/mL and produced a maximum protection rate of 56.26%. Moreover, cichoric acid at 1-100 µg/mL inhibited markedly DHBV DNA replication in infected duck fetal hepatocytes. Also, cichoric acid at 10-100 µg/mL reduced significantly the hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen levels in HepG2.2.15 cells and produced the maximum inhibition rates of 79.94% and 76.41%, respectively. Meanwhile, test compound at 50-100 µg/mL inhibited markedly HBV DNA replication. In conclusion, this study verifies the anti-hepatitis B effect of cichoric acid from Cichorium intybus leaves. In addition, cichoric acid could be used to design the antiviral agents. PMID:24759764

  7. Regional scale patterns in seagrass defences: Phenolic acid content in Zostera noltii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon-Dubois, Micheline; Rezzonico, Bernadette; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-12-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important role in protecting plants from herbivores or pathogens. Despite this, few studies have investigated the presence and the concentration of those compounds over broad spatial scales in seagrasses. Here we analysed the presence and abundance of specific phenolic compounds of Zostera noltii from four different meadows located across the Atlantic and the Mediterranean coast. Three phenolic acids have been found in the samples of Z. noltii: rosmarinic, caffeic and zosteric acids. The proportion of the three compounds varied substantially with the major proportion comprising rosmarinic acid (RA, mean value 94%) followed by zosteric acid (ZA, mean value 4%) and caffeic acid (CAF, mean value 2%). Z. noltii metabolic compounds varied notably between sites. The highest concentrations in RA were found in the Cadiz Bay with values of 11,254 (55 SD) μg g-1 dry wt, while the lowest were observed in the Alfacs Bay (Ebro) with values of 823 (7 SD) μg g-1 dry wt. The highest concentrations in ZA were also observed in the Cadiz Bay with values of 727 (6 SD) μg g-1 dry wt, while the lowest were observed in the Sa Nitja Bay (Menorca Island) with values of 20 (4 SD) μg g-1 dry wt. Finally, the concentrations in CAF remain very low at each site (17-69 μg g-1 dry wt), with the lowest observed in Arcachon. Their proportions remained relatively constant, indicating that most phenolic acids responded together. Documenting the presence of those compounds in living tissues of Z. noltii and how they vary in abundance between seagrass meadows across large geographical scales is a crucial first step to understand the large-scale level response of the plant to potential pathogens, herbivore outbreaks or other ecological processes.

  8. A review on protocatechuic Acid and its pharmacological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Sahil; Bais, Souravh

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and polyphenols are heterocyclic molecules that have been associated with beneficial effects on human health, such as reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and brain diseases. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. More than 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents imparting various pharmacological activity and these effects are due to their antioxidant activities, along with other possible mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory properties and interaction with several enzymes. Over the past two decades, there have been an increasing number of publications on polyphenols and flavonoids, which demonstrate the importance of understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of both natural and synthesized compounds, considering the benefits from their dietary ingestion as well as pharmacological use. This work aims to review the pharmacological effects of PCA molecules in humans and the structural aspects that contribute to these effects. PMID:25006494

  9. Determination of caffeic acid and fernlic acid in Shengma Gancao Decoction by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定升麻甘草汤中咖啡酸和阿魏酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶亭; 孙清

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立升麻甘草汤的质童标准控制方法.方法 色谱柱Diamonsil C18 (250 nun ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相:甲醇-0.1 mol· L-1醋酸铵-冰醋酸(20:80:1);流速:1.0 mL· min-1;检测波长:310 nm.结果 咖啡酸在0.2-4mg·L-1浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为103.6%(n=9);阿魏酸在1~10mg·L-1浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为104.3% (n = 9).结论 本法简便、灵敏、准确,可有效控制升麻甘草汤的质量.

  10. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallage, Nethaji Janeshawari; Hansen, Esben Halkjær; Kannangara, Rubini Maya;

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside...... into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. Vp......-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression...

  11. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand L. Luthria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids were extracted, separated, and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Identification of phenolic acids was achieved by comparison of retention times, ultraviolet, and mass spectral data with authentic commercial standards. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (3719 ± 22 µg/g was the predominant phenolic acid extracted from ber samples. In addition, four phenolic acids, namely p-hydroxybenzoic (2187 ± 71 µg/g, vanillin (2128 ± 20 µg/g, ferulic (2629 ± 96 µg/g, and o-coumaric acids (2569 ± 41 µg/g were obtained in intermediate amounts from dried Ziziphus mauritiana L. fruit. The total phenolic acids content was determined as 18231 ± 306 µg/g dry matter basis (DMB. This study indicates that ber fruit is a good natural source of phenolic acids and that PLBHE can be used for the assay of phenolic acids.

  12. 脂肪酶催化猪油合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯工艺条件%Lipase-catalytic Synthesis of L-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters in Mixed Organic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 吕凤霞; 赵海珍; 刘建伟; 别小妹; 陆兆新

    2010-01-01

    研究一种L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯酶法合成的新途径.以廉价的猪油和L-抗坏血酸作为反应底物,探讨酶法合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的工艺条件.结果表明,在该酶促反应中,混合有机溶剂体系中底物转化率高于相应纯有机溶剂体系中的转化率,最佳反应体系为30%叔戊醇:70%异辛烷(V/V).研究各反应因素对转化率的影响,确定最适反应条件为底物L-抗坏血酸与复合猪油甲酯的物质的量比为1:10、酶量10%、温度55℃、反应时间24h,转化率可达到(52.7±2.8)%.

  13. Synthesis of Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters from Lard by Ultrasound-assisted Lipase Catalysis%超声辅助脂肪酶催化L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭杨; 穆青; 魏微; 熊园; 刘建伟; 陆兆新; 吴涛; 赵海珍

    2011-01-01

    采用猪油和抗坏血酸为原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验,研究超声作用对酶促转酯化反应合成抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的影响,并确定其最佳反应条件.结果表明,最佳反应条件为:叔戊醇为溶剂,Novozym 435用量20%(抗坏血酸质量百分比),抗坏血酸与猪油物质的量的比1:3,超声功率350W,超声频率59kHz,反应时间9h,在此条件下,抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯转化率达到88.00%.超声处理不仅可以提高产物产率(从71%提高到88%),还可以大大缩短反应时间(从32h降低剑9h).超声条件下Novozym 435有良好的操作稳定性,反应6批次后,酶活还保持在比较高的水平.

  14. Study on Antioxidation of Three Ascorbyl Carboxylates on Conjugated Linoleic Acid%三种抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯对共轭亚油酸的抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严梅荣

    2007-01-01

    本实验以葵花籽油为原料制备共轭亚油酸,以L-抗坏血酸、D-异抗坏血酸、棕榈酸和月桂酸为原料合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯、L-抗坏血酸月桂酸酯和D-异抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯,并研究上述酯对于共轭亚油酸的抗氧化效果.结果表明,添加0.02%、0.04%和0.08%的上述酯对于CLA具有明显且相似的的抗氧化作用,它们可以作为商品CLA的良好、安全的抗氧化剂.

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Unsaturated Fatty Acid Esters%L-抗坏血酸不饱和脂肪酸酯的酶法合成工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金玲; 秦敏朴; 龚大春

    2015-01-01

    以不饱和脂肪酸含量高的食用油为酰基供体,研究了脂肪酶在有机溶剂中通过酯交换反应催化合成L-抗坏血酸不饱和脂肪酸酯的工艺条件.结果表明,在20 mL用分子筛充分除水的叔丁醇中,0.35 g抗坏血酸与3.72g油茶籽油(L-抗坏血酸和脂肪酸的底物摩尔比为1:6)在150 mg脂肪酶Novozym 435的催化下,反应初始加入1.0 g分子筛4A,温度55℃,转速200 r/min,反应36 h后底物转化率可达65%.

  16. Investigations on some metabolites of Tecoma stans Juss. callus tissue. Part III. Chromatographical search for iridoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids and sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dohnal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissus cultures of Tecoma stans Juss. cultivated on modified Murashige-Skoog medium (RT-k were phytochemically analysed by means of chromatographical methods (PC, TLC. The following products were found as metabolites: phenolic acids - chlorogenics, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, o-coumaric and sinapic; steroids - β-sitosterol; triterpenes - ursolic and oleanolic acids, α-amyrine; sugars - glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose. Meso-inositol was isolated in 0.8% yield. In intact plant leaves, some differences concerning the content and/or number of individual compounds were observed, namely: lack of sinapic acid and occurrence of p-coumaric acid, lower content of β-sitosterol, lack of oleanolic acid, occurrence of β-amyrine and of one unidentified triterpenoid, lack of xylose, occurrence of maltose, raffinose, and stachiose. The level of mesoinositol inn leaves was distincly lower than in the callus tissues. Neither in callus tissues nor in leaves iridoid glycosides were found.

  17. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin. PMID:25921651

  18. 维生素C衍生物的制备及其在化妆品中的应用%Preparation of L-ascorbic acid derivatives and their application in cosmetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷雪贤

    2011-01-01

    维生素C衍牛物克服了维生素C易被氧化不稳定的缺点,被广泛用于化妆品中.阐述了维生素C衍生物围内外的研究情况,主要对维生素C的磷酸酯盐、糖苷、棕榈酸酯、乙基醚、甲基硅基等衍生物的制备方法进行了总结.介绍了其在化妆品中的应用情况,指出了维生素C衍生物的发展趋势.%The L-ascorbic acid derivatives overcomes the shortcoming of L-ascorbic acid which is easy to be oxidized,and has been broadly applied in cosmetics.The recent development situation of L-ascorbic acid derivatives is reviewed,and the preparation methods and the application on cosmetics of the L-ascorbic acid derivatives such as L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate, ascorbic acid glucoside, ascorbyl palmitate were summarized.The trendency of the L-ascorbic acid derivatives is proposed also.

  19. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. PMID:27542479

  20. Effects of Artemia enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin C on growth, survival and resistance Salmo trutta caspius larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Javaheri baboli, Mehran

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of using n-3 HUFA and Vitamin C enriched Artemia urmiana Nauplii Five difference treament were tested: for Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius) larvae compare with artificial food in five treatment: (1) Artificial food, (2) Newly hatched Artemia (3) n-3 HUFA enriched Artemia (4) n-3 HUFA + 10% Ascorbyl Palmitate enriched Artemia (5) n-3 HUFA+20% Ascorbyl palmitate enriched Artemia during 15 days then all treatment were fe...

  1. A study of the IR spectra of the copigments of malvin chloride with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN P. NEDIC

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The infrared spectra of the copigments of malvin with several organic acids: caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, chlorogenic, and tannic, were analyzed in order to elucidate the bonding of the molecules in the copigments. It was established that copigmentation is realized through hydrogen bonding between malvin molecules and the acids under study. The infrared spectra reveal that two groups of hydrogen bonds are formed, which include interactions of different molecular structures: hydroxy groups (bands around 3500 cm–1 and oxonium ions of the molecules (bands below 3000 cm–1. The formed hydrogen bonds were found to be of different strengths. The strengths of the hydrogen bonds were tentatively correlated with thermodynamic properties of the corresponding copigmentation reactions.

  2. Methodology optimization for quantification of total phenolics and individual phenolic acids in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padda, M S; Picha, D H

    2007-09-01

    Phenolic acids are one of the several classes of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds found in sweetpotatoes. Simplified, robust, and rapid methodologies were optimized to quantify total and individual phenolic acids in sweetpotato roots. Total phenolic acid content was quantified spectrophotometrically using both Folin-Denis and Folin-Ciocalteu reagents. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent gave an overestimation of total phenolic acids due to the absorbance of interfering compounds (that is, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid). Individual phenolic acids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the latest in column technology. Four reversed-phase C18 analytical columns with different properties (dimensions, particle size, particle shape, pore size, and carbon load) were compared. Three different mobile phases using isocratic conditions were also evaluated. A column (4.6 x 150 mm) packed with 5-microm spherical silica particles of pore size 110 A combined with 14% carbon load provided the best and fast separation of individual phenolic acids (that is, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and 3 isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid) with a total analysis time of less than 7 min. Among the 3 mobile phases tested, a mobile phase consisting of 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution: acetonitrile: 2-propanol, pH 2.5 (70:22:8, v/v/v) gave adequate separation. Among the solvents tested, aqueous mixtures (80:20, solvent:water) of methanol and ethanol provided higher phenolic acid extraction efficiency than the aqueous mixture of acetone. PMID:17995640

  3. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. PMID:24001823

  4. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M.F.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Christensen, L.P.;

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... neither 5-5-diFA nor 8- 5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 muM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts was significantly...... correlated with their total content of monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates, and the rye bran extract was the most potent. The data suggest that especially rye bran provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants that may have potential health effects....

