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Sample records for caetite ba brazil

  1. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, R.F.; Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of 238 U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  2. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennari, R.F., E-mail: rgennari@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Campos, S.S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA, (Brazil); Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, S.O., E-mail: susanasouzalalic@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of {sup 238}U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  3. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, Fernando; Santos, Robson Rodger; Silva, L. Ferreira da; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2008-01-01

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi 8 O 8 ), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO 3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  4. Results of solid state nuclear track detector technique application in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, for uranium prospecting in Caetite (BA-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1988-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detector technique has been used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks for uranium prospecting on the ground in Caetite city (Bahia-Brazil). The sensitive film to alpha particles used were CA 8015 exposed during 15 days and the results of three anomalies of this region are showed in a form of maps, made with the density of tracks obtained, and were compared with scintillation counter measurements. The technique showed to be simple and an effective auxiliary for the prospection of uranium ore bodies. The initial uranium exploration costs can be reduced by using this technique. (author) [pt

  5. New route for uranium concentrate production from Caetite ore, Bahia State, Brazil; dynamic leaching - direct precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.br; Gomiero, Luiz A.; Scassiotti Filho, Walter [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)]. E-mails: gomiero@inb.gov.br; scassiotti@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The common uranium concentrate production consists of ore leaching, uranium purification/concentration by solvent extraction and uranium precipitation as ammonium diuranate steps. In the present work, a new route of uranium concentrate production from Caetite, BA-Brazil ore was investigated. The following steps were investigated: dynamic leaching of the ground ore with sulfuric acid; sulfuric liquor pre-neutralization until pH 3.7; uranium peroxide precipitation. The study was carried out in bath and continuous circuits. In the dynamic leaching of ground ore in agitated tanks the uranium content in the leached ore may be as low as 100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, depending on grinding size. In the pre-neutralization step, the iron content in the liquor is decreased in 99 wt.%, dropping from 3.62 g/L to 0.030 g/L. The sulfate content in the liquor reduces from 46 g/L to 22 g/L. A calcinated final product assaying 99.7 wt.% U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained. The full process recovery was over 94%. (author)

  6. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O.; Campos, Simara S.S.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2011-01-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  7. Determination of the concentration of radionuclides in soil and water next the uranium mine of Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Geangela M.; Souza, Susana O. [Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. of Physics; Campos, Simara S.S. [State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. of Basic and Instrumental Studies; Gennari, Roseli F., E-mail: rgennari@dfn.if.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics. Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    2011-07-01

    The economic growing in Brazil is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. Uranium is the fuel used to generate nuclear power. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world and, nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, state that the explored uranium mine is dangerous and polluting, causing water contamination by uranium. So, the population would be receiving radiation doses above permissible limits. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) the company in charge of the complex extraction and production of yellow cake rejected these accusations. The main purpose of this work is the determination of the composition of natural radionuclides in the Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real in order to determine if the nearest population is exposed to environmental radiation. It was checked if there is water contamination due to the natural transport in the uranium mining surroundings. Soil and water samples from Caetite mine and also from nearby town were collected. Only one water sample collected had concentrations higher than the limits recommended by World Health Organization. The presence of radionuclides in soil samples is considered independent of mineral exploration. The effective dose rates in almost all samples are above the world average which is 2.4 mSv/y. To sum up, the presence of uranium in water and soil of the tested areas is probably due to the nature of the soil and not to the exploration of mine. (author)

  8. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in superficial and underground drinking water, from the Caetite region, BA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has the seventh greatest geological uranium reserve in the world with approximately 310 thousand tons. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, situated in South Center Bahia, is considered the most important monomineralic province in Brazil. Urban population who lives in the uranium district in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento de Nossa Senhora uses drinking water originated from public supply. In the rural area, characterized by frequent draughts, residents receive water from digged and drilled wells and from small dams and reservoirs, as well, which are supplied by the rains. This work determined the levels of total alpha and beta radioactivity and the uranium concentrations in several kinds of water consumed by urban and rural population from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. Total α and β activities were determined with a low-level gas flow proportional detector. The uranium concentrations were determined with an inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained were confronted with the latest World Health Organization's recommendations from 2011, the ordinance number 2914 of December 12 2011 from the Health Ministry and CONAMA's resolutions. Natural radiation levels varied from 0,0041 ± 0,0004 Bq.L -1 to 0,80 ± 0,04 Bq.L -1 for total alpha activity and from 0,045 ± 0,003 to 3,00 ± 0,2 Bq.L -1 for total beta activity. Having the WHO and the HM as parameter, just two underground water samples, one located in the city of Lagoa Real and the other in the city of Caetite presented total alpha concentration above the value of 0,5 Bq.L -1 described in its recommendations, 0,80 ± 0,040 Bq.L -1 and 0,57 ± 0,03 Bq.L -1 respectively. For total beta three samples presented radioactivity levels above the 1 Bq.L -1 limit recommended by the WHO and established by the Health Ministry; 3,00 ± 0,2 Bq.L -1 ; 1,63 ± 0,13 Bq.L -1 and 1,19 ± 0,07 Bq.L -1 ., all of them situated in the Lagoa

  9. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Caesalpinioideae-Fabaceae: espécie de uso medicinal em Caetité-BA Anatomy of vegetative organs of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae: a species of medicinal use in Caetité-Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae apresenta grande valor na medicina popular em Caetité. A casca, entrecasca do caule e a resina, são utilizadas no tratamento de diversos males. Neste estudo são apresentadas a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos. Amostras foram coletadas e processadas segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e histoquímica. Todos os órgãos apresentam, em visão transversal, epiderme unisseriada e cavidades secretoras. Cutícula espessa ocorre em todos os órgãos aéreos. A raiz é tetrarca. Colênquima lacunar foi encontrado no caule. Bainha de fibras esclerenquimáticas envolve os feixes vasculares dos órgãos aéreos. Células pétreas ocorrem no pecíolo. Tricomas tectores ocorrem em ambas as faces da folha. A folha é hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e o mesofilo é dorsiventral. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio ocorrem no caule, pecíolo e lâmina foliar. Compostos fenólicos ocorrem na raiz, pecíolo e nervura central da folha. Grãos de amido ocorrem na raiz, caule e pecíolo. Lipídios ocorrem em todos os órgãos. Acredita-se que compostos fenólicos e cavidades secretoras de resina podem justificar a utilidade medicinal da espécie pela população de Caetité.Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae shows a great value in folk medicine in Caetité. Its bark, stem-bark and resin are used to treat various ailments. In this study, the anatomical and histochemical characterization of vegetative organs is reported. Samples were collected and processed according to usual techniques of plant anatomy and histochemistry. All organs have, by cross-sectional view, uniseriate epidermis and secretory cavities. Thick cuticle occurs in all aerial organs. The root is tetrarch. Lacunar collenchyma was found in the stem. Sclerenchymatic sheath of fibers surrounds the vascular bundles of the aerial organs. Stone cells occur in the petiole. Trichomes occur

  10. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo [Centro Universitario da Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB), (SP) (Brazil); Yamazaki, Ione Makiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO{sub 3} (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 {mu}L of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm{sup 2} area) together with 5 {mu}L of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95{+-}0.19) {mu}g.L{sup -1} to (25.60{+-}3.3) {mu}g.L{sup -1}. These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  11. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo; Yamazaki, Ione Makiko

    2011-01-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO 3 (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 μL of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm 2 area) together with 5 μL of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95±0.19) μg.L -1 to (25.60±3.3) μg.L -1 . These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  12. Seismic refraction technique aplications in the geotechnical characterization of the Cachoeira deposit massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagutti Filho, W.; Oliveira Braga, T. de.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical surveys throught the Cachoeira Uranium deposit massif were carried out with the purpose of assisting in the geotechnical characterization for the implantation of the Mining-Industrial Complex projects on the Lagoa Real uranium deposits, Caetite municipality, state of Bahia, Brazil. This study discusses the methodology utilized in the geophysical surveys and their results as well as their applications to the geotechnical characterization as a whole. (D.J.M.) [pt

  13. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Cachoeira Deposit Massif, Caetite, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottura, J.A.; Albuquerque Filho, J.L.; Ojima, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogeologic applications for the characterization of rock massifs in future mining activity areas are presented. The study was performed in the Cachoeira uranium deposit (Anomaly no.13 - Lagoa Real Project) located in the south-central portion of the state of Bahia, Caetite municipality, belonging to the Brazilian Nuclear Enterprise - NUCLEBRAS. The massif occuring in the area is composed of a group or series of rocks classified generically as gneisses, displaying different geotechnical classes. In order to consubstantiate the hydrogeologic/ hydrogeotechnical characterization, pumping and infiltration tests were performed, as well as periodic water level measurements in piezometers and drill-holes. In this manner, a hydrogeotechnical classification was made possible and a quantitative evaluation of the volume of water that will be drained was elaborated, orviding necessary contributions for research diggings and exploration. (D.J.M.) [pt

  14. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  15. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude, Ambiente e Trabalho; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica da Terra. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira, E-mail: mvtn@ifba.edu.b [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LAFIR/NTS/IFBA) Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica

    2011-07-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  16. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  17. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-01-01

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10 3 μGy y -1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10 0 μGy y -1 , that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota

  18. Preliminary studies on fluid inclusions in metasomatic albite grains from Lagoa Real, Caetite, Ba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzikawa, K.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary fluid inclusion studies in metasomatic albite grains from the Lagoa Real uranium deposit pointed out to mixing of strong brines (23 wt% NaCl equivalent) with low salinity fluids (2.3 wt% NaCl equivalent). Microthermometry and crushing tests indicated elevated pressures and the presence of hidrocarbons in larger amount than CO 2 . The remobilization of uranium as uranyl carbonate complexes and its precipitation, reducing U 6 + to U 4 + by CH 4 , is considered as a possibility. (Author) [pt

  19. Environmental performance evaluation of waste management system of Uranium Concentrated Unit in Caetite city, Bahia State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Valeska P.; Fernandes, Horst M.; Gomiero, Luis Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The mining/milling activities have the potential to cause risks to the human health and to the environment. In uranium mining, besides inherent damages due to any mining activities there are radiological risks, that may be incurred even in short as in long terms. The large volumes of low activity mining/milling residues produced, are the great challenge in the waste management. Nowadays, the whole Brazilian uranium production come from Uranium Concentrated Unit (URA), a facility operated by Brazilian Nuclear Industry and located at a semi-arid region, in the Caetite city, Bahia state. This Unit is composed by a open pit mine and a milling facility. The present work assess the URA waste management system, the procedures adopted, focused on its environmental performance. It was observed that the waste management system is efficient in the control of the environmental impacts, however improvement chances are detected and a better performance may be reached. Concerning the liquids wastes, it was observed that the storage systems were not projected adequately. The storage capacity was not enough to support a intense rainfall period causing a overflow to the environment. In URA activities there is no radiological risk to the public, but its necessary to improve long term actions, constraints for the post-closure phase, e.g., appropriate institutional controls, restrictions on land use. Finally, it is advisable to introduce a Environmental Management System (EMS) for the whole facility. (author)

  20. Environmental monitoring of the Uranium Concentrate Unity (URA) at Caetite - Bahia State - Brazil; Monitoracao ambiental da Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio (URA) em Caetite - BA - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Resende, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Licenciamento em Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: glima@inb.gov.br

    2002-07-01

    The pre operational monitoring program has been executed in order to set a baseline, on which comparisons with the same points and the same radionuclides will be made after beginning of operation, having the objective of environmental impact evaluation, in the vicinity of the installation. The program was held in the period of 1982 to 1999, collecting non biological environmental samples (aerosol, rain water, surface water, underground water soil and sediment) and samples that are related to the human food chain (manioc, manioc flour, milk, browse, fish, been, corn, cactus and silage). The analyzed radionuclides are natural uranium, natural thorium, Ra-226, Ra-228, Rn-222 and Pb-210. This work intends to analyze data from the last ten years, program (1989 - 1999), analyzing approximately 350 biological samples and 3500 non biological samples, in order to establishing the baseline to be used in future studies of environmental impact. (author)

  1. Hydrological Monitoring and Environmental Modeling to Assess the Quality and Sustainability of the Water Resources in an Uranium Mine Area, Caetité - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; van Slobbe, E.; Fernandes, N. F.; Palma, J.; van Dalen, D.; Santos, A. C.; Melo, V.; Reis, R. G.; Carmo, R.; Fernandes, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Uranium mining and processing constitute the front-end of the nuclear fuel-cycle and respond for most of its radiological impacts. For many years it has been accepted that the key driving force associated with these radiological impacts was related with radon exhalation from mill tailings. However, evidences coming from other mining sites showed that impacts in superficial and ground waters could also play a significant role. In Brazil, the newest uranium production unit presents a unique opportunity to integrate all the above concepts in a logical framework that will lead to sound and environmental balanced operations. The production center (Caetité plant) consists of open pit mine and sulfuric acid Heap Leach operations and is located at a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil. Because groundwater is the sole perennial source of water for human consumption and industrial use, this resource has to be managed wisely and efficiently. Therefore, this paper intends to summarize the components of an ongoing project of groundwater management in uranium mining areas. The results will guide the adequate management of groundwater use and provide the basis for the appropriate impact assessment of the potential releases of pollutants. The methodology starts with the mathematical simulation of the long-term behavior of the hydrogeological system based on an experimental basin approach. The occurrence and pattern of groundwater flow in the Caetité experimental basin (CEB) are mainly conditioned by the degree of faulting/fracturing of rocks (predominantly gneisses and granites). Two faulting systems are observed in the area, the principal one, parallel to the foliation (with NW direction) and the secondary one with NE direction. The main water reservoirs in the CEB are related to the intrusion of a diabase dike, which increased the density of fractures in the rocks. This dike serves as natural barrier to the water flow and constrains the potential contamination of

  2. Experimental study of the uranium mobility due to the weathering action at the uraniferous district of Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil; Estudo experimental da mobilidade do uranio por acao intemperica, distrito uranifero de Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro Rocha

    2004-01-15

    In the present research, the proposal was to develop a preliminary study about the geochemical behavior of determined chemical elements, mainly the uranium, during the action of weathering processes in the rocks that bear the uranium mineralizations of the Caetite-Lagoa Real region, State of Bahia, more specifically of the Jazida Cachoeira uranium mine. To reach this purpose were used samples that represent several stages of the milling process of the uranium ore, so selecting representatives of the host rock, the ore and the treated ore (waste from the milling plant) to be used in the laboratory-controlled experiments. The samples were dried, sieved and finally introduced in the reactors, these adapted from the Flow-Through Reactor of Brantley and Chen. In the geochemical point of view, the results of the experiments showed a distinct behavior between the samples. It was observed that the treated ore, in relation to the host rocks of the ore and the own ore, shown a faster and homogeneous interaction with the leaching solution; it was also noted that in the output solution of the treated ore samples existed a significant complexation of the uranium by the sulfate (S0{sub 4}{sup -2}), ), instead of the non treated samples (host rock and ore) that were complexed mainly by the carbonate (C0{sub 3}{sup -2}). These different results are attributed to the alterations imposed to the rock during the milling process, and occur mainly, during the acid attack in the leaching process of the milling plant. The results and conclusions of this research, in spite of been preliminary, are essential to understand the behavior of the geochemical speciation of the effluent solutions; to understand the alterations of a rock matrix, and finally, to understand the migration chemical behavior of the related chemical elements. It is expected that these results contribute, in the future, to a deeper knowledge of the processes that control the chemical composition of the natural waters from

  3. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cozollino, Silvia M.F., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: msaiki@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: smfcozzo@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2017-07-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  4. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cozollino, Silvia M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  5. Experimental study of the uranium mobility due to the weathering action at the uraniferous district of Caetite/Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scislewski, Alexandro Rocha

    2004-01-01

    In the present research, the proposal was to develop a preliminary study about the geochemical behavior of determined chemical elements, mainly the uranium, during the action of weathering processes in the rocks that bear the uranium mineralizations of the Caetite-Lagoa Real region, State of Bahia, more specifically of the Jazida Cachoeira uranium mine. To reach this purpose were used samples that represent several stages of the milling process of the uranium ore, so selecting representatives of the host rock, the ore and the treated ore (waste from the milling plant) to be used in the laboratory-controlled experiments. The samples were dried, sieved and finally introduced in the reactors, these adapted from the Flow-Through Reactor of Brantley and Chen. In the geochemical point of view, the results of the experiments showed a distinct behavior between the samples. It was observed that the treated ore, in relation to the host rocks of the ore and the own ore, shown a faster and homogeneous interaction with the leaching solution; it was also noted that in the output solution of the treated ore samples existed a significant complexation of the uranium by the sulfate (S0 4 -2 ), ), instead of the non treated samples (host rock and ore) that were complexed mainly by the carbonate (C0 3 -2 ). These different results are attributed to the alterations imposed to the rock during the milling process, and occur mainly, during the acid attack in the leaching process of the milling plant. The results and conclusions of this research, in spite of been preliminary, are essential to understand the behavior of the geochemical speciation of the effluent solutions; to understand the alterations of a rock matrix, and finally, to understand the migration chemical behavior of the related chemical elements. It is expected that these results contribute, in the future, to a deeper knowledge of the processes that control the chemical composition of the natural waters from this region in

  6. Zooplankton community of Parnaíba River, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Cavalcanti Antunes Lucena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim:The objective of the present work is to present a list of species of zooplankton (Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda from the Parnaíba River. Additionally, we provide comments on their distribution along the river, and between dry and wet seasons.MethodsZooplankton was collected with a plankton net (60 µm mesh and concentrated into a volume of 80 mL for further analysis, during the dry (October 2010 and wet (April 2011 seasons. Sampling was restricted to the marginal areas at depths between 80 and 150 cm.ResultsA total of 132 species was recorded among the three zooplankton groups studied. During the dry season a total of 82 species was registered and 102 species was registered for the wet season. Rotifera contributed with 66.7% of the species, followed by Cladocera (26.5% and Copepoda (6.8%.ConclusionsThe richness of species observed was high compared to other large rivers in Brazil. In the context of current policies for water management and river diversions in northeastern Brazil, the present study highlights the importance of this river system for biodiversity conservation.

  7. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km 2 . Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h -1 ), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  8. Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Loganiaceae Flora of Paraíba, Brazil: Loganiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiriaki Nurit

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Loganiaceae, como parte do projeto "Flora da Paraíba", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora local. Realizouse coletas e observações de campo para as identificações, descrições e ilustrações botânicas que foram efetuadas após estudos morfológicos, com o auxílio da bibliografia especializada, complementados pela análise de fotos de tipos, espécimes dos herbários EAN, JPB e IPA, e comparação com material identificado por especialistas. Registrou-se para a Paraíba quatro espécies: Spigelia anthelmia L., com ampla distribuição, e três espécies de Strychnos, somente coletadas em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica, S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. e S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.This work constitutes a taxonomic treatment of the Loganiaceae family as part of the project "Flora da Paraíba", which have been carried out with the objective to identify and catalogue the species of the local flora. The botanical identifications and illustrations were made by morphological studies supported by bibliography, analysis of the types, specimens from herbaria EAN, JPB and IPA, and comparison with samples previously identified by specialists, complemented by field observations. Four species of Loganiaceae belonging two genera were found in State of Paraíba: Spigelia anthelmia L. that has wide distribution and three species of Strychnos, found on remains of Atlantic forest, which are S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. and S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.

  9. Sediment pollution in margins of the Lake Guaíba, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Leonardo Capeleto; Tiecher, Tales; de Oliveira, Jessica Souza; Andreazza, Robson; Inda, Alberto Vasconcellos; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio

    2017-12-02

    Sediments are formed by deposition of organic and inorganic particles on depth of water bodies, being an important role in aquatic ecosystems, including destination and potential source of essential nutrients and heavy metals, which may be toxic for living organisms. The Lake Guaíba supplies water for approximately two million people and it is located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sediment pollution in the margins of Lake Guaíba in the vicinity of Porto Alegre city. Surface sediment was sampled in 12 sites to assess the concentration of several elements (C, N, P, Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Ba, Zn, V, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Mo, and Se) and the mineralogical composition. Sediment in margins of Lake Guaíba presented predominantly (> 95%) sandy fraction in all samples, but with significant differences between evaluated sites. Sediments in the margins of Lake Guaíba showed indications of punctual water pollution with Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, TOC, TKN, and P, mainly derived from urban streams that flow into the lake. In order to solve these environmental liabilities, public actions should not focus only on Guaíba, but also in the streams that flow into the lake.

  10. Flora of the State of Paraíba, Brazil: Loranthaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Carla Leite de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The family Loranthaceae Juss., characterized by its parasitic habit, is rarely studied in Brazil. Current research provides a taxonomic survey of Loranthaceae in the State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, in which ten species belonging to four genera have been recorded: Passovia (one species, Psittacanthus (two species, Pusillanthus (one species and Struthanthus (six species. Struthanthus concinnus Mart. was found for the first time in the state of Paraíba. A key to the species identification and taxonomic descriptions is presented, with images, geographic distribution and host data.

  11. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  12. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  13. Characterization of clay of Vitoria da Conquista - BA - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Kaolinitic clay that are not coloured after firing are very useful in the production of ceramics because of their aesthetic aspect after firing. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (South- West Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by several techniques. The differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. The transformation of alpha to beta quartz characterized by a 573 deg C peak was also observed in DSC. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by flexural strength. (author)

  14. Cretaceous-Paleogene ostracods from the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Barros, Cecília; Piovesan, Enelise Katia; Oliveira Agostinho, Sonia Maria

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a detailed taxonomic study on the marine ostracods from the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil, in wells from the wells Itamaracá-1IT-03-PE and Poty-1PO-01-PE, which record the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. Besides the taxonomic data, this paper contributes to the paleoenvironmental knowledge of Cretaceous-Paleogene ostracods from the Paraíba Basin. The analysis of 98 samples of the well Itamaracá-1IT-03-PE and 59 samples of the Poty-1PO-01-PE resulted in the record of 34 ostracode species, all representative of a marine environment with normal salinity. Seven new species are proposed: Cytherella centrocompressa sp. nov.; Cytherella paraibensis sp. nov.; Neonesidea potyensis sp. nov.; Bythoceratina spinosa sp. nov.; Eucytherura ventrotuberculata sp. nov.; Langiella fauthi sp. nov. and Protobuntonia punctatum sp. nov.

  15. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Poli; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Cinthia Saska; Rita Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%). Sixty five percent (n = 13) of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas...

  16. Influence of habitat heterogeneity on anuran diversity in Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Kássio C; Guzzi, Anderson; Ávila, Robson W

    2018-01-01

    Anurans have close associations with environmental conditions and therefore represent an interesting vertebrate group for examining how resource availability and environmental variables influence species diversity. Associations between habitat heterogeneity and anuran species diversity were tested in the Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta in northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one anuran species were sampled in the rainy season during monthly excursions (December 2015 to June 2016) into areas of Restinga on two islands in the Parnaíba River delta. The fourth highest anuran diversity was found in this type of environment in Brazil and is the third in northeastern Brazil. Microenvironments, characterized by a combination of vernal pools with different vegetational and physical structures, better explained anuran species composition in the Parnaíba River delta.

  17. The Paleozoic ichthyofauna of the Amazonas and Parnaíba basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rodrigo Tinoco; Machado, Deusana Maria da Costa

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian Paleozoic ichthyofauna from the Parnaíba and Amazonas basins regard a sparsely known diversity, including chondrichthyans and acanthodians, besides some osteichthyan remains. This work proposes a revision of the fossil material from these two sedimentary basins and synthesizes the morphological aspect of such material trying to understand the influences of those fossils to the paleontology of the region, comparing the Brazilian fossils with other gondwanan faunas. The Brazilian Paleozoic fish fauna shows great resemblance to those of Bolivia, especially during the Devonian. Many of the Acanthodian spines from the Manacapuru Formation (Amazonas Basin), and the Pimenteira Formation (Parnaíba Basin), are comparable to the taxa found in Bolivia. The lack of more Placoderm remains in the Brazilian outcrops is similar to the low diversity of this group in Bolivia, when compared to other South American and Euramerican localities. The most diverse Brazilian ichthyofauna is encountered in the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation where numerous chondrichthyans and 'paleopterygians' remains are found, together with dipnoans and actinistians. Despite the apparent lack of more representative Paleozoic ichthyofaunas in Brazil, the available material that ranges from Lower Devonian to early Permian from Brazil bears important taxa that could address valuable taxonomic and biogeographic informations.

  18. A Miocene wave-dominated estuarine system in the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Rosana; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Góes, Ana Maria

    2017-11-01

    A number of publications have documented the effect of the Miocene transgression on several coasts of the world. However, this event is incompletely documented along the Brazilian margin, despite the existence of an impressive record of Miocene deposits exposed mostly as several coastal cliffs along more than 5000 km of distance. The transgressive nature of Miocene deposits, so far recognized only in a few localities of northeastern Brazil, needs to be amplified in order to better characterize the impact of the Miocene transgression in eastern South America. In this work, we provide facies analysis of early/middle Miocene strata exposed in the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil, aiming reconstruct the depositional paleoenvironments and analyze their evolution within the context of relative sea-level fluctuations data. The results revealed deposits characterized by several features that were related to the action of tidal currents, such as alternating thicker/thinner forest packages, abundant reactivation surfaces, mud drapes and oppositely-dipping (herringbone) cross sets. These sedimentary structures were associated with an ichnological assemblage indicative of marine-influenced and brackish water, best represented by Ophiomorpha, Planolites-Palaeophycus-Thalassinoides and Thallassinoides-Planolites-Palaeophycus ichnofabrics. Sedimentation occurred in environments consisting of estuarine channel, estuarine central basin, tidal inlet/tidal channel, tidal delta/washover, tidal flat/shoal and foreshore, which were related to an estuarine setting, at least in part of a wave-dominated type. Analysis of facies stratal patterns led to suggest that the estuarine deposits of the Paraíba Basin reflect a rise in relative sea level probably during the transgressive and/or highstand stage of a depositional sequence formed directly overlying Cretaceous rocks. This rise can be correlated with the worldwide early/mid Miocene marine transgression. However, while the eustatic sea

  19. An application of sample entropy to precipitation in Paraíba State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Sílvio Fernando Alves; da Silva Jale, Jader; Stosic, Tatijana; dos Santos, Carlos Antonio Costa; Singh, Vijay P.

    2018-05-01

    A climate system is characterized to be a complex non-linear system. In order to describe the complex characteristics of precipitation series in Paraíba State, Brazil, we aim the use of sample entropy, a kind of entropy-based algorithm, to evaluate the complexity of precipitation series. Sixty-nine meteorological stations are distributed over four macroregions: Zona da Mata, Agreste, Borborema, and Sertão. The results of the analysis show that intricacies of monthly average precipitation have differences in the macroregions. Sample entropy is able to reflect the dynamic change of precipitation series providing a new way to investigate complexity of hydrological series. The complexity exhibits areal variation of local water resource systems which can influence the basis for utilizing and developing resources in dry areas.

  20. Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi natural clones from the state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Barnabé

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from the state of Paraíba, Brazil, isolated from man, wild mammals, and triatomine bugs were studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random primed amplified polymorphic DNA. Despite the low number of stocks, a notable genetic, genotypic, and phylogenetic diversity was recorded. The presence of the two main phylogenetic subdivisions, T. cruzi I and II, was recorded. The strong linkage disequilibrium observed in the population under survey suggests that T. cruzi undergoes predominant clonal evolution in this area too, although this result should be confirmed by a broader sample. The pattern of clonal variation does not suggests a recent origin by founder effect with a limited number of different genotypes.

  1. Vascular flora of an inselberg in the state of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the floristic composition of an inselberg in the Puxinanã municipality, of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil. Ninety-seven species were recorded that belong to 35 families: Asteraceae (12 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae (nine spp. each, Rubiaceae and Convolvulaceae (eight spp. each were the richest families, comprising 47.42% of the total species registered. The herbaceous habit was predominant, occurring in 39% of the species, followed by species of shrubs (22%, vines (20%, rupicolous plants (6%, subshrubs (5%, trees (4% and epiphytes (1%. Passiflora luetzelburgii Harms (Passifloraceae is a new record for the flora of the state. The data from this study provides information that could be used in the conservation and rational use of the study area, and contributes to what is known about the flora and vegetation of the Caatinga.

  2. First case report of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio José Clementino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the first case of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. Records from the Official Veterinary Services of the State of Paraíba were analyzed while responding to a suspected case of vesicular disease at a property (property I in the municipality of Pombal in which the cattle showed clinical signs and lesions of vesicular disease. Surveillance in the surrounding area revealed similar lesions in cattle at two other properties (II and III. Based on these events, the suspicion was considered well founded, and samples were collected for evaluation at the National Agricultural Laboratory of the State of Pará. The property was interdicted, and those located within a 3 km radius (perifocal from the focus were inspected. At property I, 42.86% (6/14 of the cattle showed vesicular disease lesions characterized by intense sialorrhea, ruptured oral vesicles, epithelial detachment of the tongue and muzzle, and vesicular lesions in the udder and interdigital space. Similar lesions were detected in cattle at properties II and III, affecting 80.95% (34/42 and 11.54% (3/26 of the animals, respectively. Tissue samples collected from the three properties were positive for the vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana 3 subtype. The properties were monitored for 21 days after the last infected animal was cured, and afterwards, the three properties were released.

  3. Radiation protection optimization in the CAETITE industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo Py Junior, D.; Figueiredo, N.; Dos Santos Dias, P.L.; Mantovani Lima, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents, briefly, the radiation protection aspects of process, project and operation of the Caetite Industrial Complex, CIC. Planing priorities were to minimize Environmental Radiological Impact and Occupational Radiological Risk - Based on previous experiences, the process and the project were optimized, in order to minimize environmental impact and allow simultaneous natural environment restoration and operation. Technical, practical and economical advantages became evident during all project fazes, from the initial project development to the conclusion of all decommissioning steps. Planing, conducts. adequate working methods and workers training, together, turned out to be the most efficient way for occupational radiological risk reduction. This efficiency was proved during operational tests and initial operation of the Complex. Radiation Protection optimization is achieved by worker's responsibility, turning safety corrections interference less frequents, rising consequently, minimizing environmental impact. (author)

  4. Prevalence of canine hepatozoonosis in Areia, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças da Silva Bernardino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine hepatozoonosis is a parasitic disease of debilitating nature. Also, it is immunosuppressive and difficult to diagnose clinically. The prevalence of the disease in dogs has been described in several Brazilian states, but studies are still scarce in the Northeast region. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of canine hepatozoonosis in Areia, Paraíba, Brazil. The dogs were clinically examined, and peripheral blood samples were obtained from the tip of the ear. Of the 151 dogs analyzed, 9.3% were positive for Hepatozoon canis by the demonstration of gamonts parasitizing neutrophils. The degree of parasitemia ranged from mild to intense. The observed hematological changes were different between animals and showed no pattern of response to infection. The subclinical form was observed in 50% of dogs and the others had nonspecific clinical signs. We conclude that hepatozoonosis occurs in dogs in the urban area of the city studied and that dogs infected with H. canis show hematological changes and nonspecific clinical signs.

  5. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

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    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  6. Inorganic As speciation and bioavailability in estuarine sediments of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatje, V.; Macedo, S.M.; Jesus, R.M. de; Cotrim, G.; Garcia, K.S.; Queiroz, A.F. de; Ferreira, S.L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Total concentration of As at several stations along Todos os Santos Bay, was above TEL value. → At Subae and Paraguacu systems, As (V) was the dominant species, which is less toxic and less mobile than As (III). → Arsenic concentrations at Jaguaripe estuary were higher than in other estuaries and As (III) was the dominant species. → Relationship between As, Fe, Mn and sand indicated that As enrichment at Jaguaripe River is natural. → As concentrations in sediments and biota suggest that As is bioavailable and it is accumulating in marine organisms, which may impose human risks. → Slurry sampling showed to be a easy, accurate procedure to be used for As determination in estuarine samples. - Abstract: The spatial distribution of As (total As, As (III) and As (V)) in estuarine sediments from the main tributaries of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil, was evaluated under high and low flow conditions. The concentrations of As were determined using a slurry sampling procedure with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The highest concentrations were observed at estuary mouths, and exceeded conservative lower threshold value (Threshold Effects Level; TEL). Due to the oxic conditions and abundance of Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides in the sediments, most inorganic arsenic in the Subae and Paraguacu estuaries was present as As (V). Nevertheless, the concentration of As (III) at several locations along the Jaguaripe River were also above the TEL value, suggesting that As may be toxic to biota. In the Subae estuary, antropogenic activities are the main source of As. At the Jaguaripe and at Paraguacu estuaries, nevertheless, natural sources of As need to be considered to explain the distribution patterns.

  7. ISO 9000: The challenge of Camacari petrochemical complex, Bahia State - Northeast Brazil; ISO 9000: o desafio do polo petroquimico de Camacari, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lima de; Carvalho Neto, Jose

    1993-12-31

    The petrochemical complex of Camacari, BA, Brazil, involves 40 companies, responsible for 55% of brazilian production. The companies were installed using the most modern techniques related to quality available at that time, strongly centered in quality control. The new industrial policy towards reducing import taxes and allowing the entrance of foreign products at competitive prices, besides the quality exigencies of international market, induced the companies to develop new techniques for quality management based in the ISO 9000 standards. The paper shows the stage of implementation of these standards in 30 companies, corresponding to 90% of global sales of all the complex. (author)

  8. ISO 9000: The challenge of Camacari petrochemical complex, Bahia State - Northeast Brazil; ISO 9000: o desafio do polo petroquimico de Camacari, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lima de; Carvalho Neto, Jose

    1992-12-31

    The petrochemical complex of Camacari, BA, Brazil, involves 40 companies, responsible for 55% of brazilian production. The companies were installed using the most modern techniques related to quality available at that time, strongly centered in quality control. The new industrial policy towards reducing import taxes and allowing the entrance of foreign products at competitive prices, besides the quality exigencies of international market, induced the companies to develop new techniques for quality management based in the ISO 9000 standards. The paper shows the stage of implementation of these standards in 30 companies, corresponding to 90% of global sales of all the complex. (author)

  9. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  10. Water supply diagnosis in the municipality of Cajazeiras, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    José Adalberto da Silva Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The water supply is a key factor for the development of the population in a region. The mapping areas that are not supplied with drinking water is an important mechanism, once the vulnerable locations are identified, which leads to establish policies and programs to mitigate the problem. Thus, this paper aims at examining areas that present vulnerability in access to water in the municipality of Cajazeiras, Paraíba State, Brazil. In order to carry this research out, data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were analyzed. The results indicate a disproportion in access to water between rural and urban areas, with the first being very vulnerable to contamination factors. It is necessary environmental education programs for sustainable water use, the development of technologies to ensure good quality water and the well being of the people, by the high risk of water-related diseases caused by the contamination that may occur in capture, transport and storage of water. Diagnóstico do abastecimento de água no município de Cajazeiras – PB, BrasilResumo: O abastecimento de água é um fator determinante para o desenvolvimento da população em uma região. O mapeamento de zonas que não são abastecidos com água potável é um mecanismo importante, uma vez que são identificadas as localidades que apresentam vulnerabilidade, sendo assim possível estabelecer políticas e programas que amenizem a problemática. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar as zonas que apresentam vulnerabilidade no acesso à água no município de Cajazeiras - PB, por meio de dados obtidos junto ao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Os resultados indicam uma desproporcionalidade no acesso à água entre as zonas rurais e urbanas, sendo a primeira muito vulnerável a fatores de contaminação. Dessa forma, faz-se necessário programas de educação ambiental para o uso sustentável da água, como também o

  11. Lower Permian stems as fluvial paleocurrent indicators of the Parnaíba Basin, northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capretz, Robson Louiz; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive biostratinomic study was carried out with abundant stems from the Lower Permian Motuca Formation of the intracratonic Parnaíba Basin, central-north Brazil. The fossils represent a rare tropical to subtropical paleofloristic record in north Gondwana. Tree ferns dominate the assemblages (mainly Tietea, secondarily Psaronius), followed by gymnosperms, sphenophytes, other ferns and rare lycophytes. They are silica-permineralized, commonly reach 4 m length (exceptionally more than 10 m), lie loosely on the ground or are embedded in the original sandstone or siltstone matrix, and attract particular attention because of their frequent parallel attitudes. Many tree fern stems present the original straight cylindrical to slightly conical forms, other are somewhat flattened, and the gymnosperm stems are usually more irregular. Measurements of stem orientations and dimensions were made in three sites approximately aligned in a W-E direction in a distance of 27.3 km at the conservation unit "Tocantins Fossil Trees Natural Monument". In the eastern site, rose diagrams for 54 stems indicate a relatively narrow azimuthal range to SE. These stems commonly present attached basal bulbous root mantles and thin cylindrical sandstone envelopes, which sometimes hold, almost adjacent to the lateral stem surface, permineralized fern pinnae and other small plant fragments. In the more central site, 82 measured stems are preferentially oriented in the SW-NE direction, the proportion of gymnosperms is higher and cross-stratification sets of sandstones indicate paleocurrents mainly to NE and secondarily to SE. In the western site, most of the 42 measured stems lie in E-W positions. The predominantly sandy succession, where the fossil stems are best represented, evidences a braided fluvial system under semiarid conditions. The low plant diversity, some xeromorphic features and the supposedly almost syndepositional silica impregnation of the plants are coherent with marked dry

  12. Systemic acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in dogs in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Maria T.S. Frade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals, and intestine. One dog had foci of malacia in the parietal cortex and another one in nucleus of brain basis. Histologically, pyogranulomas with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in all organs affected were observed, associated with myriads of intralesional amoebic trophozoites. All three cases were concomitant canine distemper, that possibly triggered immunosuppression in the dogs. The diagnosis was performed through microscopic findings of infection by free-living amoebae and confirmed Acanthamoeba sp. by immunohistochemistry

  13. Clinical and mycological study of scalp white piedra in the State of Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Ramos, Adriano Lira; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; Guerra, Maria de Fátima de Lacerda; Oliveira, Neuza Maria Cavalcante; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2002-07-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeasts. In the present study, clinical and mycological findings of scalp white piedra caused by Trichosporon spp. are related. Twenty three cases of scalp white piedra were observed with a high incidence in women (87%) and preschool children from 2 to 6 (74%) years old. These groups presented a relationship of dependence with this infection. Despite the low socio-economic status, poor standards of hygiene, (48% of the patients) as well as the fact that 30.4% of the children shared the same nursery, these factors were not significant for the transmission of the mycosis. These were the first reports of scalp white piedra in João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil.

  14. Clinical and mycological study of scalp white piedra in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva Pontes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available White piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeasts. In the present study, clinical and mycological findings of scalp white piedra caused by Trichosporon spp. are related. Twenty three cases of scalp white piedra were observed with a high incidence in women (87% and preschool children from 2 to 6 (74% years old. These groups presented a relationship of dependence with this infection. Despite the low socio-economic status, poor standards of hygiene, (48% of the patients as well as the fact that 30.4% of the children shared the same nursery, these factors were not significant for the transmission of the mycosis. These were the first reports of scalp white piedra in João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil.

  15. The zooplankton biodiversity of some freshwater environments in Parnaíba basin (Piauí, Northeastern Brazil

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    JDN. Paranhos

    Full Text Available The plankton fauna of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, especially in the Parnaíba basin, is still poorly known; the results of most studies of the subject have not been published and can only be found in grey literature (unpublished scientific works, such as course completion work and consulting reports. Thus, this paper presents data from samples taken recently from different water bodies in Piauí and represents the second study to be published on the region's zooplankton since the pioneering work of Spandl (1926. A total of 38 species were recorded, including 23 new occurrences of rotifers, 10 of cladocerans and 2 of copepods for the state of Piauí. The greatest richness was observed for the rotifers, of which the genus Brachionus must be highlighted, especially at the Joana reservoir. Among the crustaceans, the greatest richness was observed at the Bezerra reservoir, where cladocerans of the genus Bosmina were prominent. The rotifers Brachionus havanaensis Rousselet, 1911 and Filinia longiseta (Ehrenberg, 1834; the cladocerans Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1967 and Moina micrura Kurz, 1874; and the copepods Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer, 1927 occurred in all or in most environments in which the respective groups were studied. The results presented here expand the taxonomic list of zooplankton for the state of Piauí, including a total fauna of 30 species of rotifers, 15 of cladocerans and 3 of copepods. The zooplankton richness was considered low in the studied reservoirs compared to other freshwater ecosystems from Northeastern Brazil; however, the few studies developed in the Parnaíba basin suggest that the diversity for these organisms should be higher.

  16. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Luiz, Tatiane; Roquetti Velludo, Marcela; Carvalho Peret, Alberto; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Moldenhauer Peret, André

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the ...

  17. Characterization and pedogenesis of mangrove soils from Ilhéus-BA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Felipe Haenel; Ker,João Carlos; Ferreira,Tiago Osório; Moreau,Ana Maria Souza dos Santos; Moreau,Maurício Santana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its importance, studies of mangrove soils are scarce, especially from a pedological perspective. The objective of this work was to study the genesis of soils in a mangrove environment in northeastern Brazil (Ilhéus, Bahia) through a morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. All soils presented a sandy texture, which is related to the parent material (Quaternary sand deposits). The tidal flooding and resulting hydromorphic conditions is responsible ...

