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Sample records for cafeeiro coffea arabica

  1. Avaliação da fertilidade dos solos de sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. em Lavras-MG Evaluation of soil fertility in agroforest systems with coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. in Lavras-MG

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    Bruno Grandi Salgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a fertilidade dos solos em um sistema agroflorestal composto por cafeeiros (Coffea arábica L. - Mundo Novo, ingazeiros (Inga vera Willd e grevíleas (Grevilea robusta A. Cunn, situado em Lavras, Minas Gerais, foi instalado o presente experimento. Usou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram: a cafeeiros a pleno sol, b cafeeiros consorciados com ingazeiros e c cafeeiros consociados com grevílea. Os espaçamentos dos cafeeiros nos três sistemas foi 4 x 1 m, para o ingazeiro 8 m x 15 m e para a grevílea 12 m x 10 m. Aos 15 anos de idade do cafeeiro e do ingazeiro e aos 9 anos da grevílea foram avaliadas as seguintes características dos solos, pH, acidez potencial (H+Al, alumínio trocável (Al+3, bases trocáveis (Ca+2 e Mg+2, potássio disponível (K+, fósforo disponível(P, enxofre (S, CTC efetiva (T, soma de bases (SB, saturação de bases (V e matéria orgânica (MO. Os resultados foram submetidos à analise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Após a análise dos dados, concluiu-se que, embora tenha havido diferenças entre alguns elementos estudados, as características químicas dos solos nos três sistemas não foram severamente afetadas.The objective of this wark was to evaluat e the soil fertility in an agroforest system using coffee trees (Coffea arabica L - Mundo Novo, inga trees (Inga vera Wild and grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta A Cunn situated in Lavras, Minas Geris. A completely randomized experimental design with tree treatments and seven replicates was utilized. The treatments were : a coffee trees in full sunshine; b coffee trees mixed with inga trees and c coffee trees mixed with grevillea trees. Tree spacings in the three systems were 4 x 1m for coffee, 8 m x 15 m for inga and 12 x 10 m for grevillea. With coffee and inga trees at 15 years of age and grevillea trees at 9 years of age

  2. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiros C. Arabica L. enxertados sobre cultivar 'Apoatã IAC 2258' (Coffea canephora Performance of C. Arabica L. Coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cultivar (Coffea canephora

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    Renato Fonseca de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho avaliar a influência da enxertia e do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' no comportamento agronômico de sete cultivares de cafeeiro da espécie Coffea arabica cultivadas em solo isento de fitonematoides. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 x 3 com quatro repetições, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica ('Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' e três tipos de enxertia (muda enxertada, auto enxertada e pé franco. Foi avaliada a produtividade média de quatro anos, uniformidade de maturação, percentagem de frutos chochos e classificação do grão por tipo de peneira. As cultivares enxertadas estudadas apresentaram comportamento agronômico satisfatório em todas as características avaliadas e semelhante ao pé-franco. Em áreas isentas de fitonematoides, à exceção das cultivares 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1', as demais cultivares estudadas são adequadas opções de escolha para uso como copas. A técnica da enxertia com o uso do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' em área isenta de fitonematoides não se justifica para incremento de produtividade.This research had the objective to evaluate the effect of grafting and 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cv. as rootstock on agronomic performance of seven Coffea arabica cvs. planted in area nematodes free. The experimental design was randomized blocks using a 7x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. The treatments were 'Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' and 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258', self grafted (meaning a cultivar was grafted on a rootstock of the same cultivar and no grafting. The characteristic evaluated was the average yield of beans between the first and the fourth year, the fruit maturation stage

  3. Recuperação do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. após recepa, submetido a diferentes lâminas de água e parcelamentos da adubação = Recovery of coffee tree (Coffea arabica L. after pruning under different irrigation depths

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    Kelte Resende Arantes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando reduzir o período de recuperação das lavouras após a recepa, neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e do parcelamento da adubação sobre o crescimento do cafeeiro. Foram utilizadas quatro diferentes lâminas de irrigação (0, 40, 80 e 120% da ECA-Precipitação e três parcelamentos da adubação com N e K (quatro, oito e 12 vezes. O experimento foi conduzido no Sul de Minas Gerais, com o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica cv. Topázio MG-1190, plantado no espaçamento de 1,8 x 0,7 m e recepado 65 meses após o plantio. O delineamentoexperimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram altura da planta, diâmetro do ramo ortotrópico, número de internódios e diâmetro da copa. O crescimento do cafeeiro foi influenciado pela irrigação, mas não foi influenciado pelo parcelamento da adubação. A lâmina de 120% do saldo do balanço ECA - P proporcionou maior crescimento.In order to reduce the recovery period of the orchard coffeeafter pruning, this work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of different irrigation depths and splitting of N and K with fertirrigation on the growth of coffee plants. The experiment was carried out in southern Minas Gerais State with coffeaarabica cv. Topázio MG-1190 implanted with 1.8 x 0.7 m spacing. Irrigations corresponded to 0, 40, 80 and 120% of the evaporation from a Class A pan – precipitation (ECA-P and N and K split in 4, 8 and 12 applications. A randomized block design with four replicationswas used. Plant height, diameter of orthotropic branches, number of internodes and crown diameter were evaluated. The fertilizer splitting was found not to provide any increase in growth of the coffee plant. The depth of 120%*ECA-P provided the greatest growth ofcoffee plants when compared to others.

  4. Crescimento vegetativo e produção de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. recepados em duas épocas, conduzidos em espaçamentos crescentes Vegetative growth and yield of coffee plants (Coffea arabica L. in two different pruning times, conducted at different spacings

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    Sérgio Parreiras Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado na Fazenda Experimental da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG em Machado, Sul de Minas Gerais, em 1992, com o objetivo de avaliar as conseqüências da redução dos espaçamentos entre as linhas e entre as plantas na linha de plantio sobre a produção e a fenologia do cafeeiro(Coffea arabica L.. O delineamento experimental foi o blocos casualizados - DBC, em um arranjo fatorial 4 x 3 com parcela subdividida, sendo quatro distâncias entre as linhas (2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 3,5 m e três distâncias entre as plantas na linha de plantio (0,5; 0,75; 1,0 m, e duas épocas de poda (uma precoce feita logo após a colheita em de julho 2002 e a outra tardia em de janeiro de 2003, totalizando 24 tratamentos com três repetições. Em julho de 2002 e em janeiro de 2003 foi realizada a poda tipo "recepa", na qual foram conduzidas duas brotações por planta. Em agosto de 2004, avaliou-se o crescimento dos componentes vegetativos e a produção das parcelas. Os espaçamentos adotados não influenciaram o crescimento de nenhum dos componentes vegetativos das brotações no período avaliado. Todas as características vegetativas foram influenciadas positivamente pela adoção da poda precoce, assim como a produtividade da primeira colheita realizada após a poda, que foi também influenciada positivamente pela adoção de espaçamentos mais adensados. Os cafeeiros que foram submetidos à poda tardia não produziram, em julho de 2004, como aqueles podados precocemente.The experiment was established in the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - Epamig Experiment Station, located in the city of Machado, south of the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in the year of 1992, with the objective of evaluating the consequences of the reduction on planting spaces among rows and among plants, upon beans yield and plant phenology (Coffea arabica L.. The experimental design used was a 4x 3 factorial with split plot at

  5. Controle químico da ferrugem do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. e seus efeitos na produção e preservação do enfolhamento Practices of coffee rust control related to yield and leaves retention

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    Rodrigo Luz da Cunha

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho um melhor ajuste do controle da ferrugem do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. durante a fa-se de pré-colheita e verificar os seus efeitos sobre a produção e preservação do enfolhamento. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma lavoura da cultivar Acaiá Cerrado MG 1474, com seis anos de idade, no espaçamento adensado de 2,0 x 0,6 m, na qual foram testados fungicidas preventivos à base de cobre (oxicloreto de cobre e sulfato de cobre aplicados isoladamente e associados ao sistêmico epoxiconazole; também foi utilizado o produto sistêmico aplicado isoladamente. Os cúpricos aplicados preventivamente, isoladamente ou associados ao epoxiconazole foram eficientes no controle da ferrugem, quando a incidência da doença era baixa, preservando o enfolhamento e proporcionando boa produtividade.This study was carried out to evaluate methods of rust control, during pre-harvesting phase, and to verify plant yield and leaves retention. Coffee cultivar used was a 6-year-old Acaiá MG 1474, with 2.0 x 0.6 meters row spacing. Copper oxichloride and copper sulphate were applied alone and associated to the systemic fungicide epoxiconazole to be tested as preventive. Copper based fungicides applied preventively or associated to the systemic epoxiconazole were efficient to rust control when applied at low disease incidences, resulting in coffee leaf preservation and adequate yield.

  6. Faixas críticas de teores foliares de macronutrientes em mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. produzidas em tubetes Critical ranges of macronutrient content in leaves of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. grown in plastic pots

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    Sergio Moraes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar os teores foliares de macronutrientes em mudas de cafeeiro produzidas em tubetes. O experimento foi conduzido em viveiro localizado no Setor de Cafeicultura do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, no período de maio de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial simples 6 x 3 com quatro blocos, sendo seis níveis de adubação do substrato (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 e 200% da dose padrão de Osmocote por m³ de substrato e três estádios de desenvolvimento das plantas: 3, 4 e 5 pares de folhas. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: altura de planta (cm, diâmetro de caule (mm, área foliar (cm², massa seca de raiz (g, massa seca de caule (g, massa seca das folhas (g, massa seca de parte aérea (g, massa seca total (g e concentrações foliares de: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S. As faixas críticas de teores obtidas para macronutrientes são as seguintes: nitrogênio (2,26 a 2,62 dag/Kg; fósforo (0,22 a 0,25 dag/Kg; potássio (2,59 a 2,92 dag/Kg; cálcio (0,69 a 0,76 dag/Kg; magnésio (0,11 a 0,12 dag/Kg; enxofre (0,15 a 0,24 dag/Kg. Além disso, constatou-se que o estádio de 4 pares de folhas verdadeiras é o ideal para a coleta de folhas visando à avaliação do estado nutricional das mudas.The aim of this study was to determinate the macronutrient content in leaves of coffee seedlings grown in plastic pots. The experiment was carried out at a greenhouse located in the coffee research area at the Agronomy Department of Lavras Federal University from May 2003 to January 2004. We used a block design in a sample factorial 6 x 3 with four blocks, where the substrate was treated with six levels of fertilization (50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 200% of standard fertilization with Osmocote for m³ substrate and the evaluations were performed at three stages of development (sampling times: three, four, and five pairs of

  7. Avaliação de produtividade de progênies de cafeeiro em dois sistemas de plantio Yield evaluation of coffee plant (Coffea arabica L. progenies in two tillage systems

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    Gladyston Rodrigues Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho analisar a influência do sistema de plantio (adensado e convencional e a produtividade de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L., resultantes do cruzamento de Catuaí Vermelho IAC 99 com Mundo Novo IAC 379-19. Foram utilizadas 29 progênies, na 4ª geração por autofecundação do 2º retrocruzamento de Catuaí Vermelho com Mundo Novo desenvolvidas pelo programa de Melhoramento Genético do Cafeeiro em Minas Gerais, coordenado pela EPAMIG. Utilizou-se como testemunha 13 cultivares, Topázio MG-1189 e 1189 SL, Catuaí Vermelho IAC-15, IAC-99 e IAC-144, Catuaí Amarelo MG-17, Rubi MG-1192 e 1192SL, Acaiá Cerrado MG-1474 e 1474 SL, Mundo Novo IAC379-19, IAC-376-4 e 376-4 SL. O experimento foi instalado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG em janeiro de 1996 no espaçamento de 3,50 x 1,00 m (sistema convencional e 1,80 x 0,60 m (sistema adensado. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos compostos por 42 progênies/cultivares com três repetições e seis plantas por parcela com a análise de variância, em parcelas subdivididas, onde cada biênio (agrupamento de colheita foi considerado como uma subparcela. Avaliou-se a produção de grãos em sacas de 60 kg de café beneficiado/ha. Verificou-se nos resultados que a produtividade inicial no sistema adensado foi maior que no sistema convencional, porém com base no desenvolvimento das plantas essa diferença tendeu a diminuir. Para ambos os sistemas de plantio, pode-se utilizar qualquer uma das cultivares uma vez que as mesmas comportaram-se de forma semelhante. As cultivares utilizadas como testemunha que apresentaram as maiores produtividades foram Topázio MG-1189 e 1189 SL, Rubi MG-1192 e 1192SL, Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e IAC 144 e Mundo Novo IAC-376-4 e 376-4SL.The present work was carried out in order to analyze the planting system (high and low plant stand influence on coffee trees (Coffea

  8. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

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    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  9. Genética de Coffea XXIV - Mutantes de Coffea arabica procedemtes da Etiópia Genetics of Coffea XXIV - Mutants of Coffea arabica from ethiopia

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    Alcides Carvalho

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários conjuntos de mudas de café da Etiópia foram recebidos em Campinas em 1952 e 1953, através do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos da América do Norte. Entre êsses cafeeiros foram observadas diversas variações, as quais vêm sendo analisadas sob os aspectos morfológico e genético. Verificou-se que o café recebido com a denominação de Eritrean Moca não é um híbrido da variedade mokka de Coffea arabica, mas intientifica-se com o mutante semper-florens e é homozigoto para o par de alelos sfsf. Pelas hibridações realizadas com a variedade murta notou-se que o alelo t, que caracteriza o café Bourbon, é freqüente no material provindo da Etiópia, embora também af ocorram plantas da variedade typica de constituição TTNaNa. Apesar de ainda não se terem identificado os alelos responsáveis pela variedade abyssinica, observou-se que alguns lotes de mudas são típicos dessa variedade e trazem os alelos TT, enquanto em outros nota-se segregação para plantas abyssinica menos características e estas, com freqüência, trazem os alelos tt. Quanto à côr dos brotos, pode-se concluir que o alelo br ocorre com bastante freqüência no material recebido e o alelo Br, em escala menor. Um novo alelo semi-erecta, recessivo, foi encontrado em plantas da Etiópia. Nos mesmos conjuntos também ocorrem plantas com tipo de ramificação semi-erecta não muito característica, provavelmente controlada por outros fatores genéticos. Observaram-se também cafeeiros com frutos e sementes grandes (macrocarpa nada se sabendo, todavia, a respeito de sua constituição genética. Plantas com cálice pouco desenvolvido foram notadas mais freqüentemente nos lotes de café Agaro e Cioiccie. Êste característico não è condicionado pelo alelo sd, da variedade goiaba, tendo-se apenas verificado uma interação entre os dois fatôres responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento foliar do cálice. Alguns conjuntos encerram plantas resistentes

  10. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources

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    Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The v

  11. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXXVIII. Observações sobre progênies do cultivar Mundo-Novo de Coffea arabica na estação experimental de Mococa Coffee breeding: XXXVIII-observation on progenies of the Mundo-Novo cultivars of Coffea arabica in the Mococa experimental station

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    Túlio R. Rocha

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Os dados analisados no experimento localizado em Mococa sobre a produtividade de 112 progênies dos cultivares Mundo-Novo S1 e S2, Bourbon-Amarelo, BourbonVermelho e Caturra-Vermelho de Coffea arabica no período de 1955 a 1971, indicaram que as de Mundo-Novo S1, de prefixos MP 474, MP 502, MP 469, MP 492 e MP 475, revelaram-se como as mais produtivas, assemelhando-se a algumas progênies 'Mundo--Novo' S2. Dentre estas, destacou-se a de prefixo MP 388-6, que atingiu o nível mais elevado de produção do experimento. As progênies de 'Mundo-Novo', em conjunto, produziram 44% a mais do que as de Bourbon-Amarelo e, estas, 60% a mais do que as de Bourbon-Vermelho e Caturra-Vermelho. A altura e o diâmetro da copa atingiram valores médios mais elevados para as progênies de 'Mundo-Novo'. Verificaram-se correlações positivas e altamente significativas entre altura média da planta e diâmetro médio da copa com a produção das progênies. As progênies mais produtivas revelaram rendimento (relação entre peso de café maduro e beneficiado de aproximadamente 6,0 e porcentagem de sementes normais, do tipo chato, acima de 80. Quanto ao tamanho das sementes do tipo chato, duas progênies 'Mundo-Novo' S1, MP 474 e MP 452, apresentaram peneira média maior, permi-tindo seleção de plantas com essa característica e com elevada produção.Coffee progenies of the Mundo-Novo cultivars of Coffea arabica were studied in an experiment located at the Mococa Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico in comparison with Bourbon-Amarelo, Bourbon-Vermelho and Caturra-Vermelho cultivars of the same species. During a period of 17 consecutive cropping years (1955-1971, Mundo-Novo yielded approximately 44% more than Bourbon-Amarelo and this cultivars yielded 60% more than Bourbon-Vermelho and Caturra-Vermelho. Among the 89 S1 'Mundo-Novo' progenies, MP 474, MP 502, MP 469, MP 492 and MP 475 yielded as much as the two best 'Mundo-Novo' S2 progenies. Greater

  12. Development and validation of SSR markers for Coffea arabica L.

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    Robson Fernando Missio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of developing new SSR markers for Coffea arabica, two enriched genomic libraries withprobes (GT15 and (AGG10 were constructed. A total of 835 clones were sequenced and 756 presented good quality sequences.Redundant sequences were observed for 113 clones (14.94%. SSRs were found in 287 clones (38%. An estimated size of417.5Kb of the C. arabica genome was sampled, with an average of one SSR per 1.46Kb. Dinucleotide repeats were morefrequent than trinucleotides. Four repeat sequences, (AG/CTn, (AC/GTn, (AAG/CTTn, and (AGG/CCTn represented 61.1%of the total observed. A total of 96 SSR primers were designed and tested by PCR for two C. arabica genotypes. Ninety new SSRmarkers were validated for further genetic studies of C. arabica.

  13. Avaliação e seleção de progênies F3 de cafeeiros de porte baixo com o gene SH3 de resistência a Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br. Evaluation and selection of Coffea arabica F3 progenies with low height and the leaf-rust SH3 resistence gene

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    Albano Silva da Conceição

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar e selecionar progênies F3 de cafeeiros de porte baixo com o gene SH3 de resistência à ferrugem, foram estudadas 36 progênies de cafeeiros tipo arábica (Coffea arabica L. , em geração F3, resultantes dos cruzamentos dirigidos entre as cultivares Catuaí Vermelho IAC 46 e Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81 com o acesso IAC 1110 (BA-10. Esse último, originário da Índia, é fonte dos genes SH2SH3 que conferem resistência a Hemileia vastatrix. O experimento, estabelecido em 1988 no Centro Experimental do Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas (SP, no delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com seis repetições, duas plantas por parcela e no espaçamento 3,0 x 1,8 m, utilizou como testemunha a cultivar Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81, totalizando 37 tratamentos. Avaliaram-se no campo, a produção de café (média de sete colheitas, vigor vegetativo, resistência à ferrugem, porte da planta, coloração das folhas novas e maturação dos frutos. Os frutos das plantas mais produtivas foram analisados em laboratório quanto ao rendimento, tipos de sementes, peneira média e massa de 1000 grãos. A análise da variância dos dados de produção das progênies evidenciou que houve diferenças significativas entre as progênies, ao nível de 1% de probabilidade, pelo teste F. Foram selecionadas 11 progênies com média superior à testemunha e dentro dessas, 39 cafeeiros. Das 25 progênies restantes foram selecionados mais 15 cafeeiros produtivos e resistentes ao agente da ferrugem. Desses 54 cafeeiros, foram selecionados os 18 que apresentaram peneira média acima de 15,5 e maior freqüência de grãos normais do tipo chato. As progênies dessas plantas selecionadas foram avaliadas na geração F4, em fase de mudas, quando se verificou que dez delas estavam em homozigoze para porte baixo. Com as 18 plantas, o Programa de Melhoramento do Café, no IAC, terá continuidade como progênies F4, visando à obtenção de nova cultivar de

  14. An EST-based analysis identifies new genes and reveals distinctive gene expression features of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondego, J.M.C.; Vidal, R.O.; Carazzolle, M.F.; Tokuda, E.K.; Parizzi, L.P.; Costa, G.G.L.; Pereira, L.F.P.; Andrade, A.C.; Colombo, C.A.; Vieira, L.G.E.; Pereira, G.A.G.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the world’s most important crops; it is consumed worldwide and plays a significant role in the economy of producing countries. Coffea arabica and C. canephora are responsible for 70 and 30% of commercial production, respectively. C. arabica is an allotetraploid from a re

  15. Quality of the surface of Coffea arabica wood

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    Pedro Paulo de Carvalho Braga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood of Coffea arabica L. is considered a a residue of the coffee industry and is widely used as a source of energy. Few studies have shown other destinations such as the manufacture of small objects and furniture with rustic design. The objective of this work was to find the best fit in cutting speed during machining planer trowel the wood of Coffea arabica, taking into consideration the quality of the machined surface. The wood from the Coffea arabica came from an 15 years planting, spacing 3 x 2 m, of the municipality of Machado / MG. The tree was pruned, unfolded and flattened, in order for getting cut-proof of 30 mm thick, with variables length and width. The machining tests were performed at the Laboratory of Wood Machining (DCF / UFLA, varying the cutting speed in plane trowel. The qualification of the machined surface was performed by the feed per tooth (fz, visual analysis (ASTM D 1666-87 and roughness Ra and Rz. It was used a completely randomized design with 30 repetitions. We conducted the analysis of variance test and the average of Scott-Knott, at 5% significance level. It was calculated the percentage of marks obtained for the feed per tooth. The results showed that the quality of machined surface with cutting speeds of 19 and 21 m∙s-1 and forward speed of 6 m∙min-1 were satisfactory with small surveys of fiber and low values of feed per tooth ( fz and roughness Ra and Rz.

  16. Projected Shifts in Coffea arabica Suitability among Major Global Producing Regions Due to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Oriana Ovalle-Rivera; Peter Läderach; Christian Bunn; Michael Obersteiner; Götz Schroth

    2015-01-01

    Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee ('Coffea arabica') within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s...

  17. Caracterização e dinâmica de colonização de Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de vries em frutos do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) Characterization and dynamic of colonization of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries in coffee fruits (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Tadeu Galvão Pereira; Ludwig Heinrich Pfenning; Hilário Antônio de Castro

    2005-01-01

    A presença de fungos em associação natural com frutos do cafeeiro é considerada um fator importante influenciando a qualidade do café. A influência negativa de algumas espécies de Aspergillus é conhecida, comprometendo inclusive a segurança do produto. Os relatos de fungos influenciando positivamente a qualidade se resumem à ocorrência de Cladosporium sp. associados a grãos que originaram cafés de boa qualidade, porém informações exatas sobre a espécie e a sua dinâmica no campo são escassas. ...

  18. O dimorfismo dos ramos em Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1950-06-01

    principal da planta ; (às vêzes também aí ocorrem gemas de um terceiro tipo, que dão origem a inflorescências; e as axilas das fôlhas dos ramos plagiotrópicos sòmente encerram gemas que dão nascimento a ramos plagiotrópicos ou a inflorescências, mas nunca a ramos ortotrópicos ; em algumas combinações genéticas, as gemas de inflorescências não se desenvolvem, sendo intensa a produção de ramos laterais secundários na época normal de florescimento do cafeeiro. Foram feitas várias combinações de enxertos, verificando-se que não há mudanças no hábito de crescimento dos ramos. A diferenciação dos ramos plagiotrópicos revelou ser permanente e imutável. O mesmo fenômeno se verifica em estacas enraizadas. Depois de se mencionar a variabilidade do ângulo que os ramos laterais formam com a haste principal, fêz-se referência especial à variedade erecta de Coffea arabica, que constitui uma mutação dominante em relação ao tipo normal, caraterizando-se por possuir ramos laterais verticais. As experiências de enxertia revelaram que, mesmo nesta variação, persiste o dimorfismo, pois as plantas obtidas pela enxertia de ramos laterais só formam arbustos baixos, apesar de os ramos crescerem em sentido vertical. Também aqui, para se obter uma planta enxertada erecta normal, é preciso enxertar a extremidade de um ramo ponteiro. Foram citadas algumas hipóteses que talvez expliquem êsse fenômeno. Chamou-se a atenção para o fato de a diferenciação já se processar nas gemas, apesar de os dois tipos de gemas vegetativas coexistirem, como acontece nas axilas das fôlhas, ao longo da haste principal.Dimorphism has been noted to occur in the branches of various plant genera such as Gossypium, Theobroma, Hedera, Musa, Araucária, Castilla and also in Coffea. This phenomenon is characterised by a somatic differentiation, which is usually of a permanent nature and can be propagated vegetatively . With Coffea, this dimorphism is characterised by

  19. Modelo agrometeorológico de estimativa do início da florada plena do cafeeiro Agrometeorological model for estimating the beginning of the flowering period for coffee crop (Coffea arabica L.

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    Aline Oliveira Zacharias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações efetuadas em cafeeiros adultos, em diferentes condições tropicais do Brasil, revelam que as gemas florais completam a maturação e entram em dormência, ficando prontas para a antese, quando o somatório da evapotranspiração potencial (ETp, a partir de abril, atinge cerca de 350 mm. O objetivo deste trabalho foi parametrizar e validar um modelo agrometeorológico de estimativa do início da fase da floração plena do cafeeiro arábica para as condições do Estado de São Paulo. Anotações fenológicas do café arábica, cultivares Mundo Novo e Catuaí, em fase adulta, foram obtidas de arquivos do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, referentes a duas regiões do Estado, Campinas e Mococa, no período de 1993 a 2005. Como indicador do fator térmico, relacionado com a fenologia do cafeeiro, considerou-se inicialmente o valor sugerido de 350 mm relativo ao somatório decendial de ETp, a partir de abril, e a quantidade mínima de chuva de 10 mm no decêndio, necessária para que as gemas maduras sejam induzidas à antese conforme o modelo original. Consideraram-se, também, outros valores de ETp e de graus-dia (GD e também de chuva mínima (1 a 10mm. O modelo agrometeorológico parametrizado, que considera os valores acumulados de ETp (335 mm ou de GD (1579 para as gemas florais atingirem a maturação e um mínimo de 7 mm de chuva para quebrar a dormência das gemas maduras, apresentou melhor capacidade de indicar a época da plena floração do cafeeiro arábica, com erros de estimativa inferiores ao do modelo original.Phenological observations made in adult coffee crops, under tropical conditions of Brazil, indicated that flowering buds complete the maturation and reach to the dormancy of the buds, being ready for the main flowering when the accumulated value of potential evapotranspiration (ETp, starting from April, reaches about 350 mm and a minimum amount of rainfall of 10 mm is necessary so that the mature buds are induced to

  20. Coffea arabica clones resistant to coffee leaf miner

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    Alex Paulo Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian arabica coffee production is based on a set of highly productive cultivars sexually propagated. All of them are susceptible to coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella, and most of them are also susceptible to coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix. Aiming to reduce the selection process of cultivars with multiple resistances to both biotic constraints, the Coffea arabica clones 760, 1059, 1064 and 1215 were evaluated under field conditions. The mean yield of four C. arabica clones was not statistically different from the experimental controls; however, the yield of clone 1059 was 21% higher than the control cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20. Leaf miner resistance level in all the evaluated clones remained the same as the mother plant’s. However, the same did not occur for resistance to H. vastatrix, due to the emergence of new pathogen races. In summary, it is potentially feasible the adoption of clone 1059 as a new clonal cultivar resistant to coffee leaf miner.

  1. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  2. Efeitos de tempos e temperaturas de condicionamento sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, L. sob condições ideais e de estresse térmico Effects of the times and temperatures of conditioning on the physiological quality of coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L. under ideal conditions and under thermal stress

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    Sílvia Mara Pacheco Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com a presente pesquisa estudar tempos e temperaturas mais adequadas para o condicionamento fisiológico e avaliar os efeitos desses tratamentos na germinação sob condições de estresse térmico, de sementes de cafeeiro armazenadas. O estudo foi conduzido nos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes e Técnicas Moleculares do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, utilizando-se sementes de café da cultivar Acaiá do cerrado. As sementes foram colhidas nos campos de produção da UFLA e armazenadas em condições de ambiente de agosto/2000 a janeiro/2001, quando foram submetidas ao condicionamento em água nas temperaturas de 15, 25 e 35ºC por 4, 8 12 dias de embebição. O condicionamento foi realizado em câmara tipo BOD, na presença de luz, e a aeração foi feita com compressores e bombas de aquário. Após cada tratamento, as sementes foram imediatamente submetidas à determinação do teor de água e avaliadas pelos testes de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação sob estresse térmico (20 e 35ºC e eletroforese de enzimas. Para comparação, foram utilizadas sementes sem tratamento de embebição. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que as sementes condicionadas em água a 15 e 25ºC apresentaram melhor desempenho da germinação em condições de estresse térmico; o condicionamento a 35ºC não foi apropriado; o condicionamento por 4 dias foi o menos eficiente em melhorar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e o condicionamento fisiológico em água mostrou-se eficaz ao revigoramento, principalmente a 25ºC por 12 dias.The goal of this work was the evaluation of the adequate times and temperatures for the physiological contitioning and effects of this techinique in the germination on stress conditions, of stored coffee seeds. The experiment was performed in the Seed and Molecular Techniques Laboratories of the UFLA's Agriculture Departament. The seeds used were from the cultivar Acai

  3. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXXI - Ensaio de populações F2 de híbridos entre cultivares de Coffea arabica Coffee breeding: XXXI - Results of a field trial comprising several F2 populations derived from hybridization between cultivars of Coffea arabica

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    A. Carvalho

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados referentes à produção de café cereja em seis anos consecutivos, de um ensaio em que seis populações F2 derivadas dos cultivares 'Mundo Novo', 'Bourbon Amarelo', 'Bourbon Vermelho', 'Caturra Amarelo' e 'Caturra Vermelho' são analisadas. Duas populações destacaram-se pela produtividade e tipo de planta, e alguns de seus representantes foram escolhidos para estudo da F3 e prosseguimento do plano de melhoramento. Dessas populações a mais promissora corresponde à F2 da hibridação entre a planta CP 374-19 de 'Mundo Novo' e CJ 24-6 de 'Bourbon Amarelo'. Analisaram-se as variações da produção em cada um dos seis anos consecutivos, separadamente e em conjunto, e também os dados referentes à produção acumulada de dois e quatro primeiros anos, a fim de compará-los com os dados de produção total dos seis anos de produções consecutivas. Os resultados mostram que a classificação das populações depois do quarto ano é bastante semelhante à obtida após a análise de seis anos de produção. A análise das plantas individuais mostrou que nas populações F2 estudadas é bastante reduzida a proporção de cafeeiros valiosos para prosseguimento da seleção.The existence of several major genetic factors affecting important agronomic characteristics has led the coffee breeders to use them in their breeding program. The gene Ct (reduced growth and xc (yellow pericarp and better out-turn have been used rather extensively in an attempt to reduce the height of the 'Bourbon Amarelo' and improve the out-turn of the 'Mundo Novo' cultivars. Some data of a series of hybrids between 'Bourbon Amarelo', 'Caturra Amarelo', 'Caturra Vermelho', 'Bourbon Vermelho' and 'Mundo Novo' are discussed in the present paper. As expected, due to the origin of these cultivars, the F2 generation showed little genetic variation. Some of the new recombinants carrying the desirable major genetic factors, were shown to be inferior to the

  4. Differential regulation of grain sucrose accumulation and metabolism in Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) revealed through gene expression and enzyme activity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Isabelle; Foucrier, Séverine; Prins, Anneke; Epalle, Thibaut; Eychenne, Magali; Kandalaft, Laurianne; Caillet, Victoria; Lin, Chenwei; Tanksley, Steve; Foyer, Christine; McCarthy, James

    2008-01-01

    * Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) are the two main cultivated species used for coffee bean production. Arabica genotypes generally produce a higher coffee quality than Robusta genotypes. Understanding the genetic basis for sucrose accumulation during coffee grain maturation is an important goal because sucrose is an important coffee flavor precursor. * Nine new Coffea genes encoding sucrose metabolism enzymes have been identified: sucrose phosphate synthase (CcSPS1, CcSPS2), sucrose phosphate phosphatase (CcSP1), cytoplasmic (CaInv3) and cell wall (CcInv4) invertases and four invertase inhibitors (CcInvI1, 2, 3, 4). * Activities and mRNA abundance of the sucrose metabolism enzymes were compared at different developmental stages in Arabica and Robusta grains, characterized by different sucrose contents in mature grain. * It is concluded that Robusta accumulates less sucrose than Arabica for two reasons: Robusta has higher sucrose synthase and acid invertase activities early in grain development - the expression of CcSS1 and CcInv2 appears to be crucial at this stage and Robusta has a lower SPS activity and low CcSPS1 expression at the final stages of grain development and hence has less capacity for sucrose re-synthesis. Regulation of vacuolar invertase CcInv2 activity by invertase inhibitors CcInvI2 and/or CcInvI3 during Arabica grain development is considered. PMID:18384509

  5. Caffeine inheritance in interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica x Coffea canephora (Gentianales, Rubiaceae

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    Regina H.G. Priolli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine inheritance was investigated in F2 and BC1F1 generations between Coffea arabica var. Bourbon Vermelho (BV and Coffea canephora var. Robusta 4x (R4x. The caffeine content of seeds and leaves was determined during 2004 and 2005. Microsatellite loci-markers were used to deduce the meiotic pattern of chromosome pairing of tetraploid interspecific hybrids. Genetic analysis indicated that caffeine content in seeds was quantitatively inherited and controlled by genes with additive effects. The estimates of broad-sense heritability of caffeine content in seeds were high for both generations. In coffee leaves, the caffeine content (BSH from the same populations showed transgressive segregants with enhanced levels and high BSH. Segregation of loci-markers in BC1F1 populations showed that the ratios of the gametes genotype did not differ significantly from those expected assuming random associations and tetrasomic inheritance. The results confirm the existence of distinct mechanisms controlling the caffeine content in seeds and leaves, the gene exchange between the C. arabica BV and C. canephora R4x genomes and favorable conditions for improving caffeine content in this coffee population.

  6. Chemical partitioning and antioxidant capacity of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babova, Oxana; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2016-03-01

    Green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora accessions from different geographical origin (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Honduras, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, Uganda and Vietnam) were extracted and the extracts analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of chlorogenic acids and caffeine content. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to identify chemical patterns separating the different species and accessions based on their geographical origin. C. canephora showed always a higher caffeine content with respect to C. arabica, whereas the C. arabica accessions from Kenya showed a higher chlorogenic acids and a lower caffeine content. The antioxidant capacity of green coffee extracts was assayed by the reducing power and DPPH assays. The antioxidant capacity correlated with the chlorogenic acids content. The results show that the C. arabica from Kenya possesses the highest chlorogenic acids/caffeine ratio and, among the C. arabica accessions, the highest antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the C. arabica from Kenya is the most suitable green coffee source for nutraceutical applications because of its high antioxidant capacity and low caffeine content.

  7. Chemical partitioning and antioxidant capacity of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babova, Oxana; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2016-03-01

    Green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora accessions from different geographical origin (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Honduras, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, Uganda and Vietnam) were extracted and the extracts analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of chlorogenic acids and caffeine content. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to identify chemical patterns separating the different species and accessions based on their geographical origin. C. canephora showed always a higher caffeine content with respect to C. arabica, whereas the C. arabica accessions from Kenya showed a higher chlorogenic acids and a lower caffeine content. The antioxidant capacity of green coffee extracts was assayed by the reducing power and DPPH assays. The antioxidant capacity correlated with the chlorogenic acids content. The results show that the C. arabica from Kenya possesses the highest chlorogenic acids/caffeine ratio and, among the C. arabica accessions, the highest antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the C. arabica from Kenya is the most suitable green coffee source for nutraceutical applications because of its high antioxidant capacity and low caffeine content. PMID:26837609

  8. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Rivera, Oriana; Läderach, Peter; Bunn, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Schroth, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee. PMID:25875230

  9. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Ovalle-Rivera

    Full Text Available Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee.

  10. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sob influência do sombreamento por Acacia mangium Willd Morphophysiological alterations in leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' shaded by Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Angélica Cordeiro Gomes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças na disponibilidade de radiação podem causar modificações na estrutura e função das folhas do cafeeiro, que podem responder de maneira diferencial à radiação por alterações morfológicas, anatômicas, de crescimento e na taxa fotossintética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características morfofisiológicas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sombreados por acácia (Acacia mangium Willd. na época seca e chuvosa no sul de Minas Gerais. As maiores taxas fotossintéticas e maiores espessuras da epiderme adaxial foram observadas na estação chuvosa nas linhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol. O sombreamento influenciou em menor espessura das folhas e em espaços intercelulares maiores no tecido esponjoso. Foi também verificada mudança na forma dos cloroplastos, os quais apresentaram-se mais alongados em folhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol quando relacionados aos arborizados.Light availability is one of the most important environmental factors affecting leaf structure and functions in coffee plants that can respond differently to radiation by changes in leaf anatomy, morphology, growth and photosynthetic rate. The objective of this research was evaluate some morphophysiological aspects in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' cropped under shelter trees in the south of Minas Gerais during the rainy and dry season. The shade caused lower leaves thickness and higher intercellular spaces in spongious tissue. There was also verified a change in chloroplast shape, which showed more elongated in coffee tree kept at full sunlight in relation to that ones maintained on shading.

  11. Brachiaria decumbens supresses the initial growth of Coffea arabica

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    Dias Guilherme Faus da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria decumbens is becoming one the most common weeds growing in young coffee orchards because, besides its fast growth and difficulty of control, new coffee orchards are usually established in pasture areas. In order to verify the effect of B. decumbens plant density on the early growth of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Amarelo, a competition experiment was conducted under semi-controlled humidity conditions. Soil collected in a Typic Haplustox was placed in 70 L asbestos cement boxes and one coffee seedling was planted in each box. The B. decumbens seedlings were transplanted to the boxes at the 2-4 leaf stage. Treatments consisted of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, and 60 weeds m-2. The experimental period started 120 days after transplanting and the experimental design was organized as completely randomized blocks, with four replicates. All coffee plant parameters evaluated were negatively affected by the interference. The most sensitive characteristics were leaf area (41.8% reduction with 8 plants m-2, reaching 68.7% at a density of 60 plants m-2. Therefore, at a density of 8 plants m-2 the reduction in leaf dry biomass was 41.4% compared with the check. At the density of 60 plants m-2 it was 72.8%. B. decumbens, at a density of 8 or more plants m-2, suppressed coffee plants during a growth period of 120 days.

  12. Modifications on leaf anatomy of Coffea arabica caused by shade of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Modifications on leaf anatomy in Coffea arabica shaded with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, compared to cultivation under full sun, were assessed. The leaves fully exposed to sunlight presented thicker cuticles and cellular walls, narrower epidermis cells, palisade parenchyma with longer cells, thicker lacunar parenchyma, fewer intercellular spaces and a larger stomata number. Leaves under dense shade presented a narrower cuticle and cellular wall; a mesophyll with smaller volume, but with larger intercellular spaces; and epidermis with thicker cells and a smaller stomata amount, surrounded by subsidiary cells of smaller dimensions. Plants grown under full sunlight presented higher values of net photosynthesis. The results evidenced that the species C. arabica has a wide range of phenotypic adaptation to changes in the radiation intensity.Adaptações de plantas da mesma espécie aos diferentes habitats, constituem a base da diferenciação entre folhas a pleno sol e folhas sob sombra e estão associadas a características anatômicas distintas. Para caracterizar tais mudanças em cafeeiros cultivados sob sombra de guandu (Cajanus cajan e a pleno sol, em Londrina, PR, foram realizadas avaliações de modificações ocorridas na anatomia foliar. As estruturas internas avaliadas foram: parede celular e cutícula; epiderme; mesofilo (parênquima paliçádico, parênquima lacunoso e espaços intercelulares e estômatos. Para todas as variáveis avaliadas observaram-se diferenças anatômicas entre folhas expostas ao sol e à sombra. As folhas expostas ao sol apresentaram cutículas e paredes celulares mais espessas, células da epiderme mais estreitas, parênquima paliçádico com células mais alongadas, parênquima lacunoso espesso e com poucos espaços intercelulares e maior número de estômatos. Folhas sob condições de denso sombreamento apresentam menor espessamento da cutícula e da parede celular; mesofilos com menores volumes, porém com

  13. Meta-analysis for heritability estimates of vegetative and reproductive traits of Coffea arabica L.Meta-análise para estimativas de herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Pereira Baliza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of informations resulting from independent studies has been difficulted in almost all scientific fields, mainly due to the great number of scientific papers published in recent years. As a result, summarizing information became a need. In this context, a meta-analysis was conducted with the objective of summarizing the estimates for the heritability for vegetative and reproductive traits of coffee (Coffea arabica L.. Heritability estimates were appraised regarding the following traits: average height of plant, average diameter of the canopy, vegetative vigor, production of processed coffee, yield and rust. The data regarding the heritability estimates are from scientific articles published in national and international journals, congress annals, PhD thesis and Master dissertations. The technique of meta-analysis summarized the estimates heritability from different studies and made possible to conclude that all of the appraised traits are highly inherited, reflecting the great genetic variety of coffee plants, and that is possible to reach satisfactory genetic gains in improvement programs in which those traits are evaluated. A compilação de informações advindas de estudos independentes tem sido dificultada em quase todos os campos da ciência, devido principalmente, ao grande número de trabalhos científicos publicados nos últimos anos. Assim, sumarizar informações tornou-se uma necessidade. Neste contexto, uma meta-análise foi conduzida com o objetivo de sistematizar as estimativas para a herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.. Foram avaliadas as estimativas de herdabilidade referentes aos seguintes caracteres: altura média da planta, diâmetro médio da copa, vigor vegetativo, produção de café beneficiado, rendimento e resistência a ferrugem. Os dados referentes às estimativas de herdabilidade são provenientes de artigos científicos publicados em revistas

  14. Caracterização de cultivares de Coffea arabica mediante utilização de descritores mínimos Characterization of Coffea arabica cultivars by minimum descriptors

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    Adriano Tosoni da Eira Aguiar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 70% do café produzido e comercializado mundialmente é oriundo de Coffea arabica. A espécie apresenta base genética estreita sendo as cultivares bastante aparentadas e originárias em sua maioria das tradicionais cultivares Típica e Bourbon. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar a eficiência de descritores mínimos na caracterização de cultivares de cafeeiros e como diferenciadores entre cultivares a serem submetidas ao processo de proteção de cultivares no Brasil. Foram avaliadas trinta e oito características botânicas ou tecnológicas das plantas, folhas, flores, frutos, sementes, assim como três características agronômicas. Utilizaram-se vinte e nove cultivares de cafeeiros selecionadas pelo Instituto Agronômico, sendo avaliadas trinta plantas de cada cultivar. Os resultados evidenciaram que apenas com a utilização das características porte, cor do fruto, resistência ao agente da ferrugem, Hemileia vastatrix e ciclo de maturação é possível obter uma discriminação eficiente dos diferentes grupos de cultivares avaliadas. A cor das folhas jovens e o diâmetro da copa revelaram-se importantes descritores na discriminação de cultivares do grupo Mundo Novo. Não foi possível, porém, identificar descritores eficientes na discriminação das cultivares dos grupos Catuaí Vermelho, Catuaí Amarelo e Icatu Vermelho.The species Coffea arabica is responsible for 70% of the world coffee production. The majority of cultivars has a narrow genetic origin, being derived basically from two old cultivars: Tipica and Bourbon. This investigation was carried out aiming at the characterization of selected cultivars of the Instituto Agronomico according to standard descriptors. Thirty five morphological or technological traits of canopy, leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds and three agronomic traits were evaluated in twenty nine cultivar lines of the current breeding program. The variables plant height, fruit

  15. Detecção de Xylella fastidiosa em germoplasma de cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Yorinori Marcos A.; Ribas Alessandra F; Ueno Bernardo; Massola Júnior Nelson S.; Leite Júnior Rui P.

    2003-01-01

    A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa possui uma ampla gama de plantas hospedeiras que inclui espécies de pelo menos 28 famílias de mono e dicotiledôneas. Em cafeeiro (Coffea spp.), a ocorrência dessa bactéria foi relatada previamente em cultivares da espécie Coffea arabica. Estudos foram realizados para determinar a presença de X. fastidiosa em diferentes espécies e híbridos interespecíficos de cafeeiro. As amostragens foram realizadas em dois anos consecutivos. As espécies de cafeeiro examinadas fo...

  16. Eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de cálcio, magnésio e enxofre por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica Efficiency of uptake, translocation and use of calcium, magnesium and sulphur in young Coffea arabica plants under the influence of the rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Tomaz; Silva, S.R.; Sakiyama, N. S.; H. E. P. Martinez

    2003-01-01

    O estudo da eficiência nutricional de plantas enxertadas de cafeeiro é importante para a seleção de combinações enxerto/porta-enxerto, visando ao desenvolvimento e produção máximos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em cultivo hidropônico, a eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de Ca, Mg e S por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica L., influenciada pelo porta-enxerto. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação por um período de 170 dias, em vasos que continham areia, c...

  17. Marcatori genetici per l'analisi, la caratterizzazione e la tracciabilità del caffè e delle due specie vegetali coffea arabica L.E coffea canephora.

    OpenAIRE

    Tornincasa, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Il caffè è uno dei più importanti prodotti del mercato internazionale, su cui si basano gli scambi commerciali di molti paesi. Esso si colloca tra i 5 prodotti agricoli economicamente più importanti del mondo ed è una risorsa economica essenziale per alcuni paesi in via di sviluppo. Nonostante il genere Coffea comprenda oltre 100 specie, solo due sono importanti dal punto di vista commerciale, vale a dire Coffea arabica (caffè Arabica) e Coffea canephora (caffè Robusta). Coffea arabica dà ...

  18. Authentication of Coffea arabica according to Triacylglycerol Stereospecific Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cossignani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food products. In the present research, an approach to characterize arabica and robusta varieties by structural analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG fraction is reported. The lipids were Soxhlet extracted from ground roasted coffee beans with petroleum ether, and the fatty acids (FA were determined as their corresponding methyl esters. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic method were elaborated by a chemometric procedure, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. According to the total and intrapositional FA composition of TAG fraction, the obtained results were able to characterize roasted pure coffee samples and coffee mixtures with 10% robusta coffee added to arabica coffee. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of the considered coffee mixture (90 : 10 arabica/robusta were elaborated by LDA procedure.

  19. Authentication of Coffea arabica according to Triacylglycerol Stereospecific Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossignani, L.; Simonetti, M. S.; Blasi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food products. In the present research, an approach to characterize arabica and robusta varieties by structural analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction is reported. The lipids were Soxhlet extracted from ground roasted coffee beans with petroleum ether, and the fatty acids (FA) were determined as their corresponding methyl esters. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic method were elaborated by a chemometric procedure, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). According to the total and intrapositional FA composition of TAG fraction, the obtained results were able to characterize roasted pure coffee samples and coffee mixtures with 10% robusta coffee added to arabica coffee. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of the considered coffee mixture (90 : 10 arabica/robusta) were elaborated by LDA procedure.

  20. Authentication of Coffea arabica according to Triacylglycerol Stereospecific Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossignani, L.; Simonetti, M. S.; Blasi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Stereospecific analysis is an important tool for the characterization of lipid fraction of food products. In the present research, an approach to characterize arabica and robusta varieties by structural analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction is reported. The lipids were Soxhlet extracted from ground roasted coffee beans with petroleum ether, and the fatty acids (FA) were determined as their corresponding methyl esters. The results of a chemical-enzymatic-chromatographic method were elaborated by a chemometric procedure, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). According to the total and intrapositional FA composition of TAG fraction, the obtained results were able to characterize roasted pure coffee samples and coffee mixtures with 10% robusta coffee added to arabica coffee. Totally correct classified samples were obtained when the TAG stereospecific results of the considered coffee mixture (90 : 10 arabica/robusta) were elaborated by LDA procedure. PMID:27547482

  1. Anatomia e desenvolvimento ontogenético de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer Anatomy and ontogenetical development of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer

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    D. M. Dedecca

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo anatômico de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer tem por finalidade fornecer informações básicas necessárias ao estudo da anatomia comparada das principais espécies e variedades de cafeeiros, cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo. Nesta primeira contribuição o autor realiza o estudo anatômico detalhado dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos da variedade typica, não se limitando apenas à anatomia descritiva dos diversos órgãos, mas também, sempre que possível, discutindo o desenvolvimento ontogenético das diversas partes do cafeeiro. No estudo da raíz e do caule procurou-se estabelecer a duração do desenvolvimento primário, assinalando o local de aparecimento, primeiramente do câmbio vascular e, posteriormente, do felógeno ou câmbio suberoso. Na discussão da anatonia das folhas mereceu especial atenção o estudo das domácias, sua morfologia e possível função. As flores são estudadas detalhadamente nos seus diversos elementos. Nos capítulos referentes à anatomia do fruto e da semente, além do estudo puramente descritivo das suas estruturas são ainda discutidas as diversas modificações verificadas durante o desenvolvimento do ovário e dos óvulos, respectivamente em fruto e sementes.The knowledge of the anatomy of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer should be considered as a basic contribution to the comparative study of the anatomy of coffee species and varieties cultivated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The detailed investigations carried out on the vegetative and reproductive organs of the coffee plant revealed the following. The roots at the end of the primary growth present a protostelic, poliarch (6, 7, 8, 9, 11 primary xylem bundles, and exarch structure, the following tissues or zone of tissues being visible: root cap, epidermis, exodermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, primary phloem and primary xylem. This primary growth has a very short duration and is very soon followed by the

  2. Genética de Coffea. XVIII - Variegação no cafeeiro Leaf variegation in coffee plants

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    A. Carvalho

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available A variegação das fôlhas do cafeeiro tanto em plantas novas como em plantas adultas tem sido freqüentemente observada. Plantas variegadas podem ocorrer espontaneamente nas progénies das diversas variedades de Coffea arabica L., motivo porque não devem constituir variedade distinta dessa espécie, como foi proposto por Cramer. As plantas variegadas em estudo puderam ser agrupadas em duas categorias, isto é, aquelas em que a variegação não se acha associada com anomalias na forma e textura das folhas e aquelas nas quais a variegação é acompanhada dessas anomalias. No primeiro grupo o padrão de variegação não é uniforme para tôdas as fôlhas, enquanto no segundo grupo o padrão é semelhante para tôda a planta. Usualmente apenas alguns ramos das plantas do primeiro grupo são variegados. Observou-se algumas vezes que as duas fôlhas do mesmo verticilo têm padrões semelhantes de variegação. Encontraram-se também fôlhas variegadas nas quais a metade da lâmina é variegada ou mesmo albina, enquanto a outra metade apresenta a côr verde normal. Os dados genéticos obtidos, embora preliminares para a maioria das plantas variegadas em investigação, permitiram concluir que o padrão de variegação da planta 180, pertencente ao primeiro grupo, é herdado pelo citoplasma e não é transmitido pelo pólen. O padrão de variegação da planta 253-21, pertencente ao segundo grupo, no entanto, parece ser transmitido pelo polen.Leaf variegation in coffee plants is a relatively common abnormality, and variegated seedlings have been found to occur spontaneously in progenies of most varieties of Coffea arabica L. For this reason it is thought that variegated types should not be described as distinct varieties, as it was done before by Cramer. Variegated coffee plants can be grouped in two categories : first, those in which variegated leaves are normal in shape and texture, but do not show a uniform variegation pattern; and second, those

  3. Produção de matéria seca, crescimento radicular e absorção de cálcio, fósforo e alumínio por coffea canephora e coffea arabica sob influência da atividade do alumínio em solução Dry matter production, root growth and calcium, phosphorus and aluminum absorption by coffea canephora and coffea arabica under influence of aluminum activity in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, o crescimento radicular e a absorção e distribuição do Ca, P e Al nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes de dois clones de café conilon (Coffea canephora (Mtl 25 e Mtl 27 e de uma variedade de café Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica, cultivados em solução nutritiva com atividade crescente de Al3+. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade para 5 L, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon, modificada. Após oito dias de adaptação, as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de Al de 0, 500, 1.000 e 2.000 µmol L-1, que corresponderam a atividades de Al3+ em solução, estimadas pelo software GEOCHEM, de 20,68, 50,59, 132,9 e 330,4 µmol L-1, respectivamente. Foram determinados os teores de Ca, Al e P na planta. O sistema radicular foi separado, para determinação da área e do comprimento. A variedade Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica apresentou-se menos sensível ao Al3+, quando comparada aos clones de conilon (Coffea canephora. O clone de conilon Mtl 25 foi menos sensível ao Al3+ em relação ao Mtl 27. O aumento da atividade de Al3+ promoveu redução nos teores de P e Ca nas folhas e raízes do cafeeiro, especialmente nos clones Mtl 25 e Mtl 27. O acúmulo de Al no sistema radicular e a restrição do transporte para a parte aérea são importantes fatores na tolerância de plantas ao Al3+.This study had the objective of evaluating the dry matter production, root growth, and the absorption and distribution of Ca, P and Al in the leaves, stem and roots of two Conilon (Coffea canephora coffee clones (Mtl 25 and Mtl 27 and the coffee variety Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica grown in nutrient solution with increasing Al3+ activity. The plants were cultivated in 5 L pots, containing modified Hoagland & Arnold nutrient solution. After eight days of adaptation, the plants were subjected to Al concentrations of 0, 500, 1.000 and 2.000 mol L-1, which

  4. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  5. Ekologi Penggerek Buah Kopi (Hypothenemus Hampei) Pada Tanaman Kopi Arabika (Coffea Arabica)Di Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Normauli

    2011-01-01

    Ecology Research Coffee Pod Borer (Hypotenemus hampei) at Arabica Coffee Plants (Coffea arabica) in District Pakpak Bharat had been conducted in March 2010 - April 2010. Research in the form of this survey sampled at 5 height is: A ≤ 700, 700 1000 meters above sea level. This study aims to (a) know H.hampei distribution pattern, (b) measuring the intensity of attacks H.hampei, (c) the composition of stadia development in H.hampei connect with...

  6. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  7. Eventos do processo de infecção de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides inoculados em folhas de Coffea arabica L

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    Josimar Batista Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre os eventos de pré-penetração, penetração e colonização de isolados de C. gloeosporioides, obtidos de mangueira e cafeeiro, quando inoculados em folhas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. da cultivar Catucaí Vermelho. As folhas foram selecionadas, padronizadas e lavadas, demarcando-se áreas circulares de 0,5 cm de diâmetro na face abaxial, inoculando-se uma alíquota de 20 µL da suspensão de conídios. Utilizou-se um isolado obtido de mangueira e dois isolados obtidos de cafeeiro com mancha manteigosa. Realizaram-se avaliações com 3, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 144 e 240 horas após a inoculação (hai. Todos os materiais foram processados e observados em microscópico eletrônico de varredura. Os conídios de todos os isolados aderiram freqüentemente nas depressões das células da epiderme e células-guarda dos estômatos, formando septo antes da germinação. A penetração, na maior parte, se deu por via direta e algumas vezes por estômatos. Isolados de cafeeiro germinaram em folhas de 6 a 8 hai, produzindo apressórios 12 hai e acérvulos de 96 a 144 hai. O isolado de mangueira germinou de 6 a 8 hai com formação de apressório de 8 a 12 hai e produziu novos conídios diretamente em hifas conidiogênicas. Não foi observada a formação acérvulos para este isolado.The present study was carried out with the objective to provide information on the pre-penetration, penetration and colonization events of isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from mango and coffee, when inoculated in coffee leaves. The cultivar Catucaí Vermelho was used in all experiments. Coffee leaves were selected, standardized and washed in sterile water. After that, circular areas of 0.5 cm in diameter were marked on the undersurface of the leaves. In the center of each circular area, 20 µL of spore suspension was deposited. One isolate from mango and two from coffee presenting blister

  8. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  9. The use of fatty acid profile as a potential marker for Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) for corn adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compositions of six coffee (Coffea arabica L.) varieties (Catuaí, Catuca, Burbourn, Mundo Novo, Rubí, and Topázio) known to produce good, intermediate and poor quality coffee were determined for the first time. Average area % of the FAMEs of the six varieties was: pa...

  10. Genética de coffea VII: hereditariedade dos caracteres de coffea arabica L. var. maragogipe hort ex froehner

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    C. A. Krug

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available A variedade maragogipe do Coffea arabica L. foi encontrada pela primeira vez por Crisógono José Fernandes, em 1870, no município baiano de Maragogipe onde, provavelmente, se originou por mutação. Desde 1933 esta variedade vem sendo estudada pela Secção de Genética do Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo, em Campinas, com o fim de se determinar a sua constituição genética. Muitas autofecundações, cruzamentos e back-crosses foram, então, realizados. Grande parte das plantas obtidas só puderam ser classificadas após a colheita do ano de 1940. Todas foram examinadas quanto à forma e dimensões das folhas e um grande número ainda quanto à forma e dimensões das flores, frutos e sementes. Verificou-se que o caráter maragogipe mostra dominância quase completa em F1, não sendo possivel uma separação das ciasses maragogipe puro e híbrido. Em F2, e nos back-crosses com as formas normais, obtiveram-se, respectivamente, relações de 3:1 e 1:1 entre plantas maragogipe e plantas normais, relações essas que demonstram que os caracteres do maragogipe são controlados por um único par de fatores genéticos dominantes, para os quais se propõe o símbolo Mg-Mg, derivado do próprio nome desta variedade.In the present article the results of the genetical analysis of the characters of the maragogipe variety of Coffea arabica L are presented. This variety which originated as a mutation from C. arabica L. var. typica Cramer, in 1870, in the State of Baía in North Brazil, represents a gigas form of that variety, having larger leaves, flowers and fruits, its plants being also taller; it is also known for its low productivity. Since 1933 a genetical analysis of this variety was undertaken, many of its plants being selfed and crossed with other maragogipe plants and also with individuals of the typica and bourbon varieties of C. arabica; two generations have been studied, including F2's and several back-crosses. It was concluded

  11. Aquaporins in Coffea arabica L.: Identification, expression, and impacts on plant water relations and hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniussi, Matilda; Del Terra, Lorenzo; Savi, Tadeja; Pallavicini, Alberto; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in the transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes, and thus play major roles in the regulation of plant water balance, as well as in growth regulation and response to abiotic stress factors. Limited information is currently available about the presence and role of AQPs in Coffea arabica L., despite the economic importance of the species and its vulnerability to drought stress. We identified candidate AQP genes by screening a proprietary C. arabica transcriptome database, resulting in the identification of nine putative aquaporins. A phylogenetic analysis based on previously characterized AQPs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum tuberosum allowed to assign the putative coffee AQP sequences to the Tonoplast (TIP) and Plasma membrane (PIP) subfamilies. The possible functional role of coffee AQPs was explored by measuring hydraulic conductance and aquaporin gene expression on leaf and root tissues of two-year-old plants (C. arabica cv. Pacamara) subjected to different experimental conditions. In a first experiment, we tested plants for root and leaf hydraulic conductance both before dawn and at mid-day, to check the eventual impact of light on AQP activity and plant hydraulics. In a second experiment, we measured plant hydraulic responses to different water stress levels as eventually affected by changes in AQPs expression levels. Our results shed light on the possible roles of AQPs in the regulation of C. arabica hydraulics and water balance, opening promising research lines to improve the sustainability of coffee cultivation under global climate change scenarios.

  12. Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.

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    Ednamar Gabriela Palú

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução desses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta, buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1 e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1. Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1 + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1 + AIB (1 mg.L-1+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1; para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1 e cinetina (4 mg.L-1.The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aimed to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce

  13. Soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates in coffee pulp (Coffea arabica) from seven cultivars at three ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Ramírez-Coronel, Ma Ascención; Aranda-Delgado, Eduardo; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    The contents of soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) were analyzed in coffee pulp (CP) of seven cultivars of Coffea arabica at three different ripening stages. Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of HCAs were evaluated and improved. HCAs were present mainly in the soluble fraction (68-97%). Chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid (94-98%) in the soluble fraction, whereas caffeic acid was the most abundant HCA found in the bound fraction (72-88%). Small amounts of free and bound ferulic and p-coumaric acids were also detected. The content of total HCAs in CP reached the maximum concentration at the semiripe stage (7.4-25.5 mg/g CP, dw) but decreased at the ripe stage for six of the seven cultivars. These findings suggest that unripe or semiripe coffee cherries, considered as defective cherries, are a potential inexpensive source of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids.

  14. Partial map of Coffea arabica L. and recovery of the recurrent parent in backcross progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Baião de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A partial map of Coffea arabica L. was constructed based on a backcross population and RAPD markers.From a total of 178 markers evaluated, only 134 that segregated 1:1 (P>0.05 were used to develop the map. Seventeenmarkers were not linked, while 117 formed 11 linkage groups, covering a genome distance of 803.2 cM. The maximumdistance between adjacent markers was 26.9 cM, and only seven intervals exceeded 20 cM. The markers were further used forassisted selection of the plants closest to the recurrent parent, to accelerate the introgression of rust resistance genes in thecoffee breeding program. Three BC1 plants resistant to coffee leaf rust and with high genetic similarity to ‘Catuaí’ wereselected and integrated in the following backcross cycles.

  15. Sensorial analysis of irradiated coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Maria E.M. Pinto e [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Saude Publica. Dept. de Nutricao

    2013-07-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and it is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The acceptance of coffee by consumers depends mainly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its flavor, body, color, acidity and aroma. Food irradiation is processing technology environmental friendly and safety which aimed at the improvement of food quality. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose various effects can be achieved resulting in increase the shelf life, disinfestation, microorganism load reduction, without causing sensory changes to the food. Sensory analysis is the examination of a food through the evaluation of the attributes sensorial of product. The objective this paper was to evaluate the sensory properties, acceptance and purchase intent by the consumer of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) after the irradiation process with doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0kGy by electron beam. (author)

  16. Sensorial analysis of irradiated coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffee is an important commodity and it is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The acceptance of coffee by consumers depends mainly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its flavor, body, color, acidity and aroma. Food irradiation is processing technology environmental friendly and safety which aimed at the improvement of food quality. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose various effects can be achieved resulting in increase the shelf life, disinfestation, microorganism load reduction, without causing sensory changes to the food. Sensory analysis is the examination of a food through the evaluation of the attributes sensorial of product. The objective this paper was to evaluate the sensory properties, acceptance and purchase intent by the consumer of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) after the irradiation process with doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0kGy by electron beam. (author)

  17. Effect of leaf Water potential on cold tolerance of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caramori Lázara Pereira Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Young coffee plants from cultivar Mundo Novo of Coffea arabica were grown without irrigation for 32 consecutive days, to evaluate the effect of leaf water potential on damage caused by low temperatures, under controlled conditions. A wide range of leaf water potentials were evaluated, from - 0.45MPa (wet soil at the beginning of the experimental period, to - 4.8MPa (severe leaf wilting at the end. Results showed that under moderate water stress, there was a higher frequency of undamaged plants and lower frequency of severely damaged plants. These results help explain part of the regional variability observed after a frost and stress the importance of new studies associating cold and drought tolerance in coffee.

  18. A Study of Allelopathy of Some Shade Trees to Coffea arabicaL. Seedlings

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    Adi Prawoto

    2006-05-01

    recommended as shade trees or intercrops with Arabica coffee and for D. zibethinusits cropping pattern must be arranged so the mineral competition could be maintained minimum. Key words: Allelopathy, Coffea arabica, Macadamia integrifolia, Cinnamomum burmani, Cassia siamea, Cassia spectabilis, mineral.

  19. Characterization of Coffea arabica monofloral honey from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Mazzafera, Paulo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2016-07-15

    In this study, samples of coffee honey produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were characterized based on their melissopalynology, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and mineral and caffeine contents. The caffeine content in the nectar from coffee flowers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blends of honey were obtained from three Coffea arabica crops, each with 10 colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera. All honey samples contained monofloral (75-78%) pollen belonging to C. arabica. Physicochemical parameters (total acidity, pH, moisture, dry matter, ash, and qualitative hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the approved limits established by EU legislation. Coffee honey contains high levels of ascorbic acid (294.68 mg kg(-1)) and low amounts of total flavonoids (3.51 ± 0.18 mg QE kg(-1)). The most abundant minerals were potassium and calcium (962.59 ± 154.3 and 343.75 ± 25.56 mg kg(-1), respectively). The caffeine content in coffee nectar (1.64 mg kg(-1)) was approximately 8-fold lower than that in honey (12.02 ± 0.81 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26948612

  20. Characterization of Coffea arabica monofloral honey from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Mazzafera, Paulo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2016-07-15

    In this study, samples of coffee honey produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were characterized based on their melissopalynology, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and mineral and caffeine contents. The caffeine content in the nectar from coffee flowers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blends of honey were obtained from three Coffea arabica crops, each with 10 colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera. All honey samples contained monofloral (75-78%) pollen belonging to C. arabica. Physicochemical parameters (total acidity, pH, moisture, dry matter, ash, and qualitative hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the approved limits established by EU legislation. Coffee honey contains high levels of ascorbic acid (294.68 mg kg(-1)) and low amounts of total flavonoids (3.51 ± 0.18 mg QE kg(-1)). The most abundant minerals were potassium and calcium (962.59 ± 154.3 and 343.75 ± 25.56 mg kg(-1), respectively). The caffeine content in coffee nectar (1.64 mg kg(-1)) was approximately 8-fold lower than that in honey (12.02 ± 0.81 mg kg(-1)).

  1. Novel Endophytic Trichoderma spp. Isolated from Healthy Coffea arabica Roots are Capable of Controlling Coffee Tracheomycosis

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    Temesgen Belayneh Mulaw

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest threats to coffee growers in East Africa are emerging vascular wilt diseases (tracheomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. Many Trichoderma species are known to be natural antagonists of these pathogens and are widely used in biological control of fungal plant diseases. More recently, several Trichoderma spp., which exhibited high antifungal activity have been isolated as endophytes. Consequently, we have investigated the presence and the antagonistic activity of endophytic Trichoderma isolated from roots of healthy coffee plants (Coffea arabica from the major coffee growing regions of Ethiopia. Our results showed that community of Trichoderma spp. in roots of C. arabica contains fungi from coffee rhizosphere, as well as putatively obligate endophytic fungi. The putatively “true” endophytic species, until now, isolated only from coffee plant ecosystems in Ethiopia and recently described as T. flagellatum and novel T. sp. C.P.K. 1812 were able to antagonize Fusarium spp., which cause coffee tracheomycosis. Moreover, we found that strains of these species are also highly antagonistic against other phytopathogenic fungi, such as Alternaria alternata, Botryotinia fuckeliana (anamorph: Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  2. Interaction between Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Intercropped Herbs under Field Conditions in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Pacheco Bustos; H. Jürgen Pohlan; Margot Schulz

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine released from decaying seeds and leaves accumulates in a soluble form in the soil. The compound is known to inhibit mitosis, reduce the access of nutrients and water to surrounding plants which is one of limiting problems in intercropped coffee plantations. The allelopathic interactions between coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and mint (Mentha piperita L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) could be a diversification alternative and...