  5. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Landbo, A K; Christensen, L P;

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... neither 5-5-diFA nor 8-5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 microM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts was...... significantly correlated with their total content of monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates, and the rye bran extract was the most potent. The data suggest that especially rye bran provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants that may have potential health effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Aug...

  6. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymer for chlorogenic acid by modified precipitation polymerization and its application to extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Chitose; Li, Hui; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for chlorogenic acid (CGA) were prepared by modified precipitation polymerization using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene as a crosslinker and methanol or dimethylsulfoxide as a co-solvent. The prepared MIPs were microspheres with a narrow particle size distribution. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that two classes of binding sites, high and low affinity sites, were formed on the MIP. The retention and molecular-recognition properties of the prepared MIP were evaluated using a mixture of water and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography. With an increase of acetonitrile content, the retention factor of CGA was increased on the MIP. In addition to shape recognition, hydrophilic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CGA on the MIP. The MIP had a specific molecular-recognition ability for CGA, while other related compounds, such as caffeic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, could not be recognized by the MIP. Furthermore, the MIP for CGA was successfully applied for extraction of CGA in the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies. PMID:26037163

  8. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679

  9. Effects of structural differences on the NMR chemical shifts in cinnamic acid derivatives: Comparison of GIAO and GIPAW calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeleszczuk, Łukasz; Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika; Wawer, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    In this article we report the results of combined theoretical and experimental structural studies on cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs), one of the main groups of secondary metabolites present in various medicinal plant species and food products of plant origin. The effects of structural differences in CADs on their spectroscopic properties were studied in detail by both: solid-state NMR and GIAO/GIPAW calculations. Theoretical computations were used in order to perform signal assignment in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the cinnamic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acids, and to evaluate the accuracy of GIPAW and GIAO methodology.

  10. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) fruits: comparison of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ayaz Ali; Memon, Najma; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Luthria, Devanand L

    2013-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoid profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3'-O-galactoside, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside, quercetin 3'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3'-O-pentosylhexoside, quercetin 3-O-6'malonylglucoside, quercetin 3'-O-malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-6'malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-malonylglucoside, myricetin 3-O-galactoside, and naringenin tri glycoside. This is the first report on extraction of nine additional flavonoids from the ber fruits. In addition, we also compared the impact of three different base hydrolysis techniques namely ultrasonic assisted base hydrolysis (UABH), microwave assisted base hydrolysis (MWABH), and pressurised liquid assisted base hydrolysis (PLABH) for the quantification of total phenolic acids. Nine phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acids, were identified and quantified. The three major phenolic acids identified in all four ber species were p-coumaric acid, vanillin and ferulic acids. Higher amounts (pacids in all cultivars were obtained with the PLABH technique as compared to other two procedures (UABH and MWABH). PMID:23561136

  11. Phenolic acid content and composition in leaves and roots of common commercial sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) cultivars in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, V-D; McFeeters, R F; Thompson, R T; Dean, L L; Shofran, B

    2007-08-01

    Phenolic acids in commercially important sweet potato cultivars grown in the United States were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were well separated with an isocratic elution in less than 25 min compared to about 120 min for analyzing and re-equilibrating the column with a gradient method. The isocratic elution order of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives was confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Chlorogenic acid was the highest in root tissues, while 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and/or 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were predominant in the leaves. Steam cooking resulted in statistically nonsignificant increases in the concentration of total phenolics and all the individual phenolic acids identified. Sweetpotato leaves had the highest phenolic acid content followed by the peel, whole root, and flesh tissues. However, there was no significant difference in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between purees made from the whole and peeled sweet potatoes. PMID:17995676

  12. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2004-01-01

    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  13. Degradation of hydroxycinnamic acid mixtures in aqueous sucrose solutions by the Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Danny M T; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    The degradation efficiencies and behaviors of caffeic acid (CaA), p-coumaric acid (pCoA), and ferulic acid (FeA) in aqueous sucrose solutions containing the mixture of these hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were studied by the Fenton oxidation process. Central composite design and multiresponse surface methodology were used to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of process parameters. Four quadratic polynomial models were developed for the degradation of each individual acid in the mixture and the total HCAs degraded. Sucrose was the most influential parameter that significantly affected the total amount of HCA degraded. Under the conditions studied there was a analysis showed goodness of fit between the experimental results and the predicted values. The degradation behavior of CaA differed from those of pCoA and FeA, where further CaA degradation is observed at increasing sucrose and decreasing solution pH. The differences (established using UV/vis and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) were because, unlike the other acids, CaA formed a complex with Fe(III) or with Fe(III) hydrogen-bonded to sucrose and coprecipitated with lepidocrocite, an iron oxyhydroxide. PMID:25585639

  14. Electrochemiluminescence of Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with Ascorbic Acid and Dehydroascorbic Acid in Aqueous and Non-aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumiki; Hattori, Kaoru; Matsuoka, Masanori; Jin, Jiye

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) is studied in non-aqueous media using dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as coreactant to validate the evidence for the mechanism of the ascorbic acid (H2A)/Ru(bpy)3(2+) ECL system in an aqueous media. DHA is electrochemically reduced around -1.2 V vs. Ag/Ag(+) in pure acetonitrile to generate the ascorbyl radical anion (A(•-)), which is confirmed by in-situ UV-visible absorption measurements using a thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell. The ECL of the DHA/Ru(bpy)3(2+) system in non-aqueous media is not observed in the potential range from 0 to +1.4 V in anodic potential sweep mode; however, distinct ECL is detected using double potential step electrolysis from -1.2 to +1.4 V vs. Ag/Ag(+). The ECL may be generated by a homogeneous charge-transfer process between A(•-) produced during the first pulse potential step (-1.2 V) and Ru(bpy)3(3+) generated during the second pulse potential step (+1.4 V). The calculated standard enthalpy (-ΔH°) for the charge-transfer reaction between A(•-) and Ru(bpy)3(3+) is 2.29 eV, which is larger than the lowest excited singlet state energy of Ru(bpy)3(2+) (*Ru(bpy)3(2+); 2.03 eV, 610 nm). It is determined that the generated intermediate A(•-) is crucial in the Ru(bpy)3(2+) ECL reaction. PMID:27063718

  15. Study on the antioxidation activity of D-isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters%异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯的抗氧化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泗莲; 余彬; 祝显虹; 毛刘量; 郑大贵

    2012-01-01

    新鲜猪油中添加异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯和对照的抗氧化剂,按照GB/T5009.37-2003的方法,进行强氧化试验,测定过氧化值(POV);二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH.)无水乙醇溶液中添加异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯和对照的抗氧化剂,用分光光度法测定DPPH.清除率(SA).POV数据表明,参照中国规定的最高允许浓度往猪油中分别添加抗氧化剂,异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯抗氧化能力与异VC棕榈酸酯和TBHQ相当,但比维生素C棕榈酸酯强.SA数据表明,在受试物浓度高于1.666710-4mol·L-1,并且浓度相同时,异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯表现出比异VC棕榈酸酯、VC棕榈酸酯和TBHQ更强的清除能力.%D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters was added in lard and peroxide value ( POV) in lard sample was tested according to GB/T5009. 37-2003. The scavenging activity (SA) of D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters on DPPH free - radical was tested by spectrophotometry. The POV data showed that the antioxidation activity of D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters was better than that of L - ascorbyl palmitate, and was almost the same as that of D - isoascorbyl palmitate and TBHQ at the highest permitted amount by China food additives regulation. The SA data showed that when the concentration of samples was higher than 1. 666710 -4mol · L-1, the activity of scavenging DPPH of D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters was higher than that of D - isoascorbyl palmitate, L - ascorbyl palmitate and TBHQ.

  16. Determination of the antioxidant activity based on the content changes in fatty acid methyl esters in vegetable oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Housam Haj Hamdo; Zaid Al-Assaf; Warid Khayata

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals,which are generated in several biochemical reactions in the body,have been implicated as mediators of many diseases,including cancer,atherosclerosis and heart diseases.Although the endogenous antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals,they are often insufficient to maintain the in vivo redox balance.The antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined by addition of each tested antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol (a-T),beta-tocopherol (β-T),gamma-tocopherol (γ-T),delta-tocopherol (δ-T),butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT),and ascorbyle palmitate (AP)] to four types of different vegetable oils (sunflower oil,soybean oil,corn oil and olive oil).Moreover,content changes in fatty acids were then investigated every 3 months during the storage period.The results showed that the AOA was different among the tested antioxidants.The AOA for BHA was the most for different types of oil compared with other antioxidants,whereas the δ-T possessed the lowest AOA.

  17. Caffeic acids from roots of Arctium lappa and their neuroprotective activity%牛蒡根中咖啡酸类化学成分及其神经保护活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白俊鹏; 胡晓龙; 蒋晓文; 田星; 赵庆春

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究牛蒡Arctium lappa根中咖啡酸类化学成分及其神经保护活性.方法 采用硅胶、C18反相硅胶、SephadexLH-20、AB-8大孔树脂柱色谱以及制备HPLC等方法对咖啡酸类化合物及类似物进行分离纯化,通过波谱学方法鉴定其结构,并采用MTT法对分离得到的化合物进行抗谷氨酸诱导神经母细胞瘤SH-SY5Y细胞株神经损伤的活性评价.结果 从牛蒡根55%乙醇提取物中分离得到8个咖啡酸类化合物,分别鉴定为l,5-O-二咖啡酰-3-O-(4-苹果酸甲酯)-奎宁酸(1)、3,5-二咖啡酰奎宁酸甲酯(2)、3,4-二咖啡酰奎宁酸甲酯(3)、4,5-二咖啡酰奎宁酸甲酯(4)、(2D-1,4-dimethyl-2-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-2-butenedioicacid (5)、绿原酸甲酯(6)、咖啡酸甲酯(7)、3,4,3’,4’-tetrahydroxy-δ-truxinate (8),经活性测试发现此类化合物均具有较好的神经保护活性.结论 牛蒡根的抗谷氨酸诱导神经损伤的活性与其含有的咖啡酸类化合物有关;化合物1为新化合物,化合物5为新天然产物,化合物2~4、6、7为首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物8为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  18. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  19. Determination of phenolic acids in olive oil by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiarelli, Francesca; Di Berardino, Sonia; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    A CZE method for the separation and quantitation of phenolic acids (cinnamic, syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic, caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic), extracted from extra virgin olive oil, was developed. The sample preparation involved the LLE and SPE extraction methods. CE separation was performed in a fused silica capillary of I.D.= 50microm using as a BGE 40 mM borate buffer at pH=9.2. The separation voltage was 18kV with corresponding current of 27-28 microA. Detection was accomplished with UV-detector at lambda=200nm. The proposed method was fully validated. A good repeatability of migration time (RSD% ranged from 0.81 to 1.63) and of corrected peak area (RSD% from 2.89 to 5.77) was obtained. The linearity of detector response in the range from 5 to 50 ppm was checked, obtaining the correlation coefficient R2 values in the range: 0.9919-0.9997. Some phenolic acids in real oil samples were detected and quantified with the proposed method. PMID:15506620

  20. Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  1. Chlorogenic acid protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongming Wu

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (CGA is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and is suggested to be a potential antiatherosclerotic agent due to its proposed hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CGA on atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and its potential mechanism. ApoE(-/- mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet without (control or with CGA (200 and 400 mg/kg or atorvastatin (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. During the study plasma lipid and inflammatory parameters were determined. Treatment with CGA (400 mg/kg reduced atherosclerotic lesion area and vascular dilatation in the aortic root, comparable to atorvastatin. CGA (400 mg/kg also significantly decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as inflammatory markers. Supplementation with CGA or CGA metabolites-containing serum suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation and stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. CGA significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Cholesterol efflux assay showed that three major metabolites, caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids, significantly stimulated cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that CGA potently reduces atherosclerosis development in ApoE(-/- mice and promotes cholesterol efflux from RAW264.7 macrophages. Caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids may be the potential active compounds accounting for the in vivo effect of CGA.

