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Sample records for caetite mill process

  1. Converting the Caetité Mill Process to Enhance Uranium Recovery and Expand Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomiero, L. A.; Scassiotti Filho, W.; Veras, A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A — INB, Caetité, BA (Brazil); Cunha, J. W. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morais, C. A. [Centro do Desenvolvimento da Tec. Nuclear-CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The Caetité uranium mill was commissioned in 2000 to produce about 340 t U per year from an uranium ore averaging 0.29% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This production is sufficient to supply the two operating nuclear power plants in the country. As the Brazilian government has recently confirmed its plan to start building another ones from 2009, the uranium production will have to expand its capacity in the next two years. This paper describes the changes in the milling process that are being evaluated in order to not only increase the production but also the uranium recovery, to fulfil the increasing local demand. The heap leaching process will be changed to conventional tank agitated leaching of ground ore slurry in sulphuric acid medium. Batch and pilot plant essays have shown that the uranium recovery can increase from the 77% historical average to about 93%. As the use of sodium chloride as the stripping agent has presented detrimental effects in the extraction and stripping process, two alternatives are being evaluated for the uranium recovery from the PLS: (a) uranium peroxide precipitation at controlled pH from a PLS that was firstly neutralized and filtered. Batch essays have shown good results with a final calcined precipitate averaging 99% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Conversely the results obtained at the first pilot plant essay has shown that the precipitation conditions of the continuous process calls for further evaluation. The pilot plant is being improved and another essay will be carried out. (b) uranium extraction with a tertiary amine followed by stripping with concentrated sulphuric acid solution. Efforts are being made to recover the excess sulphuric acid from the pregnant stripping solution to enhance the economic viability of the process and to avoid the formation of a large quantity of gypsum in the pre-neutralization step before the uranium peroxide precipitation. (author)

  2. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, R.F.; Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of 238 U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  3. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennari, R.F., E-mail: rgennari@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Campos, S.S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA, (Brazil); Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O., E-mail: susanasouzalalic@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of {sup 238}U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  4. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  5. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  6. Radiation protection optimization in the CAETITE industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo Py Junior, D.; Figueiredo, N.; Dos Santos Dias, P.L.; Mantovani Lima, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents, briefly, the radiation protection aspects of process, project and operation of the Caetite Industrial Complex, CIC. Planing priorities were to minimize Environmental Radiological Impact and Occupational Radiological Risk - Based on previous experiences, the process and the project were optimized, in order to minimize environmental impact and allow simultaneous natural environment restoration and operation. Technical, practical and economical advantages became evident during all project fazes, from the initial project development to the conclusion of all decommissioning steps. Planing, conducts. adequate working methods and workers training, together, turned out to be the most efficient way for occupational radiological risk reduction. This efficiency was proved during operational tests and initial operation of the Complex. Radiation Protection optimization is achieved by worker's responsibility, turning safety corrections interference less frequents, rising consequently, minimizing environmental impact. (author)

  7. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  8. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-09-28

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Rehman, A.; Ghafar, A.; Hafeez, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  10. Experimental study of the uranium mobility due to the weathering action at the uraniferous district of Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil; Estudo experimental da mobilidade do uranio por acao intemperica, distrito uranifero de Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro Rocha

    2004-01-15

    In the present research, the proposal was to develop a preliminary study about the geochemical behavior of determined chemical elements, mainly the uranium, during the action of weathering processes in the rocks that bear the uranium mineralizations of the Caetite-Lagoa Real region, State of Bahia, more specifically of the Jazida Cachoeira uranium mine. To reach this purpose were used samples that represent several stages of the milling process of the uranium ore, so selecting representatives of the host rock, the ore and the treated ore (waste from the milling plant) to be used in the laboratory-controlled experiments. The samples were dried, sieved and finally introduced in the reactors, these adapted from the Flow-Through Reactor of Brantley and Chen. In the geochemical point of view, the results of the experiments showed a distinct behavior between the samples. It was observed that the treated ore, in relation to the host rocks of the ore and the own ore, shown a faster and homogeneous interaction with the leaching solution; it was also noted that in the output solution of the treated ore samples existed a significant complexation of the uranium by the sulfate (S0{sub 4}{sup -2}), ), instead of the non treated samples (host rock and ore) that were complexed mainly by the carbonate (C0{sub 3}{sup -2}). These different results are attributed to the alterations imposed to the rock during the milling process, and occur mainly, during the acid attack in the leaching process of the milling plant. The results and conclusions of this research, in spite of been preliminary, are essential to understand the behavior of the geochemical speciation of the effluent solutions; to understand the alterations of a rock matrix, and finally, to understand the migration chemical behavior of the related chemical elements. It is expected that these results contribute, in the future, to a deeper knowledge of the processes that control the chemical composition of the natural waters from

  11. Bifurcation and stability analysis of a nonlinear milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk, Andrzej; Rusinek, Rafal; Warminski, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Numerical investigations of milling operations dynamics are presented in this paper. A two degree of freedom nonlinear model is used to study workpiece-tool vibrations. The analyzed model takes into account both flexibility of the tool and the workpiece. The dynamics of the milling process is described by the discontinuous ordinary differential equation with time delay, which can cause process instability. First, stability lobes diagrams are created on the basis of the parameters determined in impact test of an end mill and workpiece. Next, the bifurcations diagrams are performed for different values of rotational speeds.

  12. The progress in the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-waste uranium ore milling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jintang

    1990-01-01

    The production of uranium mill tailings and their risk assessment are described. The moethods of uranium mill tailings disposal and management are criticized and the necessity of the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-wasle uranium ore milling process are demonstrated. The progress for these researches in China and other countries with uranium production is reviewed, and the corresponding conclusions are reported

  13. Experimental study of the uranium mobility due to the weathering action at the uraniferous district of Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scislewski, Alexandro Rocha

    2004-01-01

    In the present research, the proposal was to develop a preliminary study about the geochemical behavior of determined chemical elements, mainly the uranium, during the action of weathering processes in the rocks that bear the uranium mineralizations of the Caetite-Lagoa Real region, State of Bahia, more specifically of the Jazida Cachoeira uranium mine. To reach this purpose were used samples that represent several stages of the milling process of the uranium ore, so selecting representatives of the host rock, the ore and the treated ore (waste from the milling plant) to be used in the laboratory-controlled experiments. The samples were dried, sieved and finally introduced in the reactors, these adapted from the Flow-Through Reactor of Brantley and Chen. In the geochemical point of view, the results of the experiments showed a distinct behavior between the samples. It was observed that the treated ore, in relation to the host rocks of the ore and the own ore, shown a faster and homogeneous interaction with the leaching solution; it was also noted that in the output solution of the treated ore samples existed a significant complexation of the uranium by the sulfate (S0 4 -2 ), ), instead of the non treated samples (host rock and ore) that were complexed mainly by the carbonate (C0 3 -2 ). These different results are attributed to the alterations imposed to the rock during the milling process, and occur mainly, during the acid attack in the leaching process of the milling plant. The results and conclusions of this research, in spite of been preliminary, are essential to understand the behavior of the geochemical speciation of the effluent solutions; to understand the alterations of a rock matrix, and finally, to understand the migration chemical behavior of the related chemical elements. It is expected that these results contribute, in the future, to a deeper knowledge of the processes that control the chemical composition of the natural waters from this region in

  14. Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA-based Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... To meet the basic assumption of Taguchi method; in the present work, individual response correlations have been eliminated first by means of Principal Component ...

  15. Future CO2 removal from pulp mills - Process integration consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO 2 from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO 2 emissions. However, the CO 2 capture cost is very dependent on the fuel price. In this paper, the potential for reducing the need for external fuel and thereby the possibility to reduce the cost for capturing the CO 2 are investigated. The reduction is achieved by using thermal process integration. In alternative 1, the mill processes are integrated and a steam surplus made available for CO 2 capture, but still there is a need for external fuel. In alternative 2, the integration is taken one step further, the reboiler is fed with MP steam, and the heat of absorption from the absorption unit is used for generation of LP steam needed at the mill. The avoidance costs are in both cases lower than before the process integration. The avoidance cost in alternative 1 varies between 25.4 and 30.7 EUR/tonne CO 2 depending on the energy market parameters. For alternative 2, the cost varies between 22.5 and 27.2 EUR/tonne CO 2 . With tough CO 2 reduction targets and correspondingly high CO 2 emission costs, the annual earnings can be substantial, 18.6 MEUR with alternative 1 and 21.2 MEUR with alternative 2

  16. Environmental performance evaluation of waste management system of Uranium Concentrated Unit in Caetite city, Bahia State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Valeska P.; Fernandes, Horst M.; Gomiero, Luis Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The mining/milling activities have the potential to cause risks to the human health and to the environment. In uranium mining, besides inherent damages due to any mining activities there are radiological risks, that may be incurred even in short as in long terms. The large volumes of low activity mining/milling residues produced, are the great challenge in the waste management. Nowadays, the whole Brazilian uranium production come from Uranium Concentrated Unit (URA), a facility operated by Brazilian Nuclear Industry and located at a semi-arid region, in the Caetite city, Bahia state. This Unit is composed by a open pit mine and a milling facility. The present work assess the URA waste management system, the procedures adopted, focused on its environmental performance. It was observed that the waste management system is efficient in the control of the environmental impacts, however improvement chances are detected and a better performance may be reached. Concerning the liquids wastes, it was observed that the storage systems were not projected adequately. The storage capacity was not enough to support a intense rainfall period causing a overflow to the environment. In URA activities there is no radiological risk to the public, but its necessary to improve long term actions, constraints for the post-closure phase, e.g., appropriate institutional controls, restrictions on land use. Finally, it is advisable to introduce a Environmental Management System (EMS) for the whole facility. (author)

  17. Hydrological Monitoring and Environmental Modeling to Assess the Quality and Sustainability of the Water Resources in an Uranium Mine Area, Caetité - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; van Slobbe, E.; Fernandes, N. F.; Palma, J.; van Dalen, D.; Santos, A. C.; Melo, V.; Reis, R. G.; Carmo, R.; Fernandes, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Uranium mining and processing constitute the front-end of the nuclear fuel-cycle and respond for most of its radiological impacts. For many years it has been accepted that the key driving force associated with these radiological impacts was related with radon exhalation from mill tailings. However, evidences coming from other mining sites showed that impacts in superficial and ground waters could also play a significant role. In Brazil, the newest uranium production unit presents a unique opportunity to integrate all the above concepts in a logical framework that will lead to sound and environmental balanced operations. The production center (Caetité plant) consists of open pit mine and sulfuric acid Heap Leach operations and is located at a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil. Because groundwater is the sole perennial source of water for human consumption and industrial use, this resource has to be managed wisely and efficiently. Therefore, this paper intends to summarize the components of an ongoing project of groundwater management in uranium mining areas. The results will guide the adequate management of groundwater use and provide the basis for the appropriate impact assessment of the potential releases of pollutants. The methodology starts with the mathematical simulation of the long-term behavior of the hydrogeological system based on an experimental basin approach. The occurrence and pattern of groundwater flow in the Caetité experimental basin (CEB) are mainly conditioned by the degree of faulting/fracturing of rocks (predominantly gneisses and granites). Two faulting systems are observed in the area, the principal one, parallel to the foliation (with NW direction) and the secondary one with NE direction. The main water reservoirs in the CEB are related to the intrusion of a diabase dike, which increased the density of fractures in the rocks. This dike serves as natural barrier to the water flow and constrains the potential contamination of

  18. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of forces in milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turai, Bhanu Murthy; Satish, Cherukuvada; Prakash Marimuthu, K.

    2018-04-01

    Machining of the material by milling induces forces, which act on the work piece material, tool and which in turn act on the machining tool. The forces involved in milling process can be quantified, mathematical models help to predict these forces. A lot of research has been carried out in this area in the past few decades. The current research aims at developing a mathematical model to predict forces at different levels which arise machining of Aluminium6061 alloy. Finite element analysis was used to develop a FE model to predict the cutting forces. Simulation was done for varying cutting conditions. Different experiments was designed using Taguchi method. A L9 orthogonal array was designed and the output was measure for the different experiments. The same was used to develop the mathematical model.

  19. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  20. Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Velasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice production generates a very high quantity of residues (Orange Peel Waste or OPW-50–60% of total weight that can be used for cattle feed as well as feedstock for the extraction or production of essential oils, pectin and nutraceutics and several monosaccharides by saccharification, inversion and enzyme-aided extraction. As in all solid wastes, simple pretreatments can enhance these processes. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatments and knife milling have been analyzed with enzyme saccharification at different dry solid contents as the selection test: simple knife milling seemed more appropriate, as no added pretreatment resulted in better final glucose yields. A Taguchi optimization study on dry solid to liquid content and the composition of the enzymatic cocktail was undertaken. The amounts of enzymatic preparations were set to reduce their impact on the economy of the process; however, as expected, the highest amounts resulted in the best yields to glucose and other monomers. Interestingly, the highest content in solid to liquid (11.5% on dry basis rendered the best yields. Additionally, in search for process economy with high yields, operational conditions were set: medium amounts of hemicellulases, polygalacturonases and β-glucosidases. Finally, a fractal kinetic modelling of results for all products from the saccharification process indicated very high activities resulting in the liberation of glucose, fructose and xylose, and very low activities to arabinose and galactose. High activity on pectin was also observed, but, for all monomers liberated initially at a fast rate, high hindrances appeared during the saccharification process.

  1. New route for uranium concentrate production from Caetite ore, Bahia State, Brazil; dynamic leaching - direct precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.br; Gomiero, Luiz A.; Scassiotti Filho, Walter [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)]. E-mails: gomiero@inb.gov.br; scassiotti@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The common uranium concentrate production consists of ore leaching, uranium purification/concentration by solvent extraction and uranium precipitation as ammonium diuranate steps. In the present work, a new route of uranium concentrate production from Caetite, BA-Brazil ore was investigated. The following steps were investigated: dynamic leaching of the ground ore with sulfuric acid; sulfuric liquor pre-neutralization until pH 3.7; uranium peroxide precipitation. The study was carried out in bath and continuous circuits. In the dynamic leaching of ground ore in agitated tanks the uranium content in the leached ore may be as low as 100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, depending on grinding size. In the pre-neutralization step, the iron content in the liquor is decreased in 99 wt.%, dropping from 3.62 g/L to 0.030 g/L. The sulfate content in the liquor reduces from 46 g/L to 22 g/L. A calcinated final product assaying 99.7 wt.% U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained. The full process recovery was over 94%. (author)

  2. Processes for extracting radium from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirdosh, I.; Baird, M.H.; Muthuswami, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the extraction of radium from uranium mill tailings solids including the steps of contacting the tailings with a liquid leaching agent, leaching the tailings therewith and subsequently separating the leachate liquid and the leached solids. The improvement described here is wherein the leaching agent comprises: (a) a complexing agent in an amount of from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed to complex the metal ions to be removed thereby from the tailings; and (b) a reducing agent reducing the hydrolysable ions of the metal ions to be removed to their lower oxidation states, the reduction agent being present in an amount from 2 to 10 times the stoichiometric amount needed for reducing the hydrolysable metals present in the tailings

  3. Converting the Key Lake mill process for McArthur River ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [McArthur River Operation, Cameco Corporation, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The Key Lake mill was commissioned in 1983 to process the two Key Lake ore deposits. With the depletion of these ore bodies in 1999, the plant was converted to mill the exceptionally rich McArthur River deposit located seventy eight kilometers northeast of the Key Lake mine site. This paper describes in detail the Key Lake milling process. The mill consists of a grinding circuit, a leach/counter current decantation circuit, a solvent extraction circuit, a yellowcake precipitation/calciner circuit, an ammonium sulphate crystallization circuit, and a waste treatment circuit. The paper also describes process changes to handle McArthur River ore, including the ore receiving station. (author)

  4. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis, 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.

  6. Comparative assessment of licensing processes of uranium mines in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, K.M.; Menezes, R.M.; Mezrahi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Commercial operation of uranium mining and milling started in Brazil, at the Pocos de Caldas Unit, State of Minas Gerais, in 1982. The Pocos de Caldas Unit was licensed by the Brazilian Regulatory Body (CNEN) and its is now in the decommissioning process. In 2000, a new mining and milling installation, the Caetite Unit, located in State of Bahia, started operation. This paper will discuss how Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is licensing the Caetite Unit based on the lessons learned from the Pocos de Caldas Unit. The objective is to draw attention to the importance of the safety assessment for a new unit, specially considering that some wrong decisions were taken for the Pocos de Caldas unit. These decisions lead to less effective long term solutions to protect the environment. Notwithstanding the differences between the two units, it is of great value to use the acquired experience to avoid or minimize the short, medium and long term impacts to the environment and population in the new operation. (author)

  7. Synthesis of ferrite nanoparticle by milling process for preparation of single domain magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryadi; Hasbiyallah; Agus S W; Nurul TR; Budhy Kurniawan

    2009-01-01

    Study of ferrite nanoparticle synthesis for preparation of single domain magnet by milling of scrap magnet material have been done. Sample preparation were done using disk mill continued with high energy milling (HEM). Some powder were taken after 5, 10 dan 20 hours milling using HEM-E3D. The powder were then characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRF characterization result, confirmed by XRD analysis result, showed that the sample are of Strontium ferrite phase. Microstructure analysis result showed the occurrence of grain refining process of ferrite particle with increasing of milling time. Particle having size of nanometers successfully obtained, although in unhomogeneous distribution. Magnetic properties characterization result showed the increasing of hysteresis curve area of sample for longer milling time and sintering process. (author)

  8. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, Fernando; Santos, Robson Rodger; Silva, L. Ferreira da; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2008-01-01

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi 8 O 8 ), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO 3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  9. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.; Lounici, Hakim; Abdi, Nadia; Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Pauss, André ; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER

  10. 29 CFR 788.11 - “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTransporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant... EMPLOYED § 788.11 “Transporting [such] products to the mill, processing plant, railroad, or other transportation terminal.” The transportation or movement of logs or other forestry products to a “mill processing...

  11. Experimental Study on Meso-Scale Milling Process Using Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P. H.; Nam, T. S.; Li, Cheng Jun; Lee, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper present the characteristics of micro- and meso-scale milling processes in which compressed cold air, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and MoS 2 nanofluid MQL are used. For process characterization, the micro and meso-scale milling experiments are conducted using desktop meso-scale machine tool system and the surface roughness is measured. The experimental results show that the use of compressed chilly air and nanofluid MQL in the micro- and meso-scale milling processes is effective in improving the surface finish

  12. Evaluation of optical functional surfaces on the injection moulding insert by micro milling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Davoudinejad, Ali; Zhang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of micro milling process for manufacturing injection moulding inserts with an optical functionalsurface. The objective is the optimal surface functionality. Micro ridges were used as the microstructures to realize the function to generate contrast between...

  13. Powder production of U-Mo alloy, HMD process (Hydriding- Milling- Dehydriding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Garcia, J.H.; Lopez, M.; Cabanillas, E.; Adelfang, P. [Dept. Combustibles Nucleares. Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys can be hydrided massively in metastable {gamma} (gamma) phase. The brittle hydride can be milled and dehydrided to acquire the desired size distributions needed for dispersion nuclear fuels. The developments of the different steps of this process called hydriding-milling- dehydriding (HMD Process) are described. Powder production scales for industrial fabrication is easily achieved with conventional equipment, small man-power and low investment. (author)

  14. Powder production of U-Mo alloy, HMD process (Hydriding- Milling- Dehydriding)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Garcia, J.H.; Lopez, M.; Cabanillas, E.; Adelfang, P.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys can be hydrided massively in metastable γ (gamma) phase. The brittle hydride can be milled and dehydrided to acquire the desired size distributions needed for dispersion nuclear fuels. The developments of the different steps of this process called hydriding-milling- dehydriding (HMD Process) are described. Powder production scales for industrial fabrication is easily achieved with conventional equipment, small man-power and low investment. (author)

  15. Behaviour of CaO coating of gas atomized Mg powders using mechanical milling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work is very new, since behaviour of CaO coating with milling time as desulfurizer is not frequently reported. → The manuscript reports the new manner of Mg powders desulfurizer development by the innovative process. - Abstract: In order to synthesize a thermally stable Mg powder as a desulfurizer of iron, pure Mg was gas atomized to powders and coated by CaO powders, to produce a thermally stable desulfurizer using a mechanical milling process. Since the effect of desulfurization is dependent on the degree of surface modification, coating behaviours such as the size, morphology and layer thickness were investigated as a function of milling condition. As the milling conducted from 10 min to 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, CaO particles began to stick on the surface of Mg powders. The layer of CaO formed from 1 h milling was about 17 μm thick and gradually thickened to be 28 μm, 32 μm and 37 μm with increasing the milling time to 3 h, 6 h and 12 h, respectively. The shape of coated powder became more spherical after 1 h milling, being mostly spherical after 6 h. Desulfurization rate and uniformity were evaluated for the various thickness of the coating layer.

  16. Matrix model of the grinding process of cement clinker in the ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Rashid R.

    2018-02-01

    In the article attention is paid to improving the efficiency of production of fine powders, in particular Portland cement clinker. The questions of Portland cement clinker grinding in closed circuit ball mills. Noted that the main task of modeling the grinding process is predicting the granulometric composition of the finished product taking into account constructive and technological parameters used ball mill and separator. It is shown that the most complete and informative characterization of the grinding process in a ball mill is a grinding matrix taking into account the transformation of grain composition inside the mill drum. Shows how the relative mass fraction of the particles of crushed material, get to corresponding fraction. Noted, that the actual task of reconstruction of the matrix of grinding on the experimental data obtained in the real operating installations. On the basis of experimental data obtained on industrial installations, using matrix method to determine the kinetics of the grinding process in closed circuit ball mills. The calculation method of the conversion of the grain composition of the crushed material along the mill drum developed. Taking into account the proposed approach can be optimized processing methods to improve the manufacturing process of Portland cement clinker.

  17. Process optimization and particle engineering of micronized drug powders via milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunaugh, A; Smyth, H D C

    2017-11-13

    Process control and optimization is a critical aspect of process analytical technology (PAT), quality by design (QbD), and the implementation of continuous manufacturing procedures. While process control and optimization techniques have been utilized in other manufacturing industries for decades, the pharmaceutical industry has only recently begun to adopt these procedures. Micronization, particularly milling, is a generally low-yield, high-energy consumption process that is well suited for a process optimization mindset. This review discusses optimization of the pharmaceutical milling process through design space development, theoretical and empirical modeling, and monitoring of critical quality attributes.

  18. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  19. Media milling process optimization for manufacture of drug nanoparticles using design of experiments (DOE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Marwah, Ashwani; Pillai, Raviraj

    2015-01-01

    Design of experiments (DOE), a component of Quality by Design (QbD), is systematic and simultaneous evaluation of process variables to develop a product with predetermined quality attributes. This article presents a case study to understand the effects of process variables in a bead milling process used for manufacture of drug nanoparticles. Experiments were designed and results were computed according to a 3-factor, 3-level face-centered central composite design (CCD). The factors investigated were motor speed, pump speed and bead volume. Responses analyzed for evaluating these effects and interactions were milling time, particle size and process yield. Process validation batches were executed using the optimum process conditions obtained from software Design-Expert® to evaluate both the repeatability and reproducibility of bead milling technique. Milling time was optimized to process variables by applying DOE resulted in considerable decrease in milling time to achieve the desired particle size. The study indicates the applicability of DOE approach to optimize critical process parameters in the manufacture of drug nanoparticles.

  20. Processing of magnetically anisotropic MnBi particles by surfactant assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanari, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Sarafidis, C., E-mail: hsara@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gjoka, M.; Niarchos, D. [INN, NCSR Demokritos, Athens 15310 (Greece); Kalogirou, O. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    MnBi particles are obtained from bulk MnBi using mechanochemical processing. The structure and magnetic properties of the MnBi particles are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and magnetometry. Surfactant assisted high energy ball milling results to the samples’ degradation even after one hour of milling. In the case of surfactant assisted low energy ball milling the increase of ball milling duration decreases the average particle size while the particles seem to be more separated. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) was found to decrease for large milling times beginning from 61 Am{sup 2}/kg, while the coercivity (μ{sub 0}H{sub c}) increases with the increase of ball milling duration up to 35 min where it reaches 1.62 T and thereafter it decreases. - Highlights: • Effect of surfactants in processing of MnBi. • Magnetization degradation due to air storage and due to processing. • Coercivity of 1.6 T in epoxy resin oriented material.

  1. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo [Centro Universitario da Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB), (SP) (Brazil); Yamazaki, Ione Makiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO{sub 3} (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 {mu}L of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm{sup 2} area) together with 5 {mu}L of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95{+-}0.19) {mu}g.L{sup -1} to (25.60{+-}3.3) {mu}g.L{sup -1}. These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  2. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo; Yamazaki, Ione Makiko

    2011-01-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO 3 (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 μL of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm 2 area) together with 5 μL of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95±0.19) μg.L -1 to (25.60±3.3) μg.L -1 . These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  3. Quantification of process induced disorder in milled samples using different analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; McGoverin, Cushla M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different analytical methods to detect and quantify the amount of crystalline disorder/ amorphousness in two milled model drugs. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used as analytical methods...... and indomethacin and simvastatin were chosen as the model compounds. These compounds partly converted from crystalline to disordered forms by milling. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to create calibration models for the XRPD and Raman data, which were subsequently used to quantify the milling......-induced crystalline disorder/ amorphousness under different process conditions. In the DSC measurements the change in heat capacity at the glass transition was used for quantification. Differently prepared amorphous indomethacin standards (prepared by either melt quench cooling or cryo milling) were compared...

  4. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Otero, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO 2 by 5% of B 2 O 3 and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A 2 if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m - 2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol - 1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author)

  5. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  6. Analyzing the effect of tool edge radius on cutting temperature in micro-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y. C.; Yang, K.; Zheng, K. N.; Bai, Q. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Sun, G. Y.

    2010-10-01

    Cutting heat is one of the important physical subjects in the cutting process. Cutting heat together with cutting temperature produced by the cutting process will directly have effects on the tool wear and the life as well as on the workpiece processing precision and surface quality. The feature size of the workpiece is usually several microns. Thus, the tiny changes of cutting temperature will affect the workpiece on the surface quality and accuracy. Therefore, cutting heat and temperature generated in micro-milling will have significantly different effect than the one in the traditional tools cutting. In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model is adopted to determine thermal fields and cutting temperature during the Micro-milling process, by using software Deform-2D. The effect of tool edge radius on effective stress, effective strain, velocity field and cutting temperature distribution in micro-milling of aluminum alloy Al2024-T6 were investigated and analyzed. Also, the transient cutting temperature distribution was simulated dynamically. The simulation results show that the cutting temperature in Micro-milling is lower than those occurring in conventional milling processes due to the small loads and low cutting velocity. With increase of tool edge radius, the maximum temperature region gradually occurs on the contact region between finished surfaced and flank face of micro-cutter, instead of the rake face or the corner of micro-cutter. And this phenomenon shows an obvious size effect.

  7. End point detection in ion milling processes by sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Dorian, M.; Tabei, M.; Elsea, A.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic optical emission from the sputtered material during ion milling processes can provide an unambiguous indication of the presence of the specific etched species. By monitoring the intensity of a representative emission line, the etching process can be precisely terminated at an interface. Enhancement of the etching end point is possible by using a dual-channel photodetection system operating in a ratio or difference mode. The installation of the optical detection system to an existing etching chamber has been greatly facilitated by the use of optical fibers. Using a commercial ion milling system, experimental data for a number of etching processes have been obtained. The result demonstrates that sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy offers many advantages over other techniques in detecting the etching end point of ion milling processes

  8. Fabrication of Al-20 wt%Si powder using scrap Si by ultra high-energy milling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Kim, Hyo-Seob; Koo, Jar-Myung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High energy ball milling process has been successfully employed to produce Al-20Si alloy using scrap Si powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fully finer and homogenous structure could be achieved after 60 min of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of as-milled Al-20Si powder increased steadily with the increase of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain size and dispersion strengthening are two mechanisms being responsible for hardness increment. - Abstract: In this study, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Al-20 wt%Si and pure Al powders fabricated by ultra high-energy ball milling technique were investigated as a function of milling time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-milled powders were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Vickers hardness tester. SEM observation showed that the particle size increased at an early stage of milling, and then decreased drastically with further milling. XRD and cross-sectional EDS-mapping analyses revealed that Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Vickers hardness of both pure Al and Al-Si powder increases with milling time, which attributes to the grain size strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  9. The influence of milling-burnishing successive and simultaneous processes on the material hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraş, C. C.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in the field of bio-engineering allow the use of magnesium alloys as a substitute for medical implants. The issue with such alloys is the degradation rate witch has to be improved in order to provide the necessary support for the entire duration of the bone fraction healing. For improving the bone shielding heat treatment does not represent a solution, but chemical and/or mechanical do. One mechanical process that has excellent result is burnishing, but this process is difficult to be implemented on a milling machine. Therefore, it was necessary that a new tool and tool holder to be developed, that allow the simultaneous process to take place. A high-pressure hydraulic roller burnishing tool with a special tool holder was used on a CNC milling machine. The material used for this study is magnesium alloy AZ31B-F, and one of the main purposes was to improve the material hardness (HV). The milling-burnishing parameters that where varied are the speed and feed, burnishing pressure and depth, type of process (successive or simultaneous), machining direction and the material hardness after milling. The results were analyzed as percentage improvement between the milling and burnishing measured values.

  10. Analysis of Startup Process and Its Optimization for a Two-Stand Reversible Cold Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic analysis of a two-stand reversible cold rolling mill in the startup process was carried out. The delay algorithm of the interstand thickness was proposed. A new method combined with the accelerated secant and the tangent methods was established to solve the simultaneous equations. The thickness and interstand tension transition processes with different static tension establishing processes were analyzed. Both mills were operated under constant rolling force control mode in the above process. The results show that the strip thickness in the rolling gap reduces in the static mill screwdown process. The entry stand runs inversely to establish the static interstand tension. This area becomes an abnormal thickness reduction area of the incoming strip. It results in several abnormal interstand tension increases in the subsequent startup process. The tension increase leads to an impact force on the strip that is the main reason of the strip breakage in the startup process. So the static tension establishing process was optimized, and the interstand tension fluctuation and the strip breakage accidents both reduced significantly. The results are beneficial to the startup process of the two-stand reversible cold rolling mill.

  11. An argon ion beam milling process for native AlOx layers enabling coherent superconducting contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhaupt, Lukas; von Lüpke, Uwe; Gusenkova, Daria; Skacel, Sebastian T.; Maleeva, Nataliya; Schlör, Steffen; Bilmes, Alexander; Rotzinger, Hannes; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Weides, Martin; Pop, Ioan M.

    2017-08-01

    We present an argon ion beam milling process to remove the native oxide layer forming on aluminum thin films due to their exposure to atmosphere in between lithographic steps. Our cleaning process is readily integrable with conventional fabrication of Josephson junction quantum circuits. From measurements of the internal quality factors of superconducting microwave resonators with and without contacts, we place an upper bound on the residual resistance of an ion beam milled contact of 50 mΩ μm2 at a frequency of 4.5 GHz. Resonators for which only 6% of the total foot-print was exposed to the ion beam milling, in areas of low electric and high magnetic fields, showed quality factors above 106 in the single photon regime, and no degradation compared to single layer samples. We believe these results will enable the development of increasingly complex superconducting circuits for quantum information processing.

  12. A post-processing study on aluminum surface by fiber laser: Removing face milling patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayahan, Ersin

    2018-05-01

    The face milling process of the metal surface is a well-known machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece. Flat metal surfaces can be produced by a face milling process. However, in practice, visible, traced marks following the motion of points on the cutter's face are usually apparent. In this study, it was shown that milled patterns can be removed by means of 20 W fiber laser on the aluminum surface (AA7075). Experimental results also showed that roughened and hydrophobic surface can be produced with optimized laser parameters. It is a new approach to remove the patterns from the metal surface and can be explained through roughening by re-melting instead of ablation. The new method is a strong candidate to replace sandblasting the metal surface. It is also cheap and environmentally friendly.

  13. Mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge post-treatment of paper mill process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Bouwhuis, E.; Klapwijk, A.; Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing system closure in paper mills and higher process water temperatures make the applicability of thermophilic treatment systems increasingly important. The use of activated sludge as a suitable thermophilic post-treatment system for anaerobically pre-treated paper process water from a paper

  14. Model-based Process Monitoring and Control of Micro-milling using Active Magnetic Bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The process of micro-milling is a promising technology for the fabrication of micro-parts with arbitrary 3D features in a wide range of materials. However, as a result of the reduced dimensions, the susceptibility of the process for machine tool errors and vibrations is higher, having adverse

  15. Process intensification effect of ball milling on the hydrothermal pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhengqiu; Long, Jinxing; Wang, Tiejun; Shu, Riyang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel pretreatment of ball milling combined with hydrothermal method was presented. • Intensification effect of ball milling was significant for corn straw enzymolysis. • Ball milling destroyed the physical structure of corn straw. • Chemical (liquid mixture) method removed lignin and hemicellulose. • Glucose yield increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 under the optimized condition. - Abstract: Enhancement of the cellulose accessibility is significant for biomass enzymatic hydrolysis. Here, we reported an efficient combined pretreatment for corn straw enzymolysis using ball milling and dilute acid hydrothermal method (a mixture solvent of H 2 O/ethanol/sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide liquid). The process intensification effect of ball milling on the pretreatment of the corn straw was studied through the comparative characterization of the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw using FT-IR, BET, XRD, SEM, and HPLC analysis. The effect of the pretreatment temperature was also investigated. Furthermore, various pretreatment methods were compared as well. Moreover, the pretreatment performance was measured by enzymolysis. The results showed that ball milling had a significant process intensification effect on the corn straw enzymolysis. The glucose concentration was dramatically increased from 0.41 to 13.86 mg mL −1 after the combined treatment of ball milling and hydrothermal. The efficient removal of lignin and hemicellulose and the enlargement of the surface area were considered to be responsible for this significant increase based on the intensive analysis on the main components and the physical–chemical properties of the raw and pretreated corn straw

  16. Challenges with modifications of the McClean Lake mill to process midwest ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.T.; Backham, L.

    2010-01-01

    Midwest is a unique uranium deposit with exceptionally high arsenic content. The ore body is located 17 km west of the McClean Lake operation. The McClean Lake mill will be modified to process Midwest ore and handle solid wastes from the Midwest water treatment plant. This paper describes the modifications required of the McClean Lake mill, process challenges associated with treatment of the arsenic, and the possibility of recovering nickel and cobalt as a by-product. It also reviews the complexity in the design of the Midwest water treatment facility which incorporates reverse osmosis technology with conventional physical-chemical water treatment. (author)

  17. Structural modifications of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) processed in attritor type mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Melina C.; Carvalho, Benjamim de M.; Pinheiro, Luis A.; Cintho, Osvaldo M.; Capocchi, Jose D.T.; Kubaski, Evaldo T.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polyethylene that has a high melt viscosity, hence its processing becomes very difficult. High-energy mechanical milling provides physical and chemical changes in polymers that have been studied recently. In order to study these changes in UHMWPE, powder of this polymer was mechanical milled in attritor type mill with a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 40:1 for 8 hours, varying the rotation speed: 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 rpm. The polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and xray diffraction (XRD). From the XRD results it was noted that as the rotation speed increased the monoclinic phase also increased up to 500 rpm. For 600 rpm, the amount of monoclinic phase apparently decreased. At this rotation speed, the deformation rate probably increased the process temperature, allowing the monoclinic phase to return to its initial structural orthorhombic form. (author)

  18. An integrated condition-monitoring method for a milling process using reduced decomposition features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Wu, Bo; Hu, Youmin; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Complex and non-stationary cutting chatter affects productivity and quality in the milling process. Developing an effective condition-monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify cutting chatter. In this paper, an integrated condition-monitoring method is proposed, where reduced features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the milling process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition, and Shannon power spectral entropy is calculated to extract features from the decomposed signals. Principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted feature information, the probabilistic neural network model is used to recognize and classify the machine states, including stable, transition, and chatter states. Experimental studies are conducted, and results show that the proposed method can effectively detect cutting chatter during different milling operation conditions. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to satisfy fast machine state recognition and classification. (paper)

  19. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  20. Numerical simulation study on rolling-chemical milling process of aluminum-lithium alloy skin panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. B.; Sun, Z. G.; Sun, X. F.; Li, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Single curvature parts such as aircraft fuselage skin panels are usually manufactured by rolling-chemical milling process, which is usually faced with the problem of geometric accuracy caused by springback. In most cases, the methods of manual adjustment and multiple roll bending are used to control or eliminate the springback. However, these methods can cause the increase of product cost and cycle, and lead to material performance degradation. Therefore, it is of significance to precisely control the springback of rolling-chemical milling process. In this paper, using the method of experiment and numerical simulation on rolling-chemical milling process, the simulation model for rolling-chemical milling process of 2060-T8 aluminum-lithium alloy skin was established and testified by the comparison between numerical simulation and experiment results for the validity. Then, based on the numerical simulation model, the relative technological parameters which influence on the curvature of the skin panel were analyzed. Finally, the prediction of springback and the compensation can be realized by controlling the process parameters.