  18. Uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil: the role of fluids in its genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prates, Sonia Pinto; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Fuzikawa, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium province is situated in the central-south of Bahia state . Brazil and it is presently by far the most important and best known uranium occurrence in Brazil. Nowadays 34 anomalies are known in a 30 Km long and 5 km wide area. An open pit mine was open in Cachoeira Mine, in the north portion of the area, and it is the only uranium mine in operation in Brazil and even in South America as well. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real uranium province occurs in metamorphic rocks named albitites, due to their albite content (over 70%). Uraninite is the main uranium mineral, followed by pechblende, uranophane, torbernite and other uranyl minerals. Uraninite occurs as tiny round and irregular crystals (20 a 30 μm) included or associated to mafic minerals, mainly pyroxene and garnet, and also to amphibole and biotite and sometimes to albite. Some secondary minerals such as, for instance, uranophane, torbernite and tyuyamunite are also found. The main albitites minerals from the Cachoeira mine (plagioclase, garnet, biotite, pyroxene, amphibole and titanite) were studied by means of Infrared Spectroscopy Techniques. Good results were obtained from small quantities of material (around 2 mg) and allowed the minerals identification, and also to know their composition (from the peak position) and to detect the presence of water molecules, which indicates an aqueous phase during the uranium formation, probably rich in Fluorine. (author)

  19. Performance of different methods for reference evapotranspiration estimation in Jaíba, Brazil

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    Gustavo H. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT FAO Penman-Monteith (FO-PM is considered the standard method for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 but requires various meteorological data, which are often not available. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of the FAO-PM method with limited meteorological data and other methods as alternatives to estimate ET0 in Jaíba-MG. The study used daily meteorological data from 2007 to 2016 of the National Institute of Meteorology’s station. Daily ET0 values were randomized, and 70% of these were used to determine the calibration parameters of the ET0 for the equations of each method under study. The remaining data were used to test the calibration against the standard method. Performance evaluation was based on Willmott’s index of agreement, confidence coefficient and root-mean-square error. When one meteorological variable was missing, either solar radiation, relative air humidity or wind speed, or in the simultaneous absence of wind speed and relative air humidity, the FAO-PM method showed the best performances and, therefore, was recommended for Jaíba. The FAO-PM method with two missing variables, one of them being solar radiation, showed intermediate performance. Methods that used only air temperature data are not recommended for the region.

  20. Evolution of the Parnaíba Delta (NE Brazil) during the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygielski, Agata; Stattegger, Karl; Schwarzer, Klaus; da Silva, André Giskard Aquino; Vital, Helenice; Koenig, Juliane

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary processes and the evolution of the wave- and tide-dominated, asymmetric Parnaíba Delta during the late Holocene were investigated based on geochemical and sedimentological analyses of sediment cores collected in 2010, as well as satellite images and historical maps. This is a rare case of pristine deltas essentially unaffected by human activities worldwide. The lowermost part of the main Parnaíba River distributary exhibits several low-sinuosity bends and several anastomosing bifurcation patterns in the east, whereas three NW-SE-oriented tidal channels drain a large mangrove area in the west. Dating of various materials in sediment cores from the tidal flats, tidal channels and supratidal marshes revealed that the oldest sediment (4,853 to 4,228 cal. years BP) is paleo-mangrove soil from the main river distributary. Present-day mangroves and marshes up to 200 years old exhibit high sedimentation rates reaching 3.4 cm/year. The asymmetry of the delta is explained not only by the wind- and wave-induced westward-directed longshore drift but also by neotectonic processes, as revealed by satellite images. Faulting and eastward tilting may have triggered delta lobe switching from west to east. This would explain the erosional character and unusual updrift orientation of the main river-mouth channel. Consistent with existing knowledge on mangrove ecosystems worldwide, sediment carbon and nitrogen signatures lie in the range of freshwater or marine dissolved organic carbon and C3 terrestrial plants. In the western tidal channels, the low Corg/Ntot ratios (16-21) of young mangrove soil (deposited in the last 16 years) reflect a stronger influence of marine plants compared to older mangroves (1,390-1,525 cal. years BP; ratios of 20-37). Thus, there would have been a greater influence of the Parnaíba River on tidal-channel sedimentology 1,400 to 1,500 years ago, entailing a natural connection between the present-day tidal channels and the river in ancient times

  1. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  2. Geophysical evidence of pre-sag rifting and post-rifting fault reactivation in the Parnaíba basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco Hilário; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Vidotti, Roberta Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rifting mechanism that preceded the prolonged subsidence of the Paleozoic Parnaíba basin in Brazil and shed light on the tectonic evolution of this large cratonic basin in the South American platform. From the analysis of aeromagnetic, aerogravity, seismic reflection and borehole data, we concluded the following: (1) large pseudo-gravity and gravity lows mimic graben structures but are associated with linear supracrustal strips in the basement. (2...

  3. Characterization and pedogenesis of mangrove soils from Ilhéus-BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Haenel Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance, studies of mangrove soils are scarce, especially from a pedological perspective. The objective of this work was to study the genesis of soils in a mangrove environment in northeastern Brazil (Ilhéus, Bahia through a morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. All soils presented a sandy texture, which is related to the parent material (Quaternary sand deposits. The tidal flooding and resulting hydromorphic conditions is responsible for dominance of dark grey colors, and high organic matter contents (paludization process. As well as the high values of electrical conductivity (EC and dominance of Na+ in the saturation extract (salinization and solodization processes, respectively. Contrastingly, the M3 profile, with aninga (Montrichardia linifera vegetation, a non-exclusive mangrove plant, showed colors with high chromas due to a lesser influence of tidal flooding. The pH values and the SO4=/Cl- ratios indicated the presence of sulfidic material and, thus, the occurrence of the sulfidization process. The soil organic matter fractionation evidenced the humin as the fraction with the highest content, probably because of removal of most soluble fractions due to tidal action. Similar to mangrove soils from southeast Brazil, the XRD analysis identified kaolinite, mica and expandable 2:1 minerals in the clay fraction.

  4. First report of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus in South America, infecting mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Paraíba River (NE, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Santana, Lucas Nunes; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Ramilo, Andrea; Cao, Asunción; Villalba, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The present work aimed to study the infection by Perkinsus sp. in the mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the estuary of the Paraíba River (Paraíba State, Brazil). Perkinsosis was detected by incubation of oyster gill pieces in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. The monthly prevalence values were all above 70%, thus infection was not likely to be a transient event. Perkinsus sp. parasites isolated from eight oysters were propagated in vitro. PCR-RFLP analysis of in vitro cultured cells as well as the sequences of the rDNA ITS region allowed the identification of the in vitro propagated parasites as Perkinsus marinus. Phylogenetic analyses using rDNA ITS region sequences strongly supported the Perkinsus sp. from Paraíba in a monophyletic group with P. marinus. Thus, the results confirmed the species affiliation of Paraíba Perkinsus sp. as P. marinus. This is the first report of P. marinus in Brazil and South America and the first report of P. marinus naturally infecting C. rhizophorae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Explosive pollination mechanism in Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Andressa Cavalcante Meireles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p71 Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. has papilionaceous flowers with a complex pollination mechanism. This study examined pollination and reproduction in P. mediterranea from November 2009 to October 2011 at the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. The petals are modified in a keel that protects the stamens and stigma; two wings surround the keel, and a standard that serves as landing platform for floral visitors. Periandra mediterranea exhibits an explosive type pollination mechanism in which the bee species Xylocopa frontalis, Acanthopus excellens and Epicharis sp., land on the standard and, due to body weight, expose the reproductive organs in the wing-keel complex. As a result, the reproductive organs of the flower come into contact with the dorsal region of the bee body, depositing pollen (i.e., nototríbic pollination. Reproductive assays showed 20% fruiting in spontaneous auto-pollination, 33% in manual auto-pollination, 33% in manual cross-pollination, and 100% in the control group, with no reproductive success while in apomixis. These results demonstrate self-compatibility in this species, however it depends on pollinators to ensure reproductive success.

  6. Explosive pollination mechanism in Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Cavalcante Meireles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. has papilionaceous flowers with a complex pollination mechanism. This study examined pollination and reproduction in P. mediterranea from November 2009 to October 2011 at the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. The petals are modified in a keel that protects the stamens and stigma; two wings surround the keel, and a standard that serves as landing platform for floral visitors. Periandra mediterranea exhibits an explosive type pollination mechanism in which the bee species Xylocopa frontalis, Acanthopus excellens and Epicharis sp., land on the standard and, due to body weight, expose the reproductive organs in the wing-keel complex. As a result, the reproductive organs of the flower come into contact with the dorsal region of the bee body, depositing pollen (i.e., nototríbic pollination. Reproductive assays showed 20% fruiting in spontaneous auto-pollination, 33% in manual auto-pollination, 33% in manual cross-pollination, and 100% in the control group, with no reproductive success while in apomixis. These results demonstrate self-compatibility in this species, however it depends on pollinators to ensure reproductive success.

  7. Influence of terrestrial radionuclides on environmental gamma exposure in a uranium deposit in Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Dos Santos Júnior, José; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; Simões Cezar Menezes, Rômulo; Reinaldo Estevez Álvarez, Juan; Marques do Nascimento Santos, Josineide; Herrero Fernández, Zahily; Dias Bezerra, Jairo; Antônio da Silva, Alberto; Francys Rodrigues Damascena, Kennedy; de Almeida Maciel Neto, José

    2017-07-01

    One of the main natural uranium deposits in Brazil is located in the municipality of Espinharas, in the State of Paraíba. This area may present high levels of natural radioactivity due to the presence of these radionuclides. Since this is a populated area, there is need for a radioecological dosimetry assessment to investigate the possible risks to the population. Based on this problem, the objective of this study was to estimate the environmental effective dose outdoors in inhabited areas influenced by the uranium deposit, using the specific activities of equivalent uranium, equivalent thorium and 40 K and conversion factors. The environmental assessment was carried using gamma spectroscopy in sixty-two points within the municipality, with a high-resolution gamma spectrometer with HPGe semiconductor detector and Be window. The results obtained ranged from 0.01 to 19.11 mSv y -1 , with an average of 2.64 mSv y -1 . These levels are, on average, 23 times higher than UNSCEAR reference levels and up to 273 times the reference value of the earth's crust for primordial radionuclides. Therefore, given the high radioactivity levels found, we conclude that there is need for further investigation to evaluate the levels of radioactivity in indoor environments, which will reflect more closely the risks of the local population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paleoenvironmental evolution based on benthic foraminifera biofacies of the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Sarah Pereira; Vilela, Claudia Gutterres

    2017-12-01

    The paleoecology and distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were analyzed in the core 2-MU-1-RJ well, drilled in the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). An abundant assemblage was found in the upper portion of the well core, inferred to be pleistocenic deposits. The coastal dynamic was recognized from five biofacies based on clusters, the Planktonic/Benthic (P/B) ratios and indicator species distribution in the core. Several biofacies were identified along the core depending on the species dominance. From the bottom to the top of the core, the biofacies succession represents the environmental changes in the coastal area associated to sea-level oscillations. The biofacies ABP dominated by Ammonia parkinsoniana and Bolivina spp. and Pararotalia cananeiaensis represents an inner shelf environment; biofacies QP dominated by shelf miliolids species; biofacies PGH, dominated by P. cananeiaensis, Gavelinopsis praegeri, and Hanzawaia nitidula, represents the estuary complex with middle or outer shelf influence; biofacies QL represents hypersaline waters dominated by lagoonal miliolids; and biofacies HP characterized by Haynesina germanica and P. cananeiaensis is associated with paralic environments. Marine ingressions are recorded and those biofacies show the pleistocenic coastal hydrodinamic in the deltaic complex. The foraminiferal biofacies contribute with detailed information to sedimentary facies previously characterized in the study area by the reconstruction of paleoenvironment succession.

  9. Spatial distribution of scorpions according to the socioeconomic conditions in Campina Grande,State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Thassiany Sarmento Oliveira de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to its frequency and morbidity, such as that caused by scorpions have achieved public health importance in certain regions of the world. The present exploratory ecological study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile and spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Campina Grande, State of Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Geographical information system techniques were used to record the scorpion stings, and Google Earth software, Track Maker, and ArcGIS 10 Esri were used as geocoding databases. The Moran test was used to evaluate spatial correlation, and the Pearson chi-square test was used to analyze associations between scorpion stings and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The study evaluated 1,466 scorpion stings. Envenomations were more frequent among women (n = 908, 61.9%, and most patients were aged 13-28 years (n = 428, 29.2%. The Southern region of the city had the largest number of registered cases (n = 548, 37.4%, followed by the Western region (n = 510, 34.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis of scorpionism revealed an irregular occurrence in Campina Grande. Further, no association was observed between the socioeconomic factors analyzed and the geographic location of the scorpion envenomations. Detection of spatial areas with an increased risk of scorpionism can help prioritize adoption of preventive measures in these regions to reduce the associated incidence and morbidity.

  10. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Thiago da Silva Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p23 Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  11. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

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    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  12. Behaviour of zirconium in the weathering of granulites from Salvador-BA/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, I.J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The weathering related to mineralogy with chemical analysis of Zr in granulites and their weathered equivalents in Salvador - Brazil, is studied. The mineralogical and petrographical characteristics were correlated with analyses for K,Al and Zr. The fresh rocks are quartz-rich pyroxene granulites, the weathered samples were submitted to bromoform and electromagnetic separations to recovery nearly pure zircon from the fraction coarser than 50 micros. These zircons were classified by color, size and shape. Proportions between different colors of zircon were correlated with petrography of fresh granulites. Studies of zircons resistent to acid attack indicated, that the darker colors were due to iron oxide staining. Chemical analyses for Zr in fresh rocks presented values higher than the values corresponding to zircon observed in thin sections, sugesting the presence of Zr as a trace element in ferromagnesian silicates. In the weathered rocks, Zr values are much higher than those corresponding to recovered zircon. Comparisons of K 2 O, Al 2 O 3 and Zr values in fresh and weathered rocks indicated a loss of K 2 O, and a gain of Zr by weathering. However, maximum losses of K 2 O do not coincide with maximum gains of Zr. (author) [pt

  13. Patterns and inferred processes associated with sea turtle strandings in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

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    C. Poli

    Full Text Available This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106, hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2 and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1. Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL was measured (n = 122, only 12 individuals (9.7% were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6% became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March. We found evidence of human interactions (injuries in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes.

  14. Paleoenvironmental implications of early diagenetic siderites of the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Amanda Goulart; De Ros, Luiz Fernando; Neumann, Reiner; Borghi, Leonardo

    2015-06-01

    Abundant early diagenetic siderites occur as spherulites and rhombohedral microcrystalline and macrocrystalline crystals in the cores of the 2-MU-1-RJ well, drilled in the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The host sediments of the siderites are siliciclastic, hybrid, and carbonate deposits. Intense pedogenetic processes affected the siliciclastic sediments immediately after deposition, comprising clay illuviation, plants bioturbation, feldspar dissolution, and iron oxide/hydroxide precipitation. Siderite and pyrite are the main diagenetic constituents. The other diagenetic products are kaolinite, smectite, argillaceous and carbonate pseudomatrix, quartz overgrowths, diagenetic titanium minerals, jarosite, and iron oxides/hydroxides. Early diagenetic siderites were separated into four groups based on their elemental and stable isotopic composition, as well as on their paragenetic relationships with the other constituents and with the host sediments. Spherulitic to macrocrystalline siderites from group 1 are almost pure (average: 94.7 mol% FeCO3; 1.2 mol% MgCO3; 2.3 mol% CaCO3; 1.8 mol% MnCO3) and precipitated from meteoric porewaters in continental siliciclastic rocks under suboxic conditions (δ18Ovpdb values range in - 10.28 to - 5.57‰ and the δ13Cvpdb values in - 12.68 to - 4.33‰). Microcrystalline rhombohedral siderites from group 2 have zonation due to substantial Ca and Mg substitution (core average: 78.5 mol% FeCO3; 4.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.7 mol% CaCO3; 1.6 mol% MnCO3; edge average: 74.0 mol% FeCO3; 9.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.6 mol% CaCO3; 1.1 mol% MnCO3), and δ13Cvpdb and δ18Ovpdb values of + 0.17‰ and - 1.96‰, precipitated from marine porewaters in packstones/wackestones under methanogenic conditions. The group 3 is represented by irregular spherulitic siderites with moderate Ca and Mg substitutions (average: 80.2 mol% FeCO3; 7.9 mol% MgCO3; 11.3 mol% CaCO3; 0.6 mol% MnCO3), with δ18Ovpdb values ranging from - 5.96 to - 7.61‰ and

  15. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  16. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Parnaíba cratonic basin, North-East Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Watts, A. B.; Daly, M.

    2015-12-01

    Cratonic basins are characterized by their sub-circular shape, long-lived (>100 Myr) subsidence, shallow marine/terrestrial sediments that young towards the center of the basin and exhibit little internal deformation, and thick seismic lithosphere. Despite the recognition of >30 world-wide, the paucity of geological and geophysical data over these basins means their origin remains enigmatic. In order to address this problem, we have used a recently acquired 1400 km long seismic reflection profile recorded to 20 s TWTT, field observations and well logs, gravity and magnetic data acquired at 1 km intervals, and five wide-angle refection/refraction receiver gathers recorded at offsets up to 100 km, to constrain the origin of the Parnaíba basin, North-East Brazil. We find a depth to pre-Paleozoic basement and Moho of ~ 3.5 and ~ 40 - 42 km respectively beneath the basin center. A prominent mid-crustal reflection (MCR) can be tracked laterally for ~ 300 km at depths between 17 - 25 km and a low-fold wide-angle receiver gather stack shows that the crust below the MCR is characterized by a ~ 4 s TWTT package of anastomosing reflections. Gravity modelling suggests that the MCR represents the upper surface of a high density (+0.14 kg m-3) lower crustal body, which is probably of magmatic origin. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data from wells in the center of the basin show an exponentially decreasing subsidence. We show that although cooling of a thick (180 km) lithosphere following prolonged rifting (~ 65 Myr) can provide a good fit to the tectonic subsidence curves, process-oriented gravity and flexure modelling suggest that other processes must be important, as rifting does not account for the observed gravity anomaly and predicts too thin a crust (~ 34 km). The thicker than expected crust suggests warping due, for example, to far-field stresses or basal tractions. Another possibility, which is compatible with existing geophysical data, is a dense magmatic intrusion

  17. Oceanographic characteristics of an impacted coastal bay: Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn; Ribeiro, Cesar H. A.; Dias, Gilberto T. M.; Filippo, Alessandro M.; Da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    1997-11-01

    Baía de Guanabara is a 384 km 2 eutrophic coastal bay in Brazil, impacted by the polluted discharge from the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. The structurally controlled bay has a central channel with a depth of 30 m and a sandy bottom near the entrance, reflecting wave and tidal forcing. In contrast, the bay-averaged water depth is 5.7 m and the bottom sediments are mostly muds as a result of the Holocene transgression and rapid fluvial sedimentation, accelerated by channelization of rivers and deforestation. An extensive sand bank is located seaward of the bay entrance and a flood-oriented sand wave system indicates sand transport into the bay. The mean freshwater discharge measures 100±59 m 3 s -1 and is greatest in the rainy austral summer in December and January. Tides are mixed mainly semidiurnal with a range of 0.7 m, and peak spring tidal currents reach 0.5 m s -1 inside the bay and 1.6 m s -1 near the bay entrance. The passage of northward propagating polar fronts results in regular strong southwesterly winds and heavy wave forcing. The bay has mean salinities from 21.0 to 34.5‰ with an average of 29.5±4.8‰. The vertical salinity stratification, Δs/s, varies from 0.06 to 0.21 and is relatively weak and inversely proportional to rms tidal currents. The residual circulation is characterized by both gravitational circulation and transverse residual tidal circulation, measuring 800 and 400 m 3 s -1 respectively. The renewal time of 50% of the bay water volume is 11.4 days. Untreated sewage runoff enters the bay from the west, resulting in locally poor water quality, where the near-bottom mean dissolved oxygen measures only 3.1 mg 1 -1 and results in anoxic bottom muds. The worst water quality is indicated by average fecal coliform of 1140 counts ml -1 and excessive ammonia and phosphate loading. The average chlorophyll concentration in this region responds to the nutrient loading and exceeds 130 μg 1 -1 although 57 μg 1 -1 is the overall mean for

  18. Dissolved Black Carbon in the Headwaters-To Continuum of PARAÍBA do Sul River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Jomar S. J.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V.; Rezende, Carlos E.

    2017-02-01

    Rivers annually carry 25-28 Tg carbon in the form of pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (dissolved black carbon, DBC) into the ocean, which is equivalent to about 10% of the entire riverine land-ocean flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The objective of this study was to identify the main processes behind the release and turnover of DBC on a riverine catchment scale. As a model system, we chose the headwater-to-ocean continuum of Paraíba do Sul River (Brazil), the only river system with long-term DBC flux data available. The catchment was originally covered by Atlantic rain forest (mainly C3 plants) which was almost completely destroyed over the past centuries by slash-and-burn. As a result, large amounts of wood-derived charcoal reside in the soils. Today, fire-managed pasture and sugar cane (both dominated by C4 plants) cover most of the catchment area. Water samples were collected along the river, at the main tributaries, and also along the salinity gradient in the estuary and up to 35 km offshore during three different seasons. DBC was determined on a molecular level as benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs). Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were determined in solid phase extractable DOC (SPE-DOC) to distinguish C4 and C3 sources. Our results clearly show a relationship between hydrology and DBC concentrations in the river, with highest DBC concentrations and fluxes in the wet season (flux of 770 moles .sec 1 in 2013 and 59 moles .sec 1 in 2014) and lowest in the dry season (flux of 27 moles .sec 1). This relationship indicates that DBC is mainly mobilized from the upper soil horizons during heavy rainfalls. The relationship between DBC concentrations and δ13C-SPE-DOC indicated that most of DBC in the river system originated from C3 plants, i.e. from the historic burning event of the Atlantic rain forest. A conservative mixing model could largely reproduce the observed DBC fluxes within the catchment and the land to ocean continuum. Comparably slight

  19. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    da S Mourão José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries, pigs (Sus scrofa, cattle (Bos taurus, and foxes (Cerdocyon thous were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana, chickens (Gallus domesticus, and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even

  20. Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul, in Brazil, with the Allium cepa L. test

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    A. Barbério

    Full Text Available This work investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul (Brazil using Allium cepa roots. An anatomo-morphological parameter (root length, mitotic indices, and frequency of micronuclei were analysed. Eight bulbs were chosen at random for treatment for 24 to 120 hours with the River water collected in the years of 2005 and 2006 from sites in the cities of Tremembé and Aparecida (São Paulo state, Brazil. Daily measurements of the length of the roots grown from each bulb were carried out throughout the experiment. Mitotic index (MI and frequency of micronuclei (MN were determined for 2000 cells per root, using 3-5 root tips from other bulbs (7-10. Only in the roots treated with samples of the River water collected in 2005 in Tremembé city was there a decrease in the root length growth compared to the respective control. However, a reduction in MI values was verified for both sites analysed for that year. Considering the data involving root length growth and especially MI values, a cytotoxic potential is suggested for the water of the River Paraíba do Sul at Tremembé and Aparecida, in the year of 2005. On the other hand, since in this year the MN frequency was not affected with the river water treatments, genotoxicity is not assumed for the river water sampled at the aforementioned places.

  1. REPTILE SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE MIDDLE GURGUÉIA AND COMPARISON WITH INVENTORIES IN THE EASTERN PARNAÍBA RIVER BASIN, STATE OF PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

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    CLÁUDIA RENATA MADELLA-AURICCHIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The reptile diversity of the Middle Gurguéia River Basin in southern Piauí, Brazil, is little known. The rapid expansion of agriculture in the region is converting the Cerrado and Caatinga into large farming areas, which threatens biodiversity and hastens its loss. In this study, 68 specimens of reptiles from a university collection were examined, comprising 29 species: ten lizards, one amphisbaenian, 15 snakes, two turtles and one crocodilian. They were collected from five locations in the Middle Gurguéia Basin, a region not previously evaluated for reptiles. The most abundant species is a member of Tropidurus. Comparison with eight other areas in the eastern Parnaíba Basin indicated that the diversity of reptiles in the Middle Gurguéia is similar to that in other Caatinga-Cerrado ecotone areas. The reptile assemblage in the eastern Parnaíba Basin comprises 100 species of reptiles: 39 lizards, five amphisbaenians, 50 snakes, four chelonians and two crocodilians. This study expanded the known distributions of some reptiles and recorded the first occurrence of Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1837 for Piauí. A cluster analysis showed that the reptile composition concords with the habitat where species were found, i.e. Cerrado, Caatinga or ecotone. Studies that associate habitat structure with each species are essential to propose efficient strategies for reptile management and conservation for the entire Parnaíba River Basin, mostly in areas that are not yet protected.

  2. The Sr:Ba:Rb ratio and zircon typology in granitoid complexes of Sao Paulo, Parana and Minas Gerais states (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, E.; Galembeck, T.M.B.; Artur, A.C.; Rigo Junior, L.; Weber-Diefenbach, K.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical (Sr: Ba: Rb) and zircon typology data from the Nazare Paulista, Mairipora/Cantareira, Cunhaporanga, Tres Corregos, Morungaba, Socorro, Itu, Graciosa and Serra Carambei granitoid complexes from the states of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana (SE/S Brazil) are presented and discussed. By the zircon typology method these complexes are reffered, respectively, to the 2nd crustal, 3rd crustal/low temperature C-A, low temperature C-A, medium temperature C-A, medium/high temperature C-A, K-SA/Alkaline and alkaline serie which are considered as generated under increasing temperature associated with a progressive major participation of mantellic material. All these series, with the exception of the medium to high temperature calc-alkaline complexes Socorro and Morungaba whose chemical data come from several laboratories, display different positions and behaviour in the Sr: Ba: Rb diagram which reinforce the use of the zircon typology method in the study of granitoids. From the 2nd crustal serie up to the medium temperature C-A serie the complexes show a regular shift in their chemical composition which became progressively richer in Sr and depleted in Rb. The highly differentiades hypersolvus Serra do Carambei granite is strongly enriched in Rb and impoverish in Ba with respect to the Itu and the Graciosa complex which itself is slighly more depleted in Sr than the Itu granite. (author)

  3. Prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies and risk factors in dairy goats from the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

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    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available t The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in dairy goats from the semiarid region of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors associated with the flock-level prevalence. A total of 1,092 dairy goats from 110 flocks randomly selected in the county of Monteiro, Paraíba state, during March 2009 to March 2010, were used. In each selected flock a epidemiological questionnaire was applied to verify the occurrence of possible factors that could be associated with the flock-level prevalence. For the serological diagnosis of Pestivirus infection the serum neutralization test, using the BVDV-1 NADL strain, was carried out. Flock-level prevalence was 6.36% (95% CI = 2.60% – 12.67% and animal-level prevalence was 0.82% (95% CI = 0.38% – 1.56%. Not to perform vermifugation (odds ratio = 10.49; p = 0.035 and to perform navel cut and disinfection (odds ratio = 12.73; p = 0.034 were identified as risk factors. These results indicate viral circulation in dairy goats in the semiarid region of the Paraíba state.

  4. Fluid inclusion study of the Cachoeira uranium deposit, Caetite, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.V.; Fuzikawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    The Cachoeira uranium deposit is presently the richest deposit among those in the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The mineralization is associated to the albitites formed during the onset of strong sodium metasomatism on the granite-gnaissic rocks of the area. Fluid inclusion study of several uraniferous albitites indicated the presence of strong brines (approx. 20 weight percent NaCl equivalent) and the dominance of hydrocarbons over CO 2 in the gas phase. In country rocks, which host the albitites, as well as in unmineralized albities the salinity of aqueous solution is variable and light hydrocarbons are the predominant gas phase. These data were obtained by microthermometry and crushing tests from a larger set of samples than that used in previous studies. However, the results do not differ significantly from the data of these earlier works and reinforce the hypothesis of the importance of CH 4 in Uo 2 precipitation. (Author) [pt

  5. Environmental monitoring of the Uranium Concentrate Unity (URA) at Caetite - Bahia State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    The pre operational monitoring program has been executed in order to set a baseline, on which comparisons with the same points and the same radionuclides will be made after beginning of operation, having the objective of environmental impact evaluation, in the vicinity of the installation. The program was held in the period of 1982 to 1999, collecting non biological environmental samples (aerosol, rain water, surface water, underground water soil and sediment) and samples that are related to the human food chain (manioc, manioc flour, milk, browse, fish, been, corn, cactus and silage). The analyzed radionuclides are natural uranium, natural thorium, Ra-226, Ra-228, Rn-222 and Pb-210. This work intends to analyze data from the last ten years, program (1989 - 1999), analyzing approximately 350 biological samples and 3500 non biological samples, in order to establishing the baseline to be used in future studies of environmental impact. (author)

  6. Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of plants with toxic active constituents, grown in the municipality of Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Diégina Araújo FERNANDES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Incidents involving plants have been a major problem for public health over the years and represent the fourth leading cause of poisoning in Brazil, leading to death many people, especially children. This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of plants with toxic active constituents, grown in the municipality of Cuité, Paraíba, correlating the popular and scientific knowledge. This study conducted an exploratory and descriptive field research by applying semi-structured questionnaires to city dwellers who maintained frequent contact with plants. The identification of 19 toxic species and 18 potentially poisonous species was possible. Prevalent plants in homes were ornamental. Most respondents were senior women who carried out this practice over ten years, and this interest in cultivation had come through relatives. The survey showed that most interviewees unaware the toxic potential of cited plants, which indicates the need to carry out educational and preventive work among the population.

  8. Mercury contents in aquatic macrophytes from two reservoirs in the Paraíba do Sul: Guandú river system, SE Brazil

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    M. M. Molisani

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study to determine the Hg content in the five most abundant aquatic macrophyte species (Elodea densa, Sagittaria montevidensis, Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes in two artificial reservoirs flooded by water diverted from the Paraíba do Sul river, SE Brazil. The potential of these species for Hg accumulation and their role in Hg transport along the river system due to macrophyte management were evaluated. Mercury concentrations were higher in free-floating than in rooted species. Roots were also richer in Hg than were leaves. Dry weight Hg concentrations in leaves and roots from all species varied from 46-246 ng.g-1 to 37-314 ng.g-1, respectively. These values are higher than those reported for uncontaminated lakes in Brazil and in other tropical areas and similar to those reported for moderately contaminated sites. Mercury concentrations can be attributed to fluvial transport from the heavily industrialized Paraíba do Sul river basin. Intensive sampling of Pistia stratiotes from two sites in the Vigário reservoir was performed to evaluate the capacity of Hg incorporation in short periods of time. The results showed a significant negative correlation between Hg content and size class of individual plants, demonstrating the importance of juveniles, fast growing plants in absorbing Hg. The foremost impact related to Hg contents in the studied area concerns the periodic removal of macrophytes for reservoir management, followed by disposal in nearby areas. This results in the mobilization of 0.52 to 1.3 Kg of Hg per year, a significant fraction of the Hg burden present in reservoir waters. Disposal of such material may result in Hg leaching to river systems, affecting the Hg transfer throughout the basin.

  9. Prevalência de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo Prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba paulista e identificar possíveis fatores maternos e neonatais associados a tais defeitos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde referentes aos nascimentos ocorridos em 2004 no Vale do Paraíba paulista, que compreende 35 municípios e conta com população de 2 milhões de habitantes. Anencefalia, encefalocele e espina bífida (mielocele e mielomeningocele foram considerados defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural. As variáveis maternas foram: idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de filhos vivos e relato de óbito fetal prévio. As variáveis relativas ao recém-nascido foram: peso, idade gestacional e escore de Apgar. Realizou-se comparação das médias por meio do teste t de Student e obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance com intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 33.653 nascidos vivos. Trinta e oito recém-nascidos com o defeito foram encontrados (1,13/1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo 23 casos de espina bífida. Houve associação com baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade e menores escores de Apgar de cinco minutos. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência desta anomalia foi inferior à de outros estudos nacionais e sua presença esteve associada ao baixo peso, à prematuridade e à baixa vitalidade ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible maternal and neonatal variables associated with these defects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary records of the Health Department of São Paulo State related live births during 2004 in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. This region has 35 cities and 2 million inhabitants. Anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida (myelocele and myelomeningocele were considered as neural tube

  10. A prática de amamentar entre mulheres que exercem trabalho remunerado na Paraíba, Brasil: um estudo transversal Breastfeeding practices among paid working mothers in Paraíba State, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estar no mercado de trabalho não deve impedir a mulher de amamentar. A Organização Mundial de Saúde preconiza o aleitamento materno exclusivo até seis meses de vida. No Brasil as leis propiciam à mulher trabalhadora quatro meses de licença maternidade, mas nem sempre ela recebe este benefício. Assim, como praticar amamentação exclusiva? Este artigo objetiva descrever as taxas de aleitamento materno e se o trabalho remunerado interfere na amamentação de mães da Paraíba. Trata-se de estudo transversal em 70 de 223 municípios que aceitaram participar da pesquisa na campanha de vacinação em 2002. Em 11.076 crianças menores de um ano, a prevalência de amamentação exclusiva foi de 22,4% de 0-4 meses e foi significativamente maior entre as mães que trabalhavam fora e que tiveram licença maternidade. Entre estas, foi também menor a prevalência de amamentação total e predominante. Na zona rural o trabalho fora de casa esteve associado com a redução do aleitamento materno exclusivo. A prática do amamentar na Paraíba está muito aquém das recomendações e o retorno precoce da mãe ao trabalho agrava esta situação.Paid work should not be an obstacle to women's breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. In Brazil, women are legally entitled to 4 months of maternity leave, but in practice few women enjoy such benefits. How is it possible to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months? We analyzed both the breastfeeding rates and whether paid jobs interfere with breastfeeding in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 70 of 223 municipalities (counties during the annual immunization campaign in 2002. Among 11,076 infants (< 12 months of age, the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 0-4 months was 22.4% and was significantly higher among working women receiving maternity leave as compared to those who did not. The prevalence of total and

  11. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Tatiane Ferraz; Velludo, Marcela Roquetti; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Peret, André Moldenhauer

    2011-06-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish.

  12. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

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    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors associated with goat gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; de Almeida Neto, João Leite; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Ribeiro, Ana Raquel Carneiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues

    2014-02-01

    Gastrointestinal helminthiasis represents an obstacle to goat raising, causing severe damage to herds such as growth retardation, weight loss, and even death. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to goat gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 256 goats from 54 farms were systematically sampled. Blood and fecal samples were collected from each animal for egg per gram (EPG), larval culture, and packed cell volume (PCV) analyses. We found that 79.3% of the goats investigated were parasitized with gastrointestinal helminths. Significant correlation (p = 0.004) was observed between the EPG and PCV of the animals studied, and it was observed that the EPG increases as the PCV decreases. In the larval culture, the most prevalent helminth was Haemonchus sp. (83.2%). Age and sex were significant variables (p ≤ 0.20) for the development of gastrointestinal helminths: 86.8% of animals over 36 months of age and 81.7% of females were infected. The variable type of animal exploitation was also significant, with 90.3% (p ≤ 0.20) of the animals presenting double suitability (milk and meat). The Sertão region of Paraíba State presents high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in goats, and age and type of animal exploitation are the most relevant risk factors to the development of these parasites.

  14. Sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; Silveira, Gian Libânio da; Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra de

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and risk factors relating to gastrointestinal helminthiasis, and to characterize the sanitary management practiced among sheep herds in the Sertão region of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, based on factors that condition the ways of controlling these parasites in these herds. The research was carried out between April and July 2012. We visited 54 farms, where fecal and blood samples were individually collected from 465 animals. On each farm, a questionnaire was applied to gather information on variables relating to potential risk factors. The prevalence of sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the region was 75.9%. At least one animal tested positive for this helminthiasis on 53 (98.1%) of the 54 farms evaluated. The eggs per gram of feces (EPG) analysis showed the following infection burdens: 51.8% with mild infection, 27.1% moderate infection, 9.9% heavy infection and 11.2% fatal infection. Among the sheep farms visited, anthelmintics were used on 81.5% (p helminthiasis, because the animals are more prone to reinfection. The Sertão region of Paraíba presents high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis among sheep, and the farm area is the most relevant risk factor for the development of these parasites.

  15. The occurence of black spot disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(characiformes: characidae in the Guaíba Lake basin, RS, Brazil

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    F Flores-Lopes

    Full Text Available Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(Teleostei: Characiformes in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil, including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07% and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions. Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.

  16. Estudos bacteriológicos e sorológicos de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Bacteriological and serological studies of a plague outbreak in the Paraíba state, Brazil

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    Alzira Maria Paiva Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos bacteriológicos e/ou sorológicos para diagnóstico da infecção pestosa, em material obtido de 452 pacientes (48 positivos, 1.938 roedores e outros pequenos mamíferos (75 positivos, 4.756 cães (141 positivos e 3.047 gatos (57 positivos, oriundos de 41 municípios localizados em toda a extensão da área paraibana do Planalto da Borborema. A infecção foi encontrada em 21 municípios. Foram isoladas 20 cepas de Yersinia pestis de amostras coletadas de três pacientes e 17 roedores. Estas cepas apresentam características bioquímicas, fatores de virulência, sensibilidade aos antibióticos e poder patogênico experimental semelhantes ao de cepas isoladas anteriormente. Pelos estudos realizados não foram observados, no surto de peste que eclodiu em setembro de 1986 na Paraíba, fatores diferentes dos observados nos outros focos do nordeste do Brasil.During a plague outbreak in the Borborema Plateu focus (Paraíba, bacteriological and serological studies were carryed out in material from 452 patients (48 positives, 1,938 rodents and other small mammals (75 positives, 4,756 dogs (141 positives and 2,047 cats (57 positives obtained from 41 counties (out of which, 21 produced positive samples. Twenty Yersinia pestis strains isolated from material from 3 patients ans 17 rodents, displayed biochemical reactions, virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility and animal experimental pathogenicity similar to those observed in strains previously isolated. According to our findings this recent plague outbreak did not exhibite different factors from those observed during prior outbreaks in other plague foci in the northeast of Brazil.

  17. Estudo do comportamento reológico das argilas bentoníticas de Cubati, Paraíba, Brasil Rheological behavior study of bentonite clays from Cubati, Paraíba, Brazil

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    R. R. Menezes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estado da Paraíba possui jazidas de bentonitas utilizadas comercialmente para uma vasta gama de setores tecnológicos. No entanto, esses jazimentos estão se exaurindo, após dezenas de anos de exploração. Assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo dar prosseguimento à caracterização de argilas bentoníticas de Cubati, PB, estudando o comportamento reológico das dispersões argila-água de modo avaliar seu desempenho para fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo base água. As amostras estudadas foram secas a 60 ºC e determinou-se sua capacidade de troca de cátions. As argilas foram transformadas em sódica por tratamento com Na2CO3 e em seguida realizou-se o estudo do comportamento reológico das dispersões. As viscosidades, aparente e plástica, o volume de filtrado, os parâmetros reológicos do fluido e a sua força gel foram determinados. Os resultados evidenciaram que cada amostra apresenta um teor ótimo de carbonato de sódio e que as dispersões argila-água possuem um comportamento pseudo-plástico e tixotrópico. Duas amostras apresentam potencial para utilização como agentes viscosificantes para fluidos de perfuração.The bentonites of the state of Paraíba, Brazil, are commercially used in numerous technological sectors, particularly in oil drilling muds. However, these bentonite deposits are becoming exhausted due to several years of exploitation. Thus, the aim of this work was continue the characterization of the bentonites from Cubati, Paraíba, studying the rheological behavior of water-clay suspensions, evaluating their viability to be used in oil drilling muds. The samples were dried at 60 ºC and, their cation exchange capacity was determined. The natural bentonite clays were transformed in sodium bentonite by addition of concentrated Na2CO3 solution, then the suspensions rheological study was performed. The apparent and plastic viscosities, water loss, rheological parameters and the gel force were determined

  18. Argilas bentoníticas de Cubati, Paraíba, Brasil: Caracterização física-mineralógica Bentonite clay from Cubati, Paraíba, Brazil: Physical and mineralogical characterization

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    R. R. Menezes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O Estado da Paraíba possui jazidas de bentonitas utilizadas comercialmente em uma vasta gama de setores tecnológicos. No entanto, esses jazimentos estão se exaurindo após dezenas de anos de exploração. Assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo a caracterização físico-mineralógica de bentonitas recentemente descobertas no município de Cubati, PB. As amostras estudadas foram secas a 60 ºC e caracterizadas por meio de fluorescência de raios X, picnometria de He, determinação da distribuição de tamanho de partículas, difração de raios X, análise térmica diferencial e gravimétrica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados evidenciaram que as amostras são bentonitas policatiônicas, apresentando teores de MgO, CaO e K2O semelhantes aos de outras bentonitas sul-americanas e que são constituídas por argilomineral esmectítico e por quartzo e caulinita. As amostras apresentaram frações de partículas abaixo a 2 μm variando entre 31 e 41%, estando, no entanto, em elevado estado de aglomeração.The bentonites of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, are commercially uses in numerous technological sectors. However, these bentonite deposits are becoming exhausted due to several years of exploitation. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize bentonite clays recently discovered in the Cubaty town, Paraíba. The samples were dried at 60ºC and characterized through X-ray fluorescence, He picnometry, determination of the particle size distribution, X-ray diffraction, thermal differential and gravimetric analyzes and scanning electronic microscopy. The results showed that the samples are polycationic bentonite clays containing amounts of MgO, CaO and K2O similar to those of other South American bentonites and are composed of smectite, kaolinite and quartz. The samples had particle-accumulated fractions under 2 μm ranging from 31 to 41%, however, the particles were in a very agglomerated state.