  2. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography of isoflavones and phenolic acids on different stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejdus, B; Vacek, J; Lojková, L; Benesová, L; Kubán, V

    2008-06-27

    Complete separation of aglycones and glucosides of selected isoflavones (genistin, genistein, daidzin, daidzein, glycitin, glycitein, ononin, sissotrin, formononetin, and biochanin A) was possible in 1.5 min using an ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) on a different particular chemically modified stationary phases with a particle size under 2 microm. In addition, selected separation conditions for simultaneous determination of isoflavones together with a group of phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acid) allowed separation of all 19 compounds in 1.9 min. Separations were conducted on a non-polar reversed phase (C(18)) and also on more polar phases with cyanopropyl or phenyl groups using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.3% aqueous acetic acid and methanol. Chromatographic peaks were characterised using parameters such as resolution, symmetry, selectivity, etc. Individual substances were identified and quantified using UV-vis diode array detector at wavelength 270 nm. Limits of detection (3S/N) were in the range 200-400 pg ml(-1). Proposed U-HPLC technique was used for separation of isoflavones and phenolic acids in samples of plant materials (Trifolium pratense, Glycine max, Pisum sativum and Ononis spinosa) after acid hydrolysis of the samples and modified Soxhlet extraction. PMID:18501366

  3. Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and stimulatory roles of citrus fruits on some lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkin Reyhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in citrus fruits and their peels were determined, and their stimulatory roles on some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Phenolic compounds in citrus fruits such as mandarin, lemon, orange and grapefruit were determined either in the juices or in the peel extracts. Total phenolic content was determined in a spectrophotometer at 685 nm using the adapted Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content was measured using LC/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of the fruit juices and peel extracts on the selected lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B5448, Lb. casei NRRL B1922, Lb. acidophilus NRRL B4495 were investigated. The tested lactic acid bacteria were significantly affected by chlorogenic acid, hesperidin, naringin and caffeic acid compared to the control samples (P≤0.05. Antioxidant properties of fruit samples were also measured using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The phenolics positively affected the metabolism of bacteria, with the stimulatory effects of the assayed samples being influenced by the phenolic profile.

  4. Hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylans from millet brans-structural features and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijalwan, Vandana; Ali, Usman; Kesarwani, Atul Kumar; Yadav, Kamalendra; Mazumder, Koushik

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylans (HCA-AXs) were extracted from brans of five Indian millet varieties and response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions. The optimal condition to obtain highest yield of millet HCA-AXs was determined as follows: time 61min, temperature 66°C, ratio of solvent to sample 12ml/g. Linkage analysis indicated that hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylan from kodo millet (KM-HCA-AX) contained comparatively low branched arabinoxylan consisting of 14.6% mono-substituted, 1.2% di-substituted and 41.2% un-substituted Xylp residues. The HPLC analysis of millet HCA-AXs showed significant variation in the content of three major bound hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acid). The antioxidant activity of millet HCA-AXs were evaluated using three in vitro assay methods (DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene linoleate emulsion assays) which suggested both phenolic acid composition and structural characteristics of arabinoxylans could be correlated to their antioxidant potential, the detailed structural analysis revealed that low substituted KM-HCA-AX exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity compared to other medium and highly substituted HCA-AXs from finger (FM), proso (PM), barnyard (BM) and foxtail (FOXM) millet. PMID:27050114

  5. Diversity of (dihydro) hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in Colombian potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Zheng, Chaoya; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-08-15

    In potato tuber, caffeic acid (the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA)), its conjugates (HCAcs; i.e. chlorogenic acid (ChA), crypto-ChA, and neo-ChA), and anthocyanin-linked HCAs have been extensively described in the literature. In contrast, only little information is available on the occurrence of other HCAcs and didydrohydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (DHCAcs). Fifteen Colombian potato cultivars were screened for these less commonly described conjugates by reversed-phase ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and a heated electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer. A total of 62 HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs were found in extracts from peel and flesh. Among them, only twelve compounds were common to all cultivars in both peel and flesh. The less commonly described compounds accounted for 7.1-20.1% w/w of the total amount of HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs in whole tubers, highlighting their contribution to the total phenolic profile of potato tubers. Among all cultivars, the abundance (mg/100 g DW whole tuber) of neo-ChA (0.8-7.4) ranged in similar quantities as the less commonly reported feruloyl octopamine (1.2-5.2), 5-O-feruloyl quinic acid (0.1-7.5), cis-ChA (1.1-2.2), caffeoyl putrescine (0.6-2.5), sinapoyl hexose (0.1-1.8), N(1),N(14)-bis-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermine (0.2-1.7), N(1),N(10)-bis-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermidine (1.1-2.6), and N(1),N(5),N(14)-tris-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermine (trace - 11.1). PMID:23561213

  6. Development and validation of an HPLC-method for determination of free and bound phenolic acids in cereals after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irakli, Maria N; Samanidou, Victoria F; Biliaderis, Costas G; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    Whole cereal grains are a good source of phenolic acids associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. This paper reports the development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of phenolic acids in cereals in either free or bound form. Extraction of free phenolic acids and clean-up was performed by an optimised solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol on Oasis HLB cartridges using aqueous methanol as eluant. The mean recovery of analytes ranged between 84% and 106%. Bound phenolic acids were extracted using alkaline hydrolysis with mean recoveries of 80-95%, except for gallic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid. Both free and bound phenolic extracts were separated on a Nucleosil 100 C18 column, 5 μm (250 mm × 4.6 mm) thermostated at 30 °C, using a linear gradient elution system consisting of 1% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision and sensitivity. Detection limits ranged between 0.13 and 0.18 μg/g. The method was applied to the analysis of free and bound phenolic acids contents in durum wheat, bread wheat, barley, oat, rice, rye, corn and triticale. PMID:25005991

  7. Retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 inhibits CXCL2 production from microglial BV-2 cells via attenuation of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Moeka; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Shudo, Koichi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that retinoic acid receptor agonists such as Am80 exerts anti-inflammatory actions in the central nervous system, although detailed mechanisms of the action remain largely unknown. Our previous findings suggest that Am80 provides therapeutic effect on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice via suppression of expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2). Here we investigated the mechanisms of inhibitory action of Am80 on expression of CXCL2 and other pro-inflammatory factors in microglial BV-2 cells. Pretreatment with Am80 markedly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of CXCL2 mRNA and release of CXCL2 protein. Am80 had no effect on LPS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. On the other hand, Am80 prevented LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB complex. In addition, total expression levels of p65 and IκBα proteins, as well as of mRNAs encoding p65 and IκBα, were lowered by Am80. Dependence of CXCL2 expression on NF-κB was confirmed by the effect of an NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester that abolished LPS-induced CXCL2 expression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester also abolished LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α, which may be relevant to the inhibitory effect of Am80 on expression of these pro-inflammatory factors. We additionally found that Am80 attenuated LPS-induced up-regulation of CD14, a co-receptor for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These results suggest that inhibitory effect on TLR4 signaling mediated by NF-κB pathway underlies the anti-inflammatory action of retinoic acid receptor agonists in microglia. PMID:27351827

  8. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  9. Biotransformation and improved enzymatic extraction of chlorogenic acid from coffee pulp by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mancera, María Teresa; Baqueiro-Peña, Itzamná; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Rodríguez-Serrano, Gabriela; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The highest enzymatic extraction of covalent linked chlorogenic (36.1%) and caffeic (CA) (33%) acids from coffee pulp (CP) was achieved by solid-state fermentation with a mixture of three enzymatic extracts produced by Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Trametes sp. Enzyme extracts were produced in a practical inexpensive way. Synergistic effects on the extraction yield were observed when more than one enzyme extract was used. In addition, biotransformation of chlorogenic acid (ChA) by Aspergillus niger C23308 was studied. Equimolar transformation of ChA into CA and quinic acids (QA) was observed during the first 36 h in submerged culture. Subsequently, after 36 h, equimolar transformation of CA into protocatechuic acid was observed; this pathway is being reported for the first time for A. niger. QA was used as a carbon source by A. niger C23308. This study presents the potential of using CP to produce enzymes and compounds such as ChA with biological activities. PMID:23341203

  10. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates intestinal mitochondrial injury by increasing antioxidant effects and activity of respiratory complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Ruan, Zheng; Mi, Shumei; Jiang, Min; Li, Xiaolan; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyphenols are thought to be beneficial for human health by acting as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is abundant in plant-based foods as an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of CGA on mitochondrial protection. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with CGA ameliorated the intestinal mitochondrial injury induced by H2O2; membrane potential was increased, mitochondrial swelling, levels of reactive oxygen species, contents of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and cytochrome c released were decreased. The beneficial effects of CGA were accompanied by an increase in antioxidant and respiratory-chain complex I, IV, and V activities. In trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats indicated that CGA supplementation improved mitochondria ultrastructure and decreased mitochondrial injury. Our results suggest a promising role for CGA as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant in combating intestinal oxidative injury. Daily intake of diets containing CGA, such as coffee and honeysuckle, may be useful for prevention of intestinal diseases. PMID:26824685

  11. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  12. Effect of milk on the urinary excretion of microbial phenolic acids after cocoa powder consumption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael; Khan, Nasiruddin; Monagas, Maria; Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-04-28

    Health effects of cocoa flavonols depend on their bioavailability, which is strongly influenced by the food matrix and the degree of flavanol polymerization. The effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanoids considering phase II metabolites of epicatechin has been the subject of considerable debate. This work studies the effect of milk at the colonic microbial metabolism level of the nonabsorbed flavanol fraction that reaches the colon and is metabolized by the colonic microbiota into various phenolic acids. Twenty-one human volunteers followed a diet low in polyphenols for at least 48 h before taking, in a random order, 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved either in 250 mL of whole milk or in 250 mL of water. Urine samples were collected before the intake and during three different periods (0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 h). Phenolic acids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS after solid-phase extraction. Of the 15 metabolites assessed, the excretion of 9 phenolic acids was affected by the intake of milk. The urinary concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyhippuric, hippuric, caffeic, and ferulic acids diminished after the intake of cocoa with milk, whereas urinary concentrations of vanillic and phenylacetic acids increased. In conclusion, milk partially affects the formation of microbial phenolic acids derived from the colonic degradation of procyanidins and other compounds present in cocoa powder. PMID:20222713

  13. Preparation and application of molecularly imprinted polymer for isolation of chicoric acid from Chicorium intybus L. medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Engy M; Madbouly, Adel; Ayoub, Nahla; El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized and applied for the extraction of chicoric acid from Chicory herb (Chicorium intybus L.). A computational study was developed to find a suitable template to functional monomer molar ratio for MIP preparations. The molar ratio was chosen based on the comparison of the binding energy of the complexes between the template and functional monomers. Based on the computational results, eight different polymers were prepared using chicoric acid as the template. The MIPs were synthesized in a non-covalent approach via thermal free-radical polymerization, using two different polymerization methods, bulk and suspension. Batch rebinding experiments were performed to evaluate the binding properties of the imprinted polymers. The best results were obtained with a MIP prepared using bulk polymerization with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker with a molar ratio of 1:4:20. The best MIP showed selective binding ability toward chicoric acid in the presence of the template's structural analogues, caffeic acid, caftaric acid and chlorogenic acid. PMID:26002213