  1. Efficient production of nanoparticle-loaded orodispersible films by process integration in a stirred media mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Denise; Finke, Jan Henrik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-25

    Orodispersible films possess a great potential as a versatile platform for nanoparticle-loaded oral dosage forms. In this case, poorly water-soluble organic materials were ground in a stirred media mill and embedded into a polymer matrix. The aim of this study was the shortening of this manufacturing process by the integration of several process steps into a stirred media mill without facing disadvantages regarding the film quality. Furthermore, this process integration is time conserving due to the high stress intensities provided in the mill and applicable for high solids contents and high suspension viscosities. Two organic materials, the model compound Anthraquinone and the active pharmaceutical ingredient Naproxen were investigated in this study. Besides the impact of the film processing on the crystallinity of the particles in the orodispersible film, a particle load of up to 50% was investigated with the new developed processing route. Additionally, a disintegration test was developed, combining an appropriate amount of saliva substitute and a clear endpoint determination. In summary, high nanoparticle loads in orodispersible films with good particle size preservation after film redispersion in water as well as a manufacturing of the film casting mass within a few minutes in a stirred media mill was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary study of sintering of metallic niobium processed for mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H.M.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.; Sandim, H.R.Z.; Leite, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    In present study was preliminary study of mechanical milling influence on preparing of metallic niobium powder for sintering. Sample of metallic niobium in powder passing in sieve no. 635 mesh was processed by mechanical milling in SPEX mill for 8 hours using power grinding of 7:1 and a nitrogen atmosphere. The powder was annealed at different temperatures, 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1 hour in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon to study their crystallization, which then were formed into blank for analysis of the curves compressibility. These samples were also subjected to x-ray diffraction in that their data were compared between the annealing temperatures. We also evaluate the compressibility curves of niobium samples with and without grinding these samples were subjected to x-ray diffraction and fluorescence. (author)

  3. A vertical ball mill as a new reactor design for biomass hydrolysis and fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Assis Castro, Rafael Cunha; Mussatto, Solange I.; Conceicao Roberto, Inês

    2017-01-01

    A vertical ball mill (VBM) reactor was evaluated for use in biomass conversion processes. The effects of agitation speed (100–200 rpm), number of glass spheres (0–30 units) and temperature (40–46 °C) on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and on glucose fermentation by a thermotolerant Kluyveromyces...

  4. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT GRINDING PROCESS OF CEMENT CLINKER IN A BALL MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova M.M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of theoretical and experimental research of grinding process of bulk materials in a ball mill. The new method of determination of energy efficiently mode of operation of ball mills in a process of a cement clinker grinding is proposed and experimentally tested.

  5. Assessment of heavy metals introduced into food through milling process: health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeti, P.J.

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterised and assesss heavy metal contamination in food through milling process and their health implications. Grinding plate made from Ghana, India and Nigeria purchased from the Ghanaian open market were used for this work. Maize from the same farm was milled into flour using the three grinding plate inserted into three different corn milling machines operating on commercial bases. Th first grinding was done immediately after the insertion of the newly sharpened plates into the machines. The plates were left for continuous daily usage. Subsequent milling of the maize was done after intervals of one month. The grinding plates and maize flour was analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophometer (AAS). The resultes recorded indicated that the heavy metals content o the Ghanaian, Indian and Nigerian made plates had the e similar metal contents but varied in terms of the individual metal concentrations. Flour from the Ghanaian made plates had the highest level of contaminants with the least from that of the Indian made plates. Generally, the highest levels of contamination were observed in the fist milling for the three plates as compared to the three subsequent milling at monthly interval. The contamination levels showed a decreasing trend from the first month (first milling ) to the fourth month (fourth milling). Cu, Cr and Ni showed concentrations above the permissible limit set by FAO/WHO in milled maize using Ghanaian made plate. Copper (Cu) recorded a concentration value between 15.04 mg/kg to 10.21mg.kg, 11.25 mg/kg to 9.13mg/kg and 10.36mg/kg and 9.68mg/kg using the Ghanaian-, Indian and Nigerian made plate respectively. Chromium (Cr) recorded a concentration between 1.51 mg/kg to 0.96 mg/kg, 1.03mg/kg to 0.91 mg/kg and 0.98mg/kg to 0.80 mg/kg using Ghanaian-, Indian and Nigerian made plates respectively. Nickel (Ni) recorded a concentration value between 23.23 mg/kg to 10.43 mg/kg, 11.46mg/kg to 10.43 mg/kg and 12.55 mg

  6. Automatic in-process chatter avoidance in the high-speed milling process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van N.J.M.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Faassen, R.P.H.; Wouw, van de N.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    High-speed milling is often used in industry to maximize productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components, such as aeronautical components, mold, and dies. The occurrence of chatter highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high-speed milling operations. In this paper, two control

  7. Forward and reverse mapping for milling process using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi L. Malghan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented is related to the milling process of AA6061-4.5%Cu-5%SiCp composite. The data primarily concentrates on predicting values of some machining responses, such as cutting force, surface finish and power utilization utilizing using forward back propagation neural network based approach, i.e. ANN based on three process parameters, such as spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut.The comparing reverse model is likewise created to prescribe the ideal settings of processing parameters for accomplishing the desired responses as indicated by the necessities of the end clients. These modelling approaches are very proficient to foresee the benefits of machining responses and also process parameter settings in light of the experimental technique. Keywords: ANN, Forward mapping, Reverse mapping, Milling process

  8. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  9. A morphological evaluation of a duplex stainless steel processed by high energy Ball Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekubo, Ariane Emi; Cintho, Osvaldo Mitsuyuki; Aguiar, Denilson Jose Marcolino de; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    2009-01-01

    The duplex stainless steels are formed by a ferrite and austenite mixture, giving them a combination of properties. Commercially, these steels are hot rolled, developing an anisotropic, alternated ferrite and austenite elongated lamellae microstructure. In this work, a duplex stainless steel was produced by the mixture of elementary powders with the composition Fe-19.5Cr-5Ni processed in an ATTRITOR ball mill during periods up to 15 hours. The powders obtained were compressed in specimens and were heat treated in the temperatures of 900, 1050 and 1200 °C during 1 hour and analysed by x ray diffraction, optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy. An optimized microstructure with ultrafine, equiaxial and regular duplex microstructure was obtained in the 15 hour milling and 1200 °C heat treatment. Afterwards, a commercially super duplex stainless steel UNS S32520 was aged at 800 °C aiming the precipitation of σ phase in order to reduce its toughness and then, milled in SPEX mill. The resulting microstructure was a very fine duplex type with irregular grain boundary morphology duo to the grain growth barrier promoted by the renascent σ phase particles during sintering process. (author)

  10. Modeling and Analysis of CNC Milling Process Parameters on Al3030 based Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anand; Soni, P. K.; Krishna, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    The machining of Al3030 based composites on Computer Numerical Control (CNC) high speed milling machine have assumed importance because of their wide application in aerospace industries, marine industries and automotive industries etc. Industries mainly focus on surface irregularities; material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR) which usually depends on input process parameters namely cutting speed, feed in mm/min, depth of cut and step over ratio. Many researchers have carried out researches in this area but very few have taken step over ratio or radial depth of cut also as one of the input variables. In this research work, the study of characteristics of Al3030 is carried out at high speed CNC milling machine over the speed range of 3000 to 5000 r.p.m. Step over ratio, depth of cut and feed rate are other input variables taken into consideration in this research work. A total nine experiments are conducted according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The machining is carried out on high speed CNC milling machine using flat end mill of diameter 10mm. Flatness, MRR and TWR are taken as output parameters. Flatness has been measured using portable Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). Linear regression models have been developed using Minitab 18 software and result are validated by conducting selected additional set of experiments. Selection of input process parameters in order to get best machining outputs is the key contributions of this research work.

  11. Moessbauer Study of the Ball Milling Disordering Process of FeAl Intermetallic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszak, Dariusz; Bruna, Pere; Crespo, Daniel; Pradell, Trinitat

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes during ball milling of ordered Fe50Al50 intermetallic compounds were studied. X-Ray diffraction allowed the computation of a Long Range Order parameter (LRO) which dropped to zero after a short milling time. The initial B2 ordered structure gradually transforms into a disordered BCC structure, with a final crystallite size of about 25 nm. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used for obtaining a Chemical Short Range Order parameter (CSRO). Using a semiempirical n-body noncentral potential a model of the partially disordered B2 structure was built allowing computing the distribution of Quadrupole Splitting during the disordering process. Comparison between experimental and simulated Moessbauer spectra shows a maximum of disorder in the system for 5h milling, related to the highest value of the lattice spacing and the broader quadrupole hyperfine distribution. However, after milling for times longer than 5h, there is a change on the behavior of the experimental data that cannot be explained by the simple disordering process

  12. Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the comminution process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2006-02-01

    Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the comminution process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground product may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled products produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the

  13. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dhandapani, N. V.; Thangarasu, V. S.; Sureshkannan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the...

  14. Process Debottlenecking and Retrofit of Palm Oil Milling Process via Inoperability Input-Output Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Tan May

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in crude palm oil (CPO demand, resulting in palm oil mills (POMs seizing the opportunity to increase CPO production to make more profits. A series of equipment are designed to operate in their optimum capacities in the current existing POMs. Some equipment may be limited by their maximum design capacities when there is a need to increase CPO production, resulting in process bottlenecks. In this research, a framework is developed to provide stepwise procedures on identifying bottlenecks and retrofitting a POM process to cater for the increase in production capacity. This framework adapts an algebraic approach known as Inoperability Input-Output Modelling (IIM. To illustrate the application of the framework, an industrial POM case study was solved using LINGO software in this work, by maximising its production capacity. Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR analysis was also performed to assess the economic feasibility. As results, the Screw Press was identified as the bottleneck. The retrofitting recommendation was to purchase an additional Screw Press to cater for the new throughput with BCR of 54.57. It was found the POM to be able to achieve the maximum targeted production capacity of 8,139.65 kg/hr of CPO without any bottlenecks.

  15. ANALYZING THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN LOGISTICS SUGARCANE MILL: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tognoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to present and analyze the physical arrangement of logistics and production process plant in a sugarcane mill, in order to expose the processes involved, analyzing them more deeply and thus collaborate in a more efficient production. The relevance of this presentation is linked to the benefits that the plant and professionals can get through this work, enabling the development of methods and production alternatives. The research method used was case study based on interviews, on-site observation and document analysis, which was very appropriate as it could examine and cross checking. This work will allow a better understanding of the production process of the logistics of the plant in a sugarcane mill and working with suggestions and methods for more efficient production.

  16. Raman spectroscopy fingerprint of stainless steel-MWCNTs nanocomposite processed by ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Allan Leite dos Reis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel 304L alloy powder and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were mixed by ball-milling under ambient atmosphere and in a broad range of milling times, which spans from 0 to 120 min. Here, we provided spectroscopic signatures for several distinct composites produced, to show that the Raman spectra present interesting splittings of the D-band feature into two main sub-bands, D-left and D-right, together with several other secondary features. The G-band feature also presents multiple splittings that are related to the outer and inner diameter distributions intrinsic to the multiwalled carbon nanotube samples. A discussion about the second order 2D-band (also known as G′-band is also provided. The results reveal that the multiple spectral features observed in the D-band are related to an increased chemical functionalization. A lower content of amorphous carbon at 60 and 90 min of milling time is verified and the G-band frequencies associated to the tubes in the outer diameters distribution is upshifted, which suggests that doping induced by strain is taking place in the milled samples. The results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for a fast and non-destructive characterization of carbon nanocomposites used in powder metallurgy manufacturing processes.

  17. DETERMINATION OF DIETARY FIBRE – THE INFLUENCE OF MILLING FRACTION AND MIXING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž FERJANČIČ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibre is an important constituent of a healthy diet, composed of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin. Over the last decades dietary fibre has gained importance for human nutrition, due to its beneficial effects on health. In addition to classical enzyme-gravimetric methods, new methods for the determination of total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibres in foods have recently been developed, but have not yet been fully implemented for use. For the purpose of creating food composition databases and for food labelling, the classical AOAC 985.29 and 991.43 methods are still widely used. The methods are enzyme-gravimetric and therefore sensitive to enzyme kinetics. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of milling fraction and mixing of the sample on dietary fibre content determined with the AOAC method 991.43. The results showed that milling fraction significantly influences the content of dietary fibre, especially in unprocessed or slightly processed cereals, the mixing acts synergistically with milling. According to the results it is proposed to mill the sample between 200 and 500 μm. For accurate determination of dietary fibre content, it is necessary to prepare the sample correctly, since the AOAC 991.43 method is, despite its robustness, sensitive during the sample preparation step.

  18. Raman spectroscopy fingerprint of stainless steel-MWCNTs nanocomposite processed by ball-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Marcos Allan Leite; Barbosa Neto, Newton Martins; de Sousa, Mário Edson Santos; Araujo, Paulo T.; Simões, Sónia; Vieira, Manuel F.; Viana, Filomena; Loayza, Cristhian R. L.; Borges, Diego J. A.; Cardoso, Danyella C. S.; Assunção, Paulo D. C.; Braga, Eduardo M.

    2018-01-01

    Stainless steel 304L alloy powder and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were mixed by ball-milling under ambient atmosphere and in a broad range of milling times, which spans from 0 to 120 min. Here, we provided spectroscopic signatures for several distinct composites produced, to show that the Raman spectra present interesting splittings of the D-band feature into two main sub-bands, D-left and D-right, together with several other secondary features. The G-band feature also presents multiple splittings that are related to the outer and inner diameter distributions intrinsic to the multiwalled carbon nanotube samples. A discussion about the second order 2D-band (also known as G'-band) is also provided. The results reveal that the multiple spectral features observed in the D-band are related to an increased chemical functionalization. A lower content of amorphous carbon at 60 and 90 min of milling time is verified and the G-band frequencies associated to the tubes in the outer diameters distribution is upshifted, which suggests that doping induced by strain is taking place in the milled samples. The results indicate that Raman spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for a fast and non-destructive characterization of carbon nanocomposites used in powder metallurgy manufacturing processes.

  19. Integrated Approach for a Knowledge-Based Process Layout for Simultaneous 5-Axis Milling of Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Klocke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced materials, like nickel-based alloys, gain importance in turbomachinery manufacturing, where creating complex surfaces constitute a major challenge. However, milling strategies that provide high material removal rates at acceptable tooling costs demand optimized tool geometry and process parameter selection. In this paper, a description of circular milling is given, focusing on resulting engagement conditions. Regarding this, a test bench was designed to investigate the chip formation process in an analogy milling process. Furthermore, the methodology for the approach in the analogy process was developed. Results of a first test run in Inconel 718 verify the presented approach.

  20. Development of Six Sigma methodology for CNC milling process improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. N.; Rose, A. N. M.; Mohammed, N. Z.; Rashid, M. F. F. Ab

    2017-10-01

    Quality and productivity have been identified as an important role in any organization, especially for manufacturing sectors to gain more profit that leads to success of a company. This paper reports a work improvement project in Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA Kuantan. It involves problem identification in production of “Khufi” product and proposing an effective framework to improve the current situation effectively. Based on the observation and data collection on the work in progress (WIP) product, the major problem has been identified related to function of the product which is the parts can’t assemble properly due to dimension of the product is out of specification. The six sigma has been used as a methodology to study and improve of the problems identified. Six Sigma is a highly statistical and data driven approach to solving complex business problems. It uses a methodical five phase approach define, measure, analysis, improve and control (DMAIC) to help understand the process and the variables that affect it so that can be optimized the processes. Finally, the root cause and solution for the production of “Khufi” problem has been identified and implemented then the result for this product was successfully followed the specification of fitting.

  1. A model biorefinery for avocado (Persea americana mill.) processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Javier A; Rosenberg, Moshe; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-11-01

    This research investigated and evaluated a biorefinery for processing avocado Hass variety into microencapsulated phenolic compounds extract, ethanol, oil and xylitol. Avocado was first characterized for its potential valuable compounds; then, the techno-economic and environmental aspects of the biorefinery were developed and finally the total production costs and potential environmental impact of the proposed biorefinery were investigated. Four scenarios of the biorefinery were evaluated with different extent of mass and energy integration as well as the incorporation of a cogeneration system. Results indicated that the main fatty acid in the pulp of the investigated avocado variety was oleic acid (50.96%) and that this fruit contained significant amount of holocellulose (52.88% and 54.36% in the peel and seed, respectively). Techno-economic and environmental assessment suggested an attractive opportunity for a biorefinery for complete utilization of the avocado fruit as well the importance of the level of integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring Timber Truck Loads With Image Processing In Paper Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. Santos; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho; Goncalves, Ana N. R.

    1989-04-01

    The raw material for the paper industry is wood. To have an exact account of the stock of piled sawn tree trunks every truck load entering the plant's stockyard must be measured as to the amount of wood being brought in. Weighting down the trucks has its own problems, mainly, due to the high capacity of the tree trunks to absorb water. This problem is further enhanced when calculations must be made to arrive at the mass of sawn tree trunks which must go into the process of producing a certain quantity of paper pulp. The method presented here is based on two fixed cameras which take the image of the truck load. One takes a view of the trunks in order to get information on the average length of the tree trunks. The other obtains a side view which is digitised and by just discriminating against a grey level the area covered by the tree trunk cross section is measured. A simple arithmetic operation gives the volume of wood in the trunk. The same computer, a PC, will register the trucks particulars is almost independent of weather the wood is wet or dry and it serves trucks of any size.

  3. Simplification of the processing of milled aluminium powder and mechanical evaluation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintas, J.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Gallardo, J. M.; Herrera, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative powder.metallurgy consolidation method of milled aluminium (M Al) powder, consisting in a double cycle of cold pressing and vacuum sintering, has been developed. The aim of the present investigation is to simplify this consolidation method, from the original five steps to only three steps. This would be possible since milled powders soften during desassing, at high temperature. The mechanical properties of compacts (hardness at room and high temperature, ultimate tensile strength and elongation) obtained by the three-step and the five-step processing are comparable. This process could be ol special interest for the manufacturing of large series of small parts, such as are used in the automotive industry. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. section 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  5. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Caesalpinioideae-Fabaceae: espécie de uso medicinal em Caetité-BA Anatomy of vegetative organs of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae: a species of medicinal use in Caetité-Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae apresenta grande valor na medicina popular em Caetité. A casca, entrecasca do caule e a resina, são utilizadas no tratamento de diversos males. Neste estudo são apresentadas a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos. Amostras foram coletadas e processadas segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e histoquímica. Todos os órgãos apresentam, em visão transversal, epiderme unisseriada e cavidades secretoras. Cutícula espessa ocorre em todos os órgãos aéreos. A raiz é tetrarca. Colênquima lacunar foi encontrado no caule. Bainha de fibras esclerenquimáticas envolve os feixes vasculares dos órgãos aéreos. Células pétreas ocorrem no pecíolo. Tricomas tectores ocorrem em ambas as faces da folha. A folha é hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e o mesofilo é dorsiventral. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio ocorrem no caule, pecíolo e lâmina foliar. Compostos fenólicos ocorrem na raiz, pecíolo e nervura central da folha. Grãos de amido ocorrem na raiz, caule e pecíolo. Lipídios ocorrem em todos os órgãos. Acredita-se que compostos fenólicos e cavidades secretoras de resina podem justificar a utilidade medicinal da espécie pela população de Caetité.Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae shows a great value in folk medicine in Caetité. Its bark, stem-bark and resin are used to treat various ailments. In this study, the anatomical and histochemical characterization of vegetative organs is reported. Samples were collected and processed according to usual techniques of plant anatomy and histochemistry. All organs have, by cross-sectional view, uniseriate epidermis and secretory cavities. Thick cuticle occurs in all aerial organs. The root is tetrarch. Lacunar collenchyma was found in the stem. Sclerenchymatic sheath of fibers surrounds the vascular bundles of the aerial organs. Stone cells occur in the petiole. Trichomes occur

  6. Analysis of the influence of two different milling processes in the properties of precursor powder and [Beta]-TCP cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, H.A.I.; Pereira, C.H.R.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.; Motisuke, M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several characteristics that put calcium phosphate cements in evidence, like its bioactivity and in vivo resorption. The influence of two milling processes in the morphological properties of the [beta]-tricalcium phosphate powder, [beta]-TCP, and in the mechanical properties of the cement were analyzed. The powder was obtained by solid state reaction of CaCO_3 and CaHPO_4 at 1050 ° C. It showed high phase purity and absence of toxic elements. The powder was processed in ball mill (A) and high-energy vibratory mill (B), with posterior analyze by SEM and particle size distribution. The powders showed different average and distribution of grain size. Finally, the cement obtained by the process (B) showed values of axial tensile strength significantly greater than that obtained by the process (A). The milling process (B) is much more efficient than the process (A). (author)

  7. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES' IN FUNDING PROCESSING MILLS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adinya, I.B; Odey S.O.; Oniah M.O; Umeh G.N; Agiopu, B.F; Ogbonna ,K.I.

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the role of agricultural co-operative societies as institutional source of finance to processing mills in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 150 respondents in the study area by means of structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of fifteen local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State. This was followed by random selection of one village in each of the fifteen l...

  9. Processing of an AISI D2 tool steel by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnol, N.J.R.; Araujo, G.F.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Chips of machining of AISI D2 steel were processed in Spex high-energy mill. The powder obtained was analyzed by x-ray diffraction, and then compressed in the form of discs of 8mm in diameter. The samples were treated at 1200 deg C for 1 hour under vacuum atmosphere for sintering. Then specimens were subjected to annealing, quenching and tempering at 400°C and 525 deg C. Along with each disc, a sample of as-received steel was subjected to the same heat treatment to evaluate the final microstructures. After metallographic preparation, samples were etched with Berah's reagent, characterized by optical microscopy, Vickers hardness, quantitative metallography and scanning electron microscopy with micro analysis and mapping by EDS. Specimens from high energy milling had reduction in prior austenitic grain size and more refined carbides and better distributed in the microstructure of steel. (author)

  10. Ultrafiltration of thin stillage from conventional and e-mill dry grind processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Wang, Ping; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2011-05-01

    We used ultrafiltration (UF) to evaluate membrane filtration characteristics of thin stillage and determine solids and nutrient compositions of filtered streams. To obtain thin stillage, corn was fermented using laboratory methods. UF experiments were conducted in batch mode under constant temperature and flow rate conditions. Two regenerated cellulose membranes (10 and 100 kDa molecular weight cutoffs) were evaluated with the objective of retaining solids as well as maximizing permeate flux. Optimum pressures for 10 and 100 kDa membranes were 207 and 69 kPa, respectively. Total solids, ash, and neutral detergent fiber contents of input TS streams of dry grind and E-Mill processes were similar; however, fat and protein contents were different (p stillage fractionation had higher mean total solids contents (27.6% to 27.8%) compared to E-Mill (22.2% to 23.4%). Total solids in retentate streams were found similar to those from commercial evaporators used in industry (25% to 35% total solids). Fat contents of retentate streams ranged from 16.3% to 17.5% for the conventional process. A 2% increment in fat concentration was observed in the E-Mill retentate stream. Thin stillage ash content was reduced 60% in retentate streams.

  11. Color, TOC and AOX removals from pulp mill effluent by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-01-01

    Pulp mill effluent containing toxic chemicals was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of treatments by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent (H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), UV, UV/H 2 O 2 , photo-Fenton (UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), ozonation and peroxone (ozone/H 2 O 2 ) in laboratory-scale reactors for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) removals from the pulp mill effluent. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC, color, AOX removals were investigated. Almost every method used resulted in some degree of color removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the Fenton's reagent utilizing H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ resulted in the highest color, TOC and AOX removals under acidic conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 88% TOC, 85% color and 89% AOX removals were obtained by the Fenton's reagent at pH 5 within 30 min. Photo-Fenton process yielded comparable TOC (85%), color (82%) and AOX (93%) removals within 5 min due to oxidations by UV light in addition to the Fenton's reagent. Fast oxidation reactions by the photo-Fenton treatment makes this approach more favorable as compared to the others used

  12. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Cachoeira Deposit Massif, Caetite, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottura, J.A.; Albuquerque Filho, J.L.; Ojima, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogeologic applications for the characterization of rock massifs in future mining activity areas are presented. The study was performed in the Cachoeira uranium deposit (Anomaly no.13 - Lagoa Real Project) located in the south-central portion of the state of Bahia, Caetite municipality, belonging to the Brazilian Nuclear Enterprise - NUCLEBRAS. The massif occuring in the area is composed of a group or series of rocks classified generically as gneisses, displaying different geotechnical classes. In order to consubstantiate the hydrogeologic/ hydrogeotechnical characterization, pumping and infiltration tests were performed, as well as periodic water level measurements in piezometers and drill-holes. In this manner, a hydrogeotechnical classification was made possible and a quantitative evaluation of the volume of water that will be drained was elaborated, orviding necessary contributions for research diggings and exploration. (D.J.M.) [pt

  13. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in superficial and underground drinking water, from the Caetite region, BA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has the seventh greatest geological uranium reserve in the world with approximately 310 thousand tons. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, situated in South Center Bahia, is considered the most important monomineralic province in Brazil. Urban population who lives in the uranium district in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento de Nossa Senhora uses drinking water originated from public supply. In the rural area, characterized by frequent draughts, residents receive water from digged and drilled wells and from small dams and reservoirs, as well, which are supplied by the rains. This work determined the levels of total alpha and beta radioactivity and the uranium concentrations in several kinds of water consumed by urban and rural population from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. Total α and β activities were determined with a low-level gas flow proportional detector. The uranium concentrations were determined with an inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained were confronted with the latest World Health Organization's recommendations from 2011, the ordinance number 2914 of December 12 2011 from the Health Ministry and CONAMA's resolutions. Natural radiation levels varied from 0,0041 ± 0,0004 Bq.L -1 to 0,80 ± 0,04 Bq.L -1 for total alpha activity and from 0,045 ± 0,003 to 3,00 ± 0,2 Bq.L -1 for total beta activity. Having the WHO and the HM as parameter, just two underground water samples, one located in the city of Lagoa Real and the other in the city of Caetite presented total alpha concentration above the value of 0,5 Bq.L -1 described in its recommendations, 0,80 ± 0,040 Bq.L -1 and 0,57 ± 0,03 Bq.L -1 respectively. For total beta three samples presented radioactivity levels above the 1 Bq.L -1 limit recommended by the WHO and established by the Health Ministry; 3,00 ± 0,2 Bq.L -1 ; 1,63 ± 0,13 Bq.L -1 and 1,19 ± 0,07 Bq.L -1 ., all of them situated in the Lagoa

  14. Seismic refraction technique aplications in the geotechnical characterization of the Cachoeira deposit massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagutti Filho, W.; Oliveira Braga, T. de.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical surveys throught the Cachoeira Uranium deposit massif were carried out with the purpose of assisting in the geotechnical characterization for the implantation of the Mining-Industrial Complex projects on the Lagoa Real uranium deposits, Caetite municipality, state of Bahia, Brazil. This study discusses the methodology utilized in the geophysical surveys and their results as well as their applications to the geotechnical characterization as a whole. (D.J.M.) [pt

  15. Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ΦMB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ΦGS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ΦMB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ΦGS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity.

  16. Synthesis behavior of nanocrystalline Al-Al2O3 composite during low time mechanical milling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Mostafa; Aliabadi, Morteza Mirzaei

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In the low time milling the effect of Al 2 O 3 amount is investigated → Al 2 O 3 particles are distributed uniformly in the Al matrix → In the low time milling it is possible to produce nanostructured composite powder → Median size and bulk density measurements demonstrate reaching the steady state. - Abstract: In this work, four different volume fractions of Al 2 O 3 (10, 20, 30 and 40 vol.%) were mixed with the fine Al powder and the powder blends were milled for 5 h. Scanning electron microscopy analysis, particle size analysis and bulk density measurements were used to investigate the morphological changes and achieving the steady state conditions. The results showed that increasing the Al 2 O 3 content can provide the steady state particle size in 5 h milling process. It was found that increasing the volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 leads to increasing the uniformity of Al 2 O 3 . Standard deviations of microhardness measurements confirmed this result. The XRD pattern and XRF investigations depicted that increasing the Al 2 O 3 content causes an increase in the crystal defects, micro-strain and Fe contamination during 5 h milling process of nanocrystalline composite powders while the grain size is decreased. To investigate the effect of milling time, Al-30 vol.% Al 2 O 3 (which achieved steady state during 5 h milling process) was milled for 1-4 h. The results depicted that the milling time lower than 5 h, do not achieve to steady state conditions.

  17. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  18. Flat Milling Process Simulation Taking into Consideration a Dependence of Dynamic Characteristics of the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zavarzin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The milling process inherently is on/off, and therefore inevitably there is vibration excitation in the Machine/Fixture/Tool/Part (MFTP system, which results in a different quality of the treated surface, depending on the machining conditions. The objective is to identify effective operation conditions to cut a part on the 3-way easy class machines when there is no unwanted regenerative self-oscillation, leading to a significant deterioration in the quality of the surface machined. The paper describes vibrations arising during a milling process and their effect on the surface shape and the working tool. To solve this problem we apply a numerical simulation method of cutting dynamics, which consist of 4 modules. The main module is an algorithm of the geometric simulation. The second module is a phenomenological model of the cutting forces. Two remaining modules are responsible for dynamics simulation of the part machined and the cutting tool under time-varying cutting forces. The calculated values are transferred back to the geometric modelling algorithm at each step in time. Thus, the model is closed and allows us to take into account an effect of delay in a dynamic system. A finite element machine model to perform calculation in 3DCUT software has been a selected and compiled. The paper presents geometrical mapping of the machining process and natural frequencies and shapes found for the finite element model. Conducting multivariate calculations allowed us to analyse the dependences of a dynamic behaviour of the system on changing spindle speed. The multivariate modelling results are presented as the Poincare maps for a moving free end of the tool. These Poincare maps allow us to select the operation conditions domains coming both with forced vibration and with self-excited oscillations. On the Poincaré map for two operation conditions of different domains there are graphics of the cutting forces, a thickness of the cutting layer, tool

  19. Integrated modeling and analysis of ball screw feed system and milling process with consideration of multi-excitation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Tao; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Wanhua

    2018-01-01

    The present researches about feed drive system and milling process are almost independent with each other, and ignore the interaction between the two parts, especially the influence of nonideal motion of feed drive system on milling process. An integrated modeling method of ball screw feed system and milling process with multi-excitation effect is proposed in this paper. In the integrated model, firstly an analytical model of motor harmonic torque with consideration of asymmetrical drive circuit and asymmetrical permanent magnet is given. Then, the numerical simulation procedure of cutter/workpiece engagement during milling process with displacement fluctuation induced by harmonic torque is put forward, which is followed by the solving flow for the proposed integrated model. Based on the integrated model, a new kind of quality defect shown as contour low frequency oscillation on machined surface is studied by experiments and simulations. The results demonstrate that the forming mechanism of the contour oscillation can be ascribed to the multi-excitation effect with motor harmonic torque and milling force. Moreover, the influence of different milling conditions on the contour oscillation characteristics, particularly on surface roughness, are further discussed. The results indicate that it is necessary to explain the cause of the new kind of quality defect with a view of system integration.

  20. Fabrication mechanism of FeSe superconductors with high-energy ball milling aided sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengnan; Liu, Jixing; Feng, Jianqing; Wang, Yao; Ma, Xiaobo; Li, Chengshan; Zhang, Pingxiang

    2015-01-01

    FeSe Superconducting bulks with high content of superconducting PbO-type β-FeSe phase were prepared with high-energy ball milling (HEBM) aided sintering process. During this process, precursor powders with certain Fe/Se ratio were ball milled first then sintered. The influences of HEBM process as well as initial Fe/Se ratio on the phase evolution process were systematically discussed. With HEBM process and proper initial Fe/Se ratio, the formation of non-superconducting hexagonal δ-FeSe phase were effectively avoided. FeSe bulk with the critical temperature of 9.0 K was obtained through a simple one-step sintering process with lower sintering temperature. Meanwhile, the phase evolution mechanism of the HEBM precursor powders during sintering was deduced based on both the thermodynamic analysis and step-by-step sintering results. The key function of the HEBM process was to provide a high uniformity of chemical composition distribution, thus to successfully avoide the formation of intermediate product during sintering, including FeSe 2 and Fe 7 Se 8 . Therefore, the fundamental principal for the synthesis of FeSe superconductors were concluded as: HEBM aided sintering process, with the sintering temperature of >635 °C and a slow cooling process. - Highlights: • A novel synthesis technique was developed for FeSe based superconductors. • FeSe bulks with high Tc and high β-FeSe phase content has been obtained. • Phase evolution process for the HEBM aided sintering process was proposed

  1. Preparation of natural pyrite nanoparticles by high energy planetary ball milling as a nanocatalyst for heterogeneous Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathinia, Siavash [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathinia, Mehrangiz [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Ali Akbar [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: a_khataee@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrite nanoparticles were successfully produced by planetary ball milling process. • The physical and chemical properties of pyrite nanoparticles were fully examined. • The degradation of AO7 was notably enhanced by pyrite nanoparticles Fenton system. • The influences of basic operational parameters were investigated using CCD. - Abstract: In the present study pyrite nanoparticles were prepared by high energy mechanical ball milling utilizing a planetary ball mill. Various pyrite samples were produced by changing the milling time from 2 h to 6 h, in the constant milling speed of 320 rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) linked with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) were performed to explain the characteristics of primary (unmilled) and milled pyrite samples. The average particle size distribution of the produced pyrite during 6 h milling was found to be between 20 nm and 100 nm. The catalytic performance of the different pyrite samples was examined in the heterogeneous Fenton process for degradation of C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) solution. Results showed that the decolorization efficiency of AO7 in the presence of 6 h-milled pyrite sample was the highest. The impact of key parameters on the degradation efficiency of AO7 by pyrite nanoparticles catalyzed Fenton process was modeled using central composite design (CCD). Accordingly, the maximum removal efficiency of 96.30% was achieved at initial AO7 concentration of 16 mg/L, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 5 mmol/L, catalyst amount of 0.5 g/L and reaction time of 25 min.

  2. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dhandapani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

  3. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, N V; Thangarasu, V S; Sureshkannan, G

    2015-01-01

    This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

  4. Rolling process simulation of a pair-crossed hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaojie; Xu Jianzhong; Liu Xianghua; Wang Guodong

    2000-01-01

    Process simulation can help optimize the operating parameters aiming to improve the quality of rolled products. In this paper, software in Visual Basic language is developed to simulate the hot rolling process of a pair-crossed mill. The strip temperature is calculated by considering air cooling, water cooling, heat generation and conduction.The production parameters including rolling speeds, resistance to deformation, rolling forces, drive torques and powers are evaluated by mathematical models and their parameter identification support tools. The deformation of roll stack is calculated by influential function method. The roll temperature and expansion are calculated by finite differential method, and the roll wear is described by empirical formula. Based on these calculations as well as the effect of heredity is taken into account, the strip crown and flatness then can be obtained. The results show that the simulation software has friendly user interface, high accuracy and practicability. It can be served as a basis for the mill design and optimization of process parameters to acquire high quality of hot rolled strip. (author)

  5. Characterization of Irreversible Fouling after Ultrafiltration of Thermomechanical Pulp Mill Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuvander, Johan; Zarebska, Agata; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    process streams is fouling of the membranes. Fouling not only increases operating costs but also reduces the operating time of the membrane plant. When optimizing the membrane cleaning method, it is important to know which compounds cause the fouling. In this work fouling of an ultrafiltration membrane...... was studied. The fouling propensity of untreated process water and microfiltrated process water was compared. Fouled membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Acid hydrolysis of membranes exposed to untreated process......Large volumes of wastewater with dissolved wood components are treated in wastewater treatment plants at thermomechanical pulp mills. It has been shown previously that hemicelluloses in these wastewater streams can be recovered by membrane filtration. A serious obstacle when treating lignocellulose...

  6. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  7. Integrating the processes of a Kraft pulp and paper mill and its supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesfun, Sennai; Toffolo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A process integration model that establishes material stream connections among typical Nordic forest industries is developed. • Potential benefit of the operating the different industries in one site is studied using pinch analysis. • Different scenarios considered to assess impact of prioritization on how to utilize excess biomass. • Results indicate large potential for improved biomass resource utilization. - Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of combining different forest industries (a pulp and paper mill, its supply chain, and a wood-pellet plant) into an integrated industrial site in which they share a common heat and power utility. Advanced process integration and optimization techniques are used to study the site from both material and energy viewpoints. An existing pulp and paper mill is used as the site core plant and its pulp and paper production rates are kept fixed as they are in reality, while the other material flow links among the plants are based on the current industrial situation in Sweden. Different scenarios are evaluated in order to reflect the two main objectives that can be pursued (increased electricity production or biomass resource saving) and the two technologies that can be considered for the shared CHP system (boilers and product gas fired gas turbines). The corresponding non-integrated (standalone) configurations are compared to these scenarios to quantify the potential benefits of the integration. Investment opportunity is also calculated for the considered scenarios as an indicator of the economic convenience

  8. Establishing Relationship between Process Parameters and Temperature during High Speed End Milling of Soda Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasima Bagum, Mst.; Konneh, Mohamed; Yeakub Ali, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In glass machining crack free surface is required in biomedical and optical industry. Ductile mode machining allows materials removal from brittle materials in a ductile manner rather than by brittle fracture. Although end milling is a versatile process, it has not been applied frequently for machining soda lime glass. Soda lime glass is a strain rate and temperature sensitive material; especially around glass transition temperature Tg, ductility increased and strength decreased. Hence, it is envisaged that the generated temperature by high-speed end milling (HSEM) could be brought close to the glass transition temperature, which promote ductile machining. In this research, the objective is to investigate the effect of high speed machining parameters on generated temperature. The cutting parameters were optimized to generate temperature around glass transition temperature of soda lime using response surface methodology (RSM). Result showed that the most influencing process parameter is feed rate followed by spindle speed and depth of cut to generate temperature. Confirmation test showed that combination of spindle speed 30,173 rpm, feed rate 13.2 mm/min and depth of cut 37.68 µm generate 635°C, hence ductile chip removal with machined surface Ra 0.358 µm was possible to achieve.

  9. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  10. Chatter detection in milling process based on VMD and energy entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfu; Zhu, Lida; Ni, Chenbing

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detect the milling chatter based on Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) and energy entropy. VMD has already been employed in feature extraction from non-stationary signals. The parameters like number of modes (K) and the quadratic penalty (α) need to be selected empirically when raw signal is decomposed by VMD. Aimed at solving the problem how to select K and α, the automatic selection method of VMD's based on kurtosis is proposed in this paper. When chatter occurs in the milling process, energy will be absorbed to chatter frequency bands. To detect the chatter frequency bands automatically, the chatter detection method based on energy entropy is presented. The vibration signal containing chatter frequency is simulated and three groups of experiments which represent three cutting conditions are conducted. To verify the effectiveness of method presented by this paper, chatter feather extraction has been successfully employed on simulation signals and experimental signals. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the chatter.