  3. Population of Pratylenchus coffeae (Z. and growth of Arabica coffee seedling inoculated by Pseudomonas diminuta L. and Bacillus subtilis (C..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fauzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  4. Eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de cálcio, magnésio e enxofre por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica Efficiency of uptake, translocation and use of calcium, magnesium and sulphur in young Coffea arabica plants under the influence of the rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tomaz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da eficiência nutricional de plantas enxertadas de cafeeiro é importante para a seleção de combinações enxerto/porta-enxerto, visando ao desenvolvimento e produção máximos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em cultivo hidropônico, a eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de Ca, Mg e S por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica L., influenciada pelo porta-enxerto. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação por um período de 170 dias, em vasos que continham areia, como substrato, e solução nutritiva circulante. Utilizaram-se, como enxerto, quatro genótipos de Coffea arabica L.: as variedades Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e as linhagens H 419-10-3-1-5 e H 514-5-5-3, e, como porta-enxerto, três genótipos de C. canephora Pierre et Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conillon Muriaé-1, Robustão Capixaba (EMCAPA 8141 e um genótipo de Coffea arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além da utilização de quatro pés-francos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os contrastes entre médias compararam as mudas de pé-franco com as associações enxerto/porta-enxerto. A eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de Ca, Mg e S por mudas enxertadas de cafeeiro variou de acordo com a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. Somente a eficiência de translocação de Ca não foi alterada pela combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. A linhagem H 514-5-5-3 foi beneficiada na eficiência de uso de Mg e produção de matéria seca pelos porta-enxertos Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 e Apoatã LC 2258, e na eficiência de uso de Ca e S apenas pelo Mundo Novo IAC 376-4.Studies into the nutritional efficiency of grafted coffee plants is essential for the selection of graft/rootstock combinations for a maximum development and production. Our objective was the evaluation of the influence of rootstocks on the efficiency of uptake, translocation and use of Ca, Mg, and S in young

  5. Effect of 6-BA on nodal explant bud sproutings of Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo Efeito de 6-BA na brotação de gemas de explantes nodais de Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos da Silva Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee plants can be micropropagated by nodal bud sprouting using the 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA hormone. However, literature reports the use of a wide range of 6-BA, from 0.5 to 88.8 µM L-1. So, this study was performed to narrow that range. Nodal explants of Coffea arabica cv Mundo Novo obtained from in vitro plantlets were inoculated on gelled-MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-BA. Two assays were carried out: in the first one, 6-BA was used at concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µM L-1, being evaluated at 43 and 123 days. In the second experiment, dosis of 10, 20 and 30 µM L-1, have evaluated at 65 and 100 days. Treatments with 6-BA induced multiple sprouting from the nodal explants, which were best characterized around 100 days after inoculation. The nodal explants grew taller and showed multiple shoots, whereas the effect of 6-BA at 5 to 25 µM L-1 was similar to that with higher concentrations (50 and 100 µM L-1. Nodal explants yielded from 2.9 to 6.0 buds per node, achieving height of 1.3 to 1.5 cm at 5 to 25 µM L-1 of 6-BA, whereas they yielded from 4.3 to 4.9 buds per node but the sprouting grew about 0.8 cm at 50 and 100 µM L-1 of 6-BA. This study indicated that multiple sprouting of lateral buds can be induced by lower concentrations of 6-BA, for example, from 10 to 30 µM L-1, diminishing possible risks of somaclonal variation due to high levels of hormone concentration.O cafeeiro pode ser micropropagado via brotação de gemas laterais, aplicando o regulador de crescimento 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA. Entretanto, a literatura apresenta ampla variação da dose empregada, desde 0.5 a 88.8 µM L-1. Assim, este estudo visou otimizar doses para explantes nodais do cafeeiro C. arabica cv Mundo Novo. Explantes nodais, obtidos de plântulas cultivadas in vitro, foram inoculados em meio MS geleificado, com adição de diferentes concentrações de 6-BA. Foram feitos dois experimentos: no primeiro, 6-BA foi

  6. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  7. Leaf anatomy characterization of Coffea arabica plants at different seasonal periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the hindering factors for coffee plant growth and yield. This study aimed to analyze the anatomy of leaves grown during the rainy and dry seasons in nine Coffea arabica L. plants, previously described as tolerant or sensitive to water deicit, in order to identify structural features of drought tolerance. We measured the size and density of stomata and epidermal cells, the thickness of epidermis and mesophyll, the diameter of petiole and midrib, the thickness of phloem and xylem in the midrib and petiole, and the diameter and frequency of elements of xylem vessels. Differences observed between the leaf structure of coffee plants evaluated and the leaf growth conditions (rainy and dry seasons indicated that there is a favorable anatomical plasticity regarding drought conditions. Thicker palisade parenchyma and total limbo, larger radii of phloem and xylem in the petiole and midrib were considered as favorable structural features to cope with water scarcity and they could be used as criteria to select drought-resistant cultivars. The following coffee plants were considered as more adapted to drought: Geisha, Semperlorens, BA 10, IAC H 8105-7, IAC H 8421-2, and the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81.

  8. Leaf anatomy, ultrastructure and plasticity of Coffea arabica L. in response to light and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Francisco Pompelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation occurs at all organizational levels and across temporal scales within plants. However, the magnitude and functional significance of this plasticity is little explored in perennial species. We examined the influence of different light regimes and nitrogen (N availability on the morphological and physiological plasticity of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.. Potted plants were grown under full sunlight and shade (50% and were fertilized with Hoagland’s solutions containing 0, 16 or 23mM N. Most leaf traits responded to light with a classic full sunlight vs. shade dichotomy [e.g., compared with those grown under full sunlight, 50% leaves had a thinner palisade mesophyll and a lower leaf mass per area (LMA for improved light capture]. The outer periclinal cell walls in both epidermises exhibited thick epicuticular wax and three distinct layers. Chloroplasts of the mesophyll cells were densely occupied by thylakoids and starch grains. These characteristics were observed most clearly in plants supplemented by nitrogen or in those grown in shade conditions. Large starch granules were observed, but no membrane injuries were observed in either treatment. The plasticity index was high for the physiological traits that are associated with photoprotection and the maintenance of a positive carbon balance under shade but was low for most morpho-anatomical features.

  9. Estimation of leaf area in coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L. of the Castillo® variety

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    Carlos Andrés Unigarro-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models based on measurements of single leaf dimensions or a combination there are useful tools for determining individual leaf area (LA because they are non-destructive, precise, simple and economical methods. The present study was carried out at the Central Station Naranjal of Cenicafé, located in the Department of Caldas (Colombia, four models were defined using the variables length (L and/or width (W to estimate LA in coffee leaves of the Castillo® variety (Coffea arabica L.. Estimation of regression coefficients was performed using information recorded from 6,441 leaves (group 1, and their validation was performed using records from another 992 leaves (group 2. Leaves were collected from all strata of the canopy and ranged from 0.76 to 140 cm2 in LA. In addition to exhibiting coefficients of variation differing from zero based on t-tests at 1%, the evaluated models possess coefficients of determination between 0.93 and 0.99. Four expressions have developed and adjusted to estimate leaf area in individual leaves, based on the measurement of simple variables and non-destructive.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Vivek; Soumya, L; Bharadwaj, S; Chakra, Shilpa; Bhatt, Deepika; Sreedhar, B

    2016-01-01

    A novel green source was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles using dried roasted Coffea arabica seed extract. Bio-reduction of silver was complete when the mixture (AgNO3+extract) changed its color from light to dark brown. UV-vis spectroscopy result showed maximum adsorption at 459 nm, which represents the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of nanosilver. X-ray crystal analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit a cubic, face centered lattice with characteristic (111), (200), (220) and (311) orientations. Particles exhibit spherical and ellipsoidal shaped structures as observed from TEM. Composition analysis obtained from SEM-EDXA confirmed the presence of elemental signature of silver. FTIR results recorded a downward shift of absorption bands between 800-1500 cm(-1) indicting the formation of silver nanoparticles. The mean particle size investigated using DLS was found to be in between 20-30 nm respectively. Anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles on E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated diminished bacterial growth with the development of well-defined inhibition zones. PMID:26478284

  11. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CORRELATION OF COFFEE FRUIT (Coffea arabica DURING ITS RIPENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN DARÍO ARISTIZÁBAL TORRES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se correlacionaron las coordenadas del espacio de color CIELAB y la reflectancia en el espectro visible del epicarpio del fruto de café Coffea arabica, variedad Colombia, de 9 diferentes estados de desarrollo, con propiedades físicas como masa fresca y seca, contenido de humedad y diámetros, y propiedades mecánicas como fuerza de desprendimiento del fruto, firmeza, fuerza de fractura, deformación y energía requerida para fracturar la pulpa. Utilizando análisis de regresión lineal multivariado se obtuvieron modelos que predicen significativamente propiedades del fruto de café a partir del conocimiento de las coordenadas cromáticas (a* y/o b* o de la reflectancia para diferentes longitudes de onda discriminantes de estados de desarrollo, con un nivel de confianza del 99% y un R2 entre 78,5 y 99,9 %. Los resultados obtenidos podrían ser utilizados para el diseño de sistemas de recolección, clasificación y determinación rápida de la calidad del café.

  12. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  13. Observações citológicas em Coffea: XV - Microsporogênese em Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentadas as observações realizadas sôbre a microsporogênese nas variedades semperflorens e caturra, de Coffea arabica L. Notou-se que, no início da prófase, os cromossômios se colorem muito mal, não permitindo observações sôbre a sua morfologia; em paquitene, os cromossômios se apresentam com várias secções heteropicnóticas separadas por secções muito finas, que se colorem mal; o centrômero é bastante nítido e se acha ladeado de zonas bem heteropicnóticas; as extremidades dos braços dos cromossômios se colorem mal e se perdem no meio do citoplasma ; o nucléolo é bastante visível e a êle se acham ligados alguns cromossômios. É difícil determinar o número exato de cromossômios ligados ao nucléolo, tendo-se encontrado de 1 a 4. De paquitene a metáfase I, as fases se sucedem rapidamente. Em diplotene, os cromossômios são curtos, não mais se percebendo o centrômero. Em diaquinese os 22 pares de cromossômios se repelem pela sua parte mais colorida, onde se encontra o centrômero, e se unem pela parte clara, onde se notam os quiasmas ; o número de quiasmas, por célula, varia de 29 a 43 ; a média por bivalente é de 1,67, em semperjlorens, e 1,75, em caturra. Em metáfase I, o número médio de quiasmas, por bivalente,. é de 1,69, em semperjlorens, e 1,67, em caturra. Em anáfase I, os 22 pares de cromossômios se separam normalmente. Em telófase I, os cromossômios se colorem mal. Não há, praticamente, intercinese; os cromossômios contraem-se de novo e entram em anáfase II. A formação dos micrósporos é normal. Depois de soltos, ocorre a divisão nuclear, dando origem a dois núcleos com 22 cromossômios. Isto ocorre três a quatro dias antes da abertura das flores; o núcleo vegetativo é grande, esférico e homogêneo, colo-rindo-se mal; o núcleo reprodutivo é menor, reticulado, colore-se bem e se localiza na periferia da célula; ao seu redor se destaca uma por

  14. The Greater Phenotypic Homeostasis of the Allopolyploid Coffea arabica Improved the Transcriptional Homeostasis Over that of Both Diploid Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Bardil, Amélie; Baraille, Hélène; Dussert, Stéphane; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Dubois, Emeric; Severac, Dany; Dereeper, Alexis; Etienne, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    Polyploidy impacts the diversity of plant species, giving rise to novel phenotypes and leading to ecological diversification. In order to observe adaptive and evolutionary capacities of polyploids, we compared the growth, primary metabolism and transcriptomic expression level in the leaves of the newly formed allotetraploid Coffea arabica species compared with its two diploid parental species (Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora), exposed to four thermal regimes (TRs; 18-14, 23-19, 28-24 and 33-29°C). The growth rate of the allopolyploid C. arabica was similar to that of C. canephora under the hottest TR and that of C. eugenioides under the coldest TR. For metabolite contents measured at the hottest TR, the allopolyploid showed similar behavior to C. canephora, the parent which tolerates higher growth temperatures in the natural environment. However, at the coldest TR, the allopolyploid displayed higher sucrose, raffinose and ABA contents than those of its two parents and similar linolenic acid leaf composition and Chl content to those of C. eugenioides. At the gene expression level, few differences between the allopolyploid and its parents were observed for studied genes linked to photosynthesis, respiration and the circadian clock, whereas genes linked to redox activity showed a greater capacity of the allopolyploid for homeostasis. Finally, we found that the overall transcriptional response to TRs of the allopolyploid was more homeostatic compared with its parents. This better transcriptional homeostasis of the allopolyploid C. arabica afforded a greater phenotypic homeostasis when faced with environments that are unsuited to the diploid parental species.

  15. Progresso da ferrugem e da cercosporiose em cafeeiro (coffea arabica l. Com diferentes épocas de início e parcelamentos da fertirrigação Progress of coffee rust and brown eye spot with differents periods at initial irrigation and fertirrigation time

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    Viviane Talamini

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliações da incidência da ferrugem (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br. e da cercosporiose (Cercospora coffeicola Berk. & Cooke foram realizadas em experimento com a cultura do café cultivar 'Catuai', com 12 anos de cultivo. Os objetivos foram avaliar o efeito da irrigação e da fertirrigação na incidência da ferrugem e da cercosporiose, analisar a curva de progresso dessas doenças e sua correlação com as variáveis climáticas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 4 tratamentos de diferentes parcelamentos de adubação (1: 12 aplicações manuais, 2: 12 aplicações via fertirrigação, 3: 24 aplicações fertirrigado, 4: 36 aplicações fertirrigado. As parcelas foram divididas em 3 subparcelas com diferentes épocas de início de irrigação (subparcelas A: 1º de junho, B: 15 de julho, C: 1º de setembro e 2 tratamentos adicionais (testemunhas: tratamento adicional 1- fertirrigação parcelada em 4 vezes e não irrigado; tratamento adicional 2- adubação convencional, não irrigado. Observou-se a incidência de ambas as doenças em 6 folhas por planta a cada 14 dias durante o período de 21 de março de 1998 a 6 de fevereiro de 1999. Calculou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, procedendo-se à análise de variância e teste de Tukey a 5%. Para a ferrugem do cafeeiro, nenhum tratamento foi significativo, e as incidências máximas foram nos meses de julho a setembro. Houve correlação significativa entre todos os tratamentos e as variáveis climáticas, com exceção da temperatura máxima. Para a cercosporiose, observou-se nas parcelas, maior AACPD para os tratamentos 2 e 4. O tratamento adicional 1 apresentou maior AACPD, seguida pelo tratamento adicional 2 . De acordo com as curvas de progresso da doença, a incidência máxima foi entre maio a setembro. Houve correlação significativa da incidência da cercosporiose com as variáveis climáticas na maioria dos tratamentos

  16. Characterization of physicalquality and flavour profile of Arabica coffee bean of Maragogype variety (Coffea arabica L. var. Maragogype Hort. Ex Froehner and mother plant selection in East Java

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    Dwi Nugroho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of specialty coffee product needs to be done by producing a product that has a good flavor, unique, and different from the axisting specialty coffee products. One of the varieties of Arabica coffee that has good potential to be developed into a specialty coffee is Maragogype coffee. This paper discusses the results of selection and characterization of physical and flavor quality of Arabica coffee varieties Maragogype in East Java. Selection was done in PTPN XII at Pancur/Angkrek and Kayumas Estate. It was obtained two superior genotypes those have high productivity and good taste, they are MP3 and MP4 with of productivity of 7,985.3 and 5,985.3 g cherries/tree, respectively. Maragogipe varieties showed good physical quality, in which 99% of bean belong to the large been category, whiches the highest of 1,000 beens, and good bulk density and apparent swelling. MP3 genotype had a floral, citrus acidity, mild, and very good sweetness characteristics. MP mix had the showed same characteristics, but its intensity was not as high as MP3. MP4 has herbal and flora characteristics with bitter after taste.Key words : Coffea arabica, maragogype, specialty coffee, characterization, selection, flavor, variety.

  17. Homostachydrine (pipecolic acid betaine) as authentication marker of roasted blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-08-15

    The occurrence of pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) and its biosynthetic precursor N-methylpipecolic acid was detected for the first time in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica species. The analyses were conducted by HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry and the metabolites identified by product ion spectra and comparison with authentic standards. N-methylpipecolic acid was found at similar levels in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica, whereas a noticeable difference of homostachydrine content was observed between the two green coffee bean species. Interestingly, homostachydrine content was found to be unaffected by coffee bean roasting treatment because of a noticeable heat stability, a feature that makes this compound a candidate marker to determine the content of Robusta and Arabica species in roasted coffee blends. To this end, a number of certified pure Arabica and Robusta green beans were analyzed for their homostachydrine content. Results showed that homostachydrine content was 1.5±0.5mg/kg in Arabica beans and 31.0±10.0mg/kg in Robusta beans. Finally, to further support the suitability of homostachydrine as quality marker of roasted blends of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, commercial samples of roasted ground coffee blends were analyzed and the correspondence between the derived percentages of Arabica and Robusta beans with those declared on packages by manufacturers was verified. PMID:27006213

  18. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.

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    Urszula Złotek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coffee is important source of natural antioxidants in the diet, such as phenolic compounds, alkaloids, mainly caffeine, diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol and Maillard reaction products formed during roasting. Material and methods. In aqueous and methanolic extracts of coff ee (Coffea arabica L. roasted using traditional techniques from Brazil (B, Colombia (C, Ethiopia (E, Kenya (K and coffee roasted using an industrial technique from Brazil (T, the phenolic and caffeine content as well as antioxidant properties were determined. Results. Comparing the results from water and methanolic extracts it should be noted that the highest amount of phenolics was determined for a methanolic extract of coff ee roasted using the industrial technique (650.96 mg GAE/g DW and a water extract of Kenya coffee (461.63 mg GAE/g DW. Caffeine content was on average two times higher in all methanolic extracts than in water extracts. The radical scavenging activity of aqueous extracts was found to be higher than methanolic extracts. The highest antioxidant scavenging activity was determined for C (EC50 = 1.16 mg DW/ml and E (EC50 = 1.3 mg DW/ml water extracts. Compared to water extracts methanolic extracts showed signifi cantly higher reducing power, ability to chelate Fe2+, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and inhibition of lipoxygenase. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that the methanolic extracts obtained from different types of coffee exhibit potential anti-infl ammatory and antioxidant properties. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by traditionally roasted coffees from Colombia and Ethiopia

  19. Use of coffee (Coffea arabica pulp for the production of briquettes and pellets for heat generation

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    Robert Cubero-Abarca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing generates high amount of residues that are sources of environmental pollution. Therefore, an appropriate solution is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of coffee pulp to produce briquettes and pellets. The study included pulp drying (using air, solar and hot air methods; the production of briquettes and pellets; the evaluation of their energy, physical and mechanical properties; and the evaluation of pellet quality using X-ray densitometry. The results showed that the pulp presented an initial moisture content of 90%, resulting in drying times of 699, 308 and 55 hours for air, solar and hot air drying, respectively, and the calorific values of the pellets and briquettes were 12,501 kJ kg-1 and 11,591 kJ kg-1, respectively. The ash content was 8.68% for the briquettes and 6.74% for the pellets. The density of the briquettes was 1,110 kg m-3, compared with 1,300 kg m-3 for the pellets. The apparent densities were 1,000 kg m-3 and 600 kg m-3 for the briquettes and pellets, respectively, and the water absorptions by the briquettes were 7.90% and 8.10% by the pellets. The maximum horizontal compression effort was 26.86 kg cm-2, measured in the pellets, compared with 4.52 kg cm-2 in the briquettes. The maximum horizontal load was 93.24 kg, measured in the briquettes, compared with 33.50 kg in the pellets. The value of the pellet durability test was 75.54%. X-ray densitometry showed that the pellet was uniform and a few cracks were observed on the pellet surface.

  20. The complete nucleotide sequence of the coffee (Coffea arabica L.) chloroplast genome: organization and implications for biotechnology and phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chloroplast genome sequence of Coffea arabica L., first member of family Rubiaceae (fourth largest family of angiosperms) is reported. The genome is 155,189 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 25,943 bp, separated by a small single copy region of 18,137 bp and a large single co...

  1. Physiological Dose-Response of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Plants to Glyphosate Depends on Growth Stage Respuesta Fisiológica de Plantas de Café (Coffea arabica L. a Glifosato Depende de la Etapa de Crecimiento

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    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the main herbicide used in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in Brazil. Problems with herbicide drift commonly occur in orchard fields due to non-adequate spraying conditions. A series of experiments was carried out aiming to evaluate physiological dose-response of C. arabica plants submitted to exposure to simulated glyphosate drift in two distinct plant growth stages. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 180, 360, and 720 g acid equivalent (AE ha-1 directly on coffee plants with 10 and 45 d after transplanting (DAT. Glyphosate doses in a range of 180-360 g AE ha-1 increased photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance in 10 DAT-plants up to 14 d after application (DAA while, in 45 DAT-plants, an increase was observed only up to 2 DAA, but this pattern was not persistent afterwards so that no difference in gas exchange was observed at 60 DAA in both plants. Macronutrient content was not affected by glyphosate application in both plants. Plant DM accumulation was not affected by glyphosate application at 10 DAT-plants, but an increase in plant growth was observed when glyphosate was applied in a range of 360-720 g AE ha-1 in 45 DAT-plants. Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí Vermelho IAC-144 responded differentially to glyphosate drift depending on plant growth stage, regarding on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and plant growth, in spite of macronutrient nutrition was not affected.Glifosato es el principal herbicida utilizado en las plantaciones de café (Coffea arabica L. en Brasil. Problemas con la deriva de herbicidas comúnmente ocurren en los campos de cultivo debido a condiciones no adecuadas de pulverización. Una serie de experimentos se llevó a cabo con el objetivo de evaluar la relación dosis-respuesta fisiológica de plantas de C. arabica expuestas a situaciones simuladas de exposición a deriva de glifosato en dos etapas distintas de crecimiento de las plantas. El glifosato se aplicó en dosis de 0

  2. Interaction between Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Intercropped Herbs under Field Conditions in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico

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    Alex Pacheco Bustos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine released from decaying seeds and leaves accumulates in a soluble form in the soil. The compound is known to inhibit mitosis, reduce the access of nutrients and water to surrounding plants which is one of limiting problems in intercropped coffee plantations. The allelopathic interactions between coffee (Coffea arabica L. and mint (Mentha piperita L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L. could be a diversification alternative and extra income activity for coffee growers outside the harvest period that could cope with high levels of caffeine in the soil. We tested the interaction of the proposed system (2004 – 2005 in rural area of Puebla State, Mexico. The results demonstrate that intercropping sage, spearmint, basil and oregano stimulate the plagiotropic growth of Coffea arabica plants most effectively in young production systems, through volatile essential oils. Intercropping basil, sage, spearmint and oregano in coffee plantations seems to be a promising approach for higher income and increasing yield and quality production in coffee farms.

  3. The location of aluminium in protoplasts and suspension cells taken from Coffea arabica L. with different tolerance of Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Benítez, J Efraín; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando

    2009-11-01

    Biotechnological advances in coffee research (in vitro manipulation, multiplication, generation and development of transgenic coffee plants with specific traits like high yield and good quality) have contributed to description of the metabolic pathways involved in the response mechanisms to environmental factors like abiotic stress. Coffea arabica L. plants grow in acidic soils, and therefore aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major negative impact on crop productivity. To understand Al toxicity mechanisms in cells via the Al absorption kinetic, we isolated protoplasts from two C. arabica L. suspension cell lines: Al-sensitive (L2) and Al-tolerant (LAMt). Protoplasts of LAMt line exhibited lower Al absorption levels than protoplasts of the L2 line. Use of two fluorescent tracers (morin and calcofluor white) indicated that Al interacts with internal cell structures, such as the plasma membrane and nucleus, with differences in both cell lines. Al-tolerance in the LAMt is probably associated with the cell wall as well as intracellular structures. These data will help to better understand Al toxicity in C. arabica, and Al toxicity mechanisms in plant cells.

  4. Allelopathic effects of two cover crops Commelina diffusa Burm. F. and Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz on Coffea arabica L.

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    Georgina Berroa Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effect of the cover crops Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz (cucaracha and Commelina diffusa Burm. F. (canutillo were evaluated on Coffea arabica Lin. seeds Caturra Rojo variety. Germination tests were carried out “in vitro” and it was evaluated the root longitude, percentage of total germination and period of germination, as well as the height of the plant and the emergency percentage for the incorporation tests to the soil. It was also carried out, to both over crops, the preliminary chemical qualitative characterization. The results showed that the extracts of T. zebrina and of C. diffusa stimulated the “in vitro” germination and growth of C. arabica at different concentration levels. The incorporation to the soil of the extracts of C. diffusa stimulated the development of the plants of C. arabica, in a significant way, that supposes a considerable advantage in that concerns to the employment of these cover crops, when not implying noxious effects beside all the benefits implied when using cover crops. These last ones go from the protection and improvement of the properties of the soil, to the control of the spontaneous flora in the coffee agroecosystems.

  5. The impact of climate change on indigenous Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica: predicting future trends and identifying priorities.

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    Aaron P Davis

    Full Text Available Precise modelling of the influence of climate change on Arabica coffee is limited; there are no data available for indigenous populations of this species. In this study we model the present and future predicted distribution of indigenous Arabica, and identify priorities in order to facilitate appropriate decision making for conservation, monitoring and future research. Using distribution data we perform bioclimatic modelling and examine future distribution with the HadCM3 climate model for three emission scenarios (A1B, A2A, B2A over three time intervals (2020, 2050, 2080. The models show a profoundly negative influence on indigenous Arabica. In a locality analysis the most favourable outcome is a c. 65% reduction in the number of pre-existing bioclimatically suitable localities, and at worst an almost 100% reduction, by 2080. In an area analysis the most favourable outcome is a 38% reduction in suitable bioclimatic space, and the least favourable a c. 90% reduction, by 2080. Based on known occurrences and ecological tolerances of Arabica, bioclimatic unsuitability would place populations in peril, leading to severe stress and a high risk of extinction. This study establishes a fundamental baseline for assessing the consequences of climate change on wild populations of Arabica coffee. Specifically, it: (1 identifies and categorizes localities and areas that are predicted to be under threat from climate change now and in the short- to medium-term (2020-2050, representing assessment priorities for ex situ conservation; (2 identifies 'core localities' that could have the potential to withstand climate change until at least 2080, and therefore serve as long-term in situ storehouses for coffee genetic resources; (3 provides the location and characterization of target locations (populations for on-the-ground monitoring of climate change influence. Arabica coffee is confimed as a climate sensitivite species, supporting data and inference that existing

  6. Melhoramento visando a resistência do cafeeiro à ferrugem Breeding for resistance to leaf rust disease in C. arabica

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    A. J. Bettencourt

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem alaranjada, uma das mais graves moléstias do cafeeiro, ainda não foi observada no continente americano. Com a mais freqüente e rápida ligação entre os países africanos e o Brasil, tem aumentado consideràvelmente o perigo de introdução neste continente. No presente trabalho, são fornecidos elementos sôbre a especialização fisiológica da H. vastatrix,fontes de resistência ao fungo, hereditariedade dessa resistência e dados já obtidos sôbre os fatôres de resistência que ocorrem nos cafeeiros existentes no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas. Apresentam-se também as diretrizes para o prosseguimento do plano de melhoramento visando a obtenção de linhagens portadoras de fatôres genéticos que lhes proporcionem resistência ao maior número possível de raças da ferrugem.Coffee leaf rust, one of the most destructive diseases of this crop plant, does not occur in the American continent. However, the frequent commercial flights and the ever increasing speed of the planes that connect Africa and Brazil increase the probability of introduction of the disease into this continent. This paper reviews the characteristics of the coffee leaf rust fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, its physiological races and their geographic distribution, and the main sources of resistance already determined in Coffea spp.The genetic basis of the disease resistance is discussed and the collected, data indicate the presence of five pairs of genes for resistance in the imported coffee plants of the: Campinas collection. The breeding program which is being carried on at the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, is discussed in regard to the isolation of coffee progenies resistant to the most known races of Hemileia vastatrix.

  7. ASPECTOS ESTRUTURAIS DE CAFEEIRO INFECTADO COM XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA

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    RACHEL BENETTI QUEIROZ-VOLTAN; OSVALDO PARADELA FILHO; MARIA LUÍZA CARVALHO CARELLI; JOEL IRINEU FAHL

    1998-01-01

    Estudaram-se as alterações anatômicas em folhas e caules de ramos de cafeeiros infectados com X. fastidiosa visando compreender as causas dos seus distúrbios fisiológicos. Analisaram-se amostras dos cultivares comerciais de Coffea arabica L. - Catuaí Vermelho IAC H 2077-25-81 e Mundo Novo 515-20 enxertados sobre a progênie IAC 2258 de C. canephora - e de Catuaí Vermelho IAC H 2077-25-81 sem enxertia (pé franco). As amostras foram coletadas no campo, no Núcleo Experimental de Campinas, IAC, em...

  8. The effect of auxin 2,4-D and cytokinin 2-ip on direct somatic embryogenesis formation of Coffea arabica L. leaf explant

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    Rina Arimarsetiowati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the propagation technique for coffee plant production is tissue culture. Tissue culture technique for Coffea arabica L. faces some problems, mainly in the planlet formation regenerated from explants. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect 2,4-D and 2-ip combination on the formation of direct somatic embryogenesis of Coffea arabica L. in leaves explant. Auxin (2,4-D and cytokinin (2-ip concentrations of, respectively, 1; 5 µM and 5; 10; 15; 20 were used as treatments. This research was conducted using completely randomized design with 10 replications. Observation to induce somatic embryos was done by quantitatively on number of callus from explant and number of embryogenic callus. Beside that, observation by qualitative descriptive was also done on deve lopment of embryogenesis. The results showed that Arabica coffee leaves explant of AS 2K clones could be induced in all medium combination except 5µM 2,4-D and 20µM 2-ip combination. Arabica coffee leaves explant of S 795, Sigararutang and AS 1 varieties could be induced in all medium combination. The highest frequency of callus formation was found in AS 2K, Sigararutang and AS 1 varieties on medium containing 1µM 2,4-D in combination with 10µM 2-ip, whereas for the S 795 variety on medium containing 5µM 2,4-D in combination with 10µM 2-ip. The highest frequency of embriogenic callus in all Arabica coffee variety could be reached on medium containing 5µM 2,4-D in combination with 15µM 2-ip. Key words : Coffea arabica L., somatic embryogenesis, 2,4-D, 2-ip, tissue culture, leaves, callus embryogenic.

  9. Sensory Description of Cultivars (Coffea Arabica L. Resistant to Rust and Its Correlation with Caffeine, Trigonelline, and Chlorogenic Acid Compounds

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    Larissa de Oliveira Fassio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the chemical compounds in Arabica coffee beans in the definition of the drink sensory quality and authentication of coffee regions, the aim of this study was to evaluate, from principal component analysis—PCA—if there is a relation between the caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA content and the sensory attributes of the drink, and in this context, enabling the differentiation of cultivars in two coffee-producing regions of Brazil. We evaluated seven rust-resistant Coffea arabica cultivars, and two rust-susceptible cultivars in two cultivation environments: Lavras, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, and Patrocinio in the Cerrado region of Minas Gerais. The flavor and acidity were determinant for differentiation of the cultivars and their interaction with the evaluated environments. Cultivars Araponga MG1, Catigua MG2, and Catigua MG1 are the most suitable for the production of specialty coffee in the state of Minas Gerais. A poor correlation was found between caffeine, trigonelline, 5-CQA contents, and fragrance, flavor, acidity, body, and final score attributes. However, these compounds enabled the differentiation of the environments. The PCA indicated superiority in the sensory quality of cultivars resistant to rust, compared to the control, Bourbon Amarelo, and Topázio MG1190.

  10. Severidade do sintoma da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro Severity symptoms of Xylella fastidiosa on coffee cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan; Luciane Perosin Cabral; Osvaldo Paradela Filho

    2004-01-01

    A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa tem sido estudada no cafeeiro desde que foi detectada pela primeira vez nessa cultura; entretanto, não se sabe ainda avaliar seu efeito, uma vez que o cafeeiro, provavelmente, convive com a bactéria há muitos anos e parece suportar esse patógeno em determinadas situações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a severidade dos sintomas de infecção provocados pela X. fastidiosa sobre cultivares de Coffea arabica, enxertados ou não, a fim de estimar os níveis dos si...

  11. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica) in experimental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Rudy; Smeltekop Hugh; Almanza JC; Loza-Murguia Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water), hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica) by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campe...

  12. Isolation, identification and purification of caffeine from Coffea arabica L. and Camellia sinensis L.: A combination antibacterial study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Muthanna; Al-Bayati Firas

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate the most important bioactive compound from Coffea arabica (coffee) beans and Camellia sinensis (green tea) leaves. Caffeine (3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione) was isolated from both plants using a liquid-liquid extraction method, detected on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates in comparison with standard caffeine, which served as a positive control. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and High performance li...

  13. Amostragem, diversidade e sazonalidade de Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera em Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã (Rubiaceae Sampling, diversity and seasonal occurrence of Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera in Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã (Rubiaceae

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    Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar métodos de amostragem, abundância sazonal e diversidade da população de Hemerobiidae associada a cultivo de café Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã em Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brasil. Para tanto foram realizadas amostragens semanais no período de maio de 2005 a abril de 2006. Os métodos de amostragem utilizados foram: rede de varredura e armadilhas de Möericke e luminosa. Foram coletados 491 exemplares de Hemerobiidae pertencentes a quatro gêneros: Nusalala (231 espécimes / 47,2% do total de hemerobiídeos coletados, Megalomus (110 / 22,5%, Hemerobius (104 / 21,3% e Sympherobius (44 / 9%. A rede de varredura foi a mais eficiente para a captura de Hemerobiidae e a armadilha de Möericke foi o método de amostragem que apresentou os maiores valores de diversidade (H'= 0,56 e de equitabilidade (J= 0,93. Os hemerobiídeos estiveram presentes na área estudada durante o ano todo; as maiores freqüências foram registradas entre agosto e março (final do inverno, primavera e verão e o maior pico populacional ocorreu em janeiro (na metade do verão. Megalomus apresentou correlação positiva e significativa (pThis study evaluated sampling methods, seasonality and diversity of the hemerobiids associated to Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã over a one-year period in Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brazil. The collecting methods were: sweeping net, light trap and Möericke trap. 489 hemerobiids belonging to four genera, were collected: Nusalala (231 individuals / 47.2% of the hemerobiids collected, Megalomus (110 / 22.5%, Hemerobius (104 / 21.3% and Sympherobius (44 / 9%. The sweeping net seems to be the most efficient method of sampling to capture Hemerobiidae and the Möericke trap presented the higher value of diversity (H'= 0,56 and equitability (J= 0,93. The hemerobiids were recorded in the area along the entire year. The highest abundance occurred from August to March (end of winter, spring and summer and the population

  14. Perfil sensorial da bebida café (Coffea arabica L. determinado por análise tempo-intensidade Sensorial profile of beverage coffee (Coffea arabica L. determined by analysis time-intensity

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    Marlene A. M. Monteiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o gosto amargo, sabor fermentado e sabor queimado de nove amostras (mole/clara, dura/clara, rio/clara, mole/expresso, dura/expresso, rio/expresso, mole/escura, dura/escura e rio/escura da bebida café (Coffea arabica L. por meio da análise Tempo-Intensidade (TI. Foram avaliados seis parâmetros da curva: tempo para atingir a intensidade máxima (TImáx, intensidade máxima do estímulo (Imáx, tempo correspondente ao ponto onde a intensidade máxima começa a declinar (Td, tempo de duração da intensidade máxima (Platô, área sob a curva (Área e tempo total de duração do estímulo (Ttot. A análise demonstrou que as amostras de torra escura tiveram maior intensidade máxima (Imáx e tempo de duração do estímulo (Ttot para gosto amargo e sabor queimado, sendo que as amostras de torra clara apresentaram menor intensidade destes estímulos. Em relação ao sabor fermentado, a amostra rio/expresso foi a que apresentou maior intensidade.The present work had as objective to evaluate the bitter taste, fermented flavor and burned flavor of nine samples (soft/light, hard/light, rio/light, soft/express, hard/express, rio/express, soft/dark, hard/dark and rio/dark of the drink coffee (Coffea arabica L. through the analysis Time-Intensity (TI. Six parameters of the curve were evaluated: time to reach the maximum intensity (TImáx, maximum intensity of the incentive (Imáx, time corresponding to the point where the maximum intensity begins to refuse (Td, time of duration of the maximum intensity (Plateau, area under the curve (Área and total time of duration of the incentive (Ttot. The analysis demonstrated that the samples of dark toast had larger maximum intensity (Imáx and time of duration of the incentive (Ttot for bitter taste and burned flavor, while the samples of light toast presented smaller intensity of these stimulus. For the fermented flavor, the sample rio/express was the one that

  15. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  16. Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L. is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

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    Lashermes Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%. At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our

  18. The effects of nutrients and secondary compounds of Coffea arabica on the behavior and development of Coccus viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Fernandes, M E S; Queiroz, R B; Xavier, V M; Martinez, H E P

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemicals may modify the food quality, reduce a plant's palatability to insects, or defend against pests. This work aimed to study 1) relationships between the nitrogen and potassium levels given to plants in nutritive solutions and the foliar phytochemical concentrations, 2) the effect of nutrients and secondary compounds of Coffea arabica on the behavior of Coccus viridis, and 3) tolerance of C. arabica to losses. Deficient, normal, and excessive nitrogen and potassium fertilization treatments were used. Each treatment had two plants (one infested and one noninfested plant). The contents of phytochemicals in the infested plants' leaves and their dry matter of roots, stems, and leaves as well as the total contents in noninfested plants, were determined. The adults and nymphs of C. viridis were counted for 60 d in all treatments. It was verified that elevated nitrogen and potassium levels in the nutritional solutions led to increased of nymphs and adults of C. viridis to the coffee plants over time. Potassium and nitrogen had both direct and indirect effects on C. viridis. The direct effect was because of the increase of the nitrogen content in the leaves. The indirect effect instead was because of reductions in the caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents in the leaves. This is the first study to show relationship nutrient levels of coffee phytochemicals in response to herbivory by scale insects. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid applied on coffee leaves stimulated the locomotory activity of the green scale, thus reducing their feeding compared with untreated leaves. The elevation of caffeine and chlorogenic acid levels in coffee leaves affect this generalist insect by stimulating the locomotion of crawlers.

  19. Respuesta fotosintética de Coffea arabica L. a diferentes niveles de luz y disponibilidad hídrica

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    Yesid Alejandro Mariño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El sombrío permite una mejor aclimatación del café (Coffea arabica L. en zonas donde el invierno se caracteriza por bajas temperaturas nocturnas seguido de días soleados y el verano, por altas temperaturas y lluvias ocasionales. En este estudio, realizado en Viçosa-MG, Brasil, se analizaron los efectos de dos condiciones de luminosidad (pleno sol y 15% de la radiación solar y disponibilidades de agua en el suelo sobre las relaciones hídricas y el desempeño fotosintético en C. arabica en dos épocas contrastantes. Independientemente de la época de evaluación, las plantas cultivadas en condiciones de baja disponibilidad hídrica presentaron reducciones en la fotosíntesis (A, conductancia estomática (g s y en la razón Ci/Ca en los dos tratamientos lumínicos. Estos cambios fueron acompañados con la reducción en la conductancia hidráulica y la transpiración. No se presentaron diferencias significativas en la producción cuántica efectiva, en el coeficiente de extinción no-fotoquímica y en la productividad cuántica basal de los procesos no fotoquímicos. Sobre la disponibilidad hídrica adecuada, las plantas cultivadas al sol presentaron reducciones en A, g s y Ci/Ca en la época de invierno. Adicionalmente, se encontraron limitaciones fotoquímicas con la reducción en la razón de las fluorescencias variable e inicial. Los resultados indican que cualquier recomendación de uso de sombrío como práctica de manejo debe ser tomada con precaución.

  20. Efeitos de águas residuárias de café no crescimento vegetativo de cafeeiros em seu primeiro ano Effects of processing coffee wastewater on first year coffee plants growth

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés S. Ribeiro; Luiz A. Lima; Fábio H. de S. Faria; Fátima C. Rezende; Lucas do A. Faria

    2009-01-01

    Ao utilizar o solo como forma de tratamento e de disposição final de águas residuárias de café (ARC) e essa como fonte de água e de nutrientes para os cafeeiros, solucionam-se problemas ambientais e diminuem-se os custos de produção para o cafeicultor. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de potássio aplicadas via ARC no crescimento vegetativo de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.), Catuaí' e Catucaí', em seu primeiro ano, bem como o incremento de potássio e a cond...

  1. FTIR Spectrum and Antimutagenicity of Coffea arabica Pulp and Arachis hypogaea Testa In Relation to their In Vitro Antioxidant Properties

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    Jonathan M. Barcelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pulp (Coffea arabica and peanut testa (Arachis hypogaea are common agricultural wastes which are extensively studied as potential sources of bioactive compounds. This study attempted to determine the correlation of the antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition and antimutagenic activities of the crude extracts of both plant samples. Quantification of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and monomeric anthocyanins and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR analysis were performed to characterize bioactive compounds. Based from the results, peanut testa extract (PTE exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC compared to coffee pulp extract (CPE at 500 μg/mL but was lower than L-Ascorbic Acid (LAA. The antimutagenic activity of PTE at > 125 μg/mL was higher compared to both RPE and LAA. Mitotic indices of A. cepa treated with PTE+MMS were higher compared to groups treated with RCPE+MMS, LAA+MMS, deionized water and MMS only. Correlation analysis revealed the TAC of ripe coffee pulp extract had significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic activity but high correlation with LPI. The LPI of CPE showed significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic activity. In PTE, TAC shows high significant correlation with its antimutagenic property and LPI while LPI has significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic property. The observed activity of the CPE and PTE may be attributed primarily to the phenolic compounds in both plant extracts.

  2. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems. PMID:24294225

  3. Trueness-to-type and agronomic characteristics of Coffea arabica trees micropropagated by the embryogenic cell suspension technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, H; Bertrand, B

    2001-09-01

    Trueness-to-type and agronomic characteristics of trees of four coffee (Coffea arabica L.) F(1) hybrid clones derived from embryogenic cell suspensions were compared with those of trees produced from in vitro microcuttings. Three types of variants were observed among the 644 trees derived from embryogenic suspensions. Total frequency of the variants was 2.1% for trees originating from embryogenic cell suspensions, whereas no variant was found among the trees produced from microcuttings. The variant known as "thick leaf" had thick leaves, many abnormally starry flowers and low yields of large fruit. The "dwarf" variant was characterized by slow growth and small fruit. The "dwarf peaberry" variant had abnormal seeds in a single cavity, in addition to the "thick leaf" and "dwarf" characteristics. Compared with normal trees, the variants differed in leaf density and number of chloroplasts per guard cell. The variants aside, there were no differences in the main agronomic characteristics between trees produced from embryogenic suspensions and those produced from microcuttings. For all four clones, the trees had vegetative characteristics, productivity, fertility, and bean biochemical, mineral and organoleptic characteristics that were identical to those of the controls. We conclude that it is possible to generate coffee trees commercially with normal agronomic performance from embryogenic suspensions, because the frequency with which somaclonal variants occur is limited.

  4. CARACTHERIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY AND CARBONIZATION OF COFFEE GRAINS (Coffea arabica, L AND (Cedrelinga catenaeformis, DUKE WOOD RESIDUES

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    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil produces annually two million tons of coffee s husks from farms or industrial processing units. This wastematerial can be used for energy production; currently it is mainly used in agricultural practices as field straw cover up. This paperdeals with coffee s (Coffea arabica, L husks biomass energy characteristics, including wood carbonization. As a reference, the samestudy was performed with a wood species regularly used for building construction named Cedrorana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis,Duke. Coffee s husks was obtained from a farm 150 km far from Brasilia city and cedrorana sawdust from a local saw mill. Thispaper presents results from energy and biomass variables like moisture content, bulk density, lower and superior heating power, ashcontent, fixed carbon, volatile matter and volumetric energy. It has also studied carbonization, charcoal, pyroligneous licqor and noncondensablegases. A comparison between Coffee s husk with 0% moisture content and Cedrorana sawdust portrays the followingresults: bulk density 144.41 kg/m3, fixed carbon 10.31%, superior heating power 4.57 kWh (or 16.46 MJ or 3.933 Mcal/kg, charcoalcontent 40,64% and heating value per cubic meter 2,179 MJ/m3

  5. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Coffea arabica Weed effect on the initial growth of Coffea arabica

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    C.M.T. Fialho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da interferência de plantas daninhas, em diferentes densidades de infestação, sobre o crescimento de plantas jovens de café arábica. Mudas de café, cultivar Mundo Novo, foram transplantadas, no estádio de quatro a cinco pares de folhas completamente expandidas, para vasos com capacidade de 25 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 4; o primeiro fator foi composto por espécies de plantas daninhas (Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea e Mucuna aterrima, e o segundo, por densidades dessas espécies (zero, dois, quatro e seis plantas por vaso, com quatro repetições. O plantio das espécies daninhas foi realizado 60 dias após o transplantio do café (0 DAT. Nesta data e no dia do encerramento do experimento, aos 90 DAT, determinaram-se a altura, a área foliar e o diâmetro do caule da planta de café, para cálculo do incremento dessas variáveis. Aos 90 DAT, determinou-se a matéria seca da parte aérea e radicular do café e das plantas daninhas e a densidade radicular do café. Utilizando esses resultados, estimou-se a razão de massa foliar, razão de massa caulinar, razão de massa radicular, razão de área foliar e a razão sistema radicular/parte aérea das plantas de café. A espécie M. aterrima foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, a área foliar, a matéria seca do caule e das folhas e o diâmetro do caule do café. Entre as gramíneas, B. plantaginea foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e densidade radicular do café. Ocorreu relação negativa entre a densidade de plantas daninhas e as variáveis de crescimento e com a razão de massa radicular e razão sistema radicular/parte aérea.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of weeds on the growth of young Arabica coffee plants, at different densities of infestation

  6. Avaliação da resistência dê cafeeiros às raças dê Meloidogyne incognita Evaluation of coffea resistance to Meloidogyne incognita races

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    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available No Centro Experimental de Campinas do Instituto Agronômico, de abril de 1984 a agosto de 1985, realizaram-se dois experimentos, em vasos, para avaliar a resistência de mudas de sete linhagens de Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 e MP376-4; 'Catuaí Amarelo' H2077-2-5-62 e 'Catuaí Vermelho' H2077-2-5-81, e 'Caturra Amarelo' e dois de C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col. 10 e 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 às quatro raças de Meloidogyne incognita. No primeiro experimento, cada muda foi infestada com 8.000 ovos, passados cinco meses do transplante, e a avaliação, efetuada seis meses depois. No segundo experimento, as mudas foram infestadas cerca de um ano do transplante com 7.000 ovos cada uma e a avaliação realizada decorridos dez meses. Todas as plantas foram infestadas pelas raças 1 e 2; entretanto, a reprodução do nematóide foi menor nas plantas mais velhas. As raças 3 e 4 apresentaram baixas infestações e algumas reações de imunidade, principalmente a 4, que tem pouca importância prática pela sua pequena ocorrência. Os cultivares de Catuaí revelaram médias de notas de ootecas menores que as das linhagens de 'Mundo Novo', indicando menor suscetibilidade. Contudo, é importante ressaltar que a menor infestação não significa que as raças 3 e 4 sejam menos danosas ao cafeeiro quando o parasitam em campo.Two experiments were carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the resistance of young trees of seven lines of Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 and MP376-4; 'Catuaí Yellow' H2077-2-5-62 and 'Catuaí Red' H2077-2-5-81; and 'Caturra Yellow' and two of C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col, 10 and 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 to the four races of Meloidogyne incognita in pots. In the first experiment, each plant was infested five months after transplanting with 8000 eggs, and evaluated six months later. In the second experiment, the plants were infested near one year

  7. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

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    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  8. Cuantificación de minerales K, Ca, Mg y P en pulpa y pergamino de café (Coffea arabica L. var. Typica)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Geovanny Figueroa Hurtado; Johanna Mendoza Abarca

    2010-01-01

    Se trabajó con muestras de café Coffea arabica L., variedad Typica de tres lugares en Ecuador: Palanda, Vilcabamba y El Pangui, seleccionados por su disponibilidad y condiciones geográficas. Se analizó potasio, calcio y magnesio por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; y fósforo por espectrofotometría visible, utilizando en todos los casos la digestión ácida para la preparación de las muestras. Con el objetivo de mantener la trazabilidad de los residuos se realizó el beneficio húmedo del ...

  9. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya

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    Holger Hindorf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu of Ethiopia. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD, Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0% and Yayu (26.3%, but less frequent in Harenna (18.6% and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%. CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia.

  10. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

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    Daiki Setoyama

    Full Text Available The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  11. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Daiki; Iwasa, Keiko; Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans. PMID:23936381

  12. Biological activities of the fermentation extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Coffea arabica L.

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    Maurette dos Reis Vieira Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 endophytic fungi isolated from coffee (Coffea arabica L. were cultivated in vitro and their crude extracts tested. The screening was carried out using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The most effective isolate was Alternaria alternata, and subsequently, its extract was assayed. The total phenolic content was 3.44 μg GAE/mg of the crude extract. For the antibacterial and antifungal activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC and MFC were determined. The ranges of MIC values were 50-100 μg/mL for S. aureus and 400-800 μg/mL for E. coli. The extract did not show activity in the tested concentrations for C. albicans. The fungal crude extract was assayed for antioxidant activities. Its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation was not significant. In addition, antitumor activity was studied using the MTT assay. At a dilution of 400 μg/mL, the extract displayed a cytotoxic activity of approximately 50% towards HeLa cells in vitro. The results indicate that endophytic fungi could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.Total de 22 fungos endofíticos isolados de café (Coffea arabica L. foi cultivado in vitro e seus extratos testados. A triagem foi conduzida pelo método de difusão em agar contra bactérias Gram-positiva, Gram-negativa e uma levedura. O isolado mais efetivo foi Alternaria alternata e, subsequentemente, seu extrato foi analisado. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais do extrato bruto foi de 3,44 μg EAG/mg de extrato. Para os testes de atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida e fungicida mínima (CBM e CFM contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans foram determinadas. Resultados da CIM variaram entre 50-100 μg/mL para

  13. Proteomic analysis of apoplastic fluid of Coffea arabica leaves highlights novel biomarkers for resistance against Hemileia vastatrix

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    Leonor eGuerra-Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A proteomic analysis of the apoplastic fluid (APF of coffee leaves was conducted to investigate the cellular processes associated with incompatible (resistant and compatible (susceptible Coffea arabica-Hemileia vastatrix interactions, during the 24-96 hai period. The APF proteins were extracted by leaf vacuum infiltration and protein profiles were obtained by 2-DE. The comparative analysis of the gels revealed 210 polypeptide spots whose volume changed in abundance between samples (control, resistant and susceptible during the 24-96 hai period. The proteins identified were involved mainly in protein degradation, cell wall metabolism and stress/defense responses, most of them being hydrolases (around 70%, particularly sugar hydrolases and peptidases/proteases. The changes in the APF proteome along the infection process revealed two distinct phases of defense responses, an initial/basal one (24-48 hai and a late/specific one (72-96 hai. Compared to susceptibility, resistance was associated with a higher number of proteins, which was more evident in the late/specific phase. Proteins involved in the resistance response were mainly, glycohydrolases of the cell wall, serine proteases and pathogen related-like proteins (PR-proteins, suggesting that some of these proteins could be putative candidates for resistant markers of coffee to H. vastatrix. Antibodies were produced against chitinase, pectin methylesterase, serine carboxypeptidase, reticuline oxidase and subtilase and by an immunodetection assay it was observed an increase of these proteins in the resistant sample. With this methodology we have identified proteins that are candidate markers of resistance and that will be useful in coffee breeding programs to assist in the selection of cultivars with resistance to H. vastatrix.

  14. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  15. Isolation, identification and purification of caffeine from Coffea arabica L. and Camellia sinensis L.: A combination antibacterial study

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    Mohammed Muthanna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to isolate the most important bioactive compound from Coffea arabica (coffee beans and Camellia sinensis (green tea leaves. Caffeine (3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione was isolated from both plants using a liquid-liquid extraction method, detected on thin layer chromatography (TLC plates in comparison with standard caffeine, which served as a positive control. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were used to confirm the purity and characterization of the extracted caffeine. The isolated material(s from both plants were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against six selected pathogenic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacteria were; Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria included; Escherichia coli , Proteus mirabilis , Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Both compounds at a concentration of 2 mg/ml showed similar antibacterial activities against all tested bacteria, except for P. mirabilis , and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against P. aeruginosa using a modified agar diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of caffeine was determined using a broth microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtitre plates. MIC values ranged from 62.5 to 250.0 µg/ml for the caffeine isolated from coffee and 62.5 to 500.0 µg/ml for green tea caffeine. Combination results showed additive effects against most pathogenic bacteria especially for P. aeruginosa, using both antibacterial assays.

  16. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Saucedo-García

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some

  17. A new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica affects Soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi spore germination

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    Mehta Angela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a common disease in Brazilian soybean fields and it is difficult to control. To identify a biochemical candidate with potential to combat this disease, a new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica (CaclXIP leaves was cloned into the pGAPZα-B vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. Results A cDNA encoding a chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica (CaclXIP, was isolated from leaves. The amino acid sequence predicts a (β/α8 topology common to Class III Chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18 proteins; GH18, and shares similarity with other GH18 members, although it lacks the glutamic acid residue essential for catalysis, which is replaced by glutamine. CaclXIP was expressed as a recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris. Enzymatic assay showed that purified recombinant CaclXIP had only residual chitinolytic activity. However, it inhibited xylanases from Acrophialophora nainiana by approx. 60% when present at 12:1 (w/w enzyme:inhibitor ratio. Additionally, CaclXIP at 1.5 μg/μL inhibited the germination of spores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi by 45%. Conclusions Our data suggests that CaclXIP belongs to a class of naturally inactive chitinases that have evolved to act in plant cell defence as xylanase inhibitors. Its role on inhibiting germination of fungal spores makes it an eligible candidate gene for the control of Asian rust.

  18. Constituintes químicos e teor de extrato aquoso de cafés arábica (coffea arabica l. e conilon (coffea canephora pierre torrados Chemical Evaluation and Aqueous extract of roasting coffes (Coffea arabica L. and conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Miranda Fernandes

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de quantificar e caracterizar a composição química de cafés arábica e robusta de safras diferentes e seus efeitos na qualidade do café torrado. Utilizaram-se grãos de café arábica (Coffea arabica L. da safra 88/89 e safra 2000, proveniente da região sul de Minas gerais, e o café conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre safra 2000, proveniente do Estado do Espírito Santo. Preparou-se um "blend" na proporção 70% arábica e 30% conilon. Os cafés foram torrados (torração média comercial, moídos e submetidos às análises físico-químicas de umidade, extrato etéreo, proteína bruta, fenólicos totais, acidez titulável total, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, extrato aquoso, açúcares totais e açúcares não-redutores. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que a acidez titulável total e o pH não se apresentaram com diferenças significativas, o que indica homogeneidade entre os cafés avaliados. O café arábica safra 88/89 apresentou maiores teores de extrato etéreo, indicando uma maior degradação desse café, devido provavelmente ao maior período de armazenamento. Os teores de açúcares totais e extrato aquoso não apresentaram diferenças entre os cafés estudados, quanto aos açúcares não-redutores, o café arábica de safra 88/89 mostrou-se com os menores teores e diferiu dos demais cafés.ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to quantify and to characterize the chemical composition of arabic and robust coffees of diferent crops and its effects in the quality of the toasted coffee. Arabic grains of coffee (Coffea arabic L. of the crops 88/89 and 2000 coming from the south region of Minas Gerais state and the coffee conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre crop 2000, coming from Espírito Santo state were used. It was prepared a blend in the proportion of 70% arabic and 30% of conilon. The coffees were toasted (medium commercial, milled and submitted to physiochemical analyses of moisture ethereal

  19. Effect of gamma radiation (60Co) on the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus coffee (Coffea arabica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffee is a major product on the world market. Its acceptance depends strongly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its aroma and flavor. One of the most important aspects of coffee culture today is the cup quality as such all segments of coffee production network are concentrating efforts to improve this trait. Foods that have been contaminated with fungi may contain may produce many mycotoxins including ochratoxim A (OTA). To prevent OTA in foodstuffs, it is necessary detect the producing fungi early. Ionizing radiation is a safe, environmentally clean, energy efficient process that can be used to increase the quality and reducing the microbiological contamination of the coffee. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different gamma radiation doses (0.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0 kGy) on the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus in coffee (Coffee arabica L.). The analysis were performed to determine the fungi contamination the results were expressed as the viable counts per gram of sample (CFU/g) coffee samples irradiated and unirradiated. The results shows that microbiological contamination of coffee disagrees when increase doses of irradiation. The radiation doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0 kGy used resulted in a elimination of the number of Aspergillus ochraceus CFU/g when compared to the nonirradiated control group. Under the present conditions, gamma radiation was found to be an alternative for the control of Aspergillus ochraceus. (author)

  20. Uma nova forma de Coffea

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    C. A. Krug

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos extensos trabalhos de melhoramento do cafeeiro, há 18 anos em realização na Subdivisão de Genética do Instituto Agronômico, tem-se dedicado especial atenção à espécie C. arabica L., pelo fato de todos os nossos cafèzais pertencerem a esta espécie que, sem dúvida, fornece o produto de melhor qualidade. Nas regiões de terras extremamente cansadas, um dos principais fatôres levados em consideração no melhoramento é a rusticidade, caráter êsse, entretanto, encontrado de preferência em outras espécies, tais como o C. canephora e C. Dewevrei, cujos cafés são de má qualidade. A hibridação interespecífica, que poderia reunir em uma só planta caraterísticos de rusticidade e boa qualidade de bebida, tem o inconveniente de dar origem a plantas triplóides, que são estéreis. Daí se deduz que a obtenção artificial de formas que combinassem êsses caraterísticos constitui problema, cuja solução é extremamente demorada. No presente trabalho, apresentam-se os caracteres de uma nova forma de Coffea, encontrada em cafèzal da Fazenda Itaporã, em Terra Roxa, município de Viradouro, que, com algumas ressalvas, oferece a desejada combinação de caracteres. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de um híbrido espontâneo entre C. arabica e C. Dewevrei, com 2n = 44 cromosômios, extremamente rústico e produtivo, cujas sementes fornecem uma bebida que pode ser classificada como boa. Apenas apresenta, como principal defeito, uma auto-esterilidade quase completa. Os seus caraterísticos botânicos são descritos em detalhe. Devido ao seu porte elevado, ramos abundantes e folhas grandes e coriáceas, esse cafeeiro se assemelha ao C. Dewevrei. Os frutos são oval-elípticos, de um vermelho bem escuro quando maduros, e as sementes oblongas, constatan-do-se elevada percentagem do tipo "moca" e "chocha". Quanto à constituição citológica, as pesquisas conduziram à hipótese de este cafeeiro possuir 22 cromosômios de C. arabica e 22 (n

  1. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

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    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  2. Population of Pratylenchus coffeae (Z.) and growth of Arabica coffee seedling inoculated by Pseudomonas diminuta L. and Bacillus subtilis (C.).

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Fauzi; soekadar wiryadiputra

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM) program, which integrated between the use of cof...

  3. Embriogênese somática indireta em explantes foliares de Coffea arabica L. CV. Obatã Indirect somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica L. CV. Obatã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lygia de Rezende Maciel

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a embriogênese somática indireta em Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã, incluindo as etapas de indução de calos, diferenciação, regeneração e formação de embriões. Segmentos foliares retirados de plantas em condições de campo foram desinfestados com álcool 70% por 1' e hipoclorito de sódio 1% durante 15' e inoculados em meio IC (indução de calos suplementado de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 e Cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1. Posteriormente, os calos foram transferidos para o meio DC (diferenciação de calos, adicionado de diferentes concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 e BAP (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1; em seguida, durante a etapa de regeneração, os calos embriogênicos friáveis foram inoculados em meio R suplementado de BAP (0, 2, 4 e 6 mg.L-1 e sacarose (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 g.L-1. Os meios de cultura utilizados tiveram pH ajustado para 5,6 ± 1 antes de serem autoclavados. Os experimentos foram mantidos em sala de crescimento a 26 ± 1ºC. Durante as etapas de indução e diferenciação de calos, os experimentos ficaram em condições de obscuridade, e na etapa de regeneração, os experimentos foram mantidos sob fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 35 µmol.m-2.s-1. Concluiu-se que a combinação entre 4 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D e 2 mg.L-1 de cinetina favoreceu a indução de calos primários mistos. Maior freqüência de calos embriogênicos friáveis ocorreu na presença de BAP (8 mg.L-1, associado ou não ao 2,4-D, e maior número de embriões por explante foram obtidos quando utilizou-se sacarose (30 g.L-1 e BAP (3 mg.L-1.It was aimed with this work to study the indirect somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Obatã', including the steps of induction, differentiation and regeneration of plants. Leaf segments withdrawn from plants under field conditions were disinfected with 70% alcohol for 1', 1% sodium hypochlorite for 15'and inoculated in 'CI' medium (callus induction

  4. Characterization of physicalquality and flavour profile of Arabica coffee bean of Maragogype variety (Coffea arabica L. var. Maragogype Hort. Ex Froehner) and mother plant selection in East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Nugroho; Surip Mawardi; Yusianto Yusianto; Rins Arimar Setyowati

    2012-01-01

    Development of specialty coffee product needs to be done by producing a product that has a good flavor, unique, and different from the axisting specialty coffee products. One of the varieties of Arabica coffee that has good potential to be developed into a specialty coffee is Maragogype coffee. This paper discusses the results of selection and characterization of physical and flavor quality of Arabica coffee varieties Maragogype in East Java. Selection was done in PTPN XII at Pancur/Angkrek a...

  5. Proteolytic activities of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi isolated from coffee fruit (Coffea arabica L.) = Atividade proteolítica de bactérias, leveduras e fungos filamentosos presentes em grãos de café (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirian Pereira Rodarte; Disney Ribeiro Dias; Danielle Marques Vilela; Rosane Freitas Schwan

    2011-01-01

    One hundred forty-four microorganisms previously isolated from coffee fruit (Coffea arabica) were grown on casein agar to evaluate their proteolytic activities. Fifty percent of filamentous fungi, 52.5% of bacteria and 2.6% of yeasts were able to secrete proteases. Positiveisolates were further examined in liquid culture for their protease activities by hydrolysis of casein at different pH values (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0) at 30 oC. Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, Enterobacteragglomerans, Kurthia s...

  6. Dinâmica de cálcio e magnésio em folhas e frutos de Coffea arabica Dynamics of calcium and magnesium in leaves and fruits of arabic coffee

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    Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer a dinâmica de nutrientes minerais em cafeeiro permite identificar o período de maior exigência nutricional da planta e, assim, melhorar a eficiência das práticas de adubação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a dinâmica de Ca e Mg em frutos de cafeeiro da antese à maturação e compará-la à dinâmica desses elementos em folhas dos ramos produtivos. O experimento foi realizado com três variedades de Coffea arabica (Catuaí Vermelho IAC-99, Rubi MG-1192 e Acaiá IAC-474-19 distribuídas em três ensaios independentes (níveis de adubação baixo, adequado e alto, instalados em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo. As variedades apresentaram as maiores concentrações de Ca e Mg nos frutos no estádio de chumbinho, com redução na concentração desses elementos no estádio de expansão rápida. Nos estádios de crescimento suspenso e granação-maturação observou-se pouca ou nenhuma variação nas concentrações de Ca e Mg nos frutos. No 3º e 4º pares de folhas de ramos produtivos foram constatados decréscimos nas concentrações de Ca e Mg no início do período reprodutivo, havendo recuperação posteriormente. De modo geral, os níveis de adubação influenciaram a concentração de Ca e Mg em frutos e folhas das variedades de Coffea arabica ao longo do período reprodutivo. Contudo, as concentrações de Ca e Mg em folhas e frutos não foram influenciadas somente pelos níveis de adubação empregados, mas também por outros fatores que determinam a taxa de distribuição dos elementos minerais nas plantas de cafeeiros, como a carga pendente de frutos.Knowledge on mineral nutrient dynamics in coffee trees is important to identify the period of greatest nutritional requirement by the plant, allowing the improvement of fertilization techniques. The aim of our research was to study Ca and Mg dynamics in coffee fruits from anthesis to maturation and compare it with

  7. LA FERTILIZACIÓN FOSFÓRICA DEL Coffea arabica L. EN SUELO FERRÍTICO ROJO OSCURO. PARTE I. FERTILIZACIÓN MINERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, M.; Rivera, R.; Bustamante, C; Maritza I. Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    El experimento se realizó en áreas de la Estación Central de Investigaciones de Café y Cacao ubicadas en la meseta de Pinares de Mayarí, Provincia de Holguín, a 650 m sobre el nivel del mar sobre suelo Ferrítico Rojo Oscuro, plan- tado con Coffea arabica L. var. Caturra rojo a una distancia de 2x1 m bajo sombra de pinos ( Pinus cubensis Griceb). Se estu- dió el efecto de la fertilización mineral fosfórica (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg de P 2 O 5 ha -1 .año -1 ), dos fondos fijos de N (180 y 240 k...