  14. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  15. Phenolcarboxylic acids from medicinal herbs exert anticancer effects through disruption of COX-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yang; Sheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Aiyun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lu, Yin

    2014-09-25

    Integrated research of herbs and formulas characterized by functions of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis is one of the most active fields in traditional Chinese medicine. This paper strives to demonstrate the roles of a homologous series of phenolcarboxylic acids from these medicinal herbs in cancer treatment via targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a well-recognized mediator in tumorigenesis. We selected thirteen typical phenolcarboxylic acids (benzoic acid derivatives, cinnamic acid derivatives and their dehydration-condensation products), and found gallic acid, caffeic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B showed 50% inhibitory effects on hCOX-2 activity and A549 cells proliferation. 2D-quantitative method was introduced to describe the potential structural features that contributed to certain bioactivities. We also found these compounds underwent responsible hydrogen bonding to Arg120 and Ser353 in COX-2 active site residues. We further extensively focused on danshensu [d-(+)-β-(3,4-dihydoxy-phenylalanine)] or DSS, which exerted COX-2 dependent anticancer manner. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 could enhance the ability of DSS inhibiting A549 cells growth. Additionally, COX-2/PGE2/ERK signaling axis was essential for the anticancer effect of DSS. Furthermore, combined treatment with DSS and celecoxib could produce stronger anticancer effects in experimental lung metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. All these findings indicated that phenolcarboxylic acids might possess anticancer effects through jointly targeting COX-2 activity in cancer cells and provided strong evidence in cancer prevention and therapy for the herbs characterized by blood-activating and stasis-resolving functions in clinic. PMID:24916702

  16. The shikimic acid: an important metabolite for the Aglianico del Vulture wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Tamborra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shikimic acid is a precursor for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, tannins and flavonols. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is obtained by extraction of star anise from China, and at a yield of 3-7% it is used for the production of antiviral drug, e.g. oseltamivir. Unlike flavonoids which are only present in the grape skins, shikimic acid is present in the juice together with hydroxycinnamil tartaric acids (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Therefore, their content in white wines may not be negligible and their presence may explain the epidemiological studies that showed a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases also in people with moderate white wine consumption. The content of shikimic acid has been used to characterize wines. In southern Italy it has been used to distinguish Aglianico grape, which holds medium-high content, from Negroamaro, Primitivo and Uva di Troia grapes who have rather lower levels. It could be useful also to distinguish Fiano di Avellino (high value from Fiano Minutolo (low value. However, results of a recent work showed that the shikimic acid content decreases significantly during the ripening of the grapes and therefore its content in wine is strongly influenced by the harvest period. Finally, in a recent paper it was highlighted the increase in shikimic acid content at the end of fermentation in an Aglianico del Vulture wine, produced in the area of Rapolla (PZ, Italy municipality during the 2013 harvest. These last experimental results explain why the values of shikimic acid were lower in grapes and surprisingly higher in wines produced in the 2011 and 2012 harvest.

  17. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Burr Parsley (Caucalis platycarpos L., Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mornar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive method coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode-array detector (DAD and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS was optimized for the separation and identification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides and flavonoid aglycones in the extract of burr parsley (Caucalis platycarpos L.. Fragmentation behavior of flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids were investigated using ion trap mass spectrometry in negative electrospray ionization. The MS, MSn and UV data together with HPLC retention time (TR of phenolic acids and flavonoids allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA isomers, p-coumaroyl-quinic acids (p-CoQA, feruloylquinic acids (FQA, dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside as well as isolated chrysoeriol-7-O-rutinoside have been identified as constituents of C. platycarpos for the first time. An accurate, precise and sensitive LC-DAD method for quantification of four phenolic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, caffeic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric acid, four flavonoid glycosides (luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, and three flavonoid aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol in C. platycarpos extract was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision and accuracy. 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant phenolic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside was the predominant flavonoid glycoside.

  18. Topical activity of ascorbic acid: from in vitro optimization to in vivo efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, T; Koop, U; Düsing, H-J; Filbry, A; Sauermann, K; Jaspers, S; Wenck, H; Wittern, K-P

    2004-01-01

    We present here a new cosmetic formula system containing 3% ascorbic acid based on an optimized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. This formulation demonstrated a good long-term stability of the active ingredient and also of the emulsion itself. It could be deduced from in vitro release studies that this O/W emulsion enabled a better release of the hydrophilic active agent than an alternative W/O emulsion. By measuring the ultraweak photon emission, which is a well-established parameter for the oxidative stress in the skin, the high in vivo antioxidant capacity of 3% ascorbic acid was demonstrated after 1 week of product application. This placebo-controlled study also proved that ascorbic acid in an O/W cream reduced oxidative stress in human skin significantly better than the derivative sodium ascorbyl-2-phosphate, a more stable vitamin C replacement commonly used in cosmetic formulations. With increasing age, the number of papillae in the epidermal-dermal junction zone in human skin are reduced. This implies a possible consequence of reduced mechanical resistance of the skin and impaired supply of the epidermis with nutrients. In a 1-month placebo-controlled study on 25 human volunteers, a significant increase in the number of dermal papillae after application of the 3% ascorbic acid cream was demonstrated, using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Fine lines and wrinkles are a characteristic sign of aged and especially photo-aged skin. Application of 3% ascorbic acid in a 12-week placebo-controlled usage study indicated a significant reduction of facial wrinkles. Altogether, 3% ascorbic acid in a cosmetic O/W emulsion has been shown to be appropriately stable and to enable a good release of the active agent in vitro as a precondition for a high efficacy in vivo. Application in vivo resulted in a significant reduction of oxidative stress in the skin, an improvement of the epidermal-dermal microstructure and a reduction of fine lines and wrinkles in aged skin. These

  19. Possible involvement of phospholipase C and protein kinase C in stimulatory actions of L-leucine and its keto acid, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, on protein synthesis in RLC-16 hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Kazumi; Morisaki-Tsuji, Naoko; Miura, Atsuhito; Funabiki, Ryuhei

    2002-11-01

    Effects of leucine and related compounds on protein synthesis were studied in RLC-16 hepatocytes. The incorporation of [(3)H] tyrosine into cellular protein was measured as an indexof protein synthesis. In leucine-depleted RLC-16 cells, L-leucineand its keto acid, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), stimulated protein synthesis, while D-leucine did not. Mepacrine, an inhibitor of both phospholipase A(2) and C canceled stimulatory actions of L-leucine and KIC on protein synthesis, suggesting a possible involvement of either arachidonic acid metabolism by phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, or phosphatidylinositol degradation by phospholipase C in the stimulatory actions of L-leucine and KIC.Neither indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, nor caffeic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxygenase, diminished their stimulatory actions, suggesting no involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism. Conversely, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methylglycerol, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, significantly canceled the stimulatory actions of L-leucine and KIC on protein synthesis, suggesting an involvement of phosphatidylinositol degradation and activation of protein kinase C. These results strongly suggest that both L-leucine and KIC stimulate protein synthesis in RLC-16 cells via activation of phospholipase C and production of diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate from phosphatidylinositol, which in turn activate protein kinase C. PMID:19003115

  20. Role of Chlorogenic Acids in Controlling Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningjian Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acids (CGAs are esters formed between caffeic and quinic acids, and represent an abundant group of plant polyphenols present in the human diet. CGAs have different subgroups that include caffeoylquinic, p-coumaroylquinic, and feruloyquinic acids. Results of epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of beverages such as coffee, tea, wine, different herbal infusions, and also some fruit juices is linked to reduced risks of developing different chronic diseases. These beverages contain CGAs present in different concentrations and isomeric mixtures. The underlying mechanism(s for specific health benefits attributed to CGAs involves mitigating oxidative stress, and hence the related adverse effects associated with an unbalanced intracellular redox state. There is also evidence to show that CGAs exhibit anti-inflammatory activities by modulating a number of important metabolic pathways. This review will focus on three specific aspects of the relevance of CGAs in coffee beverages; namely: (1 the relative composition of different CGA isomers present in coffee beverages; (2 analysis of in vitro and in vivo evidence that CGAs and individual isomers can mitigate oxidative and inflammatory stresses; and (3 description of the molecular mechanisms that have a key role in the cell signaling activity that underlines important functions.

  1. Role of Chlorogenic Acids in Controlling Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are esters formed between caffeic and quinic acids, and represent an abundant group of plant polyphenols present in the human diet. CGAs have different subgroups that include caffeoylquinic, p-coumaroylquinic, and feruloyquinic acids. Results of epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of beverages such as coffee, tea, wine, different herbal infusions, and also some fruit juices is linked to reduced risks of developing different chronic diseases. These beverages contain CGAs present in different concentrations and isomeric mixtures. The underlying mechanism(s) for specific health benefits attributed to CGAs involves mitigating oxidative stress, and hence the related adverse effects associated with an unbalanced intracellular redox state. There is also evidence to show that CGAs exhibit anti-inflammatory activities by modulating a number of important metabolic pathways. This review will focus on three specific aspects of the relevance of CGAs in coffee beverages; namely: (1) the relative composition of different CGA isomers present in coffee beverages; (2) analysis of in vitro and in vivo evidence that CGAs and individual isomers can mitigate oxidative and inflammatory stresses; and (3) description of the molecular mechanisms that have a key role in the cell signaling activity that underlines important functions. PMID:26712785

  2. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid with...... the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for...

  3. Stability of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate of vitamin C and its dynamics of scavenging superoxide anion radical%维生素C磷酸酯镁的稳定性及其清除超氧离子自由基的动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付思美; 畅芬芬; 车影; 王晓娟; 靳利娥; 阎果兰

    2013-01-01

    维生素C磷酸酯镁(magnesium aseorbyl phosphate,MAP)是维生素C(Vc)的替代品,由于其特有的性质而广泛应用在食品添加剂中.对比测定了MAP和Vc清除超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)的能力,研究了Vc和MAP在不同温度和不同保存时间后清除O2-·自由基的能力和稳定性;并拟合了不同温度下储存不同时间后MAP的抗氧化能力.结果表明,MAP在20℃下保存20 d对O2-·的清除能力仅减弱20%左右,半衰期为53 d;但Vc在20℃下保存10 d后清除O2-·的能力几乎完全消失.与此同时,不同温度下储存不同时间后MAP清除超氧阴离子自由基的反应为一级反应,采用拟合方程计算的抗氧化能力理论值和实验值基本相符.%Thanks to its peculiar properties, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) as a substitute of vitamin C (Vc) is widely used as food additive. This research compares the ability of MAP and Vc to scavenge superoxide anion radical (O2-·). Their ability to scavenge O2- · and their thermal stability were investigated in relation to storage at different temperature for different duration. Furthermore, their anti-oxidation ability was also examined in relation to storage at different temperature for different duration. Results show that the ability of MAP to scavenge O2- · is reduced by only about 20% after it is stored at 20 ℃ for 20 d, and in this case its half-life is 53 d. However, after being stored at 20 ℃ for 10 d, Vc nearly completely loses ability to scavenge O2-·. In the meantime, the reaction for MAP stored at different temperature for different duration to scavenge O2- · can be described with a first order dynamics equation, and its anti oxidation ability calculated based on the simulated equation well conforms to the experimental one.

  4. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  5. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Petri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS, and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group. In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation.

  6. 分离测定化妆品中维生素C、维生素C葡萄糖苷和曲酸的流动注射-毛细管电泳方法%Separation and determination of L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl glucoside and kojic acid in commercial cosmetics by FI-CE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴国; 张静姝; 刘秀美

    2008-01-01

    采用流动注射与毛细管电泳联用体系,建立了一种简单、快速、准确的测定化妆品中维生素C、维生索C葡萄糖苷及曲酸的新方法.实验所用的毛细管长度为30 cm(有效长度26.5 cm),检测波长为265 nm,运行缓冲溶液为20 mmol/L NaH2PO4(pH 7.10),运行电压10.0 kV.在此最佳条件卞,3种物质可在5 min内实现基线分离,样品的进样频率可达到30 h-1,3种物质的线性方程相关系数均大于0.9991.检测限(信噪比为3)分别为:维生素C 3.14ug/mL,维生素C葡萄糖苷2.67ug/mL,曲酸1.15ug/mL.方法的日内与日间的相对标准偏差均小于5.0%.该方法已用于市售化妆品中3种组分的含量测定,回收率在93.7%-104.1%之间,结果令人满意.