  19. A biogeochemical and isotopic view of Nitrogen and Carbon in rivers of the Alto Paraíba do Sul basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagnani, E. D. C.; Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. R. M.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Rossete, A. L. M.; Andrade, T. M. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of potential flows of elements in tropical ecosystems is not well represented in the literature, even being very important. The Paraíba do Sul River drains the three more economically developed states in Brazil: São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro and its basin is considered extremely altered. Despite its economic and social importance (~ 5.3 mi inhabitants), we don't know much about carbon and nitrogen transport into its rivers and how these are affected by soil use changes. This work aimed to investigate these nutrients, using an isotopic and a biogeochemical approach, at some third order (Paraibuna, Paraitinga and Paraíba do Sul), second and first order rivers, all inserted at the Alto Paraíba do Sul Basin. In general, the low dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen and inorganic N concentrations found in the first order rivers, showed the lower variation, despite changes in the soil use. Forested rivers presented higher DOC (3.3 mg.L-1) and TDN (14.2 mM) concentrations than the pasture rivers (2.6 mg.L-1 and 13.8 mM), while these presented higher DIC concentrations than those ones (90.2 mM and 71.2 mM). In third order rivers, the concentrations were also very low. Both carbon and nitrogen contents at the fine and coarse fractions of the suspended particulate material (SPM) were lower at Paraitinga and Paraiba do Sul Rivers. At the Paraibuna River, the fine fraction of SPM presented 25% of C concentration. The concentrations found at the coarse fraction were also higher at this river. The N concentrations were higher at the fine fraction and, consequently, this fraction presented higher C:N ratio. These observations allow us to say that the coarse fraction might be related to plant material, while the fine fraction is probably related to the soils. The δ13C in the SPM was lower in the Paraibuna River, probably due to the predominance of forest, while in the other ones pasture was the main soil use

  20. Converting the Caetité Mill Process to Enhance Uranium Recovery and Expand Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomiero, L. A.; Scassiotti Filho, W.; Veras, A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A — INB, Caetité, BA (Brazil); Cunha, J. W. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morais, C. A. [Centro do Desenvolvimento da Tec. Nuclear-CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The Caetité uranium mill was commissioned in 2000 to produce about 340 t U per year from an uranium ore averaging 0.29% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This production is sufficient to supply the two operating nuclear power plants in the country. As the Brazilian government has recently confirmed its plan to start building another ones from 2009, the uranium production will have to expand its capacity in the next two years. This paper describes the changes in the milling process that are being evaluated in order to not only increase the production but also the uranium recovery, to fulfil the increasing local demand. The heap leaching process will be changed to conventional tank agitated leaching of ground ore slurry in sulphuric acid medium. Batch and pilot plant essays have shown that the uranium recovery can increase from the 77% historical average to about 93%. As the use of sodium chloride as the stripping agent has presented detrimental effects in the extraction and stripping process, two alternatives are being evaluated for the uranium recovery from the PLS: (a) uranium peroxide precipitation at controlled pH from a PLS that was firstly neutralized and filtered. Batch essays have shown good results with a final calcined precipitate averaging 99% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Conversely the results obtained at the first pilot plant essay has shown that the precipitation conditions of the continuous process calls for further evaluation. The pilot plant is being improved and another essay will be carried out. (b) uranium extraction with a tertiary amine followed by stripping with concentrated sulphuric acid solution. Efforts are being made to recover the excess sulphuric acid from the pregnant stripping solution to enhance the economic viability of the process and to avoid the formation of a large quantity of gypsum in the pre-neutralization step before the uranium peroxide precipitation. (author)

  1. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A.; Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2011-01-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 μg/g U 3 O 8 for ores with an initial content of 2,700 μg/g U 3 O 8 . With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in one column and 1,100 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  2. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A., E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gomiero, Luiz A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for ores with an initial content of 2,700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in one column and 1,100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  3. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, M C; Pile, E

    2001-12-01

    The first occurrence of the Achatina fulica, an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of meningoencephalic angiostrongiliasis, is reported in Resende municipality, Brazil. In the five visited localities, snails were found living freely, and the larvae of this parasite was not seen in any of them. The finding of A. fulica in the area may be related to its commercialization as a food item and embodies the possibility of new focus.

  4. Immunological responses of the mangrove oysters Crassostrea gasar naturally infected by Perkinsus sp. in the Mamanguape Estuary, Paraíba state (Northeastern, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Soudant, Philippe; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Mirella da Silva, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Perkinsus genus includes protozoan parasites of marine mollusks, especially bivalves. In the last four years, this parasite has been detected in mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae and Crassostrea gasar from the Northeastern region of Brazil. Hemocytes are the key cells of the oyster immune system, being responsible for a variety of cellular and humoral reactions, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation and the release of several effector molecules that control the invasion and proliferation of microorganisms. In Brazil, there is little information on perkinsosis and none on the immune responses of native oysters' species against Perkinsus spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of natural infection by Perkinsus sp. on the immunological parameters of mangrove oysters C. gasar cultured in the Mamanguape River Estuary (Paraíba, Brazil). Adults oysters (N = 40/month) were sampled in December 2011, March, May, August and October 2012. Gills were removed and used to determine the presence and intensity of the Perkinsus sp. infection, according to a scale of four levels (1-4), using the Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay. Immunological parameters were measured in hemolymph samples by flow cytometry, including: total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), cell mortality, phagocytic capacity, and production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The plasma was used to determine the hemagglutination activity. The results showed the occurrence of Perkinsus sp. with the highest mean prevalence (93.3%) seen so far in oyster populations in Brazil. Despite that, no oyster mortality was associated. In contrast, we observed an increase in hemocyte mortality and a suppression of two of the main defense mechanisms, phagocytosis and ROS production in infected oysters. The increase in the percentage of blast-like cells on the hemolymph, and the increase in THC in oysters heavily infected (at the maximum intensity, 4) suggest an induction of

  5. Structural and elemental analysis of bottom sediments from the Paraíba do Sul River (SE, Brazil) by analytical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguens, Flávio Costa; Oliveira, Martha Lima de; Ferreira, Amanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Laís Rodrigues; Melo, Edésio José Tenório de; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga de

    2016-03-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is a medium-sized river that flows through the Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Brazilian states the three most developed states in Brazil. Industrial parks and cities have historically been established along the river basin. The waters of PSR are used in agriculture, industry and human consumption of over 20 million people, including Rio de Janeiro City. Furthermore, the river receives effluent from these activities: agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and domestic sewage. Therefore, PSR has been considered polluted, particularly by heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metals in bottom sediments grains of the PSR, to infer their elemental composition, and to characterize individual sediment grains morphology, a non-destructive methodology - X-ray microanalyses (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectrometer/SEM/EDS) - was used. Heavy metals - Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Ba, Au, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Y, Sn, Os and Pb - were detected by SEM/EDS in bottom sediment grains from PSR, predominantly in grains with equivalent diameter ≤10 μm. They occurred as silicates, oxides (hydro-oxides), sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates and chlorides. All detected heavy metals occurred as, at least, one kind of soluble metal compound, mainly due to ionic exchange from silicates, with the exception of Ag, which was chloride, sulfate or metallic as Os, Au and Pb. These results corroborate heavy metal PSR pollution and food chain risk, considering that near-shore continental shelf is free of heavy metals contamination. Our results also give support to the hypothesis that the PSR estuary can act as a trap for these elements.

  6. Population structure of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum (Cephalochordata: Branchiostomidae in the Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil Estrutura populacional do anfioxo Branchiostoma caribaeum (Cephalochordata: Branchiostomidae na Baía de Guanabara, sudeste do Brasil

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    Luis F. B. da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Population structure of the lancelet Branchiostoma caribaeum Sandevall, 1853 was studied in four surveys, corresponding to austral seasons, in a tropical bay, southeast of Brazil. Abundance was higher in the spring and was positively correlated to coarse sediments, limiting its occurrence to some sectors of the sampling area. Body length and biomass differed seasonally but not between sexes. Sexually mature individuals occurred in all seasons, suggesting continuous breeding that is typical of tropical species. Variation in the frequency of small specimens indicates temporal differences in the intensity of breeding. The body length of recruits differed from other population of lancelets and the small length which B. caribaeum attained sexual maturity in Guanabara Bay may be related to local environmental stress or the great availability of food.A estrutura populacional do anfioxo Branchiostoma caribaeum Sandevall, 1853 foi analisada em quatro campanhas abrangendo todas as estações do ano, na Baía de Guanabara, sudeste do Brasil. A abundância de indivíduos foi maior na primavera e positivamente correlacionada com sedimentos grossos, tendo sua distribuição limitada a alguns setores da área amostral. O tamanho corpóreo e a biomassa diferiram sazonalmente, mas não entre os sexos. Indivíduos sexualmente maduros ocorreram em todas as estações do ano, sugerindo uma reprodução contínua, típica de espécies tropicais. Variações na freqüência de ocorrência de espécimes pequenos indicaram diferenças temporais na intensidade da reprodução. O tamanho corpóreo dos recrutas diferiu de populações de anfioxos de outros locais. O menor tamanho em que B. caribaeum atinge a maturidade sexual na Baía da Guanabara pode estar relacionada ao estresse ambiental ou à grande disponibilidade de alimento do local.

  7. Estado nutricional relativo ao zinco de crianças que frequentam creches do estado da Paraíba Zinc nutritional status in children attending public daycare centers in the state of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional relativo ao zinco de crianças assistidas em creches do Estado da Paraíba. MÉTODOS: O estado nutricional relativo ao zinco de 235 crianças pré-escolares foi avaliado através de sua concentração no soro, da ingestão dietética de zinco e da estatura para idade, como recomendado pelo International Zinc Consultative Group. As concentrações séricas de zinco foram determinadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica de chama, considerando deficiência de zinco valores OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the zinc levels of children attending public daycare centers in the state of Paraíba. Brazil. METHODS: The zinc levels of 235 preschool children were evaluated through serum zinc concentration, dietary zinc intake and height-for-age, as recommended by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. Baseline zinc levels in the serum were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, considering values <65µmol/L indicative of zinc deficiency. The 24-hour recall method was used to record food consumption, considering the food consumption of the child the day before and in the daycare center. Zinc inadequacy was analyzed according to the estimated average zinc requirement by life stage and diet type recommended by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The World Health Organization Growth Reference was used as the reference for the height-for-age indices. Children with indices two z-scores below the median value of the reference population were considered stunted. Statistical analysis was performed by the t-test or analysis of variance by the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences -16.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate serum zinc concentration, inadequate zinc intakes and stunting were 16.2%, 16.6% and 7.7%, respectively. Mean serum zinc was lower in children of underweight mothers than in children of normal weight mothers. CONCLUSION: The studied children

  8. Physical and catalytic characterization of smectites from Boa-Vista, Paraíba, Brazil Caracterização física e catalítica de esmectitas de Boa Vista, Paraíba, Brasil

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    M. G. F. Rodrigues

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The original crystalline structure of clay minerals can be altered in a controlled way, through acid or thermal treatments, resulting then in suitable products to be used as catalysts. This paper aims to characterize the red smectite clays of Boa-Vista, Paraíba (Brazil in their natural form, and after chemical, thermal and acid treatments by X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis, dynamic X-ray diffraction, classic X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption and model reaction. The results show that acid treatment partially altered the structure of the montimorillonite. An important increase in the surface area of the solid obtained was observed. The obtained reaction for the treated material showed that the clay was more acid than the natural one, yielding a better catalytic activity.A estrutura cristalina original dos argilominerais pode ser alterada de um modo controlado através de tratamentos ácidos ou tratamentos químicos, resultando em produtos satisfatórios para serem usados como catalisadores. O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar a argila esmectítica vermelha de Boa-Vista, Paraíba (Brasil na sua forma natural e após tratamentos químicos e térmicos. Os métodos usados foram fluorescência de raios X, análise térmica diferencial, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, adsorção física de nitrogênio e reação modelo. Os resultados mostram que o tratamento ácido alterou parcialmente a estrutura da montmorilonita. Foi observado um importante aumento na área específica do sólido obtido. A reação obtida para o material tratado mostrou que a argila foi mais ácida que a natural conduzindo a uma melhor atividade catalítica.

  9. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil

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    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae has been reported occurring in several countries causing severe losses in economically important crops, including cotton. Based on information reported by farmers in the regions of the Southwest and Middle São Francisco, Bahia and also in the regions of the Agreste and Semi-arid of the Paraiba State, high infestations of cotton mealybugs have occurred in these regions during the cotton season of 2007 and 2008. The cotton mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis and this represents the first record of this insect attacking cotton in Brazil.

  10. Natural and experimental poisoning by Cestrum laevigatum (Solanaceae among cattle in the Agreste region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Temístocles Soares de Oliveira Neto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of natural poisoning by Cestrum laevigatum was reported among cattle in the Agreste region of Paraíba, which affected six out of 20 animals. Four animals were found dead and two presented clinical signs, including, dyspnea, drooling, jugular vein engorgement, muscle tremors and ataxia, which subsequently progressed to recumbence and death. An experimental poisoning was performed in two bovines who were administered single doses of 35 g kg-1 and 50 g kg-1 body weight (BW, respectively, of fresh leaves and fruits. The animal that received 35 g kg-1 BW had mild clinical signs, consisting of apathy, salivation and reduced ruminal movements with recovery 30 hours after the onset of initial signs. The animal that received 50 g kg-1 BW showed apathy, dry stool, drooling, hyperexcitability, head pressing, opisthotonos, nystagmus, miosis, jugular and episcleral vessel engorgement, ruminal atony, muscle tremors, ataxia, falling, seizures, and sternal recumbence, followed by lateral recumbence, with death occurring 21 hours and 37 minutes after ingestion. The enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase in the serum increased significantly 18 hours after the administration of the plant. The primary gross lesions in the natural and experimental cases were enlarged livers, with rounded edges and accentuation of the lobular pattern on the capsular and cut surfaces. Histopathology revealed diffuse centrilobular coagulative necrosis with hemorrhages and congestion, and the presence of degenerated hepatocytes in the midzonal regions. Based on the epidemiological and clinicopathological data, we concluded that C. laevigatum was responsible for an acute hepatotoxic disease among cattle in the Agreste region of Paraíba.

  11. An integrative approach to characterize hydrological processes and water quality in a semi-arid watershed in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; Fernandes, N.; Veiga, L. H. S.; Melo, L. R.; Santos, A. C. S.; Araujo, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions face serious challenges in the management of scarce water resources. This situation tends to become worse with the increasing population growth rates and consequently increasing water demand. Groundwater is the most important water resource in these areas and, therefore, the sustainability of its use depends on the effectiveness in which it is managed, both in terms of quantity and quality. The Caetité Experimental Basin (CEB), located in a semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity, but also changes in landscape and potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations as well as the survival of the local community are highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. Hydrogeological studies in this area are scarce, and the potential contamination and overexploitation of groundwater can not be ruled out. Therefore, a national project was launched in order to improve the understanding and quantification of the interaction between the hydrogeological system and human health. The methodological approach involved hydrological and geochemical monitoring and characterization of the CEB, use of isotopic techniques, groundwater modeling, water quality diagnosis and human health risk assessment due to water ingestion. The results suggested that the groundwater in the CEB are not totally connected, with evidence of a mixture of recent and old waters. The Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl is the dominant water type (50%) followed by Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl water type (17%). The relevant non-radioactive contaminants are Mn, F, NO3 and Ba, mostly from natural origin, with the exception of NO3 that could be associated with the livestock activities. The estimated effective doses due to groundwater ingestion containing radionuclides are below the recommended

  12. Dynamic and resuspension by waves and sedimentation pattern definition in low energy environments: guaíba lake (Brazil

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    João Luiz Nicolodi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Little research has been undertaken into sediment dynamics in lakes, and most of it only analyses particular aspects such as the texture of the sediments. In this study, the characteristics of the wave field in Guaíba Lake are investigated. The parameters significant wave height (Hs, period (T and direction of wave propagation are examined together with their relation to the resuspension of sediments at the bottom. For this purpose, the mathematical model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore has been validated and employed. The results pointed out that the highest waves modeled reached 0.55 m at a few points in the lake, particularly when winds were blowing from the S and SE quadrants with an intensity over 7 m.s-1. Generally speaking, waves follow wind intensity and direction patterns, and reach maximum height in about 1 to 2 hours after wind speed peaks. Whenever winds were stronger, waves took some 2 hours to reach 0.10 m. However, with weak to moderate winds, the waves took around 3 hours to achieve this value in significant wave height. In addition to speed and direction, wind regularity proved relevant in generating and propagating waves on Lake Guaíba. In conclusion the lake's sediment environments were mapped and classified as follows: 1 Depositional Environments (51% of the lake; 2 Transitional Environments (41%; and 3 Erosional or Non-Depositional Environments (8%. As a contribution to the region's environmental management, elements have been created relating to the concentration of suspended particulate matter.Pesquisas referentes à dinâmica sedimentar em lagos são escassas e a maioria trata da distribuição e textura dos sedimentos, sendo raras aquelas que fazem menção ao padrão de ondas e suas relações com a ressuspensão destes sedimentos e suas consequências. Este trabalho analisa as características das ondas incidentes no Lago Guaíba (Brasil por meio da utilização do SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore e suas rela

  13. Palynological and sedimentary analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops of the Itapecuru Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Parnaíba Basin), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Neila N.; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2016-03-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Itapecuru Formation occur in a large area of the Parnaíba Basin and its deposits crop out along the Itapecuru River, in Maranhão State, northern Brazil. The palynological analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops strata yields a rich and diversified data. The presence of index-palynofloras in assemblages allows the identification of the Complicatisaccus cearensis Zone, of Late Aptian-Early Albian age. Terrestrial palynomorphs are abundant in the assemblages, being represented by bryophytes and pteridophytes, especially perisporate trilete spores (Crybelosporites and Perotrilites), and gymnosperms and angiosperms (Afropollis and Elaterosporites). The composition of palynological assemblages suggests the presence of moist soils for both outcrops. Acritarchs were recovered in the Querru 1 outcrop, which suggest a marine setting supporting a tidal flat environment indicated by facies associations. Furthermore, reworked Paleozoic palynomorphs were observed in the Querru 1 outcrop. The microflora from Igarapé Ipiranga outcrop suggests terrestrial environment corroborating with floodplain environment indicated by facies association.

  14. Capture techniques' use of Caranguejo-uçá crabs (Ucides cordatus) in Paraíba state (northeastern Brazil) and its socio-environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Bezerra, Dandara M M S Q; Rocha, Pollyana D; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-12-01

    The present study was undertaken in two traditional communities that are located on the margins of the estuary and mangrove complex of the Mamanguape River, Paraíba state (PB), Brazil. This work describes the crabs capture techniques tapamento and redinha, and identifies the negative socio-environmental impacts of redinha, using qualitative methods (open and semi-structured interviews, guided tours, direct observation and the administration of questionnaires). Results indicate that currently only two principle techniques are used to capture Ucides cordatus: redinha and tapamento. Tapamento has a low impact in relation to redinha. Redinha was pointed out by interviewees as a system that has social impact (social conflicts, breaking of traditions, substitution and extinction of techniques) and environmental impact (less selective captures and high productivity, mangrove pollution, death of crabs caught in traps, cutting of the roots of Rhizophora mangle, micro-habitat loss resulting from galleries destroyed and polluted). Knowledge of crab harvesting carried out using these two techniques and the possible social and environmental impacts caused by redinha, can lead to more effective planning and actions towards the conservation of the species.

  15. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  16. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  17. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF Leporinus copelandii (Pisces: Anostomidae FEMALES FROM THE LOWER PARAÍBA DO SUL RIVER BASIN, RJ – BRAZIL

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    Ana Paula Ribeiro Costa Erthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were investigate the reproductive biology of the fish Leporinus copelandii, a specie at risk of extinction in the lower Paraíba do Sul River basin. During a period of 14 months, a total of 143 females of red-piau were captured, between Itaocara and Campos dos Goytacazes cities (RJ, Brazil. A histological study shows four stages of the oocyte development (I, II, III and IV and five stages of the reproductive cycle of females: rest (1, initial maturation (2A, intermediary (2B, advanced (2C and spawned (4 were identified. The pattern of L. copelandii oocyte development suggests development type synchronous in two groups, characterizing total spawning. Spawned females were captured in November, two months after the peak of frequency of competent females for reproduction. Histologically, a little occurrence of empty follicles was observed in spawned females. The medium diameter of the type IV oocyte of the spawned females (1475.1 ± 884.3mm was significantly larger (Tukey, P <0.001; VC = 41.73%; n = 259 than advanced maturation females (1202.6 ± 245.3mm, what allows suggesting that the study place probably doesn't represent the reproductive area of L. copelandii.

  18. Soil loss prediction in Guaraíra river experimental basin, Paraíba, Brazil based on two erosion simulation models

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    Jorge Flávio Cazé B. da Costa Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two hydrological models to estimate soil losses and sediment yield due to sheet and channel erosion, at the basin outlet, are applied to Guaraíra River Experimental Basin, located in Paraíba State, northeastern Brazil. The soil erosion models are (a the classical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, which is used to simulate annual and monthly soil losses; and (b Kineros model, which is used to simulate the sediment yield within the basin. Kineros model is a physically-based distributed model that uses a cascade of planes and channels to represent the basin and to describe the processes of interception, infiltration, surface runoff and erosion within the basin. The USLE is computed using land use, soil erodibility, topographic digital maps, as well as observed rainfall data. It was found that Guaraíra river experimental basin has a low potential for soil losses; however, specific areas which are susceptible to the erosion process in the basin could be detected by the modeling techniques coupled to a GIS (Geographic Information System.

  19. Mutagenic potential of pollutans in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, Tremembé, SP, Brazil, using the Allium cepa test

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    Agnes Barbério

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenicity can be related to chromosomic breaks induced by environmental pollutants. The aim of this research was to characterize the mutagenic potential of the pollutants in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, in Tremembé city, São Paulo State, Brazil, analyzing chromosomal changes in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, in the summer (April and winter (August of 2008. The bulbs were exposed for 72 h to the treatments: water from river, Hoagland solution (negative control and 15 µg/L from MMS – methyl methanesulfonate (positive control. In each treatment, three bulbs were exposed and for each bulb, five slides were prepared. For mitotic index (MI and micronucleus (MN frequency rate, a total of 2,000 cells per root/slide were analyzed and 100 cells for the chromosome aberrations (CA. In April, the pollutants induced a high mutagenic potential in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, the frequency rate of MN, stickiness and CA from non-identified type were greater than the negative control. In August, the only significant change found was the chromosome bridges. There was no significant change for MI. These results indicate that the effluents which have varied sources are inducing harmful effects on the bioindicator, therefore, it is important to keep biomonitoring and adopting effluents control measures. The measures are important because these waters are used primarily for public supply and irrigation.

  20. Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil

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    Raquel Maria de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

  1. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

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    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.El pez tucunaré (Cichla piquiti, nativo del sistema de la cuenca del rio Tocantins-Araguaia, fue introducido en la cuenca del río Paranaíba, parte del sistema del río Paraná. En este ecosistema trófico de planicie aluvial, las relaciones entre comunidades de peces están definidas por diferentes factores que pueden ser modificados debido a la represa del río, y da como resultado grandes cambios en la interacción biológica en éstos hábitats. La represa de Cachoeira Dourada forma parte de una serie de represas en el río Paranaíba en el Brasil central, donde el tucunaré se ha establecido. Una investigación sobre su espectro alimentario, combinado con información sobre sus caracter

  2. Meliponiculture in Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, located in Atlantic Rainforest in Southern of Paraíba state, have stories that are interwoven throughout time. The practice of meliponicultura has been carried out for generations in these social groups and provides an elaborate ecological knowledge based on native stingless bees, the melliferous flora and the management techniques used. The traditional knowledge that Quilombola have of stingless bees is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. Methods To deepen study concerning the ecological knowledge of the beekeepers, the method of participant observation together with structured and semi-structured interviews was used, as well as the collection of entomological and botanical categories of bees and plants mentioned. With the aim of recording the knowledge related to meliponiculture previously exercised by the residents, the method of the oral story was employed. Results and discussion Results show that the informants sampled possess knowledge of twelve categories of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini), classified according to morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics. Their management techniques are represented by the making of traditional cortiço and the melliferous flora is composed of many species predominant in the Atlantic Rainforest. From recording the memories and recollections of the individuals, it was observed that an intricate system of beliefs has permeated the keeping of uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris) for generations. Conclusion According to management techniques used by beekeepers, the keeping of stingless bees in the communities is considered a traditional activity that is embedded within a network of ecological knowledge and beliefs accumulated by generations over time, and is undergoing a process of transformation that provides new meanings to such knowledge, as can be observed in the practices of young people. PMID

  3. Capture techniques' use of Caranguejo-uçá crabs (Ucides cordatus in Paraíba state (northeastern Brazil and its socio-environmental implications

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    Douglas M. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in two traditional communities that are located on the margins of the estuary and mangrove complex of the Mamanguape River, Paraíba state (PB, Brazil. This work describes the crabs capture techniques tapamento and redinha, and identifies the negative socio-environmental impacts of redinha, using qualitative methods (open and semi-structured interviews, guided tours, direct observation and the administration of questionnaires. Results indicate that currently only two principle techniques are used to capture Ucides cordatus: redinha and tapamento. Tapamento has a low impact in relation to redinha. Redinha was pointed out by interviewees as a system that has social impact (social conflicts, breaking of traditions, substitution and extinction of techniques and environmental impact (less selective captures and high productivity, mangrove pollution, death of crabs caught in traps, cutting of the roots of Rhizophora mangle, micro-habitat loss resulting from galleries destroyed and polluted. Knowledge of crab harvesting carried out using these two techniques and the possible social and environmental impacts caused by redinha, can lead to more effective planning and actions towards the conservation of the species.O estudo foi realizado em duas comunidades tradicionais localizadas às margens do complexo estuário-manguezal do rio Mamanguape, Paraíba (PB, Brasil. Foram descritas as técnicas de captura (tapamento e redinha, identificando os impactos socioambientais negativos provocados pela redinha na captura de caranguejos, utilizando métodos qualitativos (entrevistas abertas e semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas, observação direta e questionários. Os resultados indicaram que atualmente apenas estas técnicas são usadas na captura de Ucides cordatus. O tapamento apresenta baixo impacto em relação à redinha, que é apontada pelos entrevistados como causadora de impactos sociais (conflitos sociais, rompimento de

  4. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  5. Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil Epidemiologia dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Rafaella Moreno Barros

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region.Acidentes por animais peçonhentos representam um importante, embora negligenciado, problema de saúde pública mundial. Neste sentido, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos e registrados, entre 2007 e 2010, nas unidades de saúde dos municípios do Cariri, Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. As informações foram coletadas do banco de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Um total de 351 registros de vítimas de ataques por serpentes peçonhentas foram analisados. As vítimas foram predominantemente trabalhadores rurais do sexo masculino com mais de 50 anos. As maiores incidências de

  6. Estudo de prevalência de defeitos congênitos no Vale do Paraíba Paulista Prevalence study of birth defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cilene Otaviano Pinto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de anomalias congênitas no Vale do Paraíba Paulista em 2002 e 2003. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados constantes na Declaração de Nascido Vivo (DNV, cujas informações estavam no portal da Secretaria da Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. As malformações foram descritas de acordo com o capítulo XVII do Código Internacional de Doenças (CID 10, referente a variáveis maternas e do recém-nascido. A variável desfecho (dependente foi a presença de anomalia congênita; as demais informações das mães e do recém-nascido constantes na DNV (variáveis independentes foram analisadas para estimar as associações entre elas e a variável desfecho. Utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info 6.04d para análise estatística e o teste do qui-quadrado, do qui-quadrado de tendência linear e o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 41.838 dados com informações constantes nas DNVs, sendo identificados 618 (1,5% sem preenchimento do campo correspondente à anomalia congênita e 317 (0,76% nascidos com anomalia congênita. Houve associação positiva de anomalias congênitas com menor duração da gestação, maior número de filhos mortos, tipo de parto, baixo peso ao nascer e menor escore de Apgar. Os sistemas mais afetados foram o osteomuscular e o nervoso. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de malformações foi menor que a encontrada em outros estudos, possivelmente por sub-registro de informação.OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of birth defects in the Vale do Paraíba Paulista, São Paulo - Brazil, during the years of 2002 and 2003. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on Birth Certificates available in the São Paulo Health Secretary site. The abnormalities were described according to chapter XVII of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10 for variables related to mothers and infants born alive at birth. The dependent variable was the presence of abnormalities

  7. Aptidão física relacionada à saúde em escolares de Jequié, BA, Brasil Health-related physical fitness in students from Jequié, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valfredo Dórea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a aptidão física relacionada à saúde (AFRS em escolares de Jequié, BA, Brasil. Para tanto, a AFRS de 182 meninos e 160 meninas (sete a 12 anos, escolares da rede pública de ensino, foi avaliada mediante a aplicação dos testes motores corrida/caminhada de nove minutos (indicador de resistência cardiorrespiratória, abdominal modificado em um minuto (indicador de força e resistência abdominal, sentar-e-alcançar (indicador de flexibilidade. O somatório das espessuras das dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular foi utilizado como indicador de gordura corporal. Os resultados encontrados indicaram maior prevalência de meninos e meninas abaixo (19% e 49%, respectivamente do que acima (3% e 1%, respectivamente dos critérios estabelecidos pela AAHPERD (1988 para indicadores de gordura corporal. Por outro lado, somente 51% dos meninos e 58% das meninas no sentar-e-alcançar; 11% e 7%, respectivamente, no abdominal modificado em um minuto, e 15% e 14%, respectivamente, na corrida/caminhada de nove minutos alcançaram os critérios estabelecidos. Portanto, os resultados sugerem que programas efetivos de intervenção parecem necessários para a promoção de mudanças no estado nutricional e na atividade física habitual de escolares de Jequié.The aim of this study was to analyze the health-related physical fitness (HRPF in students from Jequié, BA, Brazil. Therefore, the HRPF of 182 boys and 160 girls aged 7-12 years, students from public schools, was assessed by the application of 9-minute-run/walk (indicator of cardiorespiratory capacity, modified in one minute abdominal (indicator of abdominal strength and endurance, sit-and-reach (indicator of flexibility motor tests. The sum of the triciptal and subscapular skinfolds thickness was used as indicator of body fat. The results found indicated higher prevalence of boys and girls below (19% and 49%, respectively than above (3% and 1%, respectively the

  8. Magnitude, tendência temporal e fatores associados à anemia em crianças do Estado da Paraíba Magnitud, tendencia temporal y factores asociados a la anemia en niños del Estado de Paraíba Magnitude, time trends and factors associate with anemia in children in the state of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Sheila Sherezaide Rocha Gondim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da anemia em crianças, sua tendência temporal e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, de base populacional, envolvendo 1.108 crianças, com idade entre seis e 59 meses, de ambos os sexos, do Estado da Paraíba, em 2007. A hemoglobina foi analisada em sangue venoso com contador automático. Foram considerados para anemia valores OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de la anemia en niños, su tendencia temporal e identificar factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Estudio de corte transversal, de base poblacional, involucrando 1.108 niños, con edad entre 6 a 59 meses, de ambos sexos, del Estado de Paraíba, en 2007. La hemoglobina fue analizada en sangre venosa con contador automático. Se consideraron para anemia valores OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the anemia, to analyze the time trends and investigate the factors associated with this disturbance in children in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, of population-based, with 1108 children, aged 6 to 59 months, both sexes in the state of Paraíba. Hemoglobin (Hb in venous blood was analyzed with an automatic counter. The social-economic and demographic characteristics of children were obtained by questionnaire. Proportions were compared by Pearson's chi-squared test, and the association between hemoglobin concentrations and potential risk factors was tested by regression model Poisson. The time trend of anemia was assessed by the increase/decreased in the prevalence of anemia, using as comparison the prevalence observed in the years 1982, 1992 and 2007. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl in the state of Paraíba was 36.5% (CI95% 33.7 to 39.3. It was observed that 1.3% (CI95% 0.7 to 1.8 were in severe form (Hb <7.0 g/dl, 11% (CI95% 9.4 to 13.5 in a moderate form and 87.6% (CI95% 79.1 to 91.2 in the mild form. There was an increase 88.5% in cases of anemia between the years 1982-1992 and

  9. Outbreaks of rhinofacial and rhinopharyngeal zygomycosis in sheep in Paraíba, northeastern Brazil Surtos de zigomicose rinofacial e rinofaríngea em ovinos na Paraíba

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    Franklin Riet-Correa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of zigomycosis with rhinofacial and two other with rhinopharyngeal lesions involving fungi with filamentous coaenocytic hyphae characteristic of entomoph-thoramycetous fungi are reported in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. One outbreak of rhinofacial zygomycosis occurred during the rainy season affecting 5 sheep. Another outbreak of the clinical form affected one out of 40 sheep during the dry season. Common clinical signs of the rhinofacial infection were bilateral serosanguineous nasal discharge with swelling of nostrils, upper lip, and the skin of the face. At necropsy the nasal mucosa showed dark brownish ulcerated areas which extended from the mucocutaneous region to 10cm inside the nasal vestibule. The mucosa of the hard palate was also ulcerated. The cutting surface of nostrils and palate showed a brownish or red spongeous tissue of friable consistency. One outbreak of rhinopharyngitis took place on an irrigated coconut farm; 7 out of 60 adult sheep were affected. Another outbreak affected a sheep in a flock of 80 during the dry season. Clinical signs as noisy respiration and dyspnoea due to mechanical blockage of the nasal cavities, swelling of the nostrils, and serosanguineous nasal discharge were observed. Six out of 8 sheep in this group showed exophthalmia, keratitis and unilateral corneal ulceration of the eye. The sheep either died of their infection or were euthanized after a clinical course of 7-30 days. At necropsy there was a dense yellow exudate in the nasopharyngeal area affecting the ethmoidal region, turbinate bones, paranasal sinuses, hard and soft palates, orbital cavity, pharynges, regional muscles and lymph nodes. Histopathologically both forms of the disease showed multifocal granulomas with an eosinophilic necrotic reaction (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon containing ribbon-type coenocytic hyphae with 7-30mum in diameter similar to hyphae of zygomycetous fungi, possibly Conidiobolus spp

  10. Characterization of fluids associated to mineral paragenesis of uraniferous albitites and their gnessic embedding rocks from Lagoa da Rabicha Uranium Deposit, Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de

    2010-01-01

    Brazil has now the seventh largest uranium reserve in the world. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in central-south region of Bahia State. Along a helical structure, north-south oriented, with approximately 33 km long, there are 34 known uranium mineralized areas. In its central-south portion is located anomaly 03 (AN03), named Lagoa da Rabicha, discovered and mapped by NUCLEBRAS (Brazilian Nuclear Enterprises), in the 80s. The Cachoeira Mine (AN13), located in northern PULR, is currently the only uranium mine in production in Brazil and even in South America. Nowadays it is observed a growth in energy demand in Brazil and also worldwide and studies and research applied to the petrogenetic uranium deposits are relevant both to be able to increase their potential for exploration and to assist in the possible future occurrences discovery. In recent years, fluid inclusions analysis (FI) have been widely used to study the genesis of uranium deposits in PULR and even thought there are still doubts about the uranium mineralization metallogenesis at Lagoa Real. Therefore, this work aimed to study the minerals and fluids associated with Lagoa da Rabicha albitites uraniferous and gneissic host rocks. In this way it was prepared an overview of the fluids found in this sector, establishing a comparison with several authors' studies in this and others Lagoa Real anomalies, trying to show the solutions evolution, at the same time that happened the uraninite precipitation. Petrography, electronic microprobe, laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS) and fluid inclusion studies were the applied methodologies. The fluids inclusions assemblages present in pyroxene, garnet and plagioclase, the main mineralogical constituents, were studied. The older fluid was found in aegirine-augite pyroxene and had aquo-saline composition (without carbonic phases) with Ca, Fe and Mg, 9-13 wt% NaCl salinities and homogenization temperatures between 220 and 290 deg C. Concomitantly, occurred a

  11. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear

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    Nolan M. Dehler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain.A geometria das zonas de cisalhamento no CinturãoParaíba do Sul no Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, delineia uma estrutura-em-leque com direção NE. Estaszonas de cisalhamento mergulham para SE no flanco norte, e para NW no flanco sul da estrutura. Esta geometria tem sido interpretada de duas formas: (a implantação de um regime transpressivo ou (b dobramento tardio de superfícies de empurrão originalmente sub-horizontais. A lineação de estiramento mineral mostra caimento para ENE-ESE, no flanco norte, e para NNE-NE, no flanco sul, onde ocorre a Zona

  12. Mortalidade perinatal de cordeiros no semi-árido da Paraíba Perinatal mortality of lambs in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Janduí Escarião da Nóbrega Jr

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As causas de mortalidade perinatal em ovinos foram estudadas de março de 2002 a outubro 2004 em 27 fazendas da região semi-árida da Paraíba. De 90 cordeiros necropsiados, 41,1% morreram de infecções neonatais, 23,3% por malformações, 10% por inanição/hipotermia, 10% por distocia, 2,2% por predação e 4,4% foram abortos sem causa identificada. Em relação ao momento da morte, 4,4% dos cordeiros morreram antes do parto, 10% durante o parto, 30% no primeiro dia de vida, 20% entre o 2º e 5º dia e 35,6% entre o 4º e 28º dia após o parto. A assistência das ovelhas durante o parto, a desinfecção do umbigo dos cordeiros, a ingestão de colostro 2 a 6 horas após o parto, e a manutenção das ovelhas em locais adequados durante e após o parto contribuiriam para diminuir as mortes perinatais por distocia e infecções neonatais. A alta freqüência de malformações, em diferentes raças, sugere que esses defeitos sejam causados por uma planta tóxica. Os principais defeitos observados foram a flexão permanente dos membros anteriores, braquignatismo, fenda palatina e outras alterações dos ossos da cabeça. Recentemente foi demonstrado o efeito teratogênico de Mimosa tenuiflora ("jurema-preta", uma planta muito comum na região semi-árida, nas áreas de caatinga, que aparentemente é responsável pelas malformações. Os cordeiros mortos por inanição/hipotermia tiveram baixo peso ao nascimento (1,37 ± 0,7kg o que sugere que a principal causa dessas mortes é a deficiente nutrição da mãe durante o último terço da gestação. Considerando-se que na região nordeste, na maioria das fazendas, os carneiros permanecem com as ovelhas durante todo o ano, a adoção de uma estação de monta definida contribuiria para a diminuição da mortalidade perinatal.The causes of perinatal lamb mortality were studied, from March 2002 to October 2004, on 27 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. In 90 lambs necropsied

  13. Origin, transport and fate of the dissolved organic matter produced in the watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Soares Gonçalves Serafim, Tassiana; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Dittmar, Thorsten; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is an important river from Southeastern Brazil that flows through the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The PSR is responsible for the water supply of over 14 million of the habitants. Due the human occupation and anthropic pressure, only 8% of it is original forest cover remains in the form of small fragmented patches. The remaining of the basin is mostly covered by grasses, such as pasture and sugar cane. Isotopic studies allows the monitoring of ecosystem changes and promotes specific links between ecology, land use and biogeochemical processes. We investigated the isotopic composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in PSR. Our objective was to identify how extensive land use changes, from forest (C3 Plants) to pasture and sugar cane (C4 Plants), have affected river biogeochemistry of organic matter transported by PSR. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the PSR, 14 sites samples at the tributaries and 21 sites samples in the estuarine and marine environmental until 35km of the coast. Sampling was performed in the wet season of the 2013 and the dry season of the 2013. The fluvial and estuarine samples were processed with conventional filtration and the marine samples were processed with the cross-flow filtration. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the PPL cartridges (Styrene divinyl benzene polymer). Isotope measurements, organic carbon and nitrogen concentration were performed with a isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (Thermo Finningan). The 13C and the 15N values ranged from -20.0‰ and -29.0‰, and from -0.80 to 4.59 respectively, while the (C/N)a ratio varied between 8 and 41. The 13C were depleted in 13C at the river samples from the wet season, and in the estuary and marine areas as well. The 13C average values observed during the wet season in the PSR and in the estuarine samples are close to those

  14. Comparative assessment of licensing processes of uranium mines in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, K.M.; Menezes, R.M.; Mezrahi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Commercial operation of uranium mining and milling started in Brazil, at the Pocos de Caldas Unit, State of Minas Gerais, in 1982. The Pocos de Caldas Unit was licensed by the Brazilian Regulatory Body (CNEN) and its is now in the decommissioning process. In 2000, a new mining and milling installation, the Caetite Unit, located in State of Bahia, started operation. This paper will discuss how Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is licensing the Caetite Unit based on the lessons learned from the Pocos de Caldas Unit. The objective is to draw attention to the importance of the safety assessment for a new unit, specially considering that some wrong decisions were taken for the Pocos de Caldas unit. These decisions lead to less effective long term solutions to protect the environment. Notwithstanding the differences between the two units, it is of great value to use the acquired experience to avoid or minimize the short, medium and long term impacts to the environment and population in the new operation. (author)

  15. Diversidade da ictiofauna de poças de maré da praia do Cabo Branco, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Diversity of the tidal pool ichthyofauna of Cabo Branco beach, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the tidal pool fish community was carried out between february/1987 and january/1988, at Cabo Branco Beach, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly at low tide, using rotenone. A total of 3143 specimens was obtained. The most speciose families were Ophichthidae (14% of the total number of species, Mugilidae (11% and Muraenidae (9%, and the most representative ones in number of individuais were Gobiidae (48%, Pomacentridae (13% and Labrisomidae (10%. The main resident species were Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837 and Abudefduf saxalilis (Linnaeus, 1758. The presence of a large number of juveniles in the pools indicated the importance of the studied sites as nursery áreas for several fish species.

  16. Assessment of stability of ceramics type perovskite, Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, submerged in crude oil taken from oil wells of Sergipe - Brazil; Avaliacao da estabilidade de ceramicas tipo perovskita, Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, submersas em petroleo cru retirado de pocos do estado de Sergipe - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Sales, D.G.; Lima, M.M.; Ferreira, R.A.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: daniella_guedes@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Oil wells are harsh environments, thus, it is necessary to find materials that are able to resist the weather imposed by these sites. Many of the new technology incorporating ceramic components because their chemical properties, electrical, mechanical, thermal and structural. The ceramics exhibit high hardness and therefore resistant to high pressure, have high melting point, resisting the high temperatures, and make inert nature in hostile environments. The ceramics, type Perovskite Ba{sub 2}MgWO{sub 6}, were submerged in crude oil for thirty days and then examined by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness to see if there were changes in structural characteristics, microstructural and mechanical properties. This work was evaluated and discussed by these results, the stability of these ceramics when subject to attack by crude oil taken from oil wells of land and sea state of Sergipe, Brazil. (author)

  17. Geochemistry of the Serra das Melancias Pluton in the Serra da Aldeia Suite: a classic post-collisional high Ba-Sr granite in The Riacho do Pontal Fold Belt, NE Brazil

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    Marcela Paschoal Perpétuo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Serra da Aldeia Suite is composed by circular or oval-shaped plutons, intrusive in meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanosedimentary rocks in the Riacho do Pontal Fold Belt, NE Brazil. The Serra das Melancias Pluton, belonging to Serra da Aldeia Suite, is located southeastern of Piaui state, near Paulistana city. These plutons represent a major magmatic expression in this area and contain important information about the late magmatic/collisional geologic evolution of the Brasiliano Orogeny. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, three facies were defined in the Serra das Melancias Pluton: granites, syenites and quartz monzonites. The rocks display high-K and alkaline to shoshonitic affinities, are metaluminous and show ferrous character. They are enriched in Light Rare Earth Elements and Large Ion Lithophile Elements, with negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Ti. Their high Ba, Sr, K/Rb, low Rb, relatively low U, Th, Nb to very low Heavy Rare Earth Elements and Y resemble those of typical high Ba-Sr granitoids. The geochemical data suggest the emplacement of Serra das Melancias Pluton in a transitional, late to post-orogenic setting in the Riacho do Pontal Fold Belt during the late Brasiliano-Pan African Orogeny.