  8. Contribution to the study of 14C-acetate as the precursor of aminoacids in detached leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelled acetates with 14C were used as the forerunner of aminoacids in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica cv Mundo Novo). Leaves with the labelled acetates were incubated and released CO2 was retained in paper discs with hiamine for further radioactivity detection. Separated proteins furnished 13 amino-acids through acid hidrolysis, all of them were identified by bidimensional filter paper chromatography. Through the obtained results it is possible to conclude that acetates are metabolized by the leafs and are related to the processes of leaf synthesis. It was possible to show that an utilization of acetate for energetical production via Krebs cycle was donne. The obtained conclusions show too that methylic carbon was more incorporated than carboxylic carbon

  9. Características fisiológicas e de crescimento de cafeeiro sombreado com guandu e cultivado a pleno sol Physiological characteristics and growth of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeonpea and unshaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos efeitos do sombreamento sobre a fisiologia de cafeeiros é importante para se determinar níveis ótimos de radiação e temperatura, bem como para subsidiar estudos sobre o crescimento de plantas sombreadas, a fim de determinar a arquitetura ideal do cafeeiro que maximize a captura da radiação solar disponível em ambientes sombreados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características fisiológicas e de crescimento de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cultivados sob sombreamento denso com guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. e a pleno sol. O baixo nível de radiação incidente sobre os cafeeiros sombreados com guandu resultou em decréscimos na taxa fotossintética e na transpiração, maior altura de planta, folhas maiores e com menor quantidade de matéria seca. Esses resultados indicam que o excesso de sombra afeta drasticamente a fisiologia e morfologia de C. arabica.The characterization of shade effects on the physiology of coffee is important to determine optimum levels of radiation and temperature, as well as to subsidize studies on growth of shaded plants aiming at determining the ideal coffee plant architecture that maximizes the capture of the available solar radiation in shaded environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and growth characteristics of coffee (Coffea arabica L. shaded with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. and under full sun. The low level of incident radiation on the coffee shaded with pigeonpea caused decreases in the photosynthetic rate and transpiration, increased plant height and leaf size, but diminished leaf dry matter. These results indicate that the excess of shade drastically affects the physiology and morphology of C. arabica.

  10. Deciphering transcriptional networks that govern Coffea arabica seed development using combined cDNA array and real-time RT-PCR approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Jordi; Dussert, Stéphane; Descroix, Frédéric; de Kochko, Alexandre; Bertrand, Benoît; Joët, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Due to its economic importance, Coffea arabica is becoming the subject of increasing genomic research and, in particular, the genes involved in the final chemical composition of the bean and the sensorial quality of the coffee beverage. The aim of the present study was to decipher the transcriptional networks that govern the development of the C. arabica seed, a model for non-orthodox albuminous seeds of tropical origin. For this purpose, we developed a transcriptomic approach combining two techniques: targeted cDNA arrays, containing 266 selected candidate gene sequences, and real-time RT-PCR on a large subset of 111 genes. The combination of the two techniques allowed us to limit detection of false positives and to reveal the advantages of using large real-time RT-PCR screening. Multivariate analysis was conducted on both datasets and results were broadly convergent. First, principle component analysis (PCA) revealed a dramatic re-programming of the transcriptional machinery between early cell division and elongation, storage and maturation phases. Second, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) led to the identification of 11 distinct patterns of gene expression during seed development as well as to the detection of genes expressed at specific developmental stages that can be used as functional markers of phenological changes. In addition, this study led to the description of gene expression profiles for quality-related genes, most of them formerly uncharacterised in Coffea. Their involvement in storage compound synthesis and accumulation during endosperm development and final metabolic re-adjustments during maturation is discussed. PMID:18026845

  11. Absorção, translocação e utilização de zinco, cobre e manganês por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica Absorption, translocation and utilization of zinc, copper and manganese in grafted seedlings of Coffea arabica

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    Marcelo Antonio Tomaz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparativamente ao pé-franco, a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto altera os complexos mecanismos de "feedback" entre parte aérea e raízes, afetando de maneira positiva ou negativa a eficiência nutricional da planta. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em cultivo hidropônico, a eficiência da absorção, translocação e utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn por mudas de Coffea arabica L., de acordo com o porta-enxerto utilizado. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, por um período de 170 dias, em vasos que continham areia como substrato, recebendo solução nutritiva circulante. Utilizaram-se, como enxerto, quatro genótipos de C. arabica: os cultivares Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e os híbridos 'H 419-10-3-1-5' e 'H 514-5-5-3' , e, como porta-enxerto, quatro genótipos, sendo três de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conilon Muriaé-1 e RC EMCAPA 8141 (recombinação entre clones da variedade Robustão Capixaba - EMCAPA 8141 e uma linhagem de Coffea arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além de quatro pés-francos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com 20 tratamentos, quatro repetições e uma planta por parcela. A eficiência nutricional das mudas quanto ao Zn, Cu e Mn variou de acordo com a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. A progênie 'H 514-5-5-3' foi mais eficiente quanto à utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn e produção de matéria seca, quando combinada com os porta-enxertos Apoatã LC 2258 e Mundo Novo IAC 376-4. O Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 foi mais eficiente na utilização de Cu e Mn quando combinado com Apoatã LC 2258.There are complexes feedback mechanisms involving the relationship rootstock/scion, whick can positively or negatively affect the plant nutrient efficiency use. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of uptake, translocation and utilization of Zn, Cu and Mn in coffee seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse

  12. Population of Pratylenchus coffeae (Z. and growth of Arabica coffee seedling inoculated by Pseudomonas diminuta L. and Bacillus subtilis (C..

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    Iis Nur Asyiah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Serangan nematoda parasit Pratylenchus coffeae menyebabkan kerusakan jaringan akar tanaman kopi. Pengendalian P. coffeae saat ini dilakukan dengan sistem pengendalian hama terpadu (PHT yaitu dengan memadukan penggunaan klon kopi tahan dengan penggunaan agens hayati yang aman terhadap lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh bakteri Pseudomonas diminuta dan Bacillus subtilis dalam menekan populasi nematoda P. coffeae dan pengaruhnya tehadap pertumbuhan bibit kopi. Penelitian menggunakan bibit kopi Arabika umur satu bulan yang melibatkan delapan perlakuan dan lima kali ulangan. Perlakuan yang dicoba adalah P. diminuta kerapatan 108 cfu/bibit, P. diminuta kerapatan 2x108 cfu/bibit, B. subtilis kerapatan 108 cfu/bibit, B. subtilis kerapatan 2x108 cfu/bibit, nematisida karbofuran 5 g formulasi/pot, P. diminuta dan Bacillus subtilis masing-masing kerapatan 108 cfu/bibit, kontrol negatif (tanpa agen hayati dan pestisida + nematoda, dan kontrol positif (tanpa tambahan apapun. Penelitian dilakukan selama 16 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa inokulasi P.diminuta dan B. subtilis berpengaruh nyata dalam menekan populasi P. coffeae. Perlakuan Bacillus subtilis dengan kepadatan 108 cfu dapat menekan populasi nematoda sebesar 71,3% dan tidak berbeda nyata dengan nematisida sintetis karbofuran yang dapat menekan populasi sebesar 89,7%. Demikian juga dengan bakteri P. diminuta kepadatan 2.108 mampu menekan populasi P.coffeae sebesar 64,2%. Pertumbuhan bibit kopi yang diperlakukan dengan bakteri secara nyata juga meningkat terutama yang diperlakukan B. subtilis dengan kepadatan 108 dan P. diminuta dengan kepadatan 108 cfu, masing-masing meningkat sebesar 35,4% dan 34,2% dibanding bibit yang tidak diinokulasi nematoda

  13. Zonificación agroecológica del Coffea arabica en el municipio Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero, México

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    Humberto Antonio González González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas agroecológicas del Coffea arabica son aquellas que presentan las condiciones y características del potencial biofísico favorables para su producción con óptimos rendimientos. El análisis de las condiciones geomorfológicas, del régimen hidrotérmico y de la cobertura edáfica en el municipio Atoyac de Álvarez, estado de Guerrero, México, y su representación cartográfica, mediante plataformas SIG, permitió identificar las áreas con potencialidades diferenciadas para el cultivo del Coffea arabica con vistas al establecimiento de su zonificación agroecológica. El enfoque sistémico y el procesamiento automatizado de la información propició la identificación de las áreas con potencial óptimo, medio, bajo y muy bajo. Los potenciales con una aptitud natural óptima se localizan en las zonas de montañas bajas, entre 1 100 a 1 500 msnm, con pendientes entre 1.1° hasta 18°, considerándose pendientes suaves y moderadas; con precipitaciones entre los 1 500 a 2 000 mm, en zonas semicálidas con espectro térmico de 18 °C a 22 °C y sobre suelos Acrisoles y con una clave jerarquizada Ah+Bh+Hh/2, con unidad primaria Acrisol. En el municipio la superficie de potenciales óptimos alcanza las 7 163.47 ha; la de medio, las 28 143.75 ha; la de bajo, las 62 130.65 ha, y la de potencial muy bajo unas 58 411.38 ha. Por su contenido, este enfoque y metodología pueden ser implementados en cualquier marco geográfico, adecuándose a las escalas cartográficas y evaluando las distintas apreciaciones agroecológicas, como aportación a las políticas y decisiones gubernamentales o empresariales para la planeación y el fomento de las áreas cafetaleras.

  14. Comportamiento del compuesto orgánico (agrocol y minerales como sustrato en almacigos de café (Coffea arabica L. en Coromoro, Santander

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    Álvaro Alvarado-Gaona

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dado que los efectos de la materia orgánica en la producción de almácigos de café (Coffea arabica L.  es  una  práctica  recomendada  por  sus excelentes  resultados  y  gracias  a  las  diversas fuentes utilizadas y ofertadas en el mercado, se hace  necesaria  la realización  de  estudios tendientes a evaluar dichos productos, en asocio con los cultivadores del grano en el área donde se desarrolla la práctica es así que se llevó a cabo un experimento con el fin de analizar el efecto de dos fuentes de materia orgánica: una extraída de la  finca en donde se desarrolló  la experiencia y otra proveniente del compuesto Orgánico Agrocol y Minerales, sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo de Colinos  de  café  (Coffea  arabica  L.  variedad Colombia, en etapa de almácigo, en dosis del 25%, 50% y 75% del compuesto en el sustrato, del 25% de Pulpa de Café descompuesta en el sustrato y  la mezcla  de  las  dos  fuentes  en  el  sustrato,  en condiciones de campo en el predio Árbol Solo de la  vereda  El Centro, Municipio de  Coromoro (Santander. Como resultado del experimento, se determinó  que  no  existen  diferencias  en  el desarrollo  y  crecimiento  en  los  almácigos  al utilizar dos  fuentes diferentes de materia orgánica, una enriquecida con minerales y otra extraída de la finca, por tanto la  inversión de capital por parte de los caficultores de  la zona en  fuentes de materia orgánica  enriquecida  con minerales  para  la producción de almácigos no es necesaria, pues se cuenta con la fuente adecuada en la zona.

  15. Teste de condutividade elétrica individual na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. Individual electrical conductivity test for evaluation of the physiological quality of coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L.

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    Paula de Souza Cabral Costa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O teste de condutividade elétrica é usado para medir os exsudatos das sementes, que certamente refletem a integridade do sistema de membranas. O teste é rápido e de operação simples, mas a metodologia necessita ser testada para cada espécie individualmente para obter uma melhor precisão e exatidão dos resultados. Este trabalho foi conduzido visando determinar o ponto de partição na realização do teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de café. Dez lotes de sementes de Coffea arabica sem pergaminho, cultivar Acaiá foram usados nesse estudo. Para a avaliação do ponto de partição as sementes foram embebidas por 96 horas e submetidas ao teste de germinação, correlacionando os valores de condutividade observados com os valores obtidos no teste de germinação. O ponto de partição é de 120,5µS.cm-1, considerando 70% de germinação.The conductivity test is used to measure the leaches from the seeds, which certaintily reflect the membrane system integrity. The test is rapid and it is of simple operation, but the methodology needs to be tested for each individual species in order to reach a better precision and accuracy. This work was conducted to determinate the partition point for the realization of electrical conductivity test in coffee seeds. Ten seed lots of Coffea arabica, cultivar Acaiá, without parchment, were used in this study. For the evaluation of the partition point, seeds were imbibed for 96 hours and submitted to the germination test, with the correlation between the conductivity values and those obtained in the germination test being evaluated. The partition point is 120,5µS.cm-1, considering 70% of germination.

  16. Characterization and expression of two cDNA encoding 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase isoforms in coffee (Coffea arabica L.).

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    Tiski, Iris; Marraccini, Pierre; Pot, David; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2011-10-01

    In higher plants there are two independent pathways for isoprenoid biosynthesis, located in the cytosol (mevalonic acid or MVA pathway) or in the plastids [methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway]. The 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the first committed step in the MVA pathway. Using the information available from the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project, we found 13 ESTs that originated two isoforms, CaHMGR1 and CaHMGR2, for the enzyme HMGR of Coffea arabica. A complementary DNA encoding the isoform CaHMGR1 was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. The full-length cDNA of CaHMGR1 was 2,242 bp containing a 1,812-bp ORF encoding 604 amino acids. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced CaHMGR1 had extensive homology with other plant HMGRs and contained two transmembrane domains and two putative HMGR binding sites and two NADP(H)-binding sites. Under normal growth conditions, transcripts of isoform CaHMRG1 were detected in fruit tissues (pulp, perisperm, and endosperm) only at the initial stages of development, flower buds and leaves. CaHMRG2 was expressed in all tissues and during all fruit development stages examined. These results suggest a constitutive expression of isoform CaHMGR2, while the isoform CaHMGR1 shows temporal and tissue-specific transcriptional activation.

  17. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica in experimental conditions

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    Nina Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water, hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campesina, a community of Carmen Pampa, Township Coroico. The aim of this study was to biologically control the "damping off", they found two genera that cause damping off in seedbed of coffee: Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.To determine the percentage of growth and control in the culture medium, we used the method of counting quarters, where they gave the mycelial growth of antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp., And the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. Statistically there was a highly significant difference in the variable growth rate of Trichoderma sp. on pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. at 3, 6 and 9 days that announces the time factor and treatments are interdependent. The control variable showed a highly significant difference in the time factor and treatment, but the interaction shows no significant difference this makes known factors that are independent, so the fungus Trichoderma sp. not depend on time in treatment, thus showing its inhibitory power to Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp .. This test gives references that there is antagonistic fungus control on the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.

  18. Abiotic stresses affect differently the intron splicing and expression of chloroplast genes in coffee plants (Coffea arabica) and rice (Oryza sativa).

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    Nguyen Dinh, Sy; Sai, Than Zaw Tun; Nawaz, Ghazala; Lee, Kwanuk; Kang, Hunseung

    2016-08-20

    Despite the increasing understanding of the regulation of chloroplast gene expression in plants, the importance of intron splicing and processing of chloroplast RNA transcripts under stress conditions is largely unknown. Here, to understand how abiotic stresses affect the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in dicots and monocots, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the intron splicing and expression patterns of chloroplast genes in the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) as a dicot and rice (Oryza sativa) as a monocot under abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, or combined drought and heat stresses. The photosynthetic activity of both coffee plants and rice seedlings was significantly reduced under all stress conditions tested. Analysis of the transcript levels of chloroplast genes revealed that the splicing of tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings were significantly affected by abiotic stresses. Notably, abiotic stresses affected differently the splicing of chloroplast tRNAs and mRNAs in coffee plants and rice seedlings. The transcript levels of most chloroplast genes were markedly downregulated in both coffee plants and rice seedlings upon stress treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that coffee and rice plants respond to abiotic stresses via regulating the intron splicing and expression of different sets of chloroplast genes. PMID:27448724

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD FOTOSINTÉTICA ASOCIADA CON EL INTERCAMBIO GASEOSO DE DOS VARIEDADES DE Coffea arabica OBTENIDAS POR CULTIVO In Vitro

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    Elizabeth Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en el Laboratorio de Células y Cultivo de Tejidos del Centro de Bioplantas en julio de 2007, con el objetivo de evaluar la actividad fotosintética de las plántulas de Coffea arabica var. Catuai y Caturra rojo, obtenidas in vitro en fase de multiplicación. Se determinaron la tasa de fotosíntesis neta, transpiración, conductancia estomática y concentración de pigmentos clorofílicos para cada una de las variedades a las ocho semanas de cultivadas; las vitroplantas crecieron en condiciones controladas en un medio MS suplementado con 0,5 ¿mol de AIA y 5 ¿mol de 6-BAP. Los resultados mostraron que ambas variedades desarrolladas in vitro presentaron tasas de fotosíntesis neta similares a las plantas de cafeto adultas cultivadas en condiciones de campo, lo que demostró la capacidad de fotosíntesis de las plántulas, conservando un adecuado equilibrio para el intercambio gaseoso en el proceso fotosintético durante la etapa de multiplicación in vitro.

  20. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UNA BIBLIOTECA GENÓMICA DE Coffea Arabica Var. COLOMBIA Y EVALUACIÓN CON UNA SECUENCIA HOMÓLOGA A UBIQUITINA

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    Elsa Leonor Álvarez Méndez 1, 2,

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de buscar secuencias de interés en el genoma de Coffea arabica var. Colombia, se construyó una biblioteca genómica en el vector Lambda FIX II (Stratagene con un tamaño promedio de inserto de 15Kb y con un título de 1,33x106 ufp/ml que representa aproximadamente 3,7 veces el genoma haploide.La biblioteca fue evaluada utilizando como sonda un producto de PCR amplificado con la combinación de iniciadores InhF - R631 y que presenta alta homología con secuencias tipo ubiquitinas de Arabidopsis thaliana y Oriza sativa. Se identificaron dos clones recombinantes (cof-ubi1 y cof-ubi2 que hibridizaron con la sonda tipo ubiquitina. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la biblioteca genómica es adecuada para la identificación de secuencias de interés, mapeo genético y estudios sobre regulación de la expresión de genes.

  1. Cuantificación de minerales K, Ca, Mg y P en pulpa y pergamino de café (Coffea arabica L. var. Typica

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    Johanna Mendoza Abarca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con muestras de café Coffea arabica L., variedad Typica de tres lugares en Ecuador: Palanda, Vilcabamba y El Pangui, seleccionados por su disponibilidad y condiciones geográficas. Se analizó potasio, calcio y magnesio por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; y fósforo por espectrofotometría visible, utilizando en todos los casos la digestión ácida para la preparación de las muestras. Con el objetivo de mantener la trazabilidad de los residuos se realizó el beneficio húmedo del café. Los resultados obtenidos para la pulpa de café expresados en base seca fueron: K 3,1 ± 0,43 %; Ca 0,46 ± 0,06 %; Mg 0,14 ± 0,01 % y P 0,13 ± 0,01 %. Para pergamino de café: K 0,16 ± 0,02 %; Ca 0,14 ± 0,05 %; Mg 0,06 ± 0,01 % y P 0,02 ± 0,01 %. En adición, se determinaron los minerales en el grano de café. Con estos resultados podemos mencionar que la pulpa de café es una buena fuente de potasio (especialmente, magnesio y fósforo. El pergamino pudiera ser considerado como fuente de fósforo.

  2. Cuantificación de minerales K, Ca, Mg y P en pulpa y pergamino de café (Coffea arabica L. var. Typica

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    Jorge Geovanny Figueroa Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con muestras de café Coffea arabica L., variedad Typica de tres lugares en Ecuador: Palanda, Vilcabamba y El Pangui, seleccionados por su disponibilidad y condiciones geográficas. Se analizó potasio, calcio y magnesio por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; y fósforo por espectrofotometría visible, utilizando en todos los casos la digestión ácida para la preparación de las muestras. Con el objetivo de mantener la trazabilidad de los residuos se realizó el beneficio húmedo del café. Los resultados obtenidos para la pulpa de café expresados en base seca fueron: K 3,1 ± 0,43 %; Ca 0,46 ± 0,06 %; Mg 0,14 ± 0,01 % y P 0,13 ± 0,01 %. Para pergamino de café: K 0,16 ± 0,02 %; Ca 0,14 ± 0,05 %; Mg 0,06 ± 0,01 % y P 0,02 ± 0,01 %. En adición, se determinaron los minerales en el grano de café. Con estos resultados podemos mencionar que la pulpa de café es una buena fuente de potasio (especialmente, magnesio y fósforo. El pergamino pudiera ser considerado como fuente de fósforo.

  3. Hibridações entre Coffea arabica e C. kapakata. análise citológica de um híbrido triplóide Crossability between C. arabica and C. kapakata and cytological analysis of the hybrid

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    L. C. Mônaco

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cruzamentos realizados entre Coffea arabica e C. kapakata revelaram que há possibilidade de hibridação entre estas duas espécies e que o pegamento é bem mais elevado quando C. arabica é usada como planta feminina. Os resultados das hibridações realizadas, acrescidos aos já existentes sôbre a relação de compatibilidade de C. kapakata com outras espécies, vêm reforçar a sua inclusão dentro do gênero Coffea. As observações feitas na meiose de um híbrido triplóide entre C. arabica e C. kapakata demonstraram a formação de 1,33III 9,45II e 10,07I em média, para diacinese e primeira metáfase. As separações anafásicas são irregulares, bem como as tétrades produzidas. Os grãos de pólen contêm, em sua maioria, 13 a 17 cromossomos. Os híbridos triplóides são vigorosos e vêm sendo utilizados no melhoramento, visando introduzir nos cultivares de C. arabica a resistência à sêca presente em C. kapakata.The ability of C. kapakata to cross with C. arabica was analysed in the present paper. The ratios between seed-ovules, seedling-seeds and seedling-ovules were taken into account in order to evaluate the kinhood of the two species. It was found that the crossing rate was higher when C. arabica, the tetraploid species, was used as female. In the backcrosses it was found that the hybrid could not be crossed with C. kapakata, while C. arabica crosses in both directions with the F, hybrid. The hybrids were morphologically intermediate to both species. Observations were made about the meiosis of one of the hybrids. The chromosome associations were in average 1.33III 9.45II and 10.07I, for diakinesis and first metaphase. The distribution of the chromosomes during anaphase as well as the tetrades are abnormal. The pollen grains contain more frequently from 13 to 17 chromosomes. The hybrids between C. arabica and C. kapakata have been used as bridge for transferring drought resistance of C. kapakata to the cultivars of C

  4. Observações Citológicas em coffea: VI — Desenvolvimento do embrião e do endosferma em Coffea Arabica l.

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    A. J. T. Mendes

    1942-04-01

    Full Text Available The ovule of C. arabica L. consists õf a single integument and a small nucellús which disappears as the ovule matures. Three of the four macrospores resulting from the'division of the macrosporocyte, degenerate. The remaining chalazal cell gives rise to a "normal'' embryo sac, which is ready for fertilization at the time of the flower opening. Double fertilization occurs, as a rule, the day the flower opens. The embryo sac then increases in volume and compresses the inner integument cells. The outer cells of the integument, however, multiply actively, giving rise to the "perisperm". After degeneration of the synergids and antipodals, the zygote stays near the micro-pyle in a resting stage, while the primary endosperm nucleus divides. This first division of the endosperm occurs from 21 to 27 days after flower opening. The cytoplasm condenses around the newly formed nuclei, permitting the adjacent tissues to sink into the embryo sac. Since the separating walls were not seen at the binueleate stage and were present at the four-nucleate stage, it seems that the endosperm belongs to the' "nuclear type". As the number of endosperm cells increases, the "perisperm" cells are again compressed and give more and more room to the new tissue. The first division in the zygote occurs from sixty to seventy days after flower opening, when the endosperm is already multinucleate. A differentiated embryo develops, with a hypocotyl and two small cotyledons in the ripe seed. In the ripe seed the "perisperm" disappears almost completely: its remains form the thin "silver skin" which envelops the endosperm. The parchment layer which envelops the seed is the endocarp.

  5. Transferência do fator caturra para o cultivar Mundo Novo de Coffea arabica Transfer of the CT gene to Mundo Novo cultivar

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    A. Carvalho

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatados os estudos realizados visando à introdução do gene Ct (caturra que contribui para reduzir a altura da planta, no cultivar Mundo" Novo de Coffea arabica.Estudaram-se, em ensaios de produtividade, as populações Fv F.,, F3 e F4. Nessas populações e principalmente entre os descendentes dos "caféeiros H 2077-2-5 e H 2077-2-12, foram selecionadas plantas homozigotas para os alelos Ct e também para os alelos responsáveis pela cor do fruto xc ou Xc. Essas combinações foram denominadas 'Catuaí Amarelo' e 'Catuaí Vermelho', respectivamente, e suas características são apresentadas. Os novos cultivares vêm-se mostrando de interesse econômico para as regiões cafeeiras não somente pelo porte pequeno, mas também pela produtividade, pelo vigor vegetativo e pela precocidade.The successful transfer of the Ct gene for short internode to the tall cultivar of Coffea arábica'Mundo Novo' is reported. Individual selections were carried out in the F1, F2, F3 and F4 generations. It was found that early selection in the F2 generation was quite effective. A remarkably good correlation was found between productitivity of F2 plants and the yield of the F3 and F4 generations. Plants of the F4 generation have shown reasonable uniformity and high yield in several trials. The new selections showed to be early producers. Two new cultivars were released namely 'Catuaí Amarelo' and 'Catuaí Vermelho'. The former has yellow fruits whereas the latter has red fruits. The plants are much shorter that the ones of Mundo Novo. The new cultivars have a very strong secondary and tertiary branching. Because of these characteristics Catuaí Amarelo and Catuaí Vermelho are being planted in large scale replacing the tall cultivars.

  6. Study of composition of espresso coffee prepared from various roast degrees of Coffea arabica L. coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučera, Lukáš; Papoušek, Roman; Kurka, Ondřej; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr

    2016-05-15

    Espresso coffee samples prepared at various roasting degrees defined according to its basic conventional classification (light, medium, medium-dark and dark roasted) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained raw data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to evaluate chemical differences between each roasting degrees (untargeted part of study). All four roasting degrees were resolved in appropriate Score plot. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures provided signals of significant markers describing the differences among particular roasting degrees. Detailed interpretation of those signals by targeted LC/MS(2) analysis revealed four groups of compounds. The first two groups involve chlorogenic acids and related lactones. The signals of other two sets of markers were ascribed to some specific atractylosides and particular melanoidins. Ratios of contents of selected representatives of each group to the sum of all identified markers were proposed as definite parameters for determination of roasting degree of Brazilian coffee Arabica.

  7. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  8. Characterizing plasma membrane H+-ATPase in two varieties of coffee leaf (Coffea arabica L.) and its interaction with an elicitor fraction from the orange rust fungus (H. vastatrix Berk and Br.) race II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osses, Luis R; Godoy, César A

    2006-04-01

    Early intercellular signaling in Coffea arabica L.-Hemileia vastatrix host-pathogen interaction was studied, using inside-out plasma membrane from two varieties of coffee leaf and a fungal fraction to determine the plant's biochemical responses. Microsomal pellets (100,000 x g) from the susceptible (Caturra) and resistant (Colombia) coffee leaf varieties were purified by partitioning in two-polymer DEX (6.3% w/w) and PEG (6.3% w/w) system aqueous phase. Fungal material was obtained from orange rust Hemileia vastatrix Berk and Br. race II urediospore germ tubes. Plasma membrane vesicles were preferentially localized to PEG phase, as indicated by its enzyme marker distribution. Both H(+)-ATPase activities displayed similar kinetic and biochemical characteristics, comparable to those described for P-type ATPases. Several enzymes may play pivotal roles in plants regarding early interaction with fungal elicitors. Studies of fungal fractions' effects on H(+)-ATPase and both varieties' proton pumping activities were thus carried out. Concentration as low as 0.1 Gluc eq. ml(-1) fungal fraction induced specific inhibition of H(+)-ATPase and the resistant variety's proton pumping activities. The present work describes characterizing the H(+)-ATPase plasma membrane from two Coffea arabica L. varieties (Caturra and Colombia) for the first time and the race specific inhibitory effect of a crude fungal fraction on both H(+)-ATPase and the resistant variety's proton pumping activities. PMID:16781870

  9. Characterization and estimation of proanthocyanidins and other phenolics in coffee pulp (Coffea arabica) by thiolysis-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Coronel, Maria Ascencion; Marnet, Nathalie; Kolli, V S Kumar; Roussos, Sevastianos; Guyot, Sylvain; Augur, Christopher

    2004-03-10

    Fresh and 3-day-old coffee pulp of the Arabica variety were analyzed for polyphenol composition followed by characterization by two different methods. The first method consisted in subjecting coffee pulp powder to direct thiolysis. For the second method, coffee pulp was subjected to successive solvent extractions, followed by thiolysis. Quantification of phenolic compounds was then achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of thiolysis products. Four major classes of polyphenols were identified: flavan-3-ols (monomers and procyanidins), hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanidins. Differences in concentration of procyanidins were observed between fresh and 3-day-old coffee pulp. Constitutive units were mainly epicatechin, representing more than 90% of the proanthocyanidin units, with average degrees of polymerization in the range of 3.8-9.1. Monomer to hexamer units of flavan-3-ols from fresh coffee pulp were separated by normal-phase HPLC. Molecular size of oligomeric proanthocyanidins was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results obtained confirm the presence of oligomers of the flavan-3-ol (-)-epicatechin.

  10. Produtividade de cultivares de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. submetidas a diferentes épocas de parcelamento da adubação Yield of coffee cultivars (Coffea arabica L. under different split-fertilization times

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    Gabriel Ferreira Bartholo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos foram instalados na Fazenda Experimental da Epamig em São Sebastião do Paraíso, com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento das cultivares Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19; Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282; Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 e Rubi-MG 1192, em relação a épocas de parcelamento de adubação. As respostas das cultivares foram medidas sobre a produção em função das épocas de parcelamento da adubação, demonstrando que a característica estudada foi influenciada pelas combinações das épocas em que foram submetidas. A cultivar Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19 tolerou intervalos maiores entre as adubações no período de outubro a março, e a cultivar Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 respondeu de modo significativo a quatro parcelamentos consecutivos com intervalo de 30-40 dias entre as aplicações. Para a cultivar Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282, existem opções de estabelecimento de épocas adequadas, dependendo do início das chuvas. A cultivar Rubi-MG 1192 não respondeu às épocas de parcelamento da adubação.ABSTRACT - The work was conducted at EPAMIG's Experimental Station in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, to study the performance of Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19; Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282; Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 and Rubi- MG 1192 coffee cultivars, in relation to time and parceling out of fertilization. Cultivar responses were evaluated by yield measurements, with the results showing that this parameter was affected by time in which fertilization was made. Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19 cultivar tolerated broader intervals between the fertilizations from October to March. Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 response was significant to four consecutive parceling, with intervals from 30 to 40 days between applications. Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282 cultivar presented other more appropriate time options depending on the start of rainy season. Rubi-MG 1192 cultivar was not responsive to split-fertilization.

  11. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XLIII. seleção de cafeeiros resistentes ao bicho-mineiro Coffee breeding: XLIII. selection of coffee trees resistant to the leaf miner (Perileucoptera coffeella

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    Oliveiro Guerreiro Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se diversos parâmetros agronômicos em progênies oriundas de potinização aberta e de hibridações envolvendo os cafeeiros C 1195-5-6-1 e C 1195-5-6-2, resistentes ao bicho-mineiro (Perileucoptera coffeella. Ambos apresentam florescimento abundante e precocidade de maturação, características da espécie Coffea racemosa, da qual se originaram por retrocruzamentos com C. arabica. Hibridações desses dois cafeeiros foram realizadas com os cafés Icatu, Catimor, Híbrido de Timor e Catuaí. Os três primeiros, derivados de retrocruzamentos de C. canephora com C. arabica, são resistentes ao agente da ferrugem (Hemileia vastatrix e, o último, cultivar de grande expressão econômica, tem porte reduzido e elevada capacidade produtiva. A análise das progênies realizada em quatro ensaios revelou que todos esses atributos, presentes em tão diverso germoplasma, são geneticamente transmissíveis e se encontram nas progênies investigadas, em associações diversas. Os dados de produção e o fato de não existirem associações antagônicas entre esses atributos sugerem a possibilidade do desenvolvimento de cultivares produtivos, resistentes ao bicho-mineiro e com outras características desejáveis, principalmente resistência ao agente da ferrugem.Several agronomic characteristics were studied in progenies from open pollinations and hybridizations of coffee trees C1195-5-6-1 and C1195-5-6-2. Both, resistant to the leaf miner (Perileucoptera coffeella, bloom profusely and are early ripening, characteristics of Coffea racemosa from which they originated via backcross to C. arabica. Hybrids of these two individuals with Icatu, Catimor, Híbrido de Timor and Catuaí cultivars were evaluated. The first three cultvars, C. canephora x C. arabica backcross derivatives, are resistant to the leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix and the last a leading C. arabica cultivar has short stature and high yield capacity. The study of the progenies

  12. Fruit load and branch ring-barking affect carbon allocation and photosynthesis of leaf and fruit of Coffea arabica in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaast, Philippe; Angrand, Jobert; Franck, Nicolas; Dauzat, Jean; Génard, Michel

    2005-06-01

    Increasing fruit load (from no berries present to 25, 50 and 100% of the initial fruit load) significantly decreased branch growth on 5-year-old coffee (Coffea arabica L.) trees of the dwarf cultivar 'Costa Rica 95', during their third production cycle. Ring-barking the branches further reduced their growth. Berry dry mass at harvest was significantly reduced by increasing fruit load. Dry matter allocation to berries was four times that allocated to branch growth during the cycle. Branch dieback and berry drop were significantly higher at greater fruit loads. This illustrates the importance of berry sink strength and indicates that there is competition for carbohydrates between berries and shoots and also among berries. Leaf net photosynthesis (P(n)) increased with increasing fruit load. Furthermore, leaves of non-isolated branches bearing full fruit load achieved three times higher P(n) than leaves of isolated (ring-barked) branches without berries, indicating strong relief of leaf P(n) inhibition by carbohydrate demand from berries and other parts of the coffee tree when excess photoassimilates could be exported. Leaf P(n) was significantly higher in the morning than later during the day. This reduction in leaf P(n) is generally attributed to stomatal closure in response to high irradiance, temperature and vapor pressure deficit in the middle of the day; however, it could also be a feedback effect of reserves accumulating during the morning when climatic conditions for leaf P(n) were optimal, because increased leaf mass ratio was observed in leaves of ring-barked branches with low or no fruit loads. Rates of CO(2) emission by berries decreased and calculated photosynthetic rates of berries increased with increasing photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) especially at low PPFs (0 to 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). The photosynthetic contribution of berries at the bean-filling stage was estimated to be about 30% of their daily respiration costs and 12% of their total carbon

  13. Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B′ methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Kouichi, E-mail: koumno@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Masahiro [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Kanazawa, Shiho [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Kato, Misako [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: Trigonelline synthase catalyzes the conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline. We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene(s) from Coffea arabica. - Highlights: • Trigonelline is a major compound in coffee been same as caffeine is. • We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene. • Coffee trigonelline synthases are highly homologous with coffee caffeine synthases. • This study contributes the fully understanding of pyridine alkaloid metabolism. - Abstract: Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl-{sup 14}C]methionine, it was confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or

  14. Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B′ methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Trigonelline synthase catalyzes the conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline. We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene(s) from Coffea arabica. - Highlights: • Trigonelline is a major compound in coffee been same as caffeine is. • We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene. • Coffee trigonelline synthases are highly homologous with coffee caffeine synthases. • This study contributes the fully understanding of pyridine alkaloid metabolism. - Abstract: Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl-14C]methionine, it was confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or with

  15. Seleção de progênies de Coffea arabica com resistência simultânea à mancha aureolada e à ferrugem alaranjada Selection of progenies of Coffea arabica with simultaneous resistance to bacterial blight and leaf rust

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    Marcos Rafael Petek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar progênies de Coffea arabica quanto a resistência à ferrugem alaranjada, causada por Hemileia vastatrix, e à mancha aureolada, causada por Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae. O experimento foi instalado no Centro de Produção e Experimentação de Londrina, do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, 13 tratamentos (11 progênies e as testemunhas 'IAPAR 59' e 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81'. Os resultados sugerem investigar a possibilidade da ocorrência de novo(s patotipo(s de P. syringae pv. garcae no Paraná. Observou-se na cultivar 'IAPAR 59' resistência suficiente para reduzir danos provocados por P. syringae pv. garcae, causador da mancha aureolada, em regiões de alta ocorrência do patógeno no Paraná. Na progênie "Catuaí" x "Icatú" PRFB 2-27-1/F5 (IAPAR 96095 verificou-se resistência simultânea à ferrugem alaranjada e à mancha aureolada e deverá ser testada em ensaios regionais.This research aimed at to study C. arabica progenies as to resistances to bacterial blight "mancha aureolada", caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae, and coffee leaf rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix. The experiment was carried out in the Centro de Produção e Experimentação de Londrina, Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. It was set in a randomized complete block design with 13 treatments (11 progenies and the controls 'IAPAR 59' and 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81' and three replications. The results suggest the ocurrence of new(s pathotype(s of P. syringae pv. garcae in Paraná State. The IAPAR 59 cultivar is an option to minimize the damage caused by P. syringae pv. garcae in areas of high incidence of this pathogen. The progeny PRFB 2-27-1/F5 (IAPAR 96095 from "Catuaí" x "Icatú" cross presented simultaneous resistance to leaf rust and to bacterial blight ("mancha aureolada". It will be tested in future regional trials.

  16. Proteolytic activities of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi isolated from coffee fruit (Coffea arabica L. = Atividade proteolítica de bactérias, leveduras e fungos filamentosos presentes em grãos de café (Coffea arabica L.

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    Mirian Pereira Rodarte

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four microorganisms previously isolated from coffee fruit (Coffea arabica were grown on casein agar to evaluate their proteolytic activities. Fifty percent of filamentous fungi, 52.5% of bacteria and 2.6% of yeasts were able to secrete proteases. Positiveisolates were further examined in liquid culture for their protease activities by hydrolysis of casein at different pH values (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 at 30 oC. Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, Enterobacteragglomerans, Kurthia sp, Pseudomonas paucimobilis and Tatumella ptyseos demonstrated the highest proteolytic activities at pH 9.0. One yeast isolate, Citeromyces matritensis, had a proteolytic activityof 2.40 U at pH 5.0. Aspergillus dimorphicus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium moniliforme, F. solani, Penicillium fellutanum and P. waksmanii showed the highest activities. Of the bacterial isolates, the highestenzyme activities were observed in B. subtilis 333 (27.1 U, Tatumella ptyseos (27.0 U and B. megaterium 817 (26.2 U. Of the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus ochraceus (48.7 U, Fusarium moniliforme 221 (37.5 U and F. solani 359 (37.4 U had the highest activities at pH 9.0. Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a capacidade de secreção de proteases extracelulares por 144 microrganismos, previamente isoladosde grãos de café (Coffea arabica durante fermentação por via seca, e determinar a atividade das enzimas produzidas. Os microrganismos foram cultivados em ágar-caseína para avaliação da produção de enzimas proteolíticas. Dos 40 isolados de bactéria presentes na amostra, 52,5% apresentaram resultado positivo para o teste. Considerando os 66 isolados de fungos filamentosos, 50% foram capazes de secretar proteases, enquanto que dos 38 isolados de leveduras, apenas 2,6% conseguiram promover a hidrólise da caseína do meio. Os isolados que apresentaram capacidade de secreção de proteases foram, posteriormente, cultivados em meio líquido para a determinação da atividade

  17. Detecção de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em raízes de cafeeiro e de crotalária cultivada na entrelinha

    OpenAIRE

    COLOZZI FILHO ARNALDO; CARDOSO ELKE JURANDI BRAN NOGUEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) no solo rizosférico e nas raízes de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) e de Crotalaria breviflora DC., cultivada na entrelinha como adubo verde. Amostras de solo rizosférico e raízes foram coletadas em julho de 1997, em parte de um experimento de longa duração conduzido no campo pelo Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, no município de Mirasselva, PR. Determinou-se a diversidade de FMAs, por meio da identificação morfológica dos esporos,...

  18. Incidência de ácaros em cafeeiro cv. Catuaí Amarelo Mite fauna on coffee plants cv. Catuaí Amarelo

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    Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho Mineiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros presentes em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., no município de Atibaia, Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado em cafeeiro cultivar Catuaí Amarelo com aproximadamente 15 anos de idade. Foram demarcadas 60 plantas na cultura, das quais se coletaram folhas, ramos e frutos para a avaliação das espécies de ácaros existentes. Vinte e uma espécies de ácaros pertencentes a 14 famílias foram encontradas, sendo a maior diversidade observada nos ramos. As duas principais espécies fitófagas foram Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae e Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Tetranychidae. Dentre os predadores, os ácaros da família Phytoseiidae e Bdellidae foram os mais abundantes. Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma foi o predador mais abundante, tanto em folhas como em ramos. Bdella sp. (Bdellidae foi outra espécie muito abundante observada nos ramos.The objective of this work was to study the diversity of mites found on a coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantation located in Atibaia County, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study was carried out on a near 15 year old plantation of 'Catuaí Amarelo'. From 60 marked coffee plants, leaves, branches and berries were collected to evaluate the species of mites present on the plants. Twenty one species of mites belonging to 14 families were found. The highest diversity was observed on branches. The most abundant phytophagous species were Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae and Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Tetranychidae. Among the predators, the mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Bdellidae were the most abundant. The phytoseiid Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma predominated on leaves as well as on branches. Bdella sp. (Bdellidae was also mostly present on branches.

  19. High coffee population density to improve fertility of an oxisol Densidade populacional de cafeeiros para melhorar a fertilidade de um latossolo

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    Marcos Antonio Pavan

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of coffee (Coffea arabica L. population densities on the chemical and microbiological properties of an Oxisol. The work was carried out on soil samples of 0-20 cm depth originated from an experimental site which had been used for coffee tree spacing studies during 15 years, in Paraná State, Brazil. Eight coffee tree populations were evaluated: 7143, 3571, 2381, 1786, 1429, 1190, 1020, and 893 trees/ha. Increasing plant population increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, extractable P, organic carbon, moisture content and coffee root colonization by vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and decreased exchangeable Al and microbial biomass. Such results were attributed to better erosion control, improved plant residue management and nutrient cycling, and decreased leaching losses. Increasing coffee tree population per unit of area has shown to be an important reclamation recuperation strategy for improving fertility of the acid soils in Paraná, Brazil.O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos de diferentes densidades de população de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. nas propriedades químicas, físicas e microbiológicas do solo. Amostras de um Latossolo foram coletadas na profundidade 0-20 cm em um experimento de campo onde estavam sendo avaliadas diferentes populações de cafeeiros. Os tratamentos foram 7.143, 3.571, 2.381, 1.786, 1.429, 1.190, 1.020 e 893 covas/ha. Os resultados demonstraram que o aumento da população de plantas por unidade de área aumentou o pH, o Ca, o Mg e o K trocáveis, o P disponível, o carbono orgânico, o teor de umidade e a colonização radicular por micorrizas, e diminuiu o Al trocável e a biomassa microbiana. Foram considerados como causas da melhoria da fertilidade do solo, sob cafeeiros adensados, o adequado controle da erosão, o correto manejo dos resíduos vegetais e a baixa lixiviação dos íons. O manejo da população de cafeeiros pode

  20. Long-term elevated air [CO2 ] strengthens photosynthetic functioning and mitigates the impact of supra-optimal temperatures in tropical Coffea arabica and C. canephora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Weverton P; Martins, Madlles Q; Fortunato, Ana S; Rodrigues, Ana P; Semedo, José N; Simões-Costa, Maria C; Pais, Isabel P; Leitão, António E; Colwell, Filipe; Goulao, Luis; Máguas, Cristina; Maia, Rodrigo; Partelli, Fábio L; Campostrini, Eliemar; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I; Lidon, Fernando C; DaMatta, Fábio M; Ramalho, José C

    2016-01-01

    The tropical coffee crop has been predicted to be threatened by future climate changes and global warming. However, the real biological effects of such changes remain unknown. Therefore, this work aims to link the physiological and biochemical responses of photosynthesis to elevated air [CO2 ] and temperature in cultivated genotypes of Coffea arabica L. (cv. Icatu and IPR108) and Coffea canephora cv. Conilon CL153. Plants were grown for ca. 10 months at 25/20°C (day/night) and 380 or 700 μl CO2 l(-1) and then subjected to temperature increase (0.5°C day(-1) ) to 42/34°C. Leaf impacts related to stomatal traits, gas exchanges, C isotope composition, fluorescence parameters, thylakoid electron transport and enzyme activities were assessed at 25/20, 31/25, 37/30 and 42/34°C. The results showed that (1) both species were remarkably heat tolerant up to 37/30°C, but at 42/34°C a threshold for irreversible nonstomatal deleterious effects was reached. Impairments were greater in C. arabica (especially in Icatu) and under normal [CO2 ]. Photosystems and thylakoid electron transport were shown to be quite heat tolerant, contrasting to the enzymes related to energy metabolism, including RuBisCO, which were the most sensitive components. (2) Significant stomatal trait modifications were promoted almost exclusively by temperature and were species dependent. Elevated [CO2 ], (3) strongly mitigated the impact of temperature on both species, particularly at 42/34°C, modifying the response to supra-optimal temperatures, (4) promoted higher water-use efficiency under moderately higher temperature (31/25°C) and (5) did not provoke photosynthetic downregulation. Instead, enhancements in [CO2 ] strengthened photosynthetic photochemical efficiency, energy use and biochemical functioning at all temperatures. Our novel findings demonstrate a relevant heat resilience of coffee species and that elevated [CO2 ] remarkably mitigated the impact of heat on coffee physiology, therefore

  1. Avaliação das cultivares Mundo Novo, Bourbon Amarelo e Bourbon Vermelho de Coffea arabica L. em Campinas, SP Evaluation of the cultivars Mundo Novo, Bourbon Amarelo and Bourbon Vermelho of Coffea arabica L., in Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Fazuoli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar a diversidade genética da cultivar Mundo Novo, progênies S1 de 92 novas plantas matrizes, selecionadas em 1952, no município de Urupês (SP, foram estudadas em experimento instalado no Centro Experimental do Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas, utilizando-se como testemunhas 12 progênies S2 de Mundo Novo, seis de Bourbon Amarelo e sete de Bourbon Vermelho. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso com 21 repetições, parcelas de uma única cova e uma planta por cova, tendo sido realizadas colheitas consecutivas durante 33 anos. Foram mensuradas também as seguintes variáveis: índice de avaliação visual, precocidade de maturação dos frutos, porcentagem de sementes dos tipos chato, moca e concha e tamanho das sementes mediante determinação da peneira média. Diferenças significativas foram verificadas na produção dentro e entre grupos de Mundo Novo S1, Mundo Novo S2, Bourbon Amarelo e Bourbon Vermelho, sendo a média de produção das progênies S1, 6% superior à do grupo Mundo Novo S2. Foram observadas nas progênies de Mundo Novo S1 e S2, respectivamente, produtividade 39% e 30% superior à do Bourbon Amarelo e 112% e 99%, respectivamente, à do Bourbon Vermelho. Entre as 30 progênies mais produtivas, 4 pertencem à geração S2 e as restantes à geração S1 de Mundo Novo, indicando a eficiência da primeira seleção realizada em 1943. De modo geral, verificaram-se nas melhores progênies da cultivar Mundo Novo maturação média, sendo CP447, a mais precoce e CP502, a mais tardia. Apenas a progênie CP474 conseguiu peneira média superior às demais. Com o presente trabalho, concluiu-se que as progênies da cultivar Mundo Novo têm ótima capacidade produtiva, boa longevidade e excelente rusticidade. As novas seleções evidenciaram ainda mais o valor dessa cultivar, sendo uma das mais produtivas que se conhece em C. arabica.Coffea arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo is the most outstanding coffee

  2. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: V - Melhoramento por hibridação

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    C. A. Krug

    1952-06-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação como método de melhoramento do cafeeiro, oferece amplas possibilidades que ainda se acham pouco exploradas. Para o caso da espécie C. arabica, a hibridação entre suas variedades, além de fornecer dados seguros sôbre a constituição genética, permite também a verificação de ocorrência da heterose, o melhoramento sem mudança dos caracteres das variedades, ou sintetização de estruturas genéticas novas. Os cruzamentos interespecíficos poderão contribuir decisivamente para a solução do problema da melhoria da qualidade do produto e dar indicações a respeito das relações das várias espécies e da reação dos fatôres genéticos de uma espécie em ambientes genéticos diversos. Cêrca de 2500 híbridos se acham em estudo na Secção de Genética, envolvendo plantas da mesma variedade, plantas de variedades diferentes e cafeeiros pertencentes a espécies distintas. As diversas possibilidades dêsses cruzamentos no melhoramento do cafeeiro são indicadas, chamando-se especial atenção para os híbridos interespecíficos, principalmente aquêles que envolvem a espécie tetraplóide C. arabica e outras espécies diplóides, como C. canephora, C. Dewevrei e C. congensis. Êstes híbridos triplóides, após duplicação do número de cromosômios, poderão constituir fonte de novas formas de Coffea, permitindo a expansão do cultivo do café era São Paulo.Artificial hybridization in coffee breeding offers possibilities that are still unexplored. Inter-varietal hybridization has been used in Coffea arabica in order to get information about the genetic constitution of the varieties, and occurrence of heterosis, to breed without changing the morphological characters of the varieties and also to synthesize new genetic types of economic value. Inter-specific hybridization has been employed for improvement of cup quality and to furnish data about the relationship of various coffee species and the behaviour of known

  3. Acúmulo de nutrientes em frutos de cafeeiro em duas altitudes de cultivo: micronutrientes Nutrient accumulation in coffee fruits at two at two plantation altitudes: micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dado à importância de se conhecer a exportação de micronutrientes pelos frutos, bem como, as épocas em que são mais demandados pelo cafeeiro, estudou-se o acúmulo de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em frutos de Coffea arabica L da antese à maturação, em lavouras estabelecidas em duas altitudes. Estudou-se também a variação no teor desses elementos. Estudou-se o acúmulo de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em frutos de cafeeiro arábico da antese à maturação em duas altitudes, bem como a variação na concentração dos elementos em folhas dos ramos produtivos. O experimento foi constituído da variedade de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. Catuaí IAC 44 cultivada a 720 e 950 m de altitude, no município de Martins Soares-MG. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, usando um esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo. O aumento da altitude influenciou o ciclo reprodutivo do cafeeiro, demandando maior tempo para formação dos frutos. O consumo de nutrientes pelos frutos, assim como o enchimento de grãos, foi mais crítico em condições de menor altitude, já que a planta necessitou completar esses processos em menor espaço de tempo. No estádio de expansão rápida, a percentagem de acúmulo de micronutrientes foi maior na altitude de 720 m, comparada à de 950 m. De modo geral, a altitude influenciou a variação das concentrações foliares de nutrientes, apesar de não se ter observado resposta-padrão da concentração foliar ao aumento da altitude. Conclui-se que a altitude teve influência na extensão do ciclo, bem como no acúmulo de micronutrientes em frutos e na variação, das concentrações foliares destes elementos em folhas de cafeeiro.In view of the importance of knowing fruit micronutrients export from the soil, and the season in which its coffee-plant demand is higher, the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in fruits as well as the variation in the leaf content of the elements in productive branches of

  4. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic

  5. Composição química de grãos crus de cultivares de Coffea arabica L. suscetíveis e resistentes à Hemileia vastatrix Berg et Br Chemical composition of raw grains of cultivars the Coffea arabica L. susceptible and resistant to Hemileia vastatrix Berg et Br

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    Luciana Maria Vieira Lopes Mendonça

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, buscou-se caracterizar a composição química e físico-química dos grãos crus de 16 cultivares de café Coffea arabica L., com o intuito de avaliar novos materiais desenvolvidos com resistência à ferrugem (Hemileia vastatrix Berg. et Br. em comparação aos tradicionais. Desta forma, frutos provenientes do ensaio de melhoramento genético do MAPA/PROCAFÉ, localizado na Fazenda Experimental de Varginha em MG foram colhidos e transportados imediatamente para o Pólo de Tecnologia em Pós-Colheita do Café da UFLA, onde foram lavados, descascados e secados em terreiro de concreto. Após o beneficiamento, os grãos foram acondicionados em latas de alumínio e armazenados a 15ºC. Os frutos avaliados correspondiam às cultivares 'Acaiá', 'Acauã', 'Bourbon Amarelo', 'Canário', 'Catuaí Amarelo', 'Catuaí Vermelho', 'Catucaí Amarelo', 'Catucaí Vermelho', 'Icatu Amarelo', 'Icatu Vermelho' 'Mundo Novo', 'Palma', 'Rubi', 'Sabiá 398', 'Siriema' e 'Topázio', do ano safra 2002. Os grãos crus foram moídos em moinho de bola com nitrogênio líquido. As análises realizadas foram: açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores, extrato etéreo, polifenóis e cafeína. Diferenças foram consideradas significativas e as cultivares apresentaram variações para os teores de todos os compostos avaliados, indicando haver uma influência do genótipo sobre esses constituintes.The aim of this article is characterizing the chemical and physical chemical composition of raw grains and analyzing new resistent material to rust (Hemilea vastatrix Berg. et Br. compared to the traditional ones. The fruits were originated from breeding experiments from MAPA/PROCAFÉ, localized in the experimental farm of Varginha , Minas Gerais state. They were harvested and taken to the Postharvest Technology Center of Universidade Federal de Lavras, where they were washed, peeled and dried in a concrete ground. After cleaning, the grains were packed in

  6. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust Bioprospecção de bactérias endofíticas como agentes de biocontrole da ferrugem do cafeeiro

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    Humberto Franco Shiomi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, and on potted seedling of cv. Mundo Novo. The endophytic bacterial isolates tested proved to be effective in inhibiting urediniospore germination and/or rust development, with values above 50%, although the results obtained in urediniospore germination tests were inferior to the treatment with fungicide propiconazole. Endophytic isolates TG4-Ia, TF2-IIc, TF9-Ia, TG11-IIa, and TF7-IIa, demonstrated better coffee leaf rust control in leaf discs, detached leaves, and coffee plant tests. The endophytic isolates TG4-Ia and TF9-Ia were identified as Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky and Bacillus cereus Frank. & Frank., respectively. Some endophytic bacterial isolates were effective in controlling the coffee leaf rust, although some increased the severity of the disease. Even though a relatively small number of endophytic bacteria were tested, promising results were obtained regarding the efficiency of coffee leaf rust biocontrol. These selected agents appears to be an alternative for future replacement of chemical fungicide.Supressão de doenças de plantas por microrganismos endofíticos tem sido demonstrada em diversos patossistemas. Neste trabalho foram selecionados isolados de bactérias endofíticas de folhas e ramos de cafeeiro com potencial para o controle biológico da ferrugem do cafeeiro, pois é conhecido que esses microrganismos podem possuir essa característica. Bactérias endofíticas isoladas previamente de folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica L e Coffea

  7. Selection for durable resistance to leaf rust using test-crosses on IAPAR-59 and Tupi IAC 1669-33 cultivars of Coffea arabica

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    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify plants of the IAPAR-59 and Tupi IAC 1669-33 coffee cultivars with less defeated resistance genes by the rust races present at IAPAR (Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil using test-crosses. Eighteen test-crosses derived from hybridizations between 'IAPAR-59' or 'Tupi IAC 1669-33' with susceptible coffee to the rust disease were evaluated. Six hybrids were used as susceptible standards originated from hybridizations between two susceptible coffee plants. Many parental plants of the 'IAPAR-59' and 'Tupi IAC 1669-33' presented more defeated resistance genes against rust races present at IAPAR than others of these cultivars or the genes were in heterozygous, because of segregant susceptible plants observed in some test-crosses. The test-crosses were very efficient to identify plants with less defeated resistance genes to the H. vastatrix. Coffee plants considered resistants would must be made test-crosses to verify which plants presented less and/or more defeated genes in homozygous.A ferrugem é uma das principais doenças do café. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar plantas das cultivares IAPAR-59 e Tupi IAC 1669-33 com menos genes de resistência quebrados às raças de ferrugem presentes no IAPAR (Londrina, Paraná, Brasil através de cruzamentos testes. Foram avaliados 18 cruzamentos testes derivados dos cruzamentos de 'IAPAR-59' ou 'Tupi IAC 1669-33' com cafeeiros suscetíveis à ferrugem. Seis híbridos foram usados como testemunhas suscetíveis derivados do cruzamento de dois cafeeiros suscetíveis. Muitas plantas da 'IAPAR-59' e 'Tupi IAC 1669-33' apresentam mais genes de resistência quebrados pelas raças de ferrugem presentes no IAPAR do que outras dessas cultivares ou os genes estão em heterozigoze, pois foram observadas muitas plantas segregantes suscetíveis em alguns cruzamentos testes. Os cruzamentos testes são muito eficientes para selecionar plantas com menos genes de resistência

  8. Modelo de gestión productiva para el cultivo de café (COFFEA ARABICA L.) en el sur de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcó López, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    “Modelo de gestión productiva para el cultivo de café (coffea arabicca l.) en el sur de Ecuador” constituye una modelo piloto para el mejoramiento productivo del cultivo en una zona representativa del sur ecuatoriano (parroquia Vilcabamba), a través del cual se busca zonificar geográficamente las áreas adecuadas para su producción con referencia a diversos componentes que inciden sobre el establecimiento y manejo del cultivo (condiciones físico-químicas del suelo, variedad de café arábica, to...

  9. 云南小粒咖啡出现早衰的原因及防控对策%The Reasons Caused Early Decline of Coffea arabica and Its Control in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪波; 李锦红; 白学慧; 郭铁英; 周华; 夏红云

    2015-01-01

    分析了近年云南小粒咖啡早衰减产问题,认为全球气温变化是一个重要的原因,连年持续干旱、冬季寒害、田间管理松弛以及锈病流行与天牛危害叠加的影响导致了云南咖啡出现早衰;提出了改善咖啡种植环境、加强水利设施建设、选种抗锈品种、防控天牛害虫、加强肥料管理的对策;特别阐述了解决云南咖啡早衰乃至云南咖啡可持续发展问题的一个根本举措,是要引进、选育和推广种植以抗锈为主的高产优质品种的观点。%Early decline has been resulting yield loss in Coffea arabica in recent years in Yunnan. It was thought that the change of global climate is one of the important affect factors. Furthermore, continuous drought for years, cold injury in Winter, field management and epidemics like coffee rust and stem borer are all considered. It thus presents that planting environment, water conservancy facilities, breeding system, disease control and fertilizer management should be strengthened and improved. And emphasizes a viewpoint that quality cultivars with high yield and resistant against leaf rust in introduction, breeding and culti-vation promotion should be considered into a basic strategy fighting early decline and even for sustainable development to Yunnan coffee.

  10. Características agronômicas e morfológicas de cafeeiro 'Catuaí Vermelho' propagado por embriogênese somática

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    Carlos Henrique Siqueira de Carvalho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características agronômicas e morfológicas de plantas de Coffea arabica, cultivar Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44, propagadas por embriogênese somática. O experimento foi instalado em janeiro de 2005, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com dez repetições. As plantas foram avaliadas mensalmente quanto ao desenvolvimento vegetativo, de junho de 2005 a janeiro de 2006, e as avaliações agronômicas foram realizadas dois anos e meio após o início do experimento. A produtividade de grãos foi avaliada durante as quatro primeiras colheitas. Cafeeiros provenientes de embriogênese somática apresentam desenvolvimento inicial mais rápido do que as plantas obtidas de sementes e, aos 30 meses após plantio no campo, têm diâmetro de copa superior ao de plantas de origem seminal. O desempenho agronômico de plantas de C. arabica produzidas por embriogênese somática é semelhante ao de plantas oriundas de sementes, e não há restrições agronômicas para a sua utilização.

  11. Genética de Coffea: XII - Hereditariedade da côr amarela da semente

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    A. Carvalho

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available The known species of Coffea can be grouped into two categories according to the color of their endosperm which is either green or yellow. The commercially cultivated varieties of Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner are well known for the green color of their seed while the less known varieties of Coffea liberica Hiern and Coffea Dewevrei De Wild, et Th. Dur. have yellow Feed. In 1935, however, a yellow seeded type of C. arabica, was found in Brazil and has been described as Coffea arabica L. var. cera K.M.C. ; it is believed to have originated by mutation from Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer. In this paper the authors present the results of a genetic study of the yellow seeded mutant known as "cera". It has been found that in C. arabica, yellow endosperm is controlled by one pair of recessive factors cece. Hybrid seeds containing a Cece embryo were green (xenia, their endosperm being either Cecece or CeCece. Cera is a tetraploid variety and when it was crossed with diploid Coffea species having yellow endosperm, it was found to produce only yellow hybrid seeds. The cera, which is a yellow seeded mutant has been useful not only for definitely showing that the bulk of the coffee seed is true endosperm, but it has also proved useful is study of the biology of the coffee flower.

  12. Detecção de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em raízes de cafeeiro e de crotalária cultivada na entrelinha Detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of coffee plants and crotalaria cultivated between rows

    OpenAIRE

    ARNALDO COLOZZI FILHO; ELKE JURANDI BRAN NOGUEIRA CARDOSO

    2000-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) no solo rizosférico e nas raízes de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) e de Crotalaria breviflora DC., cultivada na entrelinha como adubo verde. Amostras de solo rizosférico e raízes foram coletadas em julho de 1997, em parte de um experimento de longa duração conduzido no campo pelo Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, no município de Mirasselva, PR. Determinou-se a diversidade de FMAs, por meio da identificação morfológica dos esporos,...

  13. Synthèse des résultats de recherche sur l'agronomie du caféier arabica (Coffea arabica L. au Rwanda au 31 mars 1994

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    Rutunga, V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of Results on Coffee Agronomy Research in Rwanda on 31 March 1994. Arabica coffee plays an important role in the macro-economic performance of Rwanda. As a result, Agricultural Research Institutes have done research on coffee agronomy, aimed at improving coffee productivite The ecological conditions for coffee in Rwanda are characterized by inadequate rainfall and high light intensity. Soil parental material and chemical properties are variable amongst different small holders coffee producers. The available results indicate that spacing in coffee planting of 2 m x 2 m or 2, 5 m x 1, 5 m are convenient. Higher density with "multicaule"planting provided better production with some varieties. Pruning regime has been established but should still be correctly followed. Mulching is the best cultural technique to improve production. It improves soil physical and chemical properties and water storage. It can also improve minerai fertilizer use efficiency. The mulching materials are variable but not enough for ail coffee plantations. Mulch is applied late (July, August in Rwanda. Living cover with different species including legumes cannot replace efficiently the mulch, although the cover of Desmodium sp. and other few species can offer some advantages. Shade trees in coffee plantations have not been successful. N fertilizer followed by K improved coffee production. The effect of P was not clear while Mg deficiency was observed in some plantations. The formula of N.P.K. and N.P.K. Mg. were recommended but their rates should vary according to the sites. Finally, a beneficial effect was observed in using rotted coffee rinds compost.

  14. Intensidade da ferrugem do cafeeiro fertirrigado Intensity of rust on fertirrigated coffee

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    Julio César Miranda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A cafeicultura atual tem adotado novas tecnologias de condução e manejo da lavoura, como a irrigação e fertirrigação, visando aumentar a produtividade e, conseqüentemente, a margem de lucro. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de lâminas de irrigação e parcelamentos da adubação, via fertirrigação, sob sistema de gotejamento no progresso da ferrugem e produtividade do cafeeiro. Instalou-se o ensaio na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, com cafeeiros da cultivar Acaiá Cerrado MG-1474 (Coffea arabica L. de seis anos de idade, em espaçamento de 0,6 x 3,0 m. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos, em esquema de parcela subdividida, foram constituídos por cinco parcelas representando lâminas de irrigação correspondentes aos valores de 0%, 40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da evaporação do tanque Classe "A" (ECA, e três subparcelas com parcelamentos de adubação nitrogenada e potássica em 3, 6 e 9 vezes. Foram avaliadas a incidência e a severidade, a porcentagem de enfolhamento das plantas e a produtividade dos cafeeiros. Verificou-se que a severidade da ferrugem foi influenciada pela interação entre lâminas de irrigação e parcelamentos de adubação. Houve maior severidade da ferrugem no parcelamento em 3 e 9 vezes nas lâminas 0% e 60% ECA.The coffee planting today has been adopting new technologies to manage and manipulate the farming, such as irrigation and fertirrigation, in order to increase productivity and consequently the profits. This work aimed at evaluating the effects of different irrigation depths and fertilizer splitting by fertirrigation under a drip irrigation system on the progress of the rust and productivity in coffee trees. The research was set at the experimental area of The Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, with six-year-old coffee trees cultivar Acaiá Cerrado MG-1474, (Coffea arabica L. with distance between lines of

  15. Source-sink manipulations in Coffea arabica L. and its effect on growth of shoots and root system Manipulação da relação fonte-dreno em Coffea arabica L. e seu efeito no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular

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    José Donizeti Alves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated changes in growth and carbohydrate content of shoots and root systems in response to source-sink manipulation in field-grown coffee trees. The source-sink manipulations were carried out using manual de-fruiting. Two plots of trees were established: in one group, the fruit was left on the tree, while in the second group all fruits were removed manually. Similar results were obtained for coffee trees with and without fruit in terms of height, stem and skirt diameter and branch lengths. A biochemical evaluation of the roots showed that no differences were found between the levels of carbohydrates. In the leaves, levels of soluble sugars and reducing sugars were higher in plants with fruit. The starch concentration in leaves and roots did not vary between the plots. Root length density did not vary between plants with and without fruit in the 0 - 0.4 m soil layer. However, plants without fruit had a higher root length density than plants with a full fruit load. These results contrast with results published by others on source-sink relationships of coffee plants. The joint data analysis shows that young trees, with a moderate fruit load, and with good nutritional and health status, produce carbohydrates in sufficient quantities to maintain vegetative and reproductive growth, without harming root system growth.Foram investigadas as alterações no crescimento e nos teores de carboidratos da parte aérea e sistema radicular em resposta à manipulação fonte-dreno em cafeeiros cultivados em condições de campo. Essas manipulações foram realizadas mediante desfrutificação manual. Dois grupos de plantas foram estabelecidos: em um grupo, a produção de frutos foi mantida, enquanto no segundo grupo, todos os frutos foram retirados manualmente. Cafeeiros, com e sem frutos apresentaram resultados semelhantes em termos de altura, diâmetro do caule e saia e comprimentos de ramos. Nas avaliações bioquímicas nas raízes n

  16. Modelagem matemática e determinação das propriedades termodinâmicas do café (Coffea arabica L. durante o processo de secagem

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    Paulo Cesar Corrêa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A secagem de produtos agrícolas é largamente utilizada no mundo para o controle e a manutenção da qualidade dos produtos agrícolas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi modelar o processo de secagem e obter os parâmetros termodinâmicos de frutos de café (Coffea Arabica L., cultivar Catuaí Amarelo, para três diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade relativa (35 ºC e 32,1%; 45 ºC e 15,7%; e 55 ºC e 10,2%. Foram utilizados frutos de café colhidos manualmente com teor inicial de água de 1,25 (b.s. e submetidos à secagem até atingirem o teor médio de 0,13 (b.s. Seis modelos matemáticos usualmente utilizados para a representação do processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas foram ajustados aos dados experimentais. A segunda lei de Fick foi utilizada para obter os coeficientes de difusão dos frutos de café por meio da cinética da secagem. A energia de ativação para a secagem dos frutos de café, bem como a entropia, entalpia e energia livre de Gibbs, foram obtidas. O modelo de Midili modificado foi o que melhor representou o fenômeno de secagem de frutos de café. Os valores do coeficiente de difusão obtidos foram 2,99 x 10-11, 2,39 x 10-11 e 5,98 x 10-11 m² s-1 para as temperaturas de 35, 45 e 55 ºC, respectivamente. A entalpia diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura do ar de secagem, bem como a entropia. A energia livre de Gibbs aumentou com o aumento da temperatura.