  7. 非水相酶促酯交换法合成抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯%Enzymatic Synthesis of L-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters via Transesterification of Oil and L-Ascorbic Acid in Organic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁红玲; 汤鲁宏; 陶文沂

    2007-01-01

    研究了一种L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯(AFAE)合成新途径.实验结果表明,氢化棕榈油、大豆油和海狗油等食用油脂作为脂肪酸基团供体,在固定化脂肪酶的催化下,在有机溶剂中与L-抗坏血酸直接进行酯交换反应形成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯.对反应介质体系的筛选发现,在叔戊醇中用Novozym435催化此反应所得的产物浓度最高.对影响合成抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的因素进行了探讨,确定了最适反应条件:初始油脂底物浓度为200~600 mmol/L,温度为55 ℃,反应时间为9 h.此条件下产物质量浓度可达43.51 g/L.

  8. In vitro gender-dependent inhibition of porcine cytochrome p450 activity by selected flavonoids and phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Bo; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Woll, Felicia; Zlabek, Vladimir; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated gender-related differences in the ability of selected flavonoids and phenolic compounds to modify porcine hepatic CYP450-dependent activity. Using pools of microsomes from male and female pigs, the inhibition of the CYP families 1A, 2A, 2E1, and 3A was determined. The specific CYP activities were measured in the presence of the following selected compounds: rutin, myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid. We determined that myricetin and isorhamnetin competitively inhibited porcine CYP1A activity in the microsomes from both male and female pigs but did not affect the CYP2A and CYP2E1. Additionally, isorhamnetin competitively inhibited CYP3A in both genders. Noncompetitive inhibition of CYP3A activity by myricetin was observed only in the microsomes from male pigs, whereas CYP3A in female pigs was not affected. Quercetin competitively inhibited CYP2E1 and CYP1A activity in the microsomes from male pigs and irreversibly CY3A in female pigs. No effect of quercetin on CYP2E1 was observed in the microsomes from female pigs. Neither phenolic acids nor rutin affected CYP450 activities. Taken together, our results suggest that the flavonoids myricetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin may affect the activities of porcine CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:25685784

  9. 香青兰酚酸性化学成分的研究%Phenolic Acid Constituents from Dracocephalum moldavica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小军; 宋建晓; 赵爱华; 贾伟

    2011-01-01

    从香青兰(Dracocephalum moldavica L.)乙醇提取物乙酸乙酯部位中分离得到8个酚酸性化合物,经过理化性质、波谱分析及文献对照,分别鉴定为amburoside A(1)、阿魏酸(2)、咖啡酸(3)、迷迭香酸(4)、迷迭香酸甲酯(5)、木犀草素(6)、山奈酚(7)和β-胡萝卜苷(8).其中化合物1~5为首次从该植物中分离得到.%To investigate the Phenolic acid constituents of Dracocephalum moldavica L, eight compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The compound structures were identified as amburoside A ( 1 ), ferulic acid ( 2 ), caffeic acid (3), rosmarinic acid ( 4 ), methyl rosmarinate ( 5 ), luteolin ( 6 ),kaempferol (7) ,and β-daucosterol (8) based on their spectral data. Among them,compounds 1-5 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  10. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-19

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding. PMID:26735581

  11. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K.; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding. PMID:26735581

  12. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  13. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... your baby. Learn how you can get the right amout of folic acid before and during pregnancy ...

  14. ACID RAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  15. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Folic acid ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  16. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Folic acid Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  17. Assessment of phenolic acid content and in vitro antiradical characteristics of hawthorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Nilgün; Tunçel, Muzaffer

    2011-06-01

    The infusions and extracts obtained from leaves with flowers, fruit peel, and seed from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Family Rosaceae) were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their total content of phenolics, levels of phenolic acids, and in vitro antiradical activity. Total phenolic content of extracts was determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant activity was determined for phenolic extracts by a method involving the use of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Phenolic acids containing extracts and infusions from hawthorn leaves, fruit peel, and seeds were obtained using different polarity solvents and separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which enabled improved separation by the use of a C(18) column, an acidic mobile phase, and gradient elusion. The highest total phenolic content (343.54 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g) and the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity as the inhibition percentage (60.36%) were obtained in ethyl acetate extract from hawthorn leaves with flower. Also, the highest phenolic acid content was measured in the extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers: protocathechuic (108-128 mg/100 g), p-hydroxy benzoic (141-468 mg/100 g), caffeic (137-3,580 mg/100 g), chlorogenic (925-4,637 mg/100 g), ferulic (3,363-3,462 mg/100 g), vanillic (214 mg/100 g), and syringic (126 mg/100 g) acids. The results indicate that hawthorn is a promising plant because of its high antioxidant activity. PMID:21554133

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Rosmarinic Acid,Caffeic Acid and Ferulic Acid in Water-soluble Extract of Rosemary by LC/MS/MS%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定水溶性迷迭香提取物中迷迭香酸、阿魏酸和咖啡酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许高燕; 刘莹雯; 银董红

    2006-01-01

    本文建立了一种同时快速测定水溶性迷迭香提取物中迷迭香酸、阿魏酸和咖啡酸含量的高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC/MS/MS)分析方法.以甲醇和0.1%乙酸铵溶液为HPLC的流动相;MS/MS使用多反应监测(MRM)扫描方式,在3 min内可完成迷迭香酸、阿魏酸和咖啡酸三种化合物的分离分析.上述三种分析物在5~500ng/mL范围内线性良好(r>0.999);检出限均低于5.0 ng/mL.本法操作简便、分析速度快、灵敏度高,可用于水溶性迷迭香提取物中迷迭香酸、阿魏酸和咖啡酸含量的测定.

  19. Determination of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, and Xanthines in Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Bojić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw material, different formulations of foods, and dietary supplements of mate demands control of the content of bioactive substances for which high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC, described here, presents simple and rapid approach for detections as well as quantification. Using TLC densitometry, the following bioactive compounds were identified and quantified: chlorogenic acid (2.1 mg/g, caffeic acid (1.5 mg/g, rutin (5.2 mg/g, quercetin (2.2 mg/g, and kaempferol (4.5 mg/g. The results obtained with TLC densitometry for caffeine (5.4 mg/g and theobromine (2.7 mg/g show no statistical difference to the content of total xanthines (7.6 mg/g obtained by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Thus, TLC remains a technique of choice for simple and rapid analysis of great number of samples as well as a primary screening technique in plant analysis.

  20. The efficacy of compounds with different polarities as antioxidant in emulsions with omega-3 lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Decker, Eric A.;

    2011-01-01

    evaluate the efficacy of antioxidants [ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl CLA and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid)] with different polarities in two different emulsion systems: o/w emulsion (5% oil) and w/o emulsion (98% oil) stabilized with citrem and PGPR, respectively. The efficacy of the...... antioxidants was compared to their partitioning in an o/w emulsion system and to results obtained from different antioxidant assays: iron reducing power, chelating activity and radical scavenging activity. For the w/o emulsions the efficacy of the antioxidants followed the polar paradox hypothesis: ascorbyl...

  1. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... endosomes (TWEEs) occurred unimpeded in the presence of OA, FM condensed in larger subapical structures by 1 h, implying a perturbed endosomal trafficking/maturation. The fluorescent lysosomotropic agent Lysotracker revealed induction of large lysosomal structures by OA. Endocytosis from the brush border...

  2. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in rice using solid-phase extraction and RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irakli, Maria N; Samanidou, Victoria F; Biliaderis, Costas G; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-07-01

    An analytical method based on an optimized solid-phase extraction procedure and followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with diode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxy-benzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and cinnamic acids), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, hyperoside, and rutin), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and flavanones (naringenin and hesperidin) in rice flour (Oryza sativa L.). Chromatographic separation was carried out on a PerfectSil Target ODS-3 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column at temperature 25°C using a mobile phase, consisting of 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid in water, methanol, and acetonitrile at a flow rate 1 mL min(-1) , under gradient elution conditions. Application of optimum extraction conditions, elaborated on both Lichrolut C(18) and Oasis HLB cartridges, have led to extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from rice flour with mean recoveries 84.3-113.0%. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and sensitivity. Repeatability (n = 5) and inter-day precision (n = 4) revealed relative standard deviation (RSD) acids and flavonoids in pigmented (red and black rice) and non-pigmented rice (brown rice) samples. PMID:22761138

  3. Characterization of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Myrcia bella Cambess. Using FIA-ESI-IT-MSn and HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS Combined with NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Dokkedal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Myrcia DC. ex Guill species are used in traditional medicine and are also exploited commercially as herbal drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present work aimed to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of M. bella hydroalcoholic extract, due to these uses, since the existing legislation in Brazil determines that a standard method must be developed in order to be used for quality control of raw plant materials. The current study identified eleven known flavonoid-O-glycosides and six acylated flavonoid derivatives of myricetin and quercetin, together with two kaempferol glycosides and phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, ethil galate, gallic acid and quinic acid. In total, 24 constituents were characterized, by means of extensive preparative chromatographic analyses, along with MS and NMR techniques. An HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS and FIA-ESI-IT-MSn method were developed for rapid identification of acylated flavonoids, flavonoid-O-glycosides derivatives of myricetin and quercetin and phenolic acids in the hydroalcoholic M. bella leaves extract. The FIA-ESI-IT-MS techinique is a powerful tool for direct and rapid identification of the constituents after isolation and NMR characterization. Thus, it could be used as an initial method for identification of authentic samples concerning quality control of Myrcia spp extracts.

  4. Optimization of a method for determination of phenolic acids in exotic fruits by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuji, Tatiana S; Tonin, Fernando G; Tavares, Marina F M

    2010-01-20

    In this work, the separation of nine phenolic acids (benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, syringic, and vanillic acid) was approached by a 3(2) factorial design in electrolytes consisting of sodium tetraborate buffer (STB) in the concentration range of 10-50 mmol L(-1) and methanol in the volume percentage of 5-20%. Derringer's desirability functions combined globally were tested as response functions. An optimal electrolyte composed by 50 mmol L(-1) tetraborate buffer at pH 9.2, and 7.5% (v/v) methanol allowed baseline resolution of all phenolic acids under investigation in less than 15 min. In order to promote sample clean up, to preconcentrate the phenolic fraction and to release esterified phenolic acids from the fruit matrix, elaborate liquid-liquid extraction procedures followed by alkaline hydrolysis were performed. The proposed methodology was fully validated (linearity from 10.0 to 100 microg mL(-1), R(2)>0.999; LOD and LOQ from 1.32 to 3.80 microg mL(-1) and from 4.01 to 11.5 microg mL(-1), respectively; intra-day precision better than 2.8% CV for migration time and 5.4% CV for peak area; inter-day precision better than 4.8% CV for migration time and 4.8-11% CV for peak area; recoveries from 81% to 115%) and applied successfully to the evaluation of phenolic contents of abiu-roxo (Chrysophyllum caimito), wild mulberry growing in Brazil (Morus nigra L.) and tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Values in the range of 1.50-47.3 microg g(-1) were found, with smaller amounts occurring as free phenolic acids. PMID:19545963

  5. [Effect of drying methods on monoterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Mentha haplocalyx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shao-qing; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Yu-yang; Lu, Xue-jun; Sha, Xiu-xiu; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To provide a scientific basis for the selection of the appropriate drying method for Mentha Haplocalyx Herba (MHH), determine 2 monoterpenes, 4 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids in MHH by GC-MS and UPLC-TQ-MS methods, and investigate the effects of the drying methods on the changes in contents of these analytes. The qualities of products obtained with different drying methods were evaluated by the multivariate statistical method of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results showed that the drying methods had the greatest impact on menthol, caffeic acid, and rosemary acid, which were followed by chlorogenic acid and diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. The contents in these analytes processed with hot-air-drying method were higher than those with microwave-drying and infrared-drying methods at the same temperatures. The contents in these analytes processed under low temperature (40-45 °C) were higher than those under higher temperature (60-70 °C). Above all, the contents in phenolic acids processed with microwave fixation (exposed under microwave at 100 °C for several minutes) were obviously higher than those of not being processed, showing an inhibition of some enzymes in samples after fixation. The TOPSIS evaluation showed that the variable temperature drying method of 'Hot-Air 45-60 °C' was the most suitable approach for the primary drying processing of MHH. The results could provide the scientific basis for the selection of appropriate drying method for MHH, and helpful reference for the primary drying proces of herbs containing volatile chemical components. PMID:27245035

  6. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  7. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevi-Bid® ... If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor. ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call ...