  18. Prevalência de defeitos de esmalte em indivíduos portadores de fissuras labiopalatinas da Paraíba, Brasil Prevalencia de amelogénesis imperfecta en pacientes con labio y paladar fisurados en Paraíba, Brasil Prevalence of defective amelogenesis in patients with palatoschisis in Paraíba, Brazil

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    Rosa Helena Wanderley Lacerda

    2012-03-01

    los pacientes que asistieron al servicio de ortodoncia de Paraíba, Brasil. Se realizó un estudio transversal y observacional donde se recolectaron datos del examen clínico en 76 pacientes con fisura post foramen, trans foramen incisivo unilateral o bilateral, de ambos sexos y con una edad media de 13,3 años. El examen fue realizado en los dientes incisivos y caninos superiores, por dos examinadores previamente capacitados (kappa= 0,89. Los pacientes incluidos fueron los que asistieron al servicio durante el periodo de enero a junio de 2011, en los que las superficies vestibulares de los dientes que se examinaron permitieron una evaluación clínica. Se excluyeron aquellos con malformaciones y que no habían sido sometidos a cirugía primaria. Los datos fueron sometidos a estadística descriptiva y chi-cuadrado con una significación de 5 %. El sexo masculino representó el 57,9 % y la fisura unilateral izquierda fue de un 40,8 %. En relación con defectos en el esmalte, el diente más afectado fue el incisivo central, mostraron opacidad difusa para un 14,9 %, seguido por la presencia de opacidad limitada para un 13,15 % e hipoplasia con un 10,9 %. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (pThe enamel defects are some of the changes affecting persons with palatoschisis. The aim or present paper was to describe the prevalence of enamel defects with labial and palatine fissure, as well as its distribution by type of fissure in patients came to Orthodontics service of Paraíba, Brazil. A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted to collect data from the postmortem physical examination of 76 patients with palatoschisis through the unilateral and bilateral incisor foramen, of both sexes and a mean age of 13.3 years. The examination was performed in the upper incisor and canines by two examiners previously trained (kappa= 0.89. Patients included were those came to service from January to June, 2011, where the vestibular surfaces of teeth

  19. Isolation of rabies virus from the parotid salivary glands of foxes (Pseudalopex vetulus from Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil Isolamento de vírus rábico de glândulas salivares parótidas de raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rabies virus in the parotid salivary glands, 12 road-killed rabies-positive hoary foxes (Pseudoalopex vetulus were tested by using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT. All 12 parotid salivary glands were positive for both tests, although in some cases several passages were required. The findings of this study support the importance of the hoary fox as rabies reservoir in the semi-arid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil.Para determinar a presença de vírus rábico em glândulas salivares parótidas, 12 raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus atropeladas em rodovias e positivas para raiva foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência direta (IFD e teste de inoculação em camundongos (IC. Todas as 12 glândulas salivares parótidas foram positivas em ambos os testes, embora, em alguns casos, várias passagens terem sido necessárias. Os achados do presente trabalho reforçam a importância das raposas como reservatórios de raiva no semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil.

  20. Diversidade de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae em dois fragmentos de Mata Atlântica localizados na região urbana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Diversity of Euglossinac (Hymenoptera, Apidae in two Atlantic Forest fragments located in the urban area of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Cleomar Porto Bezerra

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fragrances to attract males of Euglossinae bees has been an important tool to increase the knowledge of the group. In the Northeastern of Brazil, studies on euglossine bees are still uncommon, mainly in urban areas. The goals of this study are to identify the Euglossinae species composition, to know the diversity and the community structure of Euglossinae species, verify their preferences for different fragrances and evaluate the phenology of these species, in two Atlantic Forest fragments of the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba state, Brazil. Bees were sampled at 15 days intervals, over the course of one year, from 8:00 to 17:00 hours, through the use of traps baited with seven types of fragrances. In both areas, 1082 individuals belonging to nine species were sampled. None significant difference of diversity and relative abundance of bees between fragments were observed. Eucalyptol was the most attractive fragrance. Bees were more abundant between 8:00 and 9:00 AM. Visits to the fragrances were more frequent from the middle of dry season to the beginning of the rainy season and positively correlated with the monthly mean temperature. Most species of bees visited all the baits over the year, but the number of attracted males was highest in April.

  1. Investigação de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus na mucosa prepucial de touros da região do Médio Paraíba, RJ Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus investigation in prepucial mucous of bulls from Médio Paraíba/RJ region, Brazil

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    Flávio Soares da Rocha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e nove touros provenientes de propriedades de pecuária leiteira (n=9 e de pecuária de corte (n=30, situadas na região do Médio Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, foram investigados para a presença de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus. Para a pesquisa de Campylobacter, amostras de esmegma foram coletadas e submetidas à técnica de cultivo e isolamento e amostras de lavado prepucial ao teste de Imunofluorescência Direta (IFD. Para a pesquisa de Tritrichomonas, foi utilizada a técnica de exame direto a partir de lavado prepucial. Foi observada a presença de C. fetus em 14 amostras (35,9 %, por meio da IFD, e o isolamento de C. fetus, subespécie venerealis, foi obtido a partir de quatro amostras (10,3%. T. foetus não foi identificado nas amostras investigadas. A alta freqüência de C. fetus observada nos animais investigados sugere a presença da campilobacteriose na região do Médio Paraíba, em rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos.Thirty nine breeding bulls from dairy farms (n=9 and beef farms (n=30 located in Médio Paraíba region at Rio de Janeiro - Brazil state were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus. For Campylobacter investigation, smegma samples were examined by culture and prepucial washings were examined by direct immunofluorescence technique (DIF. The prepucial washings were also examined for Tritrichomonas foetus presence by direct examination. C. fetus was identified in 14 samples (35.9 % by DIF technique and C. fetus subspecies venerealis was isolated from four samples (10.3%. T. foetus was not detected in bull samples. The high frequency of C. fetus observed in bull samples suggests the occurrence of Campylobacteriosis among herds which have reproductive problems at the Médio Paraíba region.

  2. Hydrogeologic monitoring of the Paraíba do Sul river floodplain area subject to sand mining in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

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    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and hydrobacterial aspects of the surface and groundwater in the floodplain of the Paraíba do Sul river in Tremembé municipality, the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer experimental site was monitored based on four wells and eight associated piezometers with daily measures of water levels in continuous operation since December 3, 2009. In addition, data from a modular weather station in operation since March 2010 and data from the quality of surface water and groundwater have been analyzed in the period between March 2010 and March 2011. The water balance between April 2010 and March 2011 was estimated to verify the periods of water deficiency and excess. Data loggers installed in the piezometers enabled daily groundwater levels monitoring to establish the influence of the Paraíba do Sul river in the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer and also they allowed the determination of the water loss to the atmosphere. A hydrogeological model with simplified equations, based on hydraulics parameters obtained in the wells pump tests, was implemented to calculate the amount of daily evapotranspiration and the average distance of the water loss from the wells to the atmosphere. An evaporation rate of 83.4 m3/h from the open-pit sand mine located at 212.2 m and of 89.2 m3/h for the one at 885.0 m average distance from the monitoring wells were observed. Chemical and bacteriological analysis involving multiple parameters were performed in the period from March 2010 to March 2011 in groundwater collected in wells, in the open-pit mines and in the waters of the Paraíba do Sul river. The results allowed to observe the influences of the Paraíba do Sul river as well as the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides from the agriculture practiced in the floodplain area on the quality of the groundwater.

  3. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in goats in the State of Paraíba, Brazil Fatores de risco associados à soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study based on planned sampling was carried out to determine flock-level risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in dairy goat flocks in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 975 adult dairy goats from 110 flocks were examined by indirect immonufluorescent antibody test (IFAT, using cut-off point at 1:64 dilution. From the 110 flocks, 77 presented at least one seropositive animal, corresponding to a prevalence of 70% (95% CI: 60.5-78.4%. Out of the 975 animals, 177 (18.1%; 95% CI = 15.8-20.7% tested positive. The presence of toxic plants (OR = 5.11; P = 0.045 and the fact that goat breeding is not the main activity on the farm (OR = 3.34; P = 0.014 were identified as risk factors. The results of the present study showed evidence of the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy goats from a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil using planned sampling. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the identified risk factors in the epidemiology of the infection.Foi conduzido um estudo transversal baseado em amostragem planejada com o objetivo de determinar fatores de risco associados com a prevalência de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii, em rebanhos de caprinos leiteiros, em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de soro de 975 caprinos leiteiros adultos, procedentes de 110 propriedades, foram examinadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se como ponto de corte a diluição 1:64. Das 110 propriedades, 77 apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 70% (IC 95%: 60,5-78,4%. Dos 975 animais, 177 (18,1%; IC 95% = 15,8-20,7% foram positivos. Apesar da presença de plantas tóxicas (OR = 5,11; P = 0,045 e da caprinocultura não ser a principal atividade na propriedade (OR = 3,34; P = 0,014, foram identificados como fatores de risco. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram uma evid

  4. Occurrence of anti-Brucella abortus and anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in buffaloes from Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

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    Arthur Willian de Lima Brasil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of animals that tested positive for brucellosis and leptospirosis and the risk factors for these diseases in the State of Paraíba. A total of 136 buffaloes from 14 herds were examined. For brucellosis, we used the buffered acidified plate antigen (BAPA test as screening method and 2-mercaptoethanol as confirmatory test. For leptospirosis, we conducted a microscopic agglutination test (MAT, with a cut-off point of 1:100. Of the animals examined, two [1.5%; 95% CI = 0.4%–5.2%] were positive for brucellosis, and 38 (27.9%; 95% CI = 21.1%–36.0% were positive for leptospirosis. The brucellosis-positive animals were from two (14.3% herds, while nine (64.3% herds had leptospirosis-seropositive animals. The more frequent Leptospira spp. serotypes were Bratislava, Pomona, and Canicola. We concluded that leptospirosis was widespread in buffaloes in the state of Paraíba and suggested that breeding alongside horses and pigs might be na important factor in the spread of leptospirosis-positive animals. The presence of brucellosispositive animals indicated the possibility of negative-impacting measures on disease control in bovines, and it is therefore recommended that greater attention be given to these animals for brucellosis control.

  5. 2. Marketing Communication Tools and Cultural Tourism in the Northeast of Brazil: the ‘forró pé de serra’ of Salvador/BA

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    Rodrigo Ladeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discover how forró artists/bands in Salvador-BA, who work with forró pé de serra - considered the original rhythm and form in which execution of the music is based on the accordion, zabumba and triangle - use marketing communication tools to disseminate their work, reach their target audience and exert an influence on the cultural tourism market. The article presents the cultural tourism market in the northeast, forró, concepts of cultural production and marketing (communication and advertising to set against the participants’ insights. This research, an exploratory and qualitative multiple case study, interviewed three artists/bands for this purpose. As a result, the range of marketing communication used by the actors of this research and their influence on the cultural tourism market was observed. Different uses were identified on account of their management styles. Bands which have greater knowledge and use of marketing and communication tools had a wider audience and higher profits in the groups studied. Furthermore, this research helps to reveal how forró production in Salvador-BA operates.

  6. Ocorrência de Achatina fulica no Vale do Paraíba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

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    Maurício Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Registrou-se no município de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a primeira ocorrência do molusco Achatina fulica hospedeiro intermediário de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causador da angiostrongilíase meningoencefálica. Em cinco bairros visitados, foram encontrados moluscos vivendo livremente, e nenhum dos animais coletados apresentava a forma larvar do parasito. A presença de A. fulica pode estar relacionada à comercialização desse molusco como alimento, e representa possibilidade de instalação dessa zoonose na região.The first occurrence of the Achatina fulica, an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of meningoencephalic angiostrongiliasis, is reported in Resende municipality, Brazil. In the five visited localities, snails were found living freely, and the larvae of this parasite was not seen in any of them. The finding of A. fulica in the area may be related to its commercialization as a food item and embodies the possibility of new focus.

  7. Leaching of uranium from the Osamu Utsumi mine wastes, INB Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Elizangela A.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.

    2009-01-01

    Mining is one of the leading sectors of the Brazilian economy and as any other anthropogenic activity it generates residues that impact the environment directly. The Osamu Utsumi Mine, which belongs to the Nuclear Industries of Brazil (INB), operated from 1982 to 1995 with the activities of mining and metallurgical treatment of the uranium ore. Since then the INB has as a main environmental problem, the generation of acid mine drainage from wastes having its pH around 3. The chemical treatment of this acid water incurs an extremely high cost and generates a precipitate that is rich in some metals, including uranium. This precipitate has been disposed of in the mine opening and has caused an overload of chemical pollutants and radioactive elements in a place that was not planned to receive this volume of residues and does not meet the necessary condition for the construction of a repository. The content of uranium in the precipitate is approximately 0.25% - similar to the content of the metal found in the ore in the Caetite Mine (BA) - around 0.29%. The recovery of this uranium from the precipitate would generate a total of 150 tons of U 3 O 8 . In the present study an alkaline leaching process was carried out aiming at recovering the uranium from sludge samples disposed of for over 20 years. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate were used as the leaching agents. The experiments were carried out by varying the concentrations of the leaching agents, extraction time and the solid percentage. The other parameters such as temperature, particle size and agitation were kept constant. The results showed that the recovery of the uranium can reach 100% in 24 hours. The uranium concentration in the solutions is around 250 mg.L -1 when using 10% of solids. Preliminary results showed that the recovery of uranium from the sludge would be a feasible practice. The conversion of an environmental liability into a valuable product is one of the most important objectives of this work

  8. The quality of life of older people from the influence of religiosity and spirituality: care for the institutionalized elderly in Caetité (BA

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    Rosemeire Moreira de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates how elderly caretakers from a Long-Term Care Institution (LTCI perform the care of the body, mind and spirit, and how it affects the life quality of the elderly. Emphasizes the importance of a better preparation for the caretakers to deal and supply the needs of these elderly, in order to provide cares involving the body, mind and the spirit. Uses observational research, with a cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative qualitative approach.  

  9. A família Rubiaceae na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Paraíba, Brasil: subfamílias Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae e Ixoroideae The family Rubiaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba State, Brazil: subfamilies Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae and Ixoroideae

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    Maria do Socorro Pereira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento dos representantes das subfamílias Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae e Ixoroideae na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Paraíba, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas intensivas no período de outubro/2000 a outubro/2001, as quais resultaram no reconhecimento de 12 espécies, 10 gêneros e cinco tribos, distribuídos nas três subfamílias. A subfamília melhor representada foi Antirheoideae, com cinco espécies, quatro gêneros e duas tribos. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Guettarda L. (2 e Tocoyena Aubl. (2. Alibertia A. Rich. ex DC., Alseis Schott, Chiococca P. Browne, Chomelia Jacq., Coutarea Aubl., Posoqueria Aubl., Sabicea Aubl. e Salzmannia DC. apresentaram uma única espécie cada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação, descrições, comentários sobre morfologia e distribuição das espécies, e ilustrações dos táxons verificados.This paper is a survey of Rubiaceae subfamilies Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae and Ixoroideae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. Intensive collections were made from October/2000 to October/2001. Twelve species, 10 genera and five tribes were recognized. The most diverse subfamily was Antirheoideae, with five species, four genera and two tribes. The genera with the most species were Guettarda L. (2 and Tocoyena Aubl. (2. Alibertia A. Rich. ex DC., Alseis Schott, Chiococca P. Browne, Chomelia Jacq., Coutarea Aubl., Posoqueria Aubl., Sabicea Aubl., and Salzmannia DC. were represented by only one species each. Keys, descriptions, comments on morphology and species distributions, as well as illustrations of the taxa are provided.

  10. Caloric density of aquatic macrophytes in different environments of the Baía river subsystem, upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil

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    Célia de Almeida Lopes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the caloric density of leaves, stems and roots of aquatic macrophytes in different environments of the Baía subsystem (Baía river and Fechada and Guaraná lagoons on the Upper Paraná river floodplain, in addition to identify the variability between ecological groups. Samplings of Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia spp, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia azurea, Polygonum sp, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were carried out in February 2003. Spatial differences in the caloric densities were not observed for these plants. Caloric density values varied from 1906.9 cal/g dry weight (root to 4675.0 cal/g dry weight (leaf. However, significant differences between the caloric content averages of the vegetative structures were observed only for Polygonum sp and Salvinia spp. In relation to the ecological groups, the highest average value was verified for the emergent macrophytes (3529.7 ± 722.5, which were significantly different from the floating ones (3056.5 ± 571.0. There was no difference between the sites included in the subsystem when the caloric densities were compared.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a densidade calórica de folhas, caules e raízes de macrófitas aquáticas, em diferentes ambientes do subsistema Baía (Rio Baía e lagoas Fechada e do Guaraná na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, além de identificar a variabilidade entre grupos ecológicos. As amostragens foram realizadas em fevereiro de 2003, sendo coletadas amostras de diferentes macrófitas, Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia spp, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia azurea, Polygonum sp, Cyperaceae e Poaceae. Diferenças espaciais nas densidades calóricas não foram observadas para as plantas estudadas. Os valores de densidade calórica variaram de 1906,9 cal/g de peso seco (raiz a 4675,0 cal/g de peso seco (folha. Entretanto, diferenças significativas entre as médias dos conteúdos calóricos das estruturas vegetativas foram

  11. Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra de; Chaves, Ana Maria Barros; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na matern...

  12. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  13. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, E.M.; Ogasawara, T.; Silva, F.T. da; Fontes, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author) [pt

  14. Uranium mining impacts on water resources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vasconcellos, Luisa M.H.; Fernandes, Horst M.; Clain, Almir F.; Silva, Liliane F.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities started operations in Brazil during the 80's. The first production Center was deployed in Pocos de Caldas (CIPC) State of Minas Gerais. The mine was exhausted in 1997, after has produced only 1200 t of U 3 O 8 . The second uranium plant began the operations in Caetite (URA), Bahia State, since 1999 and keeps operations until now with an annual U 3 O 8 production of up to 400 t. The company plans to double this mark in Caetite production center with the exploration of another uranium deposits and initiate underground operations of current open-pit mine. Simultaneously, they are seeking a license for a third plant in the State of Ceara that could produce the double of foreseen capacity in URA. This scenery drives to some issues related to the impact of uranium production on water resources of the respective watersheds. The CIPC plant is a closing mine site, which requires permanent treatment of the company due to the fact their sources of pollutants are subject to the occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage. The URA plant is located in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The extraction of uranium from the ore is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process, which has low water demand supplied by a network of wells and from a dam, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. An overall assessment of these impacts in national level could produce some lessons that we must take advantage for the ongoing project of Santa Quiteria or even in future sites. (author)

  15. Estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência em Campina Grande, Paraíba Estimate of reference evapotranspiration in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil

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    Francisco de A. N. Henrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Deste trabalho se objetivou estimar, através de uma fórmula empírica, a evapotranspiração de referência diária no município de Campina Grande, PB (EToT, utilizando-se a amplitude térmica diária. Estimou-se, também, a ETo diária usando-se os métodos de FAO-Penman-Monteith (EToPM, Hargreaves (EToH e Linacre (EToL, sendo depois correlacionados com a EToT proposta na pesquisa, por estação do ano; para isto foram coletados valores diários das temperaturas, umidade relativa do ar, radiação solar, precipitação, pressão atmosférica e velocidade do vento a 2 m da Estação Meteorológica Automática, instalada na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, no período de 1 de janeiro a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Tais valores foram registrados no intervalo de 10 min. Verificou-se que as correlações da EToT com EToH, obtiveram o melhor ajuste, cujos coeficientes foram: R² = 0,7882 (no ano, R² = 0,9796 (no verão, R² = 0,8253 (no outono, R² = 0,878 (no inverno e R² = 0,914 (na primavera. Conclui-se que os métodos de EToPM e EToL não se ajustaram bem para Campina Grande, PB, o que evidencia que a EToT poderá ser utilizada na forma proposta para estimativa da ETo desta localidade. Das equações propostas, a única restrição é o EToT para o verão caso em que se recomenda o uso da equação anual.The objective of this study was to estimate, using an empiric formula, the daily reference evapotranspiration in the city of Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil (EToT, using the daily thermal amplitude. The ETo was also estimated using the methods of FAO-Penman-Monteith (EToPM, Hargreaves (EToH and Linacre (EToL, being correlated later with EToT proposed in this research by season. For that, daily values of temperature, air relative humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, atmospheric pressure and wind speed at 2 m, were taken using the Automatic Meteorological Station installed in the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG

  16. Flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system: a new depositional model for the Devonian Cabeças Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Piauí, Brazil

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    Luiza Corral M.O. Ponciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The depositional model of the Cabeças Formation is re-evaluated in the context of the Devonian paleogeography of the Parnaíba Basin, and with particular reference to similarities between the formation's facies associations on the eastern border of the basin and the flood-dominated fluvio-deltaic system facies that have been discussed in recent literature. The widespread occurrence and nature of sigmoidal clinoforms (with asymptotic cross-stratification and climbing ripples of the Cabeças Formation are here considered as strong evidence of flood-influenced depositional settings. Sandy strata of the Passagem Member, in the vicinity of Pimenteiras and Picos (Piauí State, are interpreted as the distal part of fine-grained mouth-bar deposits interbedded with delta-front sandstone lobes showing hummocky cross-stratification. Richly fossiliferous levels, with diverse megainvertebrates and plant cuticles, occur within the delta-front lobes and the distal mouth-bar deposits, reflecting continuation of shallow marine conditions.O modelo deposicional da Formação Cabeças é reinterpretado no presente estudo com base no contexto paleogeográfico da Bacia do Parnaíba durante o Devoniano e na similaridade entre as fácies encontradas na Formação Cabeças com as fácies características dos sistemas flúvio-deltaicos dominados por inundações. O tipo das clinoformas sigmoidais (com estratificação cruzada assintótica e laminação cruzada cavalgante, e a sua predominância na Formação Cabeças, são consideradas como as principais evidências da influência de inundações nesta unidade. Depósitos do Membro Passagem, localizados nos arredores das cidades de Pimenteiras e Picos, são interpretados como o componente distal de um tipo de barra de desembocadura com a predominância de arenitos finos a conglomeráticos, intercalados com lobos arenosos tabulares de frente deltaica com estratificação cruzada hummocky. Diversos intervalos fossil

  17. Insegurança alimentar das famílias residentes em municípios do interior do estado da Paraíba, Brasil Household food insecurity in municipalities of the Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de segurança alimentar e dos diferentes graus de insegurança alimentar entre famílias residentes em 14 municípios da Paraíba e a relacionar com o perfil social, demográfico e econômico destas famílias. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se inquérito populacional no qual 4.533 famílias foram entrevistadas. Utilizou-se questionário para avaliar as características sócio-demográficas, juntamente com a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. Foram calculadas medidas de prevalência e verificada a associação entre as variáveis do estudo pelo teste qui-quadrado. Ajustou-se um modelo de regressão logística para examinar a associação dos fatores de risco à segurança e à insegurança alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de 11,3% de insegurança alimentar grave, 17,6% de insegurança moderada, 23,6% de insegurança leve; 47,5% da população foi classificada em situação de segurança alimentar. As áreas rurais apresentaram pior situação. O principal motivo referido para insegurança alimentar foi a falta de dinheiro para aquisição de comida. A regressão logística final foi composta por três variáveis: baixa renda familiar per capita (R$25,00 versus R$300,00, Odds Ratio=19,10, moradia precária (Odds Ratio=1,98 e falta de água permanente (Odds Ratio=1,38. As famílias do menor estrato de renda apresentaram menor prevalência de insegurança alimentar grave, quando incluídas em programas sociais. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de insegurança alimentar foi elevada. O instrumento utilizado demonstrou ser uma ferramenta importante de avaliação da situação de segurança alimentar e útil para o monitoramento de políticas públicas, como é o caso dos programas sociais que integram a estratégia Fome Zero do Governo Federal.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of household food security in 14 municipalities of Paraiba State and examine its association with

  18. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dandara M M; Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Rocha, Pollyana D; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.

  19. Conceptual model of fractured aquifer of Uranium Deposit in Caetité, Bahia: implications for groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Liliane Ferreira da

    2015-01-01

    The studied area is represented by the uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the center-south of Bahia State, Brazil. The region is set in a semiarid climate context, with hot and dry weather parameters, with hydric deficit along all months of the year and high aridity index. Rural population is affected on drought periods since small agriculture and animal rearing are the main economic activities which are vulnerable in dry seasons. Groundwater represents the main supply source considering that most surface water sources are temporary and only exhibit flow in rainy periods. The main aquifer system present on the region is fractured, and the presence of groundwater flow occurs through the discontinuities of the rock considering that the rock mass corresponds to the set formed by the rock matrix and all its discontinuities (fractures, foliations, discordance, etc). In this sense, the main purpose of this Master Dissertation was to develop a conceptual model for the aquifer system, through the geotechnical characterization of discontinuities, once these structures allow the secondary porosity of the medium. Hydrochemical data hand out as complement for physical characterization for the behavioral interpretation of the aquifer. The aquifer system is unconfined, however, presents points of stagnation of flow forming compartments without communication with the surrounding areas. According to the International Society of Rock Mechanics ISRM method, which consist on qualitative and quantitative characterization of discontinuities of rock mass scanlines were constructed, systematically, describing, the following structure parameters: attitude, spacing, persistence, openness, infilling and roughness. From the results analysis it could be concluded that the aquifer system is composed of three discontinuities sets: one set which dips to NE, second set dipping to SW-W-NW and the last set sub-horizontal. The first and second sets are responsible for the aquifer

  20. Laser ablation - inductive coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) geochemistry characterization of albitites associated to uranium in Lagoa da Rabicha deposit, Lagoa Real, BA (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucilia A. Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias; Souza, Aurelio da Silva; Prates, Sonia Pinto; Yardley, Bruce; Matos, Evando Carele

    2009-01-01

    The LA-ICP-MS technique is a good tool for mineral geochemical characterization. The technique has high spatial resolution, elevated sensibility, low detection limits and multi-elementary analysis possibility. Almost all chemistry elements can be analyzed by this methodology. Briefly, this methodology consists in vaporize the sample by Laser Ablation, which is dragged by argon into the Plasma where are created and accelerated the ions. They are separated by their mass/charge ratio into the Mass Spectrometer, being conveyed to a detector that convert the signals in specters. In this work LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed in two albitites thin sections, a mineralized and a non mineralized sample. Both samples are from the Lagoa da Rabicha Deposit, Uranium Lagoa Real Province, BA. From these analysis it was possible to chemically characterize the minerals present in the samples and better understand the trace elements on them. The results for plagioclase in both samples show that it is albite (NaAlSi 3 O 8 ). The albite from sample 200907-20 shows traces of strontium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium and thorium in one crystal. The albite from sample 200907-23 has strontium with uranium, yttrium and lead in smaller quantities. The results obtained in this work are very important and contribute to a better understanding of the uranium origin in Lagoa Real deposits. (author)

  1. Carbon sources and trophic position of the main species of fishes of Baía River, Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    Manetta G. I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the carbon source and trophic position of the main species of fishes, of the Paraná River floodplain, we analysed the proportion of stable carbon (delta13C and nitrogen (delta15N isotopes in muscle of fishes sampled in the rainy season. We analyzed adult individuals of Loricariichthys platymetopon, Schizodon borellii, Leporinus lacustris, Auchenipterus osteomystax, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus friderici, and Serrasalmus marginatus. These data were compared with the results obtained by the analyzing stomach contents. The primary producers found in the Baía River were the C3 plants (riparian vegetation, macrophytes, periphyton, and phytoplankton and the C4 plants (macrophytes. The results of the contribution analysis revealed that the carbon used by the species was derived from C3 plants. According to the trophic position estimates (diet and delta15N, the species primarily consumed Loricariichthys platymetopon, Schizodon borellii, Leporinus lacustris, and Leporinus friderici and, secondarily Auchenipterus osteomystax, Iheringichthys labrosus, and Serrasalmus marginatus. There was no significant difference between the two methods utilized.

  2. Study of stability of the ceramic Ba{sub 2}NiWO{sub 6} in crude petroleum drew back from state - Brazil oil wells; Microestrutura e propriedades mecanicas da ceramica Ba{sub 2}NiWO{sub 6} apos imersao em petroleo cru retirado de pocos de prtroleo do estado de Sergipe - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Bezerra, L.P.; Diniz, M.J.L.; Ferreira, R.A.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: yadava@ufpe.br

    2008-07-01

    The necessity of developing technologies which make practical the oil-well exploration is notorious. Knowing that those are hostile places is necessary to find materials which are capable to resist to the inclemency caused by those environments. Pondering that the ceramics show the required characteristics to this purpose the present assignment views the elaboration of complex perovskite ceramic Ba{sub 2}NiWO{sub 6} to produce ceramics components parts of temperature sensors to oil-well. To this purpose we studied the ceramic stability when they are vulnerable to the attack of the crude petroleum drew back from ocean and earth's oil-wells of Sergipe state-Brazil. The ceramics were submersed in the mentioned petroleum during thirty days and then they were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optics microscopy and microhardness Vickers to verify if changes happened in the structure, microstructure and mechanics proprieties characteristics. These results are showed and discussed in this assignment. (author)

  3. Simultaneidade de fatores de risco cardiovascular modificáveis na população adulta de Salvador (BA, Brasil Clustering of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in adults living in Salvador (BA, Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    2004-08-01

    simultaneously in a racially-mixed population. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1 298 adults aged > 20 years in the city of Salvador, Brazil, in 2000. Eight modifiable cardiovascular risk factors were assessed, in any combination: total cholesterol > 240 mg/dL; high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c 200 mg/dL; glycemia > 126 mg/dL + well-controlled diabetes; body mass index > 25 kg/m², waist > 102 cm for males and > 88 cm for females, smoking and alcoholism. The results were stratified according to the number of simultaneous risk factors (zero to five or more and two or more risk factors. The data were analyzed in terms of estimated proportions and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI, with and without the inclusion of arterial hypertension (VI Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure [JNC-VI], United States of America, ratio of proportions and chi-square for proportions as a measure of association. RESULTS: Among men (41.4% of participants, 7.5% (95%CI: 2.5 to 9.7 did not present risk factors; 68.8% (95%CI: 65.0 to 72.8 presented two or more risk factors, not including hypertension. After inclusion of hypertension, 73.4% (95%CI: 69.7 to 77.1 presented two or more risk factors. Among women, 11.6% did not present risk factors. The presence of two or more risk factors, not including hypertension, was observed in 67.7% (95%CI: 64.8 to 71.4. After inclusion of hypertension, 71.7% (95%CI: 68.5 to 74.9 of the women presented two or more risk factors. Significant differences were observed for the presence of two or more risk factors in men with not more than 4 years of schooling vs. 5 to less than 11 years of schooling (P < 0.05; in women with not more than 4 years of schooling vs. 5 to less than 11 years of schooling; in women with not more than 4 years of schooling vs. 11 or more years of schooling (P < 0.01; and in black vs. white women (P < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of clustering

  4. Ethnobotanical study of useful vegetal species in two rural communities in the semi-arid region of Paraíba state (Northeastern Brazil.

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    Cleilton Marques Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trying to understand the relationship between man/natural resources, from ethonobotanical studies, this study aimed to estimate the use value of vegetal species in two Caatinga areas in the Cariri of Paraíba state, besides knowing the multiple uses of plants by the residents of rural communities of Brito (Queimadas - PB and Lagoa Salgada (Montadas, Areial, Pocinhos - PB. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local specialists and the community. It was used by the specialists the technique “snow ball” and the technique “guided tour”. It was identified 77 species, being 40 in Brito community and 37 in Lagoa Salgada community, all of them distributed into use categories, since food up to technological uses. Seven species had the higher use value: 1: Croton blanchetianus, Mimosa caesalpinefolia, Prosopis julifora, Mimosa tenuiflora, Opuntia ficus-indica, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva. The used categories were equal between the two communities and among the general informants and local specialists, which show great resemblance of use and their preference for certain species. The lowest cited species were those for food and domestic building purposes, and the most used were those ones for medicinal use. The most cited species are Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae. Regarding the species, the most valued in both communities were Croton blanchetianus, Pilosocereus gounellei, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis julifora.  Although the current communities have a great dependence of the local flora for surviving, the extraction and the lack of conservation of species are notorious in both communities.

  5. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

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    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  6. Carbon and Nitrogen in the Lower Basin of the Paraíba do Sul River, Southeastern Brazil: Element fluxes and biogeochemical processes

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    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the lower basin of the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR, in which 57,000 km2 of the basin is located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. We proposed to identify the main sources of C and N fluxes in the PSR waters, to evaluate biogeochemical processes in the watershed, and to estimate C and N riverine loads to the Atlantic Ocean in the context of the sugarcane plantation expansion for ethanol production. Riverine water samples were collected at seven stations along 12 months. Physicochemical and limnological parameters, as well as discharge, were measured together with organic and inorganic C and N species in the dissolved and suspended particulate material. C and N concentrations in bed fluvial sediments, and suspended particulate material were measured, and their elemental ([C:N]a and isotopic (δ13C compositions were compared with the [C:N]a and δ13C of the following sources: riparian soils, insular flooded soils, aquatic macrophytes, phytoplankton, pasture grass, sugarcane, sugarcane byproducts, and forest litterfall. Temporal patterns in the physicochemical and limnological environment were correlated to discharge. It also was observed that sugar cane production can increase riverine C and N fluxes. Riparian soils inputs were larger than insular soils, which was likely to act as a biogeochemical barrier. Effects of the macrophytes on riverine C and N were unclear, as well as urban sewage disposal effects. Although the PSR loads represented a very small percentage of the fluvial input to global biogeochemical cycles, we suggest that this and other medium sized watersheds in Eastern and Southeastern South America can be significant contributors to the continental biogeochemical riverine loads to the ocean, if their loads are considered together.

  7. Facies architecture and high resolution sequence stratigraphy of an aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine system in the Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Lucas Valadares; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    The Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation records the deposition of aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine systems accumulated in the cratonic sag Parnaíba basin. Characterization of the facies associations and sequence stratigraphic framework was done by detailed description and logging of outcrops. Six facies associations were recognized: aeolian dunes and interdunes, aeolian sandsheets, fluvial channels, tidally-influenced fluvial channels, shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition. Through correlation of stratigraphic surfaces, the facies associations were organized in system tracts, which formed eight high frequency depositional sequences, bounded by subaerial unconformities. These sequences are composed of a lowstand system tract (LST), that is aeolian-dominated or fluvial-dominated, a transgressive system tract (TST) that is formed by tidally-influenced fluvial channels and/or shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition deposits with retrogradational stacking, and a highstand system tract (HST), which is formed by shoreface-shelf transition and shoreface deposits with progradational stacking. Two low frequency cycles were determined by observing the stacking of the high frequency cycles. The Lower Sequence is characterized by aeolian deposits of the LST and an aggradational base followed by a progressive transgression, defining a general TST. The Upper Sequence is characterized by fluvial deposits and interfluve pedogenesis concurring with the aeolian deposits of the LST and records a subtle regression followed by transgression. The main control on sedimentation in the Piauí Formation was glacioeustasy, which was responsible for the changes in relative sea level. Even though, climate changes were associated with glacioeustatic phases and influenced the aeolian and fluvial deposition.

  8. Management of water use in the Paraíba River, PB, Brazil basin based on water grants and charge models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Araújo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in the management of water resources is to advance water distribution mechanisms to allow them to balance the basin's available water with the demands of its various economic sectors. This research evaluated the combined use of a model of grant optimization with a proposed model of charging for the use of raw water in order to assist decision makers in the distribution of water of the Acauã Reservoir, located in the basin of the Paraiba River in the State of Paraiba, Brazil. The grant model allowed optimizing the achievement of the demand requests according to water use priorities defined in four scenarios, balancing demand and availability. It was shown that it can be used in decision-making processes in the evaluation of new grant requests in basins controlled by reservoirs. The proposed charging model incorporated various profiles of water users using various coefficients which enabled the definition of the amount to be charged to encourage the rational use of water, not just a tax collection mechanism.

  9. Characterization of victims of aggression and transportation accidents treated at the Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Institute - Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila, Sergio; Campos, Ana Cristina; Cavalcante, Gigliana Maria Sobral; Silva, Carlos Jose de Paula; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional census study was to characterize agression and land-based transport accidents in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. Data was analyzed from live victims who were treated at a forensic service (N = 2.379). In the descriptive analysis, the majority of events were represented by aggression (71.6%); which occurred on weekdays (65%), with 35.1% at night. Trauma occurred to the whole body (63.6%) and to soft tissue (74.2%). On the basis of multiple correspondence analysis, two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0.654) was formed by the cause of the event, the trauma and the age group and the second dimension (reliability = 0.514), by age group, occupation and civil status. Three groups with distinct profiles were formed for accidents and aggression: young women who suffered aggression, with trauma to the face and soft tissues during the evening and at weekends; adult men who suffered car accidents, in the morning and on work days; and retired elderly widowers, who were run over.

  10. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores de urucum em Vitória da Conquista, BA Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitors of the annatto flowers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Augusto Jorge Cavalcante Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O urucum é um arbusto da família Bixaceae, utilizado na fabricação de corantes naturais para a indústria alimentícia e cosmética. No Brasil, somente nos últimos 15 anos, houve maior interesse pelo cultivo, pois se tornou uma alternativa agrícola promissora. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores do urucuzeiro em Vitória da Conquista, BA. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental da UESB, em uma lavoura do tipo cultivado Peruana Paulista. A coleta das abelhas visitantes foi feita na época principal de floração do urucueiro: março/abril, das 6h às 18h. Foram coletadas 3019 abelhas de 22 espécies, com predominância na visitação das 8h às 14h em relação ao número de indivíduos e número de espécies capturadas. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Apis mellifera L., Schwarziana quadripunctata (Lepeletier e Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille. Espécies de maior porte, como Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, Bombus morio (Swederus e Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, consideradas como eficientes na polinização da cultura do urucum, não foram abundantes neste estudo.Annatto is a shrub from Bixaceae family, which natural pigment (annatto is widely used in food and cosmetic industries. In Brazil, the interest for this crop started in the last fifteen years, once it became a promising agricultural alternative. This study was aimed at identifing visitor bees of annatto flowers at the agriculture region of Vitória da Conquista (BA. The research was carried out in the experimental field of UESB, in an experimental plot planted with the cv. Peruana Paulista. The visitor bees were collected during the main blooming period: March/April, between 6:00h and 18:00h. A total of 3,019 bees from 22 species was collected, with higher visitation during the period from 8:00 to 14:00h, regarding the number of individuals and species. The species most frequent were Trigona spinipes

  11. Infestation rate of the mite Varroa destructor in commercial apiaries of the Vale do Paraíba and Serra da Mantiqueira, southeastern Brazil

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    F.A. Pinto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, grandes perdas de colônias de abelhas melíferas vêm sendo registradas em várias regiões do mundo. Contudo, os motivos desse acontecimento permanecem obscuros. O ácaro ectoparasita Varroa destructor Anderson e Trueman (Acari: Varroidae pode ser um dos responsáveis por esse fato, principalmente como vetor de vírus. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se as taxas de infestação (TIs do ácaro V. destructor em abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae e correlacionaram-se os dados com as médias de temperatura de 16 municípios das regiões do Vale do Paraíba e da Serra da Mantiqueira (São Paulo, Brasil, onde a apicultura comercial atua de maneira significativa. Em cada município, um apiário comercial foi selecionado para coleta de amostras de três colônias populosas (padrão Langstroth, totalizando 48 colônias amostradas. Aproximadamente 300 abelhas adultas localizadas na área de cria foram coletadas em cada colônia. As TIs variaram de 0.0 a 5.5%, níveis considerados baixos para causar danos significativos às colônias. As TIs mais baixas foram encontradas em municípios com clima mais ameno durante a estação avaliada (verão. Adicionalmente, cofatores como variações na disponibilidade de alimento entre os municípios e a variabilidade genética das abelhas podem interagir na interação entre parasita e hospedeiro. A variação nas TIs entre os municípios indica que, mesmo presente, a tolerância das abelhas africanizadas ao varroa pode variar drasticamente em uma pequena região, devido à dinâmica multifatorial de infestação do ácaro.

  12. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Moreira

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  13. Simulação da precipitação diária para Parnaíba e Teresina, PI, em planilha eletrônica Daily rainfall simulation in Parnaíba and Teresina - Brazil, using a spreadsheet

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    Aderson S. de Andrade Júnior

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos envolvendo precipitação pluviométrica são bastante dificultados devido ao fato das séries históricas disponíveis serem, na maioria dos casos, muito pequenas para efetuá-los. Desta forma, faz-se necessário dispor de uma técnica de simulação estocástica que possibilite a geração de valores diários de precipitação, utilizando-se uma planilha eletrônica. No Estado do Piauí, estudos com esse objetivo são inexistentes, razão por que este trabalho tem o objetivo de simular a precipitação pluviométrica diária para as regiões de Parnaíba e Teresina, PI, através de uma planilha eletrônica. O processo de simulação se baseou no método de Monte Carlo. A ocorrência da precipitação foi determinada através da cadeia de Markov, enquanto a sua magnitude foi estimada pelas funções de distribuição de probabilidades gama e empírica. O modelo utilizado proporcionou estimativas com excelente precisão e exatidão, fato comprovado pelos resultados satisfatórios quanto aos índices de desempenho estatísticos.The studies involving rainfall are quite difficult to conduct due to the fact that the available historical series, in most of the cases, are too small to make them. Thus, it is necessary to adjust a stochastic simulation technique that facilitates the generation of daily rainfall values, using a spreadsheet. In Piauí State, studies with this objective are inexistent for its several regions of agricultural importance. This work was executed with the objective of simulating the daily rainfall for the regions of Parnaíba and Teresina - PI, Brazil, using a spreadsheet. The simulation process was based on Monte Carlo's method. The occurrence of the rainfall was determined through a Markov chain, while its magnitude was estimated by gamma and empirical distribution functions. The model used provided estimates with excellent precision and accuracy, checked by satisfactory results of the statistical performance index.