  17. Avaliação da suscetibilidade à Xylella fastidiosa em diferentes espécies de cafeeiro Susceptibity valuation to Xylella fastidiosa in different coffee species

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. foi detectada pela primeira vez em cafeeiro no Brasil, em 1995, entretanto acredita-se que a cultura foi infectada por essa bactéria há muitos anos, embora os sintomas fossem atribuídos a um estresse nutricional. Até o momento têm sido realizados estudos principalmente com espécies de C. arabica e C. canephora, porém, em outras espécies do gênero, somente foi detectada sua presença. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a proporção de elementos de vaso do xilema obstruídos, total e parcialmente, pela X. fastidiosa, naturalmente infectadas, em diferentes espécies de cafeeiro do Banco de Germoplasma do IAC, visando identificar material resistente a essa bactéria para ser utilizado no programa de melhoramento genético. Os acessos estudados foram: C. canephora (progenitora da 'Guarini', C. liberica var. liberica, os quatro acessos de C. liberica var. dewevrei (Ugandae, Dibowskii, Abeokutae, Excelsa e o híbrido interespecífico Piatã (C. arabica X C. liberica var. dewevrei. Todos eles mostraram-se menos suscetíveis à X. fastidiosa. A porcentagem de obstrução dos elementos de vasos na folha não foi maior que 0,6% na maioria dos acessos, com exceção de Excelsa e do híbrido Piatã com até 2% de obstrução, sendo bem menos suscetíveis a essa bactéria do que as cultivares de C. arabica. Trata-se, portanto, de materiais genéticos importantes para serem utilizados no programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro visando à resistência ao agente dessa doença.Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. bacteria was firstly detected in coffee plants in Brazil in 1995. However it is believed to be attacking this crop this time. Disease symptoms have been attributed mostly to nutritional unbalances. Up to date studies have comprised only the species C. arabica and C. canephora. However X. fastidiosa was also detected in other Coffea species, but without disease symptoms. Aiming to identify in the IAC

  18. Transferência de fatores genéticos de resistência a Hemileia vastatrix para o cultivar mundo novo Transference of the genes SH2 and SH3 for resistance to Hemileia vastatrix to the mundo novo cultivar of C. arabica

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    A. Carvalho

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Cafeeiros portadores dos fatores genéticos SH2 ou SH2 e SH3, simultaneamente, que conferem resistência a várias raças de Hemileia vastatrix, foram cruzados com plantas selecionadas do cultivar mundo novo de Coffea arabica a fim de se obter, em F2, recombinações com resistência a esse patógeno e elevada produtividade. Analisaram-se 14 populações F2 segregando apenas para o fator SH2, oito para os fatores SH2 e HS3, e três populações que dão, em sua descendência, plantas do grupo A, resistentes a todas as raças do patógeno até agora conhecidas. De 22.356 cafeeiros originalmente plantados em ensaio, a duas mudas por cova, em parcelas casualizadas, fez-se uma primeira seleção deixando apenas um cafeeiro por cova, reduzindo-se para 11.178 as plantas em estudo. Com base no aspecto vegetativo, na produtividade, na ausência de defeitos nos frutos e na reação de resistência ao agente causal da ferrugem, realizaram-se sucessivas seleções escolhendo-se finalmente, apenas 100 cafeeiros do tipo mundo novo e resistentes a H. vastatrix para derivação das populações F2 e prosseguimento da seleção.Coffee trees homozygous for the alleles SH2 or SH2 and SH3 which confer resistance to several physiological races of Hemileia vastatrix, were crossed to selected plants of Mundo Novo cultivar of Coffea arabica and the F2 generations were studied aiming to develop new high yielding and resistant coffee recombinations. A complete randomized field trial was stablished including 14 F2 populations segregating for SH2, eight populations segregating for SH2 and SH3 genes, and three populations segregating for plants of the A group of reaction to the H. vastatrix attack. A total of 22,356 F2 plants were analysed. Based on the plant vigor, yield capacity, percentage of normal developed seeds and resistance reaction to H. vastatrix, three successive series of selection were undertaken leaving only 100 coffee trees for development of F3 populations

  19. Desenvolvimento de Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae em cafeeiros = Development of Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in coffee trees

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 suga a seiva dos botões florais e frutos do cafeeiro, atacando as rosetas desde a floração até a colheita. Embora seja relatada há alguns anos na cafeicultura, são escassas as informações sobre o desenvolvimento dessacochonilha em cafeeiros. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos da fase ninfal de P. citri em plantas de café. Ovos dessa cochonilha foram retirados de uma criação em laboratório, isolados em placas de Petri contendo discos foliares de Coffea arabica L., das cultivares Acaiá Cerrado, Mundo Novo e Catuaí Vermelho e de C. canephora Pierre & Froenher, cultivar Apoatã. As placas foram mantidas em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% de umidade relativa e 12h de fotofase. Constatou-se que a cultivar Catuaí Vermelho foi a que proporcionou maior duração do período ninfal das fêmeas, porém, não foram constatadas diferenças na mortalidade. Essa cochonilha se desenvolveu satisfatoriamente em todas as cultivares de café estudadas e os resultados não mostraram diferenças claras de susceptibilidade.The citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 feeds mainly on flowers and fruits of coffee plants from blooming until harvest. Little is known about its development in coffee although its occurrence is already known for several years. This work aims to study the nymph development of this mealybug in coffee plants.Eggs were isolated from a stock culture kept in laboratory and placed inside Petri dishes containing leaf sections in agar. The tested cultivars were Acaia Cerrado, Mundo Novo, Catuai Vermelho (Coffea arabica and Apoatã (C. canephora. Insects were kept in a climatizedchamber at 25ºC, 70 ± 10% humidity and 12-hour photophase. The longest development period in females was obtained in cultivar Catuai Vermelho. No differences in mortality were found among cultivars. Mealybugs developed in all cultivars and the results

  20. Incidência de Colletotrichum spp. em frutos de Coffea arabica L. em diferentes estádios fisiológicos e tecidos do fruto maduro Incidence of Colletotrichum spp. in Coffea arabica L. fruits at different physiological stages and tissues mature of berries

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    Josimar Batista Ferreira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Colletotrichum estão presentes em todos os órgãos do cafeeiro. A importância desses fungos para a cultura do cafeeiro ainda é muito discutida, pois tratam-se de populações de espécies de Colletotrichum ocasionando diversos sintomas ou colonizando as plantas de forma endofítica. O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar a presença de Colletotrichum spp. em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento do fruto de cafeeiro e nos tecidos do exocarpo+mesocarpo, endocarpo e endosperma de frutos maduros. Este trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Diagnose e Controle de Enfermidades de Plantas da Universidade Federal de Lavras-(UFLA. Os frutos foram coletados na área experimental do Setor de Cafeicultura da UFLA com cafeeiros das cultivares Catuaí Vermelho, Catuaí Amarelo, Icatu, Topázio, Katipó, Rubi, Acaiá Cerrado e Mundo Novo. Nos estádios de formação do fruto, verificaram-se altos valores de incidência, com média de 86,6%. Em relação às cultivares, as maiores incidências foram em Topázio e Rubi, ambas com 94,4% e as menores incidências nas cultivares Icatu e Mundo Novo, com 72,8% e 78,4%, respectivamente. A incidência de Colletotrichum spp. variou tanto entre cultivares como entre os tecidos do fruto. No exocarpo+mesocarpo, as cultivares Topázio, Rubi e Acaiá Cerrado tiveram porcentagens de colonizações de 84,72%, 79,16% e 77,77%, respectivamente, enquanto a cultivar Icatu teve 48,6%. No endocarpo, a máxima colonização foi de 9,72% na cultivar Rubi e a menor colonização na cultivar Acaiá Cerrado, com 1,39%. No endosperma, a cultivar Rubi teve novamente o maior índice de colonização (8,33% e as cultivares Mundo Novo e Katipó ambas com 1,39% de colonização. Verificou-se a presença de Colletotrichum spp. nas sementes de todas as cultivares estudadas.Colletotrichum species are present in all organs of coffee trees and the importance of them is still controversial, since several

  1. Análise de compostos bioativos, grupos ácidos e da atividade antioxidante do café arábica (Coffea arabica do cerrado e de seus grãos defeituosos (PVA submetidos a diferentes torras Bioactive compounds, acids groups and antioxidant activity analysis of arabic coffee (Coffea arabica and its defective beans from the Brazilian savannah submitted to different roasting degrees

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    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou os compostos bioativos (ácidos clorogênicos, trigonelina, cafeína, fenóis totais e proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos e atividade antioxidante de um café arábica proveniente do Cerrado Mineiro e de seu PVA (grãos pretos, verdes e ardidos. As amostras foram preparadas nas torras clara (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutos, média (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos e escura (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutos. Considerando-se a média das três torras do café e do PVA, a diferença observada no teor de todos os constituintes acima não foi significativa (p > 0,05, exceto com o teor de grupos hidroxila ácidos que foi ligeiramente superior no PVA e cafeína calculada pelo método semiquantitativo que foi superior no café. Portanto, dentre esses constituintes, os compostos com grupos ácidos seriam os únicos que poderiam contribuir para explicar a grande diferença de sabor existente entre o café de grãos sadios e o de PVA. Tanto o café como o PVA apresentaram atividade seqüestradora do radical DPPH. nas três torras, sendo a atividade do café sempre superior. Analisando-se as variações dos teores de cafeína, fenóis totais, proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos, trigonelina e ácidos clorogênicos, não foi possível explicar a atividade antioxidante superior apresentada pelo café da torra média (CE50 de 2,3 mg.mg-1 de DPPH..This work reports the results of the investigation of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total phenolics, and proanthocyanidins, total acid groups, and the antioxidant activity of the Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica from the Brazilian cerrado (vast tropical savannah (Minas Gerais state and its defective beans (Black, green, and sour beans. The samples were prepared using three roasting degrees: light (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutes, medium (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos, and dark (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutes. Considering the

  2. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian coffee arabica varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, E.S.N.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Carvalho, M.G.G.; Esselink, G.; Vosman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of ninet

  3. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown.

  4. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260

  5. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: IV - Café Mundo Novo

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    A. Carvalho

    1952-06-01

    , êsses cafeeiros constituem recombinações de um cruzamento primitivo entre o café "Sumatra" e o bourbon. As progênies mais produtivas do café "Mundo Novo" e livres de vários dos defeitos mencionados, já se acham em multiplicação, a fim de, em breve, serem fornecidas sementes aos lavradores, que tanto interêsse têm demonstrado por êsse café.In the course of the coffee breeding project carried out at the Instituto Agronômico, outstanding progenies have been derived from mother plants selected by either of the two following methods; a before selection, individual yield is recorded for a number of years begining with the first crop, and b selection of mother plants is made on the basis of vegetative vigor and the crop they have at the time of selection, regardless of their previous yields. Yield data and other observations presented in this paper refer to a group of progenies derived from plants selected according to the second method. With open pollinated seeds collected the from best plants found in 1943 in a private coffee plantation at Urupês County, (formerly Mundo Novo State of São Paulo several progenies were planted at the Experiment Stations of Campinas, Pindorama, Jaú and Mococa, with different types of soils. The original coffee plantation of Urupês had been formed with seeds collected in Mineiros do Tietê County, in a farm nearby the place where the so called Sumatra coffee (Coffea arabica var. typica was first planted after it was privately imported from the island of Sumatra at the end of the last century. This is probably the reason why the Mundo Novo coffee, as it is called nowadays, was formerly named Sumatra de Mundo Novo. From observations on the morphological type of Mundo Novo coffee plants, it was noted that most plants in all progenies and also in private plantations are morphologically similar to the bourbon variety, while a few plants are similar to the typica variety. Artificial crosses between the highest yielding Mundo Novo

  6. Optimizing the width of strip weeding in arabica coffee in relation to crop age Largura da faixa de controle de plantas daninhas em café arábica em função da idade do cafeeiro

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    FC. Araújo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the weed strip control (WSC required for adequate coffee growth after transplanting. A non-irrigated, field-planted (spaced 3.80 x 0.70 m crop was used. The experimental design was a randomized block, with four replicates. The treatments were arranged in a 9 x 18 split-plot design to test the WSC of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 190 cm, which involved continuously hand-weeding at each side of the coffee row, and 18 coffee growth measurements. Multiple regression analyses were carried out relating to growth-variables as a function of both WSC and growth-evaluation times. Brachiaria decumbens was the main weed accomplishing 88.5% of the total weed dry mass. The minimum width of the WSC increases as the crop ages after transplanting. Assuming reductions of 2% and 5% in the maximum coffee growth, the recommended WSC was 75 and 52 cm at 4 months after transplanting (MAT, 104 and 85 cm at 6 MAT, 123 and 105 cm at 9 MAT, 134 and 116 cm at 12 MAT, 142 and 124 cm at 15 MAT, and 148 and 131 cm at 18 MAT, respectively. It was concluded that integrated weed management in young coffee crops must focus on the weed control only in a minimum range along coffee rows, which increases with coffee plant age, keeping natural vegetation in the inter-rows.O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em determinar a faixa ideal de controle de plantas daninhas (FCPD necessária para um crescimento adequado do cafeeiro após o transplantio. Foi utilizada uma lavoura não irrigada, implantada no espaçamento de 3,80 x 0,70 m, em dezembro de 2008. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas (9 x 18 para testar as FCPDs de 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 190 cm, mantidas com capina contínua em cada lado da linha de café, bem como seus efeitos ao longo de 18 meses após o transplantio (MAT. Efetuaram-se análises de regressão m

  7. Frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico de latossolo cultivado com cafeeiro em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio Oxidizible organic carbon fractions in a latosol cultivated with coffee at different planting spacings

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    Otacílio José Passos Rangel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a suscetibilidade à oxidação pelo permanganato de potássio do carbono presente em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, cultivado com cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio, em experimento localizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Machado (MG. Os tratamentos avaliados, instalados a campo em 1992, consistiram na combinação de quatro espaçamentos entre linhas (2,0, 2,5, 3,0 e 3,5 m, com três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,5, 0,75 e 1,0 m. Uma área de mata próxima ao experimento foi amostrada e usada como referência. Para a avaliação do grau de oxidação do carbono orgânico (CO, as amostras de solo foram coletadas na entrelinha (EL e na projeção da copa (PC do cafeeiro, nas camadas de solo de 0-0,05 e 0-0,1 m. Na camada superficial do solo (0-0,05 m, os teores de C lábil na entrelinha são, em geral, maiores do que os observados nas amostras coletadas na projeção da copa do cafeeiro. A amplitude de variação dos teores de C nas frações orgânicas obedece à seguinte ordem decrescente: C lábil> C não lábil > C orgânico, o que indica o maior potencial do C lábil em avaliar o impacto de diferentes sistemas de adensamento e manejo do cafeeiro, sobre os compartimentos de matéria orgânica. Os teores de C lábil e C não lábil não são influenciados pelo número de plantas por área, mas são dependentes da largura de rua do cafeeiro, da profundidade e do local de coleta das amostras de solo.The present work was carried out to evaluate soil carbon susceptibility to oxidation by potassium permanganate in adystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol cultivated with coffee (Coffea arabica L. at different planting spacings. The experiment was installed in 1992 at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, in Machado (Minas Gerais State-Brazil. Treatments consisted of a combination of four row spacings (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 m with three spacings within the row (0.5, 0

  8. Caracterização anatômica de folhas de cafeeiros resistentes e suscetíveis ao bicho-mineiro Anatomical characterization of leaves from coffee plants resistant and susceptible to leaf miner

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    Daniel Alves Ramiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O bicho-mineiro, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Lepidoptera :Lyonetiidae, é a principal praga da cultura cafeeira, chegando a causar prejuízos superiores a 50% na produção, em virtude da queda prematura das folhas e redução da área fotossintética. O programa de melhoramento genético do cafeeiro do Instituto Agronômico (IAC utiliza a espécie Coffea racemosa como doadora de genes de resistência a L. coffeella para C. arabica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma caracterização comparativa do tecido foliar e relacioná-la ao ataque de L. coffeella nas espécies genitoras C. arabica e C. racemosa, e em plantas híbridas oriundas desse cruzamento, com diferentes níveis de resistência, visando fornecer ferramentas para futura identificação dos genes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro. Cortes transversais de folhas foram usados em estudos anatômicos para obter medidas individuais da espessura das cutículas, epidermes, parênquima paliçádico, parênquima lacunoso, espessura total da folha e porcentagem do mesofilo representada pelo parênquima paliçádico. As lesões provocadas pelo inseto foram medidas após um e quatro dias da eclosão das lagartas, em cada um dos tratamentos. Existem diferenças na espessura dos tecidos foliares entre as espécies C. arabica e C. racemosa, porém não houve diferenças entre plantas híbridas resistentes e suscetíveis, sugerindo que as características avaliadas não estão relacionadas ao mecanismo de resistência a L. coffeella. Nas avaliações das lesões, observou-se o crescimento reduzido dos insetos em plantas resistentes, sugerindo que a resistência das plantas se deve à presença de substâncias químicas no parênquima paliçádico.The leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae is the major pest of coffee culture, being responsible for significant production losses as result of premature leaf fall, and consequent

  9. Efeitos de águas residuárias de café no crescimento vegetativo de cafeeiros em seu primeiro ano Effects of processing coffee wastewater on first year coffee plants growth

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    Moisés S. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao utilizar o solo como forma de tratamento e de disposição final de águas residuárias de café (ARC e essa como fonte de água e de nutrientes para os cafeeiros, solucionam-se problemas ambientais e diminuem-se os custos de produção para o cafeicultor. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de potássio aplicadas via ARC no crescimento vegetativo de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L., Catuaí' e Catucaí', em seu primeiro ano, bem como o incremento de potássio e a condutividade elétrica na solução do solo. O estudo foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia, na Universidade Federal de Lavras, no município de Lavras - MG. Os tratamentos foram definidos por diferentes doses de potássio (K+: 30 mg L-1; 65 mg L-1; 100 mg L-1; 135 mg L-1, aplicadas via ARC, e pela testemunha (água de irrigação e adubação convencional. ARC com concentrações até 135 mg L-1 de potássio contribui para o crescimento vegetativo do cafeeiro, especificamente, altura de planta e diâmetro do ramo ortotrópico, mostrando-se igualmente, ou melhor, que a água de irrigação e potássio por meio da adubação convencional. Além disso, o aumento na concentração de potássio do solo em todos os tratamentos não foi suficiente para aumentar a condutividade elétrica em níveis que possam afetar o crescimento da planta, no período avaliado.Using the soil as a form of treatment and final disposal for coffee wastewater(CW, considering its water and nutrient content to the coffee, solves environmental problems and reduces production costs for coffee growers. This research had the objective to evaluate the influence of different potassium levels from WC on the growth of (Coffea arabica L., Catuaí' and Catucaí' coffee varieties, in their fist year, as well the potassium increase and electrical conductivity in the soil solution. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Engineering Department, of

  10. Produtividade do cafeeiro e atributos de fertilidade de latossolo sob influência de adensamento da lavoura e manejo da calagem Coffee yield and fertility attributes of a latosol under influence of population density and liming management

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    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, teve-se por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de densidades de plantio e de manejo da calagem sobre os atributos de fertilidade de Latossolo e sobre o estado nutricional e produtividade do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.. O estudo foi conduzido de fevereiro de 2000 a junho de 2003 na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em São Sebastião do Paraíso (MG. Os tratamentos testados consistiram da combinação de duas densidades populacionais (2.857 e 10.000 plantas ha-1 com três métodos de manejo de calagem (sem aplicação de calcário; calagem superficial e incorporação de calcário de 0 a 20 cm, além de um tratamento com aplicação de calcário (0 a 20 cm e gesso. O solo foi amostrado nas camadas de 0 a 10, 10 a 20 e 20 a 40 cm de profundidade, em quatro épocas de amostragem, sendo realizadas as seguintes determinações analíticas: pH, Ca e Mg trocáveis, P (Mehlich-1, sulfato, nitrato e amônio, além da saturação por bases. Os métodos de manejo da calagem reduziram a acidez na camada de solo de 0 a 10 cm; contudo, somente na quarta amostragem foi verificada movimentação no perfil de solo do calcário aplicado em superfície. Os atributos de fertilidade do Latossolo não foram influenciados pelos sistemas de plantio de cafeeiro. O adensamento da lavoura resultou em um acréscimo médio na produtividade de cafeeiro de 14 e 33 sacas ha-1, respectivamente, para a 1ª e 2ª colheitas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coffee population density and liming management practices on the fertility attributes of a Latosol, and in the nutritional status and yield of coffee (Coffea arabica L.. The experiment was carried out from February 2000 to June 2003 in the Experimental Farm of Epamig (São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG. The treatments tested consisted of the combination of two coffee population densities (2,857 and 10,000 plants ha-1 with three methods of liming management (without lime; lime incorporation at 0 to

  11. ASPECTOS ESTRUTURAIS DE CAFEEIRO INFECTADO COM XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA

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    RACHEL BENETTI QUEIROZ-VOLTAN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações anatômicas em folhas e caules de ramos de cafeeiros infectados com X. fastidiosa visando compreender as causas dos seus distúrbios fisiológicos. Analisaram-se amostras dos cultivares comerciais de Coffea arabica L. - Catuaí Vermelho IAC H 2077-25-81 e Mundo Novo 515-20 enxertados sobre a progênie IAC 2258 de C. canephora - e de Catuaí Vermelho IAC H 2077-25-81 sem enxertia (pé franco. As amostras foram coletadas no campo, no Núcleo Experimental de Campinas, IAC, em cafezais onde foi detectada a presença da bactéria. Analisou-se também a estrutura da folha e do caule de ramos com e sem sintomas visuais da bactéria, sendo estimada a porcentagem de obstrução dos vasos do xilema do caule. Os ramos infectados apresentaram um encurtamento dos entrenós e, com o agravamento da doença, senescência foliar precoce na sua base, resultando em pequeno número de folhas no ápice. O número e a posição dos ramos por indivíduo com tais sintomas variaram entre as plantas, sendo mais freqüentes na região basal. Esses ramos também mostraram pecíolos e área foliar reduzidos e frutos menores e agrupados, em vista de um encurtamento dos pedicelos e dos entrenós, além de uma deposição de "goma" nos vasos do xilema do caule, pecíolo e folha, assim como divisões celulares anormais no xilema, floema e córtex daquelas partes. As células do mesofilo das folhas afetadas apresentaram número reduzido de cloroplastos, associado a maior concentração de cristais de oxalato de cálcio. Sugere-se que a presença da bactéria esteja induzindo a senescência foliar que se relaciona a um ou mais fatores de estresse.Leaf and stem anatomical changes were studied in coffee plants infected with X. fastidiosa looking for the causes of the observed physiological disturbances. Samples of commercial cultivars of Coffea arabica L. were analysed - Catuaí Vermelho IAC H 2077-25-81 and Mundo Novo 515-20 grafted on the progenie IAC

  12. Efeito da Xylella fastidiosa em cafeeiros em diferentes regiões edafoclimáticas Effect of Xylella fastidiosa in coffee plants at different edaphoclimatic regions

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa vem causando problemas para a cafeicultura, uma vez que sua presença, associada a diversos fatores de estresse, provoca um decréscimo na produção devido à diminuição no número e tamanho dos frutos e à morte de alguns ramos. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar o efeito da X. fastidiosa sobre cultivares de Coffea arabica (enxertados ou não através da quantificação da proporção de vasos do xilema obstruídos pela bactéria, nas diferentes partes da planta e entre ramos com e sem sintoma da doença, em experimentos desenvolvidos em diferentes regiões edafoclimáticas. Avaliou-se também a distribuição das classes de infecção nas diferentes partes da planta nos materiais genéticos estudados. Os experimentos foram instalados em 1986 em Mococa e Garça (SP e as amostras para o estudo anatômico, retiradas em abril de 1998 e 2000 (período de estresse hídrico, respectivamente, das plantas de cafeeiros dessas áreas. Na região de Mococa, observou-se que a nervura principal e o pecíolo foram os tecidos com proporção maior de vasos do xilema obstruídos pela X. fastidiosa; na região de Garça, foram o pecíolo e o caule. Não houve diferenças significativas na obstrução de elementos de vaso do xilema do cafeeiro ocasionado pela bactéria entre as duas regiões estudadas. Não houve tolerância à bactéria nos materiais genéticos, havendo no entanto variação dentro de cada um deles. Na região de Garça, nas plantas de café, observou-se alta proporção de vasos obstruídos nas raízes (3%, entretanto, não houve dano maior na parte aérea.The Xylella fastidiosa bacterium causes problems to coffee cultivation because of a relationship with various stress factors, leading to reduction on coffee production by decreasing fruit number and size, as well as senescence of branches. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of Xylella fastidiosa to Coffea arabica cultivars (grafted or not through the

  13. Alocação de fotoassimilados em folhas e frutos de cafeeiro cultivado em duas altitudes Assimilates allocation in fruits and leaves of coffee plants cultivated in two altitudes

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    Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a alocação de fotoassimilados em frutos e folhas de cafeeiro arábico, da antese à maturação, em duas altitudes. O experimento foi constituído da variedade de cafeeiro (Coffea arábica L. Catuaí IAC-44, cultivada a 720 e 950 m de altitude, no Município de Martins Soares, MG. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em um esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo. Na altitude de 720 m o acúmulo de amido, açúcares solúveis totais, açúcares redutores e açúcares não-redutores em frutos de cafeeiro deu-se em menor tempo. O acúmulo de amido na altitude de 720 m antecedeu o acúmulo de amido na altitude de 950 m, e os frutos apresentaram maior porcentagem de acúmulo relativo desse composto no estádio de expansão rápida. Neste estádio, a concentração de carboidratos em folhas dos 3º e 4º pares decresceu bruscamente, indicando ser este o período mais crítico para a concentração de carboidratos em folhas. A altitude influencia a alocação de fotoassimilados em frutos e a variação da concentração de carboidratos em folhas de cafeeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the allocation of carbohydrates in fruits of Arabic coffee plant during the period comprised among the anthesis and maturation in two different altitudes, as well as, the variation in its content in leaves of these productive branches. The experiment was constituted of the coffee plant variety (Coffea arabica L. Catuaí IAC-44 cultivated at 720 and 950 m above the sea level in Martins Soares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with three repetitions using split-plot in time scheme. The altitude of 720 m contributed to an acceleration in the accumulation of starch, total soluble sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar in coffee plant fruits. The accumulation of starch in the altitude of 720 m preceded the accumulation in the

  14. 施肥对干旱胁迫下幼龄期小粒咖啡光合特性及生长的影响%Effects of fertilization on photosynthetic characteristics and growth of Coffea arabica L. at juvenile stage under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍贤; 王华; 蔡传涛; 刘贵周

    2015-01-01

    为明确氮、磷肥对幼龄期小粒咖啡抗旱性的影响,采用盆栽试验,研究了干旱胁迫下3种施氮水平[N0(0 g·株-1)、N1(2.5 g·株-1)、N2(7.5 g·株-1)]和3种施磷水平[P0(0 g·株-1)、P1(2.5 g·株-1)、P2(7.5 g·株-1)]的完全处理组合对幼龄期小粒咖啡光合及生长的影响。结果表明:干旱胁迫下小粒咖啡的叶片相对含水量(LRWC)、最大净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、叶绿素含量、比叶面积及生物量均较正常供水时低。干旱胁迫时,施氮、磷肥均能减缓咖啡 LRWC 的下降速度,其中中氮(N1)和磷肥(P1、P2)单施及其配施处理下的LRWC 均在72%以上,显著大于 N0P0处理的 LRWC。施氮、磷肥有利于改善干旱胁迫下咖啡的光合特性,其中 N0P1、N0P2和 N1P2处理的最大净光合速率和水分利用效率显著大于其他处理,分别是 N0P0处理的2.09倍、2.09倍、2.40倍和1.37倍、1.46倍、1.58倍。施氮、磷肥皆可增加叶绿素含量,还能缓解干旱下叶绿素的降解速度,且氮磷配施的效应优于氮磷单施。施氮、磷肥有利于小粒咖啡各器官生物量的积累,而干旱胁迫能促进光合产物向地下部的分配,各处理的根重比(RMF)和根冠比(R/S)都大于正常供水时的对应值,其中 N0P1和N0P2处理的 RMF 和 R/S 最大,其次是 N1P2处理,且 N1P2处理的根干重大于正常供水时的对应值。因此得出,氮肥和磷肥在改善幼龄期小粒咖啡抗旱性方面发挥着重要作用,而磷肥的效果优于氮肥,增强小粒咖啡抗旱性的最佳施肥处理为 N1P2。%To understand the enhancing effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on drought resistance of Coffea arabica L. at juvenile stage, a pot experiment was conducted at the Division of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. The experiment consisted of eighteen treatments (in 3 × 3 × 2

  15. Sistemas de produção de feijão intercalado com cafeeiro adensado recém-plantado Production systems for bean associated with recently planted dense coffee shrub cropping

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    Abner José de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o efeito do número de linhas e do nível de adubação do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no desempenho agronômico do consórcio do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. com o feijoeiro, foi conduzido um experimento de campo na Universidade Federal de Lavras, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso com três repetições e esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, envolvendo quatro números de linhas intercalares de feijoeiro (uma, três, quatro e seis linhas por entrelinha de café e quatro doses de adubação da leguminosa (0, 50, 100 e 150% da adubação recomendada para o monocultivo, que constou de 20 kg ha-1 de N, 40 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 20 kg ha-1 de K2O no plantio mais 30 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, mais um tratamento adicional (o monocultivo do cafeeiro ou do feijoeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em lavoura comercial da cv. Catucaí recém-plantada e a cv. de feijoeiro foi a BRS-MG-Talismã. No feijoeiro foram avaliados os estandes inicial e final, a altura de plantas e o rendimento de grãos com seus componentes primários (número de vagens por planta, número de grãos por vagem e massa média de 100 grãos. No cafeeiro as características avaliadas foram à emissão de pares de folhas e o incremento na altura de plantas e no diâmetro do caule, verificados entre a semeadura e a colheita do feijoeiro, além da mortalidade dos cafeeiros. Os resultados permitem concluir que o aumento do número de linhas intercalares de feijoeiro eleva o rendimento de grãos da leguminosa, mas reduz o incremento do diâmetro do caule do cafeeiro recém-plantado. A partir de quatro linhas de feijoeiro há tendência de aumento da mortalidade de plantas de café, principalmente na ausência de adubação da leguminosa. A adubação equivalente a até 150% da dose recomendada para o monocultivo do feijoeiro não influencia o rendimento de grãos da leguminosa, mas contribui para diminuir a mortalidade do

  16. Dinâmica dos micronutrientes em cafeeiros enxertados

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    André Dominghetti Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As respostas à disponibilidade dos nutrientes variam entre espécies distintas dentro de um mesmo gênero, por causa, principalmente, das exigências nutricionais variáveis, capacidade de absorção, translocação e utilização dos nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso dos micronutrientes por diferentes cultivares de Coffea arabica L., enxertados em Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se o método de cultivo em solução nutritiva. Foi utilizado um fatorial 7 x 3 + 2, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica L. (Palma II, Catucaí 2 SL, Oeiras MG 6851, Obatã IAC 1669-20, Acauã, Topázio MG 1190 e Paraíso MG H 419-1, três tipos de mudas (pé franco, autoenxertada e enxertada sobre o cultivar Apoatã IAC 2258 e duas testemunhas (Apoatã autoenxertado e Apoatã pé franco. O porta-enxerto utilizado influenciou negativamente na absorção de boro, ferro e manganês. A translocação dos micronutrientes boro e cobre obteve maiores índices nas mudas enxertadas. O cultivar Palma II, quando enxertado, apresentou o maior índice de utilização dos nutrientes, mostrando-se passível de ser enxertado. O porta-enxerto utilizado mostrou-se apto para a enxertia, por não sofrer influência negativa, tanto pela enxertia, quanto pelos cultivares utilizados.

  17. Melhoramento do cafeeiro XVI: efeito da autofecundação sucessiva no café Bourbon Coffee breeding XVI: effects of the successive selfings ox the bourbon coffee

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    A. Carvalho

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available A variedade bourbon de Coffea arabica, uma das variedades de maior interêsse econômico para São Paulo, desde 1933 vem sendo submetida a sucessivas autofecundações, com a finalidade de investigar o seu efeito sôbre a produção e o desenvolvimento geral das plantas. Neste trabalho são apresentados os dados relativos a um ensaio no qual foram incluídos, além de duas progênies So de Bourbon, progênies S1, S2, S3 e S4 derivadas dessas duas plantas matrizes e também híbridos F1 entre plantas das gerações S0, S2 e S4. Notou-se. de um modo geral, que as autofecundações sucessivas não tiveram efeito sôbre a produção total nos anos 1955 a 1958 e nem sôbre a altura, vigor vegetativo das plantas e os tipos de sementes produzidas. As variâncias correspondentes às produções, altura e vigor das plantas, não mostraram tendência de aumento ou redução como resultado das autofecundações. Comparando as variâncias dos híbridos F1 com as das progenies das plantas que lhes deram origem notou-se que, no geral, foi maior tanto para a produção como altura e vigor das plantas, embora em quase todos os casos as diferenças não se tenham mostrado significativas. Os dados indicam que no café Bourbon a autofecundação deve ser freqüente, tal como ocorre na var. cera de C. arabica. Indicam, também, que os cafeeiros Bourbon selecionados podem ser multiplicados por autofecundação sem perigo de redução do vigor e produtividade das plantas.Coffea arabica var. bourbon, one of the main economic varieties grown in São Paulo is being subjected to successive selfing since 1933, in order to investigate the influence of this procedure on yield and development of the plants. Data concerning one trial are here discussed in which progenies of two So Bourbon mother trees were analysed in comparison with progenies S1, S2, S3, and S4 derived from these mother trees and also F1 hybrids between plants of the So, S2 and S4 generations. It has been

  18. Measurement and simulation of solar radiation availability in relation to the growth of coffee plants in an agroforestry system with rubber trees Medidas e simulaçoes da disponibilidade de radiação solar relacionadas ao crescimento de cafeeiros em um sistema agroflorestal com seringueira

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    Ciro Abbud Righi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is an important factor for plant growth, being its availability to understory crops strongly modified by trees in an Agroforestry System (AFS. Coffee trees (Coffea arabica - cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 were planted at a 3.4 x 0.9 m spacing inside and aside rows of monocrops of 12 year-old rubber trees (Hevea spp., in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil (22º42'30" S, 47º38'00" W - altitude: 546m. One-year-old coffee plants exposed to 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 80; 90; 95 and 100% of the total solar radiation were evaluated according to its biophysical parameters of solar radiation interception and capture. The Goudriaan (1977 adapted by Bernardes et al. (1998 model for radiation attenuation fit well to the measured data. Coffee plants tolerate a decrease in solar radiation availability to 50% without undergoing a reduction on growth and LAI, which was approximately 2m².m-2 under this condition. Further reductions on the availability of solar radiation caused a reduction in LAI (1.5m².m-2, thus poor land cover and solar radiation interception, resulting in growth reduction.A radiação solar é um fator importante para o crescimento das plantas, sendo sua disponibilidade fortemente modificada pelas árvores em sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs. Foram estudadas plantas de café (Coffea arabica - cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 espaçadas 3,4 x 0,9 m em fileiras, dentro e ao lado de uma plantação de seringueira (Hevea spp. de 12 anos de idade, em Piracicaba, SP, Brasil (22º42'30" S, 47º38'00" W - altitude: 546 m. Cafeeiros de 1 ano de idade expostos aos níveis de 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 80, 90, 95 e 100% de radiação solar foram avaliados quanto aos seus parâmetros biofísicos de interceptação e captura de luz. O modelo de Goudriaan (1977 adaptado por Bernardes et al. (1998 para estimativa da radiação solar disponível ajustou-se bem aos dados medidos. Os cafeeiros toleraram diminuição de 50% na disponibilidade de radiação solar sem sofrer reduções no

  19. Identification and chromosomal distribution of copia-like retrotransposon sequences in the coffee (coffea l.) genome

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Juan Carlos; Camayo Velez, Gloria Cecilia; De la Torre, Gloria; Galeano, Narmer Fernando; Salcedo, Edgar; Duran, Andres; Rivera, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The presence of copia-like transposable elements in seven coffee (Coffea sp.) species, including the cultivated Coffea arabica, was investigated. The highly conserved domains of the reverse transcriptase (RT) present in the copia retrotransposons were amplified by PCR using degenerated primers. Fragments of roughly 300 bp were obtained and the nucleotide sequence was determined for 36 clones, 19 of which showed good quality.The deduced amino acid sequences were compared by multiple alignment ...

  20. Modelos de alerta para o controle da ferrugem-do-cafeeiro em lavouras com alta carga pendente Warning models for coffee rust control in growing areas with large fruit load

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    Carlos Alberto Alves Meira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver árvores de decisão como modelos de alerta da ferrugem-do-cafeeiro em lavouras de café (Coffea arabica L. com alta carga pendente de frutos. Dados de incidência mensal da doença no campo coletados durante oito anos foram transformados em valores binários considerando limites de 5 e 10 pontos percentuais na taxa de infecção. Foi gerado um modelo para cada taxa de infecção binária a partir de dados meteorológicos e do espaçamento entre plantas. O alerta é indicado quando a taxa de infecção, prevista para o prazo de um mês, atingir ou ultrapassar o respectivo limite. A acurácia do modelo para o limite de 5 pontos percentuais foi de 81%, por validação cruzada, chegando até 89% segundo estimativa otimista. Esse modelo apresentou bons resultados para outras medidas de avaliação importantes, como sensitividade (80%, especificidade (83% e confiabilidades positiva (79% e negativa (84%. O modelo para o limite de 10 pontos percentuais teve acurácia de 79%, e não apresentou o mesmo equilíbrio entre as demais medidas. Em conjunto, esses modelos podem auxiliar na tomada de decisão referente ao controle da ferrugem-do-cafeeiro no campo. A indução de árvores de decisão é alternativa viável às técnicas convencionais de modelagem e facilita a compreensão dos modelos.The objective of this work was to develop decision trees as warning models of coffee (Coffea arabica L. rust in growing areas with large fruit load. Monthly data of disease incidence in the field collected during eight years were transformed into binary values considering limits of 5 and 10 percentage points in the infection rate. Models were generated from meteorological data and space between plants for each binary infection rate. The warning is indicated when the infection rate is expected to reach or exceed the respective limit in a month. The accuracy obtained by cross-validating the model to the limit of 5 percentage

  1. Microclimatic characterization and productivity of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeon pea in Southern Brazil Caracterização microclimática e produtividade de cafeeiros sombreados com guandu no Sul do Brasil

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    Heverly Morais

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivation in agroforestry systems in Southern Brazil have shown the potential of partial shading to improve management of this crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate microclimatic conditions and their effects on coffee production of plants shaded with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan in comparison to unshaded ones, from May 2001 to August 2002 in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. The appraised microclimatic characteristics were: global radiation, photosynthetic and radiation balance; air, leaf and soil temperatures; and soil humidity. Shading caused significant reduction in incident global solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation and net radiation, and attenuated maximum leaf, air and soil temperatures, during the day. Shade also reduced the rate of cooling of night air and leaf temperatures, especially during nights with radiative frost. Soil moisture at 0-10 cm depth was higher under shade. The shaded coffee plants produced larger cherries due to slower maturation, resulting in larger bean size. Nevertheless, plants under shade emitted less plagiotropic branches, with smaller number of nodes per branch, and fewer nodes with fruits, resulting in a large reduction in coffee production. These results show the need to find an optimal tree density and management that do not compromise coffee production and protect against extreme temperatures.Recentes estudos sobre cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cultivados em sistemas agroflorestais no Sul do Brasil têm mostrado o potencial do sombreamento parcial no manejo desta cultura. O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições do microclima e seus efeitos na produção de café sombreado com guandu (Cajanus cajan, em comparação ao cultivado a pleno sol, no período de maio de 2001 a agosto de 2002 em Londrina, PR. As características microclimáticas avaliadas foram: radiação global, fotossintética e saldo de radiação; temperaturas

  2. Acúmulo de nutrientes em frutos de cafeeiro em quatro altitudes de cultivo: cálcio, magnésio e enxofre Nutrient accumulation in coffee fruits at four plantations altitude: calcium, magnesium and sulfur

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    Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As curvas de acúmulo de nutrientes em frutos permitem estimar sua exportação, bem como as épocas de maior demanda. Estudou-se o acúmulo de MS, Ca, Mg e S em frutos de Coffea arabica (L. da antese à maturação em quatro altitudes, bem como a variação na concentração dos elementos em folhas dos ramos produtivos. O experimento foi constituído da variedade de cafeeiro Catuaí IAC 44 cultivada a 720, 800, 880 e 950 m de altitude, no município de Martins Soares-MG. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, usando-se um esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo. O aumento da altitude influenciou o ciclo reprodutivo do cafeeiro, pois houve demanda de maior tempo para formação dos frutos. No estádio de expansão rápida, a percentagem de acúmulo de MS, Ca, Mg e S foi maior na altitude de 720 m, comparada, principalmente, à de 950 m. A TMAD (taxa máxima de acúmulo diário no estádio de granação-maturação apresentou tendência de ser mais tardia com a elevação da altitude. O consumo de nutrientes pelos frutos, assim como o enchimento de grãos, é mais crítico em condições de menor altitude, já que a planta necessita completar esses processos em menor espaço de tempo. De modo geral, na altitude de 720 m ocorreu maior competição fruto/folha pela partição de Ca, Mg e S.Crurves of fruit nutrient accumulation are tools for estimating the peaks of nutrient demand and the nutrient export form the soil. The accumulation of dry matter (DM, Ca, Mg and S was studied in fruits of Coffea arabica (L. in the period between anthesis and maturation at four altitudes of cultivation, as well as the variation in the leaf content of the elements in productive branches. The experiment consisted of the coffee variety Catuaí IAC 44 cultivated at 720, 800, 880 and 950 m above sea level (asl, in Martins Soares-MG. The experimental design was entirely randomized with tree replications using a split-plot in time

  3. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust Bioprospecção de bactérias endofíticas como agentes de biocontrole da ferrugem do cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Franco Shiomi; Harllen Sandro Alves Silva; Itamar Soares de Melo; Flávia Vieira Nunes; Wagner Bettiol

    2006-01-01

    Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, ...

  4. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  5. Efeito do tipo de substrato e da presença de adubação suplementar sobre o crescimento vegetativo, nutrição mineral, custo de produção e intensidade de cercosporiose em mudas de cafeeiro formadas em tubetes Effects of substrate type and supplementary fertilization on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production costs, and brown eye spot of coffee seedlings in stiff plastic containers

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    Adélia Aziz Alexandre Pozza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de tubetes para produzir mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. tornou-se uma realidade. Objetivando avaliar o uso de substratos adubados ou não com fertilizante de liberação gradual e seus efeitos na nutrição, na formação, na cercosporiose e nos custos de produção de mudas de cafeeiro em tubetes, conduziu-se um experimento em viveiro, em esquema fatorial (4x2 com quatro substratos combinados com duas adubações, tendo quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por 16 tubetes de 120 mL, considerando-se como plantas úteis as seis centrais. Os tratamentos consistiram dos substratos S1= Substrato comercial I, S2 = Substrato comercial II, S3 = Substrato de eucalipto e S4 = 80% esterco de curral + 20% terra de subsolo, todos com e sem adubação com fertilizante de liberação gradual. No geral, os melhores substratos para formação de mudas de cafeeiro em tubetes foram os substratos não comerciais ou orgânicos, independentemente de receberem ou não adubação suplementar. Observou-se redução da cercosporiose com a nutrição mineral, principalmente com o cálcio. Com a utilização de todos os substratos houve ganho econômico em relação ao custo por milheiro de mudas. A maior economia foi obtida com o substrato S4, seguida do substrato S3, com melhor relação custo/benefício.The utilization of stiff plastic containers for producing coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. is a reality. Aiming to evaluate the effects of substrate type enriched or not with slow-release fertilizer on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production cost and, brown eye spot of coffee seedlings, an experiment was conducted in the plant nursery. The experimental design was a factorial scheme with four substrates in the presence and absence of supplementary fertilization, with four replicates. The plots were made of 16 containers of 120 ml, using six central plants for evaluation. The treatments consisted of S1 = Commercial Substrate

  6. Lipoxygenase distribution in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Peresson, Carlo; Braidot, Enrico; Tubaro, Franco; Colussi, Alessio; Bonnländer, Bernd; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    In this paper lipoxygenase (LOX) presence was investigated in coffee berries to determine its involvement in lipid degradative metabolism of plants grown in organic and conventional cultivations. An immunochemical analysis has evidenced a ca. 80 kDa protein, cross-reacting with an anti-LOX antibody, only in the pulp fraction of berries obtained from plants of both cultivations. LOX activity in this fraction could be monitored either as conjugated diene formation or reaction products (determined by HPLC) and was mainly associated with a heavy membrane fraction (HMF, enriched in tonoplast, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and mitochondria) and a light membrane fraction (LMF, enriched in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, with low levels of tonoplast and mitochondria). The LOX activity of LMF from berries of both cultivations showed an optimum at pH 8.0. The HMF exhibited a different activity peak in samples from conventional (pH 8.0) and organic (pH 5.5) cultures, suggesting the presence of different isoenzymes. These findings were also confirmed by variation of the ratio of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides in organic (1:1) and conventional cultivations (1:10), indicating that the organic one was subjected to an oxidative stress in the coffee pulp fraction leading to the expression of an acidic LOX. Such de novo synthesized LOX activity could be responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, which may interfere with the organoleptic profile of coffee.

  7. Coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination : mechanism and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.

    2002-01-01

     Coffee seeds display slow and variable germination which severely hampers the production of seedlings for planting in the following growth season. Little work has been done with the aim to understand the behavior of coffee seeds during germination and there is a

  8. Coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination : mechanism and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, da, R.

    2002-01-01

     Coffee seeds display slow and variable germination which severely hampers the production of seedlings for planting in the following growth season. Little work has been done with the aim to understand the behavior of coffee seeds during germination and there is a lack of information concerning the regulation of the germination process. This thesis addresses questions concerning the mechanism and regulation of coffee seed germination.Initial experiments showed that radicle protrusion in the da...

  9. Variabilidade genética do rendimento intrínseco de grãos em germoplasma de Coffea Genetic variability for bean outturn in Coffea germplasm

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    Cristiana de Gaspari-Pezzopane

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento intrínseco do café, relação percentual entre a massa de dois grãos normais tipo chato e do respectivo fruto que os contém, foi estudado em seis grupos de germoplasma de Coffea, com o objetivo de se conhecer a variabilidade genética para essa característica. Investigou-se o rendimento intrínseco de Coffea arabica em um grupo de cinco cultivares de porte baixo, em outro contendo 22 cultivares e seleções e, ainda, em outro grupo com 79 cultivares, variedades e formas botânicas, mutantes e acessos da Etiópia. Em C. canephora, foram analisados três acessos da variedade kouilou e 10 acessos da variedade robusta. Investigaram-se ainda, outras oito espécies do gênero Coffea. Observou-se considerável variabilidade genética tanto entre representantes de C. arabica quanto de C. canephora, assim como entre as diferentes espécies do gênero Coffea. A amplitude de variação nos valores de rendimento intrínseco referente ao último grupo foi bem maior que a de qualquer outro grupo estudado. A magnitude das variações observadas e as implicações econômicas do rendimento intrínseco indicam que essa característica pode ser utilizada como um critério adicional de seleção no melhoramento de C. arabica e C. canephora.The intrinsic coffee bean outturn, percent weight ratio of two normal flat beans and the respective whole fruit, was studied in six Coffea germplasm groups in order to investigate the genetic variability for this characteristic. It was evaluated in C. arabica a group of five short stature cultivars, another group composed of 22 cultivars and selections yet a third group of 79 items comprising cultivars, botanical varieties and types, mutations and accessions from Ethiopia. In C. canephora it were studied three acessions of var. kouilou and ten of var. robusta. It were investigated also eight other species of the genus Coffea. Considerable genetic variability was detected within C. arabica and C. canephora and

  10. ESTIMATIVAS DE PARÂMETROS GENÉTICOS E PREDIÇÃO DE VALORES GENOTÍPICOS NO MELHORAMENTO DO CAFEEIRO PELO PROCEDIMENTO REML/BLUP ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS AND PREDICTION OF GENOTYPIC VALUES IN COFFEE BREEDING BY THE REML/BLUP METHOD

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    MARCOS DEON VILELA DE RESENDE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se aplicar o método REML/BLUP em programas de melhoramento genético do cafeeiro, utilizando-o na estimação de parâmetros genéticos e predição de valores genotípicos para a espécie Coffea arabica. O experimento foi instalado em julho de 1998 pela Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, em Selvíria (MS. As 12 cultivares selecionadas pelo Instituto Agronômico (IAC, Campinas (SP, foram avaliadas no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e dez plantas por parcela. Os resultados revelaram baixa variabilidade genética entre as cultivares para os caracteres altura da planta, diâmetro do caule e número de ramos plagiotrópicos, avaliados aos 26 meses. Apenas as cultivares Catuaí Amarelo, Icatu Vermelho e Catuaí Vermelho apresentaram valores genotípicos preditos para o diâmetro do caule superiores à média geral desse caráter. A acurácia na avaliação dos valores genotípicos das cultivares para o caráter diâmetro do caule equivaleu, em média, a 76%. A adoção de uma experimentação com duas plantas por parcela e 20 repetições poderá elevar a 90% a acurácia seletiva para o caráter diâmetro do caule. O método de modelos mistos (REML/BLUP mostrou-se adequado à estimação de parâmetros genéticos e predição de valores genotípicos no melhoramento do cafeeiro, podendo ser empregado rotineiramente.The aim of this paper is to apply the REML/BLUP methodology in coffee breeding programs, using it in the parameter estimation and genotypic values prediction in a cultivar trial of Coffea arabica. A trial established in Selvíria-MS by UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira, was studied. The trial evaluated 12 cultivars developed by the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas in a complete block design with four replications and 10 plants per plot. The results showed a low genetic variability among cultivars for the traits height, stem diameter and number of primary branches, at age of 26 months. Only the cultivars

  11. Avaliação de progênies e seleção no cafeeiro Icatu Progeny performance and selection in Icatu coffee

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    Luiz Carlos Fazuoli

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a capacidade produtiva e outras características agronômicas de progênies de café Icatu em um experimento e em três campos de seleção, em São Simão (SP. Compararam-se sete progênies de Icatu com sete outras portadoras de genes que conferem resistência vertical a Hemileia vastatrix. Como testemunha, utilizou-se o cultivar Catuaí-Vermelho de Coffea arabica, suscetível a essa moléstia, porém sem qualquer tratamento fitossanitário. Verificou-se que a progênie de Icatu CH 4782-16 apresentou a maior produção média e, nela, escolheram-se nove cafeeiros de interesse para o melhoramento desse cultivar. Nas demais progênies, selecionou-se menor número de plantas com boa produção. Em três campos de seleção, a progênie CH 4782-16 foi também a mais produtiva. Os dados do presente trabalho revelaram ser a CH 4782-16 bastante promissora, pela produção, bom aspecto vegetativo, resistência a H. vastatrix e outras características agronômicas, merecendo ser estudada em maior número de locais para futura distribuição aos lavradores.Yield and agronomic characteristics of seven Icatu coffee progenies were evaluated in a field trial and on three plots specially planted for individual plant selection. The Icatu progenies were compared to other coffee progenies having genes of resistance to Hemileia vastatrix. Susceptible "Catuaí-Vermelho" CH 2077-2-5-99 was used as control, without any chemical treatment against leaf rust fungus. The CH 4782-16 Icatu progeny besides being vigorous revealed to be high yielding and to have other favorable characteristics such as low percentage of empty fruit loculus and resistance to leaf rust. Individual coffee plants of this progeny were selected for further improvement of Icatu coffee.

  12. Crescimento vegetativo e produtividade de cafeeiros Conilon propagados por estacas em tubetes Vegetative growth and productivity of Conilon coffee-trees proceeding from seedlings produced of deep-rooted cuttings in plastic tubes

    OpenAIRE

    José Augusto Teixeira do Amaral; José Carlos Lopes; José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral; Sérgio Henriques Saraiva; Waldir Cintra de Jesus Jr

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de cafeeiros conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner), oriundos de mudas produzidas por estacas plantadas inicialmente em tubetes plásticos de 50 cm³ de capacidade. O experimento foi constituído de cinco tratamentos, que corresponderam aos tempos de permanência das estacas nos tubetes: 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Transcorridos esses tempos as mudas foram, sucessivamente, transplantadas para sacos de polietileno, ...

  13. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XLI. Produtividade do híbrido de timor, de seus derivados e de outras fontes de resistência a Hemileia vastatrix Coffee breeding: XLI. Yield of 'híbrido de timor' progenies, its derivatives and other sources of resistance to Hemileia vastatrix

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    Alcides Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Progênies do café Híbrido de Timor e F02-F4 oriundas de cruzamentos desse café com outros cultivares resistentes ou não a Hemileia vastatrix e cruzamentos entre outras fontes de resistência ao patógeno, foram avaliadas em três experimentos, em Campinas, para observação de sua produtividade, em relação a alguns cultivares de Coffea arabica tomados como testemunhas. As progênies do Híbrido de Timor apresentaram pequena produtividade, indicando baixa adaptação, com exceção daquelas de prefixos C 1737, C 1738 e C 1699. As progênies derivadas de cruzamentos do Híbrido de Timor com cultivares de porte pequeno, como Caturra Vermelho e Vila Sarchi de Coffea arabica, mostraram-se, também, pouco produtivas. Destacou-se apenas a progênie C 1669, rústica. Das combinações do Híbrido de Timor com outros cultivares de C. arabica com resistência a H. vastatrix, apenas a progênie C 1698 se revelou melhor. As progênies F2 derivadas de cruzamentos do cultivar S 795 portador do fator S H3 de resistência com Mundo Novo, deram produções bastante razoáveis. Notou-se, de modo geral, acentuada variabilidade na produção das progênies, o que é indicado pelos elevados valores dos coeficientes de variação obtidos nos três experimentos. Os dados desses experimentos mostraram a dificuldade de aproveitamento das progênies e dos derivados do Híbrido de Timor analisados. Tratando-se, no entanto, de material de elevado grau de resistência às raças de H. vastatrix, novas hibridações deverão ser sintetizadas, com cultivares comerciais, a fim de se conseguirem linhagens resistentes, vigorosas e mais produtivas.'Híbrido de Timor' coffee is probably derived from a natural cross between Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Selections carried out at the "Centro de Investigação das Ferrugens do Cafeeiro", Portugal, resulted in the isolation of tetraploid self-compatible coffee plants, like CIFC 832/1 and 832/2, with high resistance to coffee

  14. Severidade do sintoma da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro Severity symptoms of Xylella fastidiosa on coffee cultivars

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa tem sido estudada no cafeeiro desde que foi detectada pela primeira vez nessa cultura; entretanto, não se sabe ainda avaliar seu efeito, uma vez que o cafeeiro, provavelmente, convive com a bactéria há muitos anos e parece suportar esse patógeno em determinadas situações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a severidade dos sintomas de infecção provocados pela X. fastidiosa sobre cultivares de Coffea arabica, enxertados ou não, a fim de estimar os níveis dos sintomas externos em diferentes tratamentos desenvolvidos em uma mesma condição edafoclimática, ao longo de diferentes períodos do ano com variação na disponibilidade de água e locais. A severidade do sintoma da bactéria foi avaliada utilizando-se uma escala de notas de 1 a 4, de acordo com a porcentagem de danos à planta, sendo a nota 4 a mais severa. Não houve diferenças no nível de severidade entre as cultivares avaliadas em Mococa e Garça no período de estresse hídrico, porém, no período de chuvas o sintoma foi mais severo em 2000 nas cultivares Catuaí e Mundo Novo não enxertadas em relação às enxertadas. A 'Catuaí' não enxertada apresentou severidade maior em Mococa do que em Garça. A seca ocorrida em Garça em 2002 foi muito mais prolongada e severa do que a de 2000 e de 1998 em Mococa. Porém, a severidade em 2002 em Garça foi menor em relação às demais, demonstrando que o déficit hídrico não é o único fator determinante dos sintomas externos da bactéria, mas outros fatores de estresse fisiológicos ou ambientais provavelmente interagem na resposta da planta.The Xylella fastidiosa bacteria has been more intensively studied in coffee plants since the first time it was noticed infecting this specie. However, it is not well known the damages it causes, once both bacteria and hostplant can co-habit for long periods (several years, as coffee plants seems to support this pathogen under determined conditions. The

  15. Regionalização do cafeeiro e mudança da composição agrícola do Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, MG Zoning of coffee and the change of the agricultural composition of the Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, MG - Brazil

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    Júlio C. F. de Melo Júnior

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se ferramentas de análise espacial, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se investigar a evolução da lavoura de café no espaço geográfico, em importante região do estado de Minas Gerais, verificando-se a sustentabilidade da produção em diferentes zonas climáticas. Neste sentido, buscou-se uma regionalização do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. para a região do Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, MG, comparando-a com os resultados de um modelo econômico de decomposição da variação da área nos efeitos escala e substituição, considerando-se o período 1985 a 1995/96. Observou-se que a tendência crescente da expansão cafeícola do noroeste para o nordeste acompanha a disposição das classes aptas apresentadas pela regionalização e, também, que a fraca expressão do café em Ituiutaba e Frutal tem forte componente climático na justificativa, enquanto em Araxá prevaleceu o fator pedológico. Uberaba é a única região que mesmo apta, apresenta baixo desempenho cafeícola.Using tools of spatial analysis, the present work was carried out to investigate the geographical evolution of the coffee (Coffea arabic L. plantation in an important region of the State of Minas Gerais, to verify the sustainability of the coffee production in different climatic and soil zones. In this context, a soil zoning for coffee plantation for the region of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, MG was elaborated. The geographical spatial analysis results were compared to an economic model of decomposition of the variation of the area and its scale substitution effects, for the period of 1985 through 1995/96. The expansion of coffee plantations was observed from the Northwest to the Northeast and accompanied the zoning criteria adopted in the present work. In other words, it was observed that a small expansion verified at Ituiutaba and Frutal have a strong climatic component, while at Araxá the soil factor prevailed. Only Uberaba appears to

  16. Fotossíntese, relações hídricas e crescimento de cafeeiros jovens em relação à disponibilidade de fósforo Photosynthesis, water relations and growth of young coffee plants according to phosphorus availability

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    Leandro da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar de que maneira a alta disponibilidade de fósforo no solo afeta a fotossíntese e o crescimento de mudas de cafeeiro arábica (Coffea arabica. Mudas da cultivar Ouro Verde com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade, cultivadas com boa disponibilidade hídrica, foram submetidas a três tratamentos quanto à disponibilidade de fósforo: quantidade recomendada de P, na literatura (PA; duas vezes a dosagem utilizada em PA (P+; e sem adição de P ao solo (P-. Após 70 dias da aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliados: as trocas gasosas, a atividade fotoquímica, o potencial de água da folha, a condutância hidráulica da planta (K L, a partição de matéria seca na planta, os teores de pigmentos e carboidratos, e a composição química das folhas. O tratamento P- influenciou negativamente a fotossíntese, e levou à restrição do crescimento das plantas. As plantas do tratamento P+ apresentaram maior teor foliar de P (~1,9 g kg-1, com incrementos na assimilação de CO2, na eficiência instantânea de carboxilação e na atividade fotoquímica - maior eficiência do fotossistema II e maior transporte aparente de elétrons - em relação às plantas do tratamento PA. Houve aumento em K L, maior teor de carboidratos foliares e maior teor de clorofila nas plantas que receberam o dobro da dose recomendada de P, as quais apresentaram maior produção de matéria seca em relação às de PA e P-.The objective of this work was to evaluate how high soil phosphorus (P availability affects the photosynthesis and growth of young coffee arabica plants (Coffea arabica. Four months old coffee seedlings of the Ouro Verde cultivar, cultivated in good hydric conditions, were exposed to three P availability treatments: P dosage recommended in the literature (RP; two times the recommended dosage (P+; and without P (P-. Seventy days after treatment application, evaluations of leaf gas exchange, photochemical activity, leaf

  17. Dinâmica dos micronutrientes em cafeeiros enxertados Dynamics of micronutrient in grafted coffee

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    André Dominghetti Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As respostas à disponibilidade dos nutrientes variam entre espécies distintas dentro de um mesmo gênero, por causa, principalmente, das exigências nutricionais variáveis, capacidade de absorção, translocação e utilização dos nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso dos micronutrientes por diferentes cultivares de Coffea arabica L., enxertados em Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se o método de cultivo em solução nutritiva. Foi utilizado um fatorial 7 x 3 + 2, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica L. (Palma II, Catucaí 2 SL, Oeiras MG 6851, Obatã IAC 1669-20, Acauã, Topázio MG 1190 e Paraíso MG H 419-1, três tipos de mudas (pé franco, autoenxertada e enxertada sobre o cultivar Apoatã IAC 2258 e duas testemunhas (Apoatã autoenxertado e Apoatã pé franco. O porta-enxerto utilizado influenciou negativamente na absorção de boro, ferro e manganês. A translocação dos micronutrientes boro e cobre obteve maiores índices nas mudas enxertadas. O cultivar Palma II, quando enxertado, apresentou o maior índice de utilização dos nutrientes, mostrando-se passível de ser enxertado. O porta-enxerto utilizado mostrou-se apto para a enxertia, por não sofrer influência negativa, tanto pela enxertia, quanto pelos cultivares utilizados.Responses to availability of nutrients vary between different species within the same genus, mainly because the different nutritional requirements, absorption capacity, translocation and use of nutrients, The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of absorption, translocation and use of micronutrients by different cultivars of Coffea arabica L. grafted into Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cultivation in nutrient solution in a 7 x 3 + 2 factorial design: seven cultivars of Coffea arabica L. (Palma II, Catuca

  18. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XIX - Pesquisas sôbre o café semperflorens Coffee breeding: XIX - Researches on the semperflorens coffee

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    Célio S. Novaes Antunes

    1960-01-01

    -se, também, a tendência de crescimento dos valores da peneira média, a partir de janeiro, cujo máximo ocorreu em junho, declinando até dezembro. Tem-se que tal variabilidade mensal está ligada a épocas diferentes de desenvolvimento dos frutos. O pêso médio de 100 sementes não se mostrou muito variável, é da ordem de 10,52 gramas, exceto em 1941, em que se revelou menor e correspondeu à menor produção anual e aos valores mais reduzidos de peneira méida. Nos meses, os maiores valores se verificaram a partir de abri], com máximo em julho. Não se mostraram correlacionados os dados médios mensais do pêso de sementes e as produções médias mensais; obteve-se, entretanto, correlação positiva entre o pêso de sementes e os valores mensais de peneira média. As quantidades de sementes do tipo moca revelaram-se bem variáveis. Assinalaram-se, em seis anos de determinações, limites extremos de 3,5% e 23,0%. Nos meses, as porcentagens mais elevadas desse tipo de semente ocorreram em junho e julho, quando a produção é reduzida; os valores mínimos se situaram no período de outubro a dezembro. Dada a produtividade não elevada do café semperflorens, o cultivo em larga escala dêsae cafeeiro deixou de apresentar interesse econômico. Contudo, êsse mutante, pelo contínuo florescimento que exibe, poderá desempenhar um valor todo especial para as análises genéticas do café e, também, para as pesquisas fisiológicas.The main feature of the semperflorens mutant of Coffea arabica is its ability to produce flowers during the whole year, whereas other commercial types of the same species have a definitive flowering period. In the S. Paulo plateau this occurs only at the beginning of the rainy season, August-October. The yield of several progenies of the semperflorens coffee, the period of fruit development, and the size and types of seeds produced were recorded for a few years in plantings made in three localities of the state of S. Paulo: Campinas (1940

  19. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: VII - Ocorrência de lojas vazias em frutos de café "mundo novo" Coffee breeding: VII - Empty fruit locules in the mundo novo coffee

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    H. Antunes Filho

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Êste trabalho descreve a estrutura do fruto e o método utilizado na determinação da freqüência de lojas vazias dos frutos do cafeeiro, nas quais não se encontram sementes. Êste método consiste em colher, de cada planta, uma amostra ao acaso de 100 frutos maduros, que são cortados transversalmente, anotando-se em folhas apropriadas o número de sementes dos tipos chato, moca e concha, as que ocorrem em número de três por fruto e o número de lojas vazias, desprovidas de sementes. Esta última anomalia parece resultar da paralização do desenvolvimento do endosperma, o que provavelmente se dá quando esse tecido deveria começar a preencher a cavidade já bem desenvolvida do fruto. Quando isto ocorre, a loja do fruto continúa a se desenvolver normalmente, porém sem formação de semente normal. Em geral, apenas um resto de tecido se encontra dentro das lojas vazias. Pequena porção de endosperma é às vêzes encontrada, contendo ou não um pequeno embrião. Desde 1950 vêm se examinando amostras de frutos maduros do café Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica L. var. bourbon (B. Rodr. Choussy, colhidas em tôdas as plantas de progênies plantadas nas Estações Experimentais de Campinas, Pindorama, Mocóca e Jaú, a fim de se determinar a freqüência de lojas vazias para cada uma dessas plantas. Em algumas progénies examinadas, oriundas de sementes de polinização não controlada, quasi tôdas as plantas produzem apenas pequenas quantidades de frutos com lojas desprovidas de sementes em amostras de 100 frutos, independentemente da região onde se acham plantadas. Outras progênies apresentam plantas que produzem frutos com baixa quantidade de lojas sem sementes e plantas nas quais essa quantidade é maior. A relação entre êsses tipos de plantas é relativamente constante para as mesmas progênies em regiões diferentes. A quantidade de frutos com lojas desprovidas de sementes, em amostras de 100 frutos, para uma dada planta, permanece

  20. PROTEÍNAS EXTRACELULARES MARCADORAS DEL POTENCIAL EMBRIOGÉNICO EN SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Coffea spp.