  11. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  12. Prediction of Surface Roughness in End Milling Process Using Intelligent Systems: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Badie Sharkawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is presented to model surface roughness in end milling process. Three types of intelligent networks have been considered. They are (i radial basis function neural networks (RBFNs, (ii adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs, and (iii genetically evolved fuzzy inference systems (G-FISs. The machining parameters, namely, the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut have been used as inputs to model the workpiece surface roughness. The goal is to get the best prediction accuracy. The procedure is illustrated using experimental data of end milling 6061 aluminum alloy. The three networks have been trained using experimental training data. After training, they have been examined using another set of data, that is, validation data. Results are compared with previously published results. It is concluded that ANFIS networks may suffer the local minima problem, and genetic tuning of fuzzy networks cannot insure perfect optimality unless suitable parameter setting (population size, number of generations etc. and tuning range for the FIS, parameters are used which can be hardly satisfied. It is shown that the RBFN model has the best performance (prediction accuracy in this particular case.

  13. Energetic and exergetic assessment of a trass mill process in a cement plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogut, M.Z.; Oktay, Z.; Hepbasli, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cement production has become one of the most intensive energy industries in the world. For producing it, addition materials have been widely used in cement factories. The main objective of this study is to assess the performance of a trass mill in a cement plant based on the actual operational data using energy and exergy analysis method. In this regard, the values for energy consumption and losses throughout the production process are described. In the process, the overall exergy efficiencies are found to be slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies; e.g. 74% and 10.68% for energy and exergy efficiency, respectively. Using energy recovery systems, waste heat energy may be captured, while energy and exergy efficiency values can be improved to 84% and 48%, respectively. It may also be concluded that the analyses reported here will provide the investigators with knowledge about how effectively and efficiently a sector uses its energy resources.

  14. Influence of the worn tool affected by built-up edge (BUE) on micro end-milling process performance: A 3D finite element modeling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido; Annoni, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    on the process performance is investigated by comparing the predicted 3d chip flow shape, burr formation and cutting forces with experiments conducted on an ultra-high precision micro milling center. Simulations indicate that BUE has significant impact on the chip shape and chip load for different teeth......Micro milling process has been utilized for several decades due to the flexibility of the process in producing complex components. The small size of the process makes the comprehension of cutting phenomenon details more difficult. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach...... for the micro end-milling process of Aluminum material (Al6082-T6). 3D FEM simulations are carried out in full slot micro end-milling and contour up milling. The model first implements the actual tool geometry and then the effect of typical built-up edge (BUE) on the milling tool. The influence of BUE...

  15. Synthetic olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's process in batch and continuous reactors operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M

    2017-11-04

    Degradation of total phenol (TPh) and organic matter, (expressed as total organic carbon TOC), of a simulated olive mill wastewater was evaluated by the Fenton oxidation process under batch and continuous mode conditions. A mixture of six phenolic acids usually found in these agro-industrial wastewaters was used for this purpose. The study focused on the optimization of key operational parameters of the Fenton process in a batch reactor, namely Fe 2+ dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH, and reaction temperature. On the assessment of the process efficiency, > 99% of TPh and > 56% of TOC removal were attained when [Fe 2+ ] = 100 ppm, [H 2 O 2 ] = 2.0 g/L, T = 30 °C, and initial pH = 5.0, after 300 min of reaction. Under those operational conditions, experiments on a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) were performed for different space-time values (τ). TOC and TPh removals of 47.5 and 96.9%, respectively, were reached at steady-state (for τ = 120 min). High removal of COD (> 75%) and BOD 5 (> 70%) was achieved for both batch and CSTR optimum conditions; analysis of the BOD 5 /COD ratio also revealed an increase in the effluent's biodegradability. Despite the high removal of lumped parameters, the treated effluent did not met the Portuguese legal limits for direct discharge of wastewaters into water bodies, which indicates that coupled chemical-biological process may be the best solution for real olive mill wastewater treatment.

  16. Determination of rational parameters for process of grinding materials pre-crushed by pressure in ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovich, A. A.; Romanovich, L. G.; Chekhovskoy, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies on the grinding process of a clinker preliminarily ground in press roller mills in a ball mill equipped with energy exchange devices. The authors studied the influence of the coefficients of loading for grinding bodies of the first and second mill chambers, their lengths, angles of inclination, and the mutual location of energy exchange devices (the ellipse segment and the double-acting blade) on the output parameters of the grinding process (productivity, drive power consumption and specific energy consumption). It is clarified that the best results of the disaggregation and grinding process, judging by the minimum specific energy consumption in the grinding of clinker with an anisotropic texture after force deformation between the rolls of a press roller shredder, are achieved at a certain angle of ellipse segment inclination; the length of the first chamber and the coefficients of loading the chambers with grinding bodies.

  17. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Po-Hung; Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Shih-Min; Tzeng, Chewn-Jeng

    2009-01-01

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  18. Study of the aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide through thermal analysis experiments and high energy milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Parra De Lazzari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide was studied through thermal analysis techniques such as differential thermal analysis (DTA and thermogravimetry (TG as well as through high energy milling processing. Reactants mixtures were composed by powders of Nb2O5 and Al. In the case of DTA-TG experiments, different molar ratios Nb2O5:Al were heated in a dynamic atmosphere of synthetic air under controlled conditions. The high energy milling runs were carried out via SPEX vibratory mill under argon atmosphere and with milling power equal to 7:1 (ratio of mass of balls to mass of mixture with 10 pct excess of Al over the stoichiometric mass of aluminum necessary. In both kinds of experiments, X ray diffraction was used in order to identify the products of reaction. From DTA-TG experiments, it was possible to determine the experimental value of the enthalpy change (-595.9 kJ.mol-1, which is near to the theoretical one. From the milling experiments, it was possible to verify the possibility of the occurance of aluminothermic reducion of niobium pentoxide via this kind of processing.

  19. Processing radioactive wastes and uranium mill tailings for safe ecologically-acceptable disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchak, F.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive and associated chemical contaminants present in uranium mill tailings, for example, are isolated from the environment. A matrix product is formed by combining selected clays and lime with the soluble radioactive and chemical contaminants. The clays absorb the majority of all the contaminants. The lime neutralizes the contaminants and cements the clay silicates and absorbed contaminants. The resulting product is of a matrix-like nature and is reverted into a limestone by the uptake of carbon dioxide in a recarbonization process. The radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the resulting product are converted into insoluble oxides or hydroxides which do not appreciably leach out into the ground water. The release of radon gasses is substantially inhibited in the final product, and the release of radon gasses is virtually nonexistent in the final limestone

  20. Performance of Silicon carbide whisker reinforced ceramic inserts on Inconel 718 in end milling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M M; Joshua, C X H

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation is planned in order to study the machinability of Inconel 718 with silicon carbide whisker reinforced ceramic inserts in end milling process. The relationship between the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut against the response factors are studied to show the level of significance of each parameter. The cutting parameters are optimized by using Taguchi method. Implementing analysis of variance, the parameter which influences the surface roughness the most is determined to be the cutting speed, followed by the feed rate and depth of cut. Meanwhile, the optimal cutting condition is determined to have high cutting speed, low feed rate, and high depth of cut in the range of selected parameters. (paper)

  1. Nanocrystallite characterization of milled simulated dry process fuel powders by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Kang, Kwon Ho; Moon, Je Sun; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Yong Nam

    2003-01-01

    The nano-scale crystallite sizes of simulated spent fuel powders were measured by the neutron diffraction line broadening method in order to analyze the sintering behavior of the dry process fuel. The mixed U0 2 and fission product oxide powders were dry-milled in an attritor for 30, 60, and 120 min. The diffraction patterns of the powders were obtained by using the high resolution powder diffractometer in the HANARO research reactor. Diffraction line broadening due to crystallite size was measured using various techniques such as the Stokes' deconvolution, profile fitting methods using Cauchy function, Gaussian function, and Voigt function, and the Warren-Averbach method. The r.m.s. strain, stacking fault, twin and dislocation density were measured using the information from the diffraction pattern. The realistic crystallite size can be obtained after separation of the contribution from the non-uniform strain, stacking fault and twin

  2. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER membrane was used as pre-treatment for electrochemical process. The obtained permeate from the ultrafiltration process allowed COD removal efficiency of about 96% from OMW. Obtained permeate with an average COD of about 1.1gdm-3 was treated by electrochemical reactor equipped with a reactor with bipolar iron plate electrodes. The effect of the experimental parameters such as current density, pH, surface electrode/reactor volume ratio and NaCl concentration on COD removal was assessed. The results showed that the optimum COD removal rate was obtained at a current density of 93.3Am-2 and pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5. At the optimum operational parameters for the experiments, electrocoagulation process could reduce COD from 1.1gdm-3 to 78mgdm-3, allowing direct discharge of the treated OMW as that meets the Algerian wastewater discharge standards (<125mgdm-3). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  4. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  5. Preparation of zinc ferrite nano powders by high energy wet-milling method and investigation of Crystallites size variation during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, H.; Aftabi, A.; Mozafari, M.; Amighian, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this research work ZnFe 2 O 4 nano powders were prepared by high-energy wet-milling process, using metallic Fe and Zn powders. The process was investigated by XRD technique. 10% of the zinc ferrite was formed after 10 h milling. The as-milled sample was annealed at 500, 550 and 600 d egree C . Ultimately a single sample was obtained at 600 d egree C . Using sherrer's formula, the mean crystallite size of the as-milled and annealed powders were calculated. These were in the range of 17.9 to 20.4 nm.

  6. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F < 0.01. The optimum performance was obtained at the current density of 56 mA/cm(2), contact time of 65 min and initial pH of 4.5, rendering complete removal of colour and turbidity with COD removal of 75.4%. The pH of post-treated POME of 7.6 was achieved, which is suitable for direct discharge. These predicted outputs were subsequently confirmed by insignificant standard deviation readings between predicted and actual values. This optimum condition also permitted the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, and various metal ions, signifying the superiority of the electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  7. Using the modern CNC controllers capabilities for estimating the machining forces during the milling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaz Radu-Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machining forces can nowadays be measured by using 3D dynamometers, which are usually very expensive devices and hardly available for most of the CNC machine-tools users. On the other hand, modern CNC controllers have nowadays the ability to display and save many outputs within the machining process, such as the currents or even the torques at the shaft's level for the feed motors on each axis. These outputs can be used for estimating the machining forces, but it is to be noticed that the above-mentioned currents and torques are proportional with the overall resistant forces, which includes not only technological forces, but also friction, inertial and pre-tensioning forces. This paper presents an approach for estimating the machining forces during a milling process, by using the outputs stored in the CNC controller and separating the effects of technological forces from the other forces involved in the process. The separation was made by running two sets of experiments, one set for dry-run regime and the other one for machining regime.

  8. Integrating Fenton's process and ion exchange for olive mill wastewater treatment and iron recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Patrícia M; Martins, Pedro J M; Martins, Rui C; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    A novel integrated methodology involving Fenton's process followed by ion exchange (IE) was proposed for the treatment of olive mill wastewater. Fenton's process was optimized and it was able to remove up to 81% of chemical oxygen demand when pH 3.5, reaction time 1 h, [Fe 2+ ] = 50 mg L -1 and [Fe 2+ ]/[H 2 O 2 ] = 0.002 were applied. In spite of the potential of this treatment approach, final iron removal from the liquid typically entails pH increase and iron sludge production. The integration of an IE procedure using Lewatit TP 207 resin was found to be able to overcome this important environmental shortcoming. The resin showed higher affinity toward Fe 3+ than to Fe 2+ . However, the iron removal efficiency of an effluent coming from Fenton's was independent of the type of the initial iron used in the process. The presence of organic matter had no significant effect over the resin iron removal efficiency. Even if some efficiency decrease was observed when a high initial iron load was applied, the adsorbent mass quantity can be easily adapted to reach the desired iron removal. The use of IE is an interesting industrial approach able to surpass Fenton's peroxidation drawback and will surely boost its full-scale application in the treatment of bio-refractory effluents.

  9. Characterization of structures and novel magnetic response of Fe87.5Si7Al5.5 alloy processed by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yuping; Gu, Shuchao; Zhang, Zhonglun; Wen, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The water atomized Fe 87.5 Si 7 Al 5.5 (Wt.%) alloy was processed by ball-milling. ► The microstructure and magnetic properties of alloy changed following milling. ► The powders milled for 10 h have the largest M s and strongest reflection loss. ► The permeability of the powders milled for 2 h is the largest. ► The charge exchange between Fe and Si is discussed base on first-principles. - Abstract: The water atomized Fe 87.5 Si 7 Al 5.5 (Wt.%) alloy was processed by a high-energy planetary ball-milling. The characterization of morphology, microstructure, and electromagnetic properties were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), vector network analyzer and the first principle method. The analysis results showed that the powders shape became flaky from fusiform. The powders showed a reduction of the average grain size and the increase of the internal strain, and then presented an adverse variation trend after 55 h milling. The powders that milled 10 h had the largest saturation magnetization M S (131 emu/g). The value μ′ of the powders decreased with increasing milling time at relatively lower frequency (2–8 GHz), but opposite variation tendency happened at higher frequency (8–18 GHz). Also, only short time milling can enhance the value of μ″ in the test frequency. The powders after 10 h milling showed excellent microwave absorption (RL < −10 dB) at the frequency 9.0–15.6 GHz and the absorption peak shifted regularly to the high frequency as the increased milling time. Furthermore, the effect of charge exchange between the Fe and Si on the saturation magnetization in the ball-milling process was also investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) of first principle.

  10. Application of Ultrafiltration in a Paper Mill: Process Water Reuse and Membrane Fouling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High water consumption is a major environmental problem that the pulp and paper industry is facing. Ultrafiltration (UF can be used to remove the dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS concentrated during the recycling of white water (the process water to facilitate the reuse of white water and reduce fresh water consumption. However, membrane fouling limits the application of UF in this industry. In this study, super-clear filtrate obtained from a fine paper mill was purified with a polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration membrane to evaluate the reuse performance of the ultrafiltrate. The membrane foulants were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrophotometry, attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the retention rate of stock and the strength properties of paper increased when the ultrafiltrate was reused in the papermaking process compared to when super-clear filtrate was used. The reversible membrane foulants during ultrafiltration accounted for 85.52% of the total foulants and primarily originated from retention aids, drainage aids, and wet strength resins, while the irreversible adsorptive foulants accounted for 14.48% and mostly came from sizing agents, coating chemicals, and others. Moreover, the presence of dissolved multivalent metal ions, especially Ca2+, accelerated membrane fouling.

  11. Bitter-tasting and kokumi-enhancing molecules in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Andreas Georg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-12-22

    Sequential application of solvent extraction and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses (TDA) and comparative TDA, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of 10 C(17)-C(21) oxylipins with 1,2,4-trihydroxy-, 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-, and 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motifs, respectively, besides 1-O-stearoyl-glycerol and 1-O-linoleoyl-glycerol as bitter-tasting compounds in thermally processed avocado (Persea americana Mill.). On the basis of quantitative data, dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, and taste re-engineering experiments, these phytochemicals, among which 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-octadeca-12-ene was found with the highest taste impact, were confirmed to be the key contributors to the bitter off-taste developed upon thermal processing of avocado. For the first time, those C(17)-C(21) oxylipins exhibiting a 1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxy- and a 1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo motif, respectively, were discovered to induce a mouthfulness (kokumi)-enhancing activity in sub-bitter threshold concentrations.

  12. Irrigation model of bleached Kraft mill wastewater through volcanic soil as a pollutants attenuation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, R; Inostroza, X; Diez, M C; Lorber, K E

    2006-05-01

    An irrigation process through volcanic soil columns was evaluated for bleached Kraft mill effluent pollutants retention. The system was designed to remove color and phenolic compounds and a simple kinetic model for determining the global mass transfer coefficient and the adsorption rate constant was used. The results clearly indicate that the global mass transfer coefficient values (K(c)a) and the adsorption rate constants are higher for the irrigation processes onto acidified soil. This means that the pretreatment of washing the volcanic soil with an acid solution has a positive effect on the adsorption rate for both pollutant groups. The enhanced adsorption capacity is partially explained by the activation of the metal oxides present in the soil matrix during the acid washing process. Increasing the flow rate from 1.5 to 2.5 ml/min yielded higher (K(c)a) values and adsorption rate constants for both pollutant groups. For instance, regarding color adsorption onto acidified soil, there is an increment of 43% in the (K(c)a) value for the experiment with a flow rate of 2.5 ml/min. Increasing the porosity of the column from 0.55 to 0.59, yielded a decrease in the (K(c)a) values for color and phenolic compounds adsorption processes. Onto natural soil for example, these decreases reached 21% and 24%, respectively. Therefore, the (K(c)a) value is dependent on both the liquid-phase velocity (external resistance) and the soil fraction in the column (internal resistance); making forced convection and diffusion to be the main transport mechanisms involved in the adsorption process. Analyzing the adsorption rate constants (K(c)a)/m, phenolic compounds and color adsorption rates onto acidified soil of 2.25 x 10(-6) and 2.62 x 10(-6) l/mg min were achieved for experiment 1. These adsorption rates are comparable with other adsorption systems and adsorbent materials.

  13. Effect of process variables on synthesis of MgB2 by a high energy ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurama Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of superconductivity of MgB2 in 2001, with a critical temperature of 39 K, offered the promise of important large-scale applications at around 20 K. Except than the other featured synthesis methods, mechanical activation performed by high energy ball mills, as bulk form synthesis or as a first step of wire and thin film productions, has considered as an effective alternative production route in recent years. The process of mechanical activation (MA starts with mixing the powders in the right proportion and loading the powder mixture into the mill with the grinding media. The milled powder is then consolidated into a bulk shape and heat-treated to obtain desired microstructure and properties. Thus, the important components of the MA process are the raw materials, mill type and process variables. During the MA process, heavy deformation of particles occure. This is manifested by the presence of a variety of crystal defects such as dislocations, vacancies, stacking faults and increased number of particle boundaries. The presence of this defect structure enhances the diffusivity of solute hence the critical currents and magnetic flux pinning ability of MgB2 are improved. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of process variables such as ball-to-powder mass ratio, size of balls, milling time, annealing temperature and contribution of process control agent (toluene on the product size, morphology and conversion level of precursor powders to MgB2 after subsequent heat treatment. The morphological analyses of the samples were performed by a high vacuum electron microscope ZEISS SUPRA VP 50. The phase compositions of the samples were performed with an Rigaku-Rint 2200 diffractometer, with nickel filtered Cu Kα radiation and conversion level. The MgB2 phase wt % was calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained results were discussed according to the process variables to find out their affect on the structure

  14. Flux and concentration processes of radioactive elements in the forest industry; dosimetry, biofueled heating plants, the alkaline and the acidic pulp mill processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1992-01-01

    A fraction of the radionuclides released to the forest ecosystem will be incorporated into different parts of the trees and the wood. A common factor for both biofueled power plants and pulp mills is that they concentrate the radionuclides initially present in the in the biofuel or wood in ashes or other products. The enrichment of radioactive elements is due to the combustion process or in a pulp mill, the combustion of bark and liquors, and also the processes in the pulp mill recycling system. The radiological impacts to man from forest industry arises form radiation emitted from the radionuclides present in ash and pulp mill liquors and liquor sludge. The quantification and calculation of past, present and future activity concentrations in biofuels, ash and pulp mill waste products are all important when assessments of the radiation dose is done. In order to assess the resulting dose to staff working close to radionuclide containing recycling systems and waste dumps, it is necessary to know the dynamics (inflow rate and residence time) of the radionuclides in that system

  15. Compensation processes of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) to ozone exposure and drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclan, R.; Gimeno, B.S.; Dizengremel, P.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term experiment was performed to study the effects of O 3 and drought-stress (DS) on Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) exposed in open-top chambers. Ozone reduced gas exchange rates, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (Rubisco), aboveground C and needle N concentrations and C/N ratio and Ca concentrations of the twigs under 3 mm (twigs Pd ), C/N ratio, twigs<3 Ca, plant growth, aerial biomass and increased N, twigs with a diameter above 3 mm P and Mg concentrations. The combined exposure to both stresses increased N concentrations of twigs<3 and roots and aboveground biomass K content and decreased root C, maximum daily assimilation rate and instantaneous water use efficiency. The sensitivity of Aleppo pine to both stresses is determined by plant internal resource allocation and compensation mechanisms to cope with stress. - Ozone and drought stress induce the activation of similar processes related to C and N metabolism

  16. Key process parameters involved in the treatment of olive mill wastewater by membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouad, Y; Villain-Gambier, M; Mandi, L; Marrot, B; Ouazzani, N

    2018-04-18

    The Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) biodegradation in an external ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated with a starting acclimation step with a Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (150 kDa) and no sludge discharge in order to develop a specific biomass adapted to OMWW biodegradation. After acclimation step, UF was replaced by an Microfiltration (MF) membrane (0.1 µm). Sludge Retention Time (SRT) was set around 25 days and Food to Microorganisms ratio (F/M) was fixed at 0.2 kg COD  kg MLVSS -1  d -1 . At stable state, removal of the main phenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were successfully reached (95% both). Considered as a predominant fouling factor, but never quantified in MBR treated OMWW, Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) proteins, polysaccharides and humic substances concentrations were determined (80, 110 and 360 mg L -1 respectively). At the same time, fouling was easily managed due to favourable hydraulic conditions of external ceramic MBR. Therefore, OMWW could be efficiently and durably treated by an MF MBR process under adapted operating parameters.

  17. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of dragonfly algorithm for optimal performance analysis of process parameters in turn-mill operations- A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, K. Arun; Ratnam, Ch; Lakshmi, VVK; Kumar, A. Sunny; Ramakanth, RT

    2018-02-01

    Meta-heuristic multi-response optimization methods are widely in use to solve multi-objective problems to obtain Pareto optimal solutions during optimization. This work focuses on optimal multi-response evaluation of process parameters in generating responses like surface roughness (Ra), surface hardness (H) and tool vibration displacement amplitude (Vib) while performing operations like tangential and orthogonal turn-mill processes on A-axis Computer Numerical Control vertical milling center. Process parameters like tool speed, feed rate and depth of cut are considered as process parameters machined over brass material under dry condition with high speed steel end milling cutters using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE). Meta-heuristic like Dragonfly algorithm is used to optimize the multi-objectives like ‘Ra’, ‘H’ and ‘Vib’ to identify the optimal multi-response process parameters combination. Later, the results thus obtained from multi-objective dragonfly algorithm (MODA) are compared with another multi-response optimization technique Viz. Grey relational analysis (GRA).

  19. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.

  20. Influence of emulsifiers on the optimization of processing parameters of refining milk chocolate in the ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate manufacture is a complex process which includes a large number of technology operations. One of the obligatory phases is milling, called refining, which aims at obtaining the appropriate distribution of particle size, resulting in the chocolate with optimal physical and sensory characteristics. The aim of this work was to define and optimize the process parameters for the production of milk chocolate by a non-conventional procedure, using the ball mill. The quality of chocolate mass, produced on this way, is determined by measuring the following parameters: moisture, size of the largest cocoa particle, yield flow, and Casson plastic viscosity. A special consideration of this study is the optimization of the types and amounts of emulsifiers, which are responsible for achieving the appropriate rheological and physical characteristics of the chocolate mass. The obtained parameters are compared with those which are typical for the standard procedure.

  1. IMPROVEMENT PROCESS FOR ROLLING MILL THROUGH THE DMAIC SIX SIGMA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Ganguly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to address the problems that are facing a large aluminum company in a Developing Hot Rolling Mill Capabilities for Wider Widths Hard Alloys Rolling and b Eliminate down time due to strip /coil slippage during hard alloys 5xxx rolling at Hot Mill. The challenge for the company was to cater the fast changing export demand for Flat Rolled products with its existing resources. By applying Six Sigma principles, the team identified the current situation that the rolling mills operations were in. Si x Sigma DMAIC methodologies were use d in the project to determine the project's CTQ characteristics, defining the possible causes, Identifying the variation sources, establishing variable relationships and Implementing Control Plans. The project can be useful for any company that needs to fi nd the most cost efficient way to improve and utilize its resources.

  2. Research on the Treatment of Aluminum Alloy Chemical Milling Wastewater with Fenton Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong-liang, Huang; Ru, Li; Peng, Luo; Jun-li, Gu

    2018-03-01

    The aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was treated by Fenton method. The effect of pH value, reaction time, rotational speed, H2O2 dosage, Fe2+ dosage and the molar ratio between H2O2 and Fe2+ on the COD removal rate of aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimum operating conditions for Fenton oxidation were as follows: the initial pH value was 3, the rotational speed was 250r/min, the molar ratio of H2O2 and Fe2+ was 8, the reaction time was 90 min. Under the optimum conditions, the removal rate of the wastewater’s COD is about 72.36%. In the reaction kinetics that aluminum alloy chemical milling wastewater was oxidized and degraded by Fenton method under the optimum conditions, the reaction sequence of the initial COD was 0.8204.

  3. Methods of evaluating ore processing and effluent treatment for Cigar Lake ore at the Rabbit Lake Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cigar Lake is the second-largest, high grade uranium orebody in the world. Mineable reserves for Cigar Lake Phase 1 are estimated at 191 million pounds U 3 O 8 with a grade of 25.6% U 3 O 8 . Subject to regulatory approval, Cameco intends to process the majority of ore from Cigar Lake in the Rabbit Lake mill. Cameco initiated a programme to study the processing of Cigar Lake ore and the treatment of the resulting waste streams. Laboratory and follow-up pilot scale ore leaching tests with Cigar Lake ore samples were performed. Tailings and effluents were generated from the products of the pilot scale leach tests. Mill process tailings were blended with ground waste rock. Using these materials, geotechnical and geochemical properties, including long term tailings pore water characteristics, will be evaluated. In addition, proposed changes to the mill waste treatment operations were developed to deal with increased levels of arsenic and radium in the waste streams. This paper describes the methods and techniques Cameco used in this programme. (author)

  4. Optimization of Process Parameters During End Milling and Prediction of Work Piece Temperature Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhirud N.L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the machining processes, heat gets generated as a result of plastic deformation of metal and friction along the tool–chip and tool–work piece interface. In materials having high thermal conductivity, like aluminium alloys, large amount of this heat is absorbed by the work piece. This results in the rise in the temperature of the work piece, which may lead to dimensional inaccuracies, surface damage and deformation. So, it is needed to control rise in the temperature of the work piece. This paper focuses on the measurement, analysis and prediction of work piece temperature rise during the dry end milling operation of Al 6063. The control factors used for experimentation were number of flutes, spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The Taguchi method was employed for the planning of experimentation and L18 orthogonal array was selected. The temperature rise of the work piece was measured with the help of K-type thermocouple embedded in the work piece. Signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was carried out using the lower-the-better quality characteristics. Depth of cut was identified as the most significant factor affecting the work piece temperature rise, followed by spindle speed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find out the significant parameters affecting the work piece temperature rise. ANOVA results were found to be in line with the S/N ratio analysis. Regression analysis was used for developing empirical equation of temperature rise. The temperature rise of the work piece was calculated using the regression equation and was found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the results obtained. From the confirmation test it was found that the Taguchi method is an effective method to determine optimised parameters for minimization of work piece temperature.

  5. Influence of the milling process on the structure and morphology of ZnAl_2O_4 and catalytic performance in the methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, A.C.; Dantas, B.B.; Santana, A.; Costa, A.C.M.F.; Costa, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of milling time over the structure and morphology of ZnAl_2O_4, synthesized by combustion reaction, and study the effect of milled samples over the methyl transesterification reaction of soy bean oil. ZnAl_2O_4 was synthesizing, by means combustion reaction, using a electrical resistance plate. The powder was milled over 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, particle size distribution and N_2 adsorption isotherms. Milling process promoted changes over the agglomerate size and textural characteristics of the samples. Catalytic tests were conducted at 160 deg C, with 1% of catalyst, with molar ratio oil:methanol of 1:6 and reaction time of 1 hour. According the results, the sample milled over 30 minutes showed the highest conversion. (author)

  6. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O.; Campos, Simara S.S.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2011-01-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  7. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O. [Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Campos, Simara S.S. [State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. of Basic and Instrumental Studies; Gennari, Roseli F., E-mail: rgennari@dfn.if.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics. Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    2011-07-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  8. Experimental Researches Tribological Properties of Hard-Alloy Blades With a Vacuum-Plasma Coating in the Chipboards Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Viktorovič Rudak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While developing effective ion-plasma coatings compositions of woodcutting tools special conditions of its use should be taken into account particularly the force rate acting on the cutting wedge. With the penetration of the blade into the wood material normal pressure and friction appear on the connection surface. For the analysis of the cutting processes the connection surface can be divided into several zones. The cutters with vacuum-plasma coatings based on TiN are characterized by a lower coefficient of friction in comparison to uncoated cutters in real conditions. The developed technique of tribotechnical tool tests of milling woodchip board is of great importance to establish the regularities of chip formation, chips movement and dust in the timber cutting areas as well as wood materials at milling in a wide parameter range of cutting conditions, for the development of methods and devices of chips and dust suppression.

  9. Discrete element method as an approach to model the wheat milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is a well-known phenomenon that break-release, particle size, and size distribution of wheat milling are functions of machine operational parameters and grain properties. Due to the non-uniformity of characteristics and properties of wheat kernels, the kernel physical and mechanical properties af...

  10. Potential for yield improvement in combined rip-first and crosscut-first rough mill processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lumber cutting systems in rough mills have either first ripped lumber into wide strips and then crosscut the resulting strips into component lengths (rip-first), or first crosscut the lumber into component lengths, then ripped the segments to the required widths (crosscut-first). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Crosscut-first typically...

  11. Comparison of particle sizes between 238PuO2 before aqueous processing, after aqueous processing, and after ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    Particle sizes determined for a single lot of incoming Russian fuel and for a lot of fuel after aqueous processing are compared with particle sizes measured on fuel after ball-milling. The single samples of each type are believed to have particle size distributions typical of oxide from similar lots, as the processing of fuel lots is fairly uniform. Variation between lots is, as yet, uncharacterized. Sampling and particle size measurement methods are discussed elsewhere.

  12. Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C

    2013-06-01

    Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of 0.05).

  13. Annealing optimization in the process of making membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2 for wastewater treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, A. A.; Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    A small proportion of the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has used its wastewater to converted to methane gas which will then be converted again into electrical energy. However, for Palm Oil Mill whose has a value of Chemical Oxygen Demand in its wastewater is less than 60.000 mg / L this can’t so that the purpose wastewater treatment only to reach the standard that can be safe to dispose into the environment. Wastewater treatment systems that are general applied by Palm Oil Mill especially in North Sumatera are aerobic and anaerobic, this method takes a relatively long time due to very dependent on microbial activity. An alternative method for wastewater treatment offered is membrane technology because the process is much more effective, the time is relatively short, and expected to give more optimal result. The optimum membrane obtained is PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 membrane,while the parameter condition of the permeate analysis produced in the treatment of POME wastewater with membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 obtained at pH = 7.0; TSS = 148 mg / L; BOD = 149 mg / L; And COD = 252 mg / L. The results obtained is accordance with the standard of the quality of POME.

  14. A process for the treatment of olive mill waste waters by immobilized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElYachioui, M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mould strains were immobilized on sawdust from woods as a solid material for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters. Assays were carried out in flasks. The treatment process was monitored by physico-chemical determinations including pH, polyphenols and COD, which were followed up during the incubation time. In parallel the chemical inhibitory activity of OMW was confirmed biologically by the determination of some microorganisms in the medium including the plate count, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Results indicated that the polyphenol degradation level was 87 %. The COD was also reduced by 60 %. The pH of the effluent increased from 4.5 to 6.6. The microbial profiles showed their best growth during the treatment period indicating a removal of the inhibitory activities from the OMW waters. The growth patterns of all microorganism groups were similar and could reach high levels in the effluent.Cepas de moho fueron inmovilizadas sobre serrín de madera como material sólido para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de un molino de aceituna (OMW. Los ensayos se realizaron en matraces. El proceso de tratamiento se monitorizó mediante determinaciones físico-químicas incluyendo pH, polifenoles y DQO, que también se analizaron durante el tiempo de incubación. En paralelo, la actividad inhibidora química de las OMW se confirma biológicamente mediante su efecto sobre algunos microorganismos incluyendo levaduras y bactérias ácido lácticas. Los resultados indicaron que los polifenoles se degradan hasta un nivel del 87 %. La DQO se redujo también al 60 %. El pH del efluente aumentó de 4.5 a 6.6. Los perfiles microbiológicos mostraron un mejor crecimiento a medida que avanzaba el tratamiento indicando una supresión de las actividades inhibidoras de las aguas (OMW. El comportamiento del crecimiento de todos los grupos de microorganismos fue similar y puede alcanzar altos niveles en el efluente

  15. Obtaining beta phase in Ti through processing in high energy mill powders of Ti and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Mateus; Ferretto, Aline; Rocha, Marcio Roberto da; Arnt, Angela Coelho; Milanez, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Lirio

    2014-01-01

    An orthopedic implant, ideal, must meet the requirements of biocompatibility, have good mechanical properties among others. Titanium and Niobium exhibit biocompatibility and the β-Ti phase relationships have the highest strength / weight among all titanium alloys, presenting lower values of elastic modulus. The alloy has mechanically produced specific microstructural characteristics and improved mechanical properties compared with conventional powder metallurgy. In this study, a titanium alloy with different additions of niobium was used. The metal powders were mixed via mechanical alloy in high energy mill (attritor). The powder samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and property held by adhesive wear testing with a Pin-on-Disk. The present study revealed that through the high-energy milling is possible the atomic interaction between Ti and Nb particles and the mechanical properties are affected by the concentration of Nb. (author)

  16. An evaluation of realization of the production process in the cement mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter there were presented the characteristics of the research object (cement mill and the description of the enterprise products. There was introduced an analysis of the results obtained on the basis of the BOST questionnaire survey and there was made a statistical analysis concerning principle 4 of the Toyota. The structure of evaluation was determined and importance series were built.

  17. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Kushiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.

  18. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative study of using spindle motor power and eddy current for the detection of tool conditions in milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass, JK; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the power of the driving motor of a CNC spindle in comparison to two perpendicular eddy current sensors for the detection of tool wear in milling processes. Monitoring the power through the current profile is a low cost system which has been utilised in this study as an attempt to detect the fluctuation in the motor load as a result of the conditions of the cutting tool. Eddy current sensors are dedicated sensors that are installed on the spindle to measure ...

  20. Toolpath Strategy and Optimum Combination of Machining Parameter during Pocket Mill Process of Plastic Mold Steels Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Y. T.; Baskoro, S. Y.; Manurung, V. A. T.

    2018-02-01

    Plastic based products spread all over the world in many aspects of life. The ability to substitute other materials is getting stronger and wider. The use of plastic materials increases and become unavoidable. Plastic based mass production requires injection process as well Mold. The milling process of plastic mold steel material was done using HSS End Mill cutting tool that is widely used in a small and medium enterprise for the reason of its ability to be re sharpened and relatively inexpensive. Study on the effect of the geometry tool states that it has an important effect on the quality improvement. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and radii are input parameters beside to the tool path strategy. This paper aims to investigate input parameter and cutting tools behaviors within some different tool path strategy. For the reason of experiments efficiency Taguchi method and ANOVA were used. Response studied is surface roughness and cutting behaviors. By achieving the expected quality, no more additional process is required. Finally, the optimal combination of machining parameters will deliver the expected roughness and of course totally reduced cutting time. However actually, SMEs do not optimally use this data for cost reduction.

  1. Flank wear and I-kaz 3D correlation in ball end milling process of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.M. Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear may deteriorate the machine product quality due to high surface roughness, dimension exceeding tolerance and also to machine tool itself. Tool wear monitoring system is vital to be used in machining process to achieve high quality of the machined product and at the same time improve the productivity. Nowadays, many monitoring system developed using various sensor and statistical technique to analyze the signals being used. In this paper, I-kaz 3D method is used to analyze cutting force signal in milling process of Inconel 718 for monitoring the status of tool wear in milling process. The results from analyzing cutting force show that I-kaz 3D coefficient has a correlation with cutting tool condition. Tool wear will generate high value of I-kaz 3D coefficient than the sharp cutting tool. Furthermore, the three dimension graphical representation of I-kaz 3D for all cutting condition shown that the degree of scattering data increases with tool wear progression.

  2. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Oteo, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author) 30 refs.

  3. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Otero, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author)

  4. Effect of milling duration on the evolution of shape memory properties in a powder processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mohit; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Shafeeq, Muhamed M.; Modi, Om P.; Prasad, Braj K. [CSIR - Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2013-09-15

    The present work describes the effect of milling duration on the properties of a powder metallurgy processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti shape memory alloy employing mechanical alloying. Powder mixtures milled for different durations were sintered in order to investigate the formation of solid solution and evolution of martensitic structure. The idea was to optimize the duration of milling (mechanical alloying) to obtain chemical homogeneity as well as shape memory properties in the processed material without undergoing extensive post homogenization treatment. The martensitic structure was noted to evolve in the powder mix milled for at least 16 hrs, whereas complete transformation to martensite occurred after milling for 40 hrs. Interestingly, the dissolution of alloying elements (to form the {beta} phase prior to the formation of martensite) was noted to complete partially only during mechanical alloying for 40 hrs and remaining during subsequent sintering for 1 hr. The hot pressed compacts of the powders milled for 40 hrs were chemically homogeneous and consisted of fully martensite phase, which is essential for the realization of shape memory properties. They also revealed almost 100% shape recovery at the applied pre-strain levels of 1 and 2%. (orig.)