  8. Stearic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  9. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  10. Effects of antioxidants on the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis during production of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2005-01-01

    In the production process of structured lipids, the influence of the addition of antioxidants before enzymatic acidolysis was investigated. Eight different antioxidants were screened: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid, EDTA, a...

  11. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  12. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  13. Induction of aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoid compounds in Scrophularia striata Boiss. cell culture in response to chitosan-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalipourazad, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohsen; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2016-10-01

    Manipulation of cell culture media by elicitors is one of most important strategies to inducing secondary metabolism for the production of valuable metabolites. In this investigation, inducing effect of chitosan on physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scrophularia striata Boiss. The results showed that chitosan concentration and time of elicitation are determinants of the effectiveness of the elicitor. Accumulation of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]), phenylpropanoid compounds (phenolic acids [PAs] and echinacoside [ECH]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and gene expression, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX], catalase [CAT]) activities were altered by changing the exposure time of elicitation. Results showed that, upon elicitation with chitosan, oxidative events were induced, antioxidant responses of S. striata cells were boosted through enhanced activity of an effective series of scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX), and biosynthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ECH and PAs [cinnamic, p-coumaric and, caffeic acids]). The increase in amino acid content and PAL activity at early days of exposure to chitosan was related with rises in phenolic compounds. These results provide evidence that chitosan by up-regulation of PAL gene differentially improves the production of phenylpropanoid compounds, which are of medical commercial value with good biotechnological prospects. PMID:27392152

  14. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Carbone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols, HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH• and ABTS+• assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  15. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of the 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway

  16. 不同产地和不同部位亚贡叶总酚酸含量测定%Determination of Total Phenolic Acid in Yacon Leaves ( Smallanthus Sonchifolius ) from Different Habitats and Different Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵河新; 何凡; 潘红艳; 王晓菲; 窦德强

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determinate the total phenolic acid in the leaves of yacon which from different habits and different parts by different control samples.Method: The content of total phenolic acid in the leaves of yacon was determined by UV spectrophotometry with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid as control samples.Results: The content of total phenolic acid in the leaves of yacon which from different places and different parts changes obviously.Conclusion: The content of total phenolic acid can be used as one of the indexes for the quality control and quantitative analysis of yacon leaves ( Smallanthus sonchifolius ).%目的:采用不同对照品测定不同产地及不同部位的亚贡叶中总酚酸的含量.方法:选用绿原酸和咖啡酸为对照品,利用紫外分光光度计通过测定吸光度计算不同产地及不同部位的亚贡叶中总酚酸的含量.结果:不同产地及不同部位亚贡叶中总酚酸的含量有所差异.结论:亚贡叶总酚酸的含量测定可作为亚贡叶的质量控制和定量分析指标之一.

  17. Formulation of ascorbyl phosphate in cosmeceutical products / Wallis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, Lonette.

    2012-01-01

    People and especially women are forever searching for new and improved ways to alter the appearance of their skin. Skin can be prematurely aged by various environmental factors, including prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (Brannon, 2007). The aging of skin is amongst other factors facilitated by the degradation of collagen in the connective tissue (Uitto, 1993:299–314) (as quoted by Fisher et al., 1997:1420). Vitamin C and its derivatives are known to have anti–oxida...

  18. Analysis of a series of chlorogenic acid isomers using differential ion mobility and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Jamie L; Khamis, Mona M; Mohammed Saeid, Waleed; Purves, Randy W; Katselis, George; Low, Nicholas H; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-08-24

    Chlorogenic acids are among the most abundant phenolics found in the human diet. Of these, the mono-caffeoylquinic acids are the predominant phenolics found in fruits, such as apples and pears, and products derived from them. In this research, a comprehensive study of the electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) dissociation behavior of the three most common mono-caffeoylquinic acids, namely 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA) and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA), were determined using both positive and negative ionization. All proposed structures of the observed product ions were confirmed with second-generation MS(3) experiments. Similarities and differences between the dissociation pathways in the positive and negative ion modes are discussed, confirming the proposed structures and the established MS/MS fingerprints. MS/MS dissociation was primarily driven via the cleavage of the ester bond linking the quinic acid moiety to the caffeic acid moiety within tested molecules. Despite being structural isomers with the same m/z values and dissociation behaviors, the MS/MS data in the negative ion mode was able to differentiate the three isomers based on ion intensity for the major product ions, observed at m/z 191, 179 and 173. This differentiation was consistent among various MS instruments. In addition, ESI coupled with high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ESI-FAIMS-MS) was employed for the separation of these compounds for the first time. By combining MS/MS data and differential ion mobility, a method for the separation and identification of mono-caffeoylquinic in apple/pear juice samples was developed with a run time of less than 1 min. It is envisaged that this methodology could be used to identify pure juices based on their chlorogenic acid profile (i.e., metabolomics), and could also be used to detect juice-to-juice adulteration (e.g., apple juice addition to pear juice

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools for Oxidative Deterioration of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Infant Formulas during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in the development of infant formulas enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs is to meet the consumers’ expectations with regard to high nutritional and sensory value. In particular, PUFAs may be prone to fatty acid oxidation that can generate potential rancid, metallic and/or fishy off-flavors. Although such off-flavors pose no health risk, they can nevertheless lead to rejection of products by consumers. Thus, monitoring autoxidation at its early stages is of great importance and finding a suitable analytical tool to perform these evaluations is therefore of high interest in quality monitoring. Two formulations of infant formulas were varied systematically in their mineral composition and their presence of antioxidants to produce 18 model formulas. All models were aged under controlled conditions and their oxidative deterioration was monitored. A quantitative study was performed on seven characteristic odor-active secondary oxidation products in the formulations via two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-HRGC-MS/O. The sensitivity of the multi-dimensional GC-MS/O analysis was supported by two additional analytical tools for monitoring autoxidation, namely the analysis of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. Furthermore, an aroma profile analysis (APA was performed to reveal the presence and intensities of typical odor qualities generated in the course of fatty acid oxidation. The photometrical analyses of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were found to be too insensitive for early indication of the development of sensory defects. By comparison, the 2D-HRGC-MS/O was capable of monitoring peroxidation of PUFAs at low ppb-level in its early stages. Thereby, it was possible to screen oxidative variances on the basis of such volatile markers already within eight weeks after production of the products, which is an earlier indication of oxidative deterioration

  20. Palmitic acid analogs exhibit nanomolar binding affinity for the HIV-1 CD4 receptor and nanomolar inhibition of gp120-to-CD4 fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Paskaleva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA is a novel and efficient CD4 fusion inhibitor to HIV-1 entry and infection. In the present report, based on in silico modeling of the novel CD4 pocket that binds PA, we describe discovery of highly potent PA analogs with increased CD4 receptor binding affinities (K(d and gp120-to-CD4 inhibition constants (K(i. The PA analogs were selected to satisfy Lipinski's rule of drug-likeness, increased solubility, and to avoid potential cytotoxicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PA analog 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP was most efficacious with K(d approximately 74 nM and K(i approximately 122 nM, ascorbyl palmitate (6-AP exhibited slightly higher K(d approximately 140 nM and K(i approximately 354 nM, and sucrose palmitate (SP was least efficacious binding to CD4 with K(d approximately 364 nM and inhibiting gp120-to-CD4 binding with K(i approximately 1486 nM. Importantly, PA and its analogs specifically bound to the CD4 receptor with the one to one stoichiometry. SIGNIFICANCE: Considering observed differences between K(i and K(d values indicates clear and rational direction for improving inhibition efficacy to HIV-1 entry and infection. Taken together this report introduces a novel class of natural small molecules fusion inhibitors with nanomolar efficacy of CD4 receptor binding and inhibition of HIV-1 entry.

  1. Synthesis of a graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite with magnetite as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of phenolic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a facile in-situ growth method for the deposition of magnetite (Fe3O4) particles on the surface of a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The high affinity of g-C3N4 for phenolic acids in combination with the magnetism of Fe3O4 provides an efficient means for magnetic solid phase extraction. The adsorption, desorption and recoveries were examined. Under optimized conditions, the method has limits of detection in the range from 17.5–42.6 ng mL−1 (at an S/N of 3), and precisions from 2.8–3.8 % (for n = 5). The method was successfully applied to the determination of protocatechuic, caffeic, and ferulic acids in Salicornia herbacea L. plant extracts. Recoveries ranged from 92.4–99.5 %. (author)

  2. Cichoric Acid Reverses Insulin Resistance and Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in the Glucosamine-Induced HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Wang, Yutang; Du, Qingwei; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-12-30

    Cichoric acid, a caffeic acid derivative found in Echinacea purpurea, basil, and chicory, has been reported to have bioactive effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and preventing insulin resistance. In this study, to explore the effects of CA on regulating insulin resistance and chronic inflammatory responses, the insulin resistance model was constructed by glucosamine in HepG2 cells. CA stimulated glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake by stimulating translocation of the glucose transporter 2. Moreover, the production of reactive oxygen, the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were attenuated. Furthermore, CA was verified to promote glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake and inhibited inflammation through PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. These results implied that CA could increase glucose uptake, improve insulin resistance, and attenuate glucosamine-induced inflammation, suggesting that CA is a potential natural nutraceutical with antidiabetic properties and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26592089

  3. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of chlorogenic acids and their metabolites in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yuji; Nakamura, Shun; Kondou, Naoki; Takasu, Yoshio; Ochiai, Ryuji; Masukawa, Yoshinori

    2007-10-15

    A method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine chlorogenic acids (CGAs), three isomers each of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (dCQAs), and their two metabolites, caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), in human plasma. In simultaneous multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) measurements using ESI-MS/MS with a negative ion mode, a deprotonated molecular ion derived from each of the 11 molecules was used as a precursor ion while three diagnostic product ions characteristic for each were selected for the qualitative analysis. To obtain maximal intensities for all diagnostic product ions, the collision energy was optimized for each one. LC separation was achieved under conditions of a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column combined with a gradient elution system using 50mM acetic acid with 3% acetonitrile aqueous solution and 50 mM acetic acid with 100% acetonitrile. In the quantitative analysis, one of the three diagnostic product ions for each of the 11 molecules was selected. Application of simultaneous LC-ESI-MS/MS MRM measurements to analyze the 11 standards spiked into blank human plasma indicated that all diagnostic product ions were detected without any interference, and that the sensitivity, linearity and recovery of this method were acceptable. When using this method to analyze those 11 molecules in the plasma after oral ingestion of 250 ml of a drink containing a green coffee bean extract (300 mg CGAs), all 11 molecules were identified and CQAs, FQAs and FA were quantified. CQAs, FQAs and dCQAs in human plasma were detected for the first time. This method should be useful to understand the biological and pharmacological effects of CGAs, such as improvement of human hypertension. PMID:17766198

  4. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  5. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on Melanogenesis of B16 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Rong Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (CGA, the ester formed between caffeic acid and l-quinic acid, is a widespread phenolic compound. It is part of the human diet, found in foods such as coffee, apples, pears, etc. CGA is also was widely used in cosmetics, but the effects of CGA on melanogenesis are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CGA on cell proliferation, melanin content and tyrosinase of B16 murine melanoma cells. Additionally, the enzymatic reactions of CGA in B16 melanoma cells lytic solution were detected by UV spectrophotometry. Results showed CGA at 30 and 60 μM significantly suppresses cell proliferation. 8-MOP at 100 μM significantly promotes cell proliferation, but CGA can counter this. Incubated for 24 h, CGA (500 μM improves melanogenesis while suppressing tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP co-incubated B16 melanoma cells. After 12 h, B16 melanoma cell treatment with CGA leads to an increase in melanin accumulation, however, after 48 h there is a decrease in melanin production which correlates broadly with a decrease in tyrosinase activity. CGA incubated with lytic solution 24 h turned brown at 37 °C. The formation of new products (with a maximum absorption at 295 nm is associated with reduction of CGA (maximum absorption at 326 nm. Therefore, CGA has its two sidesroles in melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells. CGA is a likely a substrate of melanin, but the metabolic product(s of CGA may suppress melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity.