  14. Influence of tides and winds on fishing techniques and strategies in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba State, NE Brazil

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    Dandara M.M. Bezerra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in two small fishing communities, Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia, Northeastern Brazil. The aim was to study these traditional fishermen's knowledge and perception about tide and wind classifications, as well as their fishing strategies and techniques. Our research methodology involved various techniques: free interviews and semi-structured ones, guided tours and direct observations. The results obtained show the fishermen's classification of the tides according to the phases of the moon: 'breaking tide', 'flushing tide', 'dead tide' and 'big tide' designated technically these last as neap tide and spring tide, respectively. Wind is also an essential factor for the fishermen to make successful catches, and they classify it according to direction: North, South, East, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast and Northwest. The data show that fishermen's knowledge can also be useful in devising plans for management and conservation studies for this estuary.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido junto a duas comunidades de pescadores artesanais: Barra de Mamanguape e Tramataia, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi estudar o conhecimento e a percepção dos pescadores artesanais sobre a classificação das marés e dos ventos bem como as técnicas e estratégias de pesca. A metodologia empregada envolveu várias técnicas: entrevistas livres, entrevistas semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas e observação direta. Os resultados obtidos junto aos pescadores mostraram a classificação das marés de acordo com as fases lunares em: 'maré de quebramento', 'maré de lançamento', 'maré morta' e 'maré grande', designadas tecnicamente estas últimas como maré de quadratura e maré de sizígia, respectivamente. O vento é também um fator essencial no sucesso da pescaria, eles o classificam de acordo com a direção: Norte, Sul, Leste, Sudeste, Sudoeste, Nordeste, Noroeste. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa mostraram que o conhecimento dos pescadores

  15. Variações espaciais na assembléia de peixes no Rio Paraíba do Sul (Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Spatial variation in fish assemblage in the Paraíba do Sul River (Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Francisco Gerson Araújo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba do Sul is a major running water system in southeastern Brazil (22º24' -22º26'S; 43º43' -44º16' W, draining one of the most important industrial regions in the country. Because of its location, it has suffered a large amount of alteration due to discharges of urban and industrial effluents with direct influence in the ichthyofauna. The aim of this study is to up-to-date information on fish assemblage structure and its variation in the vicinity of a major industrial effluent outfall at Volta Redonda industrial complex. A standardized fishing sampling program, using seines, casting nets, gill nets and net trays, was carried out from October 1997 to September 1999, at six sites in three zones of the river (upstream, nearby and downstream the industrial complex, aiming to compare variation in fish assemblage due to anthropogenic alteration. Fifty-two species in 13 families were identified in the total of 7286 fish specimens. Characidae was the most diverse family contributing with 28,85% to total number of species, followed by Cichlidae (17,31 %. Overall 15,38% of the species were introduced from other watershed systems, four exotic cichlids (genera Oreochromis Günther, 1862 and Tilapia A. Smith, 1840 and three aloctone (Cichla ocellaris Bloch & Schneider, 1801, Hyphessobricon callistus (Boulenger, 1900 e Metynnis maculatus (Kner, 1860. Lebistes reticulatus (Peters, 1859 was the most abundant fish species contributing to 39,7% of the total number of fish, followed by Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 amounting to 27,4%. Fish abundance was higher in the industrial zone, but only a few very dominant species were captured, while the upstream zone showed the most even community. Species replacement tolerance along the alterations gradient in the three zone seems to be a strategy to use the limited resources in the area.

  16. Prática alimentar entre crianças menores de dois anos de idade residentes em municípios do semiárido do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Feeding practice among children under 24 months in the semi-arid area of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Poliana de Araújo Palmeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prática alimentar de crianças menores de dois anos de idade residentes em municípios do interior do Estado da Paraíba. MÉTODOS: Estudo secional realizado nos 14 municípios mais carentes do Estado da Paraíba. Foram pesquisados 539 domicílios com pelo menos uma criança com idade entre 0 e 23,9 meses. Aplicou-se às mães recordatório 24 horas sobre alimentação das crianças. O modelo de análise considerou três momentos do crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança, identificando as recomendações de consumo alimentar pertinentes. RESULTADOS: Crianças de 0-5,9 meses: destacou-se um importante percentual de desmame (20,7% e a reduzida prevalência do aleitamento materno exclusivo (30,5%. Crianças de 6-11,9 meses: 45,2% ainda mamavam, porém apenas 21,7% das crianças entre 6 e 9,9 meses apresentaram uma alimentação complementar oportuna. Crianças entre 12-23,9 meses: a prática alimentar das crianças caracterizou-se essencialmente pelo consumo de leite não materno e pelo consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro. CONCLUSÃO: O hábito alimentar distancia-se de uma prática alimentar segura, especialmente pela interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo e sua consequente substituição por refeições à base de leite não materno, expondo esse grupo a situações de insegurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: Examine the feeding practices among children under 24 months in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in 14 municipalities identified as the poorest of the state; 539 households composed of at least one child between the ages of 0 and 23.9 months were investigated. A 24-hour recall was conducted with the mothers regarding food consumed by their children. The analytic model took into account established recommendations for appropriate child feeding practices for three age groups: 0-5.9 months; 6-12 months; 12-24 months. RESULTS: Children between

  17. Radionuclides incorporated by inhabitants of surrounding Brazilian uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Viviane S.; Brasil, Icaro M.; Attie, Marcia R.P.; Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Campos, Simara S. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Estudos Basico e Instrumental; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Brazil has the 6th largest global geological reserve of uranium, with the main reserve in Santa Quiteria - CE still not under exploration. Currently, uranium mining and processing in Brazil only occur near to the city of Caetite - BA. Several Non-Governmental Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is polluting and may jeopardize the human health and safety and the environment. However, those in charge of the complex extraction and production of 'yellow cake' for generating fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. U-238 may be deposited in the skeleton by replacing the calcium, thus it is possible to estimate its incorporation by determining its concentration in the teeth. This study aimed to identify potential problems caused by mining to the population of Caetite, analyzing U-238 contained in samples of teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons from Caetite residents. The concentration of thorium and potassium incorporated were also determined by ICP-MS, as well the cumulative dose of radiation received by this population was estimated. For comparison sake, the same analysis was performed in samples from Santa Quiteria and Aracaju - SE (used as a control area). The doses estimated were compared to doses obtained with EPR spectra of the same samples. The accumulated amount of radioisotopes in the teeth of the population of Caetite is probably due to natural origin, thus it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetite increases pollution or radiation exposure in a meaningful way. (author)

  18. Microhabitats de Aedes albopictus (Skuse na região do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Microhabitats of Aedes albopictus (Skuse in the Paraíba Valley region of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o nível de disseminação de Ae. albopictus na região do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas de larvas e pupas em seis locais distintos, segundo transecto com 10 km de extensão. O alvo principal foi oco de árvores, tendo sido também incluídos artefatos antrópicos. As espécies Ae. terrens e Ae. albopictus foram as únicas do gênero Aedes presentes e, algumas vezes, coexistiram no mesmo microhabitat natural. A segregação de sete espécies da comunidade de oco variou de acordo com os macro e microhabitats examinados. Assim, a distribuição de Ae. albopictus envolveu as zonas rural, rural-urbana e urbana, porém a segunda área foi a mais preferida. Como fator favorável à infestação de Ae. albopictus na região, destacou-se a vacância de nichos ecológicos naturais resultante da influência antrópica. As chuvas foram relevantes no "input" de larvas e pupas e os ocos, com volumes superiores a 600 ml, foram os mais produtivos. A abundância desses dois estádios ocorreu nas estações verão-outono, sendo o pico máximo alcançado nos meses de março-abril. Essa sazonalidade foi comum em bambu experimental e recipientes artificiais. Os dados de temperatura média sugeriram a faixa de 23 a 17°C como o período mais favorável ao desenvolvimento larvário. Face a isso, a cepa de Ae. albopictus estudada parece ser oriunda da Ásia tropical e, portanto, se reveste de elevada importância epidemiológica pela possibilidade dessa espécie vir a exercer, além do dengue, papel vetorial para a febre amarela no Brasil.The objective of this study was the determination of extent of the spacial distribution of Aedes albopictus in the Paraíba River Valley, State S. Paulo, Brazil. Thus, collections of larvae and pupae mosquitoes were carried out at six sites distributed along a transection with a 10-km extension. The target was the treeholes but artificial containers were also used in

  19. Estudo da cisticercose em pacientes portadores de epilepsia residentes em municípios do Cariri paraibano Cysticercosis research in epileptic patients dwelling in towns of the western Cariri in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Francisca Inês de Sousa Freitas

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo contou com uma amostra de 110 pacientes epilépticos residentes no Cariri paraibano, tendo sido desenvolvido em três etapas sucessivas. Durante a primeira etapa, aplicou-se a ficha epidemiológica visando identificar fatores de risco associados ao complexo teníase-cisticercose na etiologia da epilepsia dos pacientes. A segunda etapa consistiu em exames imunológicos dos 110 pacientes com a utilização da técnica EITB para a identificação de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticercos, e da técnica ELISA para a presença de antígenos circulantes. Na terceira etapa, treze pacientes com sorologia considerada positiva foram submetidos a exames tomográficos. A partir da aplicação do questionário, foram detectados alguns fatores de risco. A soroprevalência constatada foi 118,2/1000 habitantes. Dos 13 pacientes com sorologia positiva para cisticercose, 46,1% têm lesões sugestivas de cisticercose de localização parenquimatosa. Conclui-se que os municípios estudados apresentam perfil epidemiológico compatível com a ocorrência do complexo teníase-cisticercose e que a cisticercose possivelmente desempenhe papel importante no surgimento da epilepsia nesses pacientes.This research involved a sample of 110 epileptic patients from western Cariri, Paraíba, Brazil and it has been developed in three successive phases. During the first one, an epidemiological form was applied with the aim of identifying risk factors related to the taeniasis cysticercosis complex in the etiology of the patients' epilepsy. The second phase consisted of immunological exams of 110 patients, by means of the EITB technique to identify the anti-cysticerci serum antibodies, whereas the presence of circulating antigens was verified through the ELISA technique. In the third phase, thirteen patients who were seropositive, were submitted to brain CT scan. Applying the questionnaire enabled us to know some risk factors. The seroprevalence detected was 118

  20. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Francineide Guimarães Carneiro de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48- 3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and selfperception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chisquare and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  1. Ocorrência de Mollicutes e Ureaplasma spp. em surto de doença reprodutiva em rebanho bovino no Estado da Paraíba Occurrence of Mollicutes and Ureaplasma spp. in outbreak of reproductive disease in cattle herds, State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Sandra B. dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 2012 foi diagnosticado um surto de doença reprodutiva em rebanho bovino no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinadas 32 vacas e dois touros da raça Girolando. As vacas apresentaram sinais de doença reprodutiva como repetição de cio, vulvovaginite granular, infertilidade e abortos. As amostras de suabes vaginais e prepuciais foram colhidas e submetidas a isolamento bacteriano e PCR. As reações da PCR para Mollicutes e Ureaplasma spp. foram realizadas com os iniciadores MGSO-GPO3 e UGP'F-UGP'R, respectivamente. Na Nested PCR para Ureaplasma diversum, os iniciadores usados foram UD1, UD2, UD3 e UD4. Para isolamento bacteriano, as amostras foram diluídas de 10-1 até 10-5, semeadas em meio "UB", líquido e placa, sendo incubadas por até 21 dias a 37ºC em jarra de microaerofilia. A frequência de Mollicutes detectada na PCR foi de 65,6% e para Ureaplasma spp. foi de 50,0%, enquanto que para U. diversum foi de 15,6%. No isolamento a frequência de Mollicutes foi de 57,1% e para Ureaplasma spp. foi de 28,6%. No ágar "UB" foi visualizado o crescimento misto de Mycoplasma spp. e Ureaplasma spp. em seis amostras. Foi confirmado o envolvimento de micro-organismos da Classe Mollicutes em surto de doença reprodutiva em vacas no sertão paraibano.In March of 2012 was investigated a reproductive disease outbreak in cattle herds from Paraíba State, Brazil. Were examined 32 cows and two bulls Giroland breed. The cows showed signs and symptoms of reproductive failure such as repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. Vaginal and preputial mucous samples were collected for analysis by PCR and isolation. The PCR reactions for Mollicutes and Ureaplasma spp. were realized with primers MGSO and GPO3, and UGP'F and UGP'R respectively. The nested PCR assay for Ureaplasma diversum was realized with primers UD1, UD2, UD3 and UD4. For bacteriologic isolation, obtained samples were diluted up to 10-1 at 10-5, inoculated

  2. Comunidade microbiana e mesofauna edáficas em solo sob caatinga no semi-árido da Paraíba Soil microbial community and mesofauna under dry forest vegetation in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica do solo é responsável por inúmeras transformações físicas e químicas dos resíduos orgânicos que são depositados, mantendo, assim, a sustentabilidade do ambiente. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a distribuição da comunidade microbiana e da mesofauna edáfica no semi-árido da Paraíba. Para determinação da população de microrganismos, foram coletadas amostras de solo na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A contagem total de fungos e de bactérias foi realizada em meios de cultura específicos. A extração da mesofauna foi feita pelo método de Berlese-Tullgren modificado. Oscilações no conteúdo de água do solo e na temperatura promoveram variações na população microbiana. A população de fungos foi superior à de bactérias nos dois anos de observação, provavelmente devido ao pH do solo da área de estudo, que é ligeiramente ácido. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H e o de Pielou (e variaram de acordo com a época de coleta. Os grupos mais freqüentes da mesofauna do solo foram Diptera (42,5 %, Acarinae (40,3 % e Collembola (8,8 %, indicando que esses organismos possuem papel importante na ciclagem de nutrientes em área de Caatinga.The biological soil activity is responsible for several physical and chemical transformations of deposited organic residues, therefore maintaining the environmental sustainability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the soil microbial community and mesofauna in a dry forest (Caatinga in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. To determine the microorganism population soil samples from the 0-15 cm soil layer were evaluated. Total counts of fungi and bacteria were evaluated in specific culture media. The Berleusse-Tüllgren modified method was used to extract the soil mesofauna. Oscillations in the soil water content and high temperatures promoted variations in the microbial population. The fungi population was larger than that of

  3. Análise espacial da violência doméstica contra a mulher entre os anos de 2002 e 2005 em João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Spatial analysis of domestic violence against women from 2002 to 2005 in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Kerle Dayana Tavares de Lucena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, ecológico, exploratório com utilização de técnicas de análise espacial e do Sistema de Informações Geográficas. A população foi composta por todas as denúncias de mulheres vítimas de violência doméstica, residentes no Município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil, no período de 2002 a 2005, na Delegacia Especializada de Atendimento da Mulher. Objetivou-se investigar a distribuição espacial da violência doméstica para subsidiar os gestores no processo de tomada de decisão. A análise dos resultados permitiu identificar as áreas de alta e baixa incidências de violência, como também o risco de cada bairro comparado à cidade de João Pessoa. A partir do índice de Getis e Ord produziu-se a decisão das áreas prioritárias para intervenção sobre a violência doméstica. Ressaltamos a necessidade de mudanças no que se refere à atenção às mulheres vítimas de violência e a articulação entre as instituições com promoção da educação permanente nos serviços, contemplando discussões sobre gênero e violência contra a mulher.This was a quantitative, ecological, exploratory study using spatial analysis and a geographic information system. The population consisted of all the women that had filed complaints against domestic violence in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil, from 2002 to 2005, at the Specialized Police Precinct for Women. The aim was to investigate the spatial distribution of domestic violence in order to assist policymakers in the decision-making process. Analysis of the results allowed identifying areas of low and high incidence of domestic violence, besides comparing the risk in each neighborhood to the overall rate for the city of João Pessoa. Based on the Getis and Ord index, the study produced a decision on priority areas for intervening in domestic violence. The authors highlight the need for changes in care for female victims of violence and the

  4. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais em área de caatinga no município de São José de Espinharas, Paraíba, Brasil Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in a caatinga area in São José de Espinharas Municipality, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    M.G.V Marinho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade de São José de Espinharas, a fim de registrar e preservar o conhecimento popular. A metodologia usada foi de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com observações participantes, coleta e identificação do material botânico e preparação de exsicatas, resultando em lista de 82 espécies de 38 famílias diferentes. São fornecidas as informações nomenclatura popular e botânica, uso terapêutico, parte utilizada, forma de uso, modo de preparo e doenças tratadas. As raízes (30% foram ás partes mais utilizadas e a forma de preparo foi lambedor (32%. O conhecimento sobre os usos e modos de preparo provém em geral, dos familiares (85%. Com esses resultados, verifica-se a interação da população local com a flora e utilização relacionada a aspectos sociais, econômicos, culturais e às mudanças ambientais.The aim of this study was to perform a survey of medicinal plants used by the community of São José de Espinharas, Paraíba State, Brazil, in order to record and preserve the folk knowledge. The adopted methodology was based on semi-structured interviews, with participating observations, botanical material collection and identification, and voucher preparation, resulting in a list of 82 species of 38 different families. The following information was provided: folk and botanical nomenclature, therapeutic application, used plant part, forms of use, method of preparation and treated diseases. Roots (30% constituted the part most frequently used and syrup (32% was the predominant method of preparation. The knowledge of uses and methods of preparation are generally handed down in the family (85%. Based on those results, there is an interaction of the local population with the flora and its use is related to social, economical and cultural aspects and environmental changes.

  5. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Leonaldo Alves de Andrade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental deexóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidosrevelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrubtree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of thecommunities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  6. Petrogenesis of the uraniferous albitites, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira, E-mail: alochaves@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CPMTC/IGC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Manoel Teixeira da Costa. Instituto de Geociencias

    2011-07-01

    After Chaves et al. (2007), the crystallization and coeval deformation of the Lagoa Real uraniferous sodic syenite (uraniferous albitite protolith) took place along paleoproterozoic shear zones developed under regional late-orogenic tectonic conditions. The interpretation of new major elements, Zr and Th lithogeochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-gabbro (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through transitional alkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear process, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The regional microclinegneiss, whose protolith is a syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock, and, apparently, it has no petrogenetic association to syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutive terms (author)

  7. Importance of the study on recharge for the evaluation of potential impact of uranium mining on fractured aquifers. Case study: URA/INB (Caetite, Bahia, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Liliane Ferreira da; Matos, Evando Carele de

    2007-01-01

    The domain of the crystalline rocks, that predominant at the brazilian semiarid, presents fractured type aquifers systems, and their spatial distribution is done in very heterogeneous way, since the underground water depends upon the underground geological characteristics and the climate conditions. So, it is very important to study the geologic structure of the area, observing the depth and distribution of the fractures and failure, their relationship with the topography and with water wells productivity, and it is possible to obtain information explaining the fact that frequently producer and dry wells are placed near to each other, and where are positioned the fractures in the space and how they are connected to each other. Those data will be used in the near future to predict also the fluid mobility, through the use of transport numerical models. In the present study case, the fractured aquifer represents the main water source for the mine industrial complex and for the rural community near the enterprise as well. In this case, the study presents the description of the fractures obtained on tubular wells, relating with topography and physic-chemical parameters of the water. (author)

  8. Aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e patológicos da infecção natural em bovinos por Trypanosoma vivax na Paraíba Clinical, epidemiological and pathological signs of natural infection in cattle by Trypanosoma vivax in Paraíba, Brazil

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    Jael S. Batista

    2008-01-01

    located in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the disease were studied from May 2005 to November 2006. T. vivax was identified morphologically and by polymerase chain reaction test (PCR. The affected cattle presented anorexia, depression, fever, anemia, weight loss, reduction in milk production, transitory blindness, abortion and some nervous signs as nystagmus, tetany and bruxism. All cattle that presented nervous signs died. Necropsy findings were enlarged lymph and spleen, serous atrophy of the fat depots, proeminence of the splenic white pulp, hydropericardium and pericardial petechiae and ecchymoses on the epicardium. Histologically there was meningoencephalitis. The treatment of the clinical cases with diminazena aceturate was efficient with clearance of the parasite from the blood or disappearance of clinical signs in up to 2 months after the beginning of the outbreak on the two farms studied. The epidemiologic factors favoring the occurrence of the outbreak were the abundance of mechanical vectors, as tabanids and Stomoxys sp., and the introduction into the herd of cattle from farms where the disease occurred. It is suggested that the semiarid of the Brazilian Northeast is an enzootic instability region for trypanosomiasis due to its prolonged periods of drought and high temperatures, constituting during most part of the year an unfavorable environment for the development of vectors.

  9. Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA , Brazil Pitiríase versicolor: caracterização clínico-epidemiológica em pacientes da área urbana de Buerarema-BA, Brasil

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    Juliano Oliveira Santana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5% were positive; 72 (68.6% were female and 33 (31.4% were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor é um distúrbio de pigmentação cutânea causada pela levedura lipofílica do gênero Malassezia sp. É uma micose superficial caracterizada por produzir lesões delimitadas, com descamação fina e de cor variável. No Brasil, o relato do número de casos e de estudos é restrito. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a incidência, as características das lesões, a eficácia do Sinal de Zileri e o perfil epidemiológico da pitiríase versicolor na área urbana do município de Buerarema-BA. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras biológicas no período de julho a setembro de 2010, em dias pré-establecidos, nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde. O Método de Porto foi utilizado como diagnóstico laboratorial. RESULTADOS: Dos 158 pacientes cadastrados com suspeita de pitiríase versicolor, 105 (66,5% mostraram-se positivos, sendo 72 (68,6% do sexo feminino e 33 (31,4% do sexo oposto. Ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante entre sexo e localização das lesões (p<0,05. A região com maior

  10. Comportamento antropofílico de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae na região do Vale do Paraíba, Sudeste do Brasil Anthropophilic behaviour of Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae in the Vale do Paraíba region, Southeastern Brazil

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    Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro Marques

    1997-04-01

    essencialmente diurna podendo ocorrer durante todo o ano.INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological role of Aedes albopictus has been investigated in the State of S. Paulo by the study of its biological and ecological characteristics. The biting activity of Ae.albopictus taking stationary and moving collectors as parameters, is determined. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study area was a small farm located in the periurban zone of Tremembé city, Vale do Paraíba, State of S. Paulo, Brazil. Aedes albopictus was caught by using two human-bait modalities. One lasted 24 hours as the collectors remained sitting in only one place and in the other the collectors visited 48 different points for five minutes each over a total period of four hours in the morning and the afternoon. Both catches were made once a month for the period of a year (1989/90. RESULTS: The 24 catches undertaken yielded 637 females of Ae.albopictus, of which 54 (8.4% and 583 (91.6% corresponded, respectively to fixed and moving human-bait conditions. An analysis of the data was made to discover the influence of host movement as attracting stimulus for Ae.albopictus. The biting activity took place during the day with peaks at 6:00 a.m., 1:00-2:00 p.m and the highest between 4:00 and 5:00 p.m. The majority of the adults were collected during the summer and autumn and the moving catches were positive for Ae.albopictus throughout the year. Rainfall and rising temperature were correlated to the abundance of this species. CONCLUSION: This study has shown the complex influence of the endogenous and exogenous factors relating to the blood feeding habit of Ae.albopictus. However, it seems clear that its biting behavior depends on two distinct flights. On one, the blood feeding is obtained by the flight direct to the host, over a small supposedly short distance, and another less significant apetente flight when collectors were in a stationary position. The biting activity took place during the day and may occur all year round.

  11. Estudo ecológico e zoogeográfico sobre a fauna de lagartos (Sauria das dunas de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte e da Restinga de Ponta de Campina, Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brasil Ecologic and zoogeographic study on a fauna of lizards (Sauria from Dunas of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte and from Restinga de Ponta de Campina, Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Eliza Maria Xavier Freire

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the fauna of lizards was made in the dunes of Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil and in the "restingas" (sandbanks with its associated vegetation of Ponta de Campina (Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brazil from October/84 to March/86. The objective was to know the composition and structure of these communities as well as to evaluate the zoogeographical importance of the spots. The samples were collected and the observations were made along of transects which were established to enable the sampling of the habitats under study in both areas. Each transect was crossed one day per month, during 14 months. The collect of lizards was made manually or through the use of a small gun, calibre 22, with ammunition of the type mustard lead. Observations were made on the habitats utilized by the species (open areas or forests and on the species distribution by microhabitat. The fauna of lizards in the area under study is formed by species ecologically connected with open formations and also by species of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The majority of the species collected in the open areas is part of the fauna of the great diagonal of open formations which come from the Northeast of Argentina and go up to the state of Maranhão. There is, however, a great influence of the caatinga fauna, specially in the dunes of Natal. The species found in the forest of the dunes, in spite of being part of the Atlantic Forest, are morphologically differentiated. Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845 and G. geckoides Spix, 1825 are sympatrics, but not syntopics, in the dunes of Natal.

  12. The strategic importance of the natural gas as raw material for the Camacari, Bahia, Brazil, industrial pole; A importancia estrategica do gas natural como materia-prima para o polo industrial de Camacari, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Monica Oliveira; Caruso, Carlos Alberto da Rocha; Domingues, Suzana Marques; Pereira, Antonio Constantino [Braskem S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Insumos Basicos], e-mails: monica.grassi@braskem.com.br; carlos.caruso@braskem.com.br; suzana.domingues@braskem.com.br; constantino.pereira@braskem.com.br

    2008-01-15

    This work emphasizes the importance and the benefit of the application of natural gas from Manati, Brazil, as raw material for the petrochemical, chemical and fertilizers industries at the Camacari industrial pole, Bahia, Brazil, allowing they are more competitive in their actuation area. Initially, it is presented the world overview as far the raw material diversification on the petrochemical processes, face the present scenery of high competitiveness and low practiced margins, according to a general view of the offer and demand of gas in Brazil and northeastern area, focusing the Manati, Bahia, Brazil, the main source of gas to the Bahia state. From this point on, a strategy of raw material flexibilization for ethene production, via gaseous route, is presented. A development of viability study for amplification and modernization of a existent unity for ethane recovering from the natural gas of Manati is presented, with quality and types of contaminant different from the original project.

  13. The concentrations of heavy metals and the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes and liver EROD activity in two edible-fish from the Paraíba do Sul river basin in Brazil | Concentração de metais pesados e incidência de eritrócitos micronucleados e atividade de EROD hepática em duas espécies de peixes comestíveis na bacia do Rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil

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    Thiago Estevam Martins Parente

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba do Sul river (PSR basin crosses one of the most populated and industrialized regions of Brazil and receives effluent from the metallurgic, paper mill and agricultural industries. PSR water has multiple uses, including being a supply of potable water and riverine populations which consume some species of its fish. In the present study, we investigated the responses of two biomarkers of aquatic pollution, EROD activity in the liver and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood, as well as the concentrations of seven heavy metals in the muscle tissue of two species of fish native to the PSR: Geophagus brasiliensis and Hypostomus sp. Sampling was performed in both the wet and dry seasons of 2003, with a total of 339 fish collected from 16 sites along the PSR basin. Fish collected at Levy Gasparian, Barra Mansa and Três Rios both had higher EROD activity and micronuclei frequency. The results also suggested a moderate induction of EROD activity in fish collected from S.L. Paraitinga and Sapucaia. Micronuclei frequency was elevated in fish from S.J. Campos, Além Paraíba, Campos and S.J. Barra. In all cases, heavy metal concentrations did not exceed the maximum considered safe for fish meat consumption. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul (PSR atravessa uma das regiões mais povoadas e industrializadas do Brasil, recebendo efluentes de indústrias metalúrgicas, de papel e celulose e agrícolas. Os usos das águas do PSR são múltiplos, incluem o fornecimento de água potável, e as populações ribeirinhas consomem algumas de suas espécies de peixes. No presente trabalho foram investigadas as respostas de dois biomarcadores à poluição, a atividade hepática de EROD e a freqüência de micronúcleo em sangue periférico, e medidos os níveis de sete metais pesados no músculo de duas espécies de peixes nativas do PSR, Geophagus brasiliensis and

  14. Estrutura populacional de Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Population structure of Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae from the tidal flat of Baixio Mirim, Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil

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    Mariângela Di Benedetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre a flutuação anual da abundância, composição de tamanho dos indivíduos, proporção de sexos, período reprodutivo e de recrutamento dos juvenis de uma população de Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 foi realizado no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Os animais foram coletados mensalmente, de fevereiro/2005 a janeiro/2006, durante as marés baixas de sizígia, e a sua largura da carapaça (LC medida. A temperatura pontual do ar variou de 17 a 29ºC, a luminosidade de 8.740 a 151.300 lux, a salinidade de 8 a 25 e a temperatura do solo (superfície, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm e 20 cm de profundidade de 18,3 a 28,9ºC. Foram analisados 7.120 indivíduos, dos quais, 2.578 juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2.377 machos e 2.165 fêmeas. A abundância da população variou de 341 (abril a 994 indivíduos (janeiro, mas a sua flutuação anual não esteve relacionada com a das variáveis abióticas estudadas. A proporção de sexos foi de 1:1 e a reprodução da espécie é do tipo contínuo, com dois picos de intensidade: um em abril e outro em novembro. O recrutamento de juvenis, também, é contínuo com dois períodos mais intensos no ano, um em julho e outro em dezembro-janeiro. A LC da população variou de 1,14 a 2,62 mm para juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2,58 a 17,83 mm para machos juvenis, 2,60 a 11,72 mm para fêmeas juvenis, 17,85 a 35,81 mm para machos maduros e 11,75 a 31,76 mm para fêmeas maduras. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores do que as fêmeas.A study about the annual fluctuation of the abundance, size composition, sexual proportion, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment of the fiddler crab Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 was carried out in a population living in a tidal flat at Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Crabs were obtained from February 2005 to January 2006, during low spring tides, in monthly collections, and their carapace width was measured

  15. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa of the intertidal zone of Governador and Paquetá islands, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Hidróides (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa da zona entremarés das ilhas do Governador e Paquetá, Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Priscila A. Grohmann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During six consecutive months, sampling were made at three points located on Governador Island and three on Paquetá Island in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Material was collected from dock pilings and rocks in the intertidal zone. In these samples, five species belonging to three families, Corynidae, Kirchenpaueriidae and Campanulariidae, were identified. The campanulariid species Obelia dichotoma Linnaeus, 1758, dominated at nearly all points sampled. The small number of species obtained in this survey is attributed to the intense pollution in the bay, which borders the second-largest industrial complex and the second-largest demographic center of Brazil.Durante seis meses consecutivos foram feitas coletas em três pontos localizados na ilha do Governador e três em Paquetá, sendo colhido material em pilares de cais e rochas na zona entremarés. Foram identificadas cinco espécies pertencentes a três famílias: Corynidae, Kirchenpaueriidae e Campanulariidae. A espécie Obelia dichotoma Linnaeus, 1758 dominou em praticamente todos os pontos. O pequeno número de espécies encontradas neste levantamento deve-se, provavelmente, ao alto grau de poluição atualmente existente na baía, uma vez que ela abriga o segundo maior polo industrial e o segundo maior centro demográfico do Brasil.

  16. Present status of the interlaboratorial co-operative study for standards rocks of granite (GB-1) and basalt (BB-1) from the Geochemistry Department of I.G.U.F. Ba./Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Results for major, minor and trace elements obtained by twelve laboratories for the standards rocks, Granite (GB-1) and Basalte (BB-1), of the Geochemistry Department of Geociences Institute-U-F.Ba are presented. At present status of the study it is possible to approach the most probably correct value (usable value) for the concentration of each of the major and minor elements. (author) [pt

  17. Ocorrência de infecção natural de Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 em Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 no Vale do Paraíba, SP, Brasil Natural infection by Fasciola hepatica in Lymnaea columella in the Paraíba river valley, S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Marlene Tiduko Ueta

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas em Piquete, no vale do rio Paraíba do Sul (SP, Brasil, taxas de 1,22% e 0,14% de infecção natural em Lymnaea columella, por Fasciola hepatica. Em um único exemplar de Lymnaea columella dentre os 1.052 examinados, foram observadas rédias com xifidiocercárias, rédias com cercárias de Fasciola hepatica e metacercárias de Echinostomatidae.Infection rates of 1.22% and 0.14% were obtained in Lymnaea columella snails naturally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Samples of the snails were collected in Piquete, a municipality of Paraíba do Sul, a river valley area in the State of S. Paulo. Also observed was one of the 1052 specimen of the Lymnaea columella rediae which had xiphidiocercariae and rediae with Fasciola hepatica cercariae and metacercariae of Echinostomatidae.

  18. Aspectos biológicos de Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Teleostei, Gerreidae) na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Biological aspects of Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Teleostei, Gerreidae) at Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves; Gislaine Otto

    1998-01-01

    Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier, 1829) is one of the most common Gerreidae species in the estuarine region at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. Based on studies developed between July, 1993 and January, 1997, it was observed that its presence in the mangrove area is not regular: the smallest individuais are more abundam during late summer and in autumn, and the largest ones during spring and early summer. Its diet comprises plant material and invertebrates, specially polychaets. The morphologica...

  19. Estrutura da vegetação em florestas de mangue do estuário do rio Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Vegetation structure of the mangrove forest at the estuary Paraíba do Sul river, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Elaine Bernini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da vegetação do manguezal do estuário do rio Paraíba do Sul foi analisada pelo método de parcelas, que foram distribuídas na franja e no interior da floresta em dois sítios de estudo. No geral, considerando-se os indivíduos > 1m alt., a altura média variou de 6,3 a 9,9m, o DAP médio de 7,44 a 13,4cm, a área basal média de 14,5 a 35,3m².ha-1 e a densidade média de 1.920 a 3.400 troncos.ha-1. Estes parâmetros estruturais não diferiram, significativamente, entre a franja e o interior da floresta, mas a contribuição de cada espécie variou entre as distintas zonas. Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn. foi a espécie dominante em área basal de indivíduos vivos (60%, seguida de Rhizophora mangle L. (25% e de Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. (15%. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a área de manguezal analisada apresenta melhor desenvolvimento estrutural quando comparada a outros manguezais do litoral fluminense, tais como os encontrados nas Baías de Guanabara e Sepetiba.A structural analysis of the mangrove forest at the Paraíba do Sul river estuary was performed using the stand method. The stands were demarcated in two points both at the forest edge and interior. The results indicate that average height varied from 6.3 to 9.9m; DBH varied from 7.44 to 13.4cm; average basal area varied from 14.5 to 35.3m².ha-1, and average density varied from 1,920 to 3,400 trunks.ha-1 (trees > 1m height. These structural parameters did not differ between the edge and the interior, but the contribution of each species varied between the zones. Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn. was the dominant species (60%, followed by Rhizophora mangle L. (25%, and Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. (15%. These results demonstrate that the mangroves forest at the Paraíba do Sul estuary has a better structural development than other mangrove sites found in the Rio de Janeiro State (e.g., those mangrove forests located at the Sepetiba and Guanabara

  20. Conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores da Baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil: peixes da família Serranidae e alterações no ambiente marinho = Local ecological knowledge of fishermen from Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil: fishes from the Serranidae family and marine environmental changes

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos aspectos gerais do Conhecimento Ecológico Local (CEL depescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática sobre sete espécies de peixes marinhos da família Serranidae (habitat de ocorrência, tamanho máximo e denominação popular e as principais alterações percebidas no ambiente marinho na Baía Babitonga, Estado de Santa Catarina,Brasil. Em termos gerais, o CEL sobre os peixes corrobora a literatura em ictiologia, trazendo informações originais em escala local. Pescadores de comunidades vizinhas e/ou praticantes de diferentes artes de pesca podem desenvolver denominações e um corpo deCEL diferenciado sobre os recursos pesqueiros de uma mesma área. Verificamos que a legislação que institui a moratória da pesca de Epinephelus itajara desconsidera as denominações locais da espécie, impossibilitando a sua interpretação pelos pescadores locais e gerando conflitos na aplicação da lei. As principais alterações ambientais registradas foram: diminuição da abundância dos recursos pesqueiros em geral (especialmente do Parambijú Rachycentron canadum, e os efeitos da interrupção antrópica do “Canal do Linguado” na hidrologia e sedimentologia da Baía Babitonga (assoreamento e aumento da turbidez da água.General aspects of the Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK of long-line and spear fishermen on seven fish species of the Serranidae family (habitat use, maximum size and popular names and on the main marine environmental changes were investigated in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In general, LEK on fishes corroborates theichthyology literature, bringing original information in a local scale. Neighbor fishermen communities can develop different local species nomenclature and different LEK for fishery resources at the same area. We have verified that the fishing ban legislation on Epinephelus itajara in Brazil does not consider local species denominations, turning impossible its interpretation by local

  1. Decomposition of mangrove leaves in the estuary of Paraíba do Sul RiverRio de Janeiro, Brazil Descomposición de hojas de mangle en el estuario del Río Paraíba do SulRio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Taísa Barroso-Matos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition rate of senescent leaves of Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle in their respective areas of dominance were analyzed in the estuary mangrove of the Paraíba do Sul River, Rio de Janeiro, by the method of litter bags. Results indicated that the rate of decomposition of leaves of L. racemosa (3.2 x 10-3 did not differ significantly from A. germinans and R. mangle (P > 0.05, but that A. germinans (5.1 x 10-3 exhibits a higher decomposition rate than R. mangle (2.7 x 10-3 (P La tasa de descomposición de las hojas senescentes de Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa y Rhizophora mangle en sus respectivas áreas de dominio se analizaron en los manglares del estuario del río Paraíba do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, por el método de bolsas de resíduos. Los resultados indicaron que la tasa de descomposición de las hojas de L. racemosa (3,2 x 10-3 no difirió significativamente de A. germinans y R. mangle (P > 0,05, pero A. germinans (5,1 x 10-3 presentó una mayor tasa de descomposición que R. mangle (2,7 x 10-3 (P < 0,05. Según la literatura, estas diferencias se deben a las distintas características foliares de las especies (por ejemplo, el contenido de agua, ó la concentración de taninos y nitrógeno. La vida media calculada fue 138 días, 216 y 257 de A. germinans, L. racemosa y R. mangle, respectivamente. Considerando que A. germinans tiene la mayor prevalencia y abundancia en relación con R. mangle, y su cinética de descomposición fue más rápida, se sugiere que esta especie representa la principal fuente de materia orgánica originada en los manglares del estuario del río Paraíba do Sul, así como a las cadenas alimentarias en la región.

  2. Variações ontogênicas e sazonais na dieta de Etropus crossotus Jordan e Gilbert, 1882 (Paralichthydae na baía de Ubatuba-Enseada, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Ontogenetic and seasons changes in the diet of Etropus crossotus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882 (Paralichthydae at Ubatuba-Enseada Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as variações ontogênicas e sazonais na dieta de Etropus crossotus coletados na baía de Ubatuba-Enseada, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Redes de arrasto com porta foram utilizadas para as coletas mensais, e 60 exemplares foram coletados entre outubro de 2003 e setembro de 2004. Maior similaridade entre os Índices de Importância Alimentar foi observada entre a primavera e o outono. Crustáceos decápodes representaram 50% dos itens alimentares durante a primavera e outono, e crustáceos anfípodes foram os itens mais representativos no inverno. Maior similaridade entre os IAifoi observada entre as classes 1, 2 e 4, pela alta representatividade de Decapoda, e entre as classes 5, 6 e 7, em função da representatividade de Decapoda e Amphipoda. Os resultados obtidos foram similares a outros estudos realizados na região costeira Sul do Brasil.Ontogenetic and seasonal changes in the diet of Etropus crossotussampled at Ubatuba-Enseada Bay in Santa Catarina State, Brazil were investigated. A trawl net was used for the surveys, and 60 fish were collected monthly during October (2003 and September (2004. The highest similarity of the Alimentary Importance Index (AII wasobserved between spring and autumn. Crustacea Decapoda represented 50% of the feeding items during spring and fall, and Crustacea Amphipoda were the most representative item in winter. The highest AII similarity was observed among length classes 1, 2 and 4, whichwas related to Decapoda representation, and among length classes 5, 6 and 7, because of Decapoda and Amphipoda importance. Results were similar to other studies in the southern coast of Brazil.

  3. Ba incorporation in benthic foraminifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooijer, L.J.; Brombacher, Anieke; Mewes, A.; Langer, Gerald; Nehrke, G.; Bijma, Jelle; Reichart, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Barium (Ba) incorporated in the calcite of many foraminiferal species is proportional to the concentration of Ba in seawater. Since the open ocean concentration of Ba closely follows seawater alkalinity, foraminiferal Ba ∕ Ca can be used to reconstruct the latter. Alternatively, Ba ∕ Ca from

  4. Alpha decay of 114Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzocchi, C.; Janas, Z.; Batist, L.; Belleguic, V.; Doering, J.; Kapica, M.; Kirchner, R.; Roeckl, E.; Gierlik, M.; Zylicz, J.; Mahmud, H.; Schmidt, K.; Woods, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The neutron-deficient isotope 114 Ba was produced in a fusion evaporation reaction at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator. We measured the α-particle energy of 114 Ba, the half-life of its daughter nucleus 110 Xe, and the α-decay branching ratios for 114 Ba, 110 Xe and 106 Te. (orig.)