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    Mayra Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de las proteínas extracelulares EP3 y PE32 en suspensiones celulares de Coffea canephora var. Robusta y Coffea arabica cv. Catimor. El proceso embriogénico fue caracterizado inmunoquímicamente con la utilización de anticuerpos policlonales de ambas proteínas. El carácter embriogénico del cultivo se corroboró por el comportamiento de las proteínas estudiadas presentes en la matriz extracelular. Se sugiere la utilización de estas proteínas como marcadores moleculares de la embriogénesis somática en cultivos celulares de café

  1. A hibridação interespecífica no melhoramento do cafeeiro

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    A. J. Teixeira Mendes

    1951-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of coffee in the American coffee producing countries is not faced with any serious handicap. The future can not be far distant, however, when it will be necessary to establish new plantations back on the high-priced old exploited lands. Need will be felt for improved varieties. At the same time, it is not known if in a near future the American coffee growers will not be in trouble with diseases as terrible as Hemileia, which the present age of transport cannot restrict to non-American areas. In the program of coffee improvement, interspecific crosses are expected to take a very important place. The introducing of desired characteristics of other species into Coffea arabica by hybridization is made difficult by the fact that, while C. arabica is self-fertile, the other species are self-sterile. It is known, also, that the high cup quality C. arabica species, with 44 somatic chromosomes, gives sterile triploid hybrids (2n = 33 when crossed to the leaf disease resistant Coffea canephora and other diploid (2n = 22 species. Very seldom, however, do the triploids produce seed, as a result of back-cross to C. arabica either through open or controlled pollination. The cytological constitution of the plants obtained from these seeds is variable ; some triploids give rise to seedlings having mostly a chromosome number around 44 ; the progeny plants from other hybrids have this number mostly around 55. Numerous aneuploids have been found among these progenies. Attention has been given to the plants derived from the hybrids as to their developmental and production characteristics. At least two 44-chromosome plants have shown to be interesting in these respects and one of them, productive and self-fertile, showed up characteristics very similar to the maragogipe variety of C. arabica. More detailed comparative observations are necessary ; however, the obtaining of such a plant proves that the triploids are a permanent source of new

  2. Molecular characterization of arabica and Conilon coffee plants genotypes by SSR and ISSR markers

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    Ludymila Brandão Motta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular characterization of ten genotypes of the Coffea arabica plants and of seven genotypes of C. canephora having interesting features for coffee breeding programs was carried to select the parents for breeding. A total of 40 SSR and 29 ISSR primers were used. The primers generated a total of 331 (307 polymorphic and 24 monomorphic bands. Analysis of genetic diversity presented dissimilarity intervals ranging from 0.22 to 0.44 between the Conilon genotypes, from 0.02 to 0.28 between the Arabica genotypes, and from 0.49 to 0.60 between the genotypes of the two species in the joint analysis. Four groups were formed: I = genotypes of C. arabica, II = four progenies of C. canephora, Conilon group, and one non defined C. canephora (Conilon or Robusta, III = one progeny of un-defined C. canephora (Conilon or Robusta and IV = one progeny of C. canephora of Robusta group. The grouping formed was consistent with the origins of each group. High stabilities of the bifurcations were found by bootstrap analysis. The use of molecular markers of the SSR and ISSR types in the diversity study was efficient in distinguishing genotypes between and within C. arabica and C. canephora.

  3. Razão de perdas de terra e fator C da cultura do cafeeiro em cinco espaçamentos, em Pindorama (SP Soil loss ratio and C factor for coffee plantations in five spacings in Pindorama, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Daniel Prochnow

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available hídrica em culturas perenes, embora tais dados sejam imprescindíveis ao planejamento conservacionista e estudos de modelagem de erosão. Dados de um experimento de perdas de terra e água sob chuva natural em Pindorama (SP, de julho de 1960 a junho de 1972, foram usados para o cálculo da razão de perdas de terra (RPT e do fator C da equação universal de perdas de solo, em cinco espaçamentos na cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.. Foram estabelecidas parcelas com espaçamentos de 3,0 x 0,5 m, 3,0 x 1,0 m, 3,0 x 2,0 m, 3,0 x 3,0 m e 4,0 x 2,0 m em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico textura arenosa/média com declividade média de 0,100 m m-1. O ciclo da cultura foi dividido em dois estádios: do plantio aos 60 meses e dos 60 aos 144 meses. Os resultados mostraram que: (a as perdas anuais de terra e água para a cultura do cafeeiro foram de 4 Mg ha-1 e 18 mm respectivamente; (b os valores de RPT para o cafeeiro foram de 0,1346, 0,0883, 0,1015, 0,1422 e 0,1001 Mg ha-1 Mg-1 ha, para os espaçamentos 3,0 x 0,5 m, 3,0 x 1,0 m, 3,0 x 2,0 m, 3,0 x 3,0 m e 4,0 x 2,0 m respectivamente; (c a magnitude do fator C, para os referidos espaçamentos, foi, respectivamente, de 0,1354, 0,0866, 0,0995, 0,1412 e 0,1004 Mg ha-1 Mg-1 ha; (d as RPTs e os fatores C variaram amplamente entre os espaçamentos, bem como e, mais expressivamente, entre os estádios da cultura, indicando forte efeito do espaçamento e da cobertura vegetal; (e o espaçamento 3,0 x 1,0 mostrou-se mais eficiente na redução da erosão hídrica na cultura do cafeeiro.Brazilian literature lacks data on soil and water loss by water erosion in perennial crops although such data would be essential for conservation planning and erosion modeling studies. Data of soil and water loss under natural rainfall (July 1960 to June 1972 in Pindorama, State of São Paulo, Brazil, were used to calculate the soil loss ratio (SLR and C factor for the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE in coffee

  4. Discrimination of green arabica and Robusta coffee beans by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidel, Anke; von Stetten, David; Rodrigues, Carla; Máguas, Cristina; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2010-11-10

    This paper presents an approach that may be applied as an accurate and rapid tool for classifying coffee beans on the basis of the specific kahweol content. Using Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy with 1064 nm excitation it is possible to monitor the characteristic Raman bands of kahweol in green coffee beans without chemical and physical processing of the beans. The procedure was optimized on the basis of 83 and 125 measurements of whole and ground beans, respectively, using coffee samples of two different species, Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L. (var. Robusta), and different origins (Asia, Africa, and South America). The relative contribution of the kahweol in individual beans can be determined quantitatively by means of a component analysis of the spectra, yielding a spectral kahweol index (σka) that is proportional to the relative content of kahweol in a coffee bean. The reproducibility of the spectroscopic measurement and analysis was found to be 3.5%. Individual beans of the same type and origin reveal a scattering of the σka values. Nevertheless, an unambiguous distinction between Arabica and Robusta samples is possible on the basis of single-bean measurements as the σka values are greater than and less than 10 for Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Measurements of whole and ground beans afforded very similar results, despite the heterogeneous distribution of kahweol within a bean. Unlike conventional analytical techniques, the single-bean sensitivity of the present approach may also allow for a rapid detection of unwanted admixtures of low-value Robusta coffee to high-quality and more expensive Arabica coffee. PMID:20942389

  5. Ploidy level and caffeine content in leaves of Coffea Ploidia e conteúdo de cafeína em folhas de Coffea

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    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Coffea and varieties of C. arabica differing in chromosome number had their caffeine content determined in the leaves. For Coffea arabica var. "Angustifolia", var. "Caturra" and var. "Icatu", it was observed caffeine decrease from the haploid (2n = 22 to tetraploid leaves (2n = 44. Caffeine in the tetraploid "Angustifolia" was decreased by 50% when compared to the haploid. Caffeine reduction was also observed in leaves of C. canephora var. "Kouilou" as chromosome number was increased (2n = 22 ® 2n = 44. In this case, caffeine in the leaves of the diploid genotype was close to 4 times higher than in the tetraploid. On the other hand it was observed an increase of the alkaloid when the chromosome number was doubled in the C. canephora var. "Robusta".Variedades e espécies de café (Coffea que diferem quanto ao número de cromossomos tiveram o conteúdo de cafeína determinado em suas folhas. Para as variedades "Angustifolia", "Caturra" e "Icatu" de Coffea arabica foi observada redução no teor de cafeína de folhas haplóides (2n = 22 em relação a tetraplóides (2n = 44. Cafeína na forma tetraplóide da var. "Angustifolia" foi reduzida em 50% quando comparada com a forma haplóide. Redução de cafeína também foi observada em folhas de C. canephora var. "Kouilou" quando o número de cromossomos aumentou (2n = 22 ® 2n = 44. Neste caso, a cafeína nas folhas do genótipo diplóide foi cerca de quatro vezes maior que no tetraplóide. Por outro lado, foi observado aumento desse alcalóide quando o número de cromossomos foi duplicado em C. canephora var. "Robusta".

  6. Crescimento inicial do cafeeiro irrigado com água salina e salinização do solo Initial growth of coffee plants irrigated with saline water and soil salinization

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    Vladimir B. Figueirêdo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. vem-se expandindo para regiões ainda pouco exploradas, em que o uso da irrigação com água salina possa ser fator limitante. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o crescimento inicial do cafeeiro, conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, submetendo-o a níveis crescentes de salinidade da água de irrigação. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos (S0 = 0,0 dS m-1, S1 = 0,6 dS m-1, S2 = 1,2 dS m-1, S3 = 1,8 dS m-1, S4 = 2,4 dS m-1 e S5 = 3,0 dS m-1 e 4 repetições. A reposição de água foi realizada com base na curva característica do solo, pela leitura da tensão de água por blocos de resistência, retornando o conteúdo de água à capacidade de campo. Verificou-se que os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente as características da planta e que a salinidade da água a partir de 1,2 dS m-1 prejudicou o crescimento e, em alguns casos, provocou a morte das plantas. A área foliar foi a variável mais prejudicada. Ao final do experimento o solo foi classificado como salino-sódico.The coffee crop is expanding to new areas with not enough studies about its response to saline irrigation water. The initial growth of coffee plant was evaluated, in greenhouse at the Engineering Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, under different levels of irrigation water salinity. The completely randomized design was used with 6 treatments (S0 = 0.0 dS m-1, S1 = 0.6 dS m-1, S2 = 1.2 dS m-1, S3 = 1.8 dS m-1, S4 = 2.4 dS m-1 and S5 = 3.0 dS m-1 and 4 replications. The irrigation was accomplished according to soil water retention curve and resistance block reading, restoring the soil water content to its field capacity. It was verified that water salinity affected the plants characteristics significantly. The water salinity above 1.2 dS m-1 caused damage to plant development resulting, in some cases, in death of

  7. Invertase and sucrose synthase activities in coffee plants sprayed with sucrose solution Atividade de invertases e sacarose sintase em plantas de cafeeiro pulverizadas com solução de sacarose

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos da Silva; José Donizeti Alves; Amauri Alves de Alvarenga; Marcelo Murad Magalhães; Dárlan Einstein do Livramento; Daniela Deitos Fries

    2003-01-01

    One management practice of which the efficiency has not yet been scientifically tested is spraying coffee plants with diluted sucrose solutions as a source of carbon for the plant. This paper evaluates the effect of foliar spraying with sugar on the endogenous level of carbohydrates and on the activities of invertase and sucrose synthase in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) seedlings with reduced (low) and high (normal) levels of carbon reserve. The concentrations used were 0.5 and 1.0% sucrose, and...

  8. Transcriptional activity, chromosomal distribution and expression effects of transposable elements in Coffea genomes.

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    Fabrício R Lopes

    Full Text Available Plant genomes are massively invaded by transposable elements (TEs, many of which are located near host genes and can thus impact gene expression. In flowering plants, TE expression can be activated (de-repressed under certain stressful conditions, both biotic and abiotic, as well as by genome stress caused by hybridization. In this study, we examined the effects of these stress agents on TE expression in two diploid species of coffee, Coffea canephora and C. eugenioides, and their allotetraploid hybrid C. arabica. We also explored the relationship of TE repression mechanisms to host gene regulation via the effects of exonized TE sequences. Similar to what has been seen for other plants, overall TE expression levels are low in Coffea plant cultivars, consistent with the existence of effective TE repression mechanisms. TE expression patterns are highly dynamic across the species and conditions assayed here are unrelated to their classification at the level of TE class or family. In contrast to previous results, cell culture conditions per se do not lead to the de-repression of TE expression in C. arabica. Results obtained here indicate that differing plant drought stress levels relate strongly to TE repression mechanisms. TEs tend to be expressed at significantly higher levels in non-irrigated samples for the drought tolerant cultivars but in drought sensitive cultivars the opposite pattern was shown with irrigated samples showing significantly higher TE expression. Thus, TE genome repression mechanisms may be finely tuned to the ideal growth and/or regulatory conditions of the specific plant cultivars in which they are active. Analysis of TE expression levels in cell culture conditions underscored the importance of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD pathways in the repression of Coffea TEs. These same NMD mechanisms can also regulate plant host gene expression via the repression of genes that bear exonized TE sequences.

  9. Antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effects of columbia arabica coffee with different roasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Hee; Jeong, Hee Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Uk; Heo, Ho Jin

    2013-03-01

    In vitro antioxidant activities and neuronal cell protective effects of ethanol extract from roasted coffee beans were investigated. Colombia arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) green beans were roasted to give medium (230°C, 10 min), city (230°C, 12 min) and french (230°C, 15 min) coffee beans. Total phenolics in raw green beans, medium, city and french-roasted beans were 8.81±0.05, 9.77±0.03, 9.92±0.04 and 7.76±0.01 mg of GAE/g, respectively. The content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, the predominant phenolic, was detected higher in medium-roasted beans than others. In addition, we found that extracts from medium-roasted beans particularly showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity on ABTS radical scavenging activity and FRAP assays. To determine cell viability using the MTT assay, extracts from medium-roasted beans showed higher protection against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity than others. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was also inhibited by the extracts due to prevention of lipid peroxidation using the malondialdehyde (MDA) assay from mouse whole brain homogenates. These data suggest that the medium-roasting condition to making tasty coffee from Columbia arabica green beans may be more helpful to human health by providing the most physiological phenolics, including 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids. PMID:24471107

  10. Avaliação da bebida e outras características de cultivares de Coffea canephora e Coffea congensis Cup quality evaluation of Coffea canephora and Coffea congensis cultivars

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    A. A. Teixeira

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se várias características morfológicas de amostras de sementes e a qualidade do produto de alguns cultivares de Coffea canephora e de C. congensis, coletadas em quatro localidades do Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se uma escala de cinco pontos, desenvolvida em Angola, para avaliação da qualidade da bebida de C. canephora. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com os dos padrões kouillou de C. canephora do Estado do Espírito Santo e mundo-novo de C. arabica. Verificou-se que 46% das amostras de sementes beneficiadas foram classificadas como pertencentes a C. arabica e, 36%, a C. canephora. As porcentagens de sementes do tipo moca variaram de 10 a 50% para as amostras de C. canephora e de 20 a 40% para C. congensis. Para o mundo-novo essa porcentagem foi de 15%. Os dados referentes à qualidade da bebida indicaram que oito amostras deram bebida significativamente melhor do que a do padrão kouillou e nenhuma se revelou melhor do que a do mundo-novo. Comparações entre as médias de pontos conferidos à bebida de 17 amostras de C. canephora despolpadas com as correspondentes não despolpadas, revelaram diferenças significativas, indicando que a operação do despolpamento contribuiu para a melhoria da qualidade da bebida. As amostras de café despolpadas de C. canephora colhidas em Ribeirão Preto revelaram-se de melhor qualidade de bebida, em relação às das outras três localidades: Tietê, Jaú e Pindorama. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram, ainda, que os cultivares de C. congensis e de C. canephora podem dar bebida de qualidade semelhante.Coffea canephora and C. congensis cultivars were evaluated for morphological and cup quality characteristics, comparing seed samples from four localities of the State of São Paulo. A five point scale, developed in Angola for testing cup quality of C. canephora, was used. C. canephora cv. Kouillou, from the State of Espírito Santo, and C. arabica cv. Mundo-Novo were used as standards. According

  11. Water use efficiency by coffee arabica after glyphosate application

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    Felipe Paolinelli de Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many coffee growers apply glyphosate in directed applications, but some phytotoxicity has been noted. It is believed some herbicides can exert a direct or indirect negative effect on photosynthesis by reducing the metabolic rate in a way that can affect the water use efficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the variables related to water use among coffee cultivars subjected to the application of glyphosate and the effects of each dose. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica, Acaiá (MG-6851, Catucaí Amarelo (2SL and Topázio (MG-1190, and three doses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g acid equivalent ha-1, in a factorial 3 x 3 design. At 15 days after application, a reduction in stomatal conductance was observed, and smaller transpiration rate and water use efficiency were found in the fourth leaf at 15 days after application. There was a decrease in the transpiration rate at 45 DAA, with the Acaiá cultivar showing reductions with 115.2 g ha-1. There was transitory reduction in water use efficiency with glyphosate application, but can affect the growth and production. The Acaiá cultivar showed the highest tolerance to glyphosate because the water use efficiency after herbicide application.

  12. Compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante do café (Coffea arabica L. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity

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    Sheila Andrade Abrahão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com a proposta de avaliar o potencial antioxidante de dois padrões da bebida do café (rio e mole, verdes e torrados, utilizando modelos in vitro. Foram determinados o teor de fenólicos totais, ácido clorogênico (ácido 5-cafeoilquínico e cafeína das bebidas. A avaliação in vitro do potencial antioxidante foi investigada pelos métodos de captação do radical DPPH e pelo poder redutor de metais. Os dois padrões de bebida do café analisados não apresentaram diferenças quanto aos parâmetros cor, ácido clorogênico e cafeína. Observou-se que houve redução nos valores de ácido clorogênico à medida que os grãos foram torrados. O café verde bebida rio apresentou maior teor de fenólicos totais que o café bebida mole. Nos grãos torrados não foi observada diferença. A bebida do café independente da qualidade sensorial apresentou alto poder redutor e importante atividade sequestrante de radicais livres. A atividade sequestrante de radicais livres foi significativamente superior nas amostras obtidas a partir dos grãos torrados, quando comparados aos extratos dos grãos verdes. A torração, porém, reduziu o poder redutor das bebidas do café. Os dados obtidos permitem sugerir que, independente da classificação sensorial da bebida, o café apresenta expressiva capacidade sequestrante de radicais livres e poder redutor de metais.The present work intended to evaluate the antioxidant potential of two coffee sorts (soft and river, green and roasted, in vitro. Phenolic compounds content, chlorogenic acid (5-cafeoyolquinic and caffeine of the beverages were evaluated. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential was investigated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and by reducing the power of metals. Both sorts of coffee did not present statistical differences for color, chlorogenic acid and caffeine. After roasting, 5-cafeoyolquinic acid levels decreased. River coffee beverage presented greater content of phenolics than the soft coffee beverage. In the roasted coffees no significant difference was observed. All sorts of coffee beverages presented high reducing ability and important scavenging activity of free radicals. The scavenging activity was higher in the roasted samples. The roast process decreased the reducing ability of the coffee beverage. Results allow suggesting that independent of the sort, coffee presents expressive antioxidant activity and reducing ability.

  13. Nutrição do cafeeiro arábica em função da densidade de plantas e da fertilização com NPK Coffee nutrition as a function of plant density and NPK fertilization

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    Luiz Carlos Prezotti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora aumente a produtividade por área, o adensamento reduz a produção por planta, eleva sua eficiência de recuperação de nutrientes, o que contribui para a redução da quantidade de fertilizantes a ser aplicada por planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do cafeeiro arábica à aplicação de N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de N, P (0, 60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1 de P2O5 e K (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 de K2O, cultivados em diferentes densidades de plantio (3.333, 5.000, 10.000 e 20.000 plantas por hectare. Com base em informações obtidas em cinco produções, não foram observadas diferenças significativas de produtividade em função da densidade de plantas. A resposta em produtividade do café arábica às doses de N, P e K foi variável nos diversos espaçamentos, com maior freqüência de resultados positivos a N e P e menos expressivos para K. Os teores foliares de N e P foram pouco influenciados pelas doses de N e P2O5. Os teores foliares de K foram fortemente influenciados pelas doses de K2O. Cafeeiros submetidos ao sistema de cultivo adensado apresentaram maiores teores foliares de P e K, quando comparados àqueles cultivados em espaçamento mais largo. Os solos sob cultivo adensado, quando comparados a solos sob cultivos mais largos, apresentaram variações em suas características químicas, sendo mais evidente a redução do teor de H + Al.Although increasing in productivity, high-density tree planting provides reduction of the production per plant, increases the efficiency of recovery of nutrients by plants, and can contributes to the reduction of the amount of fertilizers to be applied per plant. Due to evaluate the answer of coffee tree plants (Coffea arabica L. to N (100, 300, 500 e 700 kg.ha-1 of N; P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1 of P2O5 and K (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O application, on work was carried out in a coffee cultivated at four densities (3,333; 5,000; 10,000 and 20,000 plants

  14. Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of arabica and robusta coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, António Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; de Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola

    2013-01-01

    Roasted coffee samples of the two major trade species (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) were studied to identify sensory descriptors that might be used to determine blends production and evaluation, following the expectations of consumers. Coffee beans were roasted at 220 + 10 °C, for 7, 9, and 11 min, and the sensory profiles of the beverages were assessed. From descriptive analysis the eigenvalues allowed the identification of two principal components (PCs), being the variance between samples 68.9% and 21.1%. In the first PC the characteristic odor, astringency, body, bitter flavor, burned aroma, and residual, typical, and burned tastes prevailed. The correlation coefficient between the second PC and citric acid flavor and aroma reached 0.96 and 0.78, respectively. It was concluded that in beverages of these species, the descriptors of both components can be separated according to bean roasting time. Considering roasting time, the overall quality was also rated. PMID:23445394

  15. Comparison of bean biochemical composition and beverage quality of Arabica hybrids involving Sudanese-Ethiopian origins with traditional varieties at various elevations in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoit; Vaast, Philippe; Alpizar, Edgardo; Etienne, Hervé; Davrieux, Fabrice; Charmetant, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    For buyers of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Central America, elevation and variety are important indicators of quality. We compared coffee produced by three types of varieties established in various trials at elevations ranging from 700-1600 m in three countries (El Salvador, Costa Rica and Honduras). Arabica hybrids resulting from crosses of Sudanese-Ethiopian origins with either traditional varieties or with introgressed lines derived from the hybrid of Timor (C. arabica x Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehn) were compared with traditional cultivars (TC). Effects of elevation and variety on bean biochemical composition (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, fat and sucrose) were evaluated by predictive models based on calibration of near-infrared (NIR) spectra and by chemometric analysis of the global NIR spectrum. Beverage quality tests were performed by a panel of ten professional cup-tasters. Experiment 1 was carried out on the slopes of the Poas volcano (Costa Rica) with the traditional cultivar 'Caturra'. Experiment 2 compared the three varieties in a network of trials established in three countries of Central America. Significant linear regressions with elevation were observed in Experiment 1 with Caturra and in Experiment 2 for the traditional cultivars, and trends were established relating variation in biochemical compounds and cup quality to elevation. Convergence or divergence of the new hybrids in relation to these trends was observed. For the traditional cultivars, elevation had a significant effect on bean biochemical composition, with chlorogenic acid and fat concentrations increasing with increasing elevation. For the Arabica hybrids, elevation explained little of the variation in chlorogenic acid concentration and none of the variation in fat concentration. Nevertheless, Arabica hybrids had 10-20% higher fat concentrations than the traditional varieties at low elevations and similar fat concentrations at high elevations. The samples

  16. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

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    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  17. Carbono orgânico e nitrogênio total do solo e suas relações com os espaçamentos de plantio de cafeeiro Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen as related with coffee spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio José Passos Rangel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A densidade de plantio e o arranjo das plantas exercem influência sobre a produção de resíduos vegetais nos agroecossistemas cafeeiros. Esse aporte diferenciado de resíduos regula os teores de C e N do solo. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os teores de C orgânico e de N total em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico cultivado com cafeeiro com diversos espaçamentos de plantio. O experimento foi conduzido no período de 1992 a 2004 na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Machado (MG. Os tratamentos avaliados consistiram da combinação de quatro espaçamentos entre linhas (2,0; 2,5; 3,0; e 3,5 m, três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,5; 0,75; e 1,0 m e dois sistemas de manejo dos resíduos culturais (entrelinha - EL e projeção da copa - PC, totalizando 24 tratamentos, dispostos no campo em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 2, com três repetições. Foram avaliados os teores de C orgânico (CO e de N total do solo (NT, além da relação CO/NT. Nas amostras de solo da EL, os teores de CO e NT foram maiores do que os da PC. O espaçamento de plantio influenciou os teores de CO, com os maiores valores, em geral, no espaçamento de 3,5 m entre as linhas de plantio, quando a distância entre plantas foi de 0,5 e 0,75 m, na profundidade de 0-0,05 m. O maior acúmulo de resíduos vegetais, o menor revolvimento do solo e, conseqüentemente, os maiores teores de matéria orgânica favorecem a ocorrência de maiores teores de CO e NT na EL. A retirada da mata e o cultivo do solo com cafeeiro por 11 anos resultou em decréscimo nos teores de CO de 26 % a 38 % na EL e na PC, respectivamente, e diminuição média de 25 % nos teores de NT.The density and arrangement of trees influences the production of plant residues in coffee agroecosystems. This differentiated input of biomass regulates the contents of soil-C and -N. This study aimed to evaluate the contents of organic C and total N in a Typic Hapludox, in different spacings of (Coffea arabica

  18. Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity in coffee leaves during fruit development Atividade da redutase do nitrato e glutamina sintetase em folhas de cafeeiro durante o desenvolvimento dos frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Rodrigues Reis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase is the first enzyme in the pathway of nitrate reduction by plants, followed by glutamine synthetase, which incorporates ammonia to glutamine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, total soluble protein content, N and Ni content in coffee leaves during fruit development under field conditions to establish new informations to help assess the N nutritional status and fertilizer management. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks, arranged in a 3 x 6 factorial design, with five replications. The treatments consisted of 3 N rates (0 - control, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 and six evaluation periods (January, February, March, April, May, and June in six-year-old coffee (Coffea arabica L. plants of Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44 cv. The nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities, leaf soluble protein, and N concentrations increased linearly with the N rates. During fruit development, the enzyme activity, leaf soluble protein and N content decreased, due to the leaf senescence process caused by nutrient mobilization to other organs, e.g, to the berries. Leaf Ni increased during fruit development. Beans and raisin-fruits of plants well-supplied with N had higher Ni contents. Enzyme activities, total leaf N and leaf soluble protein, evaluated during the green fruit stage in March, were significantly correlated with coffee yield. These variables can therefore be useful for an early assessment of the coffee N nutritional status as well as coffee yield and N fertilization management.A redutase do nitrato (RN é a primeira enzima na via de redução de nitrato pelas plantas, seguida da glutamina sintetase (GS, a qual incorpora amônia à glutamina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade dessas enzimas, o teor de proteína solúvel total e a concentração de N e de Ni em folhas e grãos de cafeeiro durante o desenvolvimento dos frutos, em condições de

  19. Avaliação da suscetibilidade à Xylella fastidiosa em diferentes espécies de cafeeiro Susceptibity valuation to Xylella fastidiosa in different coffee species

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan; Luciane Perosin Cabral; Luiz Carlos Fazuoli; Osvaldo Paradela Filho

    2005-01-01

    A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. foi detectada pela primeira vez em cafeeiro no Brasil, em 1995, entretanto acredita-se que a cultura foi infectada por essa bactéria há muitos anos, embora os sintomas fossem atribuídos a um estresse nutricional. Até o momento têm sido realizados estudos principalmente com espécies de C. arabica e C. canephora, porém, em outras espécies do gênero, somente foi detectada sua presença. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a proporção de elementos de vas...

  20. Fontes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro, Perileucoptera coffeella, em Coffea spp. Sources of resistance to leaf miner, Perileucoptera coffeella, in Coffea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveiro Guerreiro Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se determinar, em nível de laboratório, por meio de infestações artificiais uniformes, fontes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro Perileucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville, 1842, entre as espécies Coffea stenophyila, C. salvatríx, C. racemosa, C. liberíca, C. eugenioides, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei, C. brevípes, C. congensis e C, canephora e os cultivares Catuaí Vermelho e Mundo Novo de C. arábica. Utilizaram-se testes de livre escolha e de confinamento, sendo avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: oviposição, número de discos lesionados por parcela, nota visual, área foliar danificada por parcela e área foliar danificada por lagarta. De acordo com os parâmetros analisados, pode-se, com relação ao número de pontos atribuídos na avaliação visual e quanto à porcentagem de discos lesionados, agrupar as espécies C. stenophyila, C. brevipes, C. liberíca e C. salvatrix, como altamente resistentes; C. racemosa, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei e C. eugenioides, como moderadamente resistentes, e C. congensis, C. canephora e C. arabica, como suscetíveis. Considerando os parâmetros área foliar danificada por parcela e área foliar danificada por lagarta, C. arabica pode ser classificada como altamente suscetível, mantendo-se C. congensis e C. canephora como suscetíveis.The species C. stenophyila, C. salvatrix, C. racemosa, C. liberíca, C. eugenioides, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei, C. brevipes, C. congensis and C. canephora and cvs Catuaí Vermelho and Mundo Novo of C. arabica were evaluated for resistance to leaf miner (Períleucoptera coffeeila (Guérin-Mèneville, 1842 under lab conditions with artificial infestations of leaf discs. There was no preference of P. coffeella for oviposition on any of the afore mentioned species. According to subjective visual ratings, number of discs with lesions, damaged foliar area and caterpillar consumption, C. stenophylla, C. salvatrix, C. Ilberica and C. brevipescan be considered as highly

  1. Influência da capacidade de campo na taxa de crescimento do cafeeiro conilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Junger Delôgo Dardengo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da capacidade de campo (CC na taxa de crescimento do cafeeiro conilon a partir da adoção de três tensões: 0,006 MPa (CC1, 0,010 MPa (CC2 e 0,033 MPa (CC3, em dois tipos de solo (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O experimento foi montado em casa de vegetação no Núcleo de Estudos e de Difusão de Tecnologia em Floresta, Recursos Hídricos e Agricultura Sustentável, município de Jerônimo Monteiro, Espírito Santo. A espécie vegetal utilizada foi a Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, variedade Robusta Tropical (EMCAPER 8151, cultivada em vaso de 12 litros, por um período de 255 dias. As análises de crescimento foram realizadas 15 dias após o transplantio das mudas e no final do experimento, para determinação de matéria seca total e área foliar. O teor de umidade do solo na capacidade de campo varia com a tensão adotada em sua determinação. As maiores taxas de crescimentos relativo e absoluto do cafeeiro conilon foram obtidas quando a umidade do solo foi mantida na capacidade de campos determinada na tensão de 0,010 MPa no Latossolo Vermelho­Amarelo e de 0,006 MPa no Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. As menores taxas de crescimento da cultura foram observa­das na capacidade de campo determinada na tensão de 0,033 MPa, o que inviabiliza a sua adoção na estimativa da lâmina de irrigação utilizando-se a câmara de pressão de Richards.

  2. Gamma-Tocopherol as a marker of Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) adulteration by corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percentages of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in six coffee varieties were 29.0, 61.7, 3.3, and 6.0, respectively. Similar values were obtained in six popular coffee brands. The percentages of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in ...

  3. Glyphosate Accumulation and Detrimental Effects on Coffea Arabica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph

    acid. In coffee plantations glyphosate symptoms are commonly observed, probably caused by an unintentional spray drift. Root uptake represents an additional uptake route. Glyphosate can be applied several times per year thus a potential accumulation within the plant would lead to higher tissue...... concentrations than from single applications. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the interaction of glyphosate with the coffee plant. An optimized coffee production, by minimizing the risk for a potential yield loss, is important due to the high commercial value of the crop. However, only limited data...... sample treatment was further developed by the use of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole MS/MS system. All tested variations showed sufficient accuracy (recovery: 80-120%) and precision (˂ 20 relative standard deviation in percentage, RSD%). The full method...

  4. AMATE PAPER IN PULP OF COFFEE (Coffea arabica (BENEFIT WET RESIDUE

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    Noé Aguilar-Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amate (amatl is a handmade paper of Mexico made by Otomi Indians. This craft is made from bark of tree bark amate or jonote. It is originally developed in the states of Puebla, Hidalgo and Veracruz especially in San Pablito, Puebla. However, amate paper is sold as background Nahua paintings by artists from the state of Guerrero. Amate paper paintings are a combination of Nahua and Otomi traditions. While there have been some minor innovations, the amate paper is still done with the same basic process used in the pre-Hispanic period by obtaining a classical amate tree bark fiber. This is negatively affecting the ecosystem of the North of Puebla and forcing vendors bark in search of other species, so it is necessary to make paper amate more sustainably, including new types of bark from other species and by-products of agro-industries such as rice, coffee sugar cane, and other types of fiber that have high-availability The objective of this work was to analyze and compare the Chemical pulp of coffee characteristics, as raw material for amate paper of higher quality than that produced from the bark of other species. The results showed that the structural and chemical characteristics of coffee pulp cellulose pulp showed ease of paper making, due to its properties of adherence, formation and agglutination of fibers similar to the high quality of the final product as the amate tree bark-derived paper.

  5. Anatomic and physiological modifications in seedlings of Coffea arabica cultivar Siriema under drought conditions

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    Emanuelle Ferreira Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weather changes prognostic for the coming years, the understanding of water deficit and physiological responses of plants to drought becomes an important requirement in order to develop technologies such as mechanisms to assist plants to cope with longer drought periods, which will be essential to maintenance of Brazilian and worldwide production. This study aimed to evaluate ecophysiological and anatomical aspects as well as the nitrate reductase activity in Siriema coffee seedlings subjected to four treatments: Daily irrigated, non-irrigated, re-irrigated 24 hours and re-irrigated 48 hours after different stress periods. Non-irrigation promoted a reduction in leaf water potential being accented from the ninth day of evaluation onwards. Re-irrigation promoted a partial recovery of the plant water potential. Non-irrigated plants showed an increase in stomatal resistance and reduction of transpiration and nitrate reductase activity. In the roots, there was a decrease in nitrate reductase activity under water stress. Leaf anatomical modifications were significant only for the adaxial surface epidermis and palisade parenchyma thickness, this latter characteristic being higher in control plants. Stomatal density and polar and equatorial diameter ratios showed the highest values in plants under water stress. In the roots, differences only in the cortex thickness being bigger in the non-irrigated treatment could be observed. Therefore, Siriema coffee plants under water stress show physiological, biochemical and anatomical modifications that contribute to the tolerance of this genotype to these conditions.

  6. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.;

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency....... In this study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after...... the exposure, glyphosate was continuously translocated. Shikimic acid levels were lin-ear correlated with glyphosate levels. After two months, however, glyphosate appeared to have reduced activity. In the greenhouse, multiple applications resulted in higher internal glyphosate concentrations.The time...

  7. Dependencia del café Coffea arabica L. var. Colombia por la micorriza vesiculo-arbuscular

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    Estrada M. Guillermo

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In this work it was determined the degree of dependence of the Colombia variety for VAM with different P levels. For that were made two bioassay in nutritional solutions, using river sand as substrate, and in natural soil, and uninfected, coming from Darién (Valle coffee zone. Treatments using nutritional solutions formed a factorial 2 by 5, with and without inoculation plus 5 P levels (20, 30, 40, 50 and 80 ppm. Glomus manihot was inoculated having 200 spores per plant, applied to the root when the were transplanted, Random complete blocks in split plots was the design used. Determinations were made at 60, 120 and 180 days after transplants were made. Results in nutritional solutions showed that small coffee plants var. Colombia, have different dependence degrees to the 20 and 30 P ppm and were absolutely dependent to VAM. In soil, at 180 days, the development of inoculated plants was greater for all P levels, In uninfected soil the plants do not take P and do not grow, except in they were inoculated; such high VAM dependence was evident also in high P levels.

    Para determinar el grado de dependencia de la variedad Colombia por MVA a diferentes niveles de P se realizaron 2 bioensayos: en soluciones nutritivas, con arena de río como sustrato, y en suelo natural y des infestado procedente de la zona cafetera de Darién - Valle. Los tratamientos en soluciones nutritivas conformaron un factorial 2 x 5 con y sin inoculo y 5 niveles de P (20, 30, 40, 50 y 80 ppm; en suelo, un factorial de 4 x 5 sustrato-condición de suelo y 5 niveles de P (5, 15, 30, 50 Y80 ppm. Se inoculó con Glomus manihot a razón de 200 esporas/planta, aplicadas a la raíz al momento del trasplante. En ambos ensayos se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas. Se efectuaron determinaciones a los 60, 120 y 180 días después del trasplante a bolsa. En soluciones nutritivas, las plantas presentaron grados de dependencia diversos: a los niveles de 20 y 30 ppm de P, se comportaron como dependientes absolutas de la MVA, de allí en adelante como facultativas. En suelo, a los 180 días, el desarrollo de las plantas inoculadas fue mayor en tocios los niveles de P. En suelo desinfestado, las plantas no tornaron el P ni crecieron si no estaban inoculadas, esta alta dependencia por MVA fue evidente aún a los niveles más altos de P.

  8. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of A Coffee (Coffea Arabica Threshing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGUNLADE,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee ranks as one of the world's most valuable and widely traded commodity crops and is an important export product of several countries. The objective of this research is to design, construct and evaluate a machine for threshing coffee. The material of construction was selected based on strength, availability, durability and corrosiveness. The main component parts of the machine include: shaft (300 rpm and diameter 25mm, concave sieve (Ø 10mm, the threshing head, sieve and blower which was made from 1.5mm thick sheet metal. The moisture content of the coffee is determined in the laboratory using conventional oven drying method and computed to give the following moisture content: 4.6%, 9%, 13.8%, 6% and 8.4%, and a mean moisture content of 8.4% which were used in this evaluation. The shaft speed was kept at a constant speed of 300 rpm. Results show that the threshing efficiencies are 78%, 85%, 89%, 80% and 84% and the capacity of the machine in g/sec and g/min are 860.1g/sec, 963 g/sec, 954.1 g/sec, 943.4g/sec, 1183.5 g/sec and 14.30 g/min,16 g/min, 15.90 g/min, 15.70 g/min, 19.70 g/min respectively. The average threshing efficiency of the machine and the average capacity of the machine are 83% and 3532kg/hr (3.5tonnes/hr respectively

  9. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto; Jenn Andrea C. Macalincag; Rhoneelet B. Aseremo; Joanne Florence B. Gutierrez; Sarah Jane R. Mabiog; Carina R. Magbojos; Oliver Shane R. Dumaoal

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid) also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether ...

  10. Effects of shade on growth, production and quality of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, A.D.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The research work was conducted to evaluate the effect of shade on growth and production of coffee plants. To achieve this, growth and productivity of coffee plants growing under shade trees were compared with those of coffee plants growing under direct sun light. Different physiological, environmen

  11. Growth effects of water excess on coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbert Rezende de Oliveira Silveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the interference of water excess in soil on the growth of young coffee plants of the Mundo Novo and Catuaí cultivars.Plants were subjected to the following three different substrate water availability conditions: control (well-watered, continuous substrate waterlogged, and intermittent substrate waterlogged. Several growth-related traits were evaluated over the course of 19 weeks. Based on the number and quality of the affected variables from all forms of analyses, the Catuaí cultivar showed greater sensitivity to waterlogging. Both cultivars exhibited growth inhibition in response to substrate waterlogging stress, which was exacerbated by premature leaf dropping.

  12. Effects of shade on growth, production and quality of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bote, A.D.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The research work was conducted to evaluate the effect of shade on growth and production of coffee plants. To achieve this, growth and productivity of coffee plants growing under shade trees were compared with those of coffee plants growing under direct sun light. Different physiological, environmental and quality parameters were assessed for both treatments. Shade trees protected coffee plants against adverse environmental stresses such as high soil temperatures and low relative humidity. Sh...

  13. Qualidade da bebida em espécies e populações derivadas de híbridos interespecíficos de Coffea Cupping quality of coffee species and interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Carvalho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em dois experimentos, a qualidade da bebida das espécies Coffea canephora e C. congensis e derivados de híbridações interespecíficas [C. canephora duplicado (dp x C. arabica, C. canephora x C. eugenioides, C. arabica x C. dewevrei dp e C. racemosa x C. arabica]. Por tratar-se de análise de bebida de cafés pouco conhecidos, avaliou-se a eficiência de uma escala de 1 a 10 pontos em comparação à escala de 0 a 5 pontos utilizada para C. arabica. Foram, também, acrescentadas pelos provadores indicações relacionadas ao gosto da bebida. A escala de 6 pontos mostrou-se pouco eficaz na discriminação dos tratamentos e a de 10 pontos, utilizada alternativamente, revelou-se mais eficiente nos dois experimentos. No primeiro, verificou-se, quanto à qualidade, uma superioridade dos grupos C arabica x C. dewevrei dp e C. canephora dp x C. arabica pelas duas escalas. No segundo experimento, o grupo C. racemosa x C. arabica apresentou a maior média, apesar de não diferir, pela escala 1, dos demais grupos. Pela escala 2, superou, no entanto, os grupos C. canephora e C. congensis. Gostos incomuns foram observados nas amostras com relação à bebida. Atribuem-se à grande diversidade do material analisado e a falta de familiarização dos provadores com espécies bem diferentes de C. arabica, certas discrepâncias com relação à determinação desses defeitos nas amostras analisadas.Investigations on coffee cupping quality of the species C. canephora, C. congensis and several populations derived from interespecific crosses (C. canephora dp x C. arabica, C. canephora x C. eugenioides, C. arabica x C. dewevrei dp and C. racemosa x C. arabica were undertaken in two trials, in order to guide breeding programs using this germoplasm. Two grading systems were used for classification of the cupping quality, the normal six points scale used for C. arabica samples and a new one with 10 points, 1 for the lowest and 10 for the highest quality

  14. Efeito da Xylella fastidiosa em cafeeiros em diferentes regiões edafoclimáticas Effect of Xylella fastidiosa in coffee plants at different edaphoclimatic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan; Luciane Perosin Cabral; Osvaldo Paradela Filho; Maria Luiza Carvalho Carelli; Joel Irineu Fahl; Luiz Carlos Fazuoli

    2005-01-01

    A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa vem causando problemas para a cafeicultura, uma vez que sua presença, associada a diversos fatores de estresse, provoca um decréscimo na produção devido à diminuição no número e tamanho dos frutos e à morte de alguns ramos. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar o efeito da X. fastidiosa sobre cultivares de Coffea arabica (enxertados ou não) através da quantificação da proporção de vasos do xilema obstruídos pela bactéria, nas diferentes partes da planta e entre ramos co...

  15. Partenogênese, partenocarpia e casos anormais de fertilização em Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie C. arabica L. é tetraplóide (2n = 44 ; em suas sementeiras, porém ocorrem ocasionalmente plantas di-haplóides (2n=22, hexaplóides (2n = 66 e octoplóides (2n=88. A origem das primeiras é atribuída à partenogênese ; as duas últimas devem-se formar pela união de gâmetos não reduzidos ou por processos de duplicação de cromossômios. A polinização dos tetraplóides pelos hexaplóides produziu somente plantas tetraplóides, sugerindo um processo partenogenético. Quando se cruzam as espécies C. arabica (2n = 44 e C. canephora (2n = 22 obtêm-se, além dos híbridos triplóides, indivíduos com o mesmo número de cromossômios que a planta mãe ; em vários casos essa ocorrência é atribuída à partenogênese. Dentro da espécie C. canephora verificou-se a ocorrência de partenocarpia e de partenogênese, quando se polinizou um indivíduo diplóide (2n = 22 com pólen de um tetraplóide (2n = 44. Assim, tanto em cruzamentos interespecíficos como intraespecíficos de Coffea, a diferença de número de cromossômios das plantas cruzadas determina, às vêzes, a partenocarpia e a partenogênese, observando-se ainda outros fenômenos como a união de gâmetas não reduzidos e a duplicação dos cromossômios de oosferas normalmente constituídas.The species C. arabica L. is tetraploid (2n=44 : among its progénie plants are found which are di-haploid (2n = 22, hexaploid (2n = 66 and octoploid (2n = 88. The origin of the first ones is attributed to parthenogenesis ; the last two must be formed by the the union of unreduced gametes or through processes of chromosome doubling. A parthenogenetic process is also attributed to the formation of tetraploids when the tetraploid plants are pollinated by the hexaploids. The cross C. arabica (2n=44 x C. canephora (2n = 22 gives besides the expected triploids, individuals with the same number of chromosomes as the seed parent; in various instances this occurrence is attributed to

  16. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  17. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years.

  18. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years. PMID:26909972

  19. Observações citológicas em Coffea: XI - Métodos de tratamento pela colchicina

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    Antônio J. T. Mendes

    1947-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes de Coffea canephora (2n=22, C. Dewevrei (2n=22 e C. arabica (2n=44, por soluções de colchicina de 0,15% a 0,60% produziu plantas com número duplo de cromossômios (2n=44 em C. canephora e C. Dewevrei e 2n=88 em C. arabica. O tratamento de gemas foliares por pasta de lanolina contendo 0,10 a 0,60% de colchicina não produziu resultado nessas mesmas 3 espécies. Elaborou-se um novo método de tratamento de ramos que pode ser aplicado para os casos em que a planta que se deseja "duplicar" seja estéril. É o caso dos híbridos entre C. canephora e C. arabica (2n=33 e da forma di-haplóide (monosperma de C. arabica (2n=22, os quais nâo produzem sementes, ou, melhor, cujas raras sementes têm em geral um embrião com número variado de cromossômios. O método consiste em fazer com que ramos levados ao laboratório absorvam uma solução de colchicina pela sua parte cortada e em seguida sejam enxertados de forma usual. Através dêste método conseguiu-se obter uma planta com 2n = 66 cromossômios a partir do híbrido triplóide ; conseguiu-se ainda obter uma planta com 2n = 44 cromossômios a partir do monosperma (2n = 22. No primeiro caso eliminou-se a esterilidade quase completamente ; no segundo caso obteve-se uma transformação completa de esterilidade em fertilidade. Êste método aplica-se a outras plantas nas quais não é possível o tratamento de sementes e que fàcilmente se pode multiplicar pela enxertia.Colchicine treated seeds of Coffea canephora (2n = 22, C. Dewevrei (2n = 22 and C. arabica (2n=44 produced plants with doubled chromosome numbers (2n = 44 in the first two and 2n = 88 in the last mentioned species! The strength of the solutions varied from 0,15 to 0,60% ; the treatment was given when the seeds were already germinating. The immersion of seeds in the solution even for many days did not affect the embryo. Colchicine in lanolin (0,10 to 0,60% did not produce doubling of chromosomes when applied

  20. A REVIEW ON ACACIA ARABICA - AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT

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    Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

  1. Considerations in breeding for improved yield and quality in Arabica coffee (Coffee arabica L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walyaro, D.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Variation for growth., yield and quality characters was studied in a diallel cross among 11 varieties of arabica coffee. The objective was to demonstrate the possible application of such information in breeding programmes for improved yield and coffee quality.Growth characters especially girth, heig

  2. Studying chromium biosorption using arabica coffee leaves

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    Luis Carlos Florez García

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at providing an alternative for removing heavy metals such as chromium from waste water (effluent from the leather industry and galvanoplasty (coating with a thin layer of metal by electrochemical means, using coffee leaves as bio- mass. Using arabica coffee (Castle variety leaves led to 82% chromium removal efficiency for 1,000 mg/L synthetic dissolutions in 4 pH dissolution operating conditions, 0 rpm agitation, 0.149 mm diameter biomass particle size and 0.85 g/ml biomass / dissolution volume ratio.

  3. Flavononol Glycosides of Reseda arabica (Resedaceae

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    Djemaa Berrehal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Five flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3,7-di-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (1 , isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (2 , kaempferol 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (3 , isorhamnetin 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (4, Kaempferol 3-O- β -xylopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (5, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Reseda arabica. Their structures were established on the basis of physical and spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with the literature data.

  4. Protective Response Mechanisms to Heat Stress in Interaction with High [CO2] Conditions in Coffea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Madlles Q.; Rodrigues, Weverton P.; Fortunato, Ana S.; Leitão, António E.; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Pais, Isabel P.; Martins, Lima D.; Silva, Maria J.; Reboredo, Fernando H.; Partelli, Fábio L.; Campostrini, Eliemar; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I.; Lidon, Fernando J. C.; DaMatta, Fábio M.; Ramalho, José C.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling studies have predicted that coffee crop will be endangered by future global warming, but recent reports highlighted that high [CO2] can mitigate heat impacts on coffee. This work aimed at identifying heat protective mechanisms promoted by CO2 in Coffea arabica (cv. Icatu and IPR108) and Coffea canephora cv. Conilon CL153. Plants were grown at 25/20°C (day/night), under 380 or 700 μL CO2 L−1, and then gradually submitted to 31/25, 37/30, and 42/34°C. Relevant heat tolerance up to 37/30°C for both [CO2] and all coffee genotypes was observed, likely supported by the maintenance or increase of the pools of several protective molecules (neoxanthin, lutein, carotenes, α-tocopherol, HSP70, raffinose), activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and the upregulated expression of some genes (ELIP, Chaperonin 20). However, at 42/34°C a tolerance threshold was reached, mostly in the 380-plants and Icatu. Adjustments in raffinose, lutein, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and HSP70 pools, and the upregulated expression of genes related to protective (ELIPS, HSP70, Chape 20, and 60) and antioxidant (CAT, CuSOD2, APX Cyt, APX Chl) proteins were largely driven by temperature. However, enhanced [CO2] maintained higher activities of GR (Icatu) and CAT (Icatu and IPR108), kept (or even increased) the Cu,Zn-SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and promoted a greater upregulation of those enzyme genes, as well as those related to HSP70, ELIPs, Chaperonins in CL153, and Icatu. These changes likely favored the maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at controlled levels and contributed to mitigate of photosystem II photoinhibition at the highest temperature. Overall, our results highlighted the important role of enhanced [CO2] on the coffee crop acclimation and sustainability under predicted future global warming scenarios. PMID:27446174

  5. Development of seedlings of arabica cvs. grafted in Apoatã IAC 2258Desenvolvimento de mudas de cultivares de café arábica enxertadas sobre Apoatã IAC 2258

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    Haroldo Silva Vallone

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the development of seedlings of Coffea arabica cvs. grafted in Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora. The experimental design used was a randomized block with a 7x 3+2 factorial arrangement. Were utilized seven C. arabica cultivars (Obatã IAC 1669-20, Acauã, Oeiras MG 6851, Catucaí Amarelo 2SL, Topázio MG 1190, IBC Palma II and Paraíso MG H 419-1, three kinds of seedlings (grafted, self grafted and ungrafted and two Apoatã IAC 2258 rootstocks control (ungrafted and self grafted. There were evaluated the plant height, leaf area, aerial parts dry matter and root system dry matter. The ungrafted seedling showed the best development for all the evaluated characteristics. The effects of ungrafted and self grafted varies depending on the genotype grafted. The IBC Palma II cv. has behavior indifferent to the type of change which is produced for the trait height. There is a difference in behavior of the root system of the rootstock depending on the cultivar used as a graft. The grafts Obatã IAC 1669-20, Acauã or Oeiras MG 6851 can be recommend for use in areas infested with nematodes. O objetivo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de diferentes cultivares de Coffea arabica enxertadas sobre a cultivar Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 9 x 3 + 2, composto por sete cultivares de C. arabica (Obatã IAC 1669-20, Acauã, Oeiras MG 6851, Catucaí Amarelo 2SL, Topázio MG 1190, IBC Palma II e Paraíso MG H 419-1, três tipos de mudas (enxertada, auto-enxertada e pé franco e duas testemunhas (porta-enxerto Apoatã IAC 2258 auto-enxertado e pé franco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as características altura de plantas, área foliar, massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. As mudas pé franco apresentaram maiores valores das características avaliadas em comparação as mudas enxertadas. Os efeitos da auto

  6. Café I (G. Coffea)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Jiménez, Elena; Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena

    2014-01-01

    El café tiene una gran importancia económica a nivel mundial, ya que sus semillas, tostadas, molidas y en infusión, constituyen la bebida no alcohólica más consumida actualmente. Su cultivo supone una actividad económica clave en muchos países en desarrollo, y se estima que su procesamiento y comercialización movilizan más de 70.000 millones de dólares al año y dan trabajo a más de 125 millones de personas. Los suministros comerciales de café provienen de más de una especie, pero es Coffea ar...

  7. Influência de diferentes sistemas de colheita na qualidade do café (Coffea arabica L. Influence of different harvest systems on quality of coffee (Coffea arabica L.

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    Cássio de Carvalho Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da colheita na qualidade do café, foram estudados seis diferentes sistemas. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Rancho Fundo, município de Campos Gerais, MG, no Departamento de Ciência dos Alimentos da UFLA e no Centro Tecnológico do Sul de Minas da EPAMIG. Em uma lavoura da cultivar Acaiá Cerrado, foram sorteadas, ao acaso, dezoito parcelas com trinta metros de comprimento. A colheita foi realizada quando a lavoura apresentava aproximadamente 20% de frutos verdes. Um terço do café derriçado de cada parcela era formado pela mistura de frutos provenientes da lavoura. O restante do café foi lavado e separado em frutos-bóia e verde/cereja. Os diferentes tipos de café foram colocados no terreiro de secagem até atingirem o teor de água de 11% (b.u.. Após a secagem, o café foi beneficiado e submetido às seguintes avaliações: polifenóis, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável total e prova de xícara. Analisando os resultados obtidos, apesar de terem sido observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de polifenóis, açúcares, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável para os diferentes sistemas de colheita, não foi possível estabelecer uma associação definida entre sistema de colheita e composição química. Não foi possível também distinguir, a partir da prova de xícara, diferenças na qualidade do café em função do sistema de colheita, pois, todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram bebida classificada como mole, apenas mole e dura.Aiming to evaluating the influence of the harvest on coffee quality, six harvest systems with different mechanization level were studied. The present work was developed on the Rancho Fundo farm, Campos Gerais town, MG, in the Food Science Department of the UFLA and in the “Centro Tecnológico do Sul de Minas” of EPAMIG. In a crop of the Acaiá Cerrado cultivars were randomized eighteen plots with thirty meters long each. The harvest was performed when the crop was presenting about 20 % of green fruits. A third of the ripped coffee from each plot was maintained with the mixture of fruit from the crop. The rest of the coffee was washed and separated in float and green/cherry fruits. The different coffees were placed on the drying yard till the water content of 11%(w.b.. After drying, the coffee was processed and submitted to the following evaluation: polyphenol, total, reducing and non-reducing sugars, total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and cup proof. Considering the results obtained, in spite of significant differences was observed among the average values of polyphenol content, sugar content, soluble solids and titrable acidity, for the different mechanized harvest, it was not possible to establish a definite association between harvest system and chemical composition. It was not possible to distinguish on the basis of the cup proof, differences in coffee quality in terms of the harvest system because in all the samples analyzed the drink was classified as soft, only soft and hard.

  8. Fatores antinutricionais da casca e da polpa desidratada de café (Coffea arabica L. armazenadas em diferentes períodos Antinutritional factors of the hull and dehydrated pulp of coffee (Coffea arabica L. stored in different periods

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    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os teores de cafeína, taninos, lignina e sílica, na casca e polpa de café das cultivares Catuaí, Rubi e Mundo Novo. A polpa foi obtida pela despolpa úmida em despolpador mecânico e, em seguida, seca ao sol até 13% de umidade. Os materiais foram armazenados em sacos de ráfia, em ambiente coberto, ventilado e seco, com amostragem em triplicata a cada 90 dias. A regressão mostrou aumento quadrático de 11,7% no teor de cafeína ao longo de 360 dias de armazenamento. O teor de taninos reduziu-se linearmente ao longo do armazenamento. Os valores de taninos foram de 1,70% comparado a 2,77% nos materiais sem armazenamento, redução de aproximadamente 38,6% no período de um ano. Os teores de lignina reduziram linearmente em 2,6% para a porcentagem de lignina na MS (11,7 para 11,4% e 5,8% na porcentagem de lignina da FDN (10,4 para 9,8%, nos materiais sem armazenagem comparados a doze meses de armazenamento. Houve diferença significativa entre casca e polpa para a variável sílica. Maior valor de sílica na casca comparado à polpa pode ser decorrente da presença do pergaminho, uma vez que a polpa não o possui. A armazenagem da casca e polpa por um período de doze meses melhora as qualidades destes materiais, uma vez que reduziu os teores de taninos e lignina. Os teores de cafeína encontrados são limitantes na utilização de grandes quantidades desses materiais para ruminantes.It was evaluated the caffeine contents of caffeine, tannins, lignin and silica in the hull and pulp of coffee of cultivars Catuaí, Rubi, Mundo Novo. Pulp was obtained by moist pulping in a mechanical pulper and dried in the sun adjusted to 13% moisture. Materials were stored in raffia bag in environment free of moisture and ventilated with samplings every 90 days. The quadratic effect shown increased caffeine content along 360 day storage, this increase was of 11,7% along 12 months. Tannin content was reduced linearly along the storage. The values of tannin were of 2.77% compared with 1.70% in the materials without storage. The reduction was of 38.6% in one year period. Lignin contents were reduced linearly in 2.6% for lignin percentage in DM (11.7 to 11.4% and 5.8% in the lignin percentage of NDF (10.4 to 9.8% in the materials with no storage compared to 12-month storage. There was a significant difference between the hull and pulp for the variable silica. Increased value of silica in the hull, compared to the pulp may be due to the presence of parchment in this material, since this pulp does no possess it. The storage of hull and pulp for a 12-month period improves the qualities of these materials since it reduced tannin and lignin contents. The values of caffeine found are limiting in the use of great amounts of those materials for ruminants.

  9. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura do endosperma de café (Coffea arabica L. durante o processo de secagem Scanning electron microscopy of the endosperm of coffee (Coffea arabica L. during the drying process

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    Reni Saath

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção da integridade das membranas celulares, entre outros eventos, é um forte indicativo de que a qualidade do café foi preservada na pós-colheita. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, analisar o efeito de diferentes métodos de secagem na manutenção da integridade da parede celular e da membrana plasmática de café natural e café despolpado, buscando determinar as condições e o momento em que ocorrem as rupturas microscópicas. Os cafés foram submetidos a um período de pré-secagem em terreiro. Após este, uma parcela de cada tipo de café foi desidratada no terreiro e, outra, à temperatura de 40ºC e 60ºC em secadores de camada fixa, monitorando-se a temperatura e o teor de água até 11% (bu. Nesse período, grãos foram aleatoriamente amostrados e fragmentos do endosperma preparados para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura, registrando-se diversas eletromicrografias, avaliando-se as alterações na membrana plasmática da célula do endosperma dos grãos de cafés em função do teor de água e tempo de secagem. O citoplasma das células a 11% (bu de teor de água não foi comprometido na secagem em terreiro e a 40°C; na secagem a 60°C, observou-se comprometimento nas estruturas celulares nos cafés com teor de água de 20% (bu.The maintenance of the integrity of cellular membranes, among other events, is a strong indicator that the quality of the coffee was preserved in the post-harvesting process. Therefore, this work aimed to analyze the effect of different drying methods on the maintenance of the integrity of cell walls and plasma membrane of natural and de-pulped coffee in order to determine the conditions and the moment that microscopic ruptures take place. The coffee was submitted to a pre-drying period on a concrete patio. After this, a sample of each type of coffee was dehydrated outdoors and another, with heated air at 40ºC and 60ºC in fixed-layer dryers, controlling the grain temperature and the moisture content to 11% (bu. During the drying process the coffee grains were randomly sampled and fragments of the endosperm were prepared for scanning electron microscopy and eletromicrographs were taken. Measurements of the cells were taken for evaluating changes in the plasma membrane of the endosperm cells in relation to the moisture content and drying period. The cell cytoplasm of the coffee grains with 11% moisture content was not affected when dried under sun light and at the temperature of 40°C. When dried at 60°C, changes in the cellular structures of the cytoplasm were observed for coffees with moisture content of 20%.

  10. Influência de diferentes níveis de sombreamento no comportamento fisiológico de cultivares de café(Coffea arabica L. Influence of different shading levels in physiological behavior of coffee cultivars (Coffea arabica L.

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    Rupert Barros de Freitas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento das cultivares de café Acaiá MG 474/19, Catuaí MG 99, Icatu Amarelo MG 3282 e Rubi MG 1192, com relação às características potencial hídrico, transpiração, temperatura da superfície foliar, condutância estomática, fotossíntese, concentração interna de carbono e eficiência fotoquímica do PSII, quando submetidos a níveis de sombreamentos de 30%, 50%, 70% e a pleno sol. As avaliações foram realizadas no Setor de Fisiologia Vegetal em mudas dessas cultivares. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo distribuídos três vasos por cultivar em cada tratamento. O potencial hídrico foliar não variou nas plantas nos diferentes tratamentos. A fotossíntese, condutância estomática, transpiração, eficiência fotoquímica do PSII apresentaram variações significativas em função dos níveis de sombreamento.The objective of this work was to examine the coffee cultivars Acaiá MG 474/19, Catuaí MG 99, Icatu Amarelo MG 3282 and Rubi MG 1192, in relation to parameters such as water potencial, transpiration, leaf surface temperature, stomatic conductance, photosynthesis, internal carbon concentration and PSII photochemical efficiency when submitted to shading levels of 30, 50 and 70% and full sunlight. The evaluations were made in cuttings from these cultivars. The experimental design used was fully randomized with three pots for each treatment. The leaf water potential did not change according to treatments. The photosynthesis, stomatic conductance, transpiration and PSII photochemical efficiency showed significative variations in function of shading levels.

  11. Observações citológicas em Coffea: VII - A macrosporogênese na variedade "monosperma"

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    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1941-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the observations made in the ovule and development of the macrogametophyte in Coffea arabica L. var. monosperma. The young ovule is normally constituted by a rudimentary nucellus surrounded by a single and well developed integument. No irregularities are found until the beginning of the first meiotic division in the ma-crosporocyte which is situated inside the nucellus. The two meiotic divisions are very abnormal and during this process, 44,4 % of the otherwise normal macrospores degenerate. Only. a few normal macrospores are formed. The functional macrospore is not always the chalazal one as in the normal coffee varieties. Irregularities occur also in the subseguent divisions in the formation of the embryo sac. Degeneration then increased from 44,4 to 82,0%. Only one complete embryo sac has been found among the 87 examined ovules. During the formation of the embryo sac, even when complete degeneration occurs, the ovule increases in volume due to the multiplication of the integument cells. From the moment in which the embryo sac should be formed (two days after the flower opening this increase in volume stops. A total desorganization of the ovule occurs around 105 days after the opening of the flower.

  12. Evaluación de fertilizantes foliares sobre la producción en café (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Omar A. Sosa-M.; Alveiro Salamanca-J.

    2011-01-01

    En  la subestación experimental Paraguaicito de Cenicafé, ubicada en el municipio de Buenavista, departamento del Quindío,  se  realizó un ensayo con  fertilizantes  foliares, en café variedad Colombia de 24 meses de edad, con una distancia de siembra de 2 x 1 m. Las aplicaciones foliares se realizaron 58 ý 88 días después del pico de floración principal, con el fin de evaluar su efecto sobre la producción, el factor de conversión y el rendimiento en  trilla. Los  fertilizantes  foliares util...

  13. HONGO ENDOMICORRÍZICO Y BACTERIA FIJADORA DE NITRÓGENO INOCULADAS A Coffea arabica EN VIVERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Aguirre-Medina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradice en café, se estableció la presente investigación en un vivero en el Campo Experimental Rosario Izapa, Chiapas, México de septiembre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Se utilizó un suelo Andosol¿mólico típico de la región cafetalera del Soconusco Chiapas, México. El A. brasilense tuvo una concentración de 100 x 106 bacterias por gramo de turba y el hongo micorrízico, cuarenta esporas por gramo de suelo con infección de 95% en el sistema radical de cebolla. Los tratamientos utilizados fueron los microorganismos solos, la combinación de ambos y el testigo sin inocular que se distribuyeron en un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y fisiológicas del rendimiento cada treinta días a partir del segundo mes de siembra durante siete meses y se determinó el contenido de N, P y Ca en el tejido vegetal. Los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente y las diferencias entre tratamientos se compararon de acuerdo a Tukey 5%. Los resultados indican una respuesta diferencial entre los microorganismos. A. brasilense indujo mayor desarrollo radical y la simbiosis doble G. intraradices + A. brasilense mejoró el desarrollo del tallo y lámina foliar. El contenido de N, P y Ca se presentó de forma consistente con G. intraradices.

  14. The use of the shaded coffee (sombrío del cafeto) production thecnique (Coffea arabica) in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Enrique Mancilla Díaz

    2012-01-01

    The art of coffee production under shade has been one of the most effective methods used by our ancestors in order to adapt the coffee trees to precarious conditions, where they would not otherwise produce profitably due to the conditions of elevation, light, water availability, percentage of organic matter, temperature and other climatic and geographic factors. The objective of this study was to explain in a consistent and clear way the interaction of different effects generated in the soil,...

  15. METODOLOGÍA PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA DEL Coffea arabica L. EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Para llevar a cabo la zonificación agroecológica de un cultivo, es necesario definir en primer lugar sus requeri- mientos ecológicos y a partir de ahí definir las bases para la zonificación; por tal motivo se desarrolló el presente trabajo, donde se creó una base de datos con la información obtenida en más de 100 sitios experimentales y bancos de semillas de todas las regiones cafetaleras de Cuba; esta base consta de 13 campos que recogen toda la información de cada uno de di- chos sitios. El programa diseñado al efecto permite analizar cuál o cuáles de las variables consideradas tiene mayor in- fluencia en el comportamiento del cafeto. El análisis arrojó que los elementos de clima fundamentales son la temperatura me- dia diaria y la media anual de las precipitaciones; otro elemen- to discriminante fue el suelo, donde se definieron los tipos y su aptitud para el cafeto así como su profundidad efectiva; a partir de estas bases se definieron las categorías para la zonificación agroecológica del cafeto, las cuales son: óptima, medianamente óptima, aceptable y no apta, en cada una de ellas se establecen los niveles potenciales de rendimiento. Esta metodología de trabajo se validó en el macizo montañoso Sagua-Nipe-Baracoa.