  7. Analysis of phenolic acids as chloroformate derivatives using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citová, Ivana; Sladkovský, Radek; Solich, Petr

    2006-07-28

    In the presented study, a simple and original procedure of phenolic acids derivatization treated by ethyl and methyl chloroformate performed in an aqueous media consisting of acetonitrile, water, methanol/ethanol and pyridine has been modified and optimized. Seven phenolic acid standards-caffeic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, syringic and vanillic were derivatized into corresponding methyl/ethyl esters and subsequently determined by the means of gas chromatography connected to the flame-ionisation detector (FID). Some selected validation parameters as linearity, detection and quantitation limits and peak area repeatability were valued. The total time of gas chromatography (GC) analysis was 24 min for methyl chloroformate and 30 min for ethyl chloroformate derivatization. The more suitable methyl chloroformate derivatization was used for further experiments on the possibility of multiple pre-concentration by the direct solid phase microextraction technique (SPME). For this purpose, polyacrylate (PA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibres were tested and the extraction conditions concerning time of extraction, temperature and time of desorption were optimized. The most polar PA fibre gave the best results under optimal extraction conditions (50 min extraction time, 25 degrees C extraction temperature and 10 min desorption time). As a result, the total time of SPME-GC analysis was 74 min and an increase in method sensitivity was reached. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) of p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid esters after SPME pre-concentration were 0.02, 0.17, 0.2 and 0.2 microg mL(-1), respectively, showing approximately 10 times higher sensitivity in comparison with the original GC method. PMID:17723529

  8. Optimization of Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Ascorbyl Oleic Acid Ester by Neural Network%神经网络优化非水相脂肪酶催化合成抗坏血酸油酸酯的条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应艳杰; 邵平; 何晋浙; 孙培龙

    2009-01-01

    抗坏血酸油酸酯具有强抗氧化作用.为了获得脂肪酶催化合成抗坏血酸油酸酯的最适条件,主要研究了反应温度、脂肪酶量、油酸量对抗坏血酸油酸酯合成效果的影响.采用中心组合设计和动量梯度下降神经网络对反应条件网络进行训练仿真,并利用训练好的网络对催化酯化工艺条件进行预测.研究结果表明:经过训练的网络可以很好的模拟反应条件,得到了脂肪酶催化反应的最佳工艺参数.当抗坏血酸0.8g时,反应温度56℃,油酸量0.95g,固定化脂肪酶量0.74g,添加分子筛条件下,抗坏血酸油酸酯的转化率为46.5%.该方法为抗坏血酸酯化催化效果的预测提供了一条可行的途径.

  9. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  10. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  11. Diagnostic fragment-ion-based and extension strategy coupled to DFIs intensity analysis for identification of chlorogenic acids isomers in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae by HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Qian; Li, Ning; Wang, Zi-Jian; Lu, Jian-Qiu; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2013-01-30

    A method of modified diagnostic fragment-ion-based extension strategy (DFIBES) coupled to DFIs (diagnostic fragmentation ions) intensity analysis was successfully established to simultaneously screen and identify the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) by HPLC-ESI-MS(n). DFIs, such as m/z 191 [quinic acid-H](-), m/z 179 [caffeic acid-H](-) and m/z 173 [quinic acid-H-H2O](-) were determined or proposed from the fragmentation patterns analysis of corresponding reference substances for every chemical family of CGAs. A "structure extension" method was then proposed based on the well-demonstrated fragmentation patterns and was successively applied into the rapid screening of CGAs in FLJ. Considering that substitution isomerism is a common phenomenon, a full ESI-MS(n) fragmentation analysis according to the intensity of DFIs has been performed to identify the CGA isomers. Based on the DFIs and intensity analysis, 41 peaks attributed to CGAs including 4 caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), 7 CQA glycosides, 6 dicaffeoylquinic acids (DiCQA), 10 DiCQA glycosides, 1 tricaffeoylquinic acids (TriCQA), 4p-coumaroylquinic acids (pCoQA), 3 feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and 6 caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA) were identified preliminarily in a 65-min chromatographic run. It was the first time to systematically report the presence of CGAs in FLJ, especially for CQA glycosides, DiCQA glycosides, TriCQA, pCoQA and CFQA. All the results indicated that the method of developed DFIBES coupled to DFIs analysis was feasible, reliable and universal for screening and identifying the constituents with the same carbon skeletons especially the isomeric compounds from the complex extract of TCMs. PMID:23597880

  12. Retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  13. Amelioration by chicory seed extract of diabetes- and oleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) via modulation of PPARα and SREBP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Vardasbi, Safura; Ahmadian, Shahram; Nowrouzi, Azin; Ghaffari, Seyed Mahmood; Abdirad, Afshin

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed extract (CI) on hepatic steatosis caused by early and late stage diabetes in rats (in vivo), and induced in HepG2 cells (in vitro) by BSA-oleic acid complex (OA). Different dosages of CI (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml) were applied along with OA (1 mM) to HepG2 cells, simultaneously and non-simultaneously; and without OA to ordinary non-steatotic cells. Cellular lipid accumulation and glycerol release, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) content were measured. The expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) were determined. Liver samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Significant histological damage (steatosis-inflammation-fibrosis) to the cells and tissues and down-regulation of SREBP-1c and PPARα genes that followed steatosis induction were prevented by CI in simultaneous treatment. In non-simultaneous treatment, CI up-regulated the expression of both genes and restored the normal levels of the corresponding proteins; with a greater stimulating effect on PPARα, CI acted as a PPARα agonist. CI released glycerol from HepG2 cells, and targeted the first and the second hit phases of hepatic steatosis. A preliminary attempt to characterize CI showed caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and chicoric acid, among the constituents. PMID:23603006

  14. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  15. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  16. Retrobiosynthetic NMR studies with 13C-labeled glucose. Formation of gallic acid in plants and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid was studied in cultures of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in leaves of the tree Rhus typhina. Fungal cultures were grown with [1-13C]glucose or with a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose. Young leaves of R. typhina were kept in an incubation chamber and were supplied with a solution containing a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose via the leaf stem. Isotope distributions in isolated gallic acid and aromatic amino acids were analyzed by one-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. A quantitative analysis of the complex isotopomer composition of metabolites was obtained by deconvolution of the 13C13C coupling multiplets using numerical simulation methods. This approach required the accurate analysis of heavy isotope chemical shift effects in a variety of different isotopomers and the analysis of long range 13C13C coupling constants. The resulting isotopomer patterns were interpreted using a retrobiosynthetic approach based on a comparison between the isotopomer patterns of gallic acid and tyrosine. The data show that both in the fungus and in the plant all carbon atoms of gallic acid are biosynthetically equivalent to carbon atoms of shikimate. Notably, the carboxylic group of gallic acid is derived from the carboxylic group of an early intermediate of the shikimate pathway and not from the side chain of phenylalanine or tyrosine. It follows that the committed precursor of gallic acid is an intermediate of the shikimate pathway prior to prephenate or arogenate, most probably 5-dehydroshikimate. A formation of gallic acid via phenylalanine, the lignin precursor, caffeic acid, or 3,4, 5-trihydroxycinnamic acid can be ruled out as major pathways in the fungus and in young leaves of R. typhina. The incorporation of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose followed by quantitative NMR analysis of isotopomer patterns is suggested as a general method for biosynthetic studies. As shown by the plant experiment, this

  17. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  18. On the determination of minor phenolic acids of virgin olive oil by RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimidou, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the detection and determination of four minor phenolic acids present in the polar fraction of olive oil. Gallic, homovanillic, caffeic and ferulic acids, were separated on RP-HPLC and detected by using three different systems. Detection limits were determined for the four compounds. Variable wavelength UV detectors were found to be more suitable than diode array for quantitative information. However, diode array was required for qualitative information for unknown components present in olive oil. For the determination of sensitive phenolic compouds present in minor amounts the use of a more sensitive system, such as the electrochemical detector, was necessary.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue la detección y determinación de cuatro ácidos fenólicos minoritarios presentes en la fracción polar del aceite de oliva. Los ácidos gálico, homovanílico, cafeico y ferúlico fueron separados mediante RP-HPLC y detectados usando tres sistemas diferentes. Se determinaron los límites de detección para los cuatro componentes. Se encontró que los detectores UV a longitud de onda variable son más apropiados que los detectores de batería de diodos para la información cuantitativa. Sin embargo, el detector de batería de diodo fue necesario para la información cualitativa de componentes desconocidos en el aceite de oliva. Para la determinación de compuestos fenólicos sensibles, presentes en cantidades minoritarias, fue necesario el uso de un sistema más sensible, como es el detector electroquímico.

  19. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  20. Synthesis of Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Coupled between α-Lipoic Acid and Polyphenols by Using 2-(Piperazin-1-yl)ethanol Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeun, Go Heun; Lee, Seung Hwan; LIm, Yong Bae; Lee, Hye Sook; Lee, Bong Ho; Park, Jeong Ho [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Won, Mooho [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the previous paper (Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 2011, 32, 2997), the hybrid molecules between α-lipoic acid (ALA) and polyphenols (PPs) connected with neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol linker (linker-1) showed new biological activity such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. In order to increase the binding affinity of the hybrid compounds to cholinesterase (ChE), the neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (linker 1) was switched to the cationic 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol linker (linker 2). The IC{sub 50} values of the linker-2 hybrid molecules for BuChE inhibition were lower than those of linker-1 hybrid molecules (except 9-2) and they also had the same great selectivity for BuChE over AChE (> 800 fold) as linker-1 hybrid molecules. ALA-acetyl caffeic acid (10-2, ALA-AcCA) was shown as an effective inhibitor of BuChE (IC{sub 50} = 0.44 ± 0.24 μM). A kinetic study using 7-2 showed that it is the same mixed type inhibition as 7-1. Its inhibition constant (Ki) to BuChE is 4.3 ± 0.09 μM.