  5. Adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose após a instituição da estratégia de tratamento supervisionado no município de Carapicuíba, grande São Paulo Compliance with tuberculosis treatment after the implementation of the directly observed treatment, short-course strategy in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil

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    Amadeu Antonio Vieira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a adesão ao tratamento dos casos atendidos no programa de controle da tuberculose do município de Carapicuíba (SP, antes e após a implantação da estratégia directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS, tratamento supervisionado. MÉTODOS: Estudo operacional do tipo coorte histórica a partir dos registros de comparecimento e evolução do tratamento dos pacientes submetidos ao tratamento autoadministrado (TAA e daqueles submetidos a DOTS. Tábuas de desfecho de tratamento mês a mês foram elaboradas, e a probabilidade de adesão foi calculada para cada grupo de pacientes. RESULTADOS: Um total de 360 pacientes com tuberculose preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade: 173 (48,1% no grupo TAA e 187 (51,9% no grupo TS. A adesão ao tratamento foi 6,1% maior no grupo DOTS do que no grupo TAA. Ao final de seis meses, 91,6% dos pacientes sob TS completaram o tratamento padrão, enquanto 85,5% dos pacientes do grupo TAA completaram o tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo mostrou que a estratégia DOTS pode ser realizada com sucesso em unidades básicas de saúde e que essa estratégia foi mais efetiva que o TAA nesta população de pacientes de uma cidade com população de baixa renda e alta carga de tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To determine the compliance with tuberculosis treatment among patients enrolled the tuberculosis control program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil, before and after the implementation of the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS strategy. METHODS: A retrospective historical cohort study of operational aspects based on records of attendance and treatment evolution of patients in self-administered treatment (SAT and of those submitted to DOTS. Monthly treatment outcome tables were created, and the probability of compliance with the treatment was calculated for both groups of patients. RESULTS: A total of 360 patients with tuberculosis met the inclusion criteria: 173 (48.1% in the SAT group; and

  6. Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para a língua azul em carneiros das mesorregiões do Sertão e da Borborema, semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Seroprevalence and risk factors for Bluetongue in rams of the Sertão and Borborema mesoregions, semi-arid of Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

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    Francisco de Assis Leandro Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi determinada a prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em carneiros das mesorregiões do Sertão e da Borborema, semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, bem como foram identificados os fatores de risco associados à infecção. A amostragem foi delineada para a determinação da prevalência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais soropositivos por mesorregião. Foi realizada uma seleção aleatória de unidades primárias, composta por 189 propriedades no Sertão e 100 propriedades na Borborema. Dentro das unidades primárias, foram amostrados todos os carneiros (unidades secundárias, resultando em 321 animais no Sertão e 185 na Borborema. Na ocasião da coleta, foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico por propriedade. Para o diagnóstico sorológico, foi utilizada a prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA, com antígeno produzido na Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Na mesorregião do Sertão, as prevalências de focos e de animais soropositivos foram de 11,6% [7,8% - 17,1%] e 8,4% [5,7% - 12,3%], respectivamente. Na mesorregião da Borborema, a prevalência de focos foi de 0,0% [0,0% - 3,6%] e a prevalência de animais soropositivos foi de 0,0% [0,0% - 2,0%]. Os fatores de risco associados à língua azul foram a não realização de higiene das instalações (OR = 5,51 e a vermifugação dos animais duas a quatro vezes ao ano (OR = 4,44.The prevalence of antibodies against Bluetongue virus in rams of the Sertão and Borborema mesoregions, semi-arid of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, was determined, and risk factors for the infection were identified. The sampling was delineated for the determination of the prevalence of positive herds and seropositive animals for each mesoregion. Herds (primary units were randomly selected in the Sertão mesoregion (n = 189 and in the

  7. Representações sociais dos moradores da Baía de Camamu sobre o Filo Porifera Social representations of Camamu Bay, Brazil, inhabitants of the Phylum Porífera

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    Loyana Docio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa que teve o objetivo de traçar um perfil das representações sociais dos moradores de três localidades da Baía de Camamu, Estado da Bahia, sobre o Filo Porifera. O foco nos poríferos foi motivado pela grande biomassa de esponjas no fenômeno de arribação da baía e ausência de pesquisas sobre esses animais na área do ensino. A metodologia esteve pautada nas representações sociais, pois conhecimentos (reconstruídos na vivência de um local característico, como o apresentado por esse ambiente, permitem desenhar perspectivas que subsidiam o ensino de Ciências, por exemplo, no tratamento dos obstáculos epistemológicos à aprendizagem de conceitos científicos. Foram realizadas sessenta entrevistas semiestruturadas, vinte em cada lugarejo (Ilha do Contrato, Barra Grande e Ilha dos Tubarões. Os dados foram organizados em categorias que resultaram num perfil de conhecimentos sobre os seguintes aspectos dos poríferos: estado vital, origem, taxonomia, ecologia, anatomia, fisiologia, utilidade antrópica e espongose.This study established a profile of social representations by inhabitants in three locations in Camamu Bay (state of Bahia of the Phylum Porifera. Among other reasons, the focus on Porifera is due to its significant biomass ascertained in the bay region's migration phenomenon and the lack of research on these animals in education. The methodology used was based on social representations because when knowledge is (rebuilt from experience of a location with a characteristic profile is compared to scientific knowledge, it is possible to draw perspectives for Science education, such as the epistemological obstacles to the learning of scientific concepts. Sixty semi-structured interviews were carried out, twenty in each place (Ilha do Contrato, Barra Grande, and Ilha dos Tubarões. The gathered data was organized into categories that outlined a profile of knowledge that includes characteristics such

  8. Uranium concentrations in the water consumed by the resident population in the vicinity of the Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana S. [State University of Bahia (UNEB), Campus Caetite, BA (Brazil); Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Sarkis, Jorge; Nisti, Marcelo B., E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, situated in South Central Bahia in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, is considered the most important monomineralic province of Brazil. The urban population who lives in the proximities of this uranium province in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento uses public supply water, while the inhabitants of the rural area due to long terms of dry weather use water from wells, cisterns, small dams, reservoirs and dikes which are supplied with the rains. In this work it was determined the concentration of uranium in the water consumed by the rural and urban population living in the proximities of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The study comprehends 32 sampling spots spread throughout the region of interest. Samples were collected in January and July 2010, covering superficial, underground and public supply water from the region. The uranium concentrations were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Preliminary results showed that the uranium concentrations in the water from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province varied from 0.064 {+-} 0.005 {mu}g.L{sup -1} to 90 {+-} 1,5 {+-}g.L{sup -1}. It was observed that only two of them obtained values higher than the World Health Organization's recommended limit (2011) of 30 {mu}g.L{sup -1} for maximum uranium concentration in the water for human consumption. For a conclusive evaluation, the uranium concentrations results will be analyzed together with total alpha and beta concentrations determined elsewhere for the same samples. (author)

  9. Uranium concentrations in the water consumed by the resident population in the vicinity of the Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana S.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Sarkis, Jorge; Nisti, Marcelo B.

    2011-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, situated in South Central Bahia in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, is considered the most important monomineralic province of Brazil. The urban population who lives in the proximities of this uranium province in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento uses public supply water, while the inhabitants of the rural area due to long terms of dry weather use water from wells, cisterns, small dams, reservoirs and dikes which are supplied with the rains. In this work it was determined the concentration of uranium in the water consumed by the rural and urban population living in the proximities of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The study comprehends 32 sampling spots spread throughout the region of interest. Samples were collected in January and July 2010, covering superficial, underground and public supply water from the region. The uranium concentrations were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Preliminary results showed that the uranium concentrations in the water from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province varied from 0.064 ± 0.005 μg.L -1 to 90 ± 1,5 ±g.L -1 . It was observed that only two of them obtained values higher than the World Health Organization's recommended limit (2011) of 30 μg.L -1 for maximum uranium concentration in the water for human consumption. For a conclusive evaluation, the uranium concentrations results will be analyzed together with total alpha and beta concentrations determined elsewhere for the same samples. (author)

  10. Aspectos biológicos de Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Gerreidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Biological aspects of Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Gerreidae at Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

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    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier, 1829 is one of the most common Gerreidae species in the estuarine region at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. Based on studies developed between July, 1993 and January, 1997, it was observed that its presence in the mangrove area is not regular: the smallest individuais are more abundam during late summer and in autumn, and the largest ones during spring and early summer. Its diet comprises plant material and invertebrates, specially polychaets. The morphological aspects of the gonads, the monthly changes on the Condition Factor, and lhe monthly distribution of the individual size groups, suggest that this population spawns during the spring, out the estuarine region. The smaller individuais use the mangrove area of Guaratuba Bay to a growth phase, and the adulls to make somatic reserves to the spawning period.

  11. Environmental influences on distribution of four Sciaenidae species (Actinopterygii, Perciformes in a tropical bay at Southeastern Brazil Influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies de Sciaenidae (Actinopterygii, Perciformes numa baía tropical do sudeste do Brasil

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    Francisco G. Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We sampled fish and measured environmental variables in the Sepetiba Bay, a tropical embayment at Southeastern Brazil. The aim was to assess environmental influences on distribution of four abundant species of Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar, 1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 to test the habitat partition hypothesis. Samples were taken between June 1993 and July 1996, at three bay zones (outer, central and inner. Depth was the most important environmental variable to influence fish distribution, followed by transparency. M. furnieri showed significant negative correlation to depth, transparency and salinity, while C. gracilicirrhus showed the opposite situation. The highest densities of C. leiarchus occurred in the lowest temperature, while M. americanus did not showed preferences for any of the examined environmental variables. Spatial separation, mainly between M. furnieri and C. gracilicirrhus, seems to be the strategy developed to coexist in the Sepetiba Bay, with M. furnieri being more adapted to copy with harsh environmental conditions of the inner bay. The other three species, which use mostly the outer bay zone, seem to be restricted to more stable conditions, where influences from oceanic waters are more intense.Foram coletados peixes e medidas as variáveis ambientais na Baía de Sepetiba, uma baía tropical do Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi determinar influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies abundantes de Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar,1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier,1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 para testar a hipótese de partição do hábitat. Amostragens foram feitas entre Junho de 1993 e Julho de 1996 em três zonas da baía (externa, central e interna. A profundidade foi a mais importante variável ambiental que

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle facilities and RP: the case of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranjan Filho, Alfredo; Costa, Cesar Gustavo S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The renewed nuclear energy scenario, national and worldwide, calls for the strengthening of all activities involving the nuclear fuel production, from uranium extraction at the mines to fuel assemblies delivery at the nuclear power plants, which in Brazil is the mission of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB). With only a third of its territory prospected, Brazil currently has the sixth largest uranium reserve in the world. Brazil's three main deposits are: the Caldas mine (in the state of Minas Gerais) the first mineral-industrial complex that processed uranium, developed in 1982, and presently being decommissioned; Caetite mine and processing facility (located in the state of Bahia), nowadays operational and with a current production capacity of 400 tonnes per year of uranium concentrates, being in trend of doubling its annual capacity; and the Itataia/Santa Quiteria deposit (in Ceara State), the largest geological uranium reserve in Brazil, although its feasible future production depends on the exploration of the phosphate associated to it. Concerning the nuclear fuel fabrication, INB plant at Resende (in the state of Rio de Janeiro) is responsible for the conversion of Uf 6 to UO 2 the production of fuel pellets and the assembly of the fuel elements, in order to supply the demands of Brazil's two operating PWR (Angra 1 and Angra 2). In addition, in May 2006, INB-Resende inaugurated the uranium enrichment facility, employing the ultra-centrifugation technology. Today still in its first phase of operation, when completed the enrichment facility is intended to provide 100 percent of the domestic requirements, eventually by the year 2015. Detailing present status and future perspectives of INB, in face of the global and national renaissance of nuclear energy, this paper addresses the Radiation Protection (RP) aspects related to INB's achievements and performance, as well as the pressing future challenges to be dealt with, in order to guarantee

  13. Alimentação de Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Feeding of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier (Perciformes, Sciaenidae at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Vendel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of food items of Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier, 1830 classified by size was analysed based on monthly samples between september/1993 and september/1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazil. The stomach contents of a hundred eighty-two fishes were analysed by the Occunence Frequency Method and Point Count for a Lot Method. The individuais were divided in two groups, smaller and longer than 140mm, and a comparative study of digestive tract and branchial are was performed for these groups. For fishes smaller than 140mm the following sequence of items was obtained matching both methods by using the Preponderance índices: decapods (subdivided in Brachyura, Caridea and Penaeidea, polychaets, isopods, fishes, unidentified material, copepods, amphipods, molluscs and plant material. For fishes longer than or equal to 140mm the sequence was decapods, polychaets, fishes, copepods, amphipods, isopods, molluscs and plant material, in this order. These results suggest that Bairdiella ronchus at the Guaratuba Bay is a carnivorous species using mainly decapod crustaceans as food throughout the year.

  14. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

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    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  15. Genogram: a tool for characterizing the families of adolescents parents in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil = Genograma: ferramenta para caracterizar as famílias de pais adolescentes em João Pessoa, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Alice Iana Tavares Leite

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the family composition of adolescent fathers in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba State. This is a part of a multicenter survey developed in the states of Paraíba, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The population was composed of ten teenage fathers living in the urban area of João Pessoa. Data collection occurred from December 2008 to October 2010 through semi-structured interview and construction of the genogram and eco-map. Participants' age ranged from 16 to 19 years. They all lived with his partner and most had low education. The unemployed and those with income below one minimum wage indicated the family as the keeper of the home. Most fathers also depended on other family housing, and the amount of people living in the same house ranged from three to seven. Despite the existence of conflicting and/or distant relationships, all respondents reported that seek emotional and financial support in their own family. Fatherhood and motherhood in adolescence had already been experienced by some families. Understanding adolescent parents requires a broader view about composition and family dynamics, a task to be faced by health professionals committed to the care, being the genogram a viable and important tool in this process.O estudo objetiva caracterizar a composição familiar de pais adolescentes em João Pessoa-PB. Trata-se de um recorte de pesquisa multicêntrica desenvolvida na PB, RS e SC. Os sujeitos foram dez pais adolescentes, residentes no perímetro urbano de João Pessoa. A coleta de dados ocorreu de dezembro de 2008 a outubro de 2010, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e construção do genograma e ecomapa. A idade dos participantes variou de 16 a 19 anos. Todos viviam com a companheira; a maioria apresentava baixa escolarização. Os desempregados e os de renda abaixo de um salário mínimo indicaram a família como mantenedora do lar. A maioria ainda dependia da moradia de outros familiares

  16. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  17. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

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    Setuko Masunari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  18. Análise da infra-estrutura existente em unidades de produção agrícola para processamento de mel na região do Vale do Paraíba-SP Analysis of production unit infrastructure of honey processing agricultural in the Paraiba Valley, São Paulo state-Brazil

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    Luiz Eugênio Veneziani Pasin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar a existência de infra-estrutura para processamento de mel, em Unidades de Produção Agrícola-UPAs na região do Vale do Paraíba-SP. Para a realização desse trabalho utilizou-se o método de levantamento dos dados primários através de questionário. No período de janeiro de 2005 a março de 2006 realizou-se o trabalho com a amostra de 116 UPAs, que representam 33,7% do total de unidades onde há atividade apícola. Para avaliar-se a associação e a relação de dependência entre as variáveis equipamentos, casa do mel, escolaridade, tempo na atividade e número de colméias na UPA, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado X² . Os resultados revelaram que a centrífuga está presente em 58,6% das UPAs e a casa do mel em 29,3% das UPAs das unidades da região. O nível de escolaridade, tempo de permanência do apicultor na atividade e o número de colméias são variáveis que estabelecem relações significativas com a existência de centrífuga e de casa do mel na UPA.The aim of this paper is to analyze the infrastructure for honey process in Agricultural Production Units (UPAs located in the Paraíba Valley (São Paulo state, Brazil. For this study to be carried out, the search of primary data method using a questionnaire was applied. From January 2005 to March 2006, 116 UPAs samples, representing 33.7% of all bee-related UPAs were used. For the association and relation of dependence among the equipment variables, "casa do mel", staff education level, time in the activity and number of bee-hives in the UPA, the chi-square (X² statistical tests were applied. The results revealed that centrifuges were present in 58.6% of UPAs, while the type of "casa do mel" occured in 29.3% of UPAs in the region. The staff education level, time in the activity and number of bee-hives are variables which are important when considering the existence of centrifuges and "casa do mel" in the UPA.

  19. Idade e crescimento de Callinectes danae e C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Age and growth of Callinectes danae and C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Karina A. Keunecke

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 e C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constituem uma parcela importante da produção pesqueira na Baía de Guanabara. Ambas espécies compõem uma fração significativa da fauna-acompanhante sendo exaustivamente descartadas pelas pescarias de arrasto de camarões na costa brasileira. As curvas de crescimento de C. danae e C. ornatus foram calculadas por meio da análise de progressão modal. Para estimar os parâmetros biológicos, foi aplicado o modelo de crescimento de Bertalanffy e para estimar a longevidade foi usada a sua fórmula inversa. As curvas de crescimento foram: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t , ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t e ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t , respectivamente para C. danae e C. ornatus. A longevidade alcançada para as duas espécies foi em torno de 2,5 anos, além de validar as curvas de crescimento. O estudo do crescimento em crustáceos é de extrema importância, pois além de fornecer a informação biológica básica para o grupo, os parâmetros estimados subsidiam o ordenamento e manejo pesqueiro das espécies exploradas.Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constitute an important portion from the fishing products at Guanabara Bay. Both species compose a significant by-catch fraction being a lot discarded during shrimp trawlings along Brazilian coast. Growth curves were estimated by modal progression analysis. For the biological parameters it was applied the Bertalanffy growth function and for the age it was used its inverse formula. Growth curves of C. danae and C. ornatus were respectively: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t, ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t and ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t. The age for both species reached around 2.5 years, besides to confirm growth curves. Growth study in crustaceans is very important, because besides supplying biological information it subsidizes fishery management for exploted species.

  20. Plasmid composition and virulence-associated factors of Yersinia pestis isolates from a plague outbreak at the Paraíba State, Brazil Composição plasmidial e fatores associados à virulência em cepas de Yersinia pestis de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Nilma Cintra Leal

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Yersinia pestis isolates were collected during a plague outbreak at the Paraiba State in 1986. The Y. pestis isolates were investigated for the presence of virulence-associated factors and plasmid content. All strains analysed were proficient in the expression of the VW and fraction 1 antigens, pigment adsorption and pesticin-fibronolysin-coagulase production. A similar plasmid profile composed by four plasmid with molecular weight of 60, 44, 14.9, and 6.4 Megadaltons (MD was found in all strains. DNA cleavage with EcoRI restriction enzyme further demonstrated the uniform plasmid content of the Y. pestis isolates. Seven additional Y. pestis strains, previously isolated in the same region but in an endemic state, showed the same plasmid fingerprint. The lack of any detectable difference between epidemic and endemic isolates as well as the value of plasmid fingerprints in epidemiology of Y. pestis is discussed.Cepas patogênicas de Yersinia pestis foram coletadas durante um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba em 1986. Os isolados de Y. pestis foram analisados quanto a presença de fatores associados à virulência e conteúdo plasmidial. Todas as linhagens analisadas foram proficientes na expressão dos antígenos VW e fração 1, além de possuírem capacidade de adsorção de pigmentos e produção de pesticina-fibrinolisina-coagulase. Um perfil plasmidial semelhante composto por quatro plasmídeos com peso molecular de 60, 44, 14.9, e 6.4 MD foi encontrado em todas as linhagens. A clivagem do DNA plasmidial com a enzima de restrição EcoRI demonstrou o conteúdo plasmidial uniforme dos isolados de Y. pestis. Sete outras linhagens de Y. pestis, isoladas previamente no mesmo local mas em condição endêmica, mostraram o mesmo perfil plasmidial. A falta de diferenças entre os isolados epidêmicos e endêmicos assim como o uso do perfil plasmidial na epidemiologic de Y. pestis e discutida.

  1. Seqüência do tratamento de curta duração da tuberculose pulmonar em Unidades Sanitárias do Vale do Paraíba, 1980-1981, São Paulo, Brasil Evaluation of short-term chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in the Health Institutions of the Vale do Paraíba, 1980-1981, S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Marília Belluomini

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuda-se a seqüência do tratamento de curta duração em doentes com tuberculose pulmonar, inscritos e com alta no período de outubro de 1980 a outubro de 1981, nas Unidades Sanitárias do Departamento Regional de Saúde do Vale do Paraíba - DRS-3 - da Secretaria da Saúde do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os dados obtidos pela verificação dos prontuários dos doentes foram analisados sob os seguintes aspectos: distrito sanitário, idade e sexo do paciente, tipo de alta, esquema de tratamento, hospitalização, intolerância medicamentosa e tempo de negativação do escarro. Dos 308 doentes que constituíram a população de estudo, 254 (82,5% tiveram alta por cura, 21 (6,8% por abandono e 33 (10,7% por mudança de diagnóstico, óbito ou transferência. Os resultados confirmam a efetividade do tratamento encurtado da tuberculose pulmonar com os esquemas recomendados, apresentando na área trabalhada baixas taxas de abandono e de hospitalização e resultados bastante favoráveis quanto à negativação dos bacilíferos.The results of the short-term chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis performed on patients who were admitted to the Health Clinics of one of the S. Paulo State's Health Divisions and who completed the treatment during the period from October 1980 to October 1981 are shown. Such aspects of the records as Health Districts, patient's age and sex, success and regimen of treatment, hospitalization, drug toxicity and smear negativity period were analysed. The findings confirm the effectiveness of short-term chemotherapy under program conditions as corroborated by its acceptability to the patients, the success achieved and the benefits in the decrease of the number of admissions to hospital and in the reduction of the sources of infection within a shorter period.

  2. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris oral cavity and cloaca, originating from Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil Microflora bacteriana aeróbica da cavidade oral e cloaca de jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris procedentes do Zoológico de João Pessoa, PB, Brasil

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    J.S.A. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%, Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%, Escherichia coli (13.68% and Shigella sp. (11.58%, and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05% and Salmonella sp. (1.05%.This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis and injuries caused by crocodilians.O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar a microflora bacteriana aeróbica presente na mucosa da cavidade oral e da cloaca de exemplares de jacarés-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris nascidos e criados em cativeiro no Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, localizado na cidade de João Pessoa - PB. As bactérias mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus sp. (14,74%, Corynebacterium sp.(13,68%, Escherichia coli (13,68% e Shigella sp. (11,58%, e as menos prevalentes foram Citrobacter sp.(1,05%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (1,05% e Salmonella sp. (1,05%. Ressalta-se a importância da participação desses microrganismos em processos infecciosos (septicemias e em feridas provocadas por crocodilianos.

  3. Distribution, abundance and density estimates of franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea: Pontoporiidae, in Babitonga bay, southern Brazil Distribuição e estimativas de abundância e densidade de franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea: Pontoporiidae, na baía da Babitonga, sul do Brasil

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    Marta J. Cremer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 is threatened throughout its distribution. The species can be found year-round in the Babitonga bay estuary (26º 02'-26º 28'S and 48º28'-48º50'W, in the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Boat surveys were conducted in order to evaluate its abundance and density between 2000 and 2003. Sampling was random and stratified, with 46 transects in five sub-areas, comprising a total area of 160 km². Data collection was conducted following the linear transect method with distance sampling. A total of 1174.7 km was scanned and 38 groups were observed. Franciscanas were not uniformly distributed in Babitonga bay. Group size ranged from one to 13 animals (mean ± SD = 5.02 ± 3.62. Model 1 (Half-Normal showed the best fit to the data. The estimated population size was 50 animals and the density was 0.32 individuals km-2. Density estimates evaluated in the sub-areas where franciscanas occurred resulted in a density of 0.46 individuals km-2. Monitoring this population is of considerable importance due to the constant threats that this species faces in this bay.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 ocorre ao longo de todo o ano no estuário da baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Foram realizadas amostragens com o objetivo de obter informações sobre sua abundância e densidade populacional nesta área entre os anos de 2000 e 2003. A amostragem foi aleatória e estratificada, com 46 transecções estabelecidas em cinco grandes sub-áreas, compreendendo 160 km². A coleta de dados foi conduzida utilizando o método de transecções lineares com amostragem de distância. Foram percorridos 1174,7 km e 38 grupos foram registrados. As franciscanas não apresentaram uma distribuição uniforme na baía da Babitonga. O tamanho de grupo variou de um a 13 animais (5,02 ± 3,62. O Modelo 1 (Meio-Normal promoveu o melhor ajustamento dos parâmetros. A

  4. Determinação de fatores da equação universal de perda de solo em Sumé, PB Determination of the factors of the universal soil loss equation in Sumé (Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Abel W. de Albuquerque

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Para se alcançar os objetivos previstos neste trabalho, determinaram-se os fatores da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS em condições de chuva natural, num Luvissolo de Sumé, PB, em que os dados relativos aos anos de 1983-1990 foram obtidos na Estação Experimental de Sumé, PB, pertencente à Universidade Federal da Paraíba - UFPB, cujos tratamentos foram os seguintes: parcela descoberta e em alqueive contínuo, parcela com caatinga nativa, parcela com caatinga nova, parcelas em pousio, parcela com palma cultivada morro abaixo e parcela com palma cultivada em nível. Os valores médios anuais do fator erosividade da chuva expressos em EI30 e PI30 foram de 4.928 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 e 19.734 mm-2 h-1, respectivamente. Os valores do fator erodibilidade do solo (K foram calculados em 0,013 t h MJ-1 mm-1 e 0,003 t ha-1 mm-2, enquanto os valores determinados para o fator uso e manejo do solo foram os seguintes: 0,0015 (caatinga nativa, 0,0174 (caatinga nova, 0,0133 (cobertura morta, 0,0056 (cobertura morta, 0,5103 (palma cultivada morro abaixo e 0,2355 (palma cultivada em nível. O valor do fator práticas conservacionistas para palma cultivada em nível foi de 0,46The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors were determined in a Haplargs under natural rainfall conditions. Data concerning to the years of 1983 -1990 were obtained at the Sumé Experimental Station (Paraíba State - Brazil of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB. The treatments consisted of runoff plots with bare soil, native semiarid vegetation runoff plot, mulch runoff plot, palm leaf under downhill runoff plot and under contour palm leaf runoff plot. The annual average of the rainfall erosivity factors EI30 and PI30 were 4,928 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 19,734 mm-2 h-1, respectively. The calculated annual mean values of the erodibility parameters were calculated in 0.013 t h MJ-1 mm-1 and 0.003 t h ha-1 mm-2. The calculated values for the support practice factor cropping

  5. The Mind of the Copaíba Tree: Notes on Extractivism, Animism, and Ontology from Southern Bahia

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    Jonathan DeVore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes ritualized prescriptions for harvesting oleoresin or “oil” from the copaíba tree in Brazil. These harvesting prescriptions involve increasingly complex attributions of mind to the copaíba tree itself. The copaíba tree is widespread throughout the Americas, and for centuries has been well-known for the medicinal oil that can be extracted from its trunk. In Brazil, contemporary knowledge of the copaíba tree is bound up with colonial history and what were often destructive extractivist economies. Whereas historical accounts of the copaíba tree are often limited to mechanistic descriptions for extracting oil, this article examines attributions of mind that harvesters make to the copaíba tree. These attributions can be read from procedures for extracting oil. Such procedures are concerned with moon cycles, tree marking, sexual activity, and gaze. The article shows that such prescriptions have a wide transregional and interethnic distribution, from the Amazon Basin in northern Brazil to the Atlantic Forest on Bahia’s southern coast. New evidence from southern Bahia also involves prescriptions concerning speech and naming, which presuppose that the copaíba tree is sensitive to intentionality and human language. These mind attributions are inferred through pragmatic analysis of the (ontological presuppositions that are embedded by harvesting prescriptions. The contribution concludes with reflections on the implications of this presuppositional analytic approach for debates concerned with animism and the “ontological turn.”

  6. Potencial para maricultura da carragenófita Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales - Rhodophyta na Ilha da Marambaia, Baía de Sepetiba, RJ, Brasil Mariculture potential of carragenophyta Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales - Rhodophyta on Marambaia Island, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Renata Perpetuo Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A falta da prática de cultivo comercial de macroalgas no Brasil junto com a crescente demanda do mercado nacional de ficocolóides é suprida pela importação de algas e colheita em bancos naturais, principalmente na costa nordestina. Na busca de um cultivo em pequena escala para uso das comunidades litorâneas foi implantado um cultivo experimental com H. musciformis, na Ilha da Marambaia, RJ (43º59'35" W e 23º04'00" S. Ao todo foram testadas nove técnicas de fixação da alga nas unidades experimentais de maricultura (UEM. Nos experimentos realizados entre a primavera de 2003 e o outono de 2004, as taxas de crescimento geralmente foram negativas. Entre os invernos de 2004 e 2005, foram na maioria positivas. O fitobentos próximo à UEM foi analisado para verificar o crescimento dessa espécie na assembléia e no cultivo. Observou-se maior percentual de anfípodas e de matéria orgânica nas UEM e a presença de carposporófitos em épocas de baixa salinidade em ambos os locais. Atribuiu-se o baixo rendimento da taxa de crescimento aos fatores ambientais como: ressacas, aderência de matéria orgânica nas algas, herbivoria e danos as UEM por ação antrópica. Constatou-se que o tratamento fixando a muda com abraçadeira foi o de mais fácil manuseio e baixo custo e que somente com a conscientização da comunidade litorânea e remuneração salarial para esta atividade será possível exercer o cultivo de H. musciformis com sucesso.Lack of practice in commercial cultivation of macroalgae in Brazil allied with an increased demand for phycocolloids in the national market is met by importing algae and cropping from natural beds, especially on the Northeastern coast. Seeking to establish small scale cultivation for the use of coastal communities, experimental cultivation was implanted with H. musciformis on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro (43º59'35'' W - 23º04'00'' S. Nine different techniques for fixation of algae to ropes were tested in

  7. Decay /sup 133/Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K; Hasiza, M L; Grewal, B S; Sahota, H S

    1982-07-01

    The relative gamma ray intensities of transitions in the decay of /sup 133/Ba have been measured using an intrinsic Ge detector. The electron capture branching ratios have been determined for 81, 161, 384 and 437 keV levels. The attenuation effect of long half-life of 81 keV levels has been studied in solid and liquid media. The electron capture decay has been investigated by changing the concentration of ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) environment. The 5/2/sup +/ yields 5/2/sup +/ 79.67 keV transition has an E0 to E2 intensity qsub(k)sup(2) <= 0.31. 10 refs., 4 figures.

  8. Conceptual model of fractured aquifer of Uranium Deposit in Caetité, Bahia: implications for groundwater flow; Modelo conceitual do aquífero fraturado da área da jazida de urânio de Caetité, Bahia: implicações para o fluxo subterrâneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Liliane Ferreira da

    2015-07-01

    The studied area is represented by the uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the center-south of Bahia State, Brazil. The region is set in a semiarid climate context, with hot and dry weather parameters, with hydric deficit along all months of the year and high aridity index. Rural population is affected on drought periods since small agriculture and animal rearing are the main economic activities which are vulnerable in dry seasons. Groundwater represents the main supply source considering that most surface water sources are temporary and only exhibit flow in rainy periods. The main aquifer system present on the region is fractured, and the presence of groundwater flow occurs through the discontinuities of the rock considering that the rock mass corresponds to the set formed by the rock matrix and all its discontinuities (fractures, foliations, discordance, etc). In this sense, the main purpose of this Master Dissertation was to develop a conceptual model for the aquifer system, through the geotechnical characterization of discontinuities, once these structures allow the secondary porosity of the medium. Hydrochemical data hand out as complement for physical characterization for the behavioral interpretation of the aquifer. The aquifer system is unconfined, however, presents points of stagnation of flow forming compartments without communication with the surrounding areas. According to the International Society of Rock Mechanics ISRM method, which consist on qualitative and quantitative characterization of discontinuities of rock mass scanlines were constructed, systematically, describing, the following structure parameters: attitude, spacing, persistence, openness, infilling and roughness. From the results analysis it could be concluded that the aquifer system is composed of three discontinuities sets: one set which dips to NE, second set dipping to SW-W-NW and the last set sub-horizontal. The first and second sets are responsible for the aquifer

  9. Determinantes da experimentação do cigarro e do início precoce do tabagismo entre adolescentes escolares em Salvador (BA Determinants of smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent students in the city of Salvador, Brazil

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    Adelmo de Souza Machado Neto

    2010-12-01

    among adolescent students (11-14 years of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study involving adolescent (middle and high school students at public and private schools in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A multiple-stage sampling protocol was used. The participants completed an anonymous, voluntary, self-report questionnaire. The dependent variables were age at smoking experimentation and smoking initiation. Sociodemographic and educational variables, as well as those related to media influence and alcohol consumption, were considered independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, followed by analysis of the fit of the final logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking experimentation was 16.1% (95% CI: 15.1-17.2. Of the 5,347 students evaluated, 757 had experimented with cigarettes, and 462 (61.2% of those 757 had done so before the age of 15 (mean age at smoking experimentation, 13.9 ± 1.8 years. Smoking initiation was associated with paternal smoking (OR = 1.53; 83% CI = 1.07-2.19 and with media influence (OR = 2.43; 83% CI: 1.46-4.04. Smoking experimentation was associated with alcohol consumption (OR = 6.04; 83% CI: 4.62-7.88, having friends who smoke (OR = 3.18; 83% CI: 2.54-3.99, having a boyfriend/girlfriend who smokes (OR = 3.42; 83% CI: 1.78-6.56, and coercive/aggressive educational interventions by the parents (OR = 1.60; 83% CI: 1.26-2.04. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption and the influence of peers and relatives who smoke showed a strong association with smoking experimentation. Paternal smoking and media influence were found to increase the chances of adolescent smoking.

  10. Análise físico-química do óleo-resina e variabilidade genética de copaíba na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós Physico-chemical analysis of the oleoresin and genetic variability of copaiba in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil

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    Ederly Santos Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o óleo-resina da copaíba (Copaifera reticulata e estimar, por meio de marcadores microssatélites, a variabilidade genética da espécie na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, PA. A amostragem foi realizada em duas áreas, distanciadas de 5 km, em 136 árvores. A diversidade genética foi avaliada com seis marcadores microssatélites derivados de C. langsdorffii, e o óleo obtido de 30 árvores (15 de cada área foi caracterizado em termos físicos e químicos. O óleo C. reticulata apresenta aspecto líquido, fino, odor fraco e de coloração amarelo-dourada (73,3% das plantas, com viscosidade muito variável (18 a 187 Pa-s e densidade média de 0,975±0,049 g cm-3. O índice de acidez variou de 9,62 a 10,17 mg g-1 de KOH e o de saponificação de 100,63 a 109,84 mg g-1. A análise molecular identificou 78 alelos, com média de 13 por loco. A heterozigosidade esperada variou 0,59 a 0,85 (média de 0,75, com nível de endogamia de 0,375 a 0,419. Houve pouca diferenciação genética entre as populações das diferentes áreas de coleta (F ST = 0,030, mas a variabilidade foi maior entre os grupos genéticos detectados pelo programa Structure (F ST = 0,070. Essa maior variabilidade indica que não há ameaças à conservação genética da copaíba, em médio prazo.The objective of this work was to characterize the oleoresin of copaiba (Copaifera reticulata and to estimate genetic variability of the species in the Tapajós National Forest, PA, Brazil, using microsatellite markers. Sampling was performed in two areas, 5 km apart, in 136 trees. Genetic diversity was evaluated with six microsatellite markers derived from C. langsdorffii, and the oleoresin obtained from 30 trees (15 from each area was physically and chemically characterized. Oleoresin from C. reticulate has a liquid, thin aspect, with a weak odor and yellowish-gilded color (73.3% of the plants, highly variable viscosity (18 to 187 Pa-s, and mean

  11. The BaBar Mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  12. The BaBar mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.; BaBar Collaboration

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  13. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  14. Population and feeding structure of Steindachnerina notonota Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937 (Actinopterygii, Characiformes, Curimatidae in Taperoá II dam, semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil Estrutura populacional e alimentar de Steindachnerina notonota Miranda Ribeiro, 1937 (Actinopterygii, Characiformes, Curimatidae no Açude Taperoá II, na região do semi-árido da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Ana Karla Araujo Montenegro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study investigated population structure, weight-length relationships, sex ratio and associations between feeding activity and reproductive period, diet and alimentary regime of Steindachnerina notonota at Taperoá II dam, semi-arid region of Paraíba State. METHODS: The region has the lowest pluviometric rates of Brazil. Fishes were collected during six sampling periods (October and December/2005, and March, June, August and October of 2006 encompassing two dry periods, and one rainy period. Cast, seine and gill nets were used to collect the individuals. RESULTS: Throughout the study period 120 individuals were collected, with total length ranging between 2.2 and 10.7 cm and weight between 0.31 and 43.1 g. A recruitment period, identified due to a higher abundance of small individuals in the population, was observed in the beginning of the rainy period of 2006, lasting until the beginning of the dry season. S. notonota showed a negative allometric growth type, i.e., individuals 'elongate' during their development. A significantly higher proportion of females were observed throughout the study period. The relationship between feeding and reproductive activities were not significant, given that individuals showed high feeding rates regardless of the intensity of their reproductive activities. Although the diet of S. notonota comprised several items such as plant debris, eggs, organic matter, phytoplankton, zooplankton, Nematoda, Ostracada, Conchostraca, among others, the most important feeding item was detritus, suggesting a predominant detritivirous feeding habit. CONCLUSIONS: Biological aspects of S. notonota observed in the present study suggest that this species has potential to attain great population sizes, as consequence of both diet and feeding dynamics, as well as its reproductive characteristics and growth type.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a estrutura da população, a relação peso-comprimento, a raz

  15. The gemstone deposits of Brazil: occurrences, production and economic impact

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito Barreto, Sandra; Bretas Bittar, Sheila Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article gathers together data on the occurrence, production and economic importance of gem deposits in Brazil, including specific information on the major deposits. Of the 100 or so different types of gemstones found in the country, the most important in terms of production and/or originality are tourmalines, topaz, opals, varieties of quartz (agate, amethyst and citrine) and emeralds. Brazil is also one of the only producers in the world of imperial topaz and Paraíba tourmaline. The cou...

  16. Conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores da Baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil: peixes da família Serranidae e alterações no ambiente marinho - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.226 Local ecological knowledge of fishermen from Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil: fishes from the Serranidae family and marine environmental changes - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.226

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    Maurício Hostim Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos aspectos gerais do Conhecimento Ecológico Local (CEL de pescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática sobre sete espécies de peixes marinhos da família Serranidae (habitat de ocorrência, tamanho máximo e denominação popular e as principais alterações percebidas no ambiente marinho na Baía Babitonga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Em termos gerais, o CEL sobre os peixes corrobora a literatura em ictiologia, trazendo informações originais em escala local. Pescadores de comunidades vizinhas e/ou praticantes de diferentes artes de pesca podem desenvolver denominações e um corpo de CEL diferenciado sobre os recursos pesqueiros de uma mesma área. Verificamos que a legislação que institui a moratória da pesca de Epinephelus itajara desconsidera as denominações locais da espécie, impossibilitando a sua interpretação pelos pescadores locais e gerando conflitos na aplicação da lei. As principais alterações ambientais registradas foram: diminuição da abundância dos recursos pesqueiros em geral (especialmente do Parambijú Rachycentron canadum, e os efeitos da interrupção antrópica do “Canal do Linguado” na hidrologia e sedimentologia da Baía Babitonga (assoreamento e aumento da turbidez da água.General aspects of the Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK of long-line and spear fishermen on seven fish species of the Serranidae family (habitat use, maximum size and popular names and on the main marine environmental changes were investigated in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In general, LEK on fishes corroborates the ichthyology literature, bringing original information in a local scale. Neighbor fishermen communities can develop different local species nomenclature and different LEK for fishery resources at the same area. We have verified that the fishing ban legislation on Epinephelus itajara in Brazil does not consider local species denominations, turning impossible its interpretation by local

  17. AHP 45: REVIEW: PHYUR BA

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    'Brug mo skyid འབྲུག་མོ་སྐྱིད། (Zhoumaoji 周毛吉

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mkha' mo rgyal was born in Dgon gong ma Village, 'Ba' (Tongde County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province. While attending the Tibetan Studies College of Mtsho sngon Nationalities University she began writing. In addition to editing and translating teaching materials for primary and secondary schools, she has also published short stories and poetry (Mkha' mo rgyal, 2015. Phyur ba is the first Tibetan women's novel (Robin 2016:86 and was recognized as an Outstanding Work by the Qinghai Writers Guild in 2014 (Duojiecairang and Limaoyou 2014. 1 The name, which translates as 'dried cheese' is a food eaten daily by many Tibetans. Made from fermented milk without cream, it is dried in the sun by women in pastoral areas. Both sweet and sour, phyur ba brings to mind the happiness and sadness, ups and downs, laughter and tears that life brings. ...

  18. 65Zn and 133Ba standardizing by photon-photon coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Jamir S.; da Cruz, Paulo A. L.; Iwahara, Akira; Delgado, José U.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2018-03-01

    The LNMRI/Brazil has deployed a system using X-gamma coincidence technique for the standardizing radionuclide, which present simple and complex decay scheme with X-rays of energy below 100 keV. The work was carried on radionuclide metrology laboratory using a sodium iodide detector, for gamma photons, in combination with a high purity germanium detector for X-rays. Samples of 65Zn and 133Ba were standardized and the results for both radionuclides showed good precision and accuracy when compared with reference values. The standardization differences were 0.72 % for 65Zn and 0.48 % for 133Ba samples.