  16. Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Coffea arabica Seeds during Perisperm Tissue Development and Their Relationship to Coffee Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Leonardo Cardoso; Magalhães, Diogo Maciel De; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Sera, Tumoru; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-24

    Coffee is one of the most important crops for developing countries. Coffee classification for trading is related to several factors, including grain size. Larger grains have higher market value then smaller ones. Coffee grain size is determined by the development of the perisperm, a transient tissue with a highly active metabolism, which is replaced by the endosperm during seed development. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins during perisperm development in two genotypes with regular (IPR59) and large grain sizes (IPR59-Graudo) in three developmental stages. Twenty-four spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, corresponding to 15 proteins. We grouped them into categories as follows: storage (11S), methionine metabolism, cell division and elongation, metabolic processes (mainly redox), and energy. Our data enabled us to show that perisperm metabolism in IPR59 occurs at a higher rate than in IPR59-Graudo, which is supported by the accumulation of energy and detoxification-related proteins. We hypothesized that grain and fruit size divergences between the two coffee genotypes may be due to the comparatively earlier triggering of seed development processes in IPR59. We also demonstrated for the first time that the 11S protein is accumulated in the coffee perisperm. PMID:26809209

  17. Coffea arabica L., a new host plant for Acetobacter diazotrophicus, and isolation of other nitrogen-fixing acetobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Salgado, T; Fuentes-Ramirez, L. E.; Tapia-Hernandez, A; Mascarua-Esparza, M A; Martinez-Romero, E.; Caballero-Mellado, J

    1997-01-01

    Acetobacter diazotrophicus was isolated from coffee plant tissues and from rhizosphere soils. Isolation frequencies ranged from 15 to 40% and were dependent on soil pH. Attempts to isolate this bacterial species from coffee fruit, from inside vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores, or from mealybugs (Planococcus citri) associated with coffee plants were not successful. Other acid-producing diazotrophic bacteria were recovered with frequencies of 20% from the coffee rhizosphere. These N...

  18. METODOLOGÍA PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA DEL Coffea arabica L. EN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    De Soto, F.; Tamara Tejeda; Hernández, A.; R. Florido

    2001-01-01

    Para llevar a cabo la zonificación agroecológica de un cultivo, es necesario definir en primer lugar sus requeri- mientos ecológicos y a partir de ahí definir las bases para la zonificación; por tal motivo se desarrolló el presente trabajo, donde se creó una base de datos con la información obtenida en más de 100 sitios experimentales y bancos de semillas de todas las regiones cafetaleras de Cuba; esta base consta de 13 campos que recogen toda la información de cada uno de di- c...

  19. Detection of corn adulteration in Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica) by tocopherol profiling and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, especially after the beans have been roasted and ground. Countries such as Brazil, the second largest coffee producer, have set limits on the allowable amount of coffee contamination and adulteration. Therefore, there is significant...

  20. The use of the shaded coffee (sombrío del cafeto production thecnique (Coffea arabica in colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Enrique Mancilla Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The art of coffee production under shade has been one of the most effective methods used by our ancestors in order to adapt the coffee trees to precarious conditions, where they would not otherwise produce profitably due to the conditions of elevation, light, water availability, percentage of organic matter, temperature and other climatic and geographic factors. The objective of this study was to explain in a consistent and clear way the interaction of different effects generated in the soil, atmosphere and the crop, as a result of the use of the shaded coffee technique (sombrío de café in coffee plantations. This provides tools that are applicable to the Colombian coffee growing industry, which can produce an improvement in the use of this technique, based on the zoning of the productive unit. This will generate an increase in the life and productivity of the crop.

  1. Evaluación de fertilizantes foliares sobre la producción en café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Sosa-M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En  la subestación experimental Paraguaicito de Cenicafé, ubicada en el municipio de Buenavista, departamento del Quindío,  se  realizó un ensayo con  fertilizantes  foliares, en café variedad Colombia de 24 meses de edad, con una distancia de siembra de 2 x 1 m. Las aplicaciones foliares se realizaron 58 ý 88 días después del pico de floración principal, con el fin de evaluar su efecto sobre la producción, el factor de conversión y el rendimiento en  trilla. Los  fertilizantes  foliares utilizados  fueron: Úrea, MAP, Nitrato de Calcio  al 1%, KCl, Kelatex Calcio, Kelatex Magnesio al 0,25%, Borosol al 0,3%, Nitrato de potasio al 4%, Kelatex calcio (0,25% + Borosol (0,3% y Úrea  (1% + KCl  (0,25% + MAP  (1%. Los  resultados obtenidos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas sobre la producción de la primera cosecha de 2007, ya que la aplicación foliar de los fertilizantes no influyó sobre el factor de conversión, el cual presentó un valor promedio de 5,17, que se puede considerar aceptable con  respecto al promedio nacional. El  rendimiento en  trilla no presentó diferencias  significativas  entre  tratamientos,  aunque presentó un factor promedio de 88,68kg (cps; valor por debajo  de  la  línea de comercialización  nacional  que actualmente es de 92,8kg (cps.

  2. Detection of Corn Adulteration in Brazilian Coffee (Coffea arabica) by Tocopherol Profiling and Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Singh, Mukti; Rennick, Kathy A; Bakota, Erica L; Jham, Gulab; Liu, Sean X; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-12-16

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, leading to loss of quality and causing significant loss to consumers. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing methods for detecting coffee adulteration and improving the sensitivity and accuracy of these methods. Corn and other lower value crops are potential adulterants, along with sticks and coffee husks. Fourteen pure Brazilian roasted, ground coffee bean samples were adulterated with 1-20% of roasted, ground corn and were analyzed for their tocopherol content and profile by HPLC. They were also analyzed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Both proposed methods of detection of corn adulteration displayed a sensitivity of around 5%, thus representing simple and fast analytical methods for detecting adulteration at likely levels of contamination. Further studies should be conducted to verify the results with a much larger sample size and additional types of adulterants. PMID:26600312

  3. Identification of 3-methylbutanoyl glycosides in green Coffea arabica beans as causative determinants for the quality of coffee flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Keiko; Setoyama, Daiki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Seta, Harumichi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2015-04-15

    The quality of coffee green beans is generally evaluated by the sensory cupping test, rather than by chemical compound-based criteria. In this study, we examined the relationship between metabolites and cupping scores for 36 varieties of beans, using a nontargeted LC-MS-based metabolic profiling technique. The cupping score was precisely predicted with the metabolic information measured using LC-MS. Two markers that strongly correlated with high cupping scores were determined to be isomers of 3-methylbutanoyl disaccharides (3MDs; 0.01-0.035 g/kg of beans) by spectroscopic analyses after purification, and one of them was a novel structure. Further, both the 3MDs were determined to be precursors of 3-methylbutanoic acid that enhance the quality of coffee. The applicability of 3MDs as universal quality indicators was validated with another sample set. It was concluded that 3MDs are the causative metabolites determining beverage quality and can be utilized for green bean selection and as key compounds for improving the beverage quality. PMID:25837668

  4. GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Analysis for Arabica Coffee Expansion in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distributio

  5. Uso do teste Lercafé para a caracterização de danos em sementes de cafeeiro Characterization of injuries in coffee seeds through Lercafé test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Zonta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do teste Lercafé, para estimar a germinação e caracterizar diferentes tipos de danos em sementes de cafeeiro. Utilizaram-se sementes de cafeeiro arábica cultivar Catuaí IAC 44, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sementes sem dano, sementes com dano por secagem a 40 e 60ºC, e sementes brocadas. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação e Lercafé. Em relação aos dois tipos de danos, os resultados de germinação, estimada pelo Lercafé, apresentaram alta correlação com os obtidos pelo teste de germinação. O dano por secagem à alta temperatura caracterizou-se pelo aparecimento de manchas esverdeadas espalhadas, que atingiram parcial ou totalmente o endosperma da semente. O dano por broca caracterizou-se por uma depressão circundada por um anel de coloração verde. O teste Lercafé é eficiente para estimar a germinação e caracterizar os danos por secagem à alta temperatura e os causados por broca, em sementes de cafeeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of the Lercafé test for estimating the germination and characterizing different types of injuries in coffee seeds. Seeds of arabica coffee cultivar Catuaí IAC 44 were submitted to the following treatments: nondamaged seeds, heat damage (at 40 and 60ºC, and bug damage. Seeds were assessed by the tests of germination and Lercafé. The germination results estimated by Lercafé test had high correlation with the results from the germination test for the two types of injuries. The heat damage, by drying seeds at high temperatures, was characterized by scattered green stains, partially or totally covering the seed endosperm. A sunken lesion surrounded by a green ring characterized the damage by coffee berry borer. Lercafé test is efficient to estimate the germination and to characterize the injuries by heat and coffee berry borer, in coffee seeds.

  6. Fertilidade do solo e estado nutricional do cafeeiro cultivado em atmosfera enriquecida com CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Guimarães Moreira Maluf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de concentrações de CO2 atmosférico nos atributos químicos do solo, na linha (cafeeiro e na entrelinha (braquiária, e nos teores de macronutrientes em folhas do cafeeiro. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de dois níveis de CO2 atmosférico, 390 e 550 μmol mol-1. A amostragem de solo foi realizada na linha e na entrelinha do cafeeiro, em 2013 e 2014, nas camadas de 0-5,0, 5,0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm, e de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm, respectivamente. Avaliaram-se pH, teores de Ca2+, Mg2+, K, P e S disponíveis, saturação por bases e matéria orgânica do solo. Em 2013 e 2014, houve redução nos teores de P na linha do cafeeiro, com o aumento da concentração de CO2. Em 2014, houve redução nos teores de K disponível no solo e aumento dos teores de K na folha do cafeeiro sob 550 μmol mol-1 de CO2. Em cafeeiro cultivado em atmosfera enriquecida com CO2, o teor de P disponível no solo é o que mais reduz, o que indica a necessidade de reposição adequada deste nutriente.

  7. Marcadores moleculares derivados de sequências expressas do genoma café potencialmente envolvidas na resistência à ferrugem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mazzinghy Alvarenga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar marcadores moleculares relacionados à resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica à ferrugem (Hemileia vastatrix. Foram identificadas sequências de DNA potencialmente envolvidas na resistência do cafeeiro a doenças, por meio de análise "in silico", a partir das informações geradas pelo Projeto Brasileiro do Genoma Café. A partir das sequências mineradas, foram desenhados 59 pares de iniciadores para amplificá-las. Os 59 iniciadores foram testados em 12 cafeeiros resistentes e 12 susceptíveis a H. vastatrix. Vinte e sete iniciadores resultaram em bandas únicas e bem definidas, enquanto um deles amplificou fragmento de DNA em todos os cafeeiros resistentes, mas não nos suscetíveis. Esse marcador molecular polimórfico amplificou uma região do DNA que corresponde a uma janela aberta de leitura parcial do genoma de C. arabica que codifica uma proteína de resistência a doenças. O marcador CARF 005 é capaz de diferenciar os cafeeiros analisados em resistentes e susceptíveis a H. vastatrix.

  8. Teores de nutrientes em cultivares de café arábica submetidos à deriva de glyphosate Nutrient content in arabica coffee cultivars subjected to glyphosate drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C França

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, neste trabalho, os efeitos do glyphosate sobre os teores foliares de nutrientes em três cultivares de café (Coffea arabica. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial (3 x 5 em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos compostos por três cultivares de café: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 e Topázio (MG-1190; e cinco doses de glyphosate (0; 57,6; 115,2; 230,4; e 460,8 g ha-1. Aos 45 e 120 DAA, coletaram-se folhas (terceiro par de ramos plagiotrópicos, contidos na parte mediana das plantas. Os sintomas de intoxicação foram caracterizados por clorose e estreitamento do limbo foliar para os três cultivares de café. Houve redução nos teores foliares de N, P, K, Cu e Zn aos 45 DAA e de N, K, Mn e Zn aos 120 DAA nas plantas de café tratadas com glyphosate, independentemente do cultivar utilizado. O cultivar Topázio apresentou as maiores reduções nos teores foliares de Fe e Mn, aos 45 DAA, e de P e Fe, aos 120 DAA.The effects of glyphosate on the foliar levels of nutrients in three coffee cultivars (Coffea arabica were evaluated in this work. A factorial (3 x 5 was used in a randomized block design with four replications, with treatments consisting of three coffee varieties: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 and Topázio (MG-1190 and five glyphosate doses (0, 57.6, 115.2, 230.4 and 460.8 g ha-1. At 45 and 120 DAA, leaves (third pair from plagiotrophic branches were collected from the medium part of the plants. Glyphosate intoxication symptoms were characterized by chlorosis and leaf narrowing for the three coffee varieties. There was a reduction in foliar levels of N, P, K, Cu and Zn at 45 DAA, and N, K, Mn and Zn at 120 DAA, in coffee plants treated with glyphosate, regardless of the cultivar used. Cultivar Topázio showed the greatest reductions in the foliar levels of Fe and Mn, at 45 DAA and P and Fe, at 120 DAA, when treated with glyphosate.

  9. Análisis de segregación de marcadores moleculares en una población derivada de Coffea liberica Hiern x C. eugenioides L.

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    Germán Ariel López Gartner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El café es un cultivo importante para la economía mundial. La producción comercial de café se basa en dos especies, Coffea arabica L. (70% y C. canephora Pierre (30%. La primera es la única alotetraploide (2n = 4x = 44 que tiene su centro primario de diversidad en las tierras altas del suroeste de Etiopía; la segunda es la única cultivada en Colombia y representa un importante valor económico y social. Sin embargo, C. arabica tiene una base genética muy estrecha y por ello es importante el uso de especies diploides en el mejoramiento del café para ampliar su diversidad. En este trabajo fueron evaluados los patrones de segregación genética en una población consistente en 101 plantas híbridas F1 de un cruce entre la especie diploide C. liberica y C. eugenioides utilizando 618 marcadores moleculares, de las cuales 168 SSR y 2 EST exhibieron patrones polimórficos que permitieron el análisis de segregación. Aproximadamente 24% de los loci fueron alelos nulos y la distorsión de la segregación alcanzó 23.5% (α < 0.01. Se observaron un total de cuatro tipos segregantes de entre siete posibilidades diferentes. Se discuten los orígenes de los alelos nulos, posibles causas de distorsión de la segregación, diferentes patrones de segregación y frecuencias de recombinación. El conocimiento derivado de este estudio permite entender mejor el comportamiento de la segregación genética de estos marcadores, con el fin de desarrollar mapas genéticos que tienen aplicaciones importantes para los programas de mejoramiento de café y de otras especies comerciales.

  10. Quantidade de água transpirada pelo cafeeiro cultivado ao sol

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    Coaraci M. Franco

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available In determinations made with a porometer it was verified that the stomatal opening of coffee leaves increases in size immediately after the leaves are detached from the plant (fig. 1. This fact indicates that the method of rapid weighings of detached leaves is not suitable for studies on the transpiration of the coffee plant. The transpiration of coffee plants has been determined by the weighing potted plant method. Pots with a capacity for 51 liters were used. They were made of galvanized iron plate and had no drainage hole. When the moisture content of the soil approached the wilting point water was added to bring all the soil mass to fiel capacity. In order to avoid oxygen depletion the pots were not sealed. To decrease the direct evaporation at the soil surface a two-centimeter layer of rice hulls was used as mulch, and a celotex cover was placed on top of the pot. Three similar pots with the same type of protection, but without plants were used to measure the direct evaporation from the soil surface. The weight losses of these pots were subtracted from the weight losses of the pots with plants. Two to throe-year old plants of Coffea arabica var. bourbon were used. Three plants were employed each month and after this time their leaves were picked off, and the total leaf area was determined. The tests were carried out for a whole year. The transpiration rates were calculated in g/dm²/day. The total leaf area of an adult coffee plant was found to be 3,146 dm² (average of seven trees. Based on this average and on the transpiration rate of the experimental plants it was possible to calculate approximately the amount of water that an adult coffee plant would transpire under the same conditions. Since the plants submitted to the experiment did not suffer water shortage at any time, the present results show the approximate amount of water lost by the coffee plant under optimal soil-water conditions. The data are presented in table 1. The figure 1

  11. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in the Gum Arabica complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gum Arabica is a natural biopolymer obtained from plant Acacia Arabica. In this present study the electro-active nature of its complex has been investigated. The complexes were developed using pure Gum Arabica and pure Citric acid by the sol-gel process. The scope of complex formation has been investigated and their natures were examined experimentally. The experiments which were carried out in this work are namely d.c V-I characteristics, d.c Arrhenius, ion transference number measurement, UV-VIS and IR photo-absorption. Solid specimen of the complex at various concentration of Citric acid has been developed for d.c experiments and adequate specimens were also developed for UV-VIS experiment. The result of d.c V-I characteristics on specimens at different Citric acid concentrations shows that d.c conductivity increases with concentration of the acid. The said enhancement is observed to be about 100 times that of pure hosts. The ion transference number measurement shows that the total conductivity increases with external acid concentration of which d.c conductivity enhance many times compared to that of ionic part. The result from d.c Arrhenius study shows that electro-thermal activation energy decreases with increasing acid concentration leading to enhancement of electronic conductivity of the complex. The result of UV-VIS study confirms the formation of the acid complex of Gum Arabica. The nature of photo-absorption indicates very clearly that main absorption region shows gradual shifts towards longer wavelength with increase of acid concentration. The result of FTIR absorption shows the structural concepts of electro-activity and complex formation indication of pure Gum Arabica. The overall analysis shows that the electro-activity of the mentioned biopolymer may be tailored.

  12. Efeito da poda do tipo decote no controle da xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro "Decote" type pruning effect upon xylella fastidiosa control in coffee cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2007-01-01

    ' de C. canephora, foram os tratamentos com maior severidade e, novamente no período chuvoso, as diferenças não foram observadas. Concluiu-se, portanto, que a prática da poda do tipo decote não resultou nesse experimento em um controle eficiente da X. fastidiosa em cafeeiros de C. arabica de pé-franco ou enxertados e infectados por esta moléstia.Xylella fastidiosa plant colonization causes damages to the coffee production and nowadays there is no available economic chemical control to this bacterium. Adequate cultivation management as the use of bacteria-free scions and control of the insect vector (cicadas, are practices that may attenuate the disease incidence. Pruning, that has been recommended for citrus and vines for disease control, still does not have its efficiency proved for coffee plants. This research work aimed to quantify the proportion of xylem vessel elements obstructed by the bacteria, as well as to evaluate the disease external symptoms severity after the "decote" type pruning. In June 2003 (dry season, eight months after pruning, it was observed that 4% of the petiole vessel elements were obstructed by X. fastidiosa, 2% of the central vein and 1% of the stem. In the rainy season, 14 months after pruning, the obstruction proportion of vessel elements decreased to 2% in the petiole and to 1% in central vein and stem respectively. Therefore, the pruning practice decreased slightly the xylem vessel obstruction caused by the bacteria in the dry period, once prior to pruning a 6% obstruction in the petiole was observed. The new branches sprouted during the rainy season seemed to compensate obstruction in older branches, thus decreasing vase obstruction proportion. In 2003 there were no differences in the disease symptom severity among treatments in the two periods (dry and rainy season, however, in the dry period of 2004, 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81' and 'Mundo Novo IAC 515-20' cultivars, grafted on C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258', presented higher

  13. O sistema radicular do cafeeiro nos principais tipos de solo do estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coaraci M. Franco

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the study of the root system of the coffee plant Coffea arabica L. is described. The method consists in excavating a ditch along a row of four plants, 15 cm apart from the trunks. Blocks of soil 30 cm square and varying thickness, depending on the depth from which they were taken, were removed so as to include a complete cross section of the root system. The first three layers were 10 cm thick; the next two layers, 20 cm; the remaining layers (variable in number, 30 cm thick. The roots from each block were washed, air dried and weighed. The data obtained were used to draw the excavation maps as represented in graphics, I, IV, VII, X and XIII. On theses maps each dot represents 0.1 g of roots. A formula is given to estimate the weight of the whole root system, from the data thus obtained. The method just described was used to study the root system of the coffee tree in four different types of soil of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. It is pointed out that the study of the root distribution based on weight alone might lead one to erroneous conclusions, since the first layers contain heavy non-absorbing roots whereas many active roots, light in weight, are located in deeper layers. A much better idea about the root distribution in the soil was obtained by drawing the excavation map on a black cloth in true seale, and then spreading the roots removed from each block soil inside the corresponding place in the map. The pictures of this arrangement are reproduced in fig. IV, V, VI, VII and VIII. The best root distribution was found in the soil "terra-roxa misturada" in the Campinas county (fig. IV. In this soil the roots extend beyond 2.5 m depth and are very' well distributed through the soil. The poorest root distribution was found in the soil "terra-roxa legítima" in the Eibeirão Preto county (fig. V. In this soil the roots are mostly confined to the superficial layers. A study of the soil profiles w r here the trees were growing

  14. Microsporogênese de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner com número duplicado de cromossomos Microsporogenesis in a tetraploid plant of Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

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    Yone M. Sellito Boaventura

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo do comportamento meiótico de C. canephora tetraplóide com 2n =44 cromossomos por tratar-se de uma espécie considerada possível ancestral de C. arabica (2n = 44: constatou-se, em 92,0% das células-mães de pólen, em todas as fases da microsporogênese estudada, 2n = 44 cromossomos. Em diacinese os cromossomos se apresentaram na forma de mono-, bi-, tri- e tetravalentes. Em metáfase 1, somente 13,16% das células apresentaram 22II sendo a seguinte a fórmula média do pareamento: 3,61I; 15,21II 0,71III e 1,93IV. As irregularidades anafásicas resumiram-se praticamente na disjunção desigual dos cromossomos para os pólos de 21-23, 20-24 e 19-25. Somente 37,65% das células apresentaram segregação normal de 22 cromossomos para cada pólo. Em anáfase II, observaram-se sete tipos diferentes de distribuição cromatídica e, também, somente em 26,0% das células foi encontrada distribuição normal dos cromossomos. Após a citocinese, foram observadas tríades (1,6%, tétrades (77,0% e políades (21,4%. A inviabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi alta, 79,0%. Observações em cortes transversais medianos de frutos mostraram 43,4% do tipo normal, sendo 11,0% do tipo moca e 32,4% do chato. Em 56,6% dos frutos, não houve desenvolvimento de sementes, formando-se apenas perisperma.Cytological investigations in a tetraploid plant of Coffea canephora with 2n =44 chromosomes were performed, In every meiosis phase studied, 92.0% of lhe pollen mother cells were found as 2n =44 chromosomes. In dia kinesis, lhe chromosomes were found as univalents, bivalents, trivalents and quadrivalents-At first metaphase, only 13.16% were 22II The average chromosomic associations were 3.61I, 15.21II, 0.71III, and 1.93IV- Irregular chromosomic distribution to the poles included 21-23, 20-24 and 19-25, while only 37.65% of the cells exhibited normal segregations of 22 chromosomes to each pole at first anaphase. At second anaphase, seven different

  15. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXIX - Produtividade de cafeeiros de porte reduzido Coffee breeding: XXIX - Productivity of dwarf coffee cultivars

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    C.S. Novaes Antunes

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de porte pequeno mais promissores da coleção de cafeeiros da Seção de Genética foram plantados em um ensaio comparativo, instalado em 1954, em Campinas. Os dados de sete anos de colheitas dêsse ensaio revelaram que a progênie de prefixo C 1039-48 do cultivar 'São Bernardo' foi a de melhor produção, e a de prefixo C 1034-4 'San Ramon', a de produção mais reduzida. Outras observações foram efetuadas atinentes à altura das plantas, resistência à geada, tipos de sementes produzidas e tamanho das sementes do tipo chato, analisadas pela peneira média, a fim de melhor caracterizar êsses cultivares. Os resultados colhidos dão informações úteis para o trabalho de melhoramento, indicando plantas e progênies a serem utilizadas principalmente nas hibridações com outros cultivares selecionados.The increasing cost of labor is leading the breeders to select coffee strains with low height which give high yield per area and facilitate the harvesting operation. The present paper refers to a trial established to compare the yielding ability of twelve dwarf coffee progenies of 'Caturra Amarelo', 'Caturra Vermelho', 'San Ramon', 'San Ramon x Bourbon', 'San Ramon x Maragogipe' and 'São Bernardo'. After seven consecutive harvests the total weight of coffee cherries was analysed. It was found that only the progeny 'São Bernardo' - C 1039-48 had a significant higher yield than the tester 'Caturra Vermelho' - C 477-8. The two 'Caturra Amarelo' progenies were in the same group of C 1039-48. Small variation was noticed in connection with bean size and percentages of flat, peaberry and elephant beans. The progenies of cultivar 'São Bernardo' had the largest beans and the highest percentages of normal flat beans. Concerning frost resistance some variation was observed in the susceptibility of the progenies to low temperatures. Only the progeny C 1036-36 revealed to be resistant. The best plants selected in this trial will be used in

  16. PERBANDINGAN KARAKTERISTIK KIMIA DAN NILAI SENSORI ANTARA KOPI LUWAK DAN KOPI BIASA DARI VARIETAS ARABICA (Cafeea arabica. L) DAN ROBUSTA (Cafeea canephora. L)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendradatta, Meta; Zainal; Israyanti; Abu Bakar, Tawali

    2012-01-01

    "Luwak??? coffee is well known as an extraordinary coffee due to its taste and high sell price. Special taste and odor of ???luwak??? coffee are caused by the change of protein, fat and caffeine content. This research aimed to know the comparison of caffein content, proximate analysis (protein and fat), taste and odor between ???luwak??? coffee and original coffee from arabika (Caffea arabica L) and robusta (Caffea canephora L) varieties. The treatments were robusta ???luwak???, arabica ???lu...

  17. Crescimento vegetativo e produtividade de cafeeiros Conilon propagados por estacas em tubetes Vegetative growth and productivity of Conilon coffee-trees proceeding from seedlings produced of deep-rooted cuttings in plastic tubes

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    José Augusto Teixeira do Amaral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de cafeeiros conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner, oriundos de mudas produzidas por estacas plantadas inicialmente em tubetes plásticos de 50 cm³ de capacidade. O experimento foi constituído de cinco tratamentos, que corresponderam aos tempos de permanência das estacas nos tubetes: 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Transcorridos esses tempos as mudas foram, sucessivamente, transplantadas para sacos de polietileno, contendo mistura de terra, esterco de curral e adubo químico, enviveiradas em um viveiro coberto com sombrite (50%, provido de micro aspersão automática. As mudas permaneceram no viveiro com micro aspersão automática por 150 dias, quando então foram transferidas para o viveiro de aclimatação, onde ficaram por mais 30 dias. Após esse período, em setembro de 1999, as mudas foram plantadas em condições de campo, na área experimental do CCA-UFES, em Alegre, Sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. Foram feitas as seguintes medições: crescimento de ramos ortotrópicos e plagiotrópicos no segundo ano após o plantio e as quatro primeiras colheitas. A produção inicial de mudas de café conilon em tubetes não afetou o crescimento vegetativo, tampouco a produção de frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative growth and productivity of conilon coffee-tree (Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner, proceeding from seedlings produced of deep-rooted cuttings initially in plastic tubes with capacity of 50 cm³. The treatments were constituted of permanence period in plastic tube for 0; 15; 30; 45 and 60 days. After these periods the plants were transplanted for polyethylene bags filled with substrate (soil + sand + manure bovine and chemical fertilization maintained on the greenhouse with environment under shading canvas (50% and automatic micro aspersion during 150 days. After this time the plants were maintained during 30 days in

  18. Phytosociological aspects and weed management using cover crops on organic conilon coffee plantations / Aspectos fitossociológicos e manejo de plantas espontâneas utilizando espécies de cobertura em cafeeiro Conilon orgânico

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    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can bring benefits to agriculture, but when incorrectly managed they can compete with commercial crops for resources. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect that cover crops, associated with Coffea canephora cv. Conilon, imposes to the weed community. Cover crops were planted between the rows of a 6.5 years old organic coffee plantation spaced 2.0 x 1.5 m. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized block design, with four replications, in a factorial scheme with the following treatments: control, Pennisetum glaucum and the legume plants: Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna deeringiana and Cajanus cajan, with and without Rizobium inoculation. Cover crops dry weight and nutrient contents on coffee trees were determined. Weeds density, frequency, relative abundance, importance value index and plant similarity index were also determined. Twenty seven weed species were identified, with special emphasis on Bidens subalternans and Commelina benghalensis. Cover crops promote modifications on the succession dynamics of weeds and do not interfere with the development of the coffee trees. Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna deeringiana and Pennisetum glaucum help on weed control.As plantas espontâneas competem com as culturas por recursos escassos, quando mal manejadas. No entanto, podem trazer benefícios à agricultura. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito que plantas de cobertura, consorciadas com Coffea canephora cv. Conilon, impõem à comunidade de plantas espontâneas. Plantas de cobertura foram semeadas nas entrelinhas de um cafezal de 6,5 anos conduzido sob manejo orgânico, com espaçamento de 2,0 x 1,5 m. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, num arranjo fatorial com tratamentos adicionais: testemunha, milheto – Pennisetum glaucum, e as leguminosas feijão-de-porco – Canavalia ensiformis, mucuna-anã – Mucuna deeringiana, e feijão-guandu – Cajanus cajan, com e sem

  19. Inheritance of Arabica Coffee Resistance to Radopholus similisCobb.

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    Retno Hulupi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A research to get inheritance of Arabica coffee resistance to Radopholus similisnematode was done in screen house and laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, also at endemic area of coffee plantation, using F1, F1 R and F2 crossing between BP 542 A(resistant x Andungsari 1 (susceptible with their reciprocal, and BP 542 A x Kartika 1. The purpose of this study that was conducted at seedling stage is to formulate a Strategy for Arabica coffee breeding to get resistant varieties to nematode. As the variables of resistance were weight of seedling biomass, percent of root weight deviation, number of root nematodes, number of soil nematodes, reproduction and percent of necrotic root. Using discriminant analysis and fastclus, those data variables were analyzed for genetic of resistance with Statistical Analysis System programme version 8. Genetic study on the inheritance of resistance to R. similiswas started with evaluation of homozigosity of BP 542 A was resistant parent. The result showed that BP 542 A was heterozygous. Therefore, segregation test could not be suggested with segregation pattern principals as Mendel proposed. Segregation test on BP 542 A showed that it was heterozygote and the resistance was controlled by single gene with complete dominant effect, so the progeny segregated in 75% resistant and 25% susceptible. The result of the test showed the absence of maternal effect for root weight deviation and percentage of necrotic root variables, which meant that no cytoplasmic inheritance was involved. Based on the test of segregation ratio, almost all of the resistance was not appropriate for monogenic and or digenic segregation pattern as expected due to non allelic gene interaction that caused epistasis. Key words: Inheritance, resistance, Arabica coffee, Radopholus similis.

  20. Effect of Fagonia Arabica (Dhamasa on in vitro thrombolysis

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    Taori Girdhar M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed in blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. Herbs and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before; however, herbs that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. This study's aim was to investigate whether herbal preparations (aqueous extract possess thrombolytic activity or not. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six aqueous herbal extracts viz., Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn showed 19.3%, 14.5%, 20.3%, 17.8%, 75.6% and 41.8% clot lysis respectively . Among the herbs studied Fagonia arabica showed significant % of clot lysis (75.6% with reference to Streptokinase (86.2%. Conclusion Through our study it was found that Dhamasa possesses thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s of Dhamasa for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. Once found Dhamasa could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent for the improvement of patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.

  1. Preliminary Characterization of Monofloral Coffea spp. Honey: Correlation between Potential Biomarkers and Pollen Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Elisabetta; Finotello, Claudia; Mammi, Stefano; Belci, Anna Illy; Colomban, Silvia; Navarini, Luciano

    2015-07-01

    To determine the botanical origin of Coffea honey, a new method using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) is proposed. Integration of the aromatic region of the NMR spectrum of Coffea honey diluted in deuterated water allowed us to simultaneously quantify caffeine, theobromine, and trigonelline, as well as other compounds. The amounts of the three markers listed are significantly higher than those previously reported for Citrus spp. honey: caffeine ranged from 15 to 98 mg/kg, theobromine from 25 to 160 mg/kg, and trigonelline from 23 to 86 mg/kg. The concurrent presence of these three substances is proposed as an indicator of the botanical origin of Coffea honey. Excellent correlation was found between these markers and the relative amounts of Coffea pollen measured in the same samples. PMID:25759000

  2. Identification of Ramie Genes in Response to Pratylenchus coffeae Infection Challenge by Digital Gene Expression Analysis

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    Yongting Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Root lesion disease, caused by Pratylenchus coffeae, seriously impairs the growth and yield of ramie, an important natural fiber crop. The ramie defense mechanism against P. coffeae infection is poorly understood, which hinders efforts to improve resistance via breeding programs. In this study, the transcriptome of the resistant ramie cultivar Qingdaye was characterized using Illumina sequence technology. About 46.3 million clean pair end (PE reads were generated and assembled into 40,826 unigenes with a mean length of 830 bp. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis was performed on both the control roots (CK and P. coffeae-challenged roots (CH, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. Approximately 10.16 and 8.07 million cDNA reads in the CK and CH cDNA libraries were sequenced, respectively. A total of 137 genes exhibited different transcript abundances between the two libraries. Among them, the expressions of 117 and 20 DEGs were up- and down-regulated in P. coffeae-challenged ramie, respectively. The expression patterns of 15 candidate genes determined by qRT-PCR confirmed the results of DGE analysis. Time-course expression profiles of eight defense-related genes in susceptible and resistant ramie cultivars were different after P. coffeae inoculation. The differential expression of protease inhibitors, pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs, and transcription factors in resistant and susceptible ramie during P. coffeae infection indicated that cystatin likely plays an important role in nematode resistance.

  3. Morphometric and Productive Characterization of Nineteen Genotypes from the Colombian Coffea Collection / Caracterización Morfométrica y Productiva de Diecinueve Genotipos de la Colección Colombiana del Género Coffea

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    Jhon Wilson Mejía Montoya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen genotypes of the Colombian Coffee (Coffeaarabica L. Collection were characterized through features related to productivity, crown architecture and light interception. The results revealed significant differences among genotypes. Branches and leaves were found to be dominantly plagiophyl. Leaf area (LA and Leaf area index (LAI made accession CU1812 (which correspondsto variety Castillo® stand out for its photosynthetically activeradiation (PAR interception and coffee bean production. Likewise, a PAR based cluster analysis allowed dividing the genotypes in three groups. Because of their higher yield, the most outstanding genotypes were Caturra, CU-1812 and Harrar R2. This factor showed correlation with PAR absorption. The current results are useful for future works in coffee breeding programs. / Se caracterizaron 19 genotipos de la Colección Colombiana de Café (Coffea arabica L.; para ello se estudiaron aspectos relacionados con la arquitectura del dosel, la interceptación de la radiación y la producción. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre los genotipos, predominando en las ramas la distribución plagiofila; una disposición similar se observóen las hojas. El área foliar (AF y el índice de área foliar (IAF,contribuyeron a que la introducción CU1812, componente de la variedad Castillo®, se destacara por presentar los mayores valores de interceptación de radiación fotosintéticamente activa (RFA y producción de café cereza. Así mismo, el análisis de agrupamiento con base en la RFA, permitió ordenar los genotipos en tres grupos,destacándose Caturra, CU-1812 y Harrar R2 por su mayorrendimiento, factor que mostró correlación con la RFA captadapor el dosel. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación son de utilidad en futuros trabajos de mejoramiento genético en café.

  4. Arabica Coffee Farming and Marketing Chain Analysis in Manggarai and EastManggarai Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiany. Faila Sophia Hartatri; Bernard de Rosari

    2011-01-01

    Arabica coffee has a unique flavour and very potential market. The purpose of this study was to analyse Arabica coffee farming and to investigate its performance of marketing chains in Manggarai and East Manggarai Districts, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara Province. This research was conducted in 2008-2010 by interviewing coffee farmers and coffee buyers; using open and close questions. The number of respondents were 100 people in each district. The result showed that land holding per household fa...

  5. Observações citológicas em Coffea: XVI - Microsporogênese em Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

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    Cândida H. T. Mendes

    1950-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytological observations on microsporogenesis in the self-sterile species Coffea canephora. It was found difficult to study chromosome structure in the first stages of meiosis because the chromosomes do not stain well with aceto carmine and could be seen only as long faintly threads with some heteropycnotic regions. In many observations of the pachytene stage it was possible to observe and study a chromosome attached to the nucleolus. This chromosome characteristically had a visible centromere which divided it into two arms of different sizes. The short arm was attached to the nucleolus and had several heteropycnotic regions. In the long arm the heteropycnotic regions were observed to be close to the centromere ; the distal portion of this arm was only faintly stained. Other chromosomes in the pachytene stage were found to have a conspicuous centromere located between two highly heteropycnotic regions. The heteropycnotic regions in some chromosomes were located near the centromere while in others they were observed to be scattered throughout the chromosome. In diakinesis the chiasmata were counted and there were found seven chromosomes with one chiasma, three chromosomes with two chiasmata and one chromosome with three chiasmata. The average number of chiasmata per cell was 15.88. In metaphase the average number of chiasmata per cell was found to be 14.57, which is less than the average per cell in diakinesis. Anaphase I appeared normal as did all subsequent phases of meiosis, that resulted finally in the development of four microspores with eleven chromosomes each. Very few pollen mother cells with abnormal numbers of chromosomes were observed. On the basis of this study, it is concluded that microsporogenesis in Coffea canephora is normal.

  6. Prediction of genetic gains from selection in Arabica coffee progenies.

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    Antonio Carlos Baião de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gains from selection for yield were estimated in Arabica coffee progenies carrying rust-resistance genes. Theexperiment in augmented block design was installed in Três Pontas, state of Minas Gerais. Three blocks were established with sixplants per plot, spaced 3.50 x 0.90 m, in 96 regular (F2 progenies and two control treatments. The plant response to rust wasevaluated on a grade scale in 2008. Yield (bags per hectare was estimated in the growing seasons 2005 to 2008. Significantdifferences between treatments for yield were observed in all harvests, except 2005. The presence of genetic variability amongprogenies allowed significant gain from selection for yield. Under the experimental conditions of this study, selection for yield can beperformed in the first high-yield year, without major losses compared to genetic gain from selection for yield when based on the meanof four harvests.

  7. Performance of Some Arabica Coffee Local Varieties from Gayo Highland

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    Retno Hulupi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, most of coffee farmers at Gayo highland (Aceh are planting various of local varieties, namely Timtim Aceh, Borbor, P 88, BP 542A and Ateng Super. Those varieties have been planted to replace S line and Catimor Jaluk varieties which were damaged by leaf rust and root disease. Research on the performance of those varieties was to investigate superior characteristics of each variety and moreover as based to choose the best one as released variety for Gayo Highland. Research finding revealed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were well adapted to Gayo highland conditions with yielding ability 0.956 ton/ha and 0.909 ton/ha, respectively. Although the highest yield was obtained by Ateng Super variety (1.76 ton/ha green coffee, but not stable, therefore it could not be categorized as superior variety. The previous two varieties also had good cup quality (by standard assesment of Specialty Coffee Association of America, then it could contribute Gayo coffee specialty product. The resistance test for leaf rust disease in the field plantation, showed all varieties demonstrated varying in their resistance. BP 542A variety was the most resistant type, whereas Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were moderately. However all varieties become more susceptible if planted at lower altitude, less than 1,000 m asl. The resistance test to coffee berry borer and parasitic nematode showed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were ranked into almost resistant to resistant. Based on all result of the superior characteristics testing, Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were the best one, and it could be proposed to be released as Arabica coffee varieties that suitable at Gayo highland. Key words: Arabica coffee, Gayo highland, local varieties, variety performance, cup quality, yielding, resistant to leaf rust disease

  8. Variación en la tolerancia a desinfectantes de genotipos élite de Coffea spp. cultivados in vitro Variation in tolerance to disinfectants of elite genotypes of Coffea spp. cultivated in vitro

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    Pablo López-Gómez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La embriogénesis somática puede ser afectada por la oxidación de los explantes al aplicar un método común de desinfección. En el Campo Experimental Rosario Izapa en 2006, se determinó la tolerancia a desinfectantes de explantes foliares de genotipos de café, mediante la dosis letal media (DL50 y con base en la tolerancia, se definió el desinfectante óptimo para el establecimiento aséptico. La DL50 de hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO, de hipoclorito de calcio (Ca[ClO]2 y la combinación de ambos, en explantes foliares de genotipos de Coffea canephora P. (INIFAP 95-8, 95-9, 97-10, 97-12, 97-15, 97-18, 97-19, 97-20, 00-24 y 00-28 y genotipos de C. arabica L. (INIFAP 2000-1018, 2000-1128 y 2000-692, se determinó mediante la aplicación de ocho concentraciones de NaClO (0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5%, ocho concentraciones de Ca(ClO2 (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 y 10% y la combinación. Con base en la tolerancia se aplicaron tratamientos de desinfección: 1, 3 y 6% de NaClO, 3.5, 7 y 10.5% de Ca(ClO2 y la combinación testigo de 3 y 7% de NaClO y Ca(ClO2, respectivamente. Existió variabilidad en la tolerancia, puesto que la DL50 varió dependiendo del genotipo y el agente desinfectante. La mayoría de los genotipos fueron menos tolerantes al NaClO (DL50 de 2 a 4%; no obstante, el NaClO controló la contaminación y oxidación en dosis bajas (1 y 3%. El NaClO y el Ca(ClO2 en bajas concentraciones de hasta 2 y 3.5% respectivamente, son una opción para la desinfección de explantes de café que pueden garantizar un estado fisiológico adecuado para dar inicio a la embriogénesis.The somatic embryogenesis can be affected by explants' oxidation when a common method of disinfection is. In the Experimental Field Rosario Izapa in 2006, the tolerance to disinfectants of leaf explants of coffee genotypes was determined by the median lethal dose (LD50 and based on its tolerance the optimal disinfectant for aseptic establishment was defined. The LD50 of

  9. Adição de Zn e absorção, translocação e utilização de Zn e P por cultivares de cafeeiro

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    Reis Jr. Roberto dos Anjos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente exigência de nutrientes, especialmente micronutrientes, pelos cultivares de café vem exigindo uma melhor compreensão da dinâmica desses nutrientes no sistema solo-planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de concentrações de Zn (0,4 ; 1,3 e 2,3 mimol Zn L-1 na solução nutritiva sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, eficiência de absorção, translocação e utilização de Zn e P em dois cultivares de café (Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí e Coffea canephora cv. Conilon, foi realizado um experimento sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial 3 × 2 (três doses de Zn e dois cultivares com três repetições. Plantas de café dos dois cultivares estudados foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, com solução nutritiva completa por 50 dias, após os quais receberam solução nutritiva modificada com três doses de Zn. Aos 114 dias após a transferência para a solução nutritiva modificada, as plantas foram coletadas e separadas em folhas superiores, inferiores, caule e raízes. Foram avaliadas altura do caule, número de ramificações laterais, área foliar, produção de matéria seca e conteúdos de P e Zn nas diversas partes da planta, além das eficiências de absorção, translocação e utilização de P e Zn. A dose 2,3 mimol Zn L-1 proporcionou os maiores valores para as características de crescimento avaliadas, tanto para o cultivar Catuaí, quanto para Conilon. Os maiores conteúdos de Zn observados no Catuaí indicam que este é mais exigente em Zn que o Conilon na fase de mudas. O Conilon apresentou menores eficiências de absorção e translocação e maior eficiência de utilização de Zn, refletindo sua menor demanda por este nutriente. As concentrações de Zn empregadas neste experimento não promoveram interação Zn-P.

  10. Effects of 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field on in vitro establishment, multiplication, and acclimatization phases of Coffea arabica seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac Alemán, Elizabeth; Oliveira Moreira, Rafael; Almeida Lima, Andre; Chaves Silva, Samuel; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on net photosynthesis, transpiration, photosynthetic pigment concentration, and gene expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS1), during in vitro establishment, in vitro multiplication and acclimatization phases of coffee seedlings were investigated. Untreated coffee plants were considered as control, whereas treated plants were exposed to a 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field of 2 mT of magnetic induction during 3 min. This magnetic field was generated by an electromagnet, connected to a wave generator. The results revealed that magnetically treated plants showed a significant increase in net photosynthesis (85.4% and 117.9%, in multiplication and acclimatization phases, respectively), and in photosynthetic pigment concentration (66.6% for establishment phase, 79.9% for multiplication phase, and 43.8% for acclimatization phase). They also showed a differential RBCS1 gene expression (approximately twofold) and a decrease of transpiration rates in regard to their control plants. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the application of 60 Hz magnetic field to in vitro coffee plants may improve the seedlings quality by modifying some photosynthetic physiological and molecular processes, increasing their vigor, and ensuring better plant development in later stages.

  11. Estimativa das frações dos carboidratos, da casca e polpa desidratada de café (Coffea arabica L.) armazenadas em diferentes períodos

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelos Adauto Ferreira; Paiva Paulo César de Aguiar; Olalquialga Pérez Juan Ramón; Cardoso Roberto Maciel; Santos Vander Bruno dos

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do experimento foi estimar as frações A, B1, B2 e C dos carboidratos da casca e da polpa desidratada das cultivares de café Catuaí, Rubi e Mundo Novo. A polpa foi obtida pela despolpa úmida em despolpador mecânico e, em seguida, seca ao sol até 13% de umidade. Os materiais foram armazenados em sacos de ráfia em ambiente coberto, ventilado e seco, com amostragem em triplicata a cada 90 dias. As frações foram determinadas conforme descrito no modelo do CNCPS. Houve acréscimo no teor ...

  12. Urea in Weaver Ant Feces: Quantification and Investigation of the Uptake and Translocation of Urea in Coffea Arabica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Nanna Hjort; Wollenweber, Bernd; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn;

    2016-01-01

    Weaver ants are tropical insects that nest in tree canopies, and for centuries these ants have been used for pest control in tropical orchards. Trees hosting weaver ants might benefit not only from the pest protective properties of these insects but also an additional supply of nutrients from ant...

  13. Elaboración de un sucedáneo de café (Coffea arabica L.) a base de soya (Glycine max L.)

    OpenAIRE

    María Carolina Otálora Rodríguez; Yeffers Rubio Cuervo

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo consistió en la preparación, caracterización fisicoquímica, microbiológica y sensorial de un sucedáneo de café empleando soya (variedad Soyica P-34). Se establecieron tres tipos de tostión (tostión baja 211 ºC - 550 s, media 216 ºC - 600 s; y alta 222 ºC - 640 s). Se preparó una bebida y se realizó análisis sensorial cualitativo del color aroma y sabor, y evaluación sensorial cuantitativa descriptiva de ocho características. La soya tostada y molida presentó disminución e...

  14. Elaboración de un sucedáneo de café (Coffea arabica L. a base de soya (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Otálora Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo consistió en la preparación, caracterización fisicoquímica, microbiológica y sensorial de un sucedáneo de café empleando soya (variedad Soyica P-34. Se establecieron tres tipos de tostión (tostión baja 211 ºC - 550 s, media 216 ºC - 600 s; y alta 222 ºC - 640 s. Se preparó una bebida y se realizó análisis sensorial cualitativo del color aroma y sabor, y evaluación sensorial cuantitativa descriptiva de ocho características. La soya tostada y molida presentó disminución en los contenidos de proteína bruta, lípidos totales y carbohidratos en relación a la soya sin tostar (2,42 %; 3,78 % y 5,24 %, respectivamente. El tamaño de partícula del polvo de soya tostado y molido tuvo un promedio de 0,5 mm de diámetro medio, correspondiente a una molienda media. No hubo diferencia significativa entre la bebida preparada con el polvo de granos de soya obtenido de la tostión media (216 ºC - 600 s y el patrón (p > 0,05. Se presentaron claros indicios que la bebida sustituta de café en base a soya tostada que presentó mayor aceptación fue la que se elaboró con polvo de soya obtenido del proceso de tostión media. El producto obtenido representa una alternativa de consumo en sustitución del café tradicional, con valor nutricional, agradables atributos sensoriales y beneficios para la salud.

  15. Elaboración de un sucedáneo de café (Coffea arabica L. a base de soya (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Otálora Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo consistió en la preparación, caracterización fisicoquímica, microbiológica y sensorial de un sucedáneo de café empleando soya (variedad Soyica P-34. Se establecieron tres tipos de tostión (tostión baja 211 ºC - 550 s, media 216 ºC - 600 s; y alta 222 ºC - 640 s. Se preparó una bebida y se realizó análisis sensorial cualitativo del color aroma y sabor, y evaluación sensorial cuantitativa descriptiva de ocho características. La soya tostada y molida presentó disminución en los contenidos de proteína bruta, lípidos totales y carbohidratos en relación a la soya sin tostar (2,42 %; 3,78 % y 5,24 %, respectivamente. El tamaño de partícula del polvo de soya tostado y molido tuvo un promedio de 0,5 mm de diámetro medio, correspondiente a una molienda media. No hubo diferencia significativa entre la bebida preparada con el polvo de granos de soya obtenido de la tostión media (216 ºC - 600 s y el patrón (p > 0,05. Se presentaron claros indicios que la bebida sustituta de café en base a soya tostada que presentó mayor aceptación fue la que se elaboró con polvo de soya obtenido del proceso de tostión media. El producto obtenido representa una alternativa de consumo en sustitución del café tradicional, con valor nutricional, agradables atributos sensoriales y beneficios para la salud.

  16. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in leaves from Coffea arabica using high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrübbers, Lars C; Masís-Mora, Mario; Rojas, Elizabeth Carazo; Valverde, Bernal E; Christensen, Jan H; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly applied herbicide in coffee plantations. Because of its non-selective mode of action it can damage the crop exposed through spray drift. Therefore, it is of interest to study glyphosate fate in coffee plants. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for accurate and precise quantification of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) at trace levels in coffee leaves using liquid chromatography with single-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. The method is based on a two-step solid phase extraction (SPE) with an intermediate derivatization reaction using 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC). An isotope dilution method was used to account for matrix effects and to enhance the confidence in analyte identification. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for glyphosate and AMPA in coffee leaves was 41 and 111 μg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. For the method optimization a design of experiments (DOE) approach was used. The sample clean-up procedure can be simplified for the analysis of less challenging matrices, for laboratories having a tandem mass spectrometry detector and for cases in which quantification limits above 0.1 mg kg(-1) are acceptable, which is often the case for glyphosate. The method is robust, possesses high identification confidence, while being suitable for most commercial and academic laboratories. All leaf samples from five coffee fields analyzed (n=21) contained glyphosate, while AMPA was absent. The simplified clean-up procedure was successfully validated for coffee leaves, rice, black beans and river water.

  17. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampling points within the system of treatment and four replications were made at different times and with different amounts of coffee cherry. We evaluated the parameters of temperature, pH, settleable solids, total suspended solids, fixed and volatile, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen. The temperature of wastewater entering the system has recorded 16.5 o C, increasing during the treatment process at 17.5 °C and record the output is 16.5 ºC. The pH increased from 4.51 to 6.04 which occurred at the last two gaps oxygenation and not in the neutralization tank. Settleable solids (SS increased from 0.1 mg / L to 0.15 mg / L, which was recorded at the lakes of oxygen, is attributed to the drag of fine gravel. Total suspended solids (TSS have been reduced from 1927.5 mg / L to 299 mg / L gradually throughout the treatment process. Fixed suspended solids (SSF were reduced from 137.5 mg / L to 58.5 mg / L. Volatile suspended solids (VSS were reduced from 1790 mg / L to 240.5 mg / L. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD was reduced from 6102.5 mg O2 / L to 1245 mg O2 / L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD was reduced from 9800 mg O2 / L to 1658.75 mg O2 / L. Dissolved oxygen (DO increased from 0 to 2.4 mg O2 / L, in the last two gaps in oxygenation, due to the reduction of solids and chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen. Of the nine parameters measured, six meet the maximum permissible values for download in source receptor (stream and three of them are outside the parameter according to the regulation of Law 1333.

  18. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in leaves from Coffea arabica using high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrübbers, Lars C; Masís-Mora, Mario; Rojas, Elizabeth Carazo; Valverde, Bernal E; Christensen, Jan H; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly applied herbicide in coffee plantations. Because of its non-selective mode of action it can damage the crop exposed through spray drift. Therefore, it is of interest to study glyphosate fate in coffee plants. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for accurate and precise quantification of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) at trace levels in coffee leaves using liquid chromatography with single-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. The method is based on a two-step solid phase extraction (SPE) with an intermediate derivatization reaction using 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC). An isotope dilution method was used to account for matrix effects and to enhance the confidence in analyte identification. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for glyphosate and AMPA in coffee leaves was 41 and 111 μg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. For the method optimization a design of experiments (DOE) approach was used. The sample clean-up procedure can be simplified for the analysis of less challenging matrices, for laboratories having a tandem mass spectrometry detector and for cases in which quantification limits above 0.1 mg kg(-1) are acceptable, which is often the case for glyphosate. The method is robust, possesses high identification confidence, while being suitable for most commercial and academic laboratories. All leaf samples from five coffee fields analyzed (n=21) contained glyphosate, while AMPA was absent. The simplified clean-up procedure was successfully validated for coffee leaves, rice, black beans and river water. PMID:26695310

  19. QUALIDADE TECNOLÓGICA DO CAFÉ ( Coffea arabica L. PRÉ-PROCESSADO POR "VIA SECA" E "VIA ÚMIDA" AVALIADA POR MÉTODO QUÍMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rildo Araujo Leite

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho visou estudar métodos simples, objetivos e mensuráveis, para avaliação da qualidade do café. Avaliou-se o efeito do tempo de armazenamento da qualidade do café "coco", "descascado" e beneficiado e a atividade da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO medida em espectrofotômetro, como método objetivo para determinação da qualidade do café, comparando-o com o método sensorial clássico. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada na Cooperativa dos Produtores de Café de Guaxupé -MG, onde foram feitos os testes de classificação quanto ao tipo e à cor. Para a avaliação objetiva, foram feitos os testes químicos para determinação da atividade da polifenoloxidase, utilizando-se a metodologia descrita por Fujita et al. (1995. Com base nos resultados obtidos nos testes experimentais, concluiu-se que a qualidade da bebida avaliada pelo "teste de xícara" manteve-se constante durante o armazenamento, exceto no caso do café descascado que, a partir de seis meses, apresentou queda de qualidade. Existe uma correlação positiva entre cor e qualidade da bebida. Durante o período de armazenamento, todos os tipos de café apresentaram variação de cor, tendendo ao branqueamento; no café beneficiado esta tendência foi mais marcante.

  20. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica) implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Javier; Smeltekop Hugh; Cuba Nicanor; Loza-Murguia Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampli...

  1. The effect of light and nitrogen availability on the caffeine, theophylline and allantoin contents in the leaves of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo F. Pompelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most abundant and important purine alkaloid derived from several important crop, such as coffee, tea, cocoa, guarana, and other plants. In tea and coffee plants, caffeine is predominantly produced in the young buds of leaves and in immature fruits. The effect of light-stimulating caffeine biosynthesis is uncertain, but our results clearly show that light, independent of N-availability, increases caffeine (26%, allantoin (47%, and theophylline (8% content in plants compared with those grown in a shaded (50% solar irradiation environment. Caffeine is the major low-molecular-weight nitrogenous compound in coffee plants, and at times, it functions as a chemical defense for new bud leaves. Therefore, the primary question that remains is whether caffeine can serve as a nitrogen source for other metabolic pathways. If so, plants grown under a low nitrogen concentration should promote caffeine degradation, with the consequent use of nitrogen atoms (e.g., in NH3 for the construction of other nitrogen compounds that are used for the plant’s metabolism. Our results provide strong evidence that caffeine is degraded into allantoin at low rates in N-deficient plants but not in N-enriched ones. By contrast, this degradation may represent a significant N-source in N-deficient plants.

  2. CRECIMIENTO DE POSTURAS DE CAFETO (Coffea arabica L. CON CUATRO NIVELES DE SOMBRA EN DOS CONDICIONES EDAFOCLIMÁTICAS DE ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Encalada Córdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento en dos condiciones edafoclimáticas de Ecuador, en los sitios "Chaguarpamba" y "Yanzatza", para estudiar el efecto de cuatro niveles de sombra, 0, 30, 50 y 80 % en el crecimiento de posturas de cafeto en vivero. Se utilizó un diseño experimental muestral en franjas. A partir del primer par de hojas verdaderas y cada 25 días se realizaron muestreos destructivos, evaluándose la altura, la masa seca y el área foliar. Los datos se procesaron mediante un análisis de varianza de clasificación simple. Para estudiar la dinámica de crecimiento de la masa seca total y el área foliar, se ajustaron los datos a una función exponencial polinómica de segundo grado, a partir de la cual se calculó la Tasa Absoluta de Crecimiento. En los indicadores evaluados, de manera general, se observó que los mejores tratamientos fueron el 80 y 50 % de sombra, las posturas con menor desarrollo fueron las crecidas a plena exposición solar. Así mismo, los tratamientos del 80 y 50 % tuvieron un mayor crecimiento y alcanzaron los valores máximos de este indicador con anterioridad, en relación con los otros tratamientos en ambos sitios. Respecto a los sitios, se observó que el crecimiento en la fase inicial fue más rápido en “Yantzaza” que en “Chaguarpamba”, lo que tuvo relación con el comportamiento de la temperatura, que en el primer sitio fue mayor al inicio del crecimiento, con tendencia a ir disminuyendo con el tiempo. Lo contrario sucedió en “Chaguarpamba”, donde la temperatura fue aumentando hacia el final del período de aviveramiento.

  3. Modificación enzimática de la fibra dietaria del pergamino de café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paulina Torres Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se buscó modificar el balance Fibra Dietaria Insoluble/Fibra Dietaria Soluble (32,7:1 del pergamino de café mediante tratamiento enzimático. Se trabajó con tres enzimas: Cellulase, Hemicellulase y complejo enzimático Viscozyme® L con volúmenes: 200, 400, 600, 800 y 1000 µL. El protocolo analítico para el tratamiento enzimático, fue una modificación de la metodología empleada por Mälkki y Myllymäki (1998. En las muestras tratadas enzimáticamente se determinó el contenido de fibra dietaria soluble e insoluble según el método enzimático–gravimétrico basado en la normativa AOAC 991,43 y AACC 32-07. Mediante el análisis estadístico se estableció el tratamiento óptimo en 800 µL del complejo de enzimas Viscozyme® L con un costo de ensayo de 1,59 US$/g de fibra y 94,40 % de rendimiento, obteniéndose un balance Fibra Dietaria Insoluble/Fibra Dietaria Soluble de 2,39:1.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with shade trees and Coffea arabica L. in a coffee-based agroforestry system in Bonga, Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewnet ,Tadesse Chanie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that teacher and learner beliefs about second language instruction have a significant influence on language teaching and learning process and, consequently, on students’ achievements. However, in the Mozambican context, we still do not have studies focusing on learner and teacher beliefs about students and language proficiency, about teaching materials, about individual and cultural variations and beliefs about the learning process itself. Using questionnaires and a focus group report, we look at the Mozambican linguistic profile, the learner and teacher beliefs and their influence in tertiary English Language Teaching (ELT and learning. The results show that there is a need for creating an environment in which teachers’ and learners’ cultural background, beliefs and needs are considered so as to enable teachers to teach effectively, as well as enabling learners to achieve positive learning outcomes.

  5. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  6. Low temperature impact on photosynthetic parameters of coffee genotypes Impacto de baixas temperaturas em parâmetros fotossintéticos de genótipos de cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate photoprotective mechanisms related to low positive temperatures in Coffea canephora (Conilon clones 02 and 153 and C. arabica ('Catucaí' IPR 102 genotypes, involved in cold temperature tolerance. To accomplish this, one-year-old plants were successively submitted to: temperature decrease of 0.5ºC day-1, from 25/20ºC to 13/8ºC; a three-day chilling cycle at 13/4ºC; and a recovery period of 14 days (25/20ºC. During the experiment, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence and leaf photosynthetic pigment content were evaluated. Total activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase (Ru5PK were quantified to measure the activity of photosynthesis key enzymes. All genotypes showed low temperature sensitivity, but displayed diverse cold impact and recovery capabilities regarding the photosynthetic-related parameters studied. Catucaí IPR 102 cultivar showed better ability to cope with cold stress than the Conilon clones, especially Conilon 02, and had full recovery of leaf gas exchange, fluorescence parameters, enzymatic activity, and higher contents of the photoprotective pigments zeaxanthin and lutein.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar mecanismos de fotoproteção relacionados a temperaturas baixas positivas em genótipos de Coffea canephora (clones Conilon 02 e 153 e C. arabica ('Catucaí' IPR 102, envolvidos na tolerância a baixas temperaturas. Para tal, plantas com um ano de idade foram expostas sucessivamente a: decréscimo da temperatura (0,5ºC dia-1, de 25/20ºC até 13/8ºC; um ciclo de três dias a 13/4ºC; e a 14 dias de recuperação (25/20ºC. Durante o experimento, foram avaliadas as trocas gasosas, a fluorescência da clorofila a e os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos foliares. Foram quantificadas a atividade total da ribulose-1,5-bisfosfato carboxilase/oxigenase (Rubisco e da ribulose-5-fosfato quinase (Ru5PK, para medir a

  7. Mozambioside Is an Arabica-Specific Bitter-Tasting Furokaurane Glucoside in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roman; Klade, Stefan; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Sensory-guided fractionation of a roasted coffee beverage revealed a highly polar, bitter-tasting subfraction, from which the furokaurane glucoside mozambioside was isolated and identified in its chemical structure by means of HDMS and NMR spectra. Sensory evaluation revealed a bitter taste recognition threshold of 60 (± 10) μmol/L. UPLC-HDMS quantitation of raw coffee beans showed that Arabica coffees contained 396-1188 nmol/g mozambioside, whereas only traces (coffees, thus suggesting that mozambioside can be used as an analytical marker for Arabica coffee. Roasted Arabica contained a substantially reduced concentration (232 ± 37 nmol/g), indicating partial degradation of mozambioside during coffee roasting. Mozambioside was nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous brew during coffee-making (86-98%).

  8. Relações radiométricas no terço superior da copa de cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ribeiro da Cunha; Clovis Alberto Volpe

    2010-01-01

    Com o objetivo de obter os coeficientes de transmissão e de extinção da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa determinou-se o índice de área foliar e mediu-se a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa transmitida no terço superior da copa de cafeeiro variedade Obatã IAC 1669-20, com três diferentes alinhamentos de plantio, em função da trajetória aparente do Sol, em Jaboticabal (SP). Foram três tratamentos, com quatro repetições, no total de doze parcelas, e cada uma com cem cafeeiros; cada tratament...

  9. Correction to Hepper and Friis's analysis of Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryding, Olof; Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    The name Nepeta nepetellae has been accepted in Carl Christensen’s standard index to Forsskål’s Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica, listed in Index Kewensis and IPNI, listed as an accepted name in The Plant List and accepted in Hepper and Friis’s revision of the plants of Forsskål’s Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabic...... to the currently used names and clarify a complex nomenclatural situation, which has confused several previous authors on the subject. The meanings of asterisked names in Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica and their bearing for N. nepetellae are briefly reviewed....

  10. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto .; Dwi Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sac...

  11. Melhoramento do cafeeiro XXXVI: produtividade do café de porte pequeno com poda dos ramos inferiores Coffee breeding XXXVI: yielding capacity of semi-dwarf coffee trees before and after prunning of lower lateral branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Cafeeiros portadores dos fatores caturra (Ct, san ramon (Sr, laurina (Ir, dos cultivares pacas e villa sarchi e híbridos diversos foram estudados em Campinas, visando à seleção de cafeeiros de porte pequeno e de alta produtividade. Estudou-se também o efeito da poda de ramos inferiores sobre a produtividade e desenvolvimento das plantas. Utilizaram-se delineamento látice retangular triplo 5x6, 30 tratamentos, nove repetições, sendo as parcelas constituídas por duas covas, com uma planta por cova. As progênies derivadas do catuaí amarelo H 2077-2-12 e H 2077-2-5, que vêm sendo extensivamente cultivadas, apresentaram, em quatro anos, produções médias de 41,2, e 41,6 kg de café cereja, respectivamente. Os dados também mostraram que o caturra amarelo tem produção semelhante à dos cultivares pacas e villa sarchi. Entre as demais progênies analisadas, as de prefixo LCH 2077-2-5, H 2077-2-12-158, H 2077-2-5-47 e H 2077-2-12-283 salientaram-se quanto à produção no período de quatro anos. De modo geral, as progênies mais produtivas aos quatro anos foram aquelas que se destacaram por suas produções acumuladas aos seis anos. O mesmo ocorreu com as progênies menos produtivas. Após o quarto ano de colheita retiraram-se, ao acaso, em uma das plantas de cada parcela, todos os ramos inferiores até a altura de 60 cm, enquanto a outra planta permaneceu intacta. A média de produção de café cereja das plantas podadas foi de 7,1 kg e a das não podadas de 7,2 kg, no período de dois anos. A prática de retirada dos ramos laterais inferiores até 60 cm não contribuiu para alterar a produtividade e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Também não se verificou interação entre as produções das plantas podadas e não podadas, em relação aos tratamentos.Thirty coffee progenies homozygous or heterozygous for the genes caturra (Ct, San Ramon (Sr or laurina (lr were studied in Campinas to evaluate the yielding capacity of these semi

  12. Detection of enterotoxins produced by B. cereus through PCR analysis of ground and roasted coffee samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cyllene de Matos Ornelas da Cunha Corrêa de Souza; Shirley de Mello Pereira Abrantes

    2011-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most appreciated drinks in the world. Coffee ground is obtained from the fruit of a small plant that belongs to the genus Coffea. Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora robusta are the two most commercially important species. They are more commonly known as arabica and robusta, respectively. Two-thirds of Coffea arabica plants are grown in South and Central America, and Eastern Africa - the place of origin for this coffee species. Contamination by microorganisms has been a m...

  13. Impact of climate change on agro-climatic zoning of Arabica coffee in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil = Impactos das mudanças climáticas no zoneamento agroclimatológico do café arábica no Espírito Santo

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    Rosembergue Bragança

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define, using current agro-climatic zoning, and for the next 100 years, areas of different climatic suitability for the cultivation of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L. in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Monthly and yearly data of average air temperature and rainfall were used, taken from historical series for the period of 1976 to 2006. It was necessary to simulate the effects of temperature increments of +1 ºC, +2 ºC, +3 ºC, +4 ºC and +5 ºC, using the mean result of six models, namely: GFDL-R30 (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, R-30 resolution, CCSR/NIES (Center for Climate Research Studies, CSIROMk2 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization GCM mark 2, CGCM2 (Canadian Global Coupled Model v 2, ECHAM4 (European Centre Hamburg Model v 4 and HadCM3 (Hadley Centre Coupled Model v 3. The results showed that currently, areas which are completely suitable represent 19.49% of the area of Espirito Santo which, with an increase of 5 °C, would decrease to 0.02%; whereas completely unsuitable areas would increase from 33.47% to 95.63%, making the cultivation of Arabica coffee unsuited to the state if the genetic and physiological characteristics, which have a tolerance limit for the average annual temperature of between 23 °C and 24 °C, are maintained. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho definir, por meio do zoneamento agroclimatológico atual e para os próximos 100 anos, áreas com diferentes aptidões climáticas para a cultura do café arábica (Coffea arabica L., no estado do Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram utilizados dados de temperatura média do ar e precipitação pluviométrica, em escala mensal e anual, de séries históricas representativas do período de 1976 a 2006. Foi necessário simular o efeito do incremento de temperatura de +1 ºC, +2 ºC, +3 ºC, +4 ºC e +5 ºC, por meio da média obtida do resultado de seis modelos, a saber: GFDL-R30 (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

  14. GIS-based multi-criteria analysis for Arabica coffee expansion in Rwanda.

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    Innocent Nzeyimana

    Full Text Available The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distribution of actual and potential production zones for Arabica coffee, their productivity levels and predicted potential yields. We used a geographic information system (GIS for a weighted overlay analysis to assess the major production zones of Arabica coffee and their qualitative productivity indices. Actual coffee yields were measured in the field and were used to assess potential productivity zones and yields using ordinary kriging with ArcGIS software. The production of coffee covers about 32 000 ha, or 2.3% of all cultivated land in the country. The major zones of production are the Kivu Lake Borders, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, and Mayaga agro-ecological zones, where coffee is mainly cultivated on moderate slopes. In the highlands, coffee is grown on steep slopes that can exceed 55%. About 21% percent of the country has a moderate yield potential, ranging between 1.0 and 1.6 t coffee ha-1, and 70% has a low yield potential (<1.0 t coffee ha-1. Only 9% of the country has a high yield potential of 1.6-2.4 t coffee ha-1. Those areas are found near Lake Kivu where the dominant soil Orders are Inceptisols and Ultisols. Moderate yield potential is found in the Birunga (volcano, Congo-Nile watershed Divide, Impala and Imbo zones. Low-yield regions (<1 t ha-1 occur in the eastern semi-dry lowlands, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, Buberuka Highlands, and Mayaga zones. The weighted overlay analysis and ordinary kriging indicated a large spatial variability of potential productivity indices. Increasing the area and productivity of coffee in Rwanda thus has considerable potential.