  5. MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANT FLOW ANALYSIS IN END MILLING PROCESSES: A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Najiha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional steady-state incompressible analysis for the minimum quantity of lubricant flow in milling operations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The analysis of flow and heat transfer in a four-teeth milling cutter operation was undertaken. The domain of the rotating cutter along with the spray nozzle is defined. Operating cutting and boundary conditions are taken from the literature. A steady-state, pressure-based, planar analysis was performed with a viscous, realizable k-ε model. A mixture of oils and air were sprayed on the tool, which is considered to be rotating and is at a temperature near the melting temperature of the workpiece. Flow fields are obtained from the study. The vector plot of the flow field shows that the flow is not evenly distributed over the cutter surface, as well as the uneven distribution of the lubricant in the direction of the cutter rotation. It can be seen that the cutting fluid has not completely penetrated the tool edges. The turbulence created by the cutter rotation in the proximity of the tool throws oil drops out of the cutting zone. The nozzle position in relation to the feed direction is very important in order to obtain the optimum effect of the MQL flow.

  6. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-chun; Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-01-01

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to 5.0 mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size 5.0 mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards

  7. A FLEXIBLE APPROACH TO THE BENEFICIAL USE OF MACHINING POWER IN MILLING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk MENDİ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a computer program has been developed to calculate the cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a under certain cutting condition which will be determined by the user for making maximum use of the various milling machines used presently. In the scope of the study, data related to the cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a of St 37 Steel and powers of the machine have been obtained. The aim is to make maximum use of the machines by choosing cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a with the help data. The effect of changes in cutting speed (Vc and depth of cut (a on productivity has been studied.

  8. Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet anode materials for lithium-ion batteries synthesized by ball milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xiaoyong; Han, Qianyan; Liang, Chunyan; Li, Bo; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2017-12-01

    Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet (GNS) nanocomposites as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are synthesized by mechanically blending the mixture of expanded graphite with Si nanoparticles, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During the ball milling process, the size of Si nanoparticles will decrease, and the layer of expanded graphite can be peeled off to thin multilayers. Electrochemical performances reveal that the obtained Si@SiOx/GNS nanocomposites exhibit improved cycling stability, high reversible lithium storage capacity and superior rate capability, e.g. the discharge capacity is kept as high as 1055 mAh g-1 within 50 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, retaining 63.6% of the initial value. The high performance of the obtained nanocomposites can be ascribed to GNS prepared through heat-treat and ball-milling methods, the decrease in the size of Si nanoparticles and SiOx layer on Si surface, which enhance the interactions between Si and GNS.

  9. Microstructure and Texture in Surface Deformation Layer of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Processed by Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yanxia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural and crystallographic features of the surface deformation layer in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy induced by milling were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM and precession electron diffraction (PED assisted nanoscale orientation mapping. The result shows that the surface deformation layer is composed by the top surface of equiaxed nanograins/ultrafine grains and the subsurface of lamellar nanograins/ultrafine grains surrounded by coarse grain boundary precipitates (GBPs. The recrystallized nanograins/ultrafine grains in the deformation layer show direct evidence that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role in grain refining process. The GBPs and grain interior precipitates (GIPs show a great difference in size and density with the matrix due to the thermally and mechanically induced precipitate redistribution. The crystallographic texture of the surface deformation layer is proved to be a mixture of approximate copper{112}, rotated cube{001} and F {111}. The severe shear deformation of the surface induced by milling is responsible for the texture evolution.

  10. Colloidal Precursors from 'Ball-Milling in Liquid Medium' Process for CuInSe{sub 2} Thin Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seung Joo [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    CIS thin film can be fabricated by using the precursor obtained through ball-milling the elemental reagents in liquid media. The amorphous colloidal precursor with good dispersity was prepared in the medium that contains strong base and polar solvent (2 M ethylenediamine in DMF solution as used in this study). The 'ball-milling in liquid medium' method requires only elemental sources as starting materials and a proper solution so that it can be employed without additional processes for separation and purification. As a simple and less-toxic preparative route, this method would be practically available to prepare CIS-related solar cells. CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) and related chalcopyrite compounds are very promising materials for thin film solar cells due to their favorable band gap, high optical absorption coefficient and long-term stability. CIS-based solar cells have shown the highest conversion efficiency reaching a value of 20%. However, the vacuum-based processes that are used to fabricate CIS thin-films have some drawbacks such as the complexity in process, high production cost and difficulty in scaling up. Recently, several research groups have proposed different non-vacuum deposition processes for CIS solar cell. For example, H. W. Hillhouse et al. prepared the CIS absorber layer by using 'nanocrystal ink method' in which a colloidal nanocrystal ink was obtained from reaction of CuCl, InCl{sub 3} and Se in oleylamine. D. B. Mitzi et al. used a solution-based precursor that was prepared by dissolution of Cu{sub 2}Se, In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and Se in hydrazine to fabricate the Ga-containing absorber layer, Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}.

  11. Anaerobic treatment for C and S removal in 'zero-discharge' paper mills: effects of process design on S removal efficiencies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Lens, P.N.L.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.

    2001-01-01

    Stringent environmental laws in Europe and Northern America lead to the development towards closure of the process water streams in pulp and paper mills. Application of a "zero-discharge" process is already a feasible option for the board and packaging paper industry, provided in-line treatment is

  12. Results of solid state nuclear track detector technique application in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, for uranium prospecting in Caetite (BA-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1988-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detector technique has been used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks for uranium prospecting on the ground in Caetite city (Bahia-Brazil). The sensitive film to alpha particles used were CA 8015 exposed during 15 days and the results of three anomalies of this region are showed in a form of maps, made with the density of tracks obtained, and were compared with scintillation counter measurements. The technique showed to be simple and an effective auxiliary for the prospection of uranium ore bodies. The initial uranium exploration costs can be reduced by using this technique. (author) [pt

  13. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment Through Combined Process Adsorption and Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in palm oil production also leads to an Increase in the production of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Nowadays, POME was treated using an open lagoon but this method is ineffectiveness in complying with the standards for water disposal. Therefore, efficient and cohesive treatment system is highly desired to ensure the final discharge of the treated water meets the effluent discharge standards. Initially, the POME was treated through adsorption, followed by UF membranes roomates were intended to reduce COD, TSS and turbidity up to 88%, 99%, and 98%, while the final treatment of RO membranes can reduce BOD, COD and color up to 92%, 98% and 99%. To determine the optimum condition of the RO membrane, response surface methodology (RSM was used. The results showed there was correlation between all key variables. POME concentration, trans-membrane pressure, pH and time would give significant effects in reducing the parameters in POME treatment with the optimum condition of 15.77% for POME concentration, 3.73 for pH, 0.5 bar trans-membrane pressure and 5 hours for filtration time. To predict COD removal, the results were analyzed by applying the artificial neural network (ANN to derive a mathematical model.

  14. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  15. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutrotsios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent’s decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64% followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW’s phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.

  16. The Semi-Quantitative Study of Magnetization Process on Milling and Reannealing of Barium Hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3 is as a hard magnetic material with good chemical stability which has been intensively used as permanent magnet components. Many works have been done in order to improve their magnetic properties either through chemical process or powders metallurgy technique. In this work, commercial BaO.6Fe2O3 was milled using high-energy milling machine for 10, 20 and 30 hours and followed by reannealing for 3 hours at 1000⁰C in air. X-ray diffraction pattern indicate no phase decomposition occurred caused the mill processing, annealing of milled powders recovered the crystal system and promoted crystallite growth. The magnetic hysteresis curve measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM shows the coercivity of annealed BaO.6Fe2O3 increases to two times higher than the original one. By using Jiles-Atherton model, all the hysteresis parameters Ms, k, α, a and c, have been determined adopted to the Genetic Algorithm (GA. The analyzed hysteretic parameters obtained from this work is congruent to the change of magnetic properties of as-milled and annealed powders of barium hexaferrite.

  17. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  18. Influence of Process Control Agent on Characterization and Structure of Micron Chitosan Powders Prepared by Ball Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chuan-jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With ethyl alcohol or distilled water as process control agent (PCA, micron chitosan powder was prepared by ball milling method. The yield rate, particle size distribution, micro morphology, viscosity average molecular mass, chemical and crystal structures, and thermal properties of these different micron chitosan powders were measured. The results indicate that the yield rate of micron chitosan powders prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA increases significantly, and improves to 94.7% from 25% while the amount of ethyl alcohol is 0.75mL/g. The particle size distribution of micron chitosan powder prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA is concentrated, while the D50 and D90 in size are 824nm and 1629nm respectively. Chitosan do not react with ethyl alcohol used as PCA, but the viscosity average molecular mass of prepared micron chitosan powder decreases by 23%, the crystal structures are destroyed slightly, and its thermal stability is slightly weakened.

  19. Superthermostability of nanoscale TIC-reinforced copper alloys manufactured by a two-step ball-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglin; Li, Yunping; Xu, Xiandong; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Yamanaka, Kenta; Bian, Huakang; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    A Cu-TiC alloy, with nanoscale TiC particles highly dispersed in the submicron-grained Cu matrix, was manufactured by a self-developed two-step ball-milling process on Cu, Ti and C powders. The thermostability of the composite was evaluated by high-temperature isothermal annealing treatments, with temperatures ranging from 727 to 1273 K. The semicoherent nanoscale TiC particles with Cu matrix, mainly located along the grain boundaries, were found to exhibit the promising trait of blocking grain boundary migrations, which leads to a super-stabilized microstructures up to approximately the melting point of copper (1223 K). Furthermore, the Cu-TiC alloys after annealing at 1323 K showed a slight decrease in Vickers hardness as well as the duplex microstructure due to selective grain growth, which were discussed in terms of hardness contributions from various mechanisms.

  20. Solvent-Free Biginelli Reactions Catalyzed by Hierarchical Zeolite Utilizing a Ball Mill Technique: A Green Sustainable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Shahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable, green one-pot process for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs derivatives by a three-component reaction of β-ketoester derivatives, aldehyde and urea or thiourea over the alkali-treated H-ZSM-5 zeolite under ball-milling was developed. Isolation of the product with ethyl acetate shadowed by vanishing of solvent was applied. The hierachical zeolite catalyst (MFI27_6 showed high yield (86%–96% of DHPMs in a very short time (10–30 min. The recyclability of the catalyst for the subsequent reactions was examined in four subsequent runs. The catalyst was shown to be robust without a detectable reduction in catalytic activity, and high yields of products showed the efficient protocol of the Biginelli reactions.

  1. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  2. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps

  3. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: processing mills and camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. Schmiege

    1980-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, effluents from pulp and paper mills have been known to be toxic to fish and other aquatic animals. Lethal concentrations have been determined for several species of fish and other organisms. Many factors- -such as water temperature, age of fish, and additional stresses—affect the ability of fish to withstand pollution. Kraft mill wastes...

  4. Preliminary study of sintering of metallic niobium processed for mechanical milling; Estudo preliminar da sinterizacao de niobio metalico processado por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, H.M.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: lenatamura@interponta.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Sandim, H.R.Z.; Leite, G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    In present study was preliminary study of mechanical milling influence on preparing of metallic niobium powder for sintering. Sample of metallic niobium in powder passing in sieve no. 635 mesh was processed by mechanical milling in SPEX mill for 8 hours using power grinding of 7:1 and a nitrogen atmosphere. The powder was annealed at different temperatures, 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1 hour in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon to study their crystallization, which then were formed into blank for analysis of the curves compressibility. These samples were also subjected to x-ray diffraction in that their data were compared between the annealing temperatures. We also evaluate the compressibility curves of niobium samples with and without grinding these samples were subjected to x-ray diffraction and fluorescence. (author)

  5. Influence of minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL on tool life of carbide cutting tools during milling process of steel AISI 1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Núñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, high productivity of machining is an important issue to obtain economic benefits in the industry. This purpose could be reached with high cutting velocity and feed rate. However, the inherently behavior produce high temperatures in the interface of couple cutting tool/workpiece. Many cutting fluids have been developed to control temperature in process and increase tool life. The objective of this paper is to compare the carbide milling tool wear using different systems cutting fluids: flood and minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL. The values of carbide milling cutting tool wear was evaluate according with the standard ISO 8688-1 1989. The experimental results showed that using MQL reduces significantly (about 40% tool wear in milling AISI 1018 steel at industrial cutting conditions.

  6. Radiological safety and environmental surveillance during the mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper highlights the occupational and environmental radiological safety aspects and surveillance activities associated with mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite, based on the experience gained over more than three decades of operations of the plants of Indian Rare Earths Ltd, at Chavara (Kerala), Manavalakurichi (Tamilnadu) and Udyogamandal (Kerala). The mining of beach sands, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite for the recovery of Th and U involve occupational radiation hazards and safety problems of varying magnitudes. This part of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle involves average per-capita occupational exposures ranging from 1.0 mSv to 8 mSv per year. The collective doses involved work out to 4.5 to 5.4 Person Sieverts per year and involve nearly 1000 radiation workers. Internal exposure contributes to nearly half of the exposure. Mechanization of the operations, process modifications, administrative controls and constant safety surveillance have over the years helped to reduce the exposures and to maintain them at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental releases resulting from the operations are well within the limits stipulated by competent authorities and exposures to public from the mining, mineral separation and monazite processing are not significant. (author)

  7. Phenolic compounds removal from mimosa tannin model water and olive mill wastewater by energy-efficient electrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kraljić Roković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of NaCl concentration, time, and current density on the removal efficiency of phenolic compounds by electrocoagulation process, as well as to compare the specific energy consumption (SEC of these processes under different experimental conditions. Electrocoagulation was carried out on two different samples of water: model water of mimosa tannin and olive mill wastewater (OMW. Low carbon steel electrodes were used in the experiments. The properties of the treated effluent were determined using UV/Vis spectroscopy and by measuring total organic carbon (TOC. Percentage of removal increased with time, current density, and NaCl concentration. SEC value increased with increased time and current density but it was decreased significantly by NaCl additions (0-29 g L-1. It was found that electro­coagulation treatment of effluents containing phenolic compounds involves complex formation between ferrous/ferric and phenolic compounds present in treated effluent, which has significant impact on the efficiency of the process.

  8. Process variables in the obtention of U-Mo powder by the hydriding-milling-dehydriding method (HMD process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, Enrique E.; Helzel Garcia, Javier; Lopez, Marisol

    2003-01-01

    In the next few years nuclear fuels based on uranium oxides, aluminides and silicides for MTR reactors will be replaced by the high density alloy uranium- 7% (w/w) molybdenum (U-7 Mo). Actually there is only one commercial supplier of this raw material that has to be provided as powder containing 20% enriched uranium ( 235 U). In the Nuclear Fuels Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) at Buenos Aires was developed an alternative way of producing U-7 Mo powder in a production scale. Meanwhile CNEA is participating in the International Program (RERTR) for final qualification of this nuclear material. This new method of production consists in the hydriding of the alloy, milling the hydride to final size and dehydriding the powder. These results were achieved because a special technique was discovered for the massive hydriding of the U-7 Mo alloy. The production method is simple, requires conventional equipment and low investment. Argentine can have important comparative advantages for its production and exportation. A scale production plant is being planed. (author)

  9. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of paper mills; Effekter av PFG foer integrerade pappersbruk vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan [AaF Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadsborn, Rickard [STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Effluent treatment of pulp and paper mills generates a biological sludge that according to Swedish implementation of EU-directives from 2005 has to be taken care of by incineration or by production of soil for agriculture or ground cover. An alternative way to take care of the sludge is incineration in the recovery boiler. This method is used in two Finish and two Swedish pulp mills with good results. The purpose of this project is to investigate the consequences for integrated pulp and paper mills when the biological sludge is incinerated in the recovery boiler. The biological sludge contents Non Process Elements, NPE, which increase the risks of incrustations in the system and increase the need of make up lime. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chloride, potassium, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper, barium and calcium. The simulation program WinGEMS 5.0 (Pacific Simulation) was used in the study to predict the levels of NPE in the recovery system of the Kraft mills. Three different pulp and paper mills were selected for the study, Billerud Skaerblacka, ASSI Domaen Froevi and SCA Obbola. The mills are different concerning raw materials, process, degree of own produced pulp and paper products. All three the mills have effluent treatment and use the method of activated sludge that generates a surplus of biological sludge. The results of the study proved that for Skaerblacka mill the method is applicable. For Obbola the prerequisites are somewhat more complicated, the effluent treatment generates considerably higher amount of sludge per ton pulp produced due to the treatment technique and use of waste paper (40 %) for the paper machine. The high input of aluminum with the sludge will give troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. To eliminate the aluminum from the system magnesium can be added to the black liquor which will precipitate as the double salt hydrotalcite in

  10. High-efficient production of boron nitride nanosheets via an optimized ball milling process for lubrication in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Hait, Samik K; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-03

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  11. Influence of chemical, physical and texture characteristics in the dry milled clays micro granulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, L.B.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of the granulation in ceramic dry process classified as BIIb. For this we used a high intensity granulator to obtain information on the technical and economic viability in the production line and the possible contributions to the improvement of the process. Industrial compositions of clays were used. These materials were processed under different conditions and subsequently processed for obtaining the ceramic bodies pressed. The results indicate that the use of high intensity granulator, with or without modifications to the particle size distribution of mass, can decrease the firing cycle and / or sintering temperature of the ceramic, causing economic gain (author)

  12. Overland erosion of uranium-mill-tailings impoundments: physical processes and computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.H.

    1983-03-01

    The surface runoff and erosional processes of watersheds caused by rainfall-runoff are reviewed. Soil properties, topography, and rainstorm distribution are discussed with respect to their effects on soil erosion. The effects of climate and vegetation are briefly presented. Regression models and physical process simulation models are reviewed

  13. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornell, Rickard; Berntsson, Thore

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ► 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

  14. Benefits of using an optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty-A pulp mill example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore; Stroemberg, Ann-Brith

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the optimization of process integration investments in a pulp mill considering uncertainties in future electricity and biofuel prices and CO 2 emissions charges. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [Svensson, E., Berntsson, T., Stroemberg, A.-B., Patriksson, M., 2008b. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. Energy Policy, in press, (doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.023)] where a scenario-based approach is proposed for the modelling of uncertainties. The results show that the proposed methodology provides a way to handle the time dependence and the uncertainties of the parameters. For the analyzed case, a robust solution is found which turns out to be a combination of two opposing investment strategies. The difference between short-term and strategic views for the investment decision is analyzed and it is found that uncertainties are increasingly important to account for as a more strategic view is employed. Furthermore, the results imply that the obvious effect of policy instruments aimed at decreasing CO 2 emissions is, in applications like this, an increased profitability for all energy efficiency investments, and not as much a shift between different alternatives

  15. Benefits of using an optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty-A pulp mill example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Elin [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: elin.svensson@chalmers.se; Berntsson, Thore [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroemberg, Ann-Brith [Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park, SE-412 88 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents a case study on the optimization of process integration investments in a pulp mill considering uncertainties in future electricity and biofuel prices and CO{sub 2} emissions charges. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [Svensson, E., Berntsson, T., Stroemberg, A.-B., Patriksson, M., 2008b. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. Energy Policy, in press, (doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.023)] where a scenario-based approach is proposed for the modelling of uncertainties. The results show that the proposed methodology provides a way to handle the time dependence and the uncertainties of the parameters. For the analyzed case, a robust solution is found which turns out to be a combination of two opposing investment strategies. The difference between short-term and strategic views for the investment decision is analyzed and it is found that uncertainties are increasingly important to account for as a more strategic view is employed. Furthermore, the results imply that the obvious effect of policy instruments aimed at decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions is, in applications like this, an increased profitability for all energy efficiency investments, and not as much a shift between different alternatives.

  16. Benefits of using an optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. A pulp mill example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroemberg, Ann-Brith [Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park, SE-412 88 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents a case study on the optimization of process integration investments in a pulp mill considering uncertainties in future electricity and biofuel prices and CO{sub 2} emissions charges. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [Svensson, E., Berntsson, T., Stroemberg, A.-B., Patriksson, M., 2008b. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. Energy Policy, in press, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.023] where a scenario-based approach is proposed for the modelling of uncertainties. The results show that the proposed methodology provides a way to handle the time dependence and the uncertainties of the parameters. For the analyzed case, a robust solution is found which turns out to be a combination of two opposing investment strategies. The difference between short-term and strategic views for the investment decision is analyzed and it is found that uncertainties are increasingly important to account for as a more strategic view is employed. Furthermore, the results imply that the obvious effect of policy instruments aimed at decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions is, in applications like this, an increased profitability for all energy efficiency investments, and not as much a shift between different alternatives. (author)

  17. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  18. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation and Optimization of a Hybrid Manufacturing Process Combining Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing with Milling for the Fabrication of Stiffened Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid WAAM (wire arc additive manufacturing and milling process (HWMP, and highlights its application in the fabrication of stiffened panels that have wide applications in aviation, aerospace, and automotive industries, etc. due to their light weight and strong load-bearing capability. In contrast to existing joining or machining methods, HWMP only deposits stiffeners layer-by-layer onto an existing thin plate, followed by minor milling of the irregular surfaces, which provides the possibility to significantly improve material utilization and efficiency without any loss of surface quality. In this paper, the key performances of HWMP in terms of surface quality, material utilization and efficiency are evaluated systematically, which are the results of the comprehensive effects of the deposition parameters (e.g., travel speed, wire-feed rate and the milling parameters (e.g., spindle speed, tool-feed rate. In order to maximize its performances, the optimization is also performed to find the best combination of the deposition and the milling parameters. The case study shows that HWMP with the optimal process parameters improves the material utilization by 57% and the efficiency by 32% compared against the traditional machining method. Thus, HWMP is believed to be a more environmental friendly and sustainable method for the fabrication of stiffened panels or other similar structures.

  20. Toward the complete utilization of rice straw: Methane fermentation and lignin recovery by a combinational process involving mechanical milling, supporting material and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Yota; Fujino, Ayami; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw was mechanically milled using a process consuming 1.9MJ/kg-biomass, and 10g/L of unmilled or milled rice straw was used as the carbon source for methane fermentation in a digester containing carbon fiber textile as the supporting material. Milling increased methane production from 226 to 419mL/L/day at an organic loading rate of 2180mg-dichromate chemical oxygen demand/L/day, corresponding to 260mLCH4/gVS. Storage of the fermentation effluent at room temperature decreased the weight of the milled rice straw residue from 3.81 to 1.00g/L. The supernatant of the effluent was subjected to nanofiltration. The black concentrates deposited on the nanofiltration membranes contained 53.0-57.9% lignin. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance showed that lignin aromatic components such as p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) were retained primarily, and major lignin interunit structures such as the β-O-4-H/G unit were absent. This combinational process will aid the complete utilization of rice straw. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Enzymatic treatment of paper mill process waters; Entsyymit paperitehtaan kiertoveden kaesittelyssae - EKT 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustranta, A; Buchert, J [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland); Ekman, R; Spetz, P [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Forest Products Chemistry; Luukko, K [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Paper Technology

    1999-12-31

    Dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS) are dispersed into the process waters during different stages of pulp and paper production. These are lipophilic extractives (pitch), hydrophilic extractives (lignan) and carbohydrates, mainly hemicelluloses. These dissolved and colloidal substances accumulate during water circulation and results in impaired paper machine runnability. DCS can also interfere with wet-end process chemicals. In this project the chemical composition of the process waters of spruce TMP pulping have been characterized. Simultaneously, potential enzymes for modification of DCS has been produced and purified. The enzymatic treatments have been started with lipase acting on triglycerides present in extractives. The effect of enzymatic treatment on the properties of process waters and technical properties of the pulp have been evaluated. (orig.)

  2. Enzymatic treatment of paper mill process waters; Entsyymit paperitehtaan kiertoveden kaesittelyssae - EKT 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustranta, A.; Buchert, J. [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland); Ekman, R.; Spetz, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Forest Products Chemistry; Luukko, K. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Paper Technology

    1998-12-31

    Dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS) are dispersed into the process waters during different stages of pulp and paper production. These are lipophilic extractives (pitch), hydrophilic extractives (lignan) and carbohydrates, mainly hemicelluloses. These dissolved and colloidal substances accumulate during water circulation and results in impaired paper machine runnability. DCS can also interfere with wet-end process chemicals. In this project the chemical composition of the process waters of spruce TMP pulping have been characterized. Simultaneously, potential enzymes for modification of DCS has been produced and purified. The enzymatic treatments have been started with lipase acting on triglycerides present in extractives. The effect of enzymatic treatment on the properties of process waters and technical properties of the pulp have been evaluated. (orig.)

  3. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  4. An experimental analysis of process parameters to manufacture micro-channels in AISI H13 tempered steel by laser micro-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidor, D.; Ferrer, I.; Ciurana, J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the characterization of laser machining (milling) process to manufacture micro-channels in order to understand the incidence of process parameters on the final features. Selection of process operational parameters is highly critical for successful laser micromachining. A set of designed experiments is carried out in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system using AISI H13 hardened tool steel as work material. Several micro-channels have been manufactured as micro-mold cavities varying parameters such as scanning speed (SS), pulse intensity (PI) and pulse frequency (PF). Results are obtained by evaluating the dimensions and the surface finish of the micro-channel. The dimensions and shape of the micro-channels produced with laser-micro-milling process exhibit variations. In general the use of low scanning speeds increases the quality of the feature in both surface finishing and dimensional.

  5. Application of Acid Cracking and Fenton Processes inTreating Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Aliabadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the growth in the industries of olive oil extraction has brought about a number of environmental problems. The waste water resulting from olive oil extraction can not be naturally degraded due to the presence of phenol, volatile fatty acids, catchin, and other recalcitrants.In recent years advanced oxidation processes based on hydroxyl radical are paid special attention by scientific, research and industrial centers to degrade the pollutants. In this study, a combination of acid cracking and advanced oxidation process in terms of Fenton process have been studied. Results showed that acid cracking can remove 97, 47, 30, 63 and 57 percent of Turbidity, COD, Total Phenols, Color and Aromaticity, respectively. Fenton process in pH=3 at optimal conditions can remove 57, 97, 18 and 32 percent of COD, Total Phenols, Color and Aromaticity, respectively. Necessary time of reaction was 4 hrs and optimum concentration of H2O2 and Fe2+ ions was determined 0. 5 M and 0.02 M, respectively. Increasing temperature in the range of 25-35°C and type of iron used(ferric or ferrous has no considerable effect in  the efficiency of the process.

  6. Mill tailings disposal and environmental monitoring at the Ningyo-Toge uranium processing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, I.; Kitahara, Y.; Takenaka, S.; Kurokawa, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The tailings from the uranium processing pilot plant with a maximum ore processing capacity of 50 t/d are transferred to a tailings dam. The overflow from the dam is chemically treated and through settling ponds, sand filters to be discharged into a river. The concentrations of U, 226 Ra, pH, S.S., COD, Fe, Mn, Cl and F were monitored periodically and they were all below the control values. The results of monitoring on the river bed and rice paddy soil showed no signs of accumulation of U and 226 Ra in it

  7. A comparative study on the use of drilling and milling processes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (24 = 16 tests) was developed for each of the two cutting process. .... (DF) is defined by the ratio of maximum diameter (of damage zone around hole) to the ...... H 2003 The effect of chisel length and associated pilot hole on delamination when.

  8. Modelling and Development of a High Performance Milling Process with Monolithic Cutting Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, E.; Taylor, C. M.; Turner, S.; Devey, M.

    2011-01-01

    Critical aerospace components usually require difficult to machine workpiece materials like nickel based alloys. Moreover; there is a pressing need to maximize the productivity of machining operations. This need can be satisfied by selection of higher feed velocity, axial and radial depths. But there may be several problems during machining in this case. Due to high cutting speeds in high performance machining, the tool life may be unacceptably low. If magnitudes of cutting forces are high, out of tolerance static form errors may result; moreover in the extreme cases, the cutting tool may break apart. Forced vibrations may deteriorate the surface quality. Chatter vibrations may develop if the selected parameters result in instability. In this study, in order to deal with the tool life issue, several experimental cuts are made with different tool geometries, and the best combination in terms of tool life is selected. A force model is developed and the results of the force model are verified by experimental results. The force model is used in predicting the effect of process parameters on cutting forces. In order to account for the other concerns such as static form errors, forced and chatter vibrations, additional process models are currently under development.

  9. Characterisation of olive fruit for the milling process by using visible/near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of olive oil and table olives has recently determined an expansion of olive tree cultivation in the world. This trend is supported by the documented nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet. The aim of this work was to test a portable visible/ near infrared (vis/NIR system (400-1000 nm for the analysis of physical-chemical parameters, such as olive soluble solid content (SSC and texture before the olive oil extraction process. The final goal is to provide the sector with post-harvest methods and sorting systems for a quick evaluation of important properties of olive fruit. In the present study, a total of 109 olives for oil production were analysed. Olive spectra registered with the optical device and values obtained with destructive analysis in the laboratory were analysed. Specific statistical models were elaborated to study correlations between optical and laboratory analysis, and to evaluate predictions of reference parameters obtained through the analysis of the visible-near infrared range. Statistical models were processed using chemometric techniques to extract maximum data information. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on vis/NIR spectra to examine sample groupings and identify outliers, while partial least square (PLS regression algorithm was used to correlate samples spectra and physical- chemical properties. Results are encouraging. PCA showed a significant sample grouping among different ranges of SSC and texture. PLS models gave fairly good predictive capabilities in validation for SSC (R2=0.67 and RMSECV%=7.5% and texture (R2=0.68 and RMSECV%=8.2%.

  10. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – part B: Techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornell, Rickard; Berntsson, Thore; Åsblad, Anders

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study by the authors, energy efficiency measures in a conceptual kraft pulp mill converted to a lignocellulosic ethanol plant were investigated. The results suggested a number of different process designs which would give a substantial improvement in steam economy in the ethanol plant, compared to the original design. In the present study the different process designs are evaluated from an economic point-of-view, in order to determine if energy efficiency measures and increasing by-product sales decrease the production cost of ethanol from this specific process, or if the increased costs related to the implementation of these measures overshadow the benefits from increased by-product sales. The different energy efficiency measures are compared with less capital demanding alternatives (i.e. including low or no energy efficiency improvements) in order to assess the economic benefits of different strategies when converting a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. The study indicates the economic importance of considering energy efficiency measures when repurposing a kraft pulp mill to an ethanol plant. It is also shown that, within the context of this study, a larger investment in measures will give better economic results than less capital demanding alternatives (with less improvement in energy efficiency). From an economic and energy efficiency viewpoint many of the suggested process designs will give approximately similar results, therefore the process design should be made based on other criteria (e.g. low complexity, low maintenance). - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Energy efficiency measures lead to lower ethanol production cost. ► If capital costs and raw material prices are low the production cost could be as low as 365 €/m 3 EtOH.

  11. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  12. Stability of a colloidal system based on avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass and others: Effect of process and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana María Estrada Mesa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass, is a perishable fruit, which compositionally presents nutritional benefits, which has led to its productive chain to look for new alternatives of agroindustrialization to improve its competitiveness in the market, being guacamole a potential option. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of composition and homogenization process on the colloidal system stability based on avocado and other ingredients for a potential use in the aspersion drying process. We used the surface response methodology and a central composite experimental design for experimental optimization of the process, considering three independent variables as follows: avocado dry solids (DSavocado, homogenization time and tert-butylhydroquinone concentration (TBHQ, and six dependent variables: zeta potential (-ζ, color (L *: brightness, a *: green-red chromaticity, b *: yellow-blue chromaticity, viscosity (μ, spectral absorption stability index, peroxide index (PI and particle size (D10, D50 and D90. The best emulsion and process formulation was achieved with 47.1% of DSavocado, 5 min of homogenization and 100 mg.kg-1 of TBHQ, obtaining an emulsion with -ζ = -27.67 ± 0.29, L * = 51.3 ± 1.0, a * = -5.8 ± 0.8 and b * = 30.0 ± 1.9, μ = 1034.56 ± 95.91 cP , R = 0.78 ± 0.03, IP = 0.73 ± 0.30 meq H2O2.Kg-1 emulsion, D10 = 8.1 ± 0.7 μm, D50 = 56.2 ± 11.5 μm and D90 = 346.6 ± 94.6 μm. The emulsion based on avocado and other ingredients, presents a physico-chemical, physical stability adequate stability, which guarantees a potential use for aspersion-drying process, since it meets with the criteria design for viscosity and total solids, of the pilot unit PSALAB, Vibrasec S.A.

  13. Heterogeneous sono-Fenton-like process using martite nanocatalyst prepared by high energy planetary ball milling for treatment of a textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindarsafa, Mahsa; Khataee, Alireza; Kaymak, Baris; Vahid, Behrouz; Karimi, Atefeh; Rahmani, Amir

    2017-01-01

    High energy planetary ball milling was applied to prepare sono-Fenton nanocatalyst from natural martite (NM). The NM samples were milled for 2-6h at the speed of 320rpm for production of various ball milled martite (BMM) samples. The catalytic performance of the BMMs was greater than the NM for treatment of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) in heterogeneous sono-Fenton-like process. The NM and the BMM samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDX and BET analyses. The particle size distribution of the 6h-milled martite (BMM 3 ) was in the range of 10-90nm, which had the highest surface area compared to the other samples. Then, the impact of main operational parameters was investigated on the process. Complete removal of the dye was obtained at the desired conditions including initial pH 7, 2.5g/L BMM 3 dosage, 10mg/L AB92 concentration, and 150W ultrasonic power after 30min of treatment. The treatment process followed pseudo-first order kinetic. Environmentally-friendly modification of the NM, low leached iron amount and repeated application at milder pH were the significant benefits of the BMM 3 . The GC-MS was successfully used to identify the generated intermediates. Eventually, an artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the AB92 removal efficiency based upon the experimental data with a proper correlation coefficient (R 2 =0.9836). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  15. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  16. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  17. Fabrication of an infrared Shack-Hartmann sensor by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Wenchen; Naples, Neil J; Yi, Allen Y

    2018-05-01

    A novel fabrication method by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes for fabrication of discontinuous freeform microlens arrays was proposed. Compared with slow tool servo diamond broaching, high-speed single-point diamond milling was selected for its flexibility in the fabrication of true 3D optical surfaces with discontinuous features. The advantage of single-point diamond milling is that the surface features can be constructed sequentially by spacing the axes of a virtual spindle at arbitrary positions based on the combination of rotational and translational motions of both the high-speed spindle and linear slides. By employing this method, each micro-lenslet was regarded as a microstructure cell by passing the axis of the virtual spindle through the vertex of each cell. An optimization arithmetic based on minimum-area fabrication was introduced to the machining process to further increase the machining efficiency. After the mold insert was machined, it was employed to replicate the microlens array onto chalcogenide glass. In the ensuing optical measurement, the self-built Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was proven to be accurate in detecting an infrared wavefront by both experiments and numerical simulation. The combined results showed that precision compression molding of chalcogenide glasses could be an economic and precision optical fabrication technology for high-volume production of infrared optics.

  18. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  19. Physical and combustion characteristics of biomass particles prepared by different milling processes for suspension firing in utility boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    close to suspension-fired boilers. The ignition, devolatilization and burnout times of the milled particles under different combustion conditions are analysed. A one-dimensional transient model, properly accounting for the particle-ambient flow interaction and appropriately addressing the key sub...

  20. A review of the environmental impact of mining and milling of radioactive ores, upgrading processes, and fabrication of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.; Davy, D.R.; Cattell, F.C.R.; Cook, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: uranium mining; milling of uranium ores; manufacture of uranium hexafluoride; uranium enrichment; fuel manufacture and fabrication; environmental impact (use of natural resources; effluents from fuel cycle operations; occupational health; public health); alternative fuel cycles; additional waste treatment. (U.K.)

  1. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  2. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon

    2015-04-01

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na2CO3, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na2CO3, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 20g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  4. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  5. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  6. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude, Ambiente e Trabalho; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica da Terra. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira, E-mail: mvtn@ifba.edu.b [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LAFIR/NTS/IFBA) Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica

    2011-07-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  7. Characterization of Al2O3NP–Al2024 and AgCNP–Al2024 composites prepared by mechanical processing in a high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Gallardo, C.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Romero-Romo, M.; Cruz-García, R.; López-Meléndez, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy, the nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al 2 O 3 and Ag C nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has a role important on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. 10 h of milling time are enough to former the Al 2024 nanocomposites. The results obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of intermetallic precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route to incorporate and distribute NP into Al 2024 . Highlights: ► Aluminum-based nanocomposites were synthesized bay milling process. ► An homogeneous nanoparticles dispersion was reached and mechanical properties were enhanced. ► Phase transformation during heating was characterized by XRD. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy. The nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al 2 O 3 and Ag C nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has an important role on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. A milling time of 10 h is enough to form the Al 2024 nanocomposites. The thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of phase precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route for the incorporation and distribution of nanoparticles into Al 2024 .

  8. Towards sub-200 nm nano-structuring of linear giant magneto-resistive spin valves by a direct focused ion beam milling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedmüller, Benjamin; Huber, Felix; Herr, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a detailed investigation of a focused ion beam (FIB) assisted nano-structuring process for giant magneto-resistive (GMR) spin valve sensors. We have performed a quantitative study of the dependence of the GMR ratio as well as the sensor resistance on the ion dose, which is implanted in the active region of our sensors. These findings are correlated with the decrease of magneto-resistive properties after micro- and nano-structuring by the FIB and reveal the importance of ion damage which limits the applicability of FIB milling to GMR devices in the low μm range. Deposition of a protective layer (50 nm SiO 2 ) on top of the sensor structure before milling leads to a preservation of the magneto-resistive properties after the milling procedure down to sensor dimensions of ∼300 nm. The reduction of the sensor dimensions to the nanometer regime is accompanied by a shift of the GMR curves, and a modification of the saturation behavior. Both effects can be explained by a micromagnetic model including the magnetic interaction of free and pinned layer as well as the effect of the demagnetizing field of the free layer on the sensor behavior. The results demonstrate that the FIB technology can be successfully used to prepare spintronic nanostructures

  9. Olive mill wastewater sludge from evaporation ponds: evolution of physico-chemical parameters during storage and composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Aloui, F; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-02-01

    The evolution of analytical parameters of olive mill waste water sludge stored in evaporation ponds was investigated after one year and two years of storage. It was observed that some of the phenolic monomer compounds resisted removal and the fraction of water soluble phenols was only slightly polymerised. Co-composting of the sludge was carried out with yard trimming as bulking agent ratio and poultry manure to balance the C/N. Three turned piles with three proportions of 35%, 65% and 80% of olive mill waste water sludge were prepared. Co-composting of the sludge was possible in all the cases. Best results were obtained, however, at a proportion of 35% which permitted a shorter composting time, a higher degree of nitrification and a higher rate of total phenols decreasing. A high polymerisation of the fraction of water soluble phenols was observed at the end of composting in all the piles.