  19. 65Zn and 133Ba standardizing by photon-photon coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Jamir S.; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Iwahara, Akira; Delgado, José U.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2017-01-01

    The LNMRI/Brazil has deployed a system using X-gamma coincidence technique for the standardizing radionuclide, which present simple and complex decay scheme with X-rays of energy below 100 keV. The work was carried on radionuclide metrology laboratory using a sodium iodide detector, for gamma photons, in combination with a high purity germanium detector for X-rays. Samples of 65 Zn and 133 Ba were standardized and the results for both radionuclides showed good precision and accuracy when compared with reference values. The standardization differences were 0.72 % for 65 Zn and 0.48 % for 133 Ba samples. (author)

  20. {sup 65}Zn and {sup 133}Ba standardizing by photon-photon coincidence counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Jamir S.; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Iwahara, Akira; Delgado, José U., E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The LNMRI/Brazil has deployed a system using X-gamma coincidence technique for the standardizing radionuclide, which present simple and complex decay scheme with X-rays of energy below 100 keV. The work was carried on radionuclide metrology laboratory using a sodium iodide detector, for gamma photons, in combination with a high purity germanium detector for X-rays. Samples of {sup 65}Zn and {sup 133}Ba were standardized and the results for both radionuclides showed good precision and accuracy when compared with reference values. The standardization differences were 0.72 % for {sup 65}Zn and 0.48 % for {sup 133}Ba samples. (author)

  1. Sodium-affected alfisols of the agreste region, state of Paraíba, Brazil, as known by potter-farmers and agronomists Planossolos afetados por sódio no agreste paraibano conforme conhecidos por agricultores-ceramistas e agrônomos

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    Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions and practical attitudes of land use and management adopted by rural populations are, to a great extent, based on local soil knowledge. This study was performed to describe and analyze chemical, physical and morphological characteristics of sodium-affected Alfisols employed in traditional pottery; and to compare, through statistical analysis, pedogenetical horizons and soil layers, as recognized in soil profiles by professional researchers and potter-farmers, respectively. Fieldwork was performed in Chã da Pia, a rural village in the municipality of Areia, in the Agreste region of the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Ethnoscientific techniques were used to describe and analyze soil knowledge of potter-farmers who played the role of informants. A comparison of soil categories recognized by farmers and researchers was performed through discriminant-canonical analysis. Soils from which local people obtain a material named "barro de loiça" (pottery clay were classified as Typic Natraqualf and Vertic Albaqualf, according to Soil Taxonomy. Potter-farmers were able to identify differences between the tillable topsoil and underlying layers from which they extract ceramic clay. Some soil layers, recognized by potter-farmers, were similar to pedogenetic horizons of the same soils, recognized by researchers, in terms of physical, chemical and morphological characteristics. Discriminant-canonical analysis was a useful tool to articulate and compare information related to soil knowledge held by distinct social groups.As decisões e ações de uso e manejo adotadas pelas populações rurais são, em grande parte, baseadas no conhecimento pedológico local. Este trabalho teve como objetivos descrever e analisar as características químicas, físicas e morfológicas de Planossolos afetados por sódio usados em cerâmica artesanal e estabelecer, por meio de análise multivariada, comparações entre os horizontes pedogenéticos e as camadas

  2. Branchial histopathological study of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau, 1855 in the Guajará bay, Belém, Pará State, Brazil = Estudo histopatológico da brânquia de Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii na baía do Guajará, Belém, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline da Silva Montes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the morphological alterations in Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii gills and evaluates whether this species can be considered an environmental monitoring biomarker of Guajará Bay. Sampling was carried out in four areas around Belém, Brazil, in four annual periods: dry/wet season, wet season, wet/dry season and dry season. Water pH, temperature and suspended material were evaluated. A total of 36 specimens were collected. The second right gill arch of each animal was removed and immediately fixed and processed for histopathology analysis with light microscopy. The physicochemical analysis of the water during the study period showed slight acidity, temperature and material in suspension within normal levels. Histopathological analysis of the gills from 14 individuals from area I presented no alterations, and only 2 individuals from this area presented some significant type of alteration. In contrast, all individuals captured in areas II, III, and IV presented at least one of the following alterations: aneurism-like alterations, epithelial elevation, infiltration, cell proliferation and cell hypertrophy. Based on the gill histopathological analysis, this organ is considered a good biomarker and the native species B. rousseauxii could be used as a bioindicator for environmental monitoring.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as alterações morfológicas branquiais em Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii e verificar se esta espécie pode ser considerada como indicador biológico para o monitoramento ambiental da baía do Guajará. As coletas aconteceram em quatro áreas ao redor da cidade de Belém: I (controle, II, III e IV (forte influência antrópica, nos quatro períodos anuais: estação seco/chuvoso, estação chuvoso, estação chuvoso/seco e estação seco. Nesses períodos foram medidos pH, temperatura e material em suspensão. Foram capturados 36 exemplares. O segundo arco branquial direito de cada animal foi retirado

  3. TRANSITIVITY AND THE BA CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jung Kuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the legitimacy of positing a Transitivity Projection (= TrP cf. Bowers 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2002 in the BA construction in Mandarin Chinese. BA has been proposed to be a semantically-bleached verb, inserted in the v position (Huang 1997 and Lin 2001. Several pieces of evidence such as manner adverbial placement (cf. Huang, Li and Li 2009 and GEI-insertion (cf. Tang 2001 indicate that there must be a functional projection between the vP and VP to host the BA NP. I propose that a TrP is probably the most apt candidate for the XP. I also argue, in contrast to the proposal by Huang, Li and Li (2009, that the present proposal which employs a TrP captures most of the properties of the BA construction. A comparison with the structure of the BEI construction also shows that the TrP proposal fits into the general picture of current linguistic theory on transitive constructions without extra stipulations.

  4. Morbidade da esquistossomose mansoni no Brasil: II - Estudo em quatro áreas de campo nos Estados de Minas Gerais, Sergipe e Paraíba Morbidity of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil: II - Study in 4 field areas in the states of Minas Gerais, Sergipe and Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodrigues Coura

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fazem um estudo comparativo sobre a morbidade da esquistossomose mansoni em 4 áreas de campo no Brasil, duas na região Sudeste (Capitão Andrade, município de Inhomi e Padre Paraíso, ambas no Estado de Minas Gerais e duas outras na região nordeste (Riachuelo, no Estado de Sergipe e Alhandra, no Estado da Paraíba. A população total estudada nas 4 áreas foi de 4.870 pessoas, das quais 1.369 em Capitão Andrade (área 1, 850 em Riachuelo (área 2, 1.736 em Padre Paraíso (área 3 e 915 em alhandra (área 4. Na área 1, com uma população de 1.480 habitantes, foi tentado um estudo de toda a pupulação. Nas áreas 2, 3 e 4, devido ao grande número de habitantes, foi estudada uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de aproximadamente 25% da população (grupamento familiar de uma em cada 4 residências. O estudo constou e uma avaliação das condições econômicas e sanitárias da população, do seu contacto com os focos locais de transmissão da esquistossomose, dos índices e intensidade da infecção pelo S. mansoni e das relações da carga parasitária com as diversas formas clínicas da doença em diferentes grupos etários. Paralelamente, foi feito um estudo dos hospedeiros intermediários de cada área e dos seus índices de infecção com cercárias de S. mansoni. Demonstrou-se uma prevalência de 60,8, 50,5, 63,1 e 46,6% de infecção ativa pelo S. mansoni para as áreas 1, 2, 3 e 4, com a mediana de eliminação de ovos de 207, 77,6, 391 e 211 respectivamente. Verificou-se, ainda, nas áreas da região Sudeste um aumento mais tardio dos parâmetros mencionados. Outras correlações com grupos etários, sexo, cor dos pacientes, bem como os índices de infecção dos planorbídeos com a forma clínica da doença foram feitas.The authors have carried out a comparative study on the morbidity of schistosomiasis mansoni in four field areas of Brazil, two in the Southeast Region (Capitão Andrade, Itanhomi Municipality

  5. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.8373 Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.8373

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D’Avila Lins Bezerra Cavalcanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48-3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and self-perception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chi-square and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  6. BaMa / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2002-01-01

    Eesti ülikoolide üleminekust 3+2 süsteemile. Lühend BaMa on tulnud kasutusele seoses Euroopa ülikoolide õppekavade reformimisega ning tähistab õppekava, kus esimese astme läbimise järel omandatakse bakalaureuse- ja teise järel magistrikraad. Õppekavade tüüpidest Eesti ja Euroopa Liidu kõrgkoolides ning Bologna deklaratsioonist

  7. Phase equilibria in the BaUO3-BaZrO3-BaMoO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Matsuda, Tetsushi; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Namekawa, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the pseudo-ternary BaUO 3 -BaZrO 3 -BaMoO 3 system were studied to understand the thermochemical properties of the perovskite type gray oxide phase in high burnup MOX fuel. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation for the system was performed by using a Chem Sage program under the various oxygen potentials. Solid solutions existing in the system were treated by an ideal solution model. The present calculation results well agreed with the previous reported post irradiation examination results, showing that BaMoO 3 was scarcely included in the gray oxide phase. (author)

  8. Prevalence of patients with respiratory symptoms through active case finding and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners and related predictors in a jail in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil Prevalência de sintomáticos respiratórios através da busca ativa, diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar entre pessoas privadas de liberdade e fatores associados em uma cadeia pública no município de Carapicuíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeu A. Vieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prisons offer a fertile setting for the transmission of tuberculosis due to the presence of many classic risk factors for both infection and disease: overcrowding, poor ventilation, and little sunlight. Prisoners are often malnourished and have poor hygiene and are more likely to have a background of alcohol and drug abuse. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of prisoners with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB through active case finding in a prisoner population of the county jail of Carapicuíba, and to study possible related variables. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, and respiratory symptomatic individuals (RSI were detected through active case finding. Socio-demographic data were collected from inmates' judicial history using a specific questionnaire. The RSI provided sputum specimens for detection of acid fast bacilli and culture for mycobacterium identification. RESULTS: Among the 397 prisoners studied, 154 reported respiratory symptoms for more than three weeks, and were considered RSI; the variables associated with RSI were: having already been tried and incarcerated for more than six months and seven were diagnosed as PTB (1,763 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of RSI and PTB cases were respectively 39 and 35 times greater than the general population.INTRODUÇÃO: Estabelecimentos prisionais são um campo favorável para a transmissão de tuberculose (TB, devido a presença de vários fatores de risco clássicos, tanto para a infecção como para a doença: aglomeração, falta de ventilação e de iluminação, como também o fato de os detentos receberem uma nutrição deficitária e os locais possuí-rem condições de higiene precárias; uma grande proporção dos detentos apresentam história pregressa de alcoolismo e uso de drogas ilícitas nas dependências desses estabelecimentos. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de sintomáticos respiratórios (RSI e casos

  9. Variações no comprimento dos indivíduos de uma população do mexilhão dourado, Limnoperna fortunei (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae, ao longo do ano, na Praia do Veludo, Lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Length variation over a one-year period in specimens of the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae from Veludo Beach, Guaíba Lake, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Cintia P. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The individual size of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 was evaluated twice a month, for a year, based on samples from Veludo Beach (30º12'35"S, 51º11'68"W in Guaiba Lake, southern Porto Alegre, Brazil. Physical and chemical data on water quality, such as temperature, transparency, depth, pH, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, chlorophyll "a", and conductivity were also recorded. Adult samples were collected from underwater "sarandi" branches, Cephalanthus glabratus (Spreng K. Schum (Rubiaceae, an aquatic macrophyte available at each site. Adults placed on artificial substrates were also checked every six months. Data were analyzed by applying multivariate statistics techniques related to the physical and chemical variables of the water and the density of individuals to estimate the patterns of the individual growth over the year. The adults were separated into three groups according to length classes: G1, G2 and G3 (groups 1 through 3. These three groups are related to the differences in behavior, namely, the ability of locomotion and fixation capacity. Individuals from Group 1 (5 to 7 mm in length were the most abundant and were present in all the sampled months. Adults from artificial substrates were shown to display significant differences in seasonal growth and faster growth during spring and summer months.

  10. Mass spectrometric determination of stability of gaseous BaMoO2, Ba2MoO4, Ba2MoO5, Ba2Mo2O8 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudin, L.S.; Balduchchi, Dzh.; Dzhil'i, G.; Gvido, M.

    1982-01-01

    During the mass spectrometric investigation of BaCrO 4 evaporation Cr + , Ba + , BaO + main ions are recorded as well as BaMoO 4 + , BaMoO 3 + , BaMoO 2 + , BaMoO + , BaMoO 4 + , Ba 2 MoO 5 + , BaMo 2 O 8 + ions - the products of ionization of three-component (Ba, Mo, M) molecules, forming as a result of substance chemical interaction with the material of an effusion cell (Mo). Heats of formation of BaMoO 2 , Ba 2 MoO 4 , Ba 2 MoO 5 and Ba 2 Mo 2 O 8 molecules which constituted - 577+-70, -1343+-115, -1464+-70, -2393+-90 k J/mol respectively are determined on the base of the analysis of curves of ionisation efficiency and of reaction heats Ba 2 MoO 5 =BaO+BaMoO 4 , ΔH 0 0 =322+-60 kJ/mol Ba 2 Mo 2 O 8 =2BaMoO 4 , ΔH 0 0 =351+-80 kJ/mol calculated with the use of third low of thermodynamics [ru

  11. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  12. Back-contacted BaSi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vismara, R.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present the optical investigation of a novel back-contacted architecture for solar cells based on a thin barium (di)silicide (BaSi2) absorber. First, through the analysis of absorption limits of different semiconducting materials, we show the potential of BaSi2 for

  13. Phonon dispersion curves of BCC Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuki, J.; Stassis, C.; Zarestky, J.

    1985-01-01

    Ba, as well as Sr and Ca, is a divalent alkaline earth metal. At room temperature and ambient pressure, the structure of Ba is bcc, whereas that of Sr and Ca is fcc. Under pressure, the bcc phase of Ba transforms to an hcp structure at 55 kbar. Also, at 37 kbar Ba becomes a superconductor with T/sub c/ = 0.06 K. These properties are highly dependent on the position of the d bands relative to the Fermi level. Experimental investigation of the elastic and lattice dynamical properties of these metals has been hindered by difficulties in growing single crystals. However, recently the authors were able to grow several single crystals of bcc Ba of sufficient volume for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Some of the results are summarized here

  14. A comparative neutron activation analysis study of common generic manipulated and reference medicines commercialized in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, A.S.; Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Rodrigues, R.R.; Andonie, O.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed by the nuclear institutes: CDTN/CNEN-Brazil, CCHEN-Chile and the SCK.CEN-Belgium aiming to investigate some generic, manipulated and reference medicines largely commercialized in Brazil. Some impurities such as: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ti and Zn were found, and the heterogeneity of the samples pointed out the lack of an efficient public system of quality control

  15. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  16. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535 Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraiba, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental de exóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidos revelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrub-tree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of the communities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  17. Características populacionais de Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae no fital Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, em área recifal submetida à visitação humana, em João Pessoa, Paraíba Population characteristics of Microphrys bicornutus (Brachyura, Mithracidae on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Chlorophyta, Halimedaceae, on reef area submitted to human visitation, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson B. Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e comparar a estrutura e a dinâmica populacional de Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 no fital Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae coletado nas formações recifais de Picãozinho (submetida à visitação turística e São Gonçalo (área controle, na costa de João Pessoa (Nordeste do Brasil, sob influência de fatores ambientais e do número de visitantes. Nas duas áreas de estudo as populações analisadas estiveram compostas por fêmeas e machos maduros e imaturos com significativa predominância de machos e de animais imaturos, freqüência de tamanho e períodos reprodutivos similares. O tamanho máximo dos exemplares, a freqüência de distribuição de tamanho e a razão sexual diferiram dos resultados obtidos para a espécie em outras latitudes e habitats. Dados de razão sexual evidenciam que independentemente do estágio de maturação, os machos apresentam predominância significativa (RS>1,0, e que a proporção de fêmeas diminui com o amadurecimento sexual. Sem sofrer influência da biomassa da alga, e da salinidade e temperatura da água, variações populacionais significativas foram associadas ao aumento de juvenis durante períodos chuvosos. A baixa densidade populacional e a maior desproporção da relação macho: fêmea em subárea de Picãozinho com maior fluxo de pessoas sugerem que estas variações podem ter sido induzidas pelo pisoteio das algas.The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the population structure and dynamic of Microphrys bicornutus Latreille, 1825 on the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Halimedaceae collected on the reef areas of Picãozinho (visited by tourists and São Gonçalo (control area, in João Pessoa coast (Northeastern of Brazil, under the influence of environmental conditions and visitant numbers. In both study areas the populations analyzed were composed similarly of mature and immature males and females, with predominance of males and

  18. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  19. Polarizabilities of Ba and Ba2: Comparison of molecular beam experiments with relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Sascha; Mehring, Max; Schaefer, Rolf; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The dielectric response to an inhomogeneous electric field has been investigated for Ba and Ba 2 within a molecular beam experiment. The ratio of the polarizabilities per atom of Ba 2 and Ba is determined to be 1.30±0.13. The experimental result is compared to a high level ab initio quantum chemical coupled cluster calculation with an energy-consistent scalar relativistic small-core pseudopotential for Ba. For the barium atom a polarizability of 40.82 A 3 is obtained and the isotropic value of the polarizability calculated for Ba 2 is 97.88 A 3 , which is in good agreement with the experimental results, demonstrating that a quantitative understanding of the interaction between two closed-shell heavy element metal atoms has been achieved

  20. Índice de infestação e diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em hospedeiros exóticos e nativos no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA Index of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in exotic hosts native to the fruitculture area in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são os principais entraves às exportações de manga nos pólos de fruticultura da Região Sudoeste da Bahia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar índices de infestação e a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA, visando obter subsídios para o manejo integrado dessas pragas na mangueira, na região. Os estudos foram realizados em 2004 e 2005, nos municípios de Anagé, Belo Campo e Caraíbas, BA, procedendo-se à coleta de frutos de 21 espécies vegetais, nativas e exóticas, e identificação das espécies de moscas associadas. Estimaram-se os índices de infestação em pupários/kg de fruto e pupários/fruto. Os maiores índices de infestação, em pupários/kg de fruto, ocorreram em serigüela (Spondias purpurea L. com 61,3, juá (Ziziphus joazeiro L., 38,3 e umbu (Spondias tuberosa L., 33,1, considerados hospedeiros primários de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e A. obliqua (Macquart. As maiores infestações em pupários/fruto ocorreram em serigüela (0,9; umbu (0,7 e cajarana (Spondias sp. (0,2. Com base no monitoramento larval, registra-se, para as condições do pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, a ocorrência das espécies Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis, A. amita, A. distincta, A. sororcula, A. zenildae e Ceratitis capitata. Registram-se, pela primeira vez, as seguintes associações bitróficas: juá com A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis e A. distincta; e umbu com A. amita e A. sororcula.Fruit-flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are the main hindrance for mango exportation in the fruitculture areas of the Southwestern Region of Bahia. The purpose of the present work was to study the indexes of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in the fruitculture area of Anagé, BA, in order to obtain subsidies to the integrated management of these pests in mango, in this region. Studies were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the

  1. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzi, C.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Abbott, B.K.; Breon, A.B.; Clark, A.R.; Dow, S.; Fan, Q.; Goozen, F.; Hernikl, C.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L.T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Lynch, G.; Levi, M.; Luft, P.; Luo, L.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Roe, N.A.; Zizka, G.; Roberts, D.; Barni, D.; Brenna, E.; Defendi, I.; Forti, A.; Giugni, D.; Lanni, F.; Palombo, F.; Vaniev, V.; Leona, A.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P.F.; Perazzo, A.; Re, V.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Dutra, F.; Forti, F.; Gagliardi, D.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Profeti, A.; Rama, M.; Rampino, G.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Tritto, S.; Vitale, R.; Burchat, P.; Cheng, C.; Kirkby, D.; Meyer, T.; Roat, C.; Bona, M.; Bianchi, F.; Daudo, F.; Girolamo, B. Di; Gamba, D.; Giraudo, G.; Grosso, P.; Romero, A.; Smol, A.; Trapani, P.; Zanin, D.; Bosisio, L.; Ricca, G. Della; Lanceri, L.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.; Rastelli, C.; Vallazza, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Hast, C.; Potter, E.P.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Eppich, A.; Hale, D.; Hall, K.; Hart, P.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S.; Long, O.; May, J.; Richman, J.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A.M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A.; Grothe, M.; Johnson, R.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Schmitz, R.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Turri, M.; Wilder, M.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Scott, I.; Walsh, J.; Zobernig, H.

    2000-01-01

    The BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is designed to provide the high-precision vertexing necessary for making measurements of CP violation at the SLAC B-Factory PEP-II. The instrument consists of five layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors and has been installed in the BaBar experiment and taking colliding beam data since May 1999. An overview of the design as well as performance and experience from the initial running will be presented

  2. First register of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in star fruit in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, state of Piaui, Brazil/ Primeiro registro de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em carambola nos municípios de Teresina, Altos e Parnaíba no estado do Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to register the occurrence of the fruit flies associated to star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. in three counties of the state of Piaui, as well as to determine the frequency and the index of infestation of these insects. The fruits had been collected during the months of August and September 2005, and had been placed in plastic trays with sterilized soil, stored in metal cages, and left in environmental temperature at the laboratory. Until emergency, the adults had been kept in bottles with alcohol 70% and later identified in the species level. The biggest index of infestation (flies/fruit of C. capitata has occurred in the county of Altos (3.66, followed by Teresina and Parnaiba that had presented index of infestation of 2.18 and 0.016, respectively. C. capitata was the most frequent species in all the counties, presenting frequencies of 100%, 96.5%, and 100% in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, respectively. Ceratitis capitata is registered for the first time in star fruit in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, state of the Piaui. Anastrepha fraterculus is registered for the first time in the county of Altos. A. fraterculus and C. capitata occur simultaneously in star fruits.O presente trabalho visou conhecer as espécies de moscas-das-frutas associadas à carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. em três municípios do Estado do Piauí, bem como determinar a freqüência e o índice de infestação desses insetos. Os frutos foram coletados durante os meses de agosto e setembro de 2005, colocados em bandejas plásticas com solo esterilizado, armazenados em gaiolas metálicas e deixados em temperatura ambiente no laboratório. Até a emergência dos adultos, estes foram acondicionados em frascos contendo álcool 70% e posteriormente identificados em nível de espécie. O maior índice de infestação (moscas/fruto de C. capitata ocorreu no município de Altos (3,66, seguido pelos municípios de Teresina e Parnaíba que apresentaram

  3. Distribuição espacial de compostos orgânicos de estanho em sedimentos costeiros e em Phallusia nigra da Baía de Todos os Santos e litoral norte da Bahia - Brasil Spatial distribution of organic tin compounds in coastal sediment and Phallusia nigra of the Todos os Santos Bay and northern coast of Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Lowe Pletsch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic tin compounds were investigated in the sediment of twenty-four stations located in the Todos os Santos Bay and the north coast of Bahia - Brazil. The concentration of these organic tin was also determined in a ascidium species of Phallusia nigra. The speciation and quantification was performed by GC-MS/MS. The highest concentrations were: tributyltin (TBT 438 ng g-1, dibutyltin (DBT 207 ng g-1, monobutyltin (MBT 423 ng g-1, diphenyltin (DPT 25.8 ng g-1 and monophenyltin (MPT 55.0 ng g-1. DBT and MBT were found in Phallusia nigra, with highest concentrations of 294.1 and 148.5 ng g-1, respectively.

  4. Avaliação dos níveis de chumbo e cádmio em leite em decorrência de contaminação ambiental na região do Vale do Paraíba, Sudeste do Brasil Evaluation of lead and cadmium levels in milk due to environmental contamination in the Paraiba Valley region of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura A. Okada

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Localizada em Caçapava, SP, Brasil, indústria produtora de lingotes de chumbo provocou contaminação ambiental na região do Vale do Paraíba, com chumbo e cádmio. Com o objetivo de avaliar o grau de contaminação do leite produzido na região, devido à possível ingestão, pelo gado, de gramíneas e águas contaminadas, foram determinados os teores de chumbo e cádmio no leite. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisadas 218 amostras de leite in natura e pasteurizado. O cádmio e o chumbo foram determinados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com chama. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Das amostras analisadas, 43 apresentaram teores de chumbo acima do limite máximo estabelecido pela legislação brasileira que é 0,05 mg/kg. O valor da mediana encontrada para o chumbo foi 0,04 mg/L. Os níveis de cádmio em todas as amostras foram menores que o limite de quantificação do método que é 0,02 mg/L. Apesar da contaminação ambiental, os níveis encontrados para o cádmio no leite estão abaixo do limite estabelecido pela legislação brasileira que é 1,0 mg/kg.INTRODUCTION: A factory producing lead ingots, located in Caçapava, caused lead and cadmium contamination of the environment, in the Paraiba Valley region of Southeastern, Brazil, through the discharge of industrial waste and the recycling of batteries. The factory, set in a rural, dairy cattle breeding area, worried sanitary authorities who envisaged the possibility of these metals' having entered the food chain. For the purpose of assessing the levels of contamination of the milk produced in the region, due to the cattle's possible consumption of contaminated grass and water, the amounts of cadmium and lead present in the milk were verified. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Major producers, covering an area of up to 20 km from the contaminated source, authorized collection of 218 samples of both pasteurized and non-pasteurized milk, which were analysed. Lead and cadmium levels

  5. Refinement of crystal structures of CaHCl, SrHCl, BaHCl, BaHBr, and BaHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, H.P.; Limmer, A.

    1983-01-01

    The structures of CaHCl, SrHCl, BaHBr, BaHCl, and BaHI have been refined using single crystal data. The comparison of the parameters with the corresponding data of isotypic fluorohalide compounds gives a valuable insight into the bonding interactions in this structure type. (author)

  6. Refinement of crystal structures of CaHCl, SrHCl, BaHCl, BaHBr, and BaHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, H.P.; Limmer, A. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie)

    1983-07-01

    The structures of CaHCl, SrHCl, BaHBr, BaHCl, and BaHI have been refined using single crystal data. The comparison of the parameters with the corresponding data of isotypic fluorohalide compounds gives a valuable insight into the bonding interactions in this structure type.

  7. Laserspectroscopic studies of collective properties of neutron deficient Ba nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekk, K.; Andl, A.; Goering, S.; Hanser, A.; Nowicki, G.; Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the BaI resonance-line (lambda=553.6 nm) have been measured by dye laser induced resonance fluorescence on an atomic beam for sup(135m,129g,129m,126) Ba thus extending previous high resolution measurements of neutron deficient Ba nuclides (N - isomers sup(135m) Ba and sup(135m) Ba show a decreased staggering. Conspicuously the isomer shift of the g 7/2 + isomer sup(129m) Ba proves to be negative. The nuclear structure information is discussed in the context of gamma-spectroscopic studies of transitional nuclei with 50 [de

  8. Ocorrência de Diglotta brasiliensis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae em duas praias estuarinas da Baía de Paranaguá, sul do Brasil Occurrence of Diglotta brasiliensis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae in two estuarine beaches of Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo C. da Rosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesta nota são apresentadas as principais características do hábictat de Diglotta brasiliensis Caron & Ribeiro-Costa, 2008, uma espécie recentemente descrita para a região Neotropical. Os indivíduos foram encontrados habitando uma faixa de aproximadamente 4 m de largura da zona intermareal superior de duas praias estuarinas (ambas localizadas no setor euhalino da baía, com as suas densidades variando de 13 a 80 indivíduos/m². Nesta faixa da praia os sedimentos estiveram compostos de areia média moderadamente a muito bem selecionada e com teor de umidade em torno de 6,5%. O teor de matéria orgânica e de carbonato de cálcio do sedimento variou entre 0,08 a 0,13% e 3,4 a 5,4%, respectivamente. Nesses locais, D. brasiliensis foi encontrada coexistindo com isópodes cirolanídeos do gênero Excirolana Richardson, 1912 (Isopoda: Cirolanidae.The main habitat characteristics of Diglotta brasiliensis Caron & Ribeiro-Costa, 2008, a recently described species from the Neotropical region, are provided. The specimens were found inhabiting a 4 m wide-strip at the upper intertidal zone of two estuarine sand beaches (both located in the euhaline sector of the bay, with densities ranging from 13 to 80 individuals/m². In this zone, sediment is composed by moderate to very well sorted median sand with moisture content around 6.5%. The sediment organic matter and calcium carbonate contents varied from 0.08 to 0.13% and from 3.4 to 5.4%, respectively. At these places, D. brasiliensis was found coexisting with cirolanid isopods of the genus Excirolana Richardson, 1912 (Isopoda: Cirolanidae.

  9. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O Porto de Sepetiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi escolhido, no Brasil, como área-piloto do projeto "Remoção de barreiras para a implementação efetiva do controle de água de lastro e medidas de gestão em países em desenvolvimento" (Programa GloBallast. Para possibilitar comparações, os seis países participantes do Programa GloBallast foram orientados a adotar a mesma metodologia para o levantamento preliminar da biota das áreas-pilotos valorizando a identificação em nível de espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aplicar metodologia estabelecida pelo Centro para Pesquisa sobre Espécies Marinhas Introduzidas, da Austrália (Procedimento CRIMP, com algumas adaptações, no levantamento florístico das macroalgas de substratos consolidados naturais da área-piloto do Porto de Sepetiba. Coletas de macroalgas foram realizadas em novembro/2001, em nove locais da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até cerca de -4 m de profundidade. Em cada local, seis quadrados de 0,1 m² de área foram raspados. O material foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Das 96 espécies identificadas (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, 60 Rhodophyta, 12 não haviam sido citadas anteriormente para a área de estudo. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen e Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli são ocorrências novas para o Estado. Não há indícios de que as novas ocorrências equivalem a espécies recentemente introduzidas por meio das atividades portuárias. O procedimento metodológico adotado mostrou-se eficiente, resultando em listagem de espécies comparável às de levantamentos florísticos com maior esforço amostral e complementando os dados pretéritos existentes para a baía de Sepetiba e adjacências. No entanto, ressalta-se a importância de uma reavaliação das escalas temporal e espacial da estratégia de

  10. Particle-hole states in 138Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.A.; Khitrov, V.A.; Popov, Yu.P.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Simicic, L.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal-neutron-capture gamma rays and γγ-coincidences were measured by means of Ge detectors. Using primary and secondary (n, γ) data, the level scheme of 138 Ba was established with 63 levels up to an excitation energy of 5 MeV. The level energies and (d, p) transfer data were compared with model predictions of the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model. As shown, this model provides a basic understanding of the neutron particle-hole states of 138 Ba in the energy range of 3.5-5.0 MeV. ((orig.))

  11. Evaluation of the metal contamination associated to the leachate in the Chururupe-Ilheus (Bahia State, Brazil) river by using INAA and ICP-MS; Avaliacao da contaminacao por metais associada ao despejo de chorume no rio Cururupe-Ilheus-BA utilizando INAA e ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radioquimica; Silva, Mario R. de S.; Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Santos, Balbino L. dos [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2002-07-01

    The site of this research is in Ilheus city located at Bahia State in Brazil. Residues generated by the urban activities from this city are collected and disposed at a place without sanitary control called ' Lixao do Cururupe' close to Cururupe river. The leachate from the water drainage through the mass of garbage flows into the river. This solution is rich in organic and inorganic pollutants. There is not any information about the environmental impact caused by this dump. The objective of this study is to evaluate the contamination caused by metals due to the presence of leachate into Rio Cururupe. Water, sediment and crustaceans (Ucides cordatus) samples were collected in different points considering the dump location. Extra samples were also taken in Rio Acuipe 20 km from Rio Cururupe for comparison. After appropriate treatment the samples were analyzed using the technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The parameters pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and Biochemistry Oxygen Demand from the water samples were also determined. (author)

  12. Subnitride chemistry: A first-principles study of the NaBa3N, Na5Ba3N, and Na16Ba6N phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    An ab initio study on the electronic structure of the subnitrides NaBa 3 N, Na 5 Ba 3 N, and Na 16 Ba 6 N is performed for the first time. The NaBa 3 N and Na 5 Ba 3 N phases consist of infinite 1 ∞ [NBa 6/2 ] strands composed of face-sharing NBa 6 octahedra surrounded by a 'sea' of sodium atoms. The Na 16 Ba 6 N phase consist of discrete [NBa 6 ] octahedra arranged in a body-cubic fashion, surrounded by a 'sea' of sodium atoms. Our calculations suggest that the title subnitrides are metals. Analysis of the electronic structure shows partial interaction of N(2s) with Ba(5p) electrons in the lower energy region for NaBa 3 N and Na 5 Ba 3 N. However, no dispersion is observed for the N(2s) and Ba(5p) bands in the cubic phase Na 16 Ba 6 N. The metallic band below the Fermi level shows a strong mixing of N(2p), Ba(6s), Ba(5d), Ba(6p), Na(3s) and Na(3p) orbitals. The metallic character in these nitrides stems from delocalized electrons corresponding to hybridized 5d l 6s m 6p n barium orbitals which interact with hybridized 3s n 3p m sodium orbitals. Analysis of the electron density and electronic structure in these nitrides shows two different regions: a metallic matrix corresponding to the sodium atoms and the regions around them and heteropolar bonding between nitrogen and barium within the infinite 1 ∞ [NBa 6/2 ] strands of the NaBa 3 N and Na 5 Ba 3 N phases, and within the isolated [NBa 6 ] octahedra of the Na 16 Ba 6 N phase. The nitrogen atoms inside the strands and octahedra are negatively charged, the anionic character of nitrogens being larger in the isolated octahedra of the cubic phase Na 16 Ba 6 N, due to the lack of electron delocalization along one direction as opposed to the other phases. The sodium and barium atoms appear to be slightly negatively and positively charged, the latter to a larger extent. From the computed Ba-N overlap populations as well as the analysis of the contour maps of differences between total density and superposition of

  13. Diversidade e abundância sazonal da avifauna em duas planícies de maré no estuário da baía da Babitonga, norte de Santa Catarina Diversity and abundance of birds in two tidal flat in Babitonga Bay estuary, north of Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Grose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a ocorrência de aves nos ambientes estuarinos de Santa Catarina ainda são escassas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a diversidade, abundância e variação sazonal das aves em duas planícies de maré na baía da Babitonga. As amostragens foram realizadas durante um ano (maio de 2006 a abril 2007. No total foram identificadas 25 espécies, sendo 15 no Linguado (LG e 24 na desembocadura do Monte de Trigo (MT. Apenas uma espécie foi exclusiva no LG Himantopus melanurus (Vieillot, 1817, enquanto dez espécies ocorreram apenas no MT. O número de espécies em MT foi superior ao encontrado em LG. A espécie mais abundante em MT foi Rynchops niger (Linnaeus, 1758 e em LG foi Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758. Durante alguns meses foram registradas espécies migratórias neárticas em ambas as áreas, o que representou um acréscimo na diversidade. A extensa planície de maré formada pelo fechamento do canal do Linguado tem sido muito ocupada por aves, possivelmente pela maior disponibilidade de alimento.Information of birds in estuaries of Santa Catarina is scarce. This work aimed to collect data on diversity, abundance and seasonal variation on this community. Sampling of birds in two tidal flats in Babitonga Bay estuary was carried out during one year (May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 25 species were identified, being 15 in Linguado (LG and 24 in Monte de Trigo (MT. Only one species was unique in LG (Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 and 10 in MT. The number of species in MT was higher than in LG due to the conservation condition. The most abundant species on MT was the Black Skimmer [Rynchops niger (Linnaeus, 1758] and in the LG was the Little Blue Heron [Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758]. During some months Nearctic migratory species were recorded in both areas, representing an increase in diversity. The extensive tidal flat formed by the closure of the channel in LG is widely used by birds, possibly because of

  14. Fish associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana Lake system and Mutum River, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil Peixes associados a macrófitas aquáticas no sistema de baías Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana e rio Mutum, Pantanal - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB. Pacheco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On the left bank of the Cuibá River, one of the main tributaries of the Pantanal in Mato Grosso, are located the Chacororé and Sinhá Mariana Lakes and the Mutum River, the littoral regions of which are covered with aquatic macrophytes, dominated by the species Eichhornia crassipes and Eichhornia azurea. To examine the ichthyofauna associated with this vegetation, in the year 2003, 3510 fish were collected, distributed among 83 species, and the limnological variables verified near the macrophyte stands where they were sampled. The most abundant and richest order was the Characiformes, followed by the Gymnotiformes and Siluriformes. Analysis of similarity showed a very low, or null, index that the limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide habitat sufficiently homogeneous to give. The limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide a sufficient habitat heterogeneity to give very low, or null, index values. Thus, environmental conservation measures should be more effective in promoting the conservation of the species, given the high levels of biological diversity found in the habitats studied.À margem esquerda do rio Cuiabá, um dos principais afluentes do Pantanal matogrossense, estão localizadas as baías Chacororé e Sinhá Mariana e o rio Mutum, cujas regiões litorâneas são cobertas por macrófitas aquáticas. Com o intuito de se verificar a ictiofauna associada a esta vegetação, no ano de 2003, foram coletados 3510 peixes distribuídos em 83 espécies e verificados os valores das variáveis limnológicas próximo aos bancos de macrófitas onde estes foram amostrados. A ordem mais abundante e de maior riqueza foi Characiformes, seguida por Gymnotiformes e Siluriformes. As condições limnológicas e a morfologia das espécies de macrófitas proporcionam heterogeneidade de hábitat suficiente para obtenção de valores dos índices de similaridade baixos ou mesmo

  15. Ocurrence of Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci and enteric bacteria in oysters (Crassostrea gigas harvested in the south bay of Santa Catarina island, Brazil Ocorrência de Vibrio spp., estafilococos coagulase positivo e bactérias entéricas em ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas na baía sul da ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Juliano Ramos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of oysters (Crassostrea gigas, harvested in six different regions of the South Bay of Santa Catarina Island, with Coliforms at 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci, and Salmonella sp. over a period of one year. One hundred eighty oyster samples were collected directly from their culture sites and analyzed. Each sample consisted of a pool of 12 oysters. All of the samples analyzed showed absence of Salmonella, 18 (10% samples showed presence of Escherichia coli, 15 (8.3% samples were positive for V. alginolyticus, and Vibriocholerae was detected in 4 samples (2.2%. The counts of positive-coagulase staphylococci varied from O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação de ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas em diferentes regiões da Baía Sul da Ilha de Santa Catarina, por coliformes a 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp. Estafilococos coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp., durante o período de um ano. Foram analisadas 180 amostras, coletadas diretamente no local de cultivo. Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram ausência de Salmonella, 18 (10% amostras apresentaram presença de Escherichia coli, 15 (8,3% amostras positivas para Vibrio alginolyticus e V. cholerae foi detectado em 4 amostras (2,2%. As contagens de Estafilococos coagulase positiva variaram de <10 a 1,9 x 102 UFC.g-1, enquanto que as contagens de coliformes a 45 ºC e E. coli variaram de <3 a 1,5 x 102 NMP.g-1 e <3 e 4,3 x 10 NMP.g-1, respectivamente. As contagens de V. parahaemolyticus e V. vulnificus variaram de <3 a 7 NMP.g-1, para ambos os microrganismos, sugerindo um monitoramento tanto destas espécies quanto da temperatura das águas marinhas nas regiões de cultivo. Com base nos resultados das análises microbiológicas, as amostras analisadas mostraram qualidade bacteriológica aceitável, ou seja, dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos na legislação brasileira.

  16. Vulnerabilidade no manejo dos resíduos de serviços de saúde de João Pessoa (PB, Brasil Vulnerability of management of waste from health services in João Pessoa, State of Paraíba (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoly Souza Ramos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Observa-se na academia a discussão sobre os resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU, sendo os oriundos de serviços de saúde (RSS parte integrante dos RSU, não necessariamente pela quantidade gerada, mas pelo potencial de risco que afeta à saúde coletiva e ambiental. Objetivou-se verificar a vulnerabilidade do manejo dos RSS, nos estabelecimentos de atenção primária, secundária e terciária de João Pessoa - PB. Foi uma pesquisa quantitativa, exploratória e descritiva do manejo dos RSS, tendo como instrumentos de coleta de dados checklist e avaliação analítica da vulnerabilidade do manejo dos RSS. Percebeu-se que 21,05% dos estabelecimentos não realizam segregação, 26,34% não padronizam os sacos plásticos e 47,37% dos trabalhadores responsáveis pela coleta não possuem treinamento para o manuseio dos RSS. Conclui-se que a vulnerabilidade do manejo dos RSS de João Pessoa - PB foi significativo 48,02%, podendo contribuir para a deterioração da saúde ambiental e coletiva, acarretando problema de saúde pública.The discussion in the academy on solid urban waste residues (UWR is analyzed, with health service waste (HSW being an integral part of UWR, not necessarily in terms of the amount generated, but due to the risk potential to collective and environmental health. The scope of the study was to verify the vulnerability of UWR handling in primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare units in João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. This involved a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive investigation of the handling of UWR, using a checklist and analytical evaluation of the vulnerability of HSW handling for data collection. It was detected that 21.05% of the establishments failed to separate hazardous waste, 26.34% did not standardize plastic disposal bags, and 47.37% of the workers responsible for collection were not trained to handle HSW. It was concluded that the vulnerability of HSW handling in João Pessoa in the order of 48

  17. Is Urgent Evoke a Digital Ba?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmand, Mette

    2018-01-01

    of such a platform, the World Bank’s online game Urgent Evoke, which has been designed with the pur- pose of engaging citizens in developing innovative solutions for sociopolitical problems like poverty. The analysis is based on Nonaka’s concept of Ba, which means “place” and is described as a platform for advancing...

  18. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  19. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  20. Electronic structure of Ca, Sr, and Ba under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animalu, A. O. E.; Heine, V.; Vasvari, B.