  1. Synthesis of Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Coupled between α-Lipoic Acid and Polyphenols by Using 2-(Piperazin-1-yl)ethanol Linker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous paper (Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 2011, 32, 2997), the hybrid molecules between α-lipoic acid (ALA) and polyphenols (PPs) connected with neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol linker (linker-1) showed new biological activity such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. In order to increase the binding affinity of the hybrid compounds to cholinesterase (ChE), the neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (linker 1) was switched to the cationic 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol linker (linker 2). The IC50 values of the linker-2 hybrid molecules for BuChE inhibition were lower than those of linker-1 hybrid molecules (except 9-2) and they also had the same great selectivity for BuChE over AChE (> 800 fold) as linker-1 hybrid molecules. ALA-acetyl caffeic acid (10-2, ALA-AcCA) was shown as an effective inhibitor of BuChE (IC50 = 0.44 ± 0.24 μM). A kinetic study using 7-2 showed that it is the same mixed type inhibition as 7-1. Its inhibition constant (Ki) to BuChE is 4.3 ± 0.09 μM

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of protection of thymine from sulphate radical anion under anoxic conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sudha Swaraga; M Adinarayana

    2003-04-01

    The rates of photooxidation of thymine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) have been determined by measuring the absorbance of thymine at 264 nm spectrophotometrically. The rates and the quantum yields () of oxidation of thymine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in [caffeic acid] is found to decrease the rate of oxidation of thymine suggesting that caffeic acid acts as an efficient scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ and protects thymine from it. Sulphate radical anion competes for thymine as well as for caffeic acid. The rate constant of sulphate radical anion with caffeic acid has been calculated to be 1.24 × 1010 dm3 mol-1 s-1. The quantum yields of photooxidation of thymine have been calculated from the rates of oxidation of thymine and the light intensity absorbed by PDS at 254 nm, the wavelength at which PDS is activated to sulphate radical anion. From the results of experimentally determined quantum yields (exptl) and the quantum yields calculated (cl) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ radicals show that exptl values are lower than cl values. The ' values, which are experimentally found quantum yield values at each caffeic acid concentration and corrected for SO$^{\\bullet-}_{4}$ scavenging by caffeic acid, are also found to be greater than exptl values. These observations suggest that the thymine radicals are repaired by caffeic acid in addition to scavenging of sulphate radical anions.

  3. Establishment and characterization of a Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) cell suspension culture: a new in vitro source of rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraroo, Amir; Mirjalili, Mohammad Hossein; Corchete, Purificación; Babalar, Mesbah; Fattahi Moghadam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    An in vitro approach to the production of rosmarinic acid (RA), a medicinally important caffeic acid ester, in a cell suspension culture (CSC) of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) has been investigated for the first time. The CSC was established from friable calli derived from shoot tip explants in Gamborg's B5 liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 20 mg/L L-glutamine, 200 mg/L casein hydrolysate, 5 mg/L benzyladenine (BA) and 1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The effect of nitrogen source (KNO3 and (NH4)2SO4) and their different concentrations on the fresh and dry weight (g/L), as well as RA content (mg/g dry weight) were measured. CSC growth measurements indicated a maximum specific cell growth rate of 1.5/day, a doubling time of 7.6 days and a high percentage of cell viability (96.4 %) throughout the growth cycle. Maximum cell fresh weight (353.5 g/L), dry weight (19.7 g/L) and RA production (180.0 mg/g) were attained at day 21 of culture. Cell growth and RA content were affected by nitrogen deficiency. Media containing 8.3 mM of total nitrogen (¼ of B5 standard medium) led to a minimum cell fresh weight (243.0 g/L), dry weight (17.4 g/L) and RA content (38.0 mg/g) after 21 days. The established CSC provided useful material for further optimization experiments aimed at a large-scale production of RA. PMID:26264595

  4. Effects of Environmental pH on Antioxidant Interactions between Rosmarinic Acid and α-Tocopherol in Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongpittaya, Ketinun; Panya, Atikorn; Phonsatta, Natthaporn; Decker, Eric A

    2016-08-31

    Antioxidant regeneration could be influenced by various factors such as antioxidant locations and pH conditions. The effects of environmental pH on the antioxidant interaction between rosmarinic acid and α-tocopherol in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were investigated. Results showed that the combined antioxidants at pH 7 exhibited the strongest synergistic antioxidant activity in comparison with the combinations at other pH conditions as indicated by the interaction index. A drop in pH from 7 to 3 resulted in a reduction in the synergistic effect. However, in the case of pH 3, an additive effect was obtained. Moreover, the effect of the pH on the regeneration of α-tocopherol by rosmarinic acid in heterogeneous Tween 20 solutions was studied using EPR spectrometer. The same was true for the regeneration efficiency, where the reaction at pH 7 exhibited the highest regeneration efficiency of 0.3 mol of α-tocopheroxyl radicals reduced/mol of phenolics. However, the study on depletions of rosmarinic acid and α-tocopherol revealed that the formation of caffeic acid, an oxidative degradation product of rosmarinic acid, could be involved in enhancing the antioxidant activity observed at pH 7 rather than the antioxidant regeneration. This study has highlighted that the importance of pH-dependent antioxidant interactions does not solely rely on antioxidant regeneration. In addition, the formation of other oxidative products from an antioxidant should be taken into account. PMID:27494424

  5. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  6. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  7. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other ... ACIDS are as follows:Improving mental development or growth in infants. Adding arachidonic acid (an omega-6 ...

  8. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience a reaction during the first few days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection. Symptoms ... symptoms may begin during the first 3 days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection and ...

  9. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  10. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  12. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  13. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  14. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  15. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Nucleic acid detection assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  19. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  1. Nucleic acid detection kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  2. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  3. Application of antioxidants during short-path distillation of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm-Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2007-01-01

    A specific structured lipid was produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid. The antioxidative effect of adding alpha-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate or citric acid (each in three different concentrations) was investigated before and after the purification process (short-path distillation), and...... was compared with a control without addition of antioxidant. The oxidative status and stability were characterized by peroxide and anisidine values, secondary volatile oxidation products and induction period. The antioxidants affected the oxidative status compared with the control: citric acid was...... prooxidative at low concentrations, but antioxidative at high concentrations. Addition of ascorbyl palmitate had an antioxidative effect at all concentrations employed. alpha-Tocopherol showed less antioxidative activity compared with ascorbyl palmitate and citric acid, and its efficacy was slightly decreased...

  4. Analysis of organic acids and phenols of interest in the wine industry using Langmuir–Blodgett films based on functionalized nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); García-Cabezón, C. [Department of Materials Science, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); García-Hernández, C.; Bramorski, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Blanco-Val, Y.; Martín-Pedrosa, F. [Department of Materials Science, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Kawai, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Rodríguez-Méndez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time functionalized NPs immobilized in LB films have been used as voltammetric sensors. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic properties toward phenols and acids found in wines. • Improved performance is due to combination of electrocatalytic NPs with the high surface/volume of LB films. • The potential applications in the wine industry have been evidenced. - Abstract: A chemically modified electrode consisting of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of n-dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles (S{sub DOD}AuNP-LB), was investigated as a voltammetric sensor of organic and phenolic acids of interest in the wine industry. The nanostructured films demonstrated interfacial properties being able to detect the main organic acids present in grapes and wines (tartaric, malic, lactic and citric). Compared to a bare ITO electrode, the modified electrodes exhibited a shift of the reduction potential in the less positive direction and a marked enhancement in the current response. Moreover, the increased electrocatalytic properties made it possible to distinguish between the different dissociable protons of polyprotic acids. The S{sub DOD}AuNP-LB sensor was also able to provide enhanced responses toward aqueous solutions of phenolic acids commonly found in wines (caffeic and gallic acids). The presence of nanoparticles increased drastically the sensitivity toward organic acids and phenolic compounds. Limits of detection as low as 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} were achieved. Efficient catalytic activity was also observed in mixtures of phenolic acid/tartaric in the range of pHs typically found in wines. In such mixtures, the electrode was able to provide simultaneous information about the acid and the phenol concentrations with a complete absence of interferences. The excellent sensing properties shown by these sensors could be attributed to the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles combined with the high surface to volume ratio

  5. Analysis of organic acids and phenols of interest in the wine industry using Langmuir–Blodgett films based on functionalized nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • For the first time functionalized NPs immobilized in LB films have been used as voltammetric sensors. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic properties toward phenols and acids found in wines. • Improved performance is due to combination of electrocatalytic NPs with the high surface/volume of LB films. • The potential applications in the wine industry have been evidenced. - Abstract: A chemically modified electrode consisting of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of n-dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles (SDODAuNP-LB), was investigated as a voltammetric sensor of organic and phenolic acids of interest in the wine industry. The nanostructured films demonstrated interfacial properties being able to detect the main organic acids present in grapes and wines (tartaric, malic, lactic and citric). Compared to a bare ITO electrode, the modified electrodes exhibited a shift of the reduction potential in the less positive direction and a marked enhancement in the current response. Moreover, the increased electrocatalytic properties made it possible to distinguish between the different dissociable protons of polyprotic acids. The SDODAuNP-LB sensor was also able to provide enhanced responses toward aqueous solutions of phenolic acids commonly found in wines (caffeic and gallic acids). The presence of nanoparticles increased drastically the sensitivity toward organic acids and phenolic compounds. Limits of detection as low as 10−6 mol L−1 were achieved. Efficient catalytic activity was also observed in mixtures of phenolic acid/tartaric in the range of pHs typically found in wines. In such mixtures, the electrode was able to provide simultaneous information about the acid and the phenol concentrations with a complete absence of interferences. The excellent sensing properties shown by these sensors could be attributed to the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles combined with the high surface to volume ratio and homogeneity

  6. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  7. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid and...... glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption of the...... enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid Neurolipidomics

    OpenAIRE

    Niemoller, Tiffany D.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives generated by enzymatic activity. Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects for vision, brain function, cardiovascular function, and immune-inflammatory responses. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid in the human body, is selectively enriched and avidly retained in the central nervous system as an acyl chain...

  9. Fatty acids and epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to assess the findings of recent studies on the effects of fatty acids on epigenetic process and the role of epigenetics in regulating fatty acid metabolism. Recent findings The DNA methylation status of the Fads2 promoter was increased in the liver of the offspring of mice fed an ?-linolenic acid-enriched diet during pregnancy. In rats, increasing total maternal fat intake during pregnancy and lactation induced persistent hypermethyl...

  10. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  11. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  12. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  13. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  14. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  15. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  16. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (Q43239) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_ZINEL 1e-112 ...

  18. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q8LL87|COMT 1_COFCA Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adeno ... -L-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) - Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee) 1.00E ...

  19. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q43239|COMT 1_ZINEL Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adeno ... -L-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) - Zinnia elegans (Zinnia) 3.00E-32 ...

  20. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 P28002|COMT 1_MEDSA Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adeno ... -L-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) - Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) 3.00E-33 ...

  1. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q9FQY8|COMT 1_CAPAN Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adeno ... -L-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) - Capsicum annuum (Bell pepper) 9.00E-33 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (Q8LL87) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_COFCA 1e-113 ...

  3. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q43047|COMT 3_POPKI Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 3 (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-ade ... -methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1) (COMT -3) (CAOMT-3) - Populus kitakamiensis (Aspen) (Popu ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (Q8GU25) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_ROSCH 1e-112 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (P28002) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_MEDSA 1e-113 ...

  6. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q43609|COMT 1_PRUDU Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adeno ... -L-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) - Prunus dulcis (Almond) (Prunus amygdalu ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (Q06509) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_MAIZE 1e-152 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (Q9FQY8) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_CAPAN 1e-112 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (O81646) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_CAPCH 1e-107 ...

  10. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q41086|COMT 2_POPTM Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 2 (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-ade ... -methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 2) (COMT -2) (CAOMT-2) - Populus tremuloides (Quaking aspen) ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (P46484) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_EUCGU 1e-113 ...

  12. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q9XGW0|COMT 1_OCIBA Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1 (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-ade ... -methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1) (COMT -1) (CAOMT-1) - Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil) 3.00 ...

  13. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q00763|COMT 1_POPTM Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1 (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-ade ... -methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1) (COMT -1) (CAOMT-1) - Populus tremuloides (Quaking aspen) ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (O82054) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_SACOF 1e-148 ...

  15. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q8W013|COMT 1_CATRO Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adeno ... -L-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) - Catharanthus roseus (Rosy periwinkle) ( ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (O23760) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_CLABR 1e-119 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (Q8W013) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_CATRO 1e-116 ...

  18. UniProt search blastx result: AK287483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287483 J043025M01 Q43046|COMT 1_POPKI Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1 (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-ade ... -methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase 1) (COMT -1) (CAOMT-1) - Populus kitakamiensis (Aspen) (Popu ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK064768 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064768 J013000A05 (Q43609) Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) (S-adenosysl-L-met ... hionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT ) (CAOMT) COMT 1_PRUDU 1e-113 ...

  20. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth of...