  10. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis to monitor the co-composting process of olive oil mill wastes and organic household refuse

    OpenAIRE

    Barje , F.; Amir , S.; Winterton , Peter; Pinelli , Eric; Merlina , Georges; Cegarra , J.; Revel , Jean-Claude; Hafidi , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The co-composting of olive oil mill wastes and household refuse was followed for 5 months. During the thermophilic phase of composting, the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) count, showed a significant rise with a slight regression of fungal biomass. In the same way, phospholipid fatty acids PLFAs common in bacteria, showed a significant increase of hydroxyl and branched PLFAs. The evaluation of the ratio of octadecenoic PLFAs to stearic acid (C18:1/C18:0) revealed ...

  11. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: kspark@iae.re.kr; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon, E-mail: hshong@iae.re.kr

    2015-04-15

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 20 g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. - Highlights: • Simplest process for treatment of GaN an LED industry waste developed. • The process developed recovers gallium from waste LED waste dust. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process reported. • Quantitative leaching of the GaN was achieved.

  12. Interim report on task 1.2: near equilibrium processing requirements - attrition milling part 1 of 2 to Lawrence Livermore National for contract b345772

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M W A; Vance, E R; Day, R A; Eddowes, T; Moricca, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Task 1.2 has only partly been achieved as the work on Pu/U-formulations and to a significant degree on Th/U-formulations has been performed under grinding/blending conditions that did not replicate plant-like fabrication processes, particularly in the case with the small glovebox attritor. Nevertheless the results do show that actinide-rich particles, not present in specimens made via the alkoxide-route (equilibrium conditions), occur when the grinding process is not efficient enough to ensure that high-fired PuO 2 , ThO 2 and UO 2 particles are below a critical size. Our current perception is that the critical size for specimens sintered at 1350 C for 4 hours is about 5 (micro)m in diameter. The critical size is difficult to estimate, as it is equal to the starting diameter of actinide oxides just visible within brannerite regions. Our larger scale attritor experiments as well as experience with wet and dry ball milling suggests that acceptable mineralogy and microstructure can be obtained by dry milling via attritor and ball mills. This is provided that appropriate attention is paid to the size and density of the grinding media, grinding additives that reduce caking of the powder, and in the case of attritors the grinding speed and pot setup. The ideal products for sintering are free flowing granules of ∼ 100 (micro)m containing constituents ground to about 1 (micro)m to ensure homogeneity and equilibrium mineralogy

  13. The reduction of optimal heat treatment temperature and critical current density enhancement of ex situ processed MgB2 tapes using ball milled filling powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwanade, Akio; Kawada, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    The optimal heat treatment temperature (Topt) at which best performance in the critical current density (Jc) property at 4.2 K is obtained is influenced by the quality or reactivity of the filling powder in ex situ processed MgB2 tapes. Using a controlled fabrication process, the Topt decreases to 705-735 °C, which is lower than previously reported by more than 50 °C. The Topt decrease is effective to suppress both the decomposition of MgB2 and hence the formation of impurities such as MgB4, and the growth of crystallite size which decreases upper critical filed (Hc2). These bring about the Jc improvement and the Jc value at 4.2 K and 10 T reaches 250 A/mm2. The milling process also decreases the critical temperature (Tc) below 30 K. The milled powder is easily contaminated in air and thus, the Jc property of the contaminated tapes degrades severely. The contamination can raise the Topt by more than 50 °C, which is probably due to the increased sintering temperature required against contaminated surface layer around the grains acting as a barrier.

  14. Study of the structural and magnetic properties and gallium exchange phenomenon in a Mn-Ga alloy doped by Cr during the milling and annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fariba, Nazari; Mohsen, Hakimi, E-mail: hakimi.m@yazd.ac.ir; Hossein, Mokhtari; Mohsen, Khajeh Aminian

    2015-05-15

    The effect of milling and annealing process on Cr doped Mn{sub 3}Ga nanocrystallite has been investigated. Phase determination analysis shows that Ga turning to get out of Mn-Ga structure and tend to make bonding to Cr and form Cr{sub 3}Ga{sub 4} product during milling process. Annealing of the new phases lead to decomposition of Cr{sub 3}Ga{sub 4} and formation of a new Mn-Ga phase in reverse direction, in the other words diffusion of Ga atoms occurs from Cr{sub 3}Ga{sub 4} to Mn phase and α-Mn and Cr{sub 3}Ga{sub 4} change to Mn{sub 3}Ga{sub 2} and Cr phases. The variation of coersivity, magnetization and magnetic state of different samples was explained according to the crystallite size of the present phases and grain boundary effects. It was also confirmed that formation of Mn-Cr clusters plays an important role in increase of saturation magnetization.

  15. Particle deformation during stirred media milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamey, Rhye Garrett

    Production of high aspect ratio metal flakes is an important part of the paint and coating industry. The United States Army also uses high aspect ratio metal flakes of a specific dimension in obscurant clouds to attenuate infrared radiation. The most common method for their production is by milling a metal powder. Ductile metal particles are initially flattened in the process increasing the aspect ratio. As the process continues, coldwelding of metal flakes can take place increasing the particle size and decreasing the aspect ratio. Extended milling times may also result in fracture leading to a further decrease in the particle size and aspect ratio. Both the coldwelding of the particles and the breakage of the particles are ultimately detrimental to the materials performance. This study utilized characterization techniques, such as, light scattering and image analysis to determine the change in particle size as a function of milling time and parameters. This study proved that a fundamental relationship between the milling parameters and particle deformation could be established by using Hertz's theory to calculate the stress acting on the aluminum particles. The study also demonstrated a method by which milling efficiency could be calculated, based on the amount of energy required to cause particle deformation. The study found that the particle deformation process could be an energy efficient process at short milling times with milling efficiency as high as 80%. Finally, statistical design of experiment was used to obtain a model that related particle deformation to milling parameters, such as, rotation rate and milling media size.

  16. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  17. A qualitative evaluation of long-term processes governing the behaviour of uranium mill tailings placed in deep lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, Paul; Snodgrass, William; Lush, D.L.; Ross, P.

    1982-03-01

    The emplacement of uranim mill tailings in deep lakes may provide an acceptable method of tailings disposal at certain sites in Canada. Disposal in a depositional environment typical of deep lakes appears to offer greater prospects for long-term stability than present methods of land-based management. From the regulatory point of view, it is necessary to know which factors should be taken into account in assessing the acceptability of such an approach. This report examines the environmental variables governing the behaviour of radionuclides and trace elements in the groundwater systems, lake water, and finally in the biosphere over the short and long-term. Physical, chemical and biological factors are each considered. Conclusions are presented in terms of points for and against disposal in deep lakes

  18. Phenols recovery after steam explosion of Olive Mill Solid Waste and its influence on a subsequent biomethanization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Fermoso, Fernando G; Alonso-Fariñas, Bernabé; Rodríguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fernandez-Bolaños, Juan; Borja, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    A promising source of high added value compounds is the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW). The aim of this research was to evaluate the viability of a biorefinery approach to valorize OMSW through the combination of steam explosion, phenols extraction, and anaerobic digestion. Steam explosion treatment increased the total phenol content in the steam exploited OMSW, which was twice than that the total phenol content in raw OMSW, although some undesirable compounds were also formed. Phenol extraction allowed the recovery of 2098mg hydroxytyrosol per kg of OMSW. Anaerobic digestion allowed the partial stabilization of the different substrates, although it was not improved by the steam explosion treatment. The economic suitability of the proposed biorefinery approach is favorable up to a phenol extract price 90.7% lower than the referenced actual price of 520€/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation legacy of the USSR enterprises for mining, milling and processing of uranium ores: Conservation, decommissioning and environmental rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burykin, A.A.; Iskra, A.A.; Karamushka, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operation of USSR uranium mining and milling enterprises produced a great volume of low level radioactive waste in the form of rock spoil heaps (181 million m 3 ), hydro-metallurgical plants tailings dumps (340 million m 3 ) and basins of mine waters (200 million m 3 ) with total activity of 25.1·10 15 Bq (670 kCi). The total area occupied by the dumps is about 180 km 2 . The paper presents brief characteristics of the activities of uranium ore mining enterprises located at the CIS countries' territories, their wastes' status and describes measures for rehabilitation and restoration of territories of the Soviet uranium mining and metallurgical complex. (author)

  20. A qualitative evaluation of long-term processes governing the behaviour of uranium mill tailings placed in deep lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The emplacement of uranium mill tailings in deep lakes may provide an acceptable method of tailings disposal at certain sites in Canada. Disposal in a depositional environment typical of deep lakes appears to offer greater prospects for long-term stability than present methods of land-based management. From the regulatory point of view, it is necessary to know which factors should be taken into account in assessing the acceptability of such an approach. This report examines the environmental variables governing the behaviour of radionuclides and trace elements in the groundwater systems, lake water, and finally in the biosphere over the short and long term. Physical, chemical and biological factors are each considered. Conclusions are presented in terms of points for and against disposal in deep lakes. This report summarizes the data and conclusions presented in an annex volume

  1. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Ke, Fei [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); School of Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Wan, Xiaochun, E-mail: xcwan@ahau.edu.cn [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafine tea powder (UTP) was prepared by ball-milling. • A novel and high efficient biosorbent from ultrafine tea powder (UTP) for the removal of fluoride from drinking water was prepared. • Loaded ultrafine tea powder adsorbed more fluoride adsorption than loaded tea waste. • UTP-Zr performed well over a considerably wide pH range, from 3.0 to 10.0. • UTP-Zr retains Zr metal ion during defluoridation, limiting secondary pollution. - Abstract: A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3–10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  2. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi; Ke, Fei; Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafine tea powder (UTP) was prepared by ball-milling. • A novel and high efficient biosorbent from ultrafine tea powder (UTP) for the removal of fluoride from drinking water was prepared. • Loaded ultrafine tea powder adsorbed more fluoride adsorption than loaded tea waste. • UTP-Zr performed well over a considerably wide pH range, from 3.0 to 10.0. • UTP-Zr retains Zr metal ion during defluoridation, limiting secondary pollution. - Abstract: A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3–10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  3. Selective pyrolysis of paper mill sludge by using pretreatment processes to enhance the quality of bio-oil and biochar products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckamp, Joseph M.; Garrido, Rene A.; Satrio, Justinus A.

    2014-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PMS) is a residual biomass that is generated at paper mills in large quantities. Currently, PMS is commonly disposed in landfills, which causes environmental issues through chemical leaching and greenhouse gas production. In this research, we are exploring the potential of fast pyrolysis process for converting PMS into useful bio-oil and biochar products. We demonstrate that by subjecting PMS to a combination of acid hydrolysis and torrefaction pre-treatment processes it is possible to alter the physicochemical properties and composition of the feedstock material. Fast pyrolysis of pretreated PMS produced bio-oil with significantly higher selectivity to levoglucosenone and significantly reduced the amount of ketone, aldehyde, and organic acid components. Pretreatment of PMS with combined 4% mass fraction phosphoric acid hydrolysis and 220 °C torrefaction processed prior to fast pyrolysis resulted in a 17 times increase of relative selectivity towards levoglucosenone in bio-oil product along with a reduction of acids, ketones, and aldehydes combined from 21 % to 11 %. Biochar, produced in higher yield, has characteristics that potentially make the solid byproduct ideal for soil amendment agent or sorbent material. This work reveals a promising process system to convert PMS waste into useful bio-based products. More in-depth research is required to gather more data information for assessing the economic and sustainability aspects of the process. - Highlights: • Acid hydrolysis and torrefaction reduce bio-oil yield, but improve quality. • Dilute acid conditions provide optimal treatment for bio-oil quality and yield. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces high selectivity to levoglucosenone formation. • Treated PMS produces bio-oil with reduced acid, ketone, and aldehyde content. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces biochar with low volatile matter in high yield

  4. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  5. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-01-01

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10 3 μGy y -1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10 0 μGy y -1 , that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota

  6. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  7. Colloidal Precursors from 'Ball-Milling in Liquid Medium' Process for CuInSe2 Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Seung Joo

    2010-01-01

    CIS thin film can be fabricated by using the precursor obtained through ball-milling the elemental reagents in liquid media. The amorphous colloidal precursor with good dispersity was prepared in the medium that contains strong base and polar solvent (2 M ethylenediamine in DMF solution as used in this study). The 'ball-milling in liquid medium' method requires only elemental sources as starting materials and a proper solution so that it can be employed without additional processes for separation and purification. As a simple and less-toxic preparative route, this method would be practically available to prepare CIS-related solar cells. CuInSe 2 (CIS) and related chalcopyrite compounds are very promising materials for thin film solar cells due to their favorable band gap, high optical absorption coefficient and long-term stability. CIS-based solar cells have shown the highest conversion efficiency reaching a value of 20%. However, the vacuum-based processes that are used to fabricate CIS thin-films have some drawbacks such as the complexity in process, high production cost and difficulty in scaling up. Recently, several research groups have proposed different non-vacuum deposition processes for CIS solar cell. For example, H. W. Hillhouse et al. prepared the CIS absorber layer by using 'nanocrystal ink method' in which a colloidal nanocrystal ink was obtained from reaction of CuCl, InCl 3 and Se in oleylamine. D. B. Mitzi et al. used a solution-based precursor that was prepared by dissolution of Cu 2 Se, In 2 Se 3 , Ga 2 Se 3 and Se in hydrazine to fabricate the Ga-containing absorber layer, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2

  8. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  9. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  10. Relações granulométricas no processo de brunimento de arroz Granulometry relationship in the rice milling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. S. Luz

    2005-04-01

    kernels were added to the whole kernels and 5 7.2 g of small broken kernels were added to the whole kernels. A laboratory mill was used. The classification was made manually. The percentages of broken kernels varied from 3.6% to 7.2% in the fraction of big broken kernels and from 1.04% to 7.2% in the fraction of small broken kernels, respectively. The results showed that, in the milling process using broken kernels in the mass, the head rice yield was significantly higher than when 100% of head kernels were milled.

  11. Investigation of the milling capabilities of the F10 Fine Grind mill using Box-Behnken designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Tay, Justin Yong Soon; Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-01

    Size reduction or milling of the active is often the first processing step in the design of a dosage form. The ability of a mill to convert coarse crystals into the target size and size distribution efficiently is highly desirable as the quality of the final pharmaceutical product after processing is often still dependent on the dimensional attributes of its component constituents. The F10 Fine Grind mill is a mechanical impact mill designed to produce unimodal mid-size particles by utilizing a single-pass two-stage size reduction process for fine grinding of raw materials needed in secondary processing. Box-Behnken designs were used to investigate the effects of various mill variables (impeller, blower and feeder speeds and screen aperture size) on the milling of coarse crystals. Response variables included the particle size parameters (D10, D50 and D90), span and milling rate. Milled particles in the size range of 5-200 μm, with D50 ranging from 15 to 60 μm, were produced. The impeller and feeder speeds were the most critical factors influencing the particle size and milling rate, respectively. Size distributions of milled particles were better described by their goodness-of-fit to a log-normal distribution (i.e. unimodality) rather than span. Milled particles with symmetrical unimodal distributions were obtained when the screen aperture size was close to the median diameter of coarse particles employed. The capacity for high throughput milling of particles to a mid-size range, which is intermediate between conventional mechanical impact mills and air jet mills, was demonstrated in the F10 mill. Prediction models from the Box-Behnken designs will aid in providing a better guide to the milling process and milled product characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a nanofiltration process for flotation treated paper mill waste water; Nanosuodatusprosessin kehittaeminen flotaatiokaesitellylle paperitehtaan jaetevedelle - EKT 08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenttaeri, M; Nuortila-Jokinen, J; Nystroem, M [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1999-12-31

    Nanofiltration was studied as a purification method of paper mill effluents so that the permeates could be used as press section shower water. The quality of ultrafiltered water was not assessed to be sufficiently high for that purpose. The low flux of nanofiltration membranes has restricted their use in the pulp and paper industry. This study showed that the performance of nanofiltration membranes can be improved by controlling the filtration conditions, like pH, flow velocity and pressure. It was demonstrated that a critical flux exists also for nanofiltration membranes. By adjusting the permeate flux below this critical value fouling should be low. The experiments with a spiral wound element showed its sensitivity to plugging by fibers and also the unsuitability of cartridge filters as safety filters for it. Better pretreatment methods are needed. A multilayer filter seemed to decrease the fouling of the nanofiltration element somewhat. However, a simple and cleanable pretreatment method still needs to be developed. Fouling experiments with model components pointed out the importance of pH and cross-flow velocity in minimizing fouling. (orig.) 8 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  13. Development of a nanofiltration process for flotation treated paper mill waste water; Nanosuodatusprosessin kehittaeminen flotaatiokaesitellylle paperitehtaan jaetevedelle - EKT 08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenttaeri, M.; Nuortila-Jokinen, J.; Nystroem, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    Nanofiltration was studied as a purification method of paper mill effluents so that the permeates could be used as press section shower water. The quality of ultrafiltered water was not assessed to be sufficiently high for that purpose. The low flux of nanofiltration membranes has restricted their use in the pulp and paper industry. This study showed that the performance of nanofiltration membranes can be improved by controlling the filtration conditions, like pH, flow velocity and pressure. It was demonstrated that a critical flux exists also for nanofiltration membranes. By adjusting the permeate flux below this critical value fouling should be low. The experiments with a spiral wound element showed its sensitivity to plugging by fibers and also the unsuitability of cartridge filters as safety filters for it. Better pretreatment methods are needed. A multilayer filter seemed to decrease the fouling of the nanofiltration element somewhat. However, a simple and cleanable pretreatment method still needs to be developed. Fouling experiments with model components pointed out the importance of pH and cross-flow velocity in minimizing fouling. (orig.) 8 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  14. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  15. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  16. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  17. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of OMW. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46–51% in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials. PMID:24790964

  18. The regulatory process for uranium mines in Canada -general overview and radiation health and safety in uranium mine-mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    This presentation is divided into two main sections. In the first, the author explores the issues of radiation and tailings disposal, and then examines the Canadian nuclear regulatory process from the point of view of jurisdiction, objectives, philosophy and mechanics. The compliance inspection program is outlined, and the author discussed the relationships between the AECB and other regulatory agencies, the public and uranium mine-mill workers. The section concludes with an examination of the stance of the medical profession on nuclear issues. In part two, the radiological hazards for uranium miners are examined: radon daughters, gamma radiation, thoron daughters and uranium dust. The author touches on new regulations being drafted, the assessment of past exposures in mine atmospheres, and the regulatory approach at the surface exploration stage. The presentation concludes with the author's brief observations on the findings of other uranium mining inquiries and on future requirements in the industry's interests

  19. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  20. Work-related allergy and asthma in spice mill workers - The impact of processing dried spices on IgE reactivity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Anita; Lopata, Andreas L; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Jeebhay, Mohamed F

    2010-01-01

    Three spice mill workers developed work-related allergy and asthma after prolonged exposure to high levels (>10 mg/m(3)) of inhalable spice dust. Patterns of sensitization to a variety of spices and putative allergens were identified. Work-related allergy and asthma were assessed on history, clinical evaluation, pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Specific IgE reactivity to a range of common inhalant, food and spice allergens was evaluated using ImmunoCAP and allergen microarray. The presence of non-IgE-mediated reactions was determined by basophil stimulation (CAST-ELISA). Specific allergens were identified by immunoblotting to extracts of raw and dried processed garlic, onion and chili pepper. Asthma was confirmed in all 3 subjects, with work-related patterns prominent in worker 1 and 3. Sensitization to multiple spices and pollen was observed in both atopic workers 1 and 2, whereas garlic and chili pepper sensitization featured in all 3 workers. Microarray analysis demonstrated prominent profilin reactivity in atopic worker 2. Immunoblotting demonstrated a 50-kDa cross-reactive allergen in garlic and onion, and allergens of approximately 40 and 52 kDa in chili pepper. Dry powdered garlic and onion demonstrated greater IgE binding. This study demonstrated IgE reactivity to multiple spice allergens in workers exposed to high levels of inhalable spice dust. Processed garlic and onion powder demonstrated stronger IgE reactivity than the raw plant. Atopy and polysensitization to various plant profilins, suggesting pollen-food syndrome, represent additional risk factors for sensitizer-induced work-related asthma in spice mill workers. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effect of iron and magnesium addition for ethanol production from the conversion of palm oil mill effluent by anaerobic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handajani, M.; Gumilar, A.; Syafila, M.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, crisis of the energy is the main problem in the world. Currently, most the energy resource derived from the fossil material that cannot be refurbished. Ethanol is an alternative fuel that content as a fossil fuels. Wastewater with the high concentration of the organic can be used for the ethanol production to replace foodstuff as a raw material. In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the concentration of COD is 24,500 mg/L has been used as a substrate. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the metal addition in the substrate metabolic pathways. Circulating batch reactor (CBR) is used with the flushing N2 1L/min for 24 hours and continued operates for 72 hours by internal biogas. The additional variation concentration of Fe(II) ion are 0.5; 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L, and Mg(II) are 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L were added by combination. The results showed that the combination of Fe (II) 2.5 mg/L and Mg(II) 1.5 mg/L produced the highest ethanol concentration is 715.8 mg/L and degree of acidification (DA) 0.284-0.357. Another combination of Fe(II) and Mg(II) provide results for the ethanol production 463.7-689.7 mg/L with the rate of ethanol production is 1.09-26.5 mg/L/hour.

  2. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  3. Characterization of the geochemical processes present in the radionuclides and metals mobilization in the tailing dam at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities - Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Patricia Freitas

    1995-08-01

    In Brazil, the first step of nuclear fuel cycle - the mining and milling of the uranium ore - is developed at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais state. The wastes management is a very important aspect of the process. The understanding of the geochemical processes that occur in the tailings dam is a key question to define a plan of action concerning the decommissioning strategy of the facility. The objective of the present work was to give some issues to help in the adoption of the remedial actions concerning the decommissioning of the facility. It focused on the characterization of the most important geochemical processes regulating the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals in the tailings dam. Two cores from the tailings dam (uncovered area) were collected. Seepage and drainage waters were sampled, the same being true for the tailings dam lake. Groundwater form an aquifer bellow the tailings dam and superficial waters from a river that receives the effluents of the dam (Soberbo River) were also sampled. Data from the mining company were used to calculate the inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals deposited in the waste dam.The obtained results showed that pyrite oxidation is the key process in the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes. Pyrite oxidation is a process regulated by oxygen diffusion and water. In the studied scenario it could be shown that the process was limited to a one meter deep layer in the uncovered part of the waste dam. Because of this, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Th and 238 U showed higher concentrations in the bottom layers of the cores in relation to the upper ones. 226 Ra and 210 Pb showed opposite patterns. The coprecipitation with Ca SO 4 was the most relevant mechanism in both radionuclides immobilization in the wastes. Sulfate was the only chemical species that could be assigned as a contaminant in aquifer bellow the waste dam. As a conclusion, the target environmental

  4. Taguchi design optimization of machining parameters on the CNC end milling process of halloysite nanotube with aluminium reinforced epoxy matrix (HNT/Al/Ep hybrid composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Pang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the application of Taguchi optimization methodology in optimizing the cutting parameters of end-milling process for machining the halloysite nanotubes (HNTs with aluminium reinforced epoxy hybrid composite material under dry condition. The machining parameters which are chosen to be evaluated in this study are the depth of cut (d, cutting speed (S and feed rate (f. While, the response factors to be measured are the surface roughness of the machined composite surface and the cutting force. An orthogonal array of the Taguchi method was set-up and used to analyse the effect of the milling parameters on the surface roughness and cutting force. The result from this study shows that the application of the Taguchi method can determine the best combination of machining parameters that can provide the optimal machining response conditions which are the lowest surface roughness and lowest cutting force value. For the best surface finish, A1–B3–C3 (d = 0.4 mm, S = 1500 rpm, f = 60 mmpm is found to be the optimized combination of levels for all the three control factors from the analysis. Meanwhile, the optimized combination of levels for all the three control factors from the analysis which provides the lowest cutting force was found to be A2–B2–C2 (d = 0.6 mm, S = 1000 rpm, f = 40 mmpm.

  5. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  6. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills

  7. Management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations have not given rise to much concern about their hazards, and with advancing technologies for mill processing and waste management, the situation will continue to improve. However, the disposal of large quantities of waste produced in mining and milling does have an environmental impact, owing to the long half-lives and the ready availability of the toxic radionuclides Ra-226 and Rn-222. This article deals with the management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

  8. A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v washing wastewaters (MOMW was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ=2 h and 21.4% (τ=3 h, respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

  9. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  10. Optimisation of milling parameters using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipski Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and test an intelligent computer software developed with the purpose of increasing average productivity of milling not compromising the design features of the final product. The developed system generates optimal milling parameters based on the extent of tool wear. The introduced optimisation algorithm employs a multilayer model of a milling process developed in the artificial neural network. The input parameters for model training are the following: cutting speed vc, feed per tooth fz and the degree of tool wear measured by means of localised flank wear (VB3. The output parameter is the surface roughness of a machined surface Ra. Since the model in the neural network exhibits good approximation of functional relationships, it was applied to determine optimal milling parameters in changeable tool wear conditions (VB3 and stabilisation of surface roughness parameter Ra. Our solution enables constant control over surface roughness parameters and productivity of milling process after each assessment of tool condition. The recommended parameters, i.e. those which applied in milling ensure desired surface roughness and maximal productivity, are selected from all the parameters generated by the model. The developed software may constitute an expert system supporting a milling machine operator. In addition, the application may be installed on a mobile device (smartphone, connected to a tool wear diagnostics instrument and the machine tool controller in order to supply updated optimal parameters of milling. The presented solution facilitates tool life optimisation and decreasing tool change costs, particularly during prolonged operation.

  11. Multi-Axis High Speed Milling : How to Speed up Prototyping & Tooling Processes by Using STL-Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the wide application of Layered Manufacturing Technologies like fused Depositîon Modelling, Layered Object Manufacturing etc. in the product development process, mihing is stil necessary. This is because Layered Manufactunng processes have some Iimitatïons in for instance, materials used and

  12. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  13. An integrative approach to characterize hydrological processes and water quality in a semi-arid watershed in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; Fernandes, N.; Veiga, L. H. S.; Melo, L. R.; Santos, A. C. S.; Araujo, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions face serious challenges in the management of scarce water resources. This situation tends to become worse with the increasing population growth rates and consequently increasing water demand. Groundwater is the most important water resource in these areas and, therefore, the sustainability of its use depends on the effectiveness in which it is managed, both in terms of quantity and quality. The Caetité Experimental Basin (CEB), located in a semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity, but also changes in landscape and potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations as well as the survival of the local community are highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. Hydrogeological studies in this area are scarce, and the potential contamination and overexploitation of groundwater can not be ruled out. Therefore, a national project was launched in order to improve the understanding and quantification of the interaction between the hydrogeological system and human health. The methodological approach involved hydrological and geochemical monitoring and characterization of the CEB, use of isotopic techniques, groundwater modeling, water quality diagnosis and human health risk assessment due to water ingestion. The results suggested that the groundwater in the CEB are not totally connected, with evidence of a mixture of recent and old waters. The Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl is the dominant water type (50%) followed by Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl water type (17%). The relevant non-radioactive contaminants are Mn, F, NO3 and Ba, mostly from natural origin, with the exception of NO3 that could be associated with the livestock activities. The estimated effective doses due to groundwater ingestion containing radionuclides are below the recommended

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  15. Optimization of bead milling parameters for the cell disruption of microalgae: process modeling and application to Porphyridium cruentum and Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalescot, V; Rinaldi, T; Touchard, R; Jubeau, S; Frappart, M; Jaouen, P; Bourseau, P; Marchal, L

    2015-11-01

    A study of cell disruption by bead milling for two microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata and Porphyridium cruentum, was performed. Strains robustness was quantified by high-pressure disruption assays. The hydrodynamics in the bead mill grinding chamber was studied by Residence Time Distribution modeling. Operating parameters effects were analyzed and modeled in terms of stress intensities and stress number. RTD corresponded to a 2 CSTR in series model. First order kinetics cell disruption was modeled in consequence. Continuous bead milling was efficient for both strains disruption. SI-SN modeling was successfully adapted to microalgae. As predicted by high pressure assays, N. oculata was more resistant than P. cruentum. The critical stress intensity was twice more important for N. oculata than for P. cruentum. SI-SN modeling allows the determination of operating parameters minimizing energy consumption and gives a scalable approach to develop and optimize microalgal disruption by bead milling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  17. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  18. Valorization of Olive Mill Wastewater by Membrane Processes to Recover Natural Antioxidant Compounds for Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Applications or Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Alberto; Corsuto, Luisana; Finamore, Rosario; Savarese, Maria; Ferrara, Filomena; Falco, Salvatore; Santabarbara, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2018-05-23

    Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts of metabolism. The objective of this research project was to recover the biologically active components rich in polyphenols, which include treatment of olive oil mills wastewater, and, at the same time, to remove the pollutant waste component resulting from the olive oil manufacturing processes. With specific focus on using technologies based on the application of ultra and nanofiltration membranes, the polyphenols fraction was extracted after an initial flocculation step. The nano-filtration permeate showed a reduction of about 95% of the organic load. The polyphenols recovery after two filtration steps was about 65% w / v . The nanofiltration retentate, dried using the spray dryer technique, was tested for cell viability after oxidative stress induction on human keratinocytes model in vitro and an improved cell reparation in the presence of this polyphenolic compound was demonstrated in scratch assays assisted through time lapse video-microscopy. The polyphenols recovered from these treatments may be suitable ingredients in cosmeceuticals and possibly nutraceutical preparations or functional foods.

  19. The grinding behavior of ground copper powder for Cu/CNT nanocomposite fabrication by using the dry grinding process with a high-speed planetary ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heekyu; Bor, Amgalan; Sakuragi, Shiori; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Hyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of ground copper powder for copper-carbon nanotube (copper-CNT) nanocomposite fabrication during high-speed planetary ball milling was investigated because the study of the behavior characteristics of copper powder has recently gained scientific interest. Also, studies of Cu/CNT composites have widely been done due to their useful applications to enhanced, advanced nano materials and components, which would significantly improve the properties of new mechatronics-integrated materials and components. This study varied experimental conditions such as the rotation speed and the grinding time with and without CNTs, and the particle size distribution, median diameter, crystal structure and size, and particle morphology were monitored for a given grinding time. We observed that pure copper powders agglomerated and that the morphology changed with changing rotation speed. The particle agglomerations were observed with maximum experiment conditions (700 rpm, 60 min) in this study of the grinding process for mechanical alloys in the case of pure copper powders because the grinding behavior of Cu/CNT agglomerations was affected by the addition of CNTs. Indeed, the powder morphology and the crystal size of the composite powder could be changed by increasing the grinding time and the rotation speed.

  20. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-01-01

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 /ultraviolet radiations) at 25 deg. C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) at 50 deg. C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ), system operating at 50 deg. C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  1. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants' effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site

  3. Artificial Intelligence Based Selection of Optimal Cutting Tool and Process Parameters for Effective Turning and Milling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, Kunaparaju; John Rozario Jegaraj, J.; Ramesh Kumar, Katta; Venkateshwara Rao, Ghanta

    2016-06-01

    With the increased trend in automation of modern manufacturing industry, the human intervention in routine, repetitive and data specific activities of manufacturing is greatly reduced. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the human intervention in selection of optimal cutting tool and process parameters for metal cutting applications, using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Generally, the selection of appropriate cutting tool and parameters in metal cutting is carried out by experienced technician/cutting tool expert based on his knowledge base or extensive search from huge cutting tool database. The present proposed approach replaces the existing practice of physical search for tools from the databooks/tool catalogues with intelligent knowledge-based selection system. This system employs artificial intelligence based techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm for decision making and optimization. This intelligence based optimal tool selection strategy is developed using Mathworks Matlab Version 7.11.0 and implemented. The cutting tool database was obtained from the tool catalogues of different tool manufacturers. This paper discusses in detail, the methodology and strategies employed for selection of appropriate cutting tool and optimization of process parameters based on multi-objective optimization criteria considering material removal rate, tool life and tool cost.

  4. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion

  5. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  6. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  7. Combination of Machining Parameters to Optimize Surface Roughness and Chip Thickness during End Milling Process on Aluminium 6351-T6 Alloy Using Taguchi Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In any machining operations, quality is the important conflicting objective. In order to give assurance for high productivity, some extent of quality has to be compromised. Similarly productivity will be decreased while the efforts are channelized to enhance quality. In this study,  the experiments were carried out on a CNC vertical machining center  to perform 10mm slots on Al 6351-T6 alloy work piece by K10 carbide, four flute end milling cutter. Furthermore the cutting speed, the feed rate and depth of cut are regulated in this experiment. Each experiment was conducted three times and the surface roughness and chip thickness was measured by a surface analyser of Surf Test-211 series (Mitutoyo and Digital Micrometer (Mitutoyo with least count 0.001 mm respectively. The selection of orthogonal array is concerned with the total degree of freedom of process parameters. Total degree of freedom (DOF associated with three parameters is equal to 6 (3X2.The degree of freedom for the orthogonal array should be greater than or at least equal to that of the process parameters. There by, a L9 orthogonal array having degree of freedom equal to (9-1= 8 8 has been considered .But in present case each experiment is conducted three times, therefore total degree of freedom (9X3-1=26 26 has been considered. Finally, confirmation test (ANOVA was conducted to compare the predicted values with the experimental values confirm its effectiveness in the analysis of surface roughness and chip thickness. Surface Roughness (Ra is greatly reduced from 0.145 µm to 0.1326 µm and the chip thickness (Ct is slightly reduced from 0.1 mm to 0.085 mm, because of in the measurement collected the chips after machining of every experiment, from that randomly selected a few chips for measuring of their thickness using digital micrometer.

  8. Stability of the pyrethroid pesticide bifenthrin in milled wheat during thermal processing, yeast and lactic acid fermentation, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorđević, Tijana M; Šiler-Marinković, Slavica S; Ðurović, Rada D; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana I; Gajić Umiljendić, Jelena S

    2013-10-01

    Pesticide residues have become an unavoidable part of food commodities. In the context of increased interest for food processing techniques as a tool for reducing pesticide residues, it is interesting to study the potential loss of pesticides during lactic acid and yeast fermentation. In the present paper the effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and storage on 23 °C on bifenthrin in wheat was investigated. In addition, the effect of sterilisation (applied in order to avoid contamination with wild microorganism strains, i.e. to determine the individual effects of used strains) on bifenthrin degradation was tested as well. No significant loss of bifenthrin was observed during storage, or after the sterilisation. During the lactic acid fermentation, reduction within wheat fortified with 0.5 mg kg(-1) was 42%, while quite lower within samples fortified with 2.5 mg kg(-1) , maximum 18%. In contrast, bifenthrin concentration was not reduced during yeast fermentation, as the reduction in fortified samples was in the range of spontaneous chemical degradation during incubation period. Possible bifenthrin contamination in wheat, in amounts over the maximum residue limits, could not be reduced by sterilisation or by yeast fermentation, but lactic acid fermentation could be an effective tool for minimising residual contamination. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Process design and economics of a flexible ethanol-butanol plant annexed to a eucalyptus kraft pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guilherme C Q; Braz, Danilo S; Hamaguchi, Marcelo; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Mariano, Adriano P

    2018-02-01

    This work proposes a strategy, from a process design standpoint, for pulp companies to enter the Brazilian ethanol market. The flexible plant converts eucalyptus-derived glucose to either ethanol or butanol (according to market conditions) and xylose only to butanol production. Depending on the biomass pretreatment technology, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the Net Present Value (NPV) of the flexible plant increases by 20-28% in relation to an ethanol-dedicated plant. Whereas the lower costs of the steam explosion technology turns the investment more attractive (NPV = 184 MMUSD; IRR = 29%), the organosolv technology provides better flexibility to the plant. This work also shows that excessive power consumption is a hurdle in the development of flash fermentation technology chosen for the flexible plant. These results indicate that conventional batch fermentation is preferable if the enzymatic hydrolysis step operates with solids loading up to 20 wt%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  11. Production of nanocrystalline cermet thermal spray powders for wear resistant coatings by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigen, N.; Klassen, T.; Aust, E.; Bormann, R.; Gaertner, F.

    2003-01-01

    TiC-Ni based nanocrystalline cermet powders for thermal spraying were produced by high-energy milling. Milling experiments were performed in an attrition mill and a vibration mill in kilogram scale, and powder morphologies and microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and laser scattering for particle size analysis. Milling time and powder input were optimized with respect to the desired microstructure and particle sizes, and the results using both types of mill were compared. Powders with homogeneously dispersed hard phase particles below 300 nm could be produced in both mills. Additional processes for the refinement of powder morphology and particle size distribution are discussed

  12. Facile synthesis technology of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C adding H_2O_2 in ball mill process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Xiujuan; Mu, Deying; Li, Ruhong; Dai, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sintering time of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3 reduced to 6 hours by adding hydrogen peroxide. • Electrochemical performance of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3 was improved by reducing sintering time. • The Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3 production process was simplified during material synthesis stage. - Abstract: Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C has stable structure, high theory specific capacity and good safety performance, therefore it has become the research focus of lithium-ion batteries in recent years. The facile synthesis technology of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C was characterized by adding different amounts of H_2O_2. Structure and morphology characteristics were examined by XRD, TG, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM. Electrochemical performance was investigated by constant current charging and discharging test. The results revealed that the Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C electrochemical performance of adding 15 mL H_2O_2 was better after sintering during 6 h. At the charge cut-off voltage of 4.3 V, the first discharge capacity at 0.2 C rate reached 127 mAh g"−"1. Because of adding H_2O_2 in the ball-mill dispersant, the vanadium pentoxide formed the wet sol. The molecular-leveled mixture increased the homogeneity of raw materials. Therefore, the addition of H_2O_2 shortened the sintering time and significantly improved the electrochemical performance of Li_3V_2(PO_4)_3/C.