  15. SHOOT AND ROOT EVALUATIONS ON SEEDLINGS FROM Coffea GENOTYPES

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    RAMOS LUIS CARLOS DA SILVA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots and shoots from seedlings of 29 coffee genotypes were studied to better characterize the entries from the Coffea germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brasil. The varieties were seeded in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications and 10 plants per plot. The characters evaluated were: plant (PL, shoot (SL and root (RL length; total plant (PDM, shoot (SDM, root (RDM and lateral root (LRDM dry matter. A lateral root index (LRI and shoot root dry matter (SRDM = SDM/RDM and length ratios; (SRL = SL/RL were calculated. The dwarf varieties (Catuaí, Icatu-caturra, Vila Sarchi, San Ramon, Vila Lobos, São Bernardo presented higher LRDM and lower SDM than the normal size varieties such as Mundo Novo, Bourbon Vermelho, Arábica, Amarelo de Botucatu, Glaucia, etc. The varieties Macrodiscus, Icatu-caturra, Bourbon Amarelo, Vila Lobos and C. congensis showed higher root development related to shoot. The Arábica coffee standard variety showed intermediary root and shoot development. Genotypes of high yield background were higher in SL and SDM, while the dwarf types had only lower SL than the normal ones, but higher RL and dry matters. Seedlings from genotypes of known higher field drought tolerance had lower SL and RL, but higher RDM. Significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients were obtained, such the genotypes for PL and PDM (r = 0.64; P = 0.01, SL and SDM (r = 0.40; P = 0.05, SDM and LRDM (r = 0.52; P = 0.05, RDM and LRI (r = 0.68; P = 0.01, LRI and SRDM (r = 0.85; P = 0.01 and LRI and LRDM (r = 0.84; P = 0.01. High genotypic correlations suggest that selection directed to one character will directly affect the other. Conversely, low or non-significant correlations suggest independence of association, an indication that it would be possible to select two characteristics to diverse directions. Selection could be done towards different goals to change root and shoot measures

  16. Estimativa das frações dos carboidratos, da casca e polpa desidratada de café (Coffea arabica L. armazenadas em diferentes períodos Estimate of the carbohydrate fractions of the coffee hulls and dehydrated pulp of coffee (Coffea arabica L. stored for different period

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    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estimar as frações A, B1, B2 e C dos carboidratos da casca e da polpa desidratada das cultivares de café Catuaí, Rubi e Mundo Novo. A polpa foi obtida pela despolpa úmida em despolpador mecânico e, em seguida, seca ao sol até 13% de umidade. Os materiais foram armazenados em sacos de ráfia em ambiente coberto, ventilado e seco, com amostragem em triplicata a cada 90 dias. As frações foram determinadas conforme descrito no modelo do CNCPS. Houve acréscimo no teor das frações A e B1 e redução nas frações B2 e C, à medida que se aumentou o tempo de armazenamento. A cultivar Catuaí, apresentou maior valor para a fração A, comparada a Rubi e Mundo Novo. Essa diferença chegou a 28%, em relação a Mundo Novo. A fração B1 foi maior nas cultivares Catuaí e Rubi, comparada a Mundo Novo. A cultivar Mundo Novo apresentou maior valor para a fração B2 comparada às cultivares Catuaí e Rubi. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre as cultivares na fração C. A casca de café apresentou maior valor para as frações A e B1 e menor para a fração B2 comparada à polpa desidratada, ao passo que a fração C foi maior na polpa em comparação à casca de café. O armazenamento por doze meses alterou a proporção dos carboidratos, reduzindo as frações de degradabilidade lenta e não degradável, em detrimento da fração de degradabilidade rápida. A casca e polpa são materiais com alta proporção de carboidratos indisponíveis, o que pode limitar a sua utilização em grandes quantidades para os ruminantes.The coffee hull and pulp dehydrated carbohydrate fractions A, B1, B2 and C, were evaluated according to the CNCPS. Three coffee cultivars were evaluated: Catuaí, Rubi and Mundo Novo. Pulp was obtained by moist pulping in a mechanical pulper and dried in the sun adjusted to 13% moisture. Materials were stored in raffia bags in environment free of moisture and well ventilated. Samplings were taken every 90 days. The equations utilized for determining fractions were reported in the CNCPS model. There was an increase in the fraction A and B1 content and reductions in fractions B2 and C as the storage time increased. The Catuaí cultivar presented a higher fraction A value, compared to Rubi and Mundo Novo. Fraction B1 was greater in the cultivars Catuaí and Rubi compared to Mundo Novo. The cultivar Mundo Novo presented higher value for fraction B2 compared to the cultivars Catuaí and Rubi. No significant differences were found among the cultivars for fraction C. Coffee hull presented higher values for fractions A and B1 and lower for fraction B2 compared to dehydrated pulp, whilst fraction C was greater in the pulp as compared with coffee hull. The storage for 12 months changed the ratio of the carbohydrates, reducing the slow degradability and undegradable fractions and increasing the fast degradability fractions. Pulping process reduces sugars and pectin. Hull and pulp are materials with a high ratio of unavailable carbohydrates, which may limit its use in great amounts for ruminants.

  17. Avaliação da Casca e da Polpa Desidratada de Café (Coffea arabica L. pela Técnica de Degradabilidade In vitro de Produção de Gás Evaluation of Coffee Grain (Coffea arabica L. Hulls and Dehydrated Pulp In vitro Degradability Using the Gas Production Technique

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    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a casca e a polpa desidratada de café, quanto à degradabilidade in vitro pela técnica de produção de gás, conduziu-se o experimento, utilizando as cultivares de café Catuaí, Rubi e Mundo Novo. A polpa foi obtida pela despolpa úmida em despolpador mecânico e, em seguida, seca ao sol até alcançar 13% de umidade. Os materiais foram armazenados em sacos de ráfia em ambiente coberto, ventilado e seco, por um ano, amostradas em triplicata a cada 90 dias. Incubaram-se in vitro 400 mg de cada amostra (MS e FDN, em triplicata em banho maria a 39ºC. A produção cumulativa de gás foi obtida nos tempos 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 e 72 horas. A cinética da produção cumulativa de gás para a MS e FDN foi analisada utilizando-se o modelo Vt = Vt1/(1 + exp(2 + 4m(L -- T e SDN pelo modelo Vt = Vt1 x (1 -- exp (-m x T. A produção cumulativa de gás da fração SDN foi obtida pela diferença entre a produção cumulativa da MS e FDN. O armazenamento da casca e polpa desidratada de café melhorou a taxa de degradação e reduziu a fração fibrosa e não degradável, disponibilizando açúcares solúveis para a flora ruminal. Na casca de café de todas as cultivares, a maximização da contribuição da fração de SDN e FDN na fermentação ocorreu, respectivamente, em torno de 24 e 48 horas. A máxima produção de gás na MS da polpa ocorreu entre 48 e 60 horas, para todas as cultivares, e foi conseqüência da máxima produção de gás da fração FDN ocorrida em torno de 60 horas. Longo período de colonização pode constituir limitação no uso da casca e polpa desidratada de café, na alimentação de ruminantes, comprometendo a utilização do alimento pelos microorganismos do rúmen, devido à rápida passagem pelo rúmen.The experiment was conducted utilizing hull and dehydrated pulp of coffee cultivars Catuaí, Rubi and Mundo Novo. Pulp was obtained by moist pulping in a mechanical pulper and dried up to 13% moisture. Materials were stored in raffia bags in ventilated, moistureless environment and sun sampled every 90 days. 400 mg of each sample (DM and NDF were incubated in vitro in triplicates in a water bath at 39ºC. The cumulative gas production was obtained at 1,2,3,4,5,5,12, 18, 24, 30, 36 48 60 and 72 hours. The kinetics of the cumulative gas output for DM and NDF as determined using the model Vt = Vt1/(1 + exp(2 + 4m(L - T and SDN by the model Vt = Vt1 ´ (1 - exp(-m x T. Cumulative gas production of the SDN fraction was obtained by the difference between the cumulative production from DM and NDF. Storage of hull and dehydrated coffee pulp improved the degradation rate, reduced fibrous and undegradable fractions, releasing soluble sugars for the ruminal flora. For coffee hulls of all cultivars, the maximum fermentation contribution of SDN and NDF took place respectively around 24 and 48 hours. The maximum gas production in pulp DM occurred between 48 and 60 hours in all cultivars and was a consequence of the maximum gas production by the NDF fraction, which peaked around 60 hours. Long colonization period may be a limitation to the use of hull and dehydrated coffee pulp in ruminant feeding, impairing feed utilization by ruminal microorganisms due to the rapid passage by the rumen.

  18. Avaliação da maturação dos frutos de linhagens das cultivares Catuaí Amarelo e Catuaí Vermelho(Coffea arabica L. plantadas individualmente e em combinações Fruit ripening evaluations of Catuai Amarelo and Vermelho (Coffea arabica L. lineages of coffee cultivar, planted isolated and in combinations

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    Ângela Maria Nogueira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se este experimento na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG em São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, com o objetivo de avaliar as percentagens de frutos chochos e maturação de linhagens das cultivares Catuaí Vermelho (IAC 44, IAC 81 e IAC 99 e Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, IAC 62 e IAC 86, no período de 1994 a 1999, plantadas isoladas e em diferentes combinações. O experimento foi instalado obedecendo ao delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, parcelas constituídas de seis covas, com uma planta em cada uma adotando o sistema de manejo usualmente empregado na região, no espaçamento de 3,50 m entre linhas x 1,00 m entre covas. As linhagens foram agrupadas por cultivar plantadas isoladas e em multilinhas nas proporções de 33% e 50%. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas considerando seis características avaliadas individualmente, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Na análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Duncan para comparação de médias. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que não houve diferenças significativas dos sistemas de plantio, isolado ou em combinações, sobre os diferentes estádios de maturação dos frutos.The experiment conducted in EPAMIG’s experimental station at São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, to evaluate percentage of empty fruits and fruit ripening, of Catuaí Vermelho (IAC 44, IAC 81, and IAC 99 and Catuai Amarelo (IAC 47, IAC 62, and IAC 86, all Catuai lineages, from 1994 to 1999, planted isolated and in different combinations. A randomized block design was used, with 3 replications and 14 lineages combination as treatment, each plot with six plants, spaced 3.5 by 1.0 m, respectively among interrows and lines. Lineages cultivars were grouped and planted isolated and in multi-lines at proposition of 33% and 50%. Six characteristics were evaluated, and averages compared by Duncan test. There were no differences in planting systems over the fruit maturation stages and empty fruits.

  19. RUMINAL DEGRADATION KINETIC PARAMETERS OF COFFEE HULLS (Coffea arabica, L. TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NAOH PARÂMETROS CINÉTICOS DA DEGRADAÇÃO RUMINAL DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica, L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO (NAOH

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    Luciano Fernandes de Sousa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate dry matter ruminal degradation kinetics of coffee hulls treated with increasing sodium hydroxide quantities. Two rumen fistulated cows were used to incubate samples in nylon bags for 12. 24, 36. 48 and 72 hours. Four ruminal incubation periods were used, in a complete randomized block design. Coffee hulls were treated with 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% of sodium hydroxide (dry matter basis, corresponding to treatments T1 to t4 respectively. Experimental results were compared using Tukey test, at 5% probability level, as follows for treatments 1 to 4 respectively: soluble fraction (9.35d; 17.65c; 31.93b; 32.28a, de (34.40d; 40.50c; 43.28b; 50.35a, potential degradability (44.33d; 50.33c; 52.35b; 57.70a and lag time in hours (4.03a; 3.93a; 4.33a; 2.55a. The results indicate that increasing the levels of NaOH in the coffee hulls treatments increased significantly their ruminal solubility, as well as their effective and potential degradabilities. However that increase had no effect upon coffee hulls lag time in the rumen.KEY WORDS: by-product feedstuffs, rumen degradability, ruminant.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a cinética de degradação ruminal da matéria seca da casca de café, tratada com diferentes quantidades de hidróxido de sódio. Utilizaram-se duas vacas fistuladas no rúmen, incubando-se as amostras em sacolas de náilon por 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas, por quatro rodadas seqüenciais, sendo que cada uma destas representou um bloco, dentro de um delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados. Tratou-se a casca de café com 0%, 3%, 6% e 9 % de hidróxido de sódio (base seca constituindo assim os tratamentos t1  a t4. os resultados médios encontrados foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, como se segue para os tratamentos de 1 a 4, respectivamente: fração solúvel (9,35d; 17,65c; 31,93b; 32,28a, de (34,40d; 40,50c; 43,28b; 50,35a, degradabilidade potencial (44,33d; 50,33c; 52,35b; 57,70a e tempo de colonização em horas (4,03a; 3,93a; 4,33a; 2,55a. Os resultados indicam que o aumento dos níveis percentuais de NaOH utilizados nos tratamentos eleva a solubilidade ruminal, a degradabilidade potencial e efetiva da casca de café, não influenciando significativamente o tempo de colonização
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: degradabilidade ruminal, resíduos agrícolas, ruminante

  20. Cinética da digestão ruminal da casca de café (Coffea arabica, L. em vacas da raça holandesa Kinetics of the ruminal digestion of coffee hulls (Coffea arabica, L. in holstein cows

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    Edésio Ribeiro Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a cinética da digestão ruminal pela técnica da degradabilidade in situ, da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN de rações isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas, com 16% de PB e diferentes níveis (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de substituição do milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS por casca de café, conduziu-se um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras - Minas Gerais, Brasil, com 3 vacas da raça holandesa, com cânulas ruminais, nas quais foram incubadas amostras de volumoso, casca de café, MDPS e rações experimentais por 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Os dados de degradabilidade foram ajustados para uma regressão não-linear pelo método de Gauss-Newton. Pelos resultados obtidos, pôde-se avaliar que, com o aumento dos níveis de casca de café, a degradabilidade efetiva da MS das rações apresentou-se semelhante à da ração sem esse resíduo, observando-se também uma tendência de aumento da degradabilidade efetiva da PB. Porém, com a FDN, o efeito foi de redução da degradabilidade efetiva. Conclui-se que a substituição do MDPS pela casca de café, até o nível de 40%, não afetou a degradabilidade efetiva da MS e PB dos concentrados. Entretanto, reduziu a degradabilidade efetiva da FDN.In order to evaluate the kinetics of ruminal digestion by means of the in situ incubation tectonics of the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neuter detergent fiber (NDF of isoenergetic and isoprotein rations with 16% of crude protein with different levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of replacement of ground corn with straw and cob (GCSC for coffee hull, an experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Science of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA - Lavras - MG, Brazil, with three non-lactating cows of the holstein breed, fitted with ruminal cannulas into which samples of forage, coffee hull, CGSC and experimental rations for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were incubated. The data obtained about the degradability were fit for a non-linear regression by Gauss-Newton's method. The data obtained allowed to evaluate that with increasing levels of coffee hull, the effective degradability of the dry matter of the rations proved similar to that of the ration without that residue, a trend of increased effectively degraded protein being also observed. But with neuter detergent fiber the effect was the reduction of effective degradability. Based upon this experiment, it follows that the replacement of GCSC for coffee hull up to the level of 40% did not affect the effective degradability of both the dry matter and crude protein of concentrates. Nevertheless, it reduced the effective degradability of neuter detergent fiber.

  1. Incidência de ocratoxina A em diferentes frações do café (Coffea arabica L.: bóia, mistura e varrição após secagem em terreiros de terra, asfalto e cimento Incidence of ochratoxin A in fraction diferents coffee beans (Coffea Arabica L: "boia", mixes and "varrição"

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    Luís Roberto Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de ocratoxina A foi estudada em café mistura, bóia e varrição secas em três tipos de terreiro: terra, cimento e asfalto. Foram analisadas 238 amostras coletadas em 11 municípios da região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, sendo 35 bóia, 97 - mistura e 106 varrição. Das amostras analisadas, em 40% não foi detectada a presença de ocratoxina A, em 31%, foram detectadas a presença de ocratoxina A em níveis que variaram de 0,1 a 5,0 µg/Kg de café. Estes resultados demonstram que 169 amostras (71% analisadas estariam dentro dos limites em estudo da Legislação Européia que regulamenta a concentração máxima de ocratoxina A em grãos de café torrado. As espécies de Aspergillus identificadas como produtoras de ocratoxina A foram Aspergillus ochraceus, A. sclerotiorum e A. sulphureus. Os níveis de contaminação de ocratoxina A em grãos de café foram maiores na fração varrição e nas frações bóia e mistura, secas em terreiro de terra. Os resultados deste estudo concluem que o terreiro de terra aumenta o risco de contaminação com ocratoxina A em grãos de café. A fração varrição devido aos riscos de exposição a ocratoxina A, deve ser reduzida através da adoção de boas práticas agrícolas e não ser utilizada para fins de consumo humano e animal.The ochratoxin incidence was studied in coffee it mixes, it "bóia" and "varrição" dry in three yard types: earth, cement and asphalt. 238 samples were analyzed collected in 11 municipal districts of the south of Minas Gerais state, being 35 "bóia", 97 - it mixes and 106 varrição. Of the analyzed samples, in 40% the ochratoxin A presence it was not detected, in 74 samples, 31%, ochratoxin A presence were detected the in levels that varied from 0,1 to 5,0 µg/Kg of coffee beans. These results demonstrate that in 169 samples (71% analyzed they would be inside of the limits in study of the European Legislation that regulates the maximum concentration of ochratoxin A in coffee beans toasted. The species of identified Aspergillus as producing of ochratoxin A were Aspergillus ochraceus, A. sclerotiorum and A. sulphureus. The ochratoxin A concentration levels in coffee beans was larger in the fraction varrição and in the fractions bóia and it mixes, droughts in earth yard. The results of this study conclude that the earth yard increases the risk of contamination with ochratoxin A in coffee beans. The fraction varrição due to the exhibition risks the ochratoxin A, it should be reduced through the adoption of good agricultural practices and not to be used for ends of human and animal consumption.

  2. Produção de biogás no tratamento dos efluentes líquidos do processamento de Coffea arabica L. em reator anaeróbico UASB para o potencial aproveitamento na secagem do café Biogas production in the treatment of Coffea arabica L. processing wastewaters in UASB anaerobic reactor for the potential use in the coffee drying

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    Marco Antônio Calil Prado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a produção de biogás proveniente do tratamento das águas residuárias do processamento por via úmida do café (ARC coco em sistema de tratamento anaeróbio em escala laboratorial. O sistema foi composto de um tanque de acidificação e equalização (TAE, um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo e fluxo ascendente (UASB, uma lagoa aerada facultativa (LAF, um equalizador de pressão e um gasômetro. O tratamento foi realizado durante 190 dias e o pH foi controlado por certos períodos de tempo, pela adição de NaOH no TAE ou no reator UASB. No reator UASB, os valores máximos e mínimos obtidos na entrada foram de 235 a 7.064 mg.L-1 para DQO; 200 a 3.913 mg.L-1 para DBO5, 500 a 11.153 mg.L-1 para STV e 4,57 a 7,75 para o pH. Na saída do reator UASB, os valores foram de 39 a 2.333 mg.L-1 para DQO; 15 a 1.300 mg.L-1 para DBO5, 272 a 2.749 mg.L-1 para STV e 6,16 a 7,93 para o pH. Os valores mínimos e máximos de vazão afluente foram de 0,18 a 1,56 L.h-1. O biogás apresentou uma produção teórica de 0,545 a de 0,602 m³.kg-1DBO5 e porcentagem de metano de 48,60 a 68,14%.It was studied the biogas production through the treatment of the wet processing coffee wastewaters (ARC in an anaerobic treatment system in laboratorial scale. The system used was composed by one acidification and equalization tank (TAE, one anaerobic upflow sludge blanket reactor (UASB, one facultative aerated pond, one equalization tank and one gas tank. The treatment was carried out for 190 days and the pH was controlled for some periods by adding NaOH inside of the TAE or in the UASB. In the UASB reactor the maximum and minimum values obtained in the inlet were 235 to 7064 mg.L-1 for COD; 200 to 3913 mg.L-1 for BOD5, 500 to 11.153 mg.L-1 for TVS and 4,57 to 7,75 for pH. In the outlet of the UASB, the values were 39 to 2333 mg.L-1 for COD; 15 to 1300 mg.L-1 for BOD5, 272 to 2749 mg.L-1 for TVS and 6,16 to 7,93 for pH. The minimum and maximum values of the inlet flow were 0,18 to 1,56 L.h-1. The biogas presented a theoretical production of the 0,545 to 0,602 m³.Kg-1BOD5 and methane percentage from 48,60 to 68,14%.

  3. EFFECTS OF DAYLENGTH AND SOIL HUMIDITY ON THE FLOWERING OF COFFEE COFFEA ARABICA L. IN COLOMBIA EFECTO DE LA DURACIÓN DEL DÍA Y LA HUMEDAD DEL SUELO SOBRE LA FLORACIÓN DEL CAFETO COFFEA ARABICA L. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Javier Peña Quiñones

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee flowering data were analyzed in order to explore the effect of two environmental variables that have been considered relevant for this process. Pre-anthesis stage flowers were counted in coffee leaf-rust resistant crops at eight experimental stations (between 2°N and 11°N. Likewise, climatic data were taken to generate a humidity soil index, whereas day longitude data were taken from the Smithsonian Meteorological Tables. Flowering data were compared with a sunshine index to understand better the effect of light on flowering. This data (flowering, soil humidity index and day length were expressed in a monthly scale and analyzed using linear regression and cross-correlation functions. The main results show that there is a significant correlation between short days and high flowerings, whereas soil humidity (dry months are related to the phenomenon, but to a lesser extent.Con el objetivo de entender el efecto de las variables ambientales sobre el cultivo del café, se analizaron los datos de floración para explorar el efecto de dos variables que han sido reportadas como importantes en la floración de esta especie. Se contaron flores en etapa de pre-antesis en cafetales sembrados con variedades resistentes a roya en ocho estaciones experimentales entre 2°N y 11°N. A su vez, fueron tomados datos del clima para generar un índice de humedad del suelo, mientras que los datos de longitud del día se tomaron de las tablas meteorológicas del Smithsonian; para entender mejor el efecto de la luz sobre la floración, fueron comparados los datos de floración y un índice de brillo solar. Estos datos (floración, índice de humedad del suelo y longitud del día se expresaron en escala mensual y se analizaron utilizando regresión lineal y funciones de correlación cruzada. Los resultados muestran que hay una correlación importante entre días cortos y altas floraciones, mientras que la humedad del suelo (meses secos tienen una relación con el fenómeno, pero con menor correlación.

  4. Inibição in vitro de fungos toxigênicos por Pichia sp. e Debaryomyces sp. isoladas de frutos de café (Coffea arabica = In vitro inhibition of toxigenic filamentous fungi by Pichia sp. and Debaryomyces sp. isolates from coffee (Coffea arabica fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlê Martins Barros Ramos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O café é um produto nacional com grande expressão para a economia brasileira. O uso excessivo de fungicidas tem levado a pesquisas sobre formas alternativas como o controle biológico. Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial antagônico de leveduras em co-cultivo com fungos filamentosos. Isolados das espécies Debaryomyces hansenii (UFLACF 889 e UFLACF 847 e Pichia anomala (UFLACF 710 e UFLACF 951 foram inoculados (103 a 106 células mL-1 com três espécies de fungos filamentosos, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. parasiticus e Penicillium roqueforti (103 a 106 esporos mL-1. A avaliação do crescimento micelial e a contagem de esporos foram realizadas durante 21 dias. Observou-se que o isolado UFLACF 889 apresentou, em média, maior efeito inibitório na produção de esporos de A. ochraceus (inibição de 82% e P. roqueforti (74%. O isolado UFLACF 710 inibiu a produção deesporos, em média, 60 e 75,6% de A. ochraceus e P. roqueforti, respectivamente. A. parasiticus foi o fungo mais resistente à inibição pelas leveduras. O crescimento micelial não foi inibido pela presença da levedura em co-cultivo. Portanto, pode-se concluir que leveduras em cultivo pareado com fungos filamentosos são capazes de inibir a produção de esporos e, potencialmente, diminuir a disseminação destes fungos no processamento de café.Coffee is a national product with great importance for the Brazilian economy. The excessive use of pesticides led to research for alternative forms, such as biological control. The objective of this work was to assess the potential antagonistic effect of yeast in dualculture with filamentous fungi. Isolates of Debaryomyces hansenii (UFLACF 889 and UFLACF 847 and Pichia anomala (UFLACF 710 and UFLACF 951 species were inoculated (103 to 106 células mL-1 with three species of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. parasiticus and Penicillium roqueforti (103 to 106 spores mL-1. The assessmentof mycelial growth and counting of spores was done for 21 days. It was observed that the isolated UFLA CF 889 attained, on average, the greatest inhibitory effect on the spore production of A. ochraceus (inhibition of 82% and P. roqueforti (74%. The isolated UFLA CF 710 inhibited the spore production, on average, 60 and 75.6% of A. ochraceus and P. roqueforti, respectively. The fungus A. parasiticus was the most resistant to inhibition by yeasts. The mycelial growth was not inhibited by the presence of yeast in dual-culture. It could be concluded that yeast in dual-cultiure with filamentous fungi were able to inhibit the production of spores and potentially reduce the spread of this fungus during coffee processing.

  5. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas a vespidae predadores do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro

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    GUSMÃO MARCOS RAFAEL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, em laboratório, a seletividade dos inseticidas clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, ethion, monocrotofós e permetrina às vespas predadoras Apoica pallens Fab., Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille e Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae em concentrações que correspondem a 50% e 100% da dosagem recomendada para o controle do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro, Perileucoptera coffeella Guérin-Meneville (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae. Deltametrina foi seletivo em favor de P. versicolor versicolor e A. pallens. O ethion foi medianamente seletivo a A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor, e seletivo em favor de B. lecheguana. Os demais inseticidas não foram seletivos às vespas predadoras. A ordem crescente de tolerância das vespas a deltametrina foi: P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens > B. lecheguana. Para o ethion esta ordem foi: B. lecheguana > P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens. O clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, monocrotofós e permetrina apresentaram semelhante toxicidade às vespas nas duas dosagens utilizadas. O ethion, por sua vez, reduziu seu impacto sobre A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor quando aplicado em subdosagem.

  6. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such a

  7. NOTE-Polymorphic information content of SSR markers for Coffea spp.

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    Robson Fernando Missio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-three coffee SSR primers from enriched genomic library with (GT15 and (AGG10 repeats were analyzedin 24 coffee tree accessions. Twenty-two primers were polymorphic among accessions; the number of alleles ranged from 2 to13, with the mean number of 5.1 alleles per primer. PIC values ranged from 0.08 to 0.79. The highest mean PIC values werefound for C. canephora (0.46, and the lowest values for C. arabica (0.22 and triploids (0.22 accessions. The polymorphicSSR markers used in this study were useful for genetic fingerprinting in the coffee tree, especially in the C. canephora and theleaf rust resistant arabica cultivars.

  8. Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee

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    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005, using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were

  9. Low-field (1)H NMR spectroscopy for distinguishing between arabica and robusta ground roast coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defernez, Marianne; Wren, Ella; Watson, Andrew D; Gunning, Yvonne; Colquhoun, Ian J; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Williamson, David; Kemsley, E Kate

    2017-02-01

    This work reports a new screening protocol for addressing issues of coffee authenticity using low-field (60MHz) bench-top (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Using a simple chloroform-based extraction, useful spectra were obtained from the lipophilic fraction of ground roast coffees. It was found that 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC, a recognized marker compound for robusta beans) gives rise to an isolated peak in the 60MHz spectrum, which can be used as an indicator of the presence of robusta beans in the sample. A total of 81 extracts from authenticated coffees and mixtures were analysed, from which the detection limit of robusta in arabica was estimated to be between 10% and 20% w/w. Using the established protocol, a surveillance exercise was conducted of 27 retail samples of ground roast coffees which were labelled as "100% arabica". None were found to contain undeclared robusta content above the estimated detection limit. PMID:27596398

  10. Optimizing of Arabica Coffee Bean Fermentation Process Using a Controlled Fermentor

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Yusianto Yusi

    2015-01-01

    One  of  primary  coffee  processing  steps  which  affect  the  end  quality  isfermentation.  Fermentation  using  a  controlled  fermentor  might  be  usefulbecause  all  of  parameters  which  influence  coffee  quality  can  be  controlled.The  aim of this  research is to evaluate  performance  of  controlled fermentor forfermentation  process  of  Arabica  coffee  beans.  Main  material  of  this  researchwas ripe Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Research Station in Bondowoso dis...

  11. Socioeconomic and Ecological Dimension of Certified and Conventional Arabica Coffee Production in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jef Rudiantho Saragih

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in six subdistricts of Simalungun district, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The research objective is knowing the influence of socioeconomic and ecological factors on production of specialty Arabica coffee. Determination of the households sample was using Probability Proportional to Size and Simple Random Sampling for 79 units certified coffee farms and 210 units conventional coffee farms. Farmer’s data was analyzed with multiple linear regression model. Benefit of coffee ce...

  12. Characterization of New Ent-kaurane Diterpenoids of Yunnan Arabica Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Rui; Wan, Luo-Sheng; Peng, Xing-Rong; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Run; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zhong-Rong; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Five new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, named mascaroside III-V (1-3), and 20-nor-cofaryloside I-II (4-5), together with seven known diterpenoids, were isolated from methanol extracts of the green coffee beans of Yunnan Arabica Coffee. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity assay against HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW480 cell lines showed that they have not evident inhibition of cytotoxicity. PMID:27165414

  13. Model Development Industrial Cluster Coffee Arabica in The District Bangli, Province of Bali

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    I Gusti Bagus Udayana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian coffee commodity is non-oil export commodities the which contributes to the increase of in foreign exchange. The coffee agribusiness development Efforts have been undertaken by the government, but there are still many obstacles, especially in maintaining the quality of products that meet international market standards and continuity of production in accordance with market demand and to support a downstream industry of agricultural production. This research is the development of industrial clusters Earlier research arabica coffee. The results Showed that the human resources and knowledge about the importance of the coffee plant in Bangli society is still very low, this is evidenced by the many farmers replacing the coffee with citrus plants. Cluster models produced is the result of the development of the models on previous research. In the development of this models and the results of the field survey results show the need for forming FGD Control of Agro-Industry Forum Bangli. This forum Aimed to control and anticipate the development of information to replace the coffee plant with coffee other than agricultural industrial commodities like oranges. Many coffee farmers have replaced coffee with citrus plants. If this continues to Happen it is feared that coffee production has gained International recognition will Decrease. This controller Bangli Agro-Industry Forum in collaboration with Industrial Cluster Management Communication Forum Coffee Arabica and core industry of arabica coffee

  14. Biological control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, J; Bustillo, A E; Montoya, E C; Borgemeister, C

    2005-10-01

    The potential of the eulophid parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle to control coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) populations under field conditions in Colombia was evaluated. Parasitoid adults were released one, five and nine days after artificial infestations of 90-, 150- and 210-day-old coffee berries with H. hampei females. The position of the beetle inside the berry and the parasitism levels were assessed ten days after each P. coffea release. Parasitism of H. hampei by P. coffea was significantly affected by the age of the berries at the time of infestation, and by the position of the beetle inside the berries. Highest levels of parasitism were recorded in 150-day-old berries (75-85%) and in 90-day-old berries (75%) when P. coffea were released one day after the artificial infestation with H. hampei. In 150-day-old berries, highest levels of parasitism were recorded for H. hampei found in the outer layer of the endosperm followed by beetles penetrating the exocarp. Increasing the time of P. coffea releases after the artificial infestations with H. hampei led to decreased levels of parasitism in beetles attacking 90- and 150-day-old coffee berries. Low levels of parasitism were recorded in H. hampei females infesting older coffee berries because most of the beetles had already constructed galleries deep in the endosperm of the berries, i.e. out of reach of the parasitoid. The potential of P. coffea for biological control of coffee berry borer in Colombia is discussed. PMID:16197567

  15. Avaliação da qualidade de frutos de café atacados por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae Evaluation of the quality of coffee fruit attacked by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    F.J. Cividanes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram usadas plantas de Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí Vermelho, localizadas no Campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba,SP, para avaliação dos danos que Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 pode causar aos frutos do cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que o ataque de C. capitula não causou queda prematura dos frutos, mas aumentou a queda de cerejas e foram encontradas, fortes evidências, com base na atividade da enzima polifenol oxidase e lixiviação de potássio, que cerejas atacadas podem produzir bebida de café de qualidade inferior.The present work was carried out using trees of Coffea arabica L. variety Red Catuaí grown at Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Campus of the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba,SP. The objective was to estimate damages that Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 can cause to coffee fruits. The results showed that C.capitata did not cause premature fruit fall, but it increased berry fall. The activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and potassium lixiviatiou give strong evidences that atacked coffee beans produce coffee beverage of inferior quality.

  16. Host-range Characterization of Two Pratylenchus coffeae Isolates from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Silva; Inomoto, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, s...

  17. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto .; Retno Hulupi; Sulistyowati .; Surip Mawardi; Cahya Ismayadi

    2006-01-01

    Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet p...

  18. Equações para a estimativa do índice de área foliar do cafeeiro

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    Favarin José Laércio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a variação temporal do índice de área foliar (IAF da cultura de café, utilizando um método simples e não-destrutivo, foi instalado um experimento no Departamento de Produção Vegetal, da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, da Universidade de São Paulo. Utilizou-se a cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 388-17, enxertada sobre a cultivar Apoatã IAC 2258 (de 15 até 35 meses de idade, no espaçamento de 2,5 x 1,0 m. Foram coletadas todas as folhas de duas plantas de café, em intervalos de 60 a 150 dias, para a mensuração da área foliar com o equipamento LI-COR (modelo 3100. Para obter a relação funcional entre IAF e diferentes variáveis de crescimento (altura da planta, número e massa total de folhas e área foliar e arquitetura da copa (área da seção inferior, média e superior do dossel, área lateral do dossel, diâmetro inferior, médio e superior do dossel, volume do dossel da planta e altura do primeiro par de ramos, assumiu-se que a parte aérea do cafeeiro tem a forma cônica. O diâmetro da seção inferior do dossel (primeiro par de ramos e a altura da planta podem ser utilizadas para estimar o índice de área foliar do cafeeiro.

  19. Biotecnologia aplicada ao melhoramento genético do cafeeiro Biotechnology applied to the genetic improvement of coffee plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tâmara Prado de Morais

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro mediante técnicas convencionais é trabalhoso e demorado. A biotecnologia oferece estratégias alternativas para auxiliar na multiplicação e no desenvolvimento de novas variedades com resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos, melhor qualidade de bebida e maturação mais uniforme dos frutos. As técnicas de cultura de tecidos têm possibilitado a obtenção de grande número de plantas e a garantia da uniformidade genética do material. O emprego de marcadores moleculares, principalmente através da seleção assistida, facilitou o rápido progresso do melhoramento genético da cultura, assim como a transformação genética, via cultura e fusão de protoplastos, biobalística ou mediada por Agrobacterium sp. Esta revisão objetiva sumarizar o histórico, situação atual e perspectivas da biotecnologia no melhoramento genético do cafeeiro.Genetic improvement of coffee through classical breeding is laborious and time consuming. Biotechnology offers alternative strategies to assist multiplication and development of new and improved coffee varieties, including those resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, with better cup quality, and with uniform fruit maturation. Tissue culture techniques have enabled the production of a large number of plants with genetic uniformity. The use of molecular markers, especially through assisted selection, led to rapid progress of coffee plant breeding, as well as the use of genetic transformation by protoplasts culture and fusion, biobalistics, or Agrobacterium-mediated. This review provides a summary of biotechnology history, current situation and directions applied to the genetic improvement of coffee plant.

  20. Evaluation of Somatic Embryogenesis Ability in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Priyono

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Embriogenesis somatik diharapkan sebagai metode perbanyakan tanaman yang sangat efektif pada kopi. Evaluasi dua jenis proses embriogenesis somatik, yaitu proses langsung dan tidak langsung akan bermanfaat untuk menggambarkan kemampuan proliferasi sel. Penelitian untuk mengevaluasi embriogenesis somatik kopi Robusta (Coffea canephora yang mempunyai tingkat keragaman genetik tinggi telah dilakukan di Nestlé R&D Centre Tours, Perancis. Bahan tanam menggunakan kopi Robusta koleksi Nestle Perancis dan tiga klon koleksi Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia (Puslitkoka. Tiga aspek, yaitu proses embriogenesis, keragaman embriogenesis dan kemantapan embriogenesis dievaluasi dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa baik embriogenesis somatik langsung maupun tidak langsung dapat diamati. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kedua proses embriogenesis somatik tersebut merupakan dua mekanisme yang berbeda. Dalam penelitian ini ditunjukkan bahwa kemampuan embriognesis somatik tergantung pada genotipe, baik antar maupun di dalam kelompok genetik kopi Robusta, yaitu Congolese,Guinean dan Conillon. Lebih lanjut diketahui bahwa kedua proses embriogenesis somatik tersebut stabil terhadap indukan sebagai sumber eksplan. Kemampuan embriogenesis somatik tidak langsung ketiga klon Puslitkoka (BP409, BP961 dan Q121 sangat beragam, sehingga memberikan harapan adanya pola segregasi yang baik berdasarkan kemampuan embriogenesis somatik tidak langsung pada populasi yang dibuat dari silangan klon tersebut.Key words: Coffea canephora, somatic embryogenesis, variability, stability, genotype.

  1. Identification of Putative Molecular Markers Associated with Root Traits in Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

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    Devaraja Achar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffea canephora exhibit poor root system and are very sensitive to drought stress that affects growth and production. Deeper root system has been largely empirical as better avoidance to soil water limitation in drought condition. The present study aimed to identify molecular markers linked to high root types in Coffea canephora using molecular markers. Contrasting parents, L1 valley with low root and S.3334 with high root type, were crossed, and 134 F1 individuals were phenotyped for root and associated physiological traits (29 traits and genotyped with 41 of the 320 RAPD and 9 of the 55 SSR polymorphic primers. Single marker analysis was deployed for detecting the association of markers linked to root associated traits by SAS software. There were 13 putative RAPD markers associated with root traits such as root length, secondary roots, root dry weight, and root to shoot ratio, in which root length associated marker OPS1850 showed high phenotypic variance of 6.86%. Two microsatellite markers linked to root length (CPCM13400 and root to shoot ratio (CM211300. Besides, 25 markers were associated with more than one trait and few of the markers were associated with positively related physiological traits and can be used in marker assisted trait selection.

  2. Bioactive Hydantoin Alkaloids from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hemimycale arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Diaa T A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Alshali, Khalid Z

    2015-10-28

    In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine invertebrates, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale arabica. The antimicrobial fraction of an organic extract of the sponge afforded two new hydantoin alkaloids, hemimycalins A and B (2 and 3), together with the previously reported compound (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (1). The structures of the compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) studies and high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Hemimycalins A (2) and B (3) represent the first examples of the natural N-alkylated hydantoins from the sponge Hemimycale arabica. Compounds 1-3 displayed variable antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. In addition, compound 1 displayed moderate antiproliferative activity against the human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. These findings provide further insight into the chemical diversity as well as the biological activity of this class of compounds.

  3. Bioactive Hydantoin Alkaloids from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hemimycale arabica

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    Diaa T. A. Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine invertebrates, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale arabica. The antimicrobial fraction of an organic extract of the sponge afforded two new hydantoin alkaloids, hemimycalins A and B (2 and 3, together with the previously reported compound (Z-5-(4-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1. The structures of the compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC studies and high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Hemimycalins A (2 and B (3 represent the first examples of the natural N-alkylated hydantoins from the sponge Hemimycale arabica. Compounds 1–3 displayed variable antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. In addition, compound 1 displayed moderate antiproliferative activity against the human cervical carcinoma (HeLa cell line. These findings provide further insight into the chemical diversity as well as the biological activity of this class of compounds.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization improves growth and biochemical profile in Acacia arabica under salt stress

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    Promita Datta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the individual and mixed mycorrhizal effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM isolates on growth and biochemical status of Acacia arabica under salinity stress gradients. Salt treatment provided in soil hampered legume growth and its biochemical status. But, mycorrhizal colonizations in plant root system reduced the extent of deleterious salt effect and also helped in plant growth enhancement. Additionally, mixed mycorrhizal association (Glomus mosseae + Glomus fasciculatum responded better towards osmolyte accumulation and in salt stress alleviation. Due to individual and mixed mycorrhizal colonizations in A. arabica; protein, carbohydrate and reducing sugar acquisitions were found maximum at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m over corresponding non-mycorrhizal plant. However, mixed AM inoculation accumulated proline content and improved dry biomass to a higher magnitude at the highest soil salinity level. Mixed AM (G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum colonization improved maximum amount of total chlorophyll (20.94%, protein (19.72%, carbohydrate (23.83%, reducing sugar (17.60% at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m and dry biomass (20.35%, proline content (10.99% at salinity level of 8.26 dS/m when compared with non-mycorrhizal counterpart. Greater magnitude of AM root colonization was found in mixed AM treated plant and may be responsible for more improvement in growth and biochemical status and consequently mitigated adverse salt effect better.

  5. Custos operacionais da colheita mecanizada do cafeeiro Operational costs of mechanized harvest of coffee

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    Ezequiel de Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os custos operacionais da colheita mecanizada do cafeeiro em duas passadas da colhedora. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Fazenda Capetinga, Município de Boa Esperança, MG. Os experimentos foram realizados com duas passadas da colhedora, definidas de acordo com o índice de ocorrência de grãos verdes na planta. Na primeira passada, com média de 30% de grãos verdes, a velocidade foi fixada em torno de 0,45 m s-1, tendo-se variado as vibrações em 10,83, 12,50, 14,17 e 15 Hz (tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4, respectivamente. Na segunda passada, realizada sobre as mesmas parcelas da primeira passada, com média de 10% de grãos verdes, a vibração foi fixada em 16,67 Hz, tendo-se variado as velocidades em 0,60, 0,72, 0,29 e 0,45 m s-1 (tratamentos T1, T2, T3 e T4, respectivamente. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em parcelas aleatórias com 40 plantas por linha, em média. Para a análise dos custos de colheita, comparou-se a colheita mecanizada com a manual. A redução do custo total da colheita mecanizada é de 62,36% em relação à colheita manual, colhendo com a velocidade operacional de 0,45 m s-1 nas duas passadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the operational costs of mechanized harvest of coffee in two passes of the harvester. The work was carried out in the Capetinga Farm, Boa Esperança City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiments were made with two passes of the harvester, defined according to the green grain index. In the first pass, with average of 30% green grains, velocity was fixed around 0.45 m s-1, and vibration varied at 10.85, 12.50 14.17 and 15 Hz (treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4. In the second pass, carried out in the same plots of the first pass, with average of 10% green grains, vibration was fixed in 16.67 Hz, and velocity varied at 0.60, 0.72, 0.29 and 0.45 m s-1 (treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4. It was utilized a completely

  6. Metabolismo de nitrogênio em dois sistemas de cultivo de café sob veranico da estação úmida

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    Carmem Lacerda Lemos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do veranico ocorrido na estação úmida sobre o metabolismo de nitrogênio em cafeeiros em sistema a pleno sol e associados com abacateiro (Persea americana Mill. e ingazeiro (Inga edulis Mart., foi realizado este experimento. O estudo foi conduzido em propriedade situada no município de Barra do Choça, BA, composto por plantas de café (Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí, sendo caracterizados dois campos experimentais (sistema sombreado x sistema a pleno sol. As avaliações foram realizadas em janeiro (período de veranico e março (final da estação úmida, em cinco repetições por campo experimental. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste t por meio do programa SAEG, versão 9.1. Maior teor de NO3 - foi verificado no sistema a pleno sol, tanto no período de veranico como no final da estação úmida. Em março foi observado maior acúmulo de N-orgânico no terço superior do cafeeiro a pleno sol e no terço médio do cafeeiro sombreado. Maiores teores de nitrogênio total e a tendência de maior atividade enzimática da redutase do nitrato foram verificados nos sistemas arborizados, quando avaliados dentro do mesmo terço do cafeeiro nas duas estações.

  7. Essential oils for rust control on coffee plants Óleos essenciais no controle da ferrugem em cafeeiro

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    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rust is considered the most important disease in coffee because it causes severe defoliation in plants and, consequently, reduction in productivity. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of essential oils of cinnamon, citronella, lemongrass, clove, tea tree, thyme, neem and eucalyptus on the germination of urediniospores of Hemileia vastatrix; the effectiveness of these oils to control rust on seedlings of coffee cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19 in the greenhouse; and the effect of more promising oils on urediniospores of H. vastatrix by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. All the essential oils inhibited the germination of urediniospores with increasing concentrations. All oils promoted partial control of the disease in the greenhouse. However, the oils of thyme, clove and citronella, at a concentration of 1000 µL L-1, were most effective in controlling the disease on cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19, respectively. The images generated in TEM showed that urediniospores exposed to oils of clove, citronella and thyme promoted cellular disorganization and cytoplasmic vacuolization, which was more pronounced in urediniospores exposed to citronella oil. The oils of thyme, clove and citronella are promising for the control of rust in coffee.A ferrugem é considerada a doença de maior importância no cafeeiro, pois causa acentuada desfolha nas plantas e, consequentemente, redução na produtividade. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito in vitro de óleos essenciais de canela, citronela, capim-limão, cravo-da-índia, árvore-de-chá, tomilho, nim e eucalipto na germinação de urediniósporos de Hemileia vastatrix; a eficácia desses óleos no controle da ferrugem em mudas de cafeeiro das cultivares Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 e Mundo Novo 379/19 em casa de vegetação; e o efeito dos óleos mais promissores sobre urediniósporos de H. vastatrix por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmiss

  8. Constatação de Xylella fastidiosa em pecíolos e hipocotilos de cafeeiro com sintomas de mancha manteigosa Report of Xylella fastidiosa in petioles and hypocotyls of coffee plants with symptoms of Buttery spot

    OpenAIRE

    Severina Rodrigues de Oliveira Lins; Mário Sobral de Abreu; Eduardo Alves; Juliana Franco Barbosa; Ricardo Magela de Souza

    2008-01-01

    A mancha manteigosa tem afetado um grande número de plantas de cafeeiro em condições de campo. Sua causa tem sido atribuída a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, entretanto a sintomatologia da doença na folha não tem sido reproduzida. Neste estudo, relata-se pela primeira vez a associação de Xylella fastidiosa, agente da atrofia dos ramos de cafeeiro, com pecíolo de folhas e hipocótilos obtidos a partir de sementes de plantas com sintomas da mancha manteigosa, através de estudos ultra-estruturais...

  9. Toxicidade de extratos de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis Toxicity of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica) to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Abreu Mourão; José Cola Zanuncio; Angelo Pallini Filho; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Adonai Bruneli de Camargos

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade aguda e crônica de extratos de óleo de torta, de sementes e de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (nim) a fêmeas do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A mortalidade e a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de fêmeas adultas desse ácaro foram avaliadas em discos de folhas de cafeeiro com 3,5 cm de diâmetro, impregnados com resíduo seco dos extratos de nim e flutuando em água. As concentra...

  10. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  11. Effect of Coffea canephora aqueous extract on microbial counts in ex vivo oral biofilms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Iorio, Natália Lopes Pontes; Farah, Adriana; Netto dos Santos, Kátia Regina; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the ex vivo antimicrobial effect of brewed coffee was tested on oral biofilms. For this, unsweetened and sweetened (10 % sucrose) brewed light-roasted Coffea canephora at 20 % was used in biofilms formed by non-stimulated saliva from three volunteers. After 30 min contact with unsweetened and sweetened brews, the average microorganism count in the biofilms reduced by 15.2 % and 12.4 %, respectively, with no statistical difference among them. We also observed a drop of microorganisms in the biofilms after treatment with sucrose solution at 5 % compared to control (saline) and to sucrose at 1 % and 3 %. In conclusion, Coffea canephora extract reduces the microbial count in oral biofilm, and our data suggest that sucrose concentration in coffee brew can influence its antimicrobial property against the referred biofilm.

  12. Quantitative estimation of seed desiccation sensitivity using a quantal response model : application to nine species of the genus Coffea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Dussert, Stéphane; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Engelmann, Florent; Hamon, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Seed desiccation sensitivity was studied in nine species of the genus #Coffea$ by measuring seed viability after equilibration over various saturated salt solutions. A quantal response model based on the logistic distribution was developed in order to describe the typical S-shaped patterns observed. The closeness of fit of the desiccation sensitivity model was shown, and the assumption that seed desiccation sensitivity follows a continuous distribution within species was verified. For each sp...

  13. Measurement of Selected Enzymatic Activities in Solanum nigrum-Treated Biomphalaria arabica Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daihan, Sooad

    In the present study, glucose, acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), α-amylase and lipase were measured for the first time in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria arabica snails, molluscan intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Also, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against this snail species. The tested enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. While ALP and amylase were slightly affected, ACP and lipase were significantly altered. Glucose as an important energy source for a successful schistosome-snail relationship was significantly reduced in molluscicide-treated snails. In conclusion, sublethal concentration of the molluscicide showed potent effect in disturbing snail biochemistry which may render them physiologically unsuitable for the developing of schistosome parasite. This could be considered as a promising strategy to control the disease.

  14. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 107 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  15. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 E Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: I - abamectin e emamectin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: I - Abamectin and emamectin

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    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp., por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tetranychidae, por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Alguns ácaros da família Phytoseiidae são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga e o impacto do abamectin e emamectin sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório, foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual aos ácaros-praga e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos. Em semicampo, foi estudada a persistência dos produtos no controle dos ácaros-praga. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e fim de incubação; os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos após 48 horas da aplicação, enquanto a persistência foi avaliada pela mortalidade até 30 dias após a pulverização. A seletividade aos ácaros fitoseídeos foi avaliada pelo efeito total às fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que abamectin e emamectin não possuem ação ovicida, para ambas as espécies de ácaros-praga estudadas. Considerando o efeito tópico mais residual, o abamectin e emamectin foram altamente eficientes no controle de larvas, ninfas e adultos de B. phoenicis; apenas abamectin foi eficiente no controle de O. ilicis. Abamectin foi levemente a moderadamente nocivo e emamectin mostrou-se inócuo a levemente nocivo aos fitoseídeos. Devido à eficiência de controle e seletividade a fitoseídeos, conclui-se que abamectin e emamectin podem ser utilizados em programas de manejo integrado do ácaro B. phoenicis, e abamectin para o manejo de B. phoenicis e O. ilicis em cafeeiro

  16. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  17. Eficiência na seleção de progênies de cafeeiro avaliadas em Minas Gerais

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    Marcelo Frota Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a eficiência de seleção das progênies de cafeeiros derivadas do cruzamento entre Catuaí com Icatu e com Híbrido de Timor. Foram avaliadas 18 progênies desenvolvidas pelo Programa de Melhoramento Genético da Epamig/UFLA/UFV. Os ensaios foram instalados em dezembro de 2005, nas cidades de Lavras, Campos Altos e Patrocínio, em Minas Gerais. As características analisadas foram as seguintes: produtividade, grãos retidos em peneira "17 acima" e frutos cereja em porcentagem. Para verificar a eficiência de seleção, foi aplicado o índice de coincidência segundo métodos de HAMBLIN and ZIMMERMANN (1986 e a magnitude da interação progênies x ambientes e sua decomposição em parte simples e complexa utilizando método de CRUZ e CASTOLDI (1991. A predominância da parte complexa em relação à simples na interação das progênies x ambientes confirma a baixa ou não coincidência das progênies nos diferentes ambientes, dificultando uma recomendação generalizada para as diferentes regiões cafeeiras do Estado.

  18. Comparações sazonais do efeito da Xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro Seasonal comparactions of Xylella fastidiosa effect in coffee cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan; Luciane Perosin Cabral; Osvaldo Paradela Filho

    2004-01-01

    Há muitos anos, o cafeeiro vem apresentando problemas de atrofia e seca dos ramos, atribuídos a um esgotamento nutricional devido às altas taxas de produção. Entretanto, hoje sabe-se que esse problema é causado pela presença da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. cujos sintomas estão relacionados a fatores de estresse. Embora essa bactéria tenha sido muito estudada nos Estados Unidos, devido aos danos causados à videira, pouco se conhece sobre a relação patógeno-hospedeiro-vetor nas dife...

  19. Hidrogel como substituto da irrigação complementar em viveiro telado de mudas de cafeeiro Hydrogel as a substitute for irrigation in screened seed nursery coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Angélica Alves Marques; Marcos Antônio de Melo Cripa; Eduardo Henrique Martinez

    2013-01-01

    O cafeeiro, em sua fase inicial de mudas, requer um adequado suprimento de água, pois o estresse hídrico pode causar reduções no crescimento e subsequentemente na produção em campo. A hipótese deste trabalho foi que o uso do hidrogel como substituto da irrigação de mudas de café cv. 'Iapar 59' proporciona mudas de qualidade igual ou superior àquelas irrigadas. O experimento foi conduzido em viveiro telado (50% sombrite) em Presidente Prudente - SP - de fevereiro a outubro de 2008. Utilizou-se...

  20. Modeling the climate change impacts on global coffee production

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Die Untersuchung der Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf die globale Kaffeeproduktion in einem integriertem Modell war das Ziel dieser Arbeit. Der vorwiegende Teil der globalen Kaffeeproduktion stammt von zwei Arten: dem hitzeempfindlichen Coffea arabica (Arabica) Strauch und vom frostempfindlichen Coffea canephora (Robusta). Eine zunehmende Zahl Studien zeigt, dass der Klimawandel bereits heute die Produktion mindert. Maschinenlernklassifizierung wurde hier genutzt um ein Modell der globalen...

  1. Production of herbicide-resistant coffee plants (Coffea canephora P. via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation

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    Alessandra Ferreira Ribas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants of Coffea canephora P. resistant to the herbicide ammonium glufosinate were regenerated from leaf explants after co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring pCambia3301, a plasmid that contains the bar and the uidA genes both under control of 35S promoter. Direct somatic embryogenesis was induced on basal medium contained ¼ strength macro salts and half strength micro salts of MS medium, organic constituents of B5 medium and 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 5µM N6 - (2-isopentenyl-adenine (2-iP. Ten µM ammonium glufosinate was used for putative transgenic somatic embryos selection. Presence and integration of the bar gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Selected transgenic coffee plants sprayed with up to 1600 mg.L-1 of FinaleTM, a herbicide containing glufosinate as the active ingredient, retained their pigmentation and continued to grow normally during ex vitro acclimation.Plantas transgênicas de Coffea canephora P resistentes ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio foram regeneradas a partir de explantes foliares co-cultivados com Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 contendo o plasmídio pCambia3301 que contém os genes bar e uidA ambos sob controle do promotor 35S. Embriogênese somática direta foi induzida no meio contendo ¼ da concentração de macro, metade da concentração de micronutrientes do meio MS, constituintes orgânicos do meio B5 e 30 g.L-1 de sacarose suplementado com 5µM N6 - (2-isopentenil-adenina (2-iP e 10 µM de glufosinato de amônio para seleção de embriões transgênicos putativos. A presença e a integração do gene bar foram confirmados pelas análises de PCR e Southern blot. As plantas transgênicas selecionadas de café, pulverizadas com 1600 mg.L-1 do herbicida FinaleTM que contém glufosinato como ingrediente ativo, mantiveram a coloração e continuaram crescendo normalmente na aclimatação ex vitro.

  2. Optimizing of Arabica Coffee Bean Fermentation Process Using a Controlled Fermentor

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    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One  of  primary  coffee  processing  steps  which  affect  the  end  quality  isfermentation.  Fermentation  using  a  controlled  fermentor  might  be  usefulbecause  all  of  parameters  which  influence  coffee  quality  can  be  controlled.The  aim of this  research is to evaluate  performance  of  controlled fermentor forfermentation  process  of  Arabica  coffee  beans.  Main  material  of  this  researchwas ripe Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Research Station in Bondowoso district.  Research  parameters  were  temperature  with  four  levels  i.e.:  ambient temperature,  30o C,  35oC  and  40oC,  and  fermentation  time  with  three  levels  i.e.: 6  hours,  12  hours,  and  18  hours.  A  horizontal  type  of  modified  fermentor  has been  tested  with  20  kg/batch  or  50%  of  maximum  loading  capacity.  The  result showed  that  an  electric  heater  as  energy  source  can  raise  temperature  duringfermentation  process.  Fermentation  process  using  fermentor  at  30-40oC had  not  significant  effect  on  physical  properties  change  such  as  density,  beancount  per  100  g  and  distribution  of  beans.  Optimum  condition  for  Arabica fermentation  process  in  a  modified  fermentor  reactor  was  25oC  temperature, and  12  hours  fermentation  time.  By  this  condition,  green  beans  have  good organoleptic  score  than  other  fermentation  process  treatments. Key words: Fermentor, fermentation, coffee, quality, organoleptic, horizontal cylinder.

  3. Derriçadora portátil na colheita total e seletiva de frutos do cafeeiro Portable harvester in the total and selective harvesting of coffee fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Márcio Alves de Souza

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de derriçadoras portáteis durante a colheita seletiva e total dos frutos, em dois sistemas de colheita. Foram determinados a carga pendente da planta, a capacidade de derriça, o índice de desfolha, a eficiência de derriça, o índice de frutos verdes no produto, o nível de ruído e o consumo horário e específico de combustível. O sistema de colheita, utilizando-se duas derriçadoras portáteis, simultaneamente na mesma fileira de cafeeiros, apresentou melhor desempenho. A colheita seletiva foi muito influenciada pela porcentagem de frutos maduros e carga pendente do cafeeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a portable coffee harvester to mountain areas. Two procedures were tested: harvesting all fruits in only one operation, and the selective harvesting. Coffee yield, harvesting capacity, index of leaves taken during harvesting process, harvesting efficiency, noise level and fuel consumption were measured. The harvesting system with two portable harvester presented better performance than with only one machine. Selective harvesting was highly influenced by the percentage of ripen fruits and by coffee yield.

  4. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

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    Yusianto .

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste

  5. Melhoramento do cafeeiro XXXV: altura e profundidade das plantas e características das sementes de progênies e híbridos de café plantados a uma e quatro plantas por cova Coffee breeding XXXV: characteristics of coffee progenies and hybrids cultivated at one or four seedlings per hill

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    A. Carvalho

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available A fim de avaliar a reação de 48 progênies de diversos cultivares e populações híbridas de Coffea arabica a uma ou quatro plantas por cova. estabeleceu-se um ensaio, em Campinas, com parcelas subdivididas, cinco repetições, as subparcelas correspondendo às 48 progênies ou híbridos e as parcelas correspondendo à modalidade de plantio de uma ou quatro plantas por cova. As produções foram avaliadas no período 1958 a 1963. Verificou-se que as plantas atingiram altura maior no plantio a quatro plantas por cova, as progênies tendo reagido praticamente de modo uniforme neste particular. Os resultados de produção total indicaram que em geral o plantio a quatro plantas resultou em produções mais elevadas e mais uniformes e que algumas progênies de mundo novo são as mais produtivas. O grupo de menor produtividade foi o do material introduzido da Etiópia. Não se notou heterose na produção dos híbridos entre plantas de mundo novo e entre plantas de burbom amarelo, em relação à das progênies, sendo que os híbridos entre mundo novo e burbom vermelho deram produções intermediárias às dos pais. Do ponto de vista da seleção, constatou-se, de modo geral, que as progênies mais produtivas a uma planta por cova também se mostraram melhores quando plantadas a quatro plantas. Pelos dados acumulados de produção de 2, 4 e 6 anos consecutivos, verificou-se que uma seleção precoce das melhores progenies poderia ter sido feita logo após os dois primeiros anos de colheitas. Pelo menos as progenies menos produtivas poderiam ter sido descartadas após esse período. Verificou-se que as sementes normais, do tipo chato, ocorreram com porcentagem pouco mais elevada e as sementes moca e concha com porcentagens pouco menores no plantio a quatro plantas por cova. O tamanho da semente não foi afetado pelo método de plantio.A field trial was established in Campinas in order to study plant height, yielding capacity, and bean

  6. Host-range characterization of two Pratylenchus coffeae isolates from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R A; Inomoto, M M

    2002-06-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, sorghum, maize, rice, millet, okra, melon, eggplant, and lettuce were the best hosts of the Marília isolate. Poor hosts included French marigold, Rangpur lime, banana, sesame, peanut, sunflower, cotton, French bean, onion, and small onion. The best hosts of the Rio de Janeiro isolate were sesame, soybean, sorghum, castor oil plant, watermelon, squash, eggplant, and melon; the poorest hosts were French marigold, coffee, Rangpur lime, banana, sunflower, peanut, maize, millet, French bean, cotton, onion, sweet pepper, lettuce, okra, and small onion. These isolates have important molecular and morphological differences, suggesting host preference is linked to these characteristics.

  7. Effectiveness of Endophytic Bacterial Consortium of Coffee Plant on Mortality of Pratylenchus Coffeae in Vitro

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    dwi halimah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria live in wild in form of a consortium. Use of microbial consortium tends to give better results than single isolate, because the action of enzyme of each type of microbe can complement each other in order to survive. This study aimed to study the effectiveness of bacterial endophytic consortium from coffee plant on plant growth and mortality of parasitic nematodes in coffee. Isolation of bacteria is conducted  by growing the crushed roots, stems and leaves of coffee on 20% TSA media, then testing their hemolysis and hypersensitivity reaction. Selected isolates were tested on their effect on the growth of seedling and Pratylenchus coffeae mortality, as well as their chitinolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic, HCN production, dissolution of phosphate (P and fixation of nitrogen (N2 abilities. The results showed that from 27 isolates of the consortium, 23 isolates showed negative reaction to hypersensitive test and 9 isolates to hemolysis test. The highest mortality rate was shown by K6 isolate (65.8%. The highest growth was shown by K15 and K 21 isolates while the highest root length by K21 isolate. Further analisys showed that 100% of the isolates could hydrolyze proteases, lipid, and produce HCN, while chitinolytic activity was shown by 78% isolates which could fix N2 and 11% of isolates could dissolve phosphate.

  8. Estudio del proceso de callogénesis en genotipos promisorios de cafeto (Coffea canephora P..

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    González Vega María Esther

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available on la finalidad de obtener callos embriogénicos y luego embriones somáticos de los mismos en el cultivo del café (Coffea canephora P., se cultivaron in vitro explantes foliares de ramas ortotrópicas de plantas establecidas en campo. Los medios de cultivo contenían las sales minerales recomendadas por Murashige y Skoog (1962 y como reguladores del crecimiento se estudiaron el 2,4-D (0.5 mg/L y la Kinetina (2.0 mg/L, así como el RIZOBAC (0.4-1.8 mg/L para la inducción del callo embriogénico. Se observó que la dosis de 0.9 mg/L de RIZOBAC y 2.0 mg/L de Kinetina favorecieron notablemente la formación de callos embriogénicos de alta frecuencia (46.0-98.7 %. Estos callos cultivados en un medio suplementado con ANA (0.1 mg/L y Kinetina (0.5 mg/L originaron embriones somáticos en diferentes estadios de desarrollo. Palabras clave: Robusta; clones; callos; 2,4-D; Kinetina; RIZOBAC.

  9. Teores de nitrogênio em fôlhas de cafeeiro, em relação à adubação química: I - Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto Effects of fertilization on the nitrogen content of the coffee leaves: I - Latosolic B "Terra roxa" and ortho Red-yellow Latosol

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    J. Romano Gallo

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de análises foliares obtidos durante cinco anos em ensaio de adubação química nitrogenada em café, cultivar Mundo Nôvo, instalado em Latossolo Roxo transição para Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo orto, revelaram, para amostras colhidas no verão, teores médios de 2,8% a 3% de nitrogênio total como indicativos de uma nutrição adequada. Produções elevadas de frutos estiveram associadas com teores da ordem de 500 ppm de nitrogênio nítrico nas fôlhas. A análise de fôlhas para ambas as formas de nitrogênio mostrou que a aplicação do adubo nitrogenado em pelo menos três parcelas, no período que vai de outubro a março, parece importante para prevenir a deficiência.Nitrogen is highly demanded by coffee (Coffea arabica L. plants, and previous survey, made by foliar analysis, indicated that most of them, grown in São Paulo State, suffer nitrogen deficiency. A study was made to observe the variation of the total and nitric nitrogen, as judged by foliar chemical analysis, in relation to the type, amount and the timing of the application of several different nitrogen fertilizers (Nitrocálcio, nitrate of soda from Chile, ammonium sulphate, and urea. The experiment, a factorial of 4x4x4, was installed in a mixture of Latosolic B "Terra Roxa" and Ortho Red-Yellow Latosol at Experimental Center of Campinas, SP. The amount of the fertilizer used was 45, 90, 135 and 180 g N/plant, subdivided in 1 to 4 applications throughout the year. P2O5 (120 g and K(20 (180 g were uniformly applied to all plants. Leaf samples were collected at 45 days intervals between October and March, and another at July, from 1964 to 1969. The results of the analysis indicated that: (a sampling during summer (January-March is better to evaluate nitrogen deficiency in coffee; (b total nitrogen content of 2.8-3% (and about 500 ppm of nitric N was correlated to a production of more than 2,500 kg/ha of treated beans; (c the subdivision of the fertilizers applied

  10. ESTUDO DA PROBABILIDADE DE OCORRÊNCIA DE FERRUGEM NO CAFEEIRO CONILON COM O USO DA KRIGAGEM INDICATIVA

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    Abel Souza da Fonseca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use kriging to study the probability of occurrence of rust (Hemileia vastatrix in coffee conilon. To do so, were georeferenced, in an area of 1,0 ha, 140 points (plants with the aid of a GPS topographic. The evaluation consisted of the experiment was the observation of the presence or absence of the middle third of each plant geo-referenced point, whereas the plants with disease occurrence equal to 1 (one and the occurrence of the disease not equal to 0 (zero. The occurrence of the disease in the present spatial dependence, and the map built with the help of kriging allows different take preventive measures in different areas in the field.Este estudo teve por objetivo utilizar a krigagem indicativa para estudar a probabilidade de ocorrência da ferrugem (Hemileia vastatrix no cafeeiro conilon. Para tal, foram georreferenciados, em uma área de 1,0 ha, 140 pontos (plantas com auxilio de um GPS topográfico. A avaliação do experimento consistiu na observação da presença ou ausência da doença no terço médio de cada planta do ponto georreferenciado, considerando as plantas com ocorrência da doença igual a 1 (um e da não ocorrência da doença igual a 0 (zero. A ocorrência da doença na área apresentou dependência espacial, sendo que o mapa construído com o auxilio da krigagem indicativa permite tomar diferentes medidas preventivas em diferentes áreas na lavoura.