  13. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants/lubricants, ......The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants....../lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...... geometrical details, as for instance the cutting edge radius, are determined by characteristics of the manufacturing process, tool material, coating etc. While for conventional size end mills the basic tool manufacturing process is well established, the reduction of the size of the tools required...

  14. Influence of the milling process on the structure and morphology of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and catalytic performance in the methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil; Influencia do processo de moagem na estrutura e morfologia de ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} e no desempenho catalitico na reacao de transesterificacao metilica do oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, A.C.; Dantas, B.B.; Santana, A.; Costa, A.C.M.F., E-mail: alexcaval2@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Costa, D.B. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of milling time over the structure and morphology of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, synthesized by combustion reaction, and study the effect of milled samples over the methyl transesterification reaction of soy bean oil. ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesizing, by means combustion reaction, using a electrical resistance plate. The powder was milled over 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, particle size distribution and N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Milling process promoted changes over the agglomerate size and textural characteristics of the samples. Catalytic tests were conducted at 160 deg C, with 1% of catalyst, with molar ratio oil:methanol of 1:6 and reaction time of 1 hour. According the results, the sample milled over 30 minutes showed the highest conversion. (author)

  15. Bioethanol production from paperboard mill sludge using acid-catalyzed bio-derived choline acetate ionic liquid pretreatment followed by fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Elsamadony, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Total reducing sugar concentration depends on [ChO][OAc] ionic liquid to biomass ratio. • Acid-catalyzed ionic liquid significantly enhance pretreatment process. • Prolonged pretreatment duration degraded sugars into furans compounds. • Maximum net energy of 5.36 ± 0.30 kJ/g PMS obtained by using acid catalyst IL. - Abstract: Paperboard mill sludge (PMS) composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ash contents of 36.72 ± 2.81, 32.91 ± 1.75, 22.89 ± 0.56, and 7.48 ± 0.39%, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis process followed by fermentation of native PMS provided an ethanol yield of 0.36 ± 0.01 g/L which equivalent to net gain energy of −0.84 ± 0.03 kJ/g PMS . Choline acetate ionic liquid [Cho][OAc] IL was extensively used as a solvent for PMS to upgrade the performance. Pretreatment with [Cho][OAc] IL/PMS ratio of 10% (w/w) for 1.0 h, at a temperature of 120 °C exhibited hemicellulose and lignin removal efficiency of 5.05 ± 0.52 and 14.71 ± 1.22%, respectively with 89.19 ± 5.62% cellulose recovery. This corresponded to net gain energy of 0.60 ± 0.04 kJ/g PMS based on ethanol yield from enzymatic saccharification process which was quite low due to a limited hemicellulose removal and glucose yield of 24.1 ± 1.4 g/L. [Cho][OAc] IL/PMS ratio of 10% (w/w) supplemented with 1% (v/v) HCl substantially improved the removal efficiency of hemicellulose (36.38 ± 4.51%), lignin (17.42 ± 1.19%) and cellulose (82.17 ± 4.28%) which provided the maximum net energy of 5.36 ± 0.30 kJ/g PMS .

  16. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  17. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  18. Model Predictive Control for an Industrial SAG Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohan, Valeriu; Steinke, Florian; Metzger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    identication. When applied to MIMO systems we call this controller a MIMO-ARX based MPC. We use an industrial Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill to illustrate the performance of this controller. SAG mills are the primary units in a grinding chain and also the most power consuming units. Therefore, improved...... control of SAG mills has the potential to signicantly improve eciency and reduce the specic energy consumption for mineral processes. Grinding circuits involving SAG mills are multivariate processes. Commissioning of a control system based on a classical single-loop controllers with logic is time...

  19. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A.; Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2011-01-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 μg/g U 3 O 8 for ores with an initial content of 2,700 μg/g U 3 O 8 . With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in one column and 1,100 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  20. Development of an electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbedel, Bernd; Kazak, Oleg

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a novel electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling of different materials, in which the milling beads are moved under a time- and local-variable magnetic field. A possibility to optimize the milling process in such a milling machine by simulation of the vector gradient distribution of the electromagnetic field in the process room is presented. The mathematical model and simulation methods based on standard software packages are worked out. The results of numerical simulations and experimental measurements of the electromagnetic field in the working chamber of a developed and manufactured laboratory plant correlate well with each other. Using the obtained operating parameters, dry milling experiments with crushed cement clinker and wet milling experiments of organic agents in the laboratory plant are performed and the results are discussed here.

  1. High-Yield Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets by Exfoliating Natural Molybdenite Powders Directly via a Coupled Ultrasonication-Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huina; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Cost-effective and scalable preparation of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the bottleneck that limits their applications. This paper reports a novel coupled ultrasonication-milling (CUM) process to exfoliate natural molybdenite powders to achieve few-layer MoS2 (FL-MoS2) nanosheets in the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sand milling highly enhanced the exfoliation efficiency, and the precursor of natural molybdenite powders minimizes the synthetic cost of FL-MoS2 nanosheets. The exfoliation of natural molybdenite powders was conducted in a home-made CUM system, mainly consisting of an ultrasonic cell disruptor and a ceramic sand mill. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Raman spectra, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, AFM, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The factors that influence the exfoliation in the CUM process, including the initial concentration of natural molybdenite powders ( C in, 15-55 g L-1), ultrasonic power ( P u, 200-350 W), rotation speed of sand mill ( ω s, 1500-2250 r.p.m), exfoliation time ( t ex, 0.5-6 h), and the molar ratio of PVP unit to MoS2 ( R pm, 0-1), were systematically investigated. Under the optimal CUM conditions (i.e., C in = 45 g L-1, P u = 280 W, ω s = 2250 r.p.m and R pm = 0.5), the yield at t ex = 6 h reaches 21.6 %, and the corresponding exfoliation rate is as high as 1.42 g L-1 h-1. The exfoliation efficiency of the CUM mode is much higher than that of either the ultrasonication (U) mode or the milling (M) mode. The synergistic mechanism and influencing rules of the CUM process in exfoliating natural molybdenite powders were elaborated. The as-obtained FL-MoS2 nanosheets have a high specific surface area of 924 m2 g-1 and show highly enhanced electrocatalytic performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and good electrochemical sensing property in detecting ascorbic acid. The CUM process

  2. Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman

    2005-01-01

    Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...

  3. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Gao Jie; Zhang Xueli; Wei Guangzhi; Zhang Guopu

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  4. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A., E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gomiero, Luiz A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for ores with an initial content of 2,700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in one column and 1,100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  5. Nanograin formation in milled MoO3 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Paz, J; Dorantes-Rosales, H; Aguilar-Martínez, J A; Garibay-Febles, V

    2013-01-01

    Powder of Molybdenum trioxide was milled for different times in horizontal ball mills. Such powder was characterized by TEM and XRD. Powder was rapidly de-agglomerated and fragmented up to attain nanoplates of two types, amorphous and crystalline. Finally, cold-welding of nanoplates occurred permitting some relaxation process to obtain a more stable energized structure consisting of equiaxial crystalline nanograins after 16 hours of milling.

  6. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  7. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  8. Improved paper quality and runability by biological process water recovery in closed water circuits of recycle mills; Saisei banshi kojo ni okeru junkansui no seibutsugakuteki shori ni yoru shihinshitsu oyobi sogyosei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, L.; Knelissen, H.; Hooimeijer, A.; Nihei, K. [Nippon Paper Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    A lot of efforts have been made traditionally for reducing the amount of water consumption in recycled paper industry. Several mills in Europe and the North America have succeeded in running the closed white water circuit that means to make the amount of water discharge be zero by returning the effluent water back. In this paper, the relevant factors that contaminate the white water in recycled paper mills are investigated. The accumulation of substances which provide bad effects on the paper manufacturing process and product quality is caused by the closed white water circuit in the recycled paper mills. The accumulated substances in white water include microorganisms, volatile fatty acids, salts, calcium, etc. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment is used as means for reducing the consumption of chemicals and energy and minimizing residues. The first biological in line treatment plant was utilized by Zulpich Papier in Germany and its result is satisfactory in aspects of production and product quality. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  10. Peculiarities of binding composition production in vortex jet mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnyuk, L. Kh; Lesovik, V. S.; Sumskoy, D. A.; Elistratkin, M. Yu; Makhortov, D. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article investigates the disintegration of perlite production waste in a vortex jet mill; the regularities of milling were established. Binding compositions were obtained at different ratios of cement vs. perlite sand production waste in the vortex jet mill in various milling regimes. The peculiarities of milling processes were studied, and technological and physicomechanical properties of the binding compositions were determined as well. The microstructure of the cement stones made of activated Portland cement and binding compositions in the vortex jet mill was elucidated by electron microscopy. The open pores of the cement-binding compositions prepared using perlite fillers were found to be filled by newgrowths at different stages of collective growth. The microstructure of the binding compositions is dense due to rationally proportioned composition, effective mineral filler— perlite waste — that creates additional substrates for internal composite microstructure formation, mechanochemical activation of raw mixture, which allows obtaining composites with required properties.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  13. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  14. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  15. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors......, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  16. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaining...

  17. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  18. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials

  20. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload. 11 janvier 2013. Image ... It aims to increase the production, improve the processing, develop new ... farmer societies, women's self-help groups, and the food-processing industry.

  1. Pavement maintenance procedures with and without milling materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul A. Tarefder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates maintenance treatment followed by different Districts of New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT. In addition, two case studies on the use of old pavement materials, called the “millings”, in maintenance projects are reported. Based on this study, it is observed that none of the Districts have a written procedure for maintenance work. Rather Districts rely on the experience of the maintenance crew for conducting maintenance projects. All Districts prefer to use chip seal for maintenance irrespective of distress conditions of the pavements. Patching and crack sealing are usually done before chip sealing to extend the life of the chip seals. Sand seal, scrub seal, and slurry seal projects are not done by District maintenance crews but by outside contractors. It is also observed that all Districts are interested in using millings in maintenance projects and most have already used millings in at least one maintenance project with some success and failure. Most of the Districts have used coarse fraction of millings in chip seal projects successfully. However, they failed to find a proper way to process the fine fractions of millings. Case Study I shows that fine millings can be used to construct thin overlay when mixed with emulsion in pug mill or hot drums. Case Study II concludes that fine millings can be used as fine/sand seal successfully following the same procedure and using the same equipment as chip seal. Keywords: Millings, Maintenance, Emulsion, Rutting, Pug-mill

  2. Guide to the conduct of public meetings as part of the public information process for uranium and thorium mine-mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board requires that an applicant for a site approval for a uranium or thorium mine-mill facility inform the public about the project and facilitate public response. For small undertakings, the information requirement may be met by a public meeting organized by the proponents of the project. This guide provides specific instructions on giving notice of the meeting, availability of documentation, choice of a chairperson, agenda, the roles of the proponents and the regulatory agencies, and means of obtaining feedback from the public. (L.L.)

  3. The dispersion of fine chitosan particles by beads-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochima, Emma; Utami, Safira; Hamdani, Herman; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Praseptiangga, Danar; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to produce fine chitosan particles from a crab shell waste by beads-milling method by two different concentration of PEG as dispersing agent (150 and 300 wt. %). The characterization was performed to obtain the size and size distribution, the characteristics of functional groups and the degree of deacetylation. The results showed that the chitosan fine particles was obtained with a milling time 120 minutes with the best concentration of PEG 400 150 wt. %. The average particle size of the as-prepared suspension is 584 nm after addition of acetic acid solution (1%, v/v). Beads milling process did not change the glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine content on chitosan structure which is indicated by degree of deacetylation higher than 70%. It was concluded that beads milling process can be applied to prepare chitosan fineparticles by proper adjustment in the milling time, pH and dosage of dispersing agent.

  4. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  5. Performance of Color Camera Machine Vision in Automated Furniture Rough Mill Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Agus Widoyoko; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of color camera machine vision for lumber processing in a furniture rough mill. The study used 134 red oak boards to compare the performance of automated gang-rip-first rough mill yield based on a prototype color camera lumber inspection system developed at Virginia Tech with both estimated optimum rough mill...

  6. Finite  Element  Modeling  and  Process  Performance  of  Micro  End‐Milling  of Aluminum 6082‐T6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Tosello, G.; Annoni, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates  the micro end‐milling process by using a 3D  finite element modeling  (3D FEM) approach. The FE model is developed for contouring up‐milling operation to predict chip flow, burr formation and cutting forces. Different cutting conditions  were...... simulated in order to investigate the influence of process variables that might be difficult or even impossible to follow in the  physical experiments, particularly at this scale. 3D simulations of chip flow and temperature distribution are compared in various  cutting  conditions.  The  results  of  the  burr  formation  and  cutting  forces  predictions  are  compared  against  the  experiments.  The correlations were observed in terms of burr dimension trends and force profile shapes and magnitude....

  7. Characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}NP-Al{sub 2024} and Ag{sub C}NP-Al{sub 2024} composites prepared by mechanical processing in a high energy ball mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno-Gallardo, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col Reynosa-Tamaulipas, CP 02200, D.F. (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Romero-Romo, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col Reynosa-Tamaulipas, CP 02200, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Garcia, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125, Chihuahua (Mexico); Lopez-Melendez, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Universidad La Salle Chihuahua, Prol. Lomas de Majalca No. 11201, C.P. 31020, Chihuahua (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia-Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-09-25

    Graphical abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy, the nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag{sub C} nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has a role important on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite. 10 h of milling time are enough to former the Al{sub 2024} nanocomposites. The results obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of intermetallic precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route to incorporate and distribute NP into Al{sub 2024}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum-based nanocomposites were synthesized bay milling process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An homogeneous nanoparticles dispersion was reached and mechanical properties were enhanced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase transformation during heating was characterized by XRD. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying was used to produce two kinds of metal matrix composites based on 2024 aluminum alloy. The nanocomposites were reinforced with different percentages of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag{sub C} nanoparticles. The content of nanoparticles has an important role on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. A milling time of 10 h is enough to form the Al{sub 2024} nanocomposites. The thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimeter show the temperatures of phase precipitation, which were identified by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that mechanical alloying is an excellent route for the incorporation and distribution of nanoparticles into Al{sub 2024}.

  8. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  9. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.T. da; Nunes, M.A.M.; Souza, C.P. de; Gomes, U.U.

    2010-01-01

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  10. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  11. Optimasi Parameter Permesinan Terhadap Waktu Proses Pada Pemrograman Cnc Milling Dengan Berbasis Cad/cam

    OpenAIRE

    Yudhyadi, IGNK; Rachmanto, Tri; Ramadan, Adnan Dedy

    2016-01-01

    The milling process is one of many machining processes for manufacturing component. The length of time in the process of milling machining is influenced by selection and design of machining parameters including cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The purpose of this study to know the influence of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as independent variables versus operation time at CNC milling process as dependent variables. Each independent variable consists of three level of fac...

  12. Rock Characteristics and Ball Mill Energy Requirements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These changes can have great impact on milling operations. ... Goldfields Ghana Limited, Tarkwa Gold Mine (TGM), processes ores which occur in ... The parameters examined had deviated from the design; Work Index (WI) for example was ...

  13. Nanocrystalline TiAl powders synthesized by high-energy ball milling: effects of milling parameters on yield and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Prajina; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy ball milling was employed to produce nanocrystalline Ti-Al powders. As sticking of the powders can be sufficiently severe to result in a near zero yield, emphasis was placed on varying milling conditions so as to increase the yield, while avoiding contamination of the powders. The effects of milling parameters such as milling tools, initial state of the powders and addition of process control agents (PCA's) were investigated. Cyclohexane, stearic acid and titanium hydride were used as PCA's. Milling was conducted either in a Cr-steel vial with C-steel balls, or in a tungsten carbide (WC) vial with WC balls, using either elemental or pre-alloyed powders. Powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of PCA's mechanical alloying in a WC vial and attrition milling in a Cr-steel vial were shown to lead to satisfactory yields, about 65-80%, without inducing any significant contamination of the powders. The results suggest that sticking of the powders on to the milling tools is correlated with the phase evolution occurring in these powders during milling

  14. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  15. Case Study to Illustrate the Potential of Conformal Cooling Channels for Hot Stamping Dies Manufactured Using Hybrid Process of Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies and molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies and molds and, therefore, new products.

  16. Optimum combination of process parameters to optimize Surface Roughness and Chip Thickness during End Milling of Aluminium 6351-T6 Alloy Using Taguchi Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In any machining operations, quality is the important conflicting objective. In order to give assurance for high productivity, some extent of quality has to be compromised. Similarly productivity will be decreased while the efforts are channelized to enhance quality. In this study,  the experiments were carried out on a CNC vertical machining center (KENT and INDIA Co. Ltd, Taiwan make to perform 10mm slots on Al 6351-T6 alloy work piece by K10 carbide, four flute end milling cutter as per taguchi design of experiments plan by L9 orthogonal array was choosen to determine experimental trials. Furthermore the spindle speed (rpm, the feed rate (mm/min and depth of cut (mm are regulated in these experiments. Surface roughness and chip thickness was measured by a surface analyser of Surf Test-211 series (Mitutoyo and Digital Micrometer (Mitutoyo with least count 0.001 mm respectively. Grey relational analysis was employed to minimize surface roughness and chip thickness by setting of optimum combination of machining parameters. Minimum surface roughness and chip thickness obtained with 1000 rpm of spindle speed, 50 mm/min feed rate and 0.7 mm depth of cut respectively. Confirmation experiments showed that Gray relational analysis precisely optimized the drilling parameters in drilling of Al 6351-T6 alloy.

  17. Regarding the rejection performance of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane for the final purification of two-phase olive mill effluents previously treated by an advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Férez, A.

    2017-01-01

    In previous works on olive mill wastewater (OMW), secondary advanced oxidation treatment solved the problem related to the presence of phenolic compounds and considerable chemical oxygen demand. However, the effluent presented a significant salinity after this treatment. In this work, an adequate operation of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is addressed to ensure constant performance over a long period of time. In this paper, the effect of the operating parameters on the dynamic membrane rejection performance towards the target species was examined and discussed. Rejection efficiencies of all species were observed to follow a similar pattern, which consisted of slight initial improvement that further decreased over time. Rejection of both divalent ions remained constant at over 99% regardless of the operating conditions. Rejections were noticed to follow the order SO42−> Cl−> NO3− and Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Na+, as a rule. Divalent species were moderately more highly rejected than monovalent ones, in accordance with their higher charge and molecular size, and sulfate anions were consistently rejected by over 99%. Finally, the RO membrane exiting treated effluent was depleted of the high electro conductivity initially present (above 97% rejection), permitting its re-use as good quality irrigation water (below 1 mS/cm). [es

  18. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  19. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vopát Tomáš

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  20. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  1. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  2. The processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications. Part II: milled bone powders, reprecipitated hydroxyapatite and the potential uses of these materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G S; Mucalo, M R; Lorier, M A; Gieland, U; Mucha, H

    2000-11-01

    Further studies on the processing and use of animal-bone-derived calcium phosphate materials in biomedical applications are presented. Bone powders sourced either from the direct crushing and milling of bovine, ovine and cervine bone or after being subjected to defatting and acid digestion/NaOH reprecipitation and sodium hypochlorite hydrogen peroxide treatment of animal bones were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 13C solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometric techniques. Bone powders were trialled for their potential use as a substrate for phosphine coupling and enzyme immobilization as well as a feedstock powder for plasma spraying on titanium metal substrates. Results indicated that enzyme immobilization by phosphine coupling could be successfully achieved on milled cervine bone with the immobilized enzyme retaining some activity. It was found that the presence of impurities normally carried down with the processing of the bone materials (viz., fat and collagen) played an important role in influencing the adsorbency and reactivity of the powders. Plasma spraying studies using reprecipitated bovine-derived powders produced highly adherent coatings on titanium metal, the composition of which was mostly hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) with low levels of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-Ca3(PO4)2) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4P2O9) also detected. In general, animal derived calcium phosphate materials constitute a potentially cheaper source of calcium phosphate materials for biomedical applications and make use of a largely under-utilized resource from abattoir wastes. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  3. Tungsten-nanodiamond composite powders produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, D., E-mail: daniela.nunes@ist.utl.pt [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Mardolcar, U.V. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Ciencias Moleculares e Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    The major challenge in producing tungsten-nanodiamond composites by ball milling lies in successfully dispersing carbon nanoparticles in the metallic matrix while keeping carbide formation at a minimum. Processing windows for carbide minimization have been established through systematic variation of the nanodiamond fraction, milling energy and milling time. Materials characterization has been carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness testing. Nanostructured matrices with homogeneously dispersed particles that preserved the diamond structure have been produced. Differential thermal analysis has been used to evaluate the composites thermal stability.

  4. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  5. Indian Americans at Mille Lacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Victoria L.; And Others

    The Training Center for Community Programs prepared a report on the Mille Lacs (Chippewa) Reservation in Minnesota. Data for the report were from 2 separate sources: a survey conducted by the Training Center with the assistance of the Mille Lacs community action program (1967) and an attitudinal survey conducted by Victoria Holbert during 1969.…

  6. Descriptive documentation for New Mexico uranium milling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonem, G.; Livevano, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The New Mexico Uranium Milling Model is a linear programming model. It can demonstrate how cost minimizing management can reduce the costs of milling uranium subject to a series of environmental, resource, and technological constraints. For example, if 15,000 tons were the targeted level of milling output, the model would provide the minimum cost of this production level, given certain levels of environmental, fuel, water, and technological constraints. The model was developed to allow state policymakers to assess the uranium industry from various standpoints. Through the use of the model, state policymakers can determine the effects of air and water discharge standards and limited capital availability on: milling costs of production; uses of electricity, fuel, and water; and levels of air and water emissions. The model covers the following: process technologies which are acid leach and carbonate leach; raw materials mix; air and water discharges; residual treatment process; and plant types

  7. Improved oral bioavailability of probucol by dry media-milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Meihui; Xu, Hui; Ma, Junyuan; Wang, Shaoning

    2017-09-01

    The polymer/probucol co-milled mixtures were prepared to improve drug dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Probucol, a BCS II drug, was co-milled together with Copovidone (Kollidon VA64, VA64), Soluplus, or MCC using the dry media-milling process with planetary ball-milling equipment. The properties of the milled mixtures including morphology, crystal form, vitro drug dissolution and in vivo oral bioavailability in rats were evaluated. Probucol existed as an amorphous in the matrix of the co-milled mixtures containing VA64, which helped to enhance drug dissolution. The ternary mixture composed of VA64, RH40, and probucol showed increased dissolution rates in both sink and non-sink conditions. It also had a higher oral bioavailability compared to the reference formulation. Dry-media milling of binary or ternary mixtures composed of drug, polymer and surfactant possibly have wide applications to improve dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unravelling the relationship between degree of disorder and the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Laaksonen, Timo; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Milling is an attractive method to prepare amorphous formulations as it does not require the use of solvents and is suitable for thermolabile drugs. One of the key critical quality attributes of milled amorphous formulations is their dissolution behavior. However, there are limited studies...... that have investigated the relationship between degree of disorder induced by milling and dissolution behavior. The main aim of this study was to identify the analytical technique used to characterize degree of disorder that correlates best with the recrystallization behavior during dissolution of milled...... glibenclamide samples. Solid state and surface changes during dissolution of milled glibenclamide samples were monitored in order to elucidate the processes that influence the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide samples. Glibenclamide was ball milled for different durations and analyzed using X...

  9. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to cer...

  10. Structural and Magnetic Properties Evolution of Co-Nd Substituted M-type Hexagonal Strontium Ferrites Synthesized by Ball-Milling-Assisted Ceramic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Wenwei; Zhou, Chong; Zhou, Shifang; Li, Miaoyu; Ning, Yu

    2018-03-01

    M-type hexagonal Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) has been synthesized by ball milling, followed by calcination in air. The calcined products have been characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra, and vibrating sample magnetometry. XRD and SEM analyses confirm the formation of M-type Sr hexaferrite with platelet-like morphology when Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) precursors are calcined at 950°C in air for 2.5 h. Lattice parameters " a" and " c" values of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 reflect a very small variation after doping of Nd3+ and Co2+ ions. Average crystallite size of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 sample, calcined at 1150°C, decreased obviously after doping of Co2+ and Nd3+ ions. This is because the bond energy of Nd3+-O2- is much larger than that of Sr2+-O2-. Magnetic characterization indicates that all the samples exhibit good magnetic properties. Substitution of Sr2+ and Fe3+ ions by Nd3+ and Co2+ ions can improve the specific saturation magnetizations and remanence of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19. Sr0.84Co0.16Nd0.16Fe11.84O19, calcined at 1050°C, has the highest specific saturation magnetization value (74.75 ± 0.60 emu/g), remanence (45.15 ± 0.32 emu/g), and magnetic moment (14.34 ± 0.11 μ B); SrFe12O19, calcined at 1150°C, has the highest coercivity value (4037.01 ± 42.39 Oe). These magnetic parameters make this material a promising candidate for applications such as high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorbing materials.

  11. Record critical current densities in IG processed bulk YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} fabricated using ball-milled Y{sub 2}Ba{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}O{sub 5} phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, Miryala; Kenta, Nakazato; Murakami, Masato [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Zeng, XianLin; Koblischka, Michael R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany); Diko, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Physics, Material Physics Laboratory, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2016-02-15

    The infiltration-growth (IG) technique enables the uniform and controllable Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) secondary phase particles formation within the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Y123) matrix. Recent results clarified that the flux pinning performance of the Y123 material was dramatically improved by optimizing the processing conditions during the IG process. In this paper, we adapted the IG technique and produced several samples with addition of nanometer-sized Y211 secondary phase particles, which were produced by a ball milling technique. We found that the performance of the IG processed Y123 material dramatically improved in the low field region for a ball milling time of 12 h as compared to the samples without a ball milling step. Magnetization measurements showed a sharp superconducting transition with an onset T{sub c} at around 92 K. The critical current density (J{sub c}) at 77 K and zero field was determined to be 224 022 Acm{sup -2}, which is higher than the not ball-milled sample. Furthermore, microstructural observations exhibited a uniform microstructure with homogenous distribution of nanosized Y-211 inclusions within the Y-123 matrix. The improved performance of the Y-123 material can be understood in terms of fine distribution of the secondary phases. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  13. A proposal of a Planning Strategy in Order to Improve in the Production Process at the UEB Sugar Mill “Paquito Rosales”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Guillermo Pellicer-Durán

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research constitutes a part of the universitary project entitled “An attempt to improve the food production processes at some Unidades Empresariales de Base (UEB in the Santiago de Cuba´s province. This study is carried out inside the process that is taking place in order to redesign the Cuban sugar industry.This research work aims to suggest a strategy to increase the sugar of cane production levels taking into account some problems that are related to planning in the sugar production process. This is well represented through an strategic analysis that leads to the collection , processing and analysis of the primary information.These actions have an influence on the increase of the output base 96 in a 12 % and the growing of the recovery levels in 89,14 %. It is also estimated that the production rises on a 16,6 %.

  14. Comparative Study by MS and XRD of Fe50Al50 Alloys Produced by Mechanical Alloying, Using Different Ball Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Martinez, Y.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Bustos Rodriguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we report a comparative study of the magnetic and structural properties of Fe 50 Al 50 alloys produced by mechanical alloying using two different planetary ball mills with the same ball mass to powder mass relation. The Fe 50 Al 50 sample milled during 48 h using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 5 and balls of 20 mm, presents only a bcc alloy phase with a majority of paramagnetic sites, whereas that sample milled during the same time using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 7 with balls of 15 mm, presents a bcc alloy phase with paramagnetic site (doublet) and a majority of ferromagnetic sites which include pure Fe. However for 72 h of milling this sample presents a bcc paramagnetic phase, very similar to that prepared with the first system during 48 h. These results show that the conditions used in the first ball mill equipment make more efficient the milling process.

  15. Efek Waktu Wet Milling dan Suhu Annealing Terhadap Sifat Fisis, Mikrostruktur dan Magnet dari Flakes NdFeB

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Wahyu Solafide

    2015-01-01

    Had made research manufacture NdFeB magnets of flakes of wet milling process using a ball mill to the physic properties, microstructure, and magnetic properties with variations milling time is 16 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours. Powder result of mechanical milling using a ball mill and then analyzed the resulting particle size by using PSA and XRD. Then do the manufacture of test samples in the form of pellets by compaction process through print isotropy. Having obtained a sample of pelle...

  16. Activity of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in and around flour mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, C W; Phillips, T W

    2000-12-01

    Studies were conducted at two flour mills where male Indian meal moths, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were captured using pheromone-baited traps. Objectives were to determine the distribution of male P. interpunctella at different locations in and around the mills throughout the season, and to monitor moth activity before and after one of the mills was fumigated with methyl bromide to assess efficacy of treatment. Commercially available sticky traps baited with the P. interpunctella sex pheromone were placed at various locations outside and within the larger of the two mills (mill 1). Moths were captured inside mill 1 after methyl bromide fumigations. The highest numbers of P. interpunctella were caught outside the facility and at ground floor locations near outside openings. Additional traps placed in the rooms above the concrete stored-wheat silos at mill 1 during the second year captured more moths than did traps within the mill's production and warehouse areas. In another study, moths were trapped at various distances from a smaller flour mill (mill 2) to determine the distribution of moths outdoors relative to the mill. There was a negative correlation between moth capture and distance from the facility, which suggested that moth activity was concentrated at or near the flour mill. The effectiveness of the methyl bromide fumigations in suppressing moth populations could not be assessed with certainty because moths captured after fumigation may have immigrated from outside through opened loading bay warehouse doors. This study documents high levels of P. interpunctella outdoors relative to those recorded inside a food processing facility. Potential for immigration of P. interpunctella into flour mills and other stored product facilities from other sources may be greater than previously recognized. Moth entry into a food processing facility after fumigation is a problem that should be addressed by pest managers.

  17. Phase transition of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy powders prepared by vibration ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, B.; Chen, F.; Tong, Y.X.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The vibration ball milling with a high milling energy introduces the atomic disorder and large lattice distortion in the alloy during milling and makes the formation of disordered fcc structure phase in the alloy. → The transition temperature and activation energy for disordered fcc → disordered bcc are ∼320 o C and 209 ± 8 kJ/mol, respectively. → The alloy powders annealed at 800 o C for 1 h show a one-stage martensitic transformation with quite lower latent heat compared to the bulk alloy. - Abstract: This study investigated the phase transformation of the flaky shaped Ni-Mn-Ga powder particles with thickness around 1 μm prepared by vibration ball milling and post-annealing. The SEM, XRD, DSC and ac magnetic susceptibility measurement techniques were used to characterize the Ni-Mn-Ga powders. The structural transition of Heusler → disordered fcc occurred in the powders prepared by vibration ball milling (high milling energy) for 4 h, which was different from the structural transition of Heusler → disordered fct of the powders fabricated by planetary ball milling (low milling energy) for 4 h. The two different structures after ball milling should be due to the larger lattice distortion occurred in the vibration ball milling process than in the planetary ball milling process. The structural transition of disordered fcc → disordered bcc took place at ∼320 o C during heating the as-milled Ni-Mn-Ga powders, which was attributed to the elimination of lattice distortion caused by ball milling. The activation energy for this transition was 209 ± 8 kJ/mol. The Ni-Mn-Ga powder annealed at 800 o C mainly contained Heusler austenite phase at room temperature and showed a low volume of martensitic transformation upon cooling. The inhibition of martensitic transformation might be attributed to the reduction of grain size in the annealed Ni-Mn-Ga particles.

  18. Power Spectral Density Evaluation of Laser Milled Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul-Amadeus Lorbeer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ablating surfaces with a pulsed laser system in milling processes often leads to surface changes depending on the milling depth. Especially if a constant surface roughness and evenness is essential to the process, structural degradation may advance until the process fails. The process investigated is the generation of precise thrust by laser ablation. Here, it is essential to predict or rather control the evolution of the surfaces roughness. Laser ablative milling with a short pulse laser system in vacuum (≈1 Pa were performed over depths of several 10 µm documenting the evolution of surface roughness and unevenness with a white light interference microscope. Power spectral density analysis of the generated surface data reveals a strong influence of the crystalline structure of the solid. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate that this effect could be suppressed for gold.

  19. Effects of processing parameters on the synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders by reactive high-energy ball milling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Van

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ball milling parameters, namely, the ball-to-powder mass ratio and milling speed, on the synthesis of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders by high-energy ball milling method from a stoichiometric mixture containing Na2CO3, K2CO3, and Nb2O5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the single crystalline phase of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 was received in as-milled samples synthesized using optimized ball-to-powder mass ratio of 35 : 1 and at a milling speed of 600 rpm for 5 h. In the optimized as-milled samples, no remaining alkali carbonates that can provide the volatilizable potassium-containing species were found and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders were readily obtained via the formation of an intermediate carbonato complex. This complex was mostly transformed into (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 at temperature as low as 350°C and its existence was no longer detected at spectroscopic level when calcination temperature crossed over 700°C.

  20. Radiation hazards of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1975-09-01

    This paper examines each of the radiological problems that arise in these processes and explains their scientific background. The major operational requirement is to ensure that exposure of miners over their working lives to radon and its daughter products does not lead to an unacceptable increase in their chance of contracting lung cancer. Studies on the incidence of lung cancer amongst underground uranium miners indicate that this risk will be small if lifetime exposures are kept below about 120 'working level months', even amongst underground miners who smoke cigarettes. The risk is much smaller again for miners who do not smoke cigarettes. Other hazards that must be controlled are exposure of miners and mill workers to external radiation and to dusts containing long-lived radioactive alpha emitting isotopes. Finally, the solid waste products from the mill (the tailings) which contain most of the naturally occurring radioactivity, must be properly impounded and after closure of the mill, stabilized to ensure long-term containment. Access by the public to the stabilized tailings must be controlled and habitation within the controlled area prohibited. (author)

  1. Ball Milling Treatment of Black Dross for Selective Dissolution of Alumina in Sodium Hydroxide Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Thuy Nhi Nguyen; Man Seung Lee; Thi Hong Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    A process consisting of ball milling followed by NaOH leaching was developed to selectively dissolve alumina from black dross. From the ball milling treatment, it was found that milling speed greatly affected the leaching behavior of silica and the oxides of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti present in dross. The leaching behavior of the mechanically activated dross was investigated by varying NaOH concentration, leaching temperature and time, and pulp density. In most of the leaching conditions, only alumi...

  2. Influence of the milling time in the microstructural parameters of TA2O5-Al powder refined by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, R.A.; Mendes, M.W.D.; Alves Junior, C.; Costa, F.A. da; Gomes, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is a solid-state powder processing technique involving repeated welding, fracturing, and re-welding of powder particles in a high energy mill. This process is used for producing of fine powders containing unique microstructures. The process starts with mixing of the powders in the desired proportion. Then, the mixture is milled using the established time in the high-energy mill. The powder particles are submitted to repeated cycles of cold working and fracture, and the final product correspond to a composite powder, containing characteristics different of the initial constituents. Ta 2 O 5 -Al powders were milled in a planetary ball mill for different times in order to evaluate the influence of the milling time in their microstructural parameters like crystallite size and micro deformation. The microstructural parameters were obtained by the Rietveld Method. The results showed that the microstructural parameters were influenced by the increase of the milling time. (author)

  3. Cleaning up commingled uranium mill tailings: is Federal assistance necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    GAO was asked to determine whether Federal assistance should be given to operating mill owners that have processed uranium for sale to both government and industry and, thus, generated residual radioactive wastes. The wastes generated for both government and commercial use are called commingled uranium mill tailings. GAO recommends that the Congress provide assistance to active mill owners to share in the cost of cleaning up that portion of the tailings which were produced under Federal contract. Further, GAO believes that the Congress should also consider having the Federal government assist those mills who acted in good faith in meeting all legal requirements pertaining to controlling the mill tailings that were generated for commercial purposes and for which the Federal government is now requiring retroactive remedial action. At the same time, the Congress should make sure that this action establishes no precedent for the Federal government assuming the financial responsibility of cleaning up other non-Federal nuclear facilities and wastes, including those mill tailings generated after the date when the Federal government notified industry that the failings should be controlled

  4. Assessing green-processing technologies for wet milling freshly hulled and germinated brown rice, leading to naturally fortified plant-based beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice milk beverages can well balanced nutrition. With healthier nutrition in consumer’s minds, national. Worldwide consumption/production of plant-based milk beverages are increasing. Much past research and invention was based on enzymatic conversion processes for starch that were uncomplicated be...

  5. Effect of process control agent on the structural and magnetic properties of nano/amorphous Fe0.7Nb0.1Zr0.1Ti0.1 powders prepared by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei Feizabad, Mohammad Hossein; Sharafi, Shahriar; Khayati, Gholam Reza; Ranjbar, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    In this study, amorphous Fe0.7Nb0.1Zr0.1Ti0.1 alloy without metalloids was produced by mechanical alloying of pure mixture elements. Miedema's semi-empirical model was employed to predict the possibility of amorphous phase formation in proposed alloying system. The effect of Hexane as process control agent (PCA) on the structural, magnetic, morphological and thermal properties of the products was investigated. The results showed that the presence of PCA was necessary for the formation of amorphous phase as well as improved its soft magnetic properties. The PCA addition causes an increase of the saturation magnetization (about 43%) and decrease of the coercivity (about 50%). Moreover, the sample milled without PCA, showed a wide particle size distribution as well as relatively spherical geometry. While, in the presence of PCA the powders were aspherical and Polygon. In addition, the crystallization and Curie temperatures were found to be around 800 °C and 650 °C, respectively which are relatively high values for these kinds of alloys.

  6. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  7. Completion of the uranium mill tailings remedial project and cleanup of the former mill site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rael, G.J.; Cox, S.W.; Artiglia, E.W.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project has successfully completed the cleanup of 22 former uranium mill sites, more than 5400 vicinity properties, and has constructed 18 entombment cells. The Project has recently received the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's approval and certification for the last two disposal sites, with these sites being placed under the general license for long term custodial care of residual radioactive material. The UMTRA site located at Grand Junction, Colorado is a good example of the technical, political, economic, and public relations challenges that were overcome in achieving success. The UMTRA Team discussed, negotiated, planned, and eventually acted on this uranium mill tailings problem and brought the project to a successful conclusion for the community. From the early 1940s through the 1970s, uranium ore was mined in significant quantities under United States federal contracts for the government's national defence programmes, i.e. the Manhattan Engineering District and Atomic Energy Commission programmes. The problem started as the need for uranium decreased in the late 1960s, resulting in mills shutting down, leaving behind large quantities of process waste tailings and contaminated mill buildings. The former Climax Uranium Company mill site in Grand Junction was one of the largest of these sites. (author)

  8. Ventomod: a dynamic model for leaf to fruit transfer of radionuclides in processing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) following a direct contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Strebl, F.; Carini, F.; Gerzabek, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results on the calibration and validation of a model (Ventomod) for leaf to fruit transfer of 134 Cs, 85 Sr and 65 Zn in processing tomato plants after leaf contamination. Several models (e.g FARMLAND) that deal specifically with the transfer of radionuclides to fruits are adaptations of models that were developed for agricultural crops such as leafy green vegetables. 'Ventomod' represents a dynamic evaluation model exclusively built for the short-term behaviour of radionuclide depositions. It forecasts the level of radionuclide contamination in ripe processing tomato fruits following an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. A validation of the developed model by data sets from an independent experiment showed that the model successfully reproduced the observed radionuclide distribution and dynamics in tomato fruits. The level of uncertainty was within the normal range of similar assessment models. Fo a more general use of this model further testing with independent data sets from experiments obtained under different environmental conditions and data from other horticulturally important plant species would be desirable

  9. Flaking behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel and copper powder during mechanical milling in liquid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xiao; Zeng Zigao; Zhao Zhongwei; Xiao Songwen

    2008-01-01

    To prepare metal flakes with a high flaking level and investigate the microstructure of metal flakes, nickel and copper powder were mechanically milled in liquid environment and the microstructure of powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The milling process can be divided into flaking and broken stages. At the flaking stage, milled metal powders exhibited high flaking level and flaky microshape, and became preferred orientation. While at the broken stage, the milled powders presented a low flaking level and irregular microshape, and was not preferred orientation any longer. The grain size, microstrain and dislocation density along direction varied with milling time differently from that along direction. The flaking level of the milled powders was related to the preferred orientation, and more closely to the deformation mechanism. We can strengthen the formation of preferred orientation to obtain metal powders with a high flaking level

  10. Flaking behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel and copper powder during mechanical milling in liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiao [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012, Hunan (China); Zeng Zigao [Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012, Hunan (China); Zhao Zhongwei [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Xiao Songwen [Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha 410012, Hunan (China)], E-mail: swinxiao@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-02-25

    To prepare metal flakes with a high flaking level and investigate the microstructure of metal flakes, nickel and copper powder were mechanically milled in liquid environment and the microstructure of powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The milling process can be divided into flaking and broken stages. At the flaking stage, milled metal powders exhibited high flaking level and flaky microshape, and <2 0 0> became preferred orientation. While at the broken stage, the milled powders presented a low flaking level and irregular microshape, and <2 0 0> was not preferred orientation any longer. The grain size, microstrain and dislocation density along <2 0 0> direction varied with milling time differently from that along <1 1 1> direction. The flaking level of the milled powders was related to the <2 0 0> preferred orientation, and more closely to the deformation mechanism. We can strengthen the formation of <2 0 0> preferred orientation to obtain metal powders with a high flaking level.

  11. Effect of high-energy ball milling in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Leonel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the process of high-energy ball milling it is possible to obtain solid materials with higher surface area and different particle sizes. These characteristics are very important for some application such as adsorption. Besides, applications of some clays depend on the functionalization which, for kaolinite, takes place in the aluminol groups. Modification in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite by high-energy milling can improve functionalization of kaolinite due to the exposure of aluminol groups. In this work studies were done on the influence of high-energy ball milling on the morphological properties of kaolinite, taking into account parameters such as filling of the miller, number of balls and amount of mass to be milled. Moreover, studies involving milling kinetics of purified kaolinite were carried out to verify modification in the morphology of kaolinite with milling time.

  12. Planificación del proceso de fresado de una pieza compleja utilizando una máquina herramienta virtual//Milling process planning of a complex workpiece using a virtual machine tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge‐Andrés García‐Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó y se fabricó exitosamente una pieza experimental compleja compuesta de superficies con curvatura cero, positiva y negativa. Se planificó y se ejecutó el proceso de fabricación por maquinado usando el proceso de fresado con herramientas de punta esférica en un centro de maquinado vertical equipado con un cuarto eje de rotación externo. Para la planificación, simulación y verificación del proceso se desarrolló un modelo virtual de la máquina herramienta disponible y sus accesorios en un sistema comercial de maquinado asistido por computador. Se implementó el montaje virtual del sistema de manufactura con el que se verificó y se ajustó el proceso hasta observar un buen desempeño. Se comprobaron así las ventajas de utilizar los recientes métodos virtuales ofrecidos por varios sistemas de maquinado asistido por computador para la simulación del proceso, especialmente cuando se trata de componentes complejos procesados en máquinas herramienta de más de tres ejes.Palabras claves: máquinas herramienta virtuales, planificación de procesos, maquinado de piezas complejas, simulación y verificación de procesos, maquinado multiejes.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractWe designed and successfully manufactured a complex experimental piece composed of surfaces with zero, positive and negative curvatures. We planned and executed the machining manufacturing process by using milling process with end ball nose tools on a vertical machining center equipped with a fourth external rotational axis. For planning, simulation and verification of the machiningprocess, we developed a virtual model of the machine tool and its accessories in a commercial system for computer aided machining. By mounting the virtual manufacturing system, we verified the process and adjusted it until observe a good performance. We tested and confirmed the advantages of using the recent virtual methods for

  13. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  14. Training manual for uranium mill workers on health protection from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, N.; Brodsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report provides information for uranium mill workers to help them understand the radiation safety aspects of working with uranium as it is processed from ore to yellowcake at the mills. The report is designed to supplement the radiation safety training provided by uranium mills to their workers. It is written in an easily readable style so that new employees with no previous experience working with uranium or radiation can obtain a basic understanding of the nature of radiation and the particular safety requirements of working with uranium. The report should be helpful to mill operators by providing training material to support their radiation safety training programs

  15. Towards the effective tool wear control in micro-EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Valentincic, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    The electrode wear in micro-electrical discharge milling (micro-EDM milling) is one of the main problems to be solved in order to improve machining accuracy. This paper presents an investigation on wear and material removal in micro-EDM milling for selected process parameter combinations typical...... of the accuracy of volume measurements on the electrode wear per discharge and on the material removal per discharge are discussed, and the issues limiting the applicability of real time wear sensing in micro-EDM milling are presented....

  16. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, A.J.; Franz, G.A.; Gamewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  17. Mill in Yin ing mine: developments and new technology application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangbiao; Liu Zhicheng

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the developments and new technology application of mill in Yining Mine, concretely evaluates the characters and effects employed three kinds of technological process, and considers that there are many advantages and features in the process No.3. It's technology is integrity, practical and worth recommending

  18. High Speed Milling : By using STL-Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the wide application of Layered Manufacturing Technologies like Fused Deposition Modelling, Layered Object Manufacturing etc. in the product development processes, milling is stili necessary. This is a result of the fact that Layered Manufacturing processes have some limitations in for

  19. High-energy ball milling of powder B-C mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Alfeu S.; Taguchi, Simone P.; Ramos, Erika C.T.; Arantes, Vera L.; Ribeiro, Sebastiao

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports on the preparation of B-10 at.% C and B-18 at.% C powders by high-energy ball milling and further heat treatment. The milling process was carried out in a planetary ball mill. Following the milling process, powder samples were heat-treated at 1200 deg. C for 4 h using inert atmosphere. The milled and heat-treated B-10C and B-18C powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. A reduction on the intensity of B and C peaks was noticed after milling for 2 h, probably due the fine powder particle sizes because the pronounced fracture mechanism during ball milling of brittle starting components. The XRD patterns of B-10C and B-18C powders milled for 6 h indicated the presence of other peaks, suggesting that a metastable structure could have been formed. After milling for 90 h, these unknown peaks were still present. A large amount of B 4 C was formed after heat treatment at 1200 deg. C for 4 h beside these unknown peaks

  20. Low Thermal Conductivity of Bulk Amorphous Si1- x Ge x Containing Nano-Sized Crystalline Particles Synthesized by Ball-Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Omprakash; Nishino, Shunsuke; Ghodke, Swapnil; Inukai, Manabu; Sobota, Robert; Adachi, Masahiro; Kiyama, Makato; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro; Santhanakrishnan, Harish; Ikeda, Hiroya; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Si0.65Ge0.35 powder containing a small amount of nano-sized crystalline particles was synthesized by means of the mechanical alloying process. Hot pressing for 24 h under the pressure of 400 MPa at 823 K, which is below the crystallization temperature, allowed us to obtain bulk amorphous Si-Ge alloy containing a small amount of nanocrystals. The thermal conductivity of the prepared bulk amorphous Si-Ge alloy was extremely low, showing a magnitude of less than 1.35 Wm-1 K-1 over the entire temperature range from 300 K to 700 K. The sound velocity of longitudinal and transverse waves for the bulk amorphous Si0.65Ge0.35 were measured, and the resulting values were 5841 m/s and 2840 m/s, respectively. The estimated mean free path of phonons was kept at the very small value of ˜ 4.2 nm, which was mainly due to the strong scattering limit of phonons in association with the amorphous structure.

  1. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  2. The yang mills gravity dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick

    2003-01-01

    We describe a ten dimensional supergravity geometry which is dual to a gauge theory that is non-supersymmetric Yang Mills in the infra-red but reverts to N=4 super Yang Mills in the ultra-violet. A brane probe of the geometry shows that the scalar potential of the gauge theory is stable. We discuss the infra-red behaviour of the solution. The geometry describes a Schroedinger equation potential that determines the glueball spectrum of the theory; there is a mass gap and a discrete spectrum. The glueball mass predictions match previous AdS/CFT Correspondence computations in the non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, and lattice data, at the 10% level. (author)

  3. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  4. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  5. Technological system self-tuning when milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the dynamics of the technological system during the milling of complex parts and the investigations of possibility in efficiency increase of a cutting process at the expense of conditions creation for a system self-tuning at which a general level of oscillations will not decrease in it. This can be achieved with a special damping device located on the machine screw gears supports. In this case, if the period of the wave on the cutting surface does not coincide with the period of natural oscillations, then there will be no resonance, and the level of oscillations will be much smaller.

  6. Nano-sized crystalline drug production by milling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Ueda, Keisuke; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Nano-formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs has been developed to enhance drug dissolution. In this review, we introduce nano-milling technology described in recently published papers. Factors affecting the size of drug crystals are compared based on the preparation methods and drug and excipient types. A top-down approach using the comminution process is a method conventionally used to prepare crystalline drug nanoparticles. Wet milling using media is well studied and several wet-milled drug formulations are now on the market. Several trials on drug nanosuspension preparation using different apparatuses, materials, and conditions have been reported. Wet milling using a high-pressure homogenizer is another alternative to preparing production-scale drug nanosuspensions. Dry milling is a simple method of preparing a solid-state drug nano-formulation. The effect of size on the dissolution of a drug from nanoparticles is an area of fundamental research, but it is sometimes incorrectly evaluated. Here, we discuss evaluation procedures and the associated problems. Lastly, the importance of quality control, process optimization, and physicochemical characterization are briefly discussed.

  7. Uranium ore mill at Dolni Rozinka: 40 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, F.; Jezova, V.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium ore mined in the Rozna deposit is treated at a chemical treatment plant (a mill) situated in the close vicinity of the Rozna mine. In the mill, uranium is extracted from the crushed and ground-up ore by alkaline leaching. Uranium is then recovered from the solution by sorption on ion exchange resin; the next steps are precipitation and drying. Alkaline leaching is applied at the atmospheric pressure and the temperature of 80 deg C; the recovery factor is moving around 93%. The final product of the milling is uranium concentrate, ammonium diuranate (NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 ), a so-called 'yellow cake' which is treated into a fuel for nuclear power plants in conversion facilities abroad. The milling is carried on under the condition of the closed cycle of technology water. Due to the positive annual precipitation balance, the over balance of technology water in tailings pond has to be purified before discharging into a river. Evaporation and membrane processes (electrodialysis and reverse osmosis) are used to purify the water. The mill at Dolni Rozinka has been in operation since 1968. It has processed 13.2 million tons of uranium ore which is about 14000 tons of uranium and purified more than 6 million m 3 of the over balanced technology water during 40 years. From the organizational point of view, the mine and the chemical treatment plant form the branch plant GEAM, which is a part of the state enterprise DIAMO. (author)

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of ball milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic evolution in copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) caused by high-energy ball milling are investigated by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Initially, the milling process reduces the average grain size of CuFe2O4 to about 6 nm and induces....... The canted spin configuration is also suggested by the observed reduction in magnetization of particles in the blocked state. Upon increasing the milling time, nanometer-sized CuFe2O4 particles decompose, forming alpha-Fe2O3 and other phases, causing a further decrease of magnetization. After a milling time...... of 98 h, alpha-Fe2O3 is reduced to Fe3O4, and magnetization increases accordingly to the higher saturation magnetization value of magnetite. Three sequential processes during high-energy ball milling are established: (a) the synthesis of partially inverted CuFe2O4 particles with a noncollinear spin...

  9. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  10. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  11. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  12. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  13. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...

  14. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  15. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  16. Facile synthesis technology of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C adding H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in ball mill process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Xiujuan [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China); Mu, Deying [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150076 (China); Li, Ruhong [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai, Changsong, E-mail: changsd@hit.edu.cn [MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Sintering time of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} reduced to 6 hours by adding hydrogen peroxide. • Electrochemical performance of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} was improved by reducing sintering time. • The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} production process was simplified during material synthesis stage. - Abstract: Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C has stable structure, high theory specific capacity and good safety performance, therefore it has become the research focus of lithium-ion batteries in recent years. The facile synthesis technology of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C was characterized by adding different amounts of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Structure and morphology characteristics were examined by XRD, TG, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM. Electrochemical performance was investigated by constant current charging and discharging test. The results revealed that the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C electrochemical performance of adding 15 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was better after sintering during 6 h. At the charge cut-off voltage of 4.3 V, the first discharge capacity at 0.2 C rate reached 127 mAh g{sup −1}. Because of adding H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the ball-mill dispersant, the vanadium pentoxide formed the wet sol. The molecular-leveled mixture increased the homogeneity of raw materials. Therefore, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} shortened the sintering time and significantly improved the electrochemical performance of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C.

  17. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration By application dated July 22... regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North...

  18. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  19. Effect of Milling Condition on the Microstructure and the Properties of Nano structured Copper Tungsten Carbide Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahani Yusoff; Zuhailawati Hussain

    2011-01-01

    In this work, in-situ Cu-WC composite has been fabricated by high energy milling followed by sintering. Cu, W and C mixture were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill for 40 h at various milling speeds. Cu-W-C composite powders were cold compacted and sintered in argon ambient. Milled powder and sintered Cu-W-C composite were characterized in terms of Xray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and its properties. The result showed that carbide phases are only detected after sintering process. Greater amount of grain refinement during milling generates very high internal strain which reduced Cu crystallite size. It was found that formation of metastable, W 2 C has taken place before the formation of WC. With the presence of WC, the composite become increasingly harden with the increased of milling speed. Increasing milling speed also found to lower the electrical conductivity. (author)

  20. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  1. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  2. Discrete element method based scale-up model for material synthesis using ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Priya Radhi

    Mechanical milling is a widely used technique for powder processing in various areas. In this work, a scale-up model for describing this ball milling process is developed. The thesis is a combination of experimental and modeling efforts. Initially, Discrete Element Model (DEM) is used to describe energy transfer from milling tools to the milled powder for shaker, planetary, and attritor mills. The rolling and static friction coefficients are determined experimentally. Computations predict a quasisteady rate of energy dissipation, E d, for each experimental configuration. It is proposed that the milling dose defined as a product of Ed and milling time, t, divided by the mass of milled powder, mp characterizes the milling progress independently of the milling device or milling conditions used. Once the milling dose is determined for one experimental configuration, it can be used to predict the milling time required to prepare the same material in any milling configuration, for which Ed is calculated. The concept is validated experimentally for DEM describing planetary and shaker mills. For attritor, the predicted Ed includes substantial contribution from milling tool interaction events with abnormally high forces (>103 N). The energy in such events is likely dissipated to heat or plastically deform milling tools rather than refine material. Indeed, DEM predictions for the attritor correlate with experiments when such events are ignored in the analysis. With an objective of obtaining real-time indicators of milling progress, power, torque, and rotation speed of the impeller of an attritor mill are measured during preparation of metal matrix composite powders in the subsequent portion of this thesis. Two material systems are selected and comparisons made between in-situ parameters and experimental milling progress indicators. It is established that real-time measurements can certainly be used to describe milling progress. However, they need to be interpreted carefully

  3. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  4. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  5. Massive Yang-Mills fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Reiff, J.

    1969-01-01

    Two problems are studied in the paper: (i) the relation between Lagrangian and Feynman rules if the Lagrangian contains derivative couplings and/or vector meson fields and (ii) the behaviour of certain two closed loop diagrams in the perturbation theory of Yang-Mills fields. With respect to ( i ) .

  6. The distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides from ores processing to the environment - a case study of milling and treatment of ores for gold in Golden Star Resources of Bogoso Prestea Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbadago, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    and Cd exceeded world permissible levels for industrial and mining lands. The estimated enrichment factor obtained suggested that the mines premises and critical group's soil are enriched with toxic elements Sn, Ba, Co, Cr, As, Hg, Sb and Cd. The average radionuclide series activity concentrations in the de-silted sediments of the run-off for 40 K, 238 U- and 232 Th-series were found to be higher than the operational tailing storage facilities. Relatively high concentrations of Ba, Cr and K in the sediments were also observed. This was an indication that the radionuclides and heavy metals are accumulating along the path of the run-off. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent, external and internal hazard indices estimated for the de-silted sediments which were likely to be used as building materials were found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. Generally, the environmental impact of radionuclides distributed is expected to be low in this mining environment. The study showed that in the milling and processing of ores, both physical and chemical processing stages enhanced radionuclides and heavy metals but the enhancement was more significant in multiple chemical processing stages. However, the magnitude of enhancement depended on the total quality control of the process and ore grades used. (au)

  7. Preparation of tungsten-iron carbide by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.M.; Campbell, S.J.; Calka, A.; Kaczmarek, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Several sets of elemental powder mixtures of Fe-W-C (W 46 Fe 46 C 8 , W 60 Fe 20 C 20 and W 34 Fe 33 C 33 ) were ball milled using Uni-Ball mill for periods of up to 550 h in vacuum with a ball - to - powder ratio of about 35:1. Depending on the milling time, the main component of the as-milled materials was found to be solid solutions of Fe-W-C or Fe-C. Ternary phase W 3 Fe 3 C was obtained on annealing the as-milled materials at about 700 deg C. This product was then found to transfer to (FeW) 6 C on heat treatment at about 800 deg C. The resultant products of the annealing processes were found to depend not only on the annealing temperature, but also the starting composition, especially the initial carbon concentration. Detailed information on the structural and phase evolution during thermal treatment as measured using x-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and thermal analysis is presented. Special interest is focused on the competition for formation in this system between the Fe-C, W-Fe and W-C phases

  8. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  9. Researches regarding the reducing of burr size by optimising the cutting parameters on a CNC milling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biriş Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some experimental researches regarding burrs dimensions reduction that appear after the milling process together with an approach to reduce or eliminate the burrs resulted after this process. In order to reduce burrs dimensions, the milling process was executed with different cutting parameters and strategies then the results were evaluated.

  10. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  11. Design and development of PCD micro straight edge end mills for micro/nano machining of hard and brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Zhigang; Yamazaki, Kazuo; Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for mechanical micro/nano milling is the design and fabrication of high precision and high efficiency micro milling tools. Commercially available micro milling tools are either too expensive (around several hundred US dollars) or simply made from downsizing of macro milling tools, which is sometimes not appropriate for the specific micro/nano milling requirements. So the design and fabrication of custom micro milling tools are necessary. In this paper, a micro straight edge endmill (SEE) is designed. Static and dynamic FEM analyses have been done for the SEEs with different rake angles trying to identify their stiffness and natural frequencies. By wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), the SEEs made of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) with three different rake angles have been fabricated. The evaluation milling on tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon wafer have processed on a nano milling center. Experimental results show the SEEs have a good ability to simultaneously micro/nano milling of both the side and bottom surfaces with submicron surface roughness, and the SEE has high accuracy for large aspect ratio thin wall machining. The milling experiments on silicon wafer have successfully demonstrated that ductile mode machining was achieved and the coolant played an important role in silicon wafer milling

  12. Challenges of fabricating plasmonic and photonic structures with Neon ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Fiutowski, Jacek; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    -established electron beam lithography and focussed ion beam milling (FIB) using Gallium ions. These techniques, however, are to some extend limited in their resolution, and in addition Gallium and Carbon are implanted and deposited into the plasmonic structures during FIB process, potentially changing plasmonic...... properties. We are currently studying the capabilities of focussed Helium and Neon ion beam milling for the fabricating of plasmonic and photonic devices. We found that Neon ion beam milling enables us to prepare plasmonic structures, such as trenches (see Fig. 1) and V-grooves without doping and alloying...... effects specific to Galium FIB. Neon FIB milling is superior to Helium FIB milling in terms of the processing speed and smaller levels of implanted ions. From our perspective it is the most promising technique for the fabrication of individual plasmonic devices with a few nanometers precision. The main...

  13. Reclamation plans at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term stability of waste impoundments is of concern because of the long time periods over which various types of waste may remain active. Over the past decade much technology has been developed specifically for reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Aspects of this technology will be discussed here and is presented as also being directly applicable to reclamation of industrial waste impoundments in general. The paper discusses Title I and Title II sites which represent two different generations in uranium tailings impoundment construction. The comparison between the two represent differences in philosophies as well as in impoundment type. Reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments in the U.S. is controlled by Federal legislation, which has set forth the regulatory framework for reclamation plan approval. Title I requirements govern government owned inactive sites and Title II requirements govern active tailings impoundments or those operated by private industries. While the Title I and Title II designation may result in a slightly different regulatory process, reclamation of uranium tailings sites has the same. Differences between Title I and Title II reclamation plans to achieve surface stability relate primarily to the embankment and surface covers. The differences in the cover designs result from site-specific conditions, rather than from differences in engineering approaches or the regulatory process. This paper discusses the site-specific conditions that affect the selection of cover designs, and provides a comparative example to illustrate the effect of this condition

  14. Local saw mills save Velky Krtis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    After the Bana Dolina coal mine has received its last state subsidy, the only major employer in the region will be the PRP saw mill. The unemployment rate is very high in the Velky Krtis region over 25%. Several agricultural and food processing companies have gone bankrupt and the Bana Dolina mine today only employs around 200 people. Few new jobs have been created. So far only furniture manufacturers from the Swedish company, Furni Finish, have promised the town they will open a new plant, where they may employ around 150. Another potential investment to be made by a Spanish producer of light components is still under negotiation, stated the mayor of Velky Krtis, Jozef Sauver. Should the Spanish company decide to come to the region, about 100 people could find a job at the former Liaz production halls. Currently, PRP is the largest employer in the region. Over the last 7 years, its owners have invested over 60 mil. Sk (1.58 mil. EUR) in the saw mill. Now they are preparing an 80 mil. Sk (2.10 mil. EUR) investment. The new business would process timber waste that is currently sold to the chipboard producer, Bucina DDD. In the future, the material could be used to produce energy. The town council are considering the construction of a new wood-fired heat plant that would use timber waste bought from PRP. (author)

  15. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  16. Underground Milling of High-Grade Uranium Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C., E-mail: chuck.edwards@amec.com [AMEC Americas Limited, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    There are many safety and technical issues involved in the mining and progressing of high grade uranium ores such as those exploited in Northern Canada at present. With more of this type of mine due to commence production in the near future, operators have been looking at ways to better manage the situation. The paper describes underground milling of high-grade uranium ore as a means of optimising production costs and managing safety issues. In addition the paper presents some examples of possible process flowsheets and plant layouts that could be applicable to such operations. Finally an assessment of potential benefits from underground milling from a variety of viewpoints is provided. (author)

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  18. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  19. Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véha A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg, which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%, our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

  20. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  1. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  2. Stress and accidental defect detection on rolling mill rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzas, J.-D.

    1999-01-01

    During the rolling mill process, rolls are submitted to high pressures that can lead to local decohesion or metallurgical changes. Both these cracks or softened areas must be detected as soon as they appear because of the risk of spalling, marks on the product, and mill wreck. These defects can be detected using the eddy current method, and particularly sensors specially developed for micro-defects detection. These sensors must be adapted to the environment of a roll grinding machine on which they must be installed. Users' schedule of conditions also require them to be attached to a wide range of eddy current generator and automatic computerized interpretation. Mill requirements for new high tech roll grades and quality lead to continuous development and improvement of the tools that will provide immediate 'go - no go' information. This paper is an update of these developments. (author)

  3. YANG-MILLS Theory in, Beyond, and Behind Observed Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    The primary interactions of Yang-Mills theory [1] are visibly embodied in hard processes, most directly in jets. The character of jets also reflects the deep structure of effective charge, which is dominated by the influence of intrinsically non-Abelian gauge dynamics. These proven insights into fundamental physics ramify in many directions, and are far from being exhausted. I will discuss three rewarding explorations from my own experience, whose point of departure is the hard Yang-Mills interaction, and whose end is not yet in sight. Given an insight so profound and fruitful as Yang and Mills brought us, it is in order to try to consider its broadest implications, which I attempt at the end.

  4. Coating of Ultra-Small Micro End Mills: Analysis of Performance and Suitability of Eight Different Hard-Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bohley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the constant need for better functionalized surfaces or smaller, function integrated components, precise and efficient manufacturing processes have to be established. Micro milling with micro end mills is one of the most promising processes for this task as it combines a high geometric flexibility in a wide range of machinable materials with low set-up costs. A downside of this process is the wear of the micro end mills. Due to size effects and the relatively low cutting speed, the cutting edge is especially subjected to massive abrasive wear. One possibility to minimize this wear is coating of micro end mills. This research paper describes the performance of eight different hard coatings for micro end mills with a diameter <40 µm and discusses some properties for the best performing coating type. With this research, it is therefore possible to boost the possibilities of micro milling for the manufacture of next generation products.

  5. Yang-Mills gravity in biconformal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B; Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    We write a gravity theory with Yang-Mills-type action using the biconformal gauging of the conformal group. We show that the resulting biconformal Yang-Mills gravity theories describe 4-dim, scale-invariant general relativity in the case of slowly changing fields. In addition, we systematically extend arbitrary 4-dim Yang-Mills theories to biconformal space, providing a new arena for studying flat-space Yang-Mills theories. By applying the biconformal extension to a 4-dim pure Yang-Mills theory with conformal symmetry, we establish a 1-1, onto mapping between a set of gravitational gauge theories and 4-dim, flat-space gauge theories

  6. Influence of quartz particles on wear in vertical roller mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas R.D.; Friis, Henrik; Fundal, Erling

    2010-01-01

    The standard closed circuit comminution process commonly employed in industrial vertical roller mills has been analyzed to determine the influence of typical abrasive minerals on wear rates. With the main focus on raw mixes used in cement plants, synthetic mixtures imitating were prepared. Using...

  7. Ball-milling-induced crystallization and ball-milling effect on thermal crystallization kinetics in an amorphous FeMoSiB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Lu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure evolution in a melt-spun amorphous Fe 77.2 Mo 0.8 Si 9 B 13 alloy subjected to high-energy ball milling was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that during ball milling, crystallization occurs in the amorphous ribbon sample with precipitation of an α-Fe solid solution, and the amorphous sample crystallizes completely into a single α-Fe nanostructure (rather than α-Fe and borides as in the usual thermal crystallization products) when the milling time exceeds 135 hours. The volume fraction of material crystallized was found to be approximately proportional to the milling time. The fully crystallized sample with a single α-Fe nanophase exhibits an intrinsic thermal stability against phase separation upon annealing at high temperatures. The ball-milling effect on the subsequent thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase in an as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled partially crystallized samples. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies for the crystallization processes of the residual amorphous phase were considerably decreased due to ball milling, indicating that ball milling has a significant effect on the depression of thermal stability of the residual amorphous phase

  8. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–10%Ni alloy obtained by planetary ball mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzaoui, Rabah; Elkedim, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Solid solution formation accompanied by a grain refinement for nanocrystalline Fe-Ni. •The shock mode process (SMP) prevails when Ω > >ω. •The friction mode process (FMP) is stronger when Ω < <ω. •The FMP leads to the formation of alloys exhibiting a soft magnetic behavior. -- Abstract: Planetary ball mill PM 400 from Retsch (with different milling times for Ω = 400 rpm, ω = 800 rpm) and P4 vario ball mill from Fritsch (with different milling conditions (Ω/ω), Ω and ω being the disc and the vial rotation speeds, respectively) are used for obtaining nanocrystalline Fe–10wt% Ni. The structure and magnetic properties are studied by using X-ray diffraction, SEM and hysteresis measurements, respectively. The bcc-Fe(Ni) phase formation is identified by X-ray diffraction. The higher the shock power and the higher milling time are, the larger the bcc lattice parameter and the lower the grain size. The highest value of the coercivity is 1600 A/m for Fe–10 wt.%Ni (with shock mode (424 rpm/100 rpm) after 36 h of milling), while the lowest value is 189 A/m for (400 rpm/800 rpm) after 72 h of milling. The milling performed in the friction mode has been found to lead the formation of alloys exhibiting a soft magnetic behavior for nanocrystalline Fe–10%Ni

  9. Attritor milling of WC + 6% Co: Effects on powder characteristics and compaction behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashl, S.J.; Smith, D.W.; Becking, G.H.; Hale, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the effects of attritor milling on the characteristics and bulk behavior of fine tungsten carbide powders (initial median particle size ≅ 1.5 μm) blended with 6 wt. % cobalt (mps ≅ 1.5 μm). Experiments are performed in order to: Develop a process model relating the specific energy input to the milled median particle size. Examine the effect that changes in milling variables have on the specific energy - median particle size relationship. Observe the effects of variation in the initial particle size distribution on the as-milled particle size distribution, the compaction characteristics of the powder, and the shrinkage which will occur during sintering. The process model is based on Charles' equation, E-bar = A (d/sup -α/ - d/sub o//sup -α/) in which E-bar = the specific energy consumed in milling, d and d = the initial and milled median particle sizes respectively, and A and α are constants. Computer curve fitting techniques are employed to determine the values of the coefficient and exponent in the above equation. The resulting model predicts the experimental data within about +- over 10% over a significant range of d/sub o/ and E-Bar values. The apparent density and compactibility of the attritor milled powders are observed to be very sensitive to the milled particle size distribution

  10. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km 2 . Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h -1 ), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  11. Controlling the number of walls in multi walled carbon nanotubes/alumina hybrid compound via ball milling of precipitate catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosbi, Norlin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Akil, Hazizan Md, E-mail: hazizan@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Cluster for Polymer Composite (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that, to manipulate carbon nanotubes geometry and number of walls are by controlling the precipitate catalyst size. • Number of walls and geometry effects depend on the milling time of the precipitate catalyst. • Increasing milling of time will decrease the carbon nanotubes number of walls. • Increasing milling of time will increase the carbon nanotubes thermal conductivity. - Abstract: This paper reports the influence of milling time on the structure and properties of the precipitate catalyst of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/alumina hybrid compound, produced through the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. For this purpose, light green precipitate consisted of aluminium, nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide mixture was placed in a planetary mill equipped with alumina vials using alumina balls at 300 rpm rotation speed for various milling time (5–15 h) prior to calcinations and CVD process. The compound was characterized using various techniques. Based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis, increasing the milling time up to 15 h decreased the diameter of MWCNT from 32.3 to 13.1 nm. It was noticed that the milling time had a significant effect on MWCNT wall thickness, whereby increasing the milling time from 0 to 15 h reduced the number of walls from 29 to 12. It was also interesting to note that the carbon content increased from 23.29 wt.% to 36.37 wt.% with increasing milling time.

  12. Synthesis of Ni-YSZ cermet for an electrode of high temperature electrolysis by high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.S.; Chae, U.S.; Park, K.M.; Choo, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Ni/YSZ composites for a cathode that can be used in high temperature electrolysis were prepared by ball milling of Ni and YSZ powder. Ball milling was performed in a dry process and in ethanol. The microstructure and electrical conductivity of the composites were examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and a 4-point probe. XRD patterns for both the dry and wet ball-milled powders showed that the composites were composed of crystalline Ni and YSZ particles. The patterns did not change with increases in the milling time up to 48 h. Dry-milling slightly increased the average particle size compared to starting Ni particles, but little change in the particle size was observed with the increase in milling time. On the other hand, the wet-milling reduced the average size and the increasing milling time induced a further decrease in the particle size. After cold-pressing and annealing at 900 C for 2 h, the dry-milled powder exhibited high stability against Ni sintering so that the particle size changed little, but the particle size increased in the wet-milled powder. The electrical conductivity increased after sintering at 900 C. Particles from the dry and wet process became denser and contacted closer after sintering, providing better electron migration paths. (orig.)

  13. Crusher isolation to keep Key Lake mill dust free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, Andy.

    1982-01-01

    About a mile of four-inch pipe will virtually eliminate dust in the mill area of the new Key Lake uranium mine when production begins in the summer of 1983. The ore from the pit will be crushed beside the pit, wetground, and piped as a slurry to the mill, which will be isolated from dust-producing processes. The pipeline will carry about 780 tons per day and will replace about one and half haulage trucks. The mill will be able to extract more than 99 percent of the uranium from the ore, which contains about 2.5 to 2.7 percent uranium. The life span of the mine is planned to be about 20 years, with a production of 12 million pounds of yelloscake a year. There will never be a townsite at Key Lake because personnel are to be flown in for seven days of 11-hour shifts, then fly out for seven days off. The tailings pond under construction is designed for sastes which will soon become dry and solid due to the high gypsum content of the ore. Process water from the mine will be held in one of five ponds for a day and released only after monitoring. An ammonium sulfate crystallization plant on the site will use waste from the uranium precipitation process to make fertilizer. The mine and mill are costing about $500 million to develop and bring into production

  14. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10 -3 cm/s to values approaching 10 -7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10 -8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  15. Semiclassical scattering in Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.M.; Poppitz, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    A classical solution to the Yang-Mills theory is given a semiclassical interpretation. The boundary value problem on a complex time contour which arises from the semiclassical approximation to multiparticle scattering amplitudes is reviewed and applied to the case of Yang-Mills theory. The solution describes a classically forbidden transition between states with a large average number of particles in the limit g→0. It dominates a transition probability with a semiclassical suppression factor equal to twice the action of the well-known BPST instanton. Hence, it is relevant to the problem of high-energy tunnelling. It describes transitions of unit topological charge for an appropriate time contour. Therefore, it may have a direct interpretation in terms of fermion-number violating processes in electroweak theory. The solution describes a transition between an initial state with parametrically fewer particles than the final state. Thus, it may be relevant to the study of semiclassical initial-state corrections in the limit of a small number of initial particles. The implications of these results for multiparticle production in electroweak theory are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Um modelo de referência para o processo de desenvolvimento de produtos de empresas do setor moageiro de trigo A reference model for the products development process for companies in the sector of milling wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Ullmann de Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de referência para o processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP no setor moageiro de trigo. O modelo objetiva facilitar os projetos de novos produtos, avaliando necessidades, requisitos e limitações. Ele pode contribuir para a integração e comunicação entre as áreas funcionais, reduzindo o tempo de desenvolvimento. A estrutura operacional do modelo é composta por três macrofases e oito fases. No término de cada fase, as informações são compiladas em forma de um documento, que deve passar pela avaliação da direção (gate. A aplicação do modelo foi realizada a partir de um plano para sistematizar o PDP de uma empresa. A intervenção para ajustar o modelo à empresa contemplou: análise da situação atual do PDP, proposição de melhorias e aplicação do modelo. Entre os resultados, destaca-se a facilidade de enquadrar as soluções propostas para melhorar o PDP ao modelo referencial, mostrando a exequibilidade do mesmo.This paper presents a reference model for the milling wheat product development process (PDP. The model targets to facilitate the project of new products, evaluating necessities, requirements and limitations. It contributes to integrate and create communication among the functional areas, reducing development times. The operational structure of the model is composed of three macro-phases and eight phases. At the end of each phase, the main information is compiled in document type-form, which must pass by a top management evaluation gate. The application of the reference model was tested from a plan to systematize the PDP of a company. The intervention to adjust the reference model to the company analyzes the actual PDP status, proposition of improvements, and the conduction of such application. Among the results, the facility to apply the proposed solutions to improve the company's PDP using the reference model stand out, showing the practical adequacy of the proposed model.