  11. Estrangulamento do caule do cafeeiro, causado pelo frio Low temperature-induced stem strangulation of young coffee plants

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    Coaracy M. Franco

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar se o estrangulamento do caule de cafeeiros novos, observado em alguns anos de inverno rigoroso, poderia ser conseqüência do acúmulo de camadas de ar frio nas proximidades do solo, tratou-se com temperaturas baixas a haste de plantas com cêrca de seis meses de idade. O tratamento consistiu em se fazer circular salmoura refrigerada ao redor do caule, sem, entretanto, entrar em contato com êste. Obteve-se o estrangulamento com o emprêgo de vários tratamentos que incluiam temperaturas de - 2 a - 6º C. Uma planta tratada com temperatura de - 5 a - 7º C morreu duas semanas após o tratamento. Plantas tratadas por duas horas com as temperaturas de 0 a - 2º C não exibiram estrangulamento nem qualquer outro sintoma de anormalidade.A strangulation of the stem of young coffee plants a few inches above ground has been observed in some years after a cold winter. To know if this strangulation could be caused by the action of a layer of cold air that had settled over the surface of the soil as has been suggested (1, an experiment was carried out wich consisted of circulating cold water around the stem for a certain period of time. To accomplish this a special apparatus was mode using plexiglass. To obtain temperatures below the freezing point, pre-chilled salt water was used. To avoid an injurious direct contact of brine with the stem, this was wrapped with aluminum foil which was made waterproof. Two plants subjected to temperature treatments of 0° to - 2° C survived without damage. All treatments with temperatures below - 2° C resulted in strangulation and in the case of the coldest treatment used (- 5 to - 7° C in the death of the plant.

  12. Spatial estimation of foliar phosphorus in different species of the genus Coffea based on soil properties

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    Samuel de Assis Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information underlying analyses of coffee fertilization systems should consider both the soil and the nutritional status of plants. This study investigated the spatial relationship between phosphorus (P levels in coffee plant tissues and soil chemical and physical properties. The study was performed using two arabica and one canephora coffee variety. Sampling grids were established in the areas, and the points georeferenced. The assessed properties of the soil were levels of available phosphorus (P-Mehlich, remaining phosphorus (P-rem and particle size, and of the plant tissue, phosphorus levels (foliar P. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and probability tests. Geostatistical and trend analyses were only performed for pairs of variables with significant linear correlation. The spatial variability for foliar P content was high for the variety Catuai and medium for the other evaluated plants. Unlike P-Mehlich, the variability in P-rem of the soil indicated the nutritional status of this nutrient in the plant.

  13. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Mishra; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved c...

  14. Modeling the formation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during the roasting of Arabica coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Goujot, Daniel; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valerie

    2008-05-28

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production, as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot-spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, for roasting conditions ranging from 5 to 20 min. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Different models were tested, with more or less assumptions on the chemical phenomena, with a view to predict the system global behavior. Two kinds of models were used and compared: kinetic models (based on Arrhenius law) and statistical models (neural networks). The numbers of parameters to adjust differed for the tested models, varying from three to nine for the kinetic models and from five to 13 for the neural networks. Interesting results are presented, with satisfactory correlations between experimental and predicted concentrations for some PAHs, such as pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and anthracene. PMID:18433138

  15. Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Adriana; de Paulis, Tomas; Moreira, Daniel P; Trugo, Luiz C; Martin, Peter R

    2006-01-25

    The market for decaffeinated coffees has been increasingly expanding over the years. Caffeine extraction may result in losses of other compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and, consequently, their 1,5-gamma-quinolactones (CGL) in roasted coffee. These phenolic compounds are important for flavor formation as well as the health effects of coffee; therefore, losses due to decaffeination need to be investigated. The present study evaluates the impact of decaffeination processing on CGA and CGL levels of green and roasted arabica coffees. Decaffeination produced a 16% average increase in the levels of total CGA in green coffee (dry matter), along with a 237% increase in CGL direct precursors. Different degrees of roasting showed average increments of 5.5-18% in CGL levels of decaffeinated coffee, compared to regular, a change more consistent with observed levels of total CGA than with those of CGL direct precursors in green samples. On the other hand, CGA levels in roasted coffee were 3-9% lower in decaffeinated coffee compared to regular coffee. Although differences in CGA and CGL contents of regular and decaffeinated roasted coffees appear to be relatively small, they may be enough to affect flavor characteristics as well as the biopharmacological properties of the final beverage, suggesting the need for further study.

  16. Yield performance and leaf nutrient levels of coffee cultivars under different plant densities Produtividade e níveis foliares de nutrientes em cultivares de café sob diferentes populações de plantas

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    Edison Martins Paulo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea Arabica L. plantations using adapted cultivars to regional environmental conditions with optimal plant population density and adequate nutrition are expected to show high yield responses. The triennial production and leaf macronutrient concentrations of four coffee cultivars were studied under different plant population densities. Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, Obatã (IAC 1669-20, Acaiá (IAC 474-19 and Icatu Amarelo (IAC 2944 were planted in densities of 2,500; 5,000; 7,519; and 10,000 plants ha-1 with one plant per hole and two plants per hole in the 2,500 plant ha-1. Plants were homogeneously fertilized without liming. As the population density increased the triennial coffee productivity increased, the yield per plant decreased, and leaf concentrations of phosphorus (P, potassium (K and sulfur (S increased. Coffee plants under dense systems presented equal or higher leaf macronutrient concentrations compared to the plants under conventional population. Taller cultivars presented the highest nutrient concentration values, and Obatã, a dwarf cultivar, the lowest values. Higher coffee yields and lower leaf P, Ca and S concentrations were observed in plots with one plant compared to the plots with two plants. In general, the coffee cultivars had leaf N and S concentrations above the reference limits reported in the literature, but leaf concentrations of other macronutrients were within adequate ranges.Cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea Arabica L. adaptadas às regiões de cultivo, com população de plantas otimizada e adequado estado nutricional são premissas para a obtenção de produções elevadas de café. Estudou-se a produção trienal de café e o teor foliar de macronutrientes de cultivares de cafeeiro em função das densidades de plantio. Foram utilizados os cultivares Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, Obatã (IAC 1669-20, Acaiá (IAC 474-19 e Icatu Amarelo (IAC 2944 nas populações de 2.500 plantas ha-1 com duas plantas por cova; e, 5

  17. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  18. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

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    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  19. Influência do zinco na incidência de doenças do cafeeiro Zinc influence on coffee diseases

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    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Em cafeeiros, poucos estudos foram feitos relacionando aumento ou diminuição da resistência das plantas às doenças, com alteração dos níveis de nutrientes utilizados. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar os efeitos do sulfato de zinco aplicado isoladamente, e associado com fungicidas e cloreto de potássio sobre a ferrugem, cercosporiose e manchas foliares do cafeeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma lavoura de café em produção, onde foram testados oxicloreto de cobre, tebuconazole, sulfato de zinco + cloreto de potássio e sulfato de zinco e nas subparcelas foram realizadas diferentes concentrações de sulfato de zinco: ausência, 0,3 %, 0,6 % e 1,2 %. Verificou-se que os tratamentos com oxicloreto de cobre e tebuconazole reduziram a incidência e severidade de ferrugem, a incidência de cercosporiose, de manchas foliares (phoma e ascochyta e a desfolha, independente das concentrações de sulfato de zinco utilizadas. Concentrações de sulfato de zinco na faixa de 0,6 % - 0,75 % apresentaram menor severidade da ferrugem e o aumento nas concentrações de sulfato de zinco aumentou a incidência de cercosporiose, manchas foliares e a desfolha dos cafeeiros.The are few studies have been done related to the increase or decrease of disease resistance in coffee plants, with alteration from plant nutrient levels. The ain of this work was to verify the effect of zinc sulfate, applied either alone or in association with fungicides, and the effect of potassium chloride on coffee leaf rust, brown-eyes and leaf stains in coffee plants. Copper oxichloride, tebuconazole, sulfate of zinc + potassium chloride and sulfate of zinc were applied on plots and concentrations of zinc sulfate (0,0 %, 0,3 %, 0,6 % and 1,2 % were applied on sub plot. Treatments with copper and tebuconazole reduced the incidence and severity of rust, the incidence of brown-eyes and stains leaf (phoma and ascochyta and the defoliate independent of the zinc sulfate

  20. The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

    2014-08-01

    Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed.

  1. Alterações químicas em solo submetido a diferentes formas de manejo do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoro V. C. A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A difusão de pacotes tecnológicos que preconizam o uso de altas dosagens de adubos químicos e o controle de pragas e doenças, como métodos para manter o potencial produtivo das lavouras, obriga o produtor a utilizar aplicações sistemáticas de fertilizantes inorgânicos e pesticidas, o que vem afetando a sustentabilidade do agroecossistema cafeeiro, gerando uma total dependência de insumos industrializados. O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar as mudanças nas características químicas, físicas e microbiológicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (LVd, da região de Santo Antônio do Amparo (MG, sob agroecossistemas de produção de "café orgânico", "em conversão" e "convencional", em relação a um fragmento de mata nativa. Em duas fazendas sob influência de condições similares de clima e relevo, apresentando o mesmo cultivar (Acaiá IAC474-19 e idade da lavoura (cinco anos, foi realizado um levantamento de dados por um período de um ano. O solo foi amostrado na profundidade de 0-20 cm, em duas épocas (julho/1999 e dezembro/1999. A análise de componentes principais permitiu uma visualização conjunta das características que mais influíram no comportamento do solo dos diferentes sistemas estudados. De modo geral, as formas de manejo para produção de café orgânico, em conversão e convencional, proporcionaram aumentos na fertilidade do solo, quando comparados com a condição do solo do fragmento de mata nativa. No agroecossistema de produção de café orgânico, foram obtidas maiores alterações das características químicas em relação ao convencional; houve incrementos no pH e nos valores de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, B, CTC do solo, soma de bases, saturação por bases e diminuição do Al trocável.

  2. Efeito da poda do tipo decote no controle da xylella fastidiosa em cultivares de cafeeiro "Decote" type pruning effect upon xylella fastidiosa control in coffee cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan; Luciane Perosin Cabral; Osvaldo Paradela Filho; Luiz Carlos Fazuoli

    2007-01-01

    A bactéria Xylella fastidiosa causa prejuízos à cafeicultura e o emprego de produtos químicos, até o presente, não tem possibilitado o controle econômico dessa bactéria. O manejo adequado do cafezal, desde o plantio, com o uso de mudas isentas da bactéria e o controle das cigarrinhas vetoras, são medidas que atenuam a incidência da doença. A utilização de podas, que tem sido recomendada como medida de controle em citros e videiras, não tem ainda eficiência comprovada para o cafeeiro. Neste tr...

  3. Formação de biofilme em gotejadores aplicando água residuária da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro = Formation of biofilm in drippers applying wastewater from pulping of the coffee fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Oliveira Batista; Antonio Teixeira Matos; Fernando França da Cunha; Paola Alfonsa Lo Monaco

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a formação de biofilme em sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento aplicando água residuária da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC) submetidas ou não à passagem em filtro orgânico. Para isso, foi montada uma estrutura hidráulica de avaliação, constituída de fitas gotejadores, não autocompensantes e posicionados no espaçamento de 0,3 m. Diante dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: águas residuárias da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro apresentaram s...

  4. Desempenho de derriçadora portátil de frutos do cafeeiro Performance of fruits portable harvester in the detachment of coffee plants

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    Cristiano M. A. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho de uma derriçadora portátil para cafeicultura de montanha durante a colheita de frutos de cafeeiros Catucaí e Catuaí, em vários estádios de desenvolvimento. Foram determinados as características dos cafeeiros, as curvas características do motor da derriçadora, a capacidade e a eficiência de derriça, o consumo de energia, a desfolha e o nível de ruído emitido pela máquina. A derriçadora portátil teve desempenho satisfatório por apresentar baixa desfolha e número de galhos quebrados, capacidade de derriça regular, baixo consumo específico de energia e elevada eficiência de derriça. O nível de ruído aumentou com o aumento da potência requerida na derriça.The portable harvester performance was evaluated for mountain coffee during the detachment of the fruits in different ages of the plants. The performance evaluation of the portable harvester was accomplished with four ages of plants and two coffee varieties. The coffee plant characteristics, the curve characteristics of the portable harvester engine, the detachment capacity and efficiency, the specific energy consumption, the mechanical damage and the noise level emitted by the machine were evaluated. The portable harvester held out a satisfactory performance by presenting less mechanical damage and number of broken branches, a regular detachment capacity, low specific energy consumption and high detachment efficiency. The noise level increased with the increasing of the power requirement.

  5. Ação de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Silva Rogério Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.

  6. A FORMAÇÃO FAMILIAR DO COMPLEXO CAFEEIRO: A REDE FAMILIAR E OS INVESTIMENTOS DOS LACERDA FRANCO NA ECONOMIA PAULISTA (1847-1893

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    Gustavo Pereira da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A historiografia econômica aponta a formação do complexo cafeeiro paulista na segunda metade do século XIX como elemento-chave na ascensão econômica de São Paulo no período. O complexo tinha a produção cafeeira no centro e, paralelamente, atividades que viabilizavam àquela produção: ferrovias, casas comissárias, bancos, indústrias, serviços públicos, empreendimentos comandados pelos membros do grande capital cafeeiro. Todavia, há uma lacuna na caracterização destes indivíduos que se dá pela escassez de informações que os inventários fornecem acerca dos processos de enriquecimento. O presente trabalho busca evidenciar a estratégia de enriquecimento dos Lacerda Franco, um dos grupos familiares mais importantes a atuar na economia paulista no XIX, que se pautou pela formação de uma rede familiar, que se expressava pela ativação dos vínculos entre os parentes para a escolha de cônjuges e a formação de empresas. Os familiares se capitalizavam internamente através da realocação da riqueza anteriormente acumulada e, dessa forma, tinham condições de empreender. Estes apontamentos se baseiam na análise dos investimentos da família Lacerda Franco na economia paulista da segunda metade do século XIX.

  7. International competitiveness of brazilian and paraná state`s coffe complex / Competitividade internacional do complexo cafeeiro brasileiro e paranaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vasques Cintra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants aspects of the competitiveness of the exportations of the coffee complex in Paraná State between 1990 and 2003 . The study intends to systematize: the recent literature on the subject, focusing the competitiveness of the main products of the brazilian guideline of exportations. A critical review of literature was made about the theories of international trade and competitiveness. It was characterized the dynamics of the complex of Brazilian coffee. The article identifies the competitive advantages of the Paraná coffee (green, roasted, soluble and special in relation to the competing countries; discusses the barriers to imports imposed to the brazilian coffee by the importing countries, and ends with the possible public and private policies favorable to the competitiveness of the coffee exportations.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os determinantes da competitividade das exportações do complexo cafeeiro paranaense entre 1990 e 2003. O estudo pretende sistematizar: a literatura recente sobre o tema, enfocando a competitividade de um dos principais produtos da pauta de exportações brasileira e do Paraná. Realizou-se a revisão crítica da literatura das teorias do comércio internacional e da competitividade e em seguida, caracterizou-se a dinâmica do complexo cafeeiro do brasileiro e paranaense. O artigo identifica as vantagens competitivas do café paranaense (verde, torrado, solúvel e especial em relação aos países concorrentes; discute as barreiras às importações impostas ao café brasileiro pelos países importadores; e finaliza com as possíveis políticas públicas e privadas favoráveis à competitividade das exportações de café.

  8. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

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    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  9. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  10. Seletividade e controle de plantas daninhas com oxyfluorfen e sulfentrazone na implantação de lavoura de café Weed selectivity and control with oxyfluorfen and sulfentrazone in young arabica coffee plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.O. Magalhães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a seletividade do oxyfluorfen e do sulfentrazone e o controle de plantas daninhas em diferentes épocas após o transplantio das mudas de café no campo. Foram realizados três ensaios no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. No ensaio 1, aos 30 dias após o transplantio (DAT e, no ensaio 2, aos 90 DAT, testaram-se duas doses de oxyfluorfen (0,36 e 0,72 kg i.a. ha-1 e de sulfentrazone (0,4 e 0,6 kg i.a. ha-1, em jato dirigido ao solo (com proteção das mudas e em área total. No ensaio 3, os mesmos herbicidas e doses foram aplicados, porém aos 300 DAT e apenas em aplicação dirigida, testando-se duas pontas de pulverização de diferentes potenciais de deriva. Em todos os ensaios, acrescentaram-se as testemunhas capinada e sem capina. A entrelinha foi manejada com roçada. Foram identificadas as espécies de plantas daninhas e suas densidades. A eficácia dos herbicidas e suas seletividades também foram avaliadas. A principal planta daninha que ocorreu na área experimental foi Brachiaria decumbens. Sintomas visuais de toxicidade foram observados apenas quando os herbicidas foram aplicados em área total (ensaios 1 e 2, independentemente da dose e época de aplicação. No ensaio 3, independentemente do herbicida, da dose e da ponta utilizada, não houve sintomas visuais de toxicidade, nem redução no crescimento das plantas, em função da aplicação dirigida. Em todas as épocas o controle de plantas daninhas foi eficiente, porém a seletividade só foi alcançada na aplicação dirigida, para ambos os herbicidas.This study aimed to evaluate oxyfluorfen and sulfentrazone selectivity and weed control in young coffee plantations (Coffea arabica cv. Red Catuaí. Three trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design, with 10 treatments and four replicates. In the first and second trials, at 30 and 90 days after transplanting (DAT

  11. Avaliação de caracteres quantitativos relacionados com o crescimento vegetativo entre cultivares de café arábica de porte baixo Evaluation of quantitative traits related with the vegetative growth among arabica coffee cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Travassos Sarinho de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar associação entre caracteres quantitativos relacionados com o crescimento vegetativo em cultivares de porte baixo de café arábica (Coffea arabica L.. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Unidade Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA, município de Brejão (PE, localizado na mesorregião do agreste e na microrregião de Garanhuns, no ano agrícola de 2004/2005. O delineamento usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e doze tratamentos constituídos por cultivares de porte baixo. Os caracteres foram avaliados através da análise de variância, estimativa dos parâmetros dos componentes da covariância e determinismo genético e dos coeficientes de correlações. Os resultados detectaram nas cultivares estudadas diferenças para altura das plantas e comprimento dos ramos palagiotrópicos. As cultivares Topázio MG 1189, Catucaí, Obatã IAC 1669-20 e Topázio MG 1190 são as melhores em desenvolvimento nos 12 primeiros meses de crescimento. O diâmetro de caule está fortemente correlacionado positivamente com o comprimento de ramos plagiotrópicos quando avaliada o incremento de crescimento. Quando avaliada aos 12 meses, o caráter altura de plantas correlacionou-se negativa e altamente significativa com o diâmetro de copa e o comprimento dos ramos plagiotrópicos, negativamente a número de ramos plagiotrópicos secundários e positivamente com o número de internódios de ramos plagiotrópicos.The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between quantitative traits related with the vegetative growth in cultivars of short height of arabic coffee. The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Station of IPA (Research Institute of the State of Pernambuco, located in the town of Brejão, during in the agricultural year of 2004/2005. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four replications and twelve treatments, with each replications

  12. Progresso da ferrugem e da cercosporiose do cafeeiro consorciado com grevílea, com ingazeiro e a pleno sol em Lavras - MG Progress of rust and coffee plant cercosporiose mixed with grevílea, with ingazeiro and in the full sunshine in Lavras - MG

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    Bruno Grandi Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a incidência da ferrugem e da cercosporiose do cafeeiro em diferentes sistemas de cultivo, agroflorestais e a pleno sol, através da curva de progresso dessas doenças. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cafeeiros consorciados com ingazeiro, cafeeiros consorciados com grevílea e cafeeiros cultivados convencionalmente a pleno sol. As avaliações foram realizadas mensalmente no período de abril de 2001 a março de 2003. Realizou-se o cálculo da área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, a qual foi submetida à análise de variância. Para a incidência da ferrugem do cafeeiro o consórcio cafeeiro x ingazeiro mostrou-se com maiores índices da doença, sendo que os tratamentos consórcio cafeeiro x grevílea e cafeeiro a pleno sol não diferiram entre si e apresentaram menores incidências da doença. Diminuição na luz solar direta e maior umidade podem ter favorecido a ferrugem no sistema cafeeiro x ingazeiro. Para a incidência de cercosporiose, os cafeeiros a pleno sol obtiveram maiores valores de incidência da doença, seguidos por cafeeiros x grevílea, e menores taxas da doença foram observadas no consórcio cafeeiros x ingazeiro. A incidência de radiação solar direta pode ter favorecido a maior incidência de cercosporiose nos cafeeiros a pleno sol.The present work aimed to evaluate the incidence of rust and coffee plant cercosporiose in different systems of agroforest cultivation and in the full sunshine through the progress curve of those diseases. The completely randomized design with three treatments and seven replicates was utilized. The treatments were made up of coffee plants mixed with ingazeiro, coffee plants mixed with grevílea and coffee plants cultivated conventionally in the full sunshine. The evaluations were performed monthly during the period of April 2001 to

  13. PRODUCCIÓN DE FITOMASA POR Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner EN DOS CICLOS PRODUCTIVOS

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    Carlos Bustamante González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En áreas de la Estación Central de Investigaciones de Café y Cacao ubicadas en La Mandarina, municipio Tercer Frente, provincia Santiago de Cuba y La Alcarraza, municipio Sagua de Tánamo, provincia Holguín, se evaluó la producción de biomasa de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. Robusta desde la plantación hasta el cuarto año en ambas localidades y luego de la poda baja y hasta el cuarto año en la Alcarraza. Los cafetos fueron plantados a 3 x 1,5 m en suelos Pardos bajo sombra de Samanea saman Jerr en la primera localidad y Leucaena leucocephala Lam de Wit en la segunda. La fitomasa se separó en hojas, ramas, tallos, frutos y raíces. A partir de los 24 meses y al año después de la poda se recolectaron mensualmente las hojas del cafeto caídas. Para el estudio del sistema radical se extrajeron bloques de suelo de 25 x 25 x 25 cm, en un área formada por 1,5 m (distancia hacia la calle y 0,75 m (entre plantas, en todos los casos centrado en relación con la planta y hasta un metro de profundidad. El volumen del suelo extraído representó ¼ del volumen ocupado por la planta. Se determinó la masa seca de cada órgano. La producción de fitomasa alcanzó valores de 25 toneladas de masa seca ha -1 independientemente de la fase de la plantación. Hasta el cuarto año el sistema radical predominó en la fitomasa, seguido de las hojas y luego los tallos. La participación de los frutos se incrementó en la etapa de cosecha y al concluir el experimento los cafetos habían destinado para su formación entre el 16-20 % de la masa seca total, independientemente del ciclo de desarrollo

  14. Cloning and Expression of α-D-Galactosidase from Coffee Bean( Coffea liberica & Coffea canephora )%具血型转换功能的咖啡α-半乳糖苷酶基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁素钰; 郑学勤

    2005-01-01

    从大粒种咖啡(Coffea liberica)和中粒种咖啡(Coffea canephora)中分离克隆到了α-半乳糖苷酶(α-D-gal-actosidase)cDNA的开放阅读框架即编码区,分别记为Gal-D与Gal-Z,长度与已发表的小粒种咖啡cDNA编码序列相同均为1 089 bp,同源性与已发表的小粒种咖啡cDNA编码序列相比分别为98.7%和99.27%.将克隆到的Gal-D与Gal-Z用巴斯德毕赤氏酵母Pichia pastoris表达载体pPICZαA(分泌甲醇诱导型)和pGAPZαA(分泌组成型)成功地构建了如下酵母表达载体:pPICZαA/Gal-Z,pPICZαA/Gal-D和pGAPZαA/Gal-D,并转入酵母宿主菌GS115进行了发酵表达研究.实验得出工程菌株pPICZαA/Gal-D/GS115的重组表达产物酶活最高可达48 22(U/mL),对发酵产物进行了SDS-PAGE电泳,得到一条清晰的主条带.

  15. Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov., and Microvirga arabica sp. nov., isolated from sandy arid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyisoglu, Aysel; Tatar, Demet; Saygin, Hayrettin; Inan, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Tuncer, Munir; Sahin, Nevzat

    2016-02-01

    The taxonomic positions of two Gram-negative strains, SV1470(T) and SV2184P(T), isolated from arid soil samples, were determined using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the concatenated sequences of three housekeeping gene loci (dnaK, rpoB and gyrB) confirmed that the strains belong to the genus Microvirga. Strain SV1470(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga vignae BR3299(T) (98.8 %), Microvirga flocculans TFB(T) (98.3 %) and Microvirga lupini Lut6(T) (98.2 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.8 to 96.3 %; strain SV2184P(T) was found to be closely related to Microvirga aerilata 5420S-16(T) (98.0 %), Microvirga zambiensis WSM3693(T) (97.8 %) and M. flocculans ATCC BAA-817(T) (97.4 %), whilst similarity to other type strains of the genus ranged from 97.2 to 95.9 %. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 61.5 mol % for strain SV1470(T) and 62.1 mol % for strain SV2184P(T). Both strains were found to have the same quinone system, with Q-10 as the major ubiquinone. The polar lipid profile of strain SV1470(T) was found to consist of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified aminolipid, while that of strain SV2184P(T) consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified phospholipids. DNA-DNA relatedness studies showed that the two strains belong to different genomic species. The strains were also distinguished using a combination of phenotypic properties. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, the novel species Microvirga makkahensis sp. nov. (type strain SV1470(T) = DSM 25394(T) = KCTC 23863(T) = NRRL-B 24875(T)) and Microvirga arabica sp. nov. (type strain SV2184P(T) = DSM 25393(T) = KCTC 23864(T) = NRRL-B 24874(T)) are proposed. PMID:26671415

  16. INFLUENCIA DE DIFERENTES VARIANTES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN EL CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE POSTURAS DE Coffea canephora Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, A.; Bustamante, C; R. Rodríguez; Díaz, A.(Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy); Y. Bertot; Maritza I. Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    En áreas experimentales de la Estación Central de Investigaciones de Café y Cacao (ECICC), se desarrolló un experimento dirigido a evaluar la respuesta de Coffea canephora Pierre a la fertilización con hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA), Azotobacter chroococcum y urea. La cepa de Azotobacter utilizada se aisló de la rizosfera del cafeto cultivado en suelo Pardo ócrico sin carbonatos. El inóculo se obtuvo en el medio DIMARGON y se aplicó con título de 1010UFC.mL-1. El inóculo micorrízico (...

  17. Compactação causada pelo manejo de plantas invasoras em latossolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com cafeeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sant'Anna Moreira Pais

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas invasoras é considerado uma das principais atividades que promovem degradação da estrutura do solo em lavouras cafeeiras, devido à compactação do solo causada pelas operações de controle de plantas invasoras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina, bem como, utilizando esse modelo, qual manejo de plantas invasoras causa menor ou maior compactação do solo. Este estudo foi realizado em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA cultivado com cafeeiros da cutivar Topázio MG 1190 desde 2006, localizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, na comunidade Farias, em Lavras-MG. Os manejos de plantas invasoras avaliados foram: na linha de tráfego da entrelinha - grade de discos, herbicida de pós-emergência, herbicida de pré-emergência, roçadora e trincha; e no centro da entrelinha, onde não houve tráfego - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capina manual, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e soja (Glicine max L. A amostragem consistiu de duas etapas: uma para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo de plantas invasoras sem capina; e outra para avaliar a compactação promovida pelos outros manejos de plantas invasoras. A fim de determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga para o manejo sem capina, foram coletadas no centro da entrelinha 20 amostras com estrutura indeformada nas profundidades de 0-3, 10-13 e 25-28 cm, totalizando 60 amostras. Essas amostras foram submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial para obter as pressões de pré-consolidação e as umidades volumétricas, que foram usadas para determinar o modelo de capacidade de suporte de carga. Para determinar a compactação causada pelos manejos de plantas invasoras, realizados por meio do controle mecânico, foram coletadas em janeiro de 2010, nas linhas de tráfego das entrelinhas, 180 amostras com

  18. Qualidade da bebida do café Icatu Coffee cup quality - cup quality variabiltty in the Icatu cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se as características da bebida de alguns cafeeiros híbridos (Coffea arabica x C. canephora que deram origem ao icatu, e de plantas pertencentes a nove populações deste cultivar. A qualidade da bebida dos cafeeiros originais mostrou-se semelhante à do arábica, variando de "mole" a "apenas mole". Nas populações de icatu foram efetuadas 1953 determinações. Verificou-se que a bebida não difere daquela produzida pelo cultivar acaiá (C. arabica, tomada como padrão. Em escala de cinco pontos, 63 (3,2% determinações deram bebida "dura" e 1324 (67,8%, "mole", enquanto o acaiá apresentou bebida "mole". Na escala de 10 pontos o número 3 foi dado a nove determinações (0,5% e o máximo de nove pontos a 677 (34,6%, sendo de 7,7 a média de pontos conferida ao acaiá. Verificou-se que as populações H 3849-7, H 3851-4 e H 4782-7 apresentaram médias de pontos mais elevadas e que as populações H 3849-14-2 e H 3849-14-3 deram as menores médias, nas duas escalas de valores. As populações examinadas não diferem do acaiá quanto à qualidade da bebida, podendo ser utilizadas comercialmente.Cup quality determination was undertaken for a group of coffee seed samples of interespecific (Coffea arabica x C. canephora trees, which gave rise to the Icatu cultivar and also for nine Icatu coffee populations. The original hybrid plants showed cup quality similar to the Arabica control, with exception of one single plant which gave lower quality. For these populations a total of 1953 cup quality determinations were made by three independent coffee drinker experts. Two scale ranking from 0-5 and 1-10 were used for the evaluation. It was verified that the average grades of each one of the nine Icatu populations did not differ from the Arabica. In the scale (0-5 the grade "Hard" occurred in 63 determinations (3.2% an the "Soft" cup quality in 1324 determinations (67.8%. In the 10 points scale 3 points were attributed to nine determinations

  19. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 e Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: II - Spirodiclofen e Azocyclotin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: II - Spirodiclofen and Azocyclotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp. por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, doença responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Ácaros da família Phytoseiidae, de várias espécies, são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga com spirodiclofen e azocyclotin, e o impacto sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos; em casa-de-vegetação foi avaliada a persistência no controle às duas espécies de ácaros-praga; e em campo foi avaliada a eficiência apenas no controle de B. phoenicis. Os bioensaios foram realizados em arenas de folhas destacadas. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e final de incubação. Os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos aos oito dias, e a persistência até 30 dias após a aplicação. A seletividade aos fitoseídeos foi avaliada, pelo efeito na mortalidade e reprodução de fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Spirodiclofen e azocyclotin (SC mostraram eficiente ação ovicida, principalmente para ovos de B. phoenicis no início de incubação. Para ovos de O. ilicis, somente o spirodiclofen apresentou efeito ovicida. Em geral, os efeitos tópico e residual associados melhoraram a eficiência dos produtos no controle das fases pós-embrionárias de ambas as espécies. O spirodiclofen apresentou seletividade aos ácaros predadores, já o azocyclotin foi nocivo. Em campo, ambos os acaricidas mostram-se altamente eficientes na redução de todas as fases pós-embrionárias do ácaro B. phoenicis, principalmente nas folhas.The mite Brevipalpus

  20. Characterization of Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Volatile Compound Compositions and Bioactive Components of Seven Coffee (Coffea robusta) Cultivars Grown in Hainan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjiang Dong; Lehe Tan; Jianping Zhao; Rongsuo Hu; Minquan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Compositions of fatty acid, amino acids, and volatile compound were investigated in green coffee beans of seven cultivars of Coffea robusta grown in Hainan Province, China. The chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total lipid, and total protein contents as well as color parameters were measured. Chemometric techniques, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and analysis of one-way variance (ANOVA) were performed on the complete data set to reveal chemic...

  1. Understanding the stability of silver nanoparticles bio-fabricated using Acacia arabica (Babool gum) and its hostile effect on microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Mewada, Ashmi; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-05-01

    We report green synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from Acacia arabica gum and its anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. UV-Vis spectral analysis of synthesized SNPs showed maximum peak at 462 nm initially and 435 nm after 24 h. Using Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), the average size of synthesised SNPs was found to be ˜35 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed the crystalline nature of SNPs. Percentage conversion of Ag+ ions into Ag° was calculated using ICP-AES and was found to be 94%. By calculating flocculation parameter, we could see that these SNPs are extremely stable under the influence of very high NaCl concentration up to 4.16 M. These stable SNPs can be used in various industrial and medical applications.

  2. Produtividade do cafeeiro e cultivos intercalares sob diferentes regimes hídricos Coffe and intercropping productivities under different water regimes

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    Rogério Teixeira de Faria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes regimes hídricos na produtividade do cafeeiro e cultivos intercalares foi determinado em um experimento em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em Londrina, PR, durante sete anos. Os tratamentos consistiram de aplicação de irrigação para manter a camada de solo de 0,7 m com mais de 50% da água disponível (40 kPa a 0,25 m e 30% de água disponível (70 kPa a 0,25 m, além de um tratamento não irrigado. Após o terceiro ano de implantação da lavoura, na fase reprodutiva do cafeeiro, a camada de manejo de irrigação foi aumentada para 1 m e os tratamentos irrigados foram desdobrados em dois tratamentos: com irrigação durante o ano todo e com irrigação de setembro a março. Durante os dois anos iniciais de formação da lavoura, foram cultivados feijão, seguido de arroz, intercalares ao cafeeiro. Em média, a irrigação aumentou a produtividade de café de 15% a 22%, em relação à testemunha, quando aplicada no período de setembro-março, e em cerca de 10%, quando aplicada durante o ano todo. A maturação, porém, foi mais desuniforme e não se eliminou o efeito bienal de variação da produção de café. Além de proporcionar produtividade significativamente superior à testemunha, com a irrigação aplicada de setembro a março, mantendo-se o solo com umidade acima de 30% da água disponível (tensões menores que 70 kPa a 0,25m, houve menor consumo de água que nos demais tratamentos irrigados. Para as culturas intercalares, a irrigação aumentou a produtividade de 240% a 300% para o feijão e em cerca de 50% para o arroz.The effect of soil water regimes on coffee yield and intercropping species were assessed by an experiment conducted in a red dark Latosol, in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Treatments consisting on application of irrigation for maintaining soil moisture in the 0-0.7m depth above 50% soil available water (40 kPa at 0.25 m and 70% soil available water (70 kPa at 0.25 m, in addition

  3. Desempenho produtivo e econômico do consórcio de cafeeiro arábica e nogueira-macadâmia

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    Marcos José Perdoná

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo e econômico do consórcio de cafeeiro arábica e nogueira-macadâmia, em condições de sequeiro e irrigado por gotejamento, bem como a viabilidade financeira dos tratamentos em três cenários de preço de café. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (café solteiro sequeiro, café solteiro irrigado, consórcio café-nogueira-macadâmia sequeiro, consórcio café-nogueira-macadâmia irrigado, nogueira-macadâmia solteira sequeiro e nogueira-macadâmia solteira irrigada e dez repetições. Avaliaram-se a produtividade, o índice de equivalência de área e os resultados econômicos dos tratamentos em três cenários de preço do café. A irrigação por gotejamento e o cultivo consorciado aumentaram a produtividade do cafeeiro e da nogueira-macadâmia, em comparação aos monocultivos em condição de sequeiro, e, em geral, proporcionaram a mesma produtividade dos monocultivos irrigados de café, além de produtividade superior à dos monocultivos irrigados de nogueira-macadâmia. O uso associado da consorciação e da irrigação aumenta a eficiência do uso da terra em cinco vezes, quando comparado às médias das culturas solteiras em condição de sequeiro. O cultivo consorciado irrigado proporciona maior rentabilidade e retorno mais rápido do investimento, o que o torna uma alternativa viável, especialmente em períodos de menores preços do café.

  4. Transpiration and stomatal resistance variations of perennial tropical crops under soil water availability conditions and water deficit

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    José Ozinaldo Alves de Sena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the dry and rainy seasons, determinations of stomatal resistance and transpiration of five tropical crops were carried out: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, coffee (Coffea arabica L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., guava (Psidium guajava L. and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg. trees. Experimental design was done at randomized complete blocks with five replications. During the dry season there was a decrease in values of stomatal resistance in the following order: guarana > coffee> cashew> guava > rubber, with values from 2.5 to 30.0 s.cm-1. During the rainy season the stomatal resistance values varied from 1.5 to 3.0 s.cm-1. The guarana and coffee crops showed higher resistance to water transpiration when compared to other crops. During the rainy season, the rubber tree continued to present lower stomatal resistance and, consequently, higher transpiration.O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando-se as culturas de guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana Kunth, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg.. No período de seca (setembro/94 e de chuvas (novembro/94, realizaram-se determinações de resistência estomática (RE (s cm-1 e transpiração (T (µg cm-1 s-1 nas diferentes espécies. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A partir das análises dos dados pode-se concluir: 1. diferenças significativas entre espécies, em termos das variáveis avaliadas no período de deficiência hídrica, com valores decrescentes de resistência estomática e crescente de transpiração na seguinte ordem: guaranazeiro > cafeeiro > cajueiro > goiabeira > seringueira; 2. Nas águas as diferenças entre espécies, para ambas as variáveis, foram menos evidentes, continuando a

  5. Desempenho do manejo orgânico na nutrição e produtividade de lavoura cafeeira = Performance of organic management in the nutrition and productivity of the coffee crop

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    Vanessa Cristina de Almeida Theodoro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Já existe um acervo de experiências práticas de transição agroecológica para a cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. em pequenas propriedades na região sul de Minas Gerais que inspiraram essa pesquisa. O experimento foi instalado em uma lavoura cafeeira(variedade Catuaí Amarelo, espaçamento 4,0 x 0,7 m e idade de 6 anos localizada em Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais. Após o primeiro ano de transição agroecológica, avaliaramse os efeitos dos manejos orgânico e convencional na nutrição e produtividade da lavoura. Empregou-se o delineamento látice balanceado 4x4 em esquema fatorial 3x2x2 com cincorepetições mais quatro tratamentos adicionais. O manejo orgânico adotado é eficiente no fornecimento de N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, Zn, Cu e Fe ao cafeeiro em produção. Os tratamentos de manejo orgânico apresentam produtividade similar à da testemunha convencional, devido à existência de reservas de nutrientes no solo.There is already a great number of practical experiences with agroecological transition in the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L., in small properties at the South region of Minas Gerais state, which inspired this research. The experiment was installed in a coffee crop (variety Catuaí Amarelo, spacing 4.0 x 0.7 m and 6 years agelocated in Lavras, (Minas Gerais state, Brazil. After the first year of agroecologic transition, the effects of organic and conventional management in the nutrition and productivity were evaluated. The experimental design used was the lattice balanced 4x4 in factorial scheme 3x2x2 with five replications and four additional treatments. The used organic management is efficient in the supply of N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, and Fe for the coffee plant in production. The treatments of organic management showed a similar productivity to theconventional one due to the existence of nutrient reserves in the soil.

  6. INFLUENCIA DE DIFERENTES VARIANTES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN EL CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE POSTURAS DE Coffea canephora Pierre

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    A. Pérez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En áreas experimentales de la Estación Central de Investigaciones de Café y Cacao (ECICC, se desarrolló un experimento dirigido a evaluar la respuesta de Coffea canephora Pierre a la fertilización con hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA, Azotobacter chroococcum y urea. La cepa de Azotobacter utilizada se aisló de la rizosfera del cafeto cultivado en suelo Pardo ócrico sin carbonatos. El inóculo se obtuvo en el medio DIMARGON y se aplicó con título de 1010UFC.mL-1. El inóculo micorrízico (Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus clarum provino del cepario del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas; se utilizó además un concentrado de cepas nativas. Para la incoculación se utilizó una mezcla de propágulos de la micorrización del sorgo en suelo estéril que contenía hifas, raicillas y 40 esporas/g suelo. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con 12 tratamientos y tres réplicas, realizándose a los seis meses de plantados los esquejes, las evaluaciones de altura (cm, diámetro del tallo (cm, área foliar (cm2, masa seca total (g, extracción de nutrientes (mg y se determinó además el porcentaje de colonización micorrízica. Se obtuvo una respuesta positiva de Coffea canephora a la inoculación con Azotobacter y HMA. El efecto positivo de las micorrizas dependió de las cepas utilizadas. Se reafirmó la utilización de la cepa certificada Glomus fasciculatum para la inoculación del cafeto en suelo Pardo. No se encontró respuesta positiva de la aplicación de urea foliar en el desarrollo de las posturas de Coffea canephora. La respuesta a la coinoculación dependió de ella y es factible cuando se utiliza el potencial de inóculo natural del suelo, lo que se expresa en el aumento de la absorción P. Con la cepa Glomus clarum la aplicación de Azotobacter deprimió o no causó efecto en la morfología de los esquejes, mientras que con Glomus fasciculatum aumentó la absorción de P. El concentrado de cepas nativas no debe aplicarse

  7. Efeito de alta temperatura no desenvolvimento de Hemileia vastatrix em cafeeiro suscetível Effect of temperature on coffee rust evolution

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    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de temperaturas elevadas no desenvolvimento da ferrugem do cafeeiro, verificando-se que a exposição de plantas a temperatura próxima de 40ºC por quatro horas durante quatro dias foi suficiente para impedir a evolução da moléstia. Períodos menores foram ineficientes para afetar o desenvolvimento do fungo.The development of rust epidemics in tropical conditions of Brazil has been different than previously expected. Despite of high humidity the development is reduced to a minimum during the summer. High temperature was assumed to have a detrimental effect on the rust development. This paper reports the results of a study concerning the effect of high temperature on Hemileia vastatrix development. Temperature treatment of inoculated young plants at 40(0C for 4 hours in 4 consecutive days was sufficient to prevent rust development. The curative effect was permanent indicating that the fungus was destroyed inside the plant tissue. Practical implications of such results are considered.

  8. Diferenças na intensidade e na expansão da pústula da ferrugem do cafeeiro em dois acessos de Hemileia vastatrix Differences in the intensity and pustule expansion of coffee rust for two Hemileia vastatrix accesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloisa Salustiano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar, em ambiente controlado, as diferenças na intensidade de doenças e na expansão da pústula de dois acessos de Hemileia vastatrix, coletados em plantas da cultivar Catuai das cidades de Coromandel (COR2, no Alto Paranaíba e de Ijaci (IIJ1, no Sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas inoculadas foram submetidas a três temperaturas (15, 20 e 25ºC e três períodos de molhamento foliar (24, 48 e 72 horas de molhamento foliar, em esquema fatorial com três repetições. Ambos os acessos apresentaram maior severidade da doença quando submetidos a 24 horas de molhamento foliar, após a inoculação. A maior freqüência de infecção do IIJ1 foi a 15ºC, no entanto, a temperatura não influenciou essa variável para COR2. Houve maior severidade da ferrugem em COR2 a 25ºC. A maior expansão da pústula, em folhas inoculadas com IIJ1, foi a 15ºC com 7,59cm², e a menor a 25 ºC, com 5,37cm², enquanto para COR2 houve aumento à medida que se elevou a temperatura de 15 para 25ºC, de 1,44 para 6,62 cm², respectivamente. Accessos provenientes de Ijaci e de Coromandel apresentaram diferenças na intensidade da ferrugem e na expansão das pústulas em ambiente controlado.The aim of this work was to study, under controlled environment, the differences in the disease intensity and pustule expansion of two Hemileia vastatrix accesses, sampled in cultivar Catuai coffee (Coffea arabica L. plants from Coromandel (COR2 and Ijaci (IIJ1, towns located respectively in the West and South of Minas Gerais State. The inoculated plants were submitted to three temperatures (15, 20 and 25ºC and three leaf wetness durations (24, 48 e and 72 hours in a factorial scheme with three replicates. Both accesses presented a higher disease severity when submitted to 24h leaf wetness duration after inoculation. The higher infection frequency for IIJ1 was at 15ºC, while the temperature did not influence this variable for COR2. There was a higher

  9. Métodos de controle de plantas daninhas e seus impactos na qualidade microbiana de solo sob cafeeiro Methods of weed control and their impacts on microbial quality of soil under coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Melloni; Gabriela Belleze; Arthur Manuel Silva Pinto; Luiza Barbosa de Paula Dias; Emilienne Margueritte Silve; Eliane Guimarães Pereira Melloni; Maria Inês Nogueira Alvarenga; Elifas Nunes Alcântara

    2013-01-01

    Minas Gerais destaca-se como o Estado que mais produz café no Brasil. Essa cultura é extremamente suscetível à presença de plantas daninhas, que podem ser manejadas por meio de métodos manuais, mecanizados e, ou, químicos, com impacto nos custos da produção e qualidade do solo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito exercido por diferentes métodos de controle de plantas daninhas na linha e entrelinha de cafeeiro, sobre a microbiota do solo e seus processos, que destacadamente têm sid...

  10. Produtividade de forrageiras utilizadas em rampas de tratamento de águas residuárias da lavagem e despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro Forage yield in treatment ramps of wastewater from processing of coffee fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio T. de Matos; Andressa B. Pinto; Odilon G. Pereira; Antonio A. Soares; Paola A. Lo Monaco

    2003-01-01

    Gramíneas forrageiras foram cultivadas com o objetivo de se selecionar espécies para serem utilizadas como cobertura vegetal em rampas de tratamento de águas residuárias, por escoamento superficial. Essas forrageiras, azevém comum, aveia preta comum e milheto, foram submetidas à aplicação de águas residuárias da lavagem e despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC) sob uma taxa de 250 kg ha-1 d-1 de DBO5. As mesmas espécies vegetais foram cultivadas como testemunhas, recebendo adubação convencional ...

  11. Auto-incompatibilidade, produtividade, ocorrência de sementes do tipo moca e mudas anormais no café Icatu Self-compatibility, yield, peaberry seed an abnormal. seedlings In Icatu coffee populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Carvalho

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Acentuada variabilidade quanto à frutificação após a autopolinização artificial, ocorrência de sementes do tipo moca e freqüência de plantas anormais, possivelmente aneuplóides, têm sido verificadas em populações S1 e S2 do café Icatu. Três populações com um retrocruzamento para Coffea arabica e três com dois retrocruzamentos foram analisadas com relação às características mencionadas, em um experimento localizado em Campinas. A porcentagem de frutificação foi maior nas populações com dois retrocruzamentos (13,5 a 20,6 do que naquelas com um retrocruzamento (6,3 a 10,6. Nessas populações ocorreram cafeeiros com alta porcentagem de frutificação (51,1, semelhante às obtidas para o cultivar Catuai de C. arabica (41,6 a 61,6. Alguns cafeeiros, ao contrário, mostraram-se praticamente auto-estéreis, independentemente do número de retrocruzamentos. Tais plantas poderão ser, no futuro, utilizadas para síntese de híbridos F1. As porcentagens de sementes do tipo moca foram menores nos cafeeiros com dois retrocruzamentos (22 a 29 do que naqueles com um retrocruzamento apenas (39 a 56. (Quanto às plantas anormais, as porcentagens foram maiores nas populações resultantes de flores autopolinizadas artificialmente, em especial na população com um único retrocruzamento. Alguns cafeeiros, no entanto, não apresentaram plantas anormais na descendência. Verificou-se que essa característica não depende da produtividade dos cafeeiros originais e que, em algumas progênies, ocorreram plantas anormais do tipo angustifolia, com maior freqüência. Verificou-se, ainda, que nas populações S1 dos cafeeiros mais produtivos, é difícil encontrar indivíduos sem os defeitos indicados. Todavia, observações de algumas progênies S3 mostraram ser possível identificar cafeeiros sem os referidos defeitos, o que é de bastante interesse para fins de seleção. De modo geral, os resultados sugerem que a taxa de fecunda

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241988 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ltransferase family protein similar to defense-related protein cjs1 [Brassica carinata][GI:14009292], theobr...omine synthase [Coffea arabica][GI:13365751], SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [GI:13676829] 2e-35 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065153 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ferase) (SPDSY) {Coffea arabica}; contains Pfam profile PF01564: Spermine/spermidine synthase 1e-38 ... ...pyltransferase, putative similar to SP|O82147 Spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) (Putrescine aminopropyltrans

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ltransferase family protein similar to defense-related protein cjs1 [Brassica carinata][GI:14009292], theobr...omine synthase [Coffea arabica][GI:13365751], SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [GI:13676829] 2e-37 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068518 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ferase) (SPDSY) {Coffea arabica}; contains Pfam profile PF01564: Spermine/spermidine synthase 1e-141 ... ...pyltransferase, putative similar to SP|O82147 Spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) (Putrescine aminopropyltrans

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240953 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ltransferase family protein similar to defense-related protein cjs1 [Brassica carinata][GI:14009292], theobr...omine synthase [Coffea arabica][GI:13365751], SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [GI:13676829] 1e-18 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241207 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ltransferase family protein similar to defense-related protein cjs1 [Brassica carinata][GI:14009292], theobr...omine synthase [Coffea arabica][GI:13365751], SAM:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [GI:13676829] 3e-37 ...

  18. Aplicación de una técnica de Cromatografía de Exclusión molecular para la purificación de ADN en plantas de Coffea sp. APPLICATION OF A TECHNIQUE OF MOLECULAR EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE PURIFICATION OF DNA FROM Coffea sp. PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García Cepero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores inconvenientes en la extracción y purificación de biomoléculas a partir de plantas del género Coffea, es un alto contenido de polifenoles y compuestos tánicos. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología que permite obtener ADN de alta pureza. La extracción del ADN del homogeneizado de tejido foliar en siete genotipos de Coffea sp., se realizó mediante la técnica citada por Chaparro (1993 y su purificación se logró mediante cromatografía de exclusión molecular sobre una fase estacionaria de Sephacryl S-1000. Los resultados muestran que la alta eficiencia de separación de ARN degradado, proteínas, pigmentos y compuestos que absorben entre 220 y 300 nm, permiten obtener un ADN de alta pureza a juzgar por los datos espectrofotométricos y electroforéticos.One of the greatest difficulties in extracting and purifying biomolecules from plants in the genus Coffea is the high polyphenol and tannin contents. In this study a methodology is described that allows obtaining high purity DNA from leaf tissues of seven genotypes of Coffea sp. by means of the technique desribed by Chaparro (1993 and its further purification was achieved by molecular exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-1000 (Pharmacia. The results showed that the high separation efficiency of degraded RNA, proteins, pigments, and other compounds that absorb between 220 and 300 nm allowed obtaining high purity DNA as judged by the spectophometric and electroforetic data.

  19. Coffee water use in agroforestry system with rubber trees Uso da água em sistema agroflorestal com café e seringueira

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    Ciro Abbud Righi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Water uptake and use by plants are essentially energy processes that can be largely modified by percentage of soil cover, plant type; foliage area and its distribution; phenological stage and several environmental factors. Coffee trees (Coffea arabica - cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 in Agrforestry System (AFS spaced 3.4x0.9m apart, were planted inside and along rows of 12- year-old rubber trees (Hevea spp. in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil (22 42'30" S, 47 38'00" W - altitude: 546m. Sap flow of one-year-old coffee plants exposed to 35; 45; 80; 95 and 100% of total solar radiation was estimated by the heat balance technique (Dynamax Inc.. Coffee plants under shade showed greater water loss per unit of incident irradiance. On the other hand, plants in monocrop (full sun had the least water loss per unit of incident irradiance. For the evaluated positions average water use was (gH2O.m-2Leaf area.MJ-1: 64.71; 67.75; 25.89; 33.54; 27.11 in Dec./2002 and 97.14; 72.50; 40.70; 32.78; 26.13 in Feb./2003. This fact may be attributed to the higher stomata sensitivity of the coffee plants under more illuminated conditions, thus plants under full sun presented the highest water use efficiency. Express transpiration by leaf mass can be a means to access plant adaptation to the various environments, which is inaccessible when the approach is made by leaf area.A absorção e uso da água pelas plantas são processos essencialmente energéticos que podem ser grandemente modificados pela porcentagem de cobertura do solo, tipo de plantas, área foliar e sua distribuição, estágio fenológico e diversos fatores ambientais. Cafeeiros (Coffea arabica - cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 em Sistema Agroflorestal (AFS espaçados de 3.4 x 0.9 m foram plantados dentro e ao lado de um seringal de 12 anos de idade (Hevea spp. em Piracicaba, SP, Brasil (22 42'30"S, 47 38'00" W - altitude: 546 m. O fluxo de seiva dos cafeeiros com 1 ano de idade expostos a 35, 45, 80, 95 e 100% da radiação solar

  20. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Glugea arabica n. sp. (Microsporidia), infecting the marine fish Epinephelus polyphekadion from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Rocha, Sónia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

    2016-02-01

    A new microsporidian species, Glugea arabica n. sp., is reported infecting the intestinal wall of the marine teleost Epinephelus polyphekadion (=microdon) collected from the Red Sea coast off Saudi Arabia, and described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Spherical blackish xenomas formed parasitophorous vacuoles completely packed with several parasitic developmental stages, including spores. The nuclei were monokaryotic in all developmental stages. Spores were ellipsoidal to pyriform and measured 6.3 ± 0.3 (5.9-6.6) μm in length and 3.3 ± 0.4 (2.9-3.7) μm in width. A lamellar polaroplast surrounded the uncoiled portion of the polar filament, which extended into the spore's posterior pole and formed 27-29 coils organized in three or four rows. The posterior vacuole, located at the spore's posterior pole, appeared surrounded by the polar filament coils and displayed an irregular matrix composed of light material, in which was located the posterosome. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the ITS region, was performed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methodologies. The ultrastructural features observed, in combination with the molecular data analysed, suggests the parasite to be a new species of the genus Glugea. PMID:26555734

  1. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (<35%), with a slightly lower extractability for dark-roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee. PMID:17941690

  2. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes.

  3. Irrigação e certificação da cafeicultura na Região Centro-Oeste de São Paulo Irrigation and certification on coffee crop in mid-west of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José Perdoná

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rentabilidade insatisfatória tem provocado diminuição paulatina do parque cafeeiro no Estado de São Paulo. Entre as alternativas para a solução deste problema, duas se destacam: a irrigação das lavouras e a certificação das propriedades. Mesmo em regiões consideradas aptas à cultura do café arábica (Coffea arabica L., o uso da irrigação pode promover, na média dos anos, aumento de produtividade de grãos. Além disso, a certificação do produto favorece sua diferenciação no mercado e pode melhorar os resultados econômicos da atividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de cafeeiros submetidos a sistemas irrigados ou não, comparando os dados econômicos na comercialização do café certificado ou não, nas condições da Região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo. O delineamento utilizado no campo foi o de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (com e sem irrigação por gotejamento e dez repetições. Foram calculados os custos de produção, bem como a lucratividade com a venda do produto final. A irrigação aumentou o desenvolvimento e a produtividade dos cafeeiros. Houve o retorno do investimento a partir da terceira safra. A venda de café certificado possibilitou resultados econômicos em média de 224,5% superiores ao não certificado. A irrigação aliada à venda de café certificado proporcionou saldo financeiro 1.192% superior ao café não irrigado e não certificado.An unsatisfactory profitability has led to the gradual decline of the coffee plantations in São Paulo. Among the alternatives that arise for solving this problem, two stand out: the irrigation of crops and certification of properties. Even in areas considered suitable for cultivation of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L., the use of irrigation can promote an increase in grain yield. In addition, the product certification promotes their differentiation in the market and can improve the economic results of

  4. Formação de biofilme em gotejadores aplicando água residuária da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro = Formation of biofilm in drippers applying wastewater from pulping of the coffee fruits

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    Rafael Oliveira Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a formação de biofilme em sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento aplicando água residuária da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC submetidas ou não à passagem em filtro orgânico. Para isso, foi montada uma estrutura hidráulica de avaliação, constituída de fitas gotejadores, não autocompensantes e posicionados no espaçamento de 0,3 m. Diante dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: águas residuárias da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro apresentaram severo risco de entupimento de gotejadores, mesmo quando submetidas a tratamento prévio em filtros orgânicos.This work objectified to analyze the formation of biofilm in drip irrigation systems applying wastewater from pulping of the coffee fruits (ARC with and without ticket in organic filter. For that, a hydraulic structure of evaluation, constituted of drip tape, non pressure compensating, positioned in the spacing of 0,3 m. In accordance with the results obtained can be concluded that: wastewater from pulping of the coffee fruits presented severe risk of clogging of emitters, same when submitted the treatment in organic filters.

  5. Modelagem para a estimativa da orientação de linhas de plantio de cafeeiros Modelling for estimating the orientation of coffee planting rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klerisson M. G. Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de radiação solar interceptada por uma cultura é uma importante variável meteorológica que determina o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de uma cultura agrícola e, dentre os sistemas de produção, a orientação das linhas de plantio poderá ser um componente bastante relevante quanto à interceptação da radiação solar direta (Rd em ambas as faces. Portanto, este trabalho propõe como objetivo um modelo para recomendar a orientação adequada das linhas de cafeeiro na implantação, baseando-se naquela a proporcionar uma uniformidade na quantidade de Rd interceptada e acumulada durante o ciclo agrícola da cultura, em ambas as faces da linha de plantio. Para o teste do modelo, foram coletados dados de produção em uma área experimental de café irrigado por pivô central, na Fazenda São Thomé, em Pirapora-MG, em plantas alinhadas nas seguintes orientações, em relação ao norte geográfico, positivo no sentido horário e negativo ao contrário: -90º, -45º, 0º e 45º. Os resultados indicaram que as melhores orientações para a produtividade foram, sucessivamente, as de -45º e 0º, enquanto o modelo proposto estimou a orientação de -24º 16' como sendo a melhor para o plantio das linhas de cafeeiro.The quantity of solar radiation intercepted by a crop is an important meteorological variable that determines the growth and development of a crop and among the production systems, the orientation of planting rows could be a very important component regarding the interception of direct solar radiation (Rd on both faces. Thus the objective of this study proposes a model to recommend the adequate orientation of the planting rows of coffee in the deployment, based on that providing uniformity in quantity of intercepted and accumulated Rd during the crop cycle on both faces of the planting row. In order to test the model, production data were collected in an experimental area of the coffee crop irrigated by a center pivot

  6. Eliminação de linhas em cafeeiros adensados por meio semimecanizado Elimination of dense coffee-lines by semi mechanized ways

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    Ezequiel de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Buscando obter maior produtividade inicial da lavoura cafeeira é comum fazer plantio adensado, porém devido ao adensamento e outras causas a produtividade reduz-se a partir da quarta ou quinta colheita, sendo uma das causas o "fechamento" da copa das plantas, necessitando assim fazer a eliminação de linhas de café. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência operacional e viabilidade econômica de diferentes métodos de eliminação das linhas de cafeeiros adensados. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Município de Lavras, MG, em área de 1 ha, sendo os ensaios realizados utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, em parcelas aleatórias com 50 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos foram: palitamento e arranquio usando trator com gancho, palitamento com foice e corte com motosserra e palitamento com foice e corte com serra circular. O tratamento palitamento com foice e corte com serra circular, apresentou melhor eficiência operacional de campo, sendo 41,8 % mais eficiente que o tratamento palitamento e arranquio usando trator com gancho. O uso palitamento com serra circular ou motosserra é técnica e economicamente mais viável que o uso do palitamento e arranquio usando trator com gancho. No caso da venda dos troncos como lenha, os três métodos de eliminação das linhas dos cafeeiros resultaram em receitas líquidas, sendo maior para o palitamento e corte usando serra circular, chegando ao valor de R$ 624,98 ha-1.In order to obtain a larger initial productivity of coffee plantation it is very common to dense it, however this procedure reduces the productivity from the fourth or fifth crops on, because of the "closing" of plants tops, therefore it is necessary to eliminate some streets. The purpose of this work is evaluating the operational and economic performance of different methods of elimination of dense coffee-lines. The rehearsals were accomplished in LavrasMG considering aleatory

  7. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency Anatomia de ramos e folhas de cafeeiro sob feficiência de boro

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    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0.0 (deficient, 5.0 µM (adequate and 25.0 µM (high. At the first symptoms of deficiency, leaves were evaluated, the cell walls separated and assessed for B and Ca concentrations. Scanning electron micrographs were taken of cuts of young leaves and branch tips. The response of both coffee varieties to B was similar and toxicity symptoms were not observed. Boron concentrations in the cell walls increased with B solution while Ca concentrations were unaffected. The Ca/B ratio decreased with the increase of B in the nutrient solution. In deficiency of B, vascular tissues were disorganized and xylem walls thinner. B-deficient leaves had fewer and deformed stomata.A deficiência de B é muito comum nos cafezais brasileiros, mas as respostas do cafeeiro ao B têm sido erráticas, dependendo do ano, do modo e época de aplicação e, ainda, da fonte de B empregada. Um melhor entendimento dos efeitos do B na fisiologia e anatomia do cafeeiro é importante para o desenvolvimento de um programa racional de adubação boratada, uma vez que a anatomia da planta pode influenciar a translocação do nutriente. Neste experimento, plantas de dois cultivares foram cultivadas em soluções nutritivas com 0,0 (deficiente, 5,0 (adequado e 25,0 µM (alto de B. Quando os primeiros sintomas de deficiência apareceram, as folhas foram cortadas e tiveram suas paredes celulares isoladas e analisadas quanto aos teores de B e Ca. Cortes foram feitos em folhas novas e no ápice de

  8. Modelagem matemática para a secagem de clones de café (Coffea canephora Pierre em terreiro de concreto = Mathematical modeling for drying coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre berry clones in concrete yard

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    Osvaldo Resende

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estimar e avaliar as curvas de secagem do café da espécie Coffea Canephora e ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais de quatro clones. Foram utilizados frutos de café dos clones: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180, colhidos com os teores de água iniciais de 1,20; 1,32; 1,51 e 1,46 (decimal b.s., respectivamente. A secagem prosseguiu em terreiro de concreto até que o produto atingisse o teor de água de, aproximadamente, 0,10 (decimal b.s.. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados dez modelos matemáticos, citados na literatura específica e utilizados para representação do processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas. Pelos resultados obtidos e com base em parâmetros estatísticos, pode-se concluir que o modelo de Page foi adequado para representação da secagem dos quatro clones de caféanalisados. Além desse, para o clone Cpafro 180, os modelos Verna, Dois Termos e Aproximação da Difusão também se mostraram satisfatórios na descrição do fenômeno. O tempo necessário para a secagem em terreiro de concreto dos clones de café Cpafro 194,Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180, até o teor de água de 0,10 (decimal b.s., foi de 117,5 h, e o coeficiente de difusão foi de 4,50 x 10-11; 5,17 x 10-11; 5,08 x 10-11 e 5,50 x 10-11 m2 s-1,para os clones analisados, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to obtain and evaluate thedrying curves for the coffee berry species Coffea Canephora, and to fit different mathematical models into the experimental data of four clones. Coffee berries from the following clones were used: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 and Cpafro 180, harvested at moisturecontents of 1.20; 1.32; 1.51 and 1.46 (decimal d.b., respectively. The drying continued in a concrete yard until the moisture content of 0.10 (decimal d.b. was achieved. Ten mathematical models cited in literature were fitted to the experimental data in order torepresent

  9. Acurácia e calibração de sonda de capacitância em Latossolo Vermelho cultivado com cafeeiro

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    Bruno Montoani Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a acurácia da sonda de multisensores de capacitância "Delta-T Profile probe PR2/6", na avaliação do conteúdo de água do solo com uso de calibrações padrão do fabricante, realizar a calibração para condições específicas de locais e profundidades de amostragem do solo e obter coeficientes de calibração para medições acuradas em tempo real. Em janeiro de 2010, foram coletadas amostras de solo com estrutura preservada a diferentes profundidades, nas linhas de plantio do cafeeiro e nas entrelinhas. As análises foram realizadas em laboratório, com o sensor ML2x Theta probe. Após a obtenção das leituras do sensor, o teor de água foi determinado por meio do método gravimétrico. Foram utilizadas amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distrófico muito argiloso. As calibrações padrão do fabricante (mineral e orgânica não não se mostraram adequadas para emprego nas condições de manejo (locais e profundidades de amostragem avaliadas. Na impossibilidade de averiguar a acurácia obtida pelo método recomendado pelo fabricante, o uso de ajustes de regressão linear ou da ferramenta Solver mostrou-se útil no processo de calibração. São necessárias apenas duas equações de calibração para avaliação do teor de água das situações contrastantes de manejo.

  10. Calagem e adubação nitrogenada e potássica para o cafeeiro Liming and nitrogen and potassium fertilization for coffee

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    Bernardo Van Raij

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A calagem do cafeeiro é realizada com base em resultados da análise de solo de amostras coletadas na projeção da copa, a parte mais acidificada do terreno devido à aplicação de adubos nitrogenados. Isso tem suscitado dúvidas, por existirem partes da área do solo menos ácidas em cafezais, mormente nas entrelinhas, onde ocorre o acúmulo de bases em vista da arruação. Outro problema da cafeicultura é o uso rotineiro de fórmulas com altos teores de N e de K, sem atentar para as reais necessidades da cultura. Neste trabalho, estudaram-se a calagem e as adubações nitrogenada e potássica, em dois cafezais em produção, os quais vinham sendo normalmente calcariados e adubados. Os dois ensaios foram desenvolvidos em solo podzolizado-de-Lins-e-marïlia do município de Garça (SP entre 1987 e 1992. Utilizou-se um delineamento fatorial