  17. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  18. Obtaining beta phase in Ti through processing in high energy mill powders of Ti and Nb; Obtencao de fase beta no Ti atraves de processamento em moinho de alta energia de pos de Ti e Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Mateus; Ferretto, Aline; Rocha, Marcio Roberto da; Arnt, Angela Coelho [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Milanez, Alexandre [Faculdade SATC (FASATC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Schaeffer, Lirio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LdTM/UFRGS), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Transformacao Mecanica

    2014-07-01

    An orthopedic implant, ideal, must meet the requirements of biocompatibility, have good mechanical properties among others. Titanium and Niobium exhibit biocompatibility and the β-Ti phase relationships have the highest strength / weight among all titanium alloys, presenting lower values of elastic modulus. The alloy has mechanically produced specific microstructural characteristics and improved mechanical properties compared with conventional powder metallurgy. In this study, a titanium alloy with different additions of niobium was used. The metal powders were mixed via mechanical alloy in high energy mill (attritor). The powder samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and property held by adhesive wear testing with a Pin-on-Disk. The present study revealed that through the high-energy milling is possible the atomic interaction between Ti and Nb particles and the mechanical properties are affected by the concentration of Nb. (author)

  19. The effect of the addition of the elements Ni, Zn and Co in a composite AlTiO2 obtained by high-energy milling and sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.O. de; Coelho, R.E.; Conrado, L.C.; Nascimento, C.S.; Teixeira, C.A.; Mendonca, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    The present work use aluminum scrap with addition of TiO 2 , Ni, Zn or Co to preparation and characterization of nanocomposites. The aluminum were cut and subjected to high energy milling for 2 hours at 1200rpm. The obtained powder was added to TiO 2 , Ni, Zn or Co in a nominal composition 97Al-2TiO 2 -1X (X = Ni, Zn or Co) (weight %) and again, the mixture was subjected to milling for 1 hour at 1000rpm. Grinding powders were hot pressed in the closed die and then removed; the compressed were sintered at 950°C in a tubular furnace N 2 passing atmosphere. The samples obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM images showed a very refined microstructure and an aluminum matrix without porosity. (author)

  20. Properties induced by mechanical milling in the system Sr1-xCaxCuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, E.; Gonzalez-Calbet, J.M.; Alonso, J.; Vallet-Regi, M.; Hernando, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Sr 1-x Ca x CuO 2 system has been prepared by a mechanical milling process. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the orthorhombic structure characteristic of SrCuO 2 is preserved in the compositional range 0≤x≤0.7 but a decreasing of crystallinity is observed as the milling time increases. The substitution of Sr by Ca and the milling time plays an important role on the magnetic properties. A superconducting transition is observed for x=0 and 280 h of milling. For x=0.4, an extraordinarily high value of diamagnetic susceptibility is observed between 450 and 500 h of milling. (orig.)

  1. The structural changes of Y2O3 in ferritic ODS alloys during milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilger, I.; Tegel, M.; Gorley, M.J.; Grant, P.S.; Weißgärber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are usually fabricated via mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation via hot extrusion or hot isostatic pressing. During the individual process steps, a complex evolution of the nanoparticle structure is taking place. Powders with different Y 2 O 3 contents were milled and examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT). It has been observed that the Y 2 O 3 is fragmented and becomes partially amorphous upon milling due to the grain refinement of Y 2 O 3 during the milling process. There was no compelling evidence for Y 2 O 3 dissociation and dissolution into the steel matrix

  2. Investigation of the effect of cutting speed on the Surface Roughness parameters in CNC End Milling using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hazza, Muataz H F; Adesta, Erry Y T

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness in the end milling process by using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). An experimental investigation was conducted to measure the surface roughness for end milling. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted. The artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to simulate and study the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness

  3. Study on surface defects in milling Inconel 718 super alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liu; Chengzu, Ren; Guofeng, Wang; Yinwei, Yang; Lu, Zhang [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-04-15

    Nickel-based alloys have been extensively used as critical components in aerospace industry, especially in the key section of aero engine. In general, these sections are manufactured by milling process because most of them have complex forms. However, surface defects appear frequently in milling due to periodic impact force, which leads to the deterioration of the fatigue life. We conducted milling experiments under different cutting conditions and found that four kinds of defects, i.e., tear, cavity, build up edge (BUE) and groove, commonly appear on the machined surface. Based on the observed results, the morphology and generation regime of these defects are analyzed and the carbide particle cracking is discussed to explain the appearance of the nickel alloy defects. To study the effect of the cutting parameters on the severity of these surface defects, two qualitative indicators, which are named as average number of the defects per field and average area ratio of the defects per field, are presented and the influence laws are summarized based on the results correspondingly. This study is helpful for understanding the generation mechanism of the surface defects during milling process of nickel based super alloy.

  4. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...

  6. Flank wear analysing of high speed end milling for hardened steel D2 using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza, Muataz; Ibrahim, Nur Asmawiyah bt; Adesta, Erry T. Y.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.

    2017-03-01

    One of the main challenges for any manufacturer is how to decrease the machining cost without affecting the final quality of the product. One of the new advanced machining processes in industry is the high speed hard end milling process that merges three advanced machining processes: high speed milling, hard milling and dry milling. However, one of the most important challenges in this process is to control the flank wear rate. Therefore a analyzing the flank wear rate during machining should be investigated in order to determine the best cutting levels that will not affect the final quality of the product. In this research Taguchi method has been used to investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and determine the best level s to minimize the flank wear rate up to total length of 0.3mm based on the ISO standard to maintain the finishing requirements.

  7. Development of uranium milling and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shingo; Hirono, Shuichiro.

    1983-11-01

    The development and improvement of uranium milling and refining producing uranium tetrafluoride from ores by the wet process, without producing yellowcake as an intermediate product, have been carried out for over ten years with a small pilot plant (50 t-ore/day). In the past several years, a process for converting uranium tetrafluoride into hexafluoride has been developed successfully. To develop the process further, the construction of an integrated milling and conversion pilot plant (200 t-U/year) started in 1979 and was completed in 1981. This new plant has two systems of solvent extraction using tri-noctylamine: one of the systems treats the pregnant solution (uranyl sulphate) by heap-leaching followed by ion exchange, and the other treats the uranyl sulphate solution by dissolving imported yellowcake. The uranium loading solvents from the two systems are stripped with hydrochloric acid solution to obtain the concentrated uranium solution containing 100 g-U/1. Uranyl sulphate solution from the stripping circuit is reduced to a uranous sulphate solution by the electrolytic method. In a reduction cell, uranyl sulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid are used respectively as catholyte and anolyte, and a cation exchange membrane is used to prevent re-oxidation of the uranous sulphate. In the following hydrofluorination step, uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 .1-1.2H 2 O (particle size: 50-100μ), is produced continuously as the precipitate in an improved reaction vessel, and this makes it possible to simplify the procedures of liquid-solid separation, drying and granulation. The uranium tetrafluoride is dehydrated by heating to 350 0 C in an inert gas flow. The complete conversion from UF 4 into UF 6 is achieved by a fluidized-bed reactor and a high value of utilization efficiency of fluorine, over 99.9 percent, is attained at about 400 0 C. (author)

  8. Dynamic and Stochastic Structures of U.S. Cotton Exports and Mill Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a structural time-series method to model and estimate U.S. cotton exports and mill use. The results show that the stochastic process governing cotton export fluctuations is transitory, while the process pertaining to mill use has transitory, seasonal, and secular origins. The estimated structural relationships after accounting for the unobserved components indicate U.S. cotton exports respond directly to higher international price relative to domestic price of cotton, while...

  9. Mechanical alloying and reactive milling in a high energy planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianjin; Trunov, Mikhaylo A.; Schoenitz, Mirko; Dave, Rajesh N.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Powder refinement in a planetary mill (Retsch PM 400-MA) is investigated experimentally and analyzed using discrete element modeling (DEM). Refinement is defined as the average size of the individual components in a composite powder. The specific milling dose, defined as the product of charge ratio and milling time, is used as an experimental parameter tracking the progress of the material refinement. This parameter is determined experimentally for milling of boron and titanium powders, for which the time of initiation of a self-sustained reaction is measured under different milling conditions. It is assumed that the reaction becomes self-sustaining when the same powder refinement is achieved. The DEM calculations established that the milling balls primarily roll along the milling container's perimeter. The inverse of the rate of energy dissipation resulting from this rolling motion is used as the DEM analog of the specific milling dose. The results correlate well with experimental observations.

  10. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010, petitioners requested administrative [[Page 49525

  11. Application of point-process statistical tools to stable isotopes in xylem water for the study of inter- and intra-specific interactions in water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Pinus halepensis Mill. and Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Carles; del Castillo, Jorge; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The stable isotope composition of xylem water reflects has been used to assess inter-specific differences in uptake patterns, revealing synergistic and competition processes in the use of water resources (see e.g. Dawson et al. 1993). However, there is a lack of detailed studies on spatial and temporal variability of inter- and intra-specific competition within forest stands. In this context, the aim of this work was to compare the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O , δ2H) in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill, in order to understand their water uptake patterns throughout the growing season. In addition, we analyze the spatial variability of xylem water, to get insight into inter-specific strategies employed to cope with drought and the interaction between the individuals. Our first hypothesis was that both species used different strategies to cope with drought by uptaking water at different depths; and our second hypothesis was that individual trees would behave in different manner according to the distance to their neighbours as well as to whether the neighbour is from one species or the other. The study was performed in a mixed stand where both species are nearly co-dominant, adding up to a total of 33 oaks and 77 pines (plot area= 893 m2). We sampled sun-exposed branches of each tree six times over the growing season, and extracted the xylem water with a cryogenic trap. The isotopic composition of the water was determined using a Picarro Water Analizer L2130-i. Tree mapping for spatial analysis was done using a high resolution GPS technology (Trimble GeoExplorer 6000). For the spatial analysis, we used the pair-correlation function to study intra-specific tree configuration and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configurations (Stoyan et al 1995). Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was assumed to be a mark associated to each tree and analysed as a

  12. Black holes with Yang-Mills hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Sood, A.; Wirschins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric

  13. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  14. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200 0 C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the 222 Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of α-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature are presented

  15. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  16. Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum alloy composites produced by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviathul Basariya, M.; Srivastava, V.C.; Mukhopadhyay, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 6082 Al alloy composite with 2 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared by milling. • Effect of milling time on structure and property evolution has been studied. • The reinforced composite powders showed a drastic crystallite size refinement. • The presence of carbon nanotube led to a two fold increase in the hardness and modulus. • The composite powder showed good thermal stability studied by DTA. - Abstract: The influence of milling time on the structure, morphology and thermal stability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced EN AW6082 aluminum alloy powders has been studied. After structural and microstructural characterization of the mechanically milled powders micro- and nano-hardness of the composite powder particles were evaluated. The morphological and X-ray diffraction studies on the milled powders revealed that the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were uniformly distributed and embedded within the aluminum matrix. No reaction products were detected even after long milling up to 50 h. Nanotubes became shorter in length as they fractured under the impact and shearing action during the milling process. A high hardness of about 436 ± 52 HV is achieved for the milled powders, due to the addition of MWCNTs, after milling for 50 h. The increased elastic modulus and nanohardness can be attributed to the finer grain size evolved during high energy ball milling and to the uniform distribution of hard CNTs in the Al-alloy matrix. The hardness values of the composite as well as the matrix alloy compares well with that predicted by the Hall–Petch relationship

  17. Full-scale Milling Tests of Wood Pellets for Combustion in a Suspension-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masche, Marvin; Puig Arnavat, Maria; Wadenbäck, Johan

    The size reduction of pelletized wood is crucial in suspension-fired power plants, and hence its milling characteristics are of interest to optimize the milling and combustion process. The objective of the study was to compare the size and shape of pellets disintegrated in hot water with that from......), and analyzing the comminuted particle shape and particle size distribution (PSD). Large-scale pellet comminution produced finer and wider PSDs than pellet disintegration in hot water, but only slightly altered the particle shape. The mill pressure loss, absorbed mill power, and hence SGEC depended on the pellet...

  18. Effect of the milling energy on the production and thermal stability of amorphous Mg50Ni50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, D.; Ordonez, S.; Serafini, D.; Rojas, P.; Bustos, O.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of milling energy on the amorphisation process and subsequent thermal crystallization of Mg 50 Ni 50 was investigated. The amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 was produced using a planetary mill (medium energy) with a ball to material weight ratio of 13:1, and a SPEX mill (high energy) with a ball to material weight ratio of 20:1. The results obtained by means of X-ray diffraction showed that it is possible to obtain an amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 alloy, through both milling processes, starting of Ni powders and Mg turnings. However, the amorphisation process requires more time in the planetary mill (80-90 h) than in the SPEX mill (15-20 h), due to the difference in energy level and milling mechanism between these mills. The phase evolution during the amorphisation process is practically independent of the mill energy. In this way, it was observed that the mill conditions promoted an extensive refinement of the microstructure during the first hours of milling. The defects produced during this time led to the amorphisation of part of the system. This amorphous precursor suffers a mechanically induced crystallization into Mg 2 Ni, which is subsequently destabilized into amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 . Based on the results obtained, it is proposed that the formation of amorphous precursor during mechanical milling of Mg and Ni is a characteristic of the Mg-Ni system, over a wide composition range, rather than of a particular composition. In relation to the thermal crystallization of the amorphous produced, the results of the differential thermal analysis applied to the amorphous samples showed that the formation enthalpy for both amorphous is the same, however, the amorphous produced in a planetary mill presented higher crystallization temperatures and apparent activation energies than the amorphous produced in a SPEX mill. The last behavior would be related with iron contamination coming from the erosion of the milling media. Finally, it is possible to conclude, that under the

  19. Surface Generation Modeling in Ball Nose End Milling: a review of relevant literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    One of the most common metal removal operation used in industry is the milling process. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants...... to be adjusted afterwards. Nevertheless, many efforts have been done during the last 50 years in order to realize prediction tools for machining processes and particularly for conventional turning and milling operations. Most of these models aim at prediction of cutting forces tool wear and tool life. However...... been addressed in this direction. Among all the machining operations, ball nose end milling has shown great potentials, particularly in machining of sculptured surfaces with high requirements in terms of surface finish; this is due to the good spatial agreement of the mill shape with the geometry...

  20. Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin via microwave-assisted ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Rong; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Qianxia; Bian, Zhibing; Dai, Haixiong; Zhang, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiH 2 was modified with epoxy resin by microwave-assisted ball milling. • The epoxy ring was opened under the coupling effect of microwave and ball milling. • Microwave-assisted ball milling improved the compatibility of TiH 2 with epoxy. - Abstract: Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin was carried out via microwave-assisted ball milling and the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A sedimentation test was performed to investigate the compatibility of the modified nano titanium hydride with the epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy resin molecules were grafted on the surface of nano titanium hydride particles during the microwave-assisted ball milling process, which led to the improvement of compatibility between the nanoparticles and epoxy resin. According to the FT-IR, the grafting site was likely to be located around the epoxy group due to the fact that the epoxy ring was opened. However, compared with microwave-assisted ball milling, the conventional ball milling could not realize the surface modification, indicating that the coupling effect of mechanical force and microwave played a key role during the process

  1. Comparison of five-axis milling and rapid prototyping for implant surgical templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Man; Yi, Tae-Kyoung; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyoon; Park, Eun-Jin; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to compare and evaluate the accuracy of surgical templates fabricated using coordinate synchronization processing with five-axis milling and design-related processing with rapid prototyping (RP). Master phantoms with 10 embedded gutta-percha cylinders hidden under artificial gingiva were fabricated and imaged using cone beam computed tomography. Vectors of the hidden cylinders were extracted and transferred to those of the planned implants through reverse engineering using virtual planning software. An RP-produced template was fabricated by stereolithography in photopolymer at the RP center according to planned data. Metal sleeves were bonded after holes were bored (group RP). For the milled template, milling coordinates were synchronized using the conversion process for the coordinate synchronization platform located on the model's bottom. Metal bushings were set on holes milled on the five-axis milling machine, on which the model was fixed through the coordinate synchronization plate, and the framework was constructed on the model using orthodontic resin (group CS). A computed tomography image was taken with templates firmly fixed on models using anchor pins (RP) or anchor screws (CS). The accuracy was analyzed via reverse engineering. Differences between the two groups were compared by repeated measures two-factor analysis. From the reverse-engineered image of the template on the experimental model, RP-produced templates showed significantly larger deviations than did milled surgical guides. Maximum deviations of the group RP were 1.58 mm (horizontal), 1.68 mm (vertical), and 8.51 degrees (angular); those of the group CS were 0.68 mm (horizontal), 0.41 mm (vertical), and 3.23 degrees (angular). A comparison of milling and RP template production methods showed that a vector-milled surgical guide had significantly smaller deviations than did an RP-produced template. The accuracy of computer-guided milled surgical templates was within the safety

  2. Reduced graphene oxide synthesis by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, O. [Department of Physics, M.U.C Women' s College, Burdwan 713104 (India); Mitra, S. [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pal, M. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Datta, A. [University School of Basic and Applied Science (USBAS), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110075 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chakravorty, D., E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-01

    Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. The process of ball milling introduces defects and removes oxygen functional groups, thereby creating the possibility of fine tuning the band gap of all intermediate stages of the structural evolution. A limit of the backbone sp{sup 2} network structure has been found which should be able to accommodate defects, before amorphization sets in. The amorphization of graphene oxide is achieved rather quickly in comparison to that of graphite. From thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis along with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic studies, it is found that the number of oxygen-containing groups decreases at a faster rate than that of aromatic double bonds with increasing ball milling time with a maximum limit of 3 h. Several characterization techniques (FTIR, Raman, UV–Visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have confirmed that the material synthesized is, indeed, reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. • Fine tuning the band gap by introducing defects and removing oxygen functional groups. • Introduction of excess defects leads to amorphization. • Photoluminescence has been observed in the UV-blue region.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MILLING AND FRACTIONATION OF FLAXSEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Feskova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The optimal parameters of milling and fractionation of flaxseeds were substantiated. It was found that the hull fraction with the highest content of lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside SDG was obtained when flaxseeds were grinded using a rotatory impact continuous operation mill at the rotation 1380-1640 rpm. Studies have shown that with the increasing of the rotor speed the number of unbriken seeds decreased. However, due to the fact that the shells are crushed more, they become more difficult to separate from the cotyledons. For identification and quantification of SDG the HPLC-MS method was used. It is found that the optimum separation membranes and cotyledon fraction occurs at sifting milled seeds sequentially through the sieves having meshes of 1 and 0.5 mm. The technology of industrial production of lignans-containing fraction and flour on the basis of flaxseeds processing were proposed. This technology includes milling flaxseeds at the rotation 1380-1640 rpm, with subsequent 2% silicon dioxide addition and stepwise sieving using sieves with the mesh size 2 mm. To use a fraction membranes high in lignans as raw material for biologically active additives to food it needed additional enforcement-ground to a size not more than 0.4 mm (technological features of capsulation. The developed technology allowed getting with maximum yields of lignans-containing fraction (10% yield and flaxseed flour (80% yield.

  4. Hydrophilic functionalized silicon nanoparticles produced by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Steffen

    The mechanochemical synthesis of functionalized silicon nanoparticles using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) is described. This method facilitates the fragmentation of mono crystalline silicon into the nanometer regime and the simultaneous surface functionalization of the formed particles. The surface functionalization is induced by the reaction of an organic liquid, such as alkynes and alkenes with reactive silicon sites. This method can be applied to form water soluble silicon nanoparticles by lipid mediated micelle formation and the milling in organic liquids containing molecules with bi-functional groups, such as allyl alcohol. Furthermore, nanometer sized, chloroalkyl functionalized particles can be synthesized by milling the silicon precursor in the presence of an o-chloroalkyne with either alkenes or alkynes as coreactants. This process allows tuning of the concentration of the exposed, alkyl linked chloro groups, simply by varying the relative amounts of the coreactant. The silicon nanoparticles that are formed serve as the starting point for a wide variety of chemical reactions, which may be used to alter the surface properties of the functionalized nanoparticles. Finally, the use of functionalized silicon particles for the production of superhydrophobic films is described. Here HEBM proves to be an efficient method to produce functionalized silicon particles, which can be deposited to form a stable coating exhibiting superhydrophobic properties. The hydrophobicity of the silicon film can be tuned by the milling time and thus the resulting surface roughness of the films.

  5. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  6. Reactive-inspired ball-milling synthesis of an ODS steel: study of the influence of ball-milling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocq, M.

    2010-10-01

    In the context of the development of new ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) steels as core materials in future nuclear reactors, we investigated a new process inspired by reactive ball-milling which consists in using YFe 3 andFe 2 O 3 as starting reactants instead of Y 2 O 3 to produce a dispersion of nano-oxides in a steel matrix and the influence of synthesis conditions on the nano-oxide characteristics were studied. For that aim, ODS steels were prepared by ball-milling and then annealed. Multi-scale characterizations were performed after each synthesis step, using notably atom probe tomography and small angle neutron scattering. The process inspired by reactive ball-milling was shown to be efficient for ODS steel synthesis, but it does not modify the nano-oxide characteristics as compared to those of oxides directly incorporated in the matrix by ball-milling. Broadly speaking, the nature of the starting oxygen bearing reactants has no influence on nano-oxide formation. Moreover, we showed that the nucleation of nano-oxides nucleation can start during milling and continues during annealing with a very fast kinetic. The final characteristics of nano-oxides formed in this way can be monitored through ball-milling parameters (intensity, temperature and atmosphere) and annealing parameters (duration and temperature). (author)

  7. Crystallite Size and Microstrain Measurement of Cathode Material after Mechanical Milling using Neutron Diffraction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fajar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of neutron diffraction patterns of commercially product and 10 hour mechanically milled cathode material lithium cobaltites (LiCoO2 have been performed. Rietveld analysis using FullProf does not show the change of crystal structure due to milling process, but the diffraction pattern has a lower intensity and the diffraction-line was broadening. The results of line-broadening study on milled sample using Rietveld methods detected that the microstrain was occurred in the sample with value 0.127080(35 % and the average crystallite size was 424.78(20 Å.

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA.

  10. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  11. FePt magnetic particles prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, V., E-mail: vvjimeno@fis.ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Hernando, A.; Crespo, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas 28230 (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    High-energy ball milling of Fe and Pt elemental powders has been carried out under dry and wet (in presence of solvent and surfactants) conditions. Dry milling leads to the formation of the disordered FCC-FePt alloy whereas by the wet milling procedure the main process is the decrease of Fe and Pt particle size, although some dissolution of Pt into Fe grains cannot be ruled out, and no hint of the formation of the FCC-FePt phase is observed even to milling times up to 20 h, as X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates. The as-milled particles were annealed at 600 °C for 2 h under Ar atmosphere. It is noticed that the disordered fcc-FePt phase observed in particles milled under dry conditions transform to ordered fct phase characterized by a hard magnetic behavior with a coercive field up to 10,000 Oe. However, those particles milled in the surfactant/solvent medium exhibit a soft magnetic behavior with a coercive field of 600 Oe. These results indicate that wet high-energy ball milling is not an adequate technique for obtaining single-phase FePt particles. - Highlights: • FePt particles have been obtained by high-energy ball milling. • In the presence of surfactants and solvents, almost no alloying process takes place. • After annealing, the coercive field of the FePt alloy particles increases from 150 Oe to 10,000 Oe.

  12. Preliminary study on the potential of improving pulp quality and energy efficiency in a South African TMP mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ). The mill’s screen fractionation process has limited efficiency. Substantial amounts of thick-walled fibres are present in the mill accept pulp samples (i.e. 66% by mass of the mill accept has a freeness of 256 ml CSF (Table 2)). The benefits of adding a...

  13. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 2. Exploration, reserve estimation, mining, milling, conversion, and properties of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    In this module geological and geochemical data pertinent to locating, mining, and milling of uranium are examined. Chapters are devoted to: uranium source characteristics; uranium ore exploration methods; uranium reserve estimation for sandstone deposits; mining; milling; conversion processes for uranium; and properties of uranium, thorium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides

  14. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  15. ( Rosa damascena Mill.) by microbial inoculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and ...

  16. Counterbalance of cutting force for advanced milling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Shih, Li-Wen; Lee, Rong-Mao

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this work is to concurrently counterbalance the dynamic cutting force and regulate the spindle position deviation under various milling conditions by integrating active magnetic bearing (AMB) technique, fuzzy logic algorithm and an adaptive self-tuning feedback loop. Since the dynamics of milling system is highly determined by a few operation conditions, such as speed of spindle, cut depth and feedrate, therefore the dynamic model for cutting process is more appropriate to be constructed by experiments, instead of using theoretical approach. The experimental data, either for idle or cutting, are utilized to establish the database of milling dynamics so that the system parameters can be on-line estimated by employing the proposed fuzzy logic algorithm as the cutting mission is engaged. Based on the estimated milling system model and preset operation conditions, i.e., spindle speed, cut depth and feedrate, the current cutting force can be numerically estimated. Once the current cutting force can be real-time estimated, the corresponding compensation force can be exerted by the equipped AMB to counterbalance the cutting force, in addition to the spindle position regulation by feedback of spindle position. On the other hand, for the magnetic force is nonlinear with respect to the applied electric current and air gap, the characteristics of the employed AMB is investigated also by experiments and a nonlinear mathematic model, in terms of air gap between spindle and electromagnetic pole and coil current, is developed. At the end, the experimental simulations on realistic milling are presented to verify the efficacy of the fuzzy controller for spindle position regulation and the capability of the dynamic cutting force counterbalance.

  17. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid

    2008-01-01

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  18. Comparison of Wet and Dry Grinding in Electromagnetic Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ogonowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of dry and wet grinding process in an electromagnetic mill is presented in this paper. The research was conducted in a batch copper ore grinding. Batch mode allows for precise parametrization and constant repetitive conditions of the experiments. The following key aspects were tested: processing time, feed size, size of the grinding media, mass of the material and graining media, and density of the pulp. The particles size distribution of the product samples was analyzed in the laboratory after each experiment. The paper discusses the experimental results as well as the concept of dry and wet grinding and classification circuits for the electromagnetic mill. The main points of the discussion are the size reduction effectiveness and power consumption of the entire system.

  19. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  20. Depreciation of bearing blocks of rollers of roller conveyers of rolling mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiukh, Viktor; Belyaev, Michael; Ignatovich, Igor; Miloradova, Nadezda

    2017-10-01

    Essential increase in functional durability of a node of a roller of the roller conveyer of the rolling mill by the rational choice of parameters of the small-size shock-absorber (buffer adapter) is shown. At the same time dimensions of a node don’t change, costs of reconstruction are small. The possibility of management of loadings in a bearing node without change of technology parameters of the process which is carried out by the rolling mill is confirmed.

  1. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Annual status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The FY 1983 project accomplishments are: completed the Remedial Action Plan and Phase I engineering design for the Canonsburg processing site; completed remedial action on an additional 52 vicinity properties and the inclusion of an additional 303 properties in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; executed cooperative agreements with four states and the Navajo Nation; published the draft environmental impact statement for Salt Lake City site; and issued the approved Project Plan

  2. Biogeochemistry of uranium mill wastes program overview and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.

    1981-05-01

    The major findings and conclusions are summarized for research on uranium mill tailings for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. An overview of results and interpretations is presented for investigations of 222 Rn emissions, revegetation of tailings and mine spoils, and trace element enrichment, mobility, and bioavailability. A brief discussion addresses the implications of these findings in relation to tailings disposal technology and proposed uranium recovery processes

  3. Biorefinery Concept Development Based on Wheat Flour Milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Orth, Rick J.; Werpy, Todd A.; Gao, Johnway; Eakin, David E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Murry, J; Flagg, Anthony; Lahman, L; Mennel, D; Lin, C J.; Landucci, Ron; Crockett, John; Peterson, Charles L.

    2002-09-22

    We are developing an innovative process for the recovery of a starch-rich product from millfeed (the low-value byproduct of wheat flour milling); enzymatic processing of the starch to glucose; and the subsequent processes for conversion of that glucose into a value-added product by either a catalytic or a fermentation process. We have completed the development of the starch recovery step with enzymatic processing and the assessment of its economic viability. The processes to use the glucose product as feedstock for catalytic processing and fermentation processing have been tested in the laboratory. Catalytic processing of the glucose from the extracted starch for polyol production is based on catalytic hydrogenation to sorbitol. Alternatively, fermentation of the extracted starch-derived glucose also provides a pathway to value-added chemical products via a platform chemical, lactic acid. The paper includes results from all the processing areas addressed. Starch extraction and glucose generation from wheat milling byproducts are presented with laboratory and scaled-up processing results. Results of fermentation of the glucose product to lactic acid in shaker flask tests are presented, documenting the minimal requirements for nutrient addition. Stirred batch reactor tests of catalytic hydrogenation of the glucose product to sorbitol are presented with a discussion of contaminant effects on the catalyst.

  4. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  5. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertello, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author) [es

  6. Assessing the value of pulp mill biomass savings in a climate change conscious economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adahl, Anders; Harvey, Simon; Berntsson, Thore

    2006-01-01

    Pulp mills use significant amounts of biofuels, both internal and purchased. Biofuels could contribute to reach greenhouse gas emission targets at competitive costs. Implementing process integration measures at a pulp mill in order to achieve pulp production with less use of energy (biofuels) has not only on-site consequences but also off-site consequences, such as substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere by the saved pulp mill biofuels, and less on-site electric power generation. In this paper a method, a linking model, is suggested to analyse pulp mill biofuel saving measures when carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) external costs are internalised. The linking model is based on equilibrium economics and links information from CO 2 constrained energy market future scenarios with process integration measures. Pulp mill economics and marginal energy market CO 2 response are identified. In an applied study, four process integration measures at a Swedish pulp mill were analysed using five energy market future scenarios emanating from a Nordic energy model. The investigated investment alternatives for biofuel savings all result in positive net annual savings, irrespectively of the scenario used. However, CO 2 emissions may increase or decrease depending on the future development of the Nordic energy market

  7. Cluff Lake mill operations - a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.A.; Doell, E.; Corpus, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Cluff Lake operation started uranium production in 1980 and has produced over 50 million pounds of uranium since that time. The plant started with high grade ore (+30% U) processing and went through a series of modifications to its present operating status: Phase 1 - High-grade ore (+30% U) processing with acid leach and iron cake precipitation followed by direct yellowcake precipitation. Lower grade ore was concentrated in a gravity circuit to +30% U; Phase 1 1/2 - Reprocessing Phase 1 gravity tailings (+1% U) in an acid leach circuit with solvent extraction purification prior to yellowcake precipitation; Reprocessing of the Phase 1 leach tails (58 g/t Au) to recover gold in a Cyanide/CIP circuit followed by additional uranium recovery, and destruction and recycle of cyanide by volatilization; and Phase 2 - Treatment of the lower grade ore (0.5 to 1% U) at an increased tonnage with an acid leach, CCD, SX circuit as it is found in the existing plant. This paper will review the various processing circuits used during the phases of the Cluff Lake Mill from first uranium production to the present operation. (author)

  8. Impact assessment of intermediate processes of steelmaking in electricity cogeneration of steel mill companies//Evaluación del impacto de los procesos intermedios de la producción de acero en la cogeneración de electricidad de la industria siderúrgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Quental-de-Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La industria siderúrgica es uno de los sectores donde se consume mayor cantidad de energia, siendo responsable por la generación de productos resultantes de procesos con un alto valor energético agregado, entre los que se destacan los gases de proceso. Esos combustibles suministran parte de la demanda térmica de la siderúrgica y, típicamente, son aprovechados para la cogeneración de electricidad. De esta forma, aún con la gran cantidad y la alta complejidad de las variables que intervienen, fue aplicada una metodología clara y accesible desarrollada por Araújo (2015, para prever y simular la cogeneración de electricidad en un proceso típico de la industria siderúrgica. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de evaluar la sensibilidad de la cogeneración a la alteración de la producción de los procesos intermedios. Fue observado que algunos procesos como coquería, el alto horno y la acería, presentan una relación directa entre el aumento de la producción y la capacidad de cogeneración y, en otros procesos como la sinterización y la laminación, el incremento de la producción provoca una disminución de la disponibilidad de combustibles para la central termoeléctrica. Palabras claves: siderúrgica, previsión, cogeneración, gases de proceso, los procesos intermedios.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe steel industry is one of the most energy-intensive industry sectors, accounting also for the generation of co-products with high added energy, among them stands out the process gases. These fuels supply part of thermal demand from the steel mill companies and are typically utilized for cogeneration of electricity. Thus even with all the amount and complexity of variables involved, a clear and accessible methodology developed by Araujo was applied (2015 to predict and simulate the cogeneration of electricity. Therefore this study aims to evaluate the sensitivity of the change in

  9. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  10. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  11. A study on a new algorithm to optimize ball mill system based on modeling and GA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Heng; Jia Minping; Huang Peng; Chen Zuoliang

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the disadvantage of conventional optimization method for ball mill pulverizing system, a novel approach based on RBF neural network and genetic algorithm was proposed in the present paper. Firstly, the experiments and measurement for fill level based on vibration signals of mill shell was introduced. Then, main factors which affected the power consumption of ball mill pulverizing system were analyzed, and the input variables of RBF neural network were determined. RBF neural network was used to map the complex non-linear relationship between the electric consumption and process parameters and the non-linear model of power consumption was built. Finally, the model was optimized by genetic algorithm and the optimal work conditions of ball mill pulverizing system were determined. The results demonstrate that the method is reliable and practical, and can reduce the electric consumption obviously and effectively.

  12. Machining NiTi micro-parts by micro-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, K.; Petzoldt, V.

    2008-01-01

    The machinability of NiTi by milling has been examined using solid carbide end milling cutters. First results were obtained from machining simple slots applying TiAlN-coated tools with a diameter of 0.4 mm. The machining process was evaluated in terms of tool wear, cutting forces and machining quality. The tool wear and work piece quality was analysed with a scanning electron microscope and a white-light confocal microscope. Despite the poor machinability of NiTi good results concerning tool wear and shape accuracy of the milled slots were achieved. Essential for a good machining result is the application of minimum quantity lubrication. This clearly reduces NiTi adherences compared to dry machining. Work piece quality is improved and tool life is extended. Based on these results different structures could be produced by micro-milling

  13. Application of molybdenum and phosphate modified kaolin in electrochemical treatment of paper mill wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Wang Bo; Wang Ying

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill wastewater is characterized by very high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values that inhibit the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidations. The electrochemical degradation of pulp and paper mill wastewater catalyzed by molybdenum and phosphate (Mo-P) modified kaolin with graphite as anode and cathode was investigated. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS and SEM spectra and the effects of pH, metal ion and introduction of NaCl on the efficiency of the electrochemical degradation process were also studied. It was found out that the modified kaolin loaded with Fe 3+ had higher electrochemical catalytic activity in the electrochemical degradation of paper mill wastewater at pH 4. A 96% COD removal efficiency was obtained in 40 min of electrochemical treatment of the wastewater at current density 30 mA cm -2 . A possible mechanism for degradation of the mill wastewater constituents was also proposed

  14. An extended topological Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Shinichi

    1992-01-01

    Introducing infinite number of fields, we construct an extended version of the topological Yang-Mills theory. The properties of the extended topological Yang-Mills theory (ETYMT) are discussed from standpoint of the covariant canonical quantization. It is shown that the ETYMT becomes a cohomological topological field theory or a theory equivalent to a quantum Yang-Mills theory with anti-self-dual constraint according to subsidiary conditions imposed on state-vector space. On the basis of the ETYMT, we may understand a transition from an unbroken phase to a physical phase (broken phase). (author)

  15. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  16. Environmental design of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, C.H.; Ring, R.J.; McNaughton, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

  17. Loop groups and Yang-Mills theory in dimension two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Given a connection ω in a G-bundle over S2, then a process called radial trivialization from the poles gives a unique clutching function, i.e., an element γ of the loop group ΩG. Up to gauge equivalence, ω is completely determined by γ and a map f:S2 →g into the Lie algebra. Moreover, the Yang......-Mills function of ω is the sum of the energy of γ and the square of a certain norm of f. In particular, the Yang-Mills functional has the same Morse theory as the energy functional on ΩG. There is a similar description of connections in a G-bundle over an arbitrary Riemann surface, but so far not of the Yang...

  18. Experimental evaluation of tool run-out in micro milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with micro milling cutting process focusing the attention on tool run-out measurement. In fact, among the effects of the scale reduction from macro to micro (i.e., size effects) tool run-out plays an important role. This research is aimed at developing an easy and reliable method to measure tool run-out in micro milling based on experimental tests and an analytical model. From an Industry 4.0 perspective this measuring strategy can be integrated into an adaptive system for controlling cutting forces, with the objective of improving the production quality, the process stability, reducing at the same time the tool wear and the machining costs. The proposed procedure estimates the tool run-out parameters from the tool diameter, the channel width, and the phase angle between the cutting edges. The cutting edge phase measurement is based on the force signal analysis. The developed procedure has been tested on data coming from micro milling experimental tests performed on a Ti6Al4V sample. The results showed that the developed procedure can be successfully used for tool run-out estimation.

  19. The magnetic properties of mill scale-derived permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woon, H.S.; Hashim, M.M.; Yahya, N.; Zakaria, A.; Lim, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the permanent magnet SrO-FeO-Fe 2 O 3 system, there exist several magnetically ordered compounds with a stable phase at room temperature. The most important are the M(SrFe 12 O 19 ), X(SrFe 15 O 23 ) and W(SrFe 18 O 27 ) phases with hexagonal close packed structure. In this project, M(SrFe 12 O 19 ) was prepared using mill scale, a steel-maker byproduct, as raw material. The Malaysia steel industry generates approximately 30,000 metric tons of waste products such as mill scale every year. Transportation and disposal of the byproducts are costly and the environmental regulations are becoming stricter. Hence, local steel mills are to find new ways to recycle the waste as a feedstock for the steel-making process or as a saleable product. The M(SrFe 12 O 19 ) was synthesized using the conventional ceramic process. The formation of the SrFe 12 O 19 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties such as the energy product (BH)max, coercive force (iHc) and remanence (Br) were also reported in this paper. (Author)

  20. Third-order least squares modelling of milling state term for improved computation of stability boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Ozoegwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The general least squares model for milling process state term is presented. A discrete map for milling stability analysis that is based on the third-order case of the presented general least squares milling state term model is first studied and compared with its third-order counterpart that is based on the interpolation theory. Both numerical rate of convergence and chatter stability results of the two maps are compared using the single degree of freedom (1DOF milling model. The numerical rate of convergence of the presented third-order model is also studied using the two degree of freedom (2DOF milling process model. Comparison gave that stability results from the two maps agree closely but the presented map demonstrated reduction in number of needed calculations leading to about 30% savings in computational time (CT. It is seen in earlier works that accuracy of milling stability analysis using the full-discretization method rises from first-order theory to second-order theory and continues to rise to the third-order theory. The present work confirms this trend. In conclusion, the method presented in this work will enable fast and accurate computation of stability diagrams for use by machinists.