    1967-01-01

    Electronic band structure calculations phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure electronic band structure calculations for fcc phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure electronic band structure calculations for fcc phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure

  1. Eficiência no uso da água na cana-de-açúcar sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação e níveis de zinco no litoral paraibano Water use efficiency in sugarcane crop under different depths of irrigation and zinc doses in coastal region of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. A. Farias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida em área experimental da Fazenda Capim II, localizada no Município de Capim - PB, com o intuito de determinar a eficiência no uso da água (EUA pela cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L., cultivar SP 79-1011. O delineamento experimental consistiu em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5. Os tratamentos referentes à lâmina de irrigação foram: sequeiro; 25; 50; 75 e 100% da ETc (1.026,57 mm com as respectivas precipitações efetivas de 780,06; 713,31; 487,54; 243,71 e 194,51 mm; os níveis de zinco estudados foram 0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 kg ha-1. O equipamento de irrigação utilizado foi do tipo pivô central, com turno de rega de nove dias. A eficiência no uso da água (EUA na produção de colmos e de açúcar aumenta à medida que se eleva a lâmina total de água aplicada à cultura. Para a região norte-paraibana dos tabuleiros costeiros, a EUA na produção de colmo e de açúcar, de forma maximizada, é 7,12 e 0,67 kg m-3, respectivamente.The study was conducted in an experimental area of the Capim II Farm, located in the municipality of Capim - PB, Brazil, with the objective of determining the efficiency in the use of the water (WUE for the sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L., cultivar SP 79-1011. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with three replications in a 5 x 5 factorial design. The irrigation treatments were: rainfed; 25; 50; 75 and 100% of the ETc (1,026.57 mm with the respective effective precipitations of 780.06; 713.31; 487.54; 243.71 and 194.51 mm. The levels of zinc studied were 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kg ha-1. The irrigation equipment used in the study was a central pivot with irrigation frequency of nine days. The water use efficiency (WUE of sugarcane crop in terms of cane production and of sugar increased with the depth of water applied. For the Coastal Table Lands of northern Paraiba, the maximized WUE for sugarcane and sugar production is

  2. Application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the spatialization of U, Th and K concentrations on the proximity of brazilian uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Simara S.; Veiga, Artur J.P., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil); Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    GIS is a computational tool for improving the obtained data with spatial geographic information. An understanding of complex analysis by overlaying and integrating several types of information is possible. With GIS one can question, analyze, interpret and understand the data to reveal relationships, patterns and trends. In environmental monitoring, GIS have become indispensable to do the contextualization of the problem. The cartographic products generated by the application of these techniques allow the visualization of the environmental current situation, which may also contribute to the prediction of future problems. After accidents with Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear power plants there is a crescent public fear intensified every time there are nuclear fuel cycle activities occurring. The absence of reliable information leads to unfounded rumors about the daily life and this can impact negatively on activity performed, mainly in situations related to power generation by nuclear route, notably known more by its harm effects than by the benefits. Faced with such controversial subjects, two main Brazilian uranium reserves (Caetite-BA and Santa Quiteria-CE) were studied. We performed ICP-MS analyzes for the U, Th and K determination in water and soil samples. The obtained data GIS tools were applied to survey topography and watershed where URA - Uranium Concentrate Unit of Nuclear Industries of Brazil - INB is inserted. Our aim was to identify the affluent hydrography found in the region and overlaps the radiological data, checking possible routes of contamination. The radionuclides concentration found in soil and water, in both regions, are within the limit set by the World Health Organization. In Santa Quiteria, once this URA is in pre-operational phase, no hydraulic connections were established. In the URA - Caetite, we observe that there is no hydraulic connection between the URA and the City of Caetite, so the Greenpeace affirmation about the radionuclide

  3. Application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the spatialization of U, Th and K concentrations on the proximity of brazilian uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Simara S.; Veiga, Artur J.P.; Souza, Susana O.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2013-01-01

    GIS is a computational tool for improving the obtained data with spatial geographic information. An understanding of complex analysis by overlaying and integrating several types of information is possible. With GIS one can question, analyze, interpret and understand the data to reveal relationships, patterns and trends. In environmental monitoring, GIS have become indispensable to do the contextualization of the problem. The cartographic products generated by the application of these techniques allow the visualization of the environmental current situation, which may also contribute to the prediction of future problems. After accidents with Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear power plants there is a crescent public fear intensified every time there are nuclear fuel cycle activities occurring. The absence of reliable information leads to unfounded rumors about the daily life and this can impact negatively on activity performed, mainly in situations related to power generation by nuclear route, notably known more by its harm effects than by the benefits. Faced with such controversial subjects, two main Brazilian uranium reserves (Caetite-BA and Santa Quiteria-CE) were studied. We performed ICP-MS analyzes for the U, Th and K determination in water and soil samples. The obtained data GIS tools were applied to survey topography and watershed where URA - Uranium Concentrate Unit of Nuclear Industries of Brazil - INB is inserted. Our aim was to identify the affluent hydrography found in the region and overlaps the radiological data, checking possible routes of contamination. The radionuclides concentration found in soil and water, in both regions, are within the limit set by the World Health Organization. In Santa Quiteria, once this URA is in pre-operational phase, no hydraulic connections were established. In the URA - Caetite, we observe that there is no hydraulic connection between the URA and the City of Caetite, so the Greenpeace affirmation about the radionuclide

  4. Actions for the development of local productive arrangement of fish farming in the municipality of Sobradinho/BA | Ações para o desenvolvimento de arranjos produtivos locais de piscicultura no município de Sobradinho / BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberson Pessoa Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Local productive arrangements (LPAs are important options for the implementation of job-creating public policies and income in a sustainable way. In Brazil, such policies to encourage organizations, although recent, has become consistent and the results of its implementation can already be perceived. This work consisted in analyzing the performance of the Development Company of the São Francisco and Parnaíba (Codevasf in the local productive arrangement of fish farming in the municipality of Sobradinho/BA. Through documentary research in the database of the 6th Regional Superintendency and interviews with engineers Unit of the Regional Revitalization Management - Territorial Development Unit of the institution, arrangement of characteristics and the benefits for the participants and the local population were raised. As results, it was found that after the company's participation in LPAs was a considerable increase in production, marketing and consumption of fish as well as the creation of new job opportunities in the region.

  5. Elevated concentrations of dissolved Ba, Fe and Mn in a mangrove subterranean estuary: Consequence of sea level rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Barcellos, Renato; Silva Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater underlying a mangrove habitat was studied to determine the geochemical nature of Ba, Fe and Mn as related to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO4 and salinity (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil). Wells were placed across geobotanic facies and sampled monthly for a year. We observed non-conservative behavior and elevated concentrations of dissolved metals relative to local end-members (i.e., fresh river water and seawater). Average Ba concentrations were near 2000 nM in an area with low salinity (˜5.3). Dissolved Fe (up to 654 μM) was two orders of magnitude greater in fresh groundwater than in the seaward sampling stations. Manganese concentrations were greatest (112 μM) in the high salinity (˜65) zone, being directly influenced by salinity. Groundwater Ba, Fe and Mn showed differing site specific concentrations, likely related to ion exchange processes and redox-controlled cycling along distinct mangrove facies. The results of this work show that metal concentrations are altered relative to conservative mixing between terrestrial and marine endmembers, illustrating the importance of mangrove subterranean estuaries as biogeochemical reactors. Roughly-estimated submarine groundwater discharge-derived dissolved Ba, Fe and Mn fluxes were at least one order of magnitude greater than river-derived fluxes into Sepetiba Bay.

  6. Dynamics of photoexcited Ba+ cations in 4He nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Departament ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Leal, Antonio; 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Departament ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Pi, Martí; Zhang, Xiaohang; Drabbels, Marcel; 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratoire des Collisions, Agrégats, Réactivité, IRSAMC, UMR 5589, CNRS et Université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse 3, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France))" data-affiliation=" (Departament ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratoire des Collisions, Agrégats, Réactivité, IRSAMC, UMR 5589, CNRS et Université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse 3, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France))" >Barranco, Manuel; Cargnoni, Fausto; Hernando, Alberto; Mateo, David; Mella, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study on the desolvation of Ba + cations in 4 He nanodroplets excited via the 6p ← 6s transition. The experiments reveal an efficient desolvation process yielding mainly bare Ba + cations and Ba + He n exciplexes with n = 1 and 2. The speed distributions of the ions are well described by Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions with temperatures ranging from 60 to 178 K depending on the excitation frequency and Ba + He n exciplex size. These results have been analyzed by calculations based on a time-dependent density functional description for the helium droplet combined with classical dynamics for the Ba + . In agreement with experiment, the calculations reveal the dynamical formation of exciplexes following excitation of the Ba + cation. In contrast to experimental observation, the calculations do not reveal desolvation of excited Ba + cations or exciplexes, even when relaxation pathways to lower lying states are included.

  7. Baština Starog grada Zrinskih

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Stari grad Zrinskih priča bogate, zanimljive i velike priče u svakom svojem kutku. Dvorac je prepun kulturne baštine koja će svakog ostaviti bez daha i dat će nam nove poglede na hrvatsku povijest, a još više na međimursku povijest. U ovom završnom radu pisat ću o ljepotama kraja, povijesnim zbivanjima i kulturnoj baštini grada, od samog početka pa do danas. Posebno ću se posvetiti predmetima koji su nam ostavili naši preci, a najviše umjetnosti grada i okolice. Čakovečki stari grad ima djelo...

  8. Topological phases in Ba-Borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Chad; Czaja, Andrew; Boolchand, Punit

    2015-03-01

    Twelve compositions in the (BaO)x(B2O3)100-x pseudo binary, in the 15% Modulated- DSC and Raman scattering experiments were undertaken systematically as function of BaO content (x). Calorimetric measurements reveal Tg(x) to show a broad maximum and the non-reversing enthalpy to show a Gaussian-like reversibility window2, both centered near x = 28%. Raman scattering displays rich lineshapes with modes similar to those observed in Na-Borates2. Modes near 808 cm-1, 770 cm-1, 740 cm-1 and 705 cm-1 are observed, and identified with breathing modes of pure and mixed rings from characteristic structural groupings2. These preliminary results suggest that glasses at x 30% in the flexible phase. Supported by NSF Grant DMR 08-53957.

  9. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  10. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  11. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  12. Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Lucimara Blumer; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Fernando Barbosa Junior

    2009-01-01

    The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

  13. Improvement of the field-trapping capabilities of bulk Nd Ba Cu O superconductors using Ba Cu O substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Motohide; Nariki, Shinya; Sakai, Naomichi; Iwafuchi, Kengo; Murakami, Masato

    2006-07-01

    We used Ba-Cu-O substrates to fabricate bulk Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductors using a top-seeded melt-growth method. There were several advantages for the use of Ba-Cu-O substrate compared to conventional substrate materials such as MgO, ZrO2, Al2O3, RE123 and RE211 (RE = rare earth). The Ba-Cu-O did not react with the precursor and minimized liquid loss. Accordingly, the introduction of large-sized cracks was suppressed. We also found that Tc values were high at the bottom regions, which was ascribed to the beneficial effect of Ba-Cu-O in suppressing Nd/Ba substitution. As a result, we obtained bulk Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductors that exhibited fairly good field-trapping capabilities, even at the bottom surfaces.

  14. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis in milk from cows in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelson Marcolino Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Milk samples from 16 cows that tested positive on the tuberculin test in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, were used for mycobacteria isolation and identification. Mycobacteria were isolated from five (31.25% of the 16 milk samples; three samples were classified as M. bovis, and two as belonging to the Mycobacterium genus. This is probably the first study of isolation and identification of M. bovis in milk from cows in Northeastern Brazil, which suggests that humans are at risk of contamination by ingestion.

  15. Cogeneration for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Almost all the electric power in Brazil comes from large-scale hydroelectric plants: only about 3% comes from cogeneration. But, now that the barriers which discouraged cogeneration are being removed, there will be more and more investment in cogeneration and distributed generation. The circumstances which have brought about these changes are described. It is expected that cogeneration will be responsible for producing 10-15% of Brazil's electricity by 2010 and the demand for cogeneration will reach 11-17 GW. It is concluded that Brazil represents one of the world's most attractive market for cogeneration and distributed generation

  16. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ierecê Ml; Alves, Rômulo Rn; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana Pr; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-12-08

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality.

  17. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Tacyana PR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income, and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch, and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of

  18. Rates of pulmonary infection by pentastomids in lizards species from a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, WO.; Santana, GG.; Vieira, WLS.; Wanderley, IC.; Ribeiro, SC.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary parasitism by pentastomids was examined in two lizard species inhabiting an area of restinga vegetation (coastal sand dunes) situated in the municipality of Mataraca (6° 29' S and 34° 56' W), on the extreme northern coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 123 lizards were collected, being 75 specimens of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Gymnophtalmidae) and 48 specimens of Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae). Only a single species of Pentastomida (Raillietiella mottae) was found parasit...

  19. First record of Amphisbaena mertensi Strauch, 1881 (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Adriano; Brites, Vera; Valinhas e Valinhas, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first record of Amphisbaena mertensi in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Through analysis of scientific collections, we found specimens of A. mertensi from municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Indianópolis, Uberlândia and Araguari, in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba regions. These localities are inserted in the Cerrado biome, with Atlantic Forest enclaves, and represent an expansion of the previously known geographic distribution for the species.

  20. Analysis of lichen species for atmospheric pollution biomonitoring in the Santo Andre municipality, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Alves, E.R.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the determination of trace elements in Canoparmelia texana species collected in nonpolluted areas of Atlantic Forest and in six sites of Santo Andre Municipality, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cs, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn were determined and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites

  1. Continuing education in radiation protection in the nuclear fuel cycle: The case of Nuclear Industries of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pereira, W. de; Kelecom, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical and technical concept that guided training in radiation protection implemented by the Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB; Nuclear Industries of Brazil) to maintain the competence of its technical staff to perform activities with exposure to radiation, the staff responsible for the supervision of this work and as a form of dissemination of knowledge to the staff not involved in the use of ionizing radiation. The groups of workers to be trained are here described, as well as the level of training, the frequency and types of training, the profile of trainers, the training programs, the forms of assessment and recording of training. It also describes the first general training performed in 2004. After this initial training no other general training was realized, and the option was to train small groups of workers, to avoid stopping the production as it occurred when general training was executed. The overall training was conducted in three units: the Uranium Concentration Unit (URA) under production in the city of Caetité, state of Bahia, the Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) undergoing decommissioning at Poços de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais and the Unit of Heavy Minerals (UMP), at Buena, state of Rio de Janeiro. In the initial training at URA 79 workers were trained, distributed in 6 classes (average of 13 students per class); each class had nine hours training and the grades obtained ranged from 7.5 to 10. At UTM, 200 employees were trained distributed in 9 classes (average of 22 students per class); their notes ranged from 8.8 to 10. Finally, at UMP 151 employees were trained, in 5 classes (average of 31 students per class); their grades ranged from 8.6 to 9.0. That year, a total of 180 hours were spent for training 430 employees, with no effective rebuke. Currently employees are trained when they arrive at their Units, and all along the year in small classes, as the general training has been definitely abolished. (author)

  2. Energy Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Rosemary; de Paiva, Terezhina Villela O'Grady

    1980-01-01

    Compares energy education in Brazil and the United States. Topics discussed include the Brazilian setting, government initiatives, dependence on foreign fuel sources, public reaction, schools and energy education, and mass media involvement. (DB)

  3. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  4. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    local farmers — particularly women — ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC ... the roots of violence ... Wage inequalities in Brazil and India ... foreign policy efforts, IDRC supports research in developing countries.

  5. High spin structure in 130,131Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, A.; Singh, Amandeep; Kumar, S.; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Varinderjit; Behera, B.R.; Singh, K.P.; Singh, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Sharma, H.P.; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar Raju, M.; Madhusudhan Rao, P.V.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, Rakesh; Madhvan, N.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    High spin states of 130,131 Ba have been investigated via fusion evaporation reactions 122 Sn( 13 C,4n) 131 Ba and 122 Sn( 13 C, 5n) 130 Ba at E beam =65 MeV. The level schemes of 130,131 Ba have been extended by placing several new γ transitions. A few interband transitions connecting two negative-parity bands, which are the experimental fingerprints of signature partners, have been established in 130 Ba. Spin and parity of a side band have been assigned in 131 Ba and this dipole band is proposed to have a three-quasiparticle configuration, νh 11/2 x πh 11/2 x πg 7/2 . The observed band structures and nuclear shape evolution as a function of the angular momentum have been discussed in the light of Total-Routhian-Surface calculations. (orig.)

  6. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato de Andrade, C.

    2003-05-01

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  7. Hadronic Physics Studies at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroili, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new resonance Y(4260) with a mass of 4259 ± 8 -6 +2 MeV/c 2 and J PC = 1 -- , discovered by the BaBar experiment shows peculiar behavior in his decay mode. The Λ c + baryon mass has been measured, using its decays to ΛK S 0 K + and Σ 0 K S 0 K + , and its value is 2286.46 ± 0.14 MeV/c 2 , the precision is greatly improved w.r.t. PDG value. Ξ c 0 and (Omega) c 0 decays and production have been studied with results greatly improved w.r.t. PDG

  8. Revisiting the BaO2/BaO redox cycle for solar thermochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, A J; Sastre, D; Serrano, D P; Pizarro, P; Coronado, J M

    2016-03-21

    The barium peroxide-based redox cycle was proposed in the late 1970s as a thermochemical energy storage system. Since then, very little attention has been paid to such redox couples. In this paper, we have revisited the use of reduction-oxidation reactions of the BaO2/BaO system for thermochemical heat storage at high temperatures. Using thermogravimetric analysis, reduction and oxidation reactions were studied in order to find the main limitations associated with each process. Furthermore, the system was evaluated through several charge-discharge stages in order to analyse its possible degradation after repeated cycling. Through differential scanning calorimetry the heat stored and released were also determined. Oxidation reaction, which was found to be slower than reduction, was studied in more detail using isothermal tests. It was observed that the rate-controlling step of BaO oxidation follows zero-order kinetics, although at high temperatures a deviation from Arrhenius behaviour was observed probably due to hindrances to anionic oxygen diffusion caused by the formation of an external layer of BaO2. This redox couple was able to withstand several redox cycles without deactivation, showing reaction conversions close to 100% provided that impurities are previously eliminated through thermal pre-treatment, demonstrating the feasibility of this system for solar thermochemical heat storage.

  9. Strain induced optical properties of BaReO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumavat, Sandip R.; Kansara, Shivam; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh

    2018-05-01

    Here, we have performed strain induce optical properties of BaReO3 by using density functional theory (DFT). We noticed that after applying intrinsic and extrinsic strain to the BaReO3, it shows the metallic behavior. We also studied optical properties, which show good activity in the ultraviolet region. The results show that after applying intrinsic and extrinsic strain to BaReO3 the absorption peaks are shifted towards the high UV region of the spectrum. Thus, we concluded that, BaReO3 material with extrinsic strain can be useful for high frequency UV device and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Incorporation of Ba in Al and Fe pollucite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Eric R., E-mail: erv@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Gregg, Daniel J.; Griffiths, Grant J. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Gaugliardo, Paul R. [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Grant, Charmaine [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Ba, the transmutation product of radioactive Cs, can be incorporated at levels of up to ∼0.07 formula units in Cs{sub (1−2x)}Ba{sub x}AlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} aluminium pollucite formed by sol-gel methods and sintering at 1400 °C, with more Ba forming BaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} phases. The effect of Ba substitution in pollucite-structured CsFeSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} was also studied and no evidence of Ba substitution in the pollucite structure via cation vacancies or Fe{sup 2+} formation was obtained. The Ba entered a Fe-silicate glass structure. Charge compensation was also attempted with a Cs{sup +} + Fe{sup 3+} ↔ Ba{sup 2+} + Ni{sup 2+} scheme but again the Ba formed a glass and NiO was evident. PCT leaching data showed CsFeSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} to be very leach resistant. - Highlights: • Barium can be incorporated into aluminium pollucite. • Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy supports a charge vacancy mechanism of incorporation. • Iron pollucite does not appear to incorporate any barium with either vacancy or charge compensation mechanisms. • Leaching data suggest iron pollucite is very leach resistant.

  11. Syntheses and crystal structures of BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Jai; Beard, Jessica C.; Ibers, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Mesbah, Adel [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); ICSM-UMR 5257 CNRS/CEA/UM2/ENSCM, Bat 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2015-06-15

    Five new quaternary chalcogenides of the 1113 family, namely BaAgTbS{sub 3}, BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3}, were synthesized by the reactions of the elements at 1173-1273 K. For CsAgUTe{sub 3} CsCl flux was used. Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The sulfide BaAgTbS{sub 3} crystallizes in the BaAgErS{sub 3} structure type in the monoclinic space group C{sup 3},{sub 2h}-C2/m, whereas the tellurides BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and CsAgUTe{sub 3} crystallize in the KCuZrS{sub 3} structure type in the orthorhombic space group D{sup 1},{sub 2}{sup 7},{sub h}-Cmcm. The BaAgTbS{sub 3} structure consists of edge-sharing [TbS{sub 6}{sup 9-}] octahedra and [AgS{sub 5}{sup 9-}] trigonal pyramids. The connectivity of these polyhedra creates channels that are occupied by Ba atoms. The telluride structure features {sup 2}{sub ∞}[MLnTe{sub 3}{sup 2-}] layers for BaCuGdTe{sub 3}, BaCuTbTe{sub 3}, BaAgTbTe{sub 3}, and {sup 2}{sub ∞}[AgUTe{sub 3}{sup 1-}] layers for CsAgUTe{sub 3}. These layers comprise [MTe{sub 4}] tetrahedra and [LnTe{sub 6}] or [UTe{sub 6}] octahedra. Ba or Cs atoms separate these layers. As there are no short Q..Q (Q = S or Te) interactions these compounds achieve charge balance as Ba{sup 2+}M{sup +}Ln{sup 3+}(Q{sup 2-}){sub 3} (Q = S and Te) and Cs{sup +}Ag{sup +}U{sup 4+}(Te{sup 2-}){sub 3}. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Chemiluminescence from the reaction of Ba 3D with nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.A.; Solarz, R.W.; Dubrin, J.W.; Brotzmann, R.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction of laser excited Ba*( 3 D) states with nitric oxide is presented. BaO product is not detected, although the channel is thermodynamically open, and instead chemiluminescence is observed. Experiments which suggest that radiative recombination, Ba + NO → BaNO* → BaNO, is the observed reaction channel will also be presented

  13. Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions with BaO and MgO/BaO barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rogge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We succeed to integrate BaO as a tunneling barrier into Co2FeAl based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs. By means of Auger electron spectroscopy it could be proven that the applied annealing temperatures during BaO deposition and afterwards do not cause any diffusion of Ba neither into the lower Heusler compound lead nor into the upper Fe counter electrode. Nevertheless, a negative tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR ratio of -10% is found for Co2FeAl (24 nm / BaO (5 nm / Fe (7 nm MTJs, which can be attributed to the preparation procedure and can be explained by the formation of Co- and Fe-oxides at the interfaces between the Heusler and the crystalline BaO barrier by comparing with theory. Although an amorphous structure of the BaO barrier seems to be confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it cannot entirely be ruled out that this is an artifact of TEM sample preparation due to the sensitivity of BaO to moisture. By replacing the BaO tunneling barrier with an MgO/BaO double layer barrier, the electric stability could effectively be increased by a factor of five. The resulting TMR effect is found to be about +20% at room temperature, although a fully antiparallel state has not been realized.

  14. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the neutron-rich barium isotopes 139-146Ba and 148Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, K.; Ahmad, S.A.; Klempt, W.; Neugart, R.; Otten, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    The hyperfine structure and isotope shift in the 6s 2 S 1/2 -6p 2 P 3/2 line of Ba II (455.4 nm) have been measured by collinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy for the neutron-rich isotopes 139-146 Ba and 148 Ba. Nuclear moments and mean square charge radii of these isotopes have been recalculated. The isotope shift of the isotope 148 Ba (T 1/2 = 0.64 s) could be studied for the first time, yielding δ 2 > 138,148 = 1.245(3) fm 2 . (orig.)

  15. Effect of local environment on crossluminescence kinetics in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhin, M.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskij Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Makhov, V.N., E-mail: makhov@sci.lebedev.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskij Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedev, A.I.; Sluchinskaya, I.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Spectral and kinetic properties of extrinsic crossluminescence (CL) in SrF{sub 2}:Ba (1%) and CaF{sub 2}:Ba (1%) are compared with those of intrinsic CL in BaF{sub 2} and are analyzed taking into account EXAFS data obtained at the Ba L{sub III} edge and results of first-principles calculations. The CL decay time was revealed to be longer in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba compared to BaF{sub 2}. This fact contradicts the expected acceleration of luminescence decay which could result from an increased overlap of wave functions in solid solutions due to shortening of the Ba-F distance obtained in both EXAFS measurements and first-principles calculations. This discrepancy is explained by the effect of migration and subsequent non-radiative decay of the Ba (5p) core holes in BaF{sub 2} and by decreasing of the probability of optical transitions between Ba (5p) states and the valence band in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba predicted by first-principles calculations. - Highlights: • The crossluminescence kinetics in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba is slower than in BaF{sub 2}. • Ba{sup 2+} ions substitute for host Ca{sup 2+}(Sr{sup 2+}) ions in the on-center positions. • The nearest Ba-F distances in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba are shorter than in BaF{sub 2}. • EXAFS data and first-principles calculations of the local structure agree well. • First-principles calculations explain slower luminescence decay in solid solutions.

  16. A Dubious Distinction? The BA versus the BS in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, Rory A.; Norcross, John C.; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S.; Stamm, Karen E.; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented small differences between the bachelor of arts (BA) and the bachelor of science (BS) psychology degrees in their general education core requirements, particularly mathematics and science courses. But are there differences between the BA and BS degrees within the psychology curriculum? Using data from the…

  17. Intertextuality in Ba's So Long a Letter and Umunnakwe's Dear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality takes for granted the interdependence of literary texts because every artistic creation is a re-echoing of past knowledge. Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter and Ndubisi Umunnakwe's Dear Ramatoulaye are African examples. This work examines how Ba's So Long A Letter intertextualises with Umunnakwe's Dear ...

  18. Proton microbeam irradiation effects on PtBA polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microbeam irradiation effects on poly-tert-butyl-acrylate (PtBA) polymer using 2.0 MeV proton microbeam are reported. Preliminary results on pattern formation on PtBA are carried out as a function of fluence. After writing the pattern, a thin layer of Ge is deposited. Distribution of Ge in pristine and ion beam patterned surface ...

  19. Crystal structure of a new natural (Ba, Nb) silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamnova, N.A.; Pushcharovskii, D.Yu.; Voloshin, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The structure of a new mineral Ba 3 (Ti 1.2 Nb 4.8 ) Si 4 O 25.4 is determined (166 reflections, method of least squares in anisotropic approximation, R = 0.040). The crystallographic parameters are: a = 9.03(1), c = 7.868(6) angstrom, Z = 1, space group P anti 62m. Like the previously investigated synthetic analogs Ba 3 Si 4 Nb 6 O 26 , Ba 3 Si 4 Ti 6 O 23 , and Ba 3 Si 4 Ta 6 O 26 , the structure contains a mixed framework of octahedral columns of triangular section, bound to the diortho groups [Si 2 O 7 ], of which the cavities contain the Ba atoms

  20. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr.; Bhamu, K. C.; Sharma, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3 by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO_3 doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO_3 is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO_3 is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Marcondes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  2. Quality image analysis and radiation protection in dental radiodiagnosis in Sobral city, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Francisca L.; Ferreira, Fernanda C.L.; Paschoal, Cinthia M.M.; Belinato, Walmir

    2015-01-01

    The radiographic processing is one of the steps to acquire radiographic images and requires appropriate quality control. The image should allow an accurate diagnosis and avoid repetition of examinations, which is consistent with the principles of radiation protection. This study aimed to verify the quality of periapical radiographic imaging and to investigate the suitability of dental X-ray equipment on the principles of radiation protection established by the Health Ministry Decree 453/98, by applying radiation field test and application questionnaires to dentists professionals. The result showed that it takes greater care professionals about the treatment radiographic and radiation protection, requiring that inspection agencies require compliance with the rules so that there is maintaining the quality of dental diagnostic radiology services. (author)

  3. Radiometric age of granite from Campo Formoso, BA-Brazil - a minimum age for Jacobina group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.; Oliveira, M.A.F.T. de; Bartels, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Campo Formoso granite represents the magmatic phase of the remobilized Pre-Jacobina basement, located within an are defined by the Serra de Jacobina, north of Campo Formoso, Bahia. Intrusive relationships between this granite and the Jacobina Group metasediments, gradational changes in textures and compositions between the granite and basement rocks, and the general structural-topographic expression of this suggest a mantled gneiss dome model for this area. A RB/Sr whole rock isochron age of 1911 +- 13 m.y. for the Campo Formoso granite is established. This date is interpreted as the age of the development of the structure, as well as a minimum age for the Jacobina Group metasediments. K/Ar dates on muscovites from the Campo Formoso granite are concordant with the Rb/Sr isocron. It is suggested that a lower regional thermal gradient in the Campo Formoso area during Transamazonic time is the cause for a more rapid cooling environment. (Author) [pt

  4. Determination of natural radioactivity levels in sediments: Caravelas river, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, R.F.; Trindade Filho, O.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G. P., E-mail: rfcarmo@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: octavio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.br, E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Evangelista, H., E-mail: evangelista.uerj@gmail.com [Lab. de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais (LARAMG/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Due to intensive human activity in the region and disorderly occupation, the Caravelas River estuary has not yet evaluated the contribution of natural radioactivity. In order to determine the natural radioactivity levels in sediments, the activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, were calculated using a gamma spectrometry system for measuring the concentration of radiation in samples. Results for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K ranged from (18.03 to 191.51), (28.57 to 118.25) and (134.06 to 186.80) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, within of detection limits. The estimated uncertainty levels were less than 10% (k = 1). (author)

  5. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri C. C. Lima; Fagner R. Delfim; Gentil A. Pereira-Filho; Washington L. S. Vieira; Gindomar Gomes Santana; Kleber S. Vieira

    2008-01-01

    The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typ...

  6. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri C. C. Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typhlopidae, Chelidae, Testudinidae and Alligatoridae. Most of the recorded species presented wide geographic distribution, although some of them had distributions that were restricted to the Atlantic Forest. The species richness of Mata do Buraquinho is relatively high for an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest, and the observed anthropogenic impacts show the urgent necessity of conservation in order to guarantee the viability of populations of amphibians and reptiles.

  7. Determination of natural radioactivity levels in sediments: Caravelas river, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, R.F.; Trindade Filho, O.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Peixoto, J.G. P.; Evangelista, H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to intensive human activity in the region and disorderly occupation, the Caravelas River estuary has not yet evaluated the contribution of natural radioactivity. In order to determine the natural radioactivity levels in sediments, the activities of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K, were calculated using a gamma spectrometry system for measuring the concentration of radiation in samples. Results for "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K ranged from (18.03 to 191.51), (28.57 to 118.25) and (134.06 to 186.80) Bq.kg"-"1, respectively, within of detection limits. The estimated uncertainty levels were less than 10% (k = 1). (author)

  8. Geology and structural outline of the Lagoa Real Complex, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Cunha, Jose Carlos; Marinho, Moacir Moura; Noce, Carlos Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Complex is constituted by 1.7 Ga granitoids that occur along the Paramirim valley. The granitoids are formed by the Sao Timoteo Granite and a set of alkali-gneisses that were crystallized during a compressional sin-metamorphic deformation episode. The carried out structural analysis has identified two deformation patterns. The compressional episode is represented by shear zones, compositional layering, milonite foliation and folds. The extensional episode is characterized by the nucleation of normal shear zones. The geometric patterns of the finite deformation are similar to the ones that occur in the Ituacu synclinal where the Salitre e Bebedouro formations of Una Group outcrop. An ancient geometric pattern was not found in the area; consequently we propose that the deformation episodes were related to the neoproterozoic Orogeny. (author)

  9. Geologic and Geotechnical contributions to the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira mines projects, Lagoa Real, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognon, A.A.; Costanzo Junior, J.; Ojima, L.M.; Oliveira Braga, T. de; Mueller, M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures and systematics involved in obtaining basic geologic-geotechnical, geomechanical and hydrogeotechnical parameters to serve as an aid in the planning of mining activities for the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira deposists, located in the Lagoa Real uranium District, are presented and discussed. These deposits occur in the Caetite massif, composed mainly of Gneissic lithologies. The studies were performed in order to provide the essential elements for an initial Geologic-Geotechnical characterization of the massifs. (D.J.M.) [pt

  10. the Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To face the forecasted increase of 4 % of the Gross Domestic Product, it is necessary to increase the energy capacity installed in Brazil. The action at first planned on 10 to 20 years, is oriented today on a shorter period from 2001 to 2004. The program proposes investment of 43 milliards or Reals from which 32 will come from the private sector. This report takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the actions in favor of the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  11. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  12. Chalcogenidosilicates: Ba/sub 2/SiTe/sub 4/ and Ba/sub 2/SiSe/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, C; Eisenmann, B; Schaefer, H [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Anorganische Chemie und Kernchemie

    1985-05-01

    The new compounds Ba/sub 2/SiSe/sub 4/ and Ba/sub 2/SiTe/sub 4/ crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group: P2/sub 1//m (No. 11) with the lattice constants Ba/sub 2/SiSe/sub 4/: a = 918.4(5) pm, b = 703.3(3) pm, c = 687.2(3) pm, ..beta.. = 109.2(1)/sup 0/, Ba/sub 2/SiTe/sub 4/: a = 965.0(5) pm, b = 762.6(3) pm, c = 746.6(3) pm, ..beta.. = 108.9(1)/sup 0/. Both compounds are isotypic to the Sr/sub 2/GeS/sub 4/ structure. Ba/sub 2/SiTe/sub 4/ is the first o-telluridosilicate with discrete SiTe/sub 4//sup 4 -/ anions.

  13. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin. BRAZIL. Macapá. Manaus. São Paulo. Belém. Fortaleza. Recife. Salvador. Rio de Janeiro. Porto. Alegre. Brasilia. ✪. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. BOLIVIA. PERU. ECUADOR. COLOMBIA. VENEZUELA. CHILE. PARAGUAY. Atlantic Ocean. Pacific Ocean.

  14. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  15. Neutron radiography in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography studies being carried out in reactor centres in Brazil are discussed. These research projects are under way using the 5 MW swimming pool reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo and the Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) in Rio de Janeiro. (Auth.)

  16. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costamilan, L.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  17. Diabetes Care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Walmir F; Silva Júnior, Wellington Santana

    2015-01-01

    The diabetes epidemic affects most countries across the world and is increasing at alarming rates in Latin America. Nearly 12 million individuals have diabetes in Brazil, and the current prevalence ranges from 6.3% to 13.5%, depending on the region and the diagnostic criteria adopted in each study. To provide an overview of diabetes care in Brazil, focusing on studies of diabetes epidemiology, prevalence of patients within the standard targets of care, and economic burden of diabetes and its complications. SciELO and PubMed searches were performed for the terms "diabetes," "Brazil," "Brazilian," and "health system"; relevant literature from 1990 to 2015 was selected. Additional articles identified from reference list searches were also included. All articles selected were published in Portuguese and/or English. Recent studies detected a prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus of nearly 20%. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, almost 90% fail to reach target of glycemic control, with less than 30% receiving treatment for both hypertension and dyslipidemia. More than 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes are either overweight or obese. Most of these patients fail to reach glycemic targets (42.1%) and less than 30% reached the target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only 0.2% of patients reach all these anthropometric and metabolic targets. Brazil is the fourth country in the world in number of patients with diabetes. Regardless of the diabetes type, the majority of patients do not meet other metabolic control goals. The economic burden of diabetes and its complications in Brazil is extremely high, and more effective approaches for preventions and management are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. AT THE MARGINS OF ROADS AND JURUÁ’S HISTORY: AN ESSAY ON MBYÁ OCCUPATIONS IN THE GUAÍBA HYDROGRAPHIC AREA (STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Prates

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we seek to systematize historical and ethnographic informations about mbyá presence in the Guaíba hydrographic area (Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, taking into account the relations between indians and non-indians through the process of territorial configuration of Bacia Platina. This discussion is based on fieldwork, literature and primary sources about three contemporary mbyá occupations -- Petim, Passo Grande and Arroio do Conde.

  19. Nuclear spectroscopy of doubly-even130,132Ba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Gupta, Surbhi; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of some high-spin characteristic nuclear structure properties of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei has been made using two microscopic frameworks - CHFB and PSM. The yrast spectra, intrinsic quadrupole moment and deformation systematics of these nuclei have been successfully calculated. Further, the calculated data from both the frameworks is also compared with the available experimental data and a good agreement has been obtained. The present CHFB calculations describes very well the low spin structure of even-even 130,132Ba nuclei whereas PSM calculations provide a qualitative description of the high-spin band structure of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei.

  20. Processing of R-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.

    1998-01-01

    Precipitation processes were developed to introduce second phases as flux pinning centers in Gd-Ba-Cu-O and Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. In Gd-Ba-Cu-O, precipitation is caused by the decrease of the upper solubility limit of Gd 1+x Ba 2-x Cu 3 O 7 solid solution (Gd123ss) in low oxygen partial pressure. Processing of supersaturated Gd 1.2 Ba 1.8 Cu 3 O 7 in low oxygen partial pressure can produce dispersed second phases. Gd211 is formed as a separate phase while extensive Gd124 type stacking fault is formed instead of a separate CuO phase. As a result of the precipitation reaction, the transition temperature and critical current density are increased. In Nd-Ba-Cu-O, precipitation is caused by the decrease of the lower solubility limit of Nd 1+x Ba 2-x Cu 3 O 7 solid solution (Nd123ss) in oxygen. DTA results reveal the relative stability of Nd123ss in different oxygen partial pressures. In 1 bar oxygen partial pressure, Nd123ss with x = 0.1 is the most stable phase. In lower oxygen partial pressures, the most stable composition shifts towards the stoichiometric composition. The relative stability changes faster with decreasing oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, processing in oxygen and air tends to produce broad superconducting transitions but sharp transitions can be achieved in 0.01 bar and 0.001 bar oxygen partial pressures. While the lower solubility limits in 0.01 bar and 0.001 bar oxygen partial pressures remain at x = 0.00, the solubility limits in oxygen and air show a narrowing with decreasing temperature. Because of the narrowing of the solubility range in oxygen, oxygen annealing of Nd123 initially processed in low oxygen partial pressures will result in precipitation of second phases. The equilibrium second phase is BaCuO 2 for temperature above 608 C, and at lower temperatures the equilibrium second phases are Ba 2 CuO 3.3 and Ba 2 Cu 3 O 5+y . However, annealing at low temperature may produce a fine metastable transition phase. A coherent intermediate

  1. Syntheses, crystal structure, and electronic properties of the five ABaMQ{sub 4} compounds RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesbah, Adel [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); ICSM, UMR 5257 CEA / CNRS / UM / ENSCM, Site de Marcoule-Bâtiment 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Prakash, Jai [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Rocca, Dario; Lebègue, Sébastien [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique, et Modélisations CRM2 (UMR UHP-CNRS 7036), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Beard, Jessica C.; Lewis, Benjamin A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Ibers, James A., E-mail: ibers@chem.northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Five new compounds belonging to the ABaMQ{sub 4} family were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. The compounds RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4} are isostructural and have the TlEuPS{sub 4} structure type. They crystallize in space group D{sup 16}{sub 2h} – Pnma of the orthorhombic system. Their structure consists isolated MQ{sub 4} tetrahedra separated by A and Ba atoms to form a salt-like structure. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structures with the use of the HSE functional suggest that the compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps of 3.3 eV (RbBaPS{sub 4}), 3.4 eV (CsBaPS{sub 4}), 2.3 eV (CsBaVS{sub 4}), and 1.6 eV (RbBaVSe{sub 4}). - Graphical abstract: General view of the ABaMQ{sub 4} structure down the a axis. - Highlights: • Five new ABaMQ{sub 4} compounds were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. • RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4} have the TlEuPS{sub 4} structure type. • The compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps ranging from 1.6 to 3.4 eV.

  2. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  3. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  4. Ferroelectric relaxor Ba(TiCe)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ang; Zhi Jing; Yu Zhi

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric behaviour of Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 solid solutions (y=0-0.3) has been studied. A small amount of Ce doping (y=0.02) has weak influence on the dielectric behaviour of Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 . With increasing Ce concentration, three phase transitions of pure BaTiO 3 are pinched into one rounded dielectric peak with frequency dispersion, and the relaxation time follows the Vogel-Fulcher relation. The evolution from a normal ferroelectric to a ferroelectric relaxor is emphasized. High strains (S=∼0.1-0.19%) with a small hysteresis under ac fields are obtained in ferroelectric relaxors Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 . The physical mechanism of the relaxation process, the pinching effect of the phase transitions and their influence on the ferroelectric and electrostrictive behaviour are discussed. (author)

  5. Operability test report for 211BA flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This operability report will verify that the 211-BA flow proportional sampler functions as intended by design. The sampler was installed by Project W-007H and is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent stream

  6. Ba-bah on tulnud / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti noori disainereid-sisearhitekte ühendavast disainiagentuurist Ba-bah, selle eesmärgist. Agentuuri juhib Veiko Jääger. Mais 2005 Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigaleriis toimunud Ba-bahi avanäitusest, kus oli väljas töid EKA sisearhitektuuri, klaasi-, ehte- ja sepakunsti eriala üliõpilastelt ning metallmööbli valmistajalt Kalle Pruudenilt

  7. Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in the Dukuduku coastal forest Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) MA CHO, P DEBBA, R MATHIEU, A RAMOELO, L NAIDOO, H VAN DEVENTER, O MALAHLELA AND R MAIN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa PO Box 395... Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) programme is designed to enhance biodiversity assessment and conservation through the application of earth observation data, with particular focus on the African continent. MISSION To initiate and develop...

  8. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  9. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  10. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of BaWO{sub 4} and Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, Angela M., E-mail: acapece@pppl.gov [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Shepherd, Joseph E. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • XPS reference spectra for Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and BaWO{sub 4} are presented. • Binding energies of Ba 3d and W 4f lines are 0.7 eV higher for BaWO{sub 4} than Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6}. • Ca 2p spectrum contains two sets of Ca 2p doublets attributed to Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and CaCO{sub 3}. - Abstract: XPS reference spectra for Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and BaWO{sub 4} are presented, including high resolution spectra of the Ba 3d, W 4f, C 1s, Ca 2p, and O 1s lines. The peak locations and full widths at half maximum are also given. The binding energies of the Ba 3d and W 4f lines are 0.7 eV higher for BaWO{sub 4} than for Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6}. The Ca 2p spectrum contains two sets of Ca 2p doublets that were attributed to Ba{sub 2}CaWO{sub 6} and CaCO{sub 3}.

  11. Thermochemical investigations into the system Y-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuschuetz, D.; Zimmermann, E.; Hack, K.; Boudene, A.; Mohammad, A.

    1992-01-01

    For a consistent thermodynamic description of the quaternary system Y-Ba-Cu-O, the binary and ternary subsystems must be known. The metallic binaries and the ternary system Y-Ba-Cu have been evaluated by the authors. Discrepancies within the Cu-O system made a thorough experimental re-investigation necessary, leading to a new consistent thermodynamic data set for copper-oxygen which can now serve as a basis for the description of phase equilibria of all high temperature superconductors. Extensive experimental work on the ternaries Y-Cu-O and Ba-Cu-O, which are oxygen partial pressure dependent, revealed liquid phases down to 790degC. The ternary Y-Ba-O could be described more easily on the basis of literature values and present experimental results, because it does not contain any liquid phases at relevant temperatures. The representation of the quaternary Y-Ba-Cu-O is complicated both by its dependence on the oxygen potential and the existence of liquid oxide phases. In contrast to common practice, the present investigations had to start from Cu-free Ba-Y-O in order to avoid unknown liquid phases in the experiments. The present results being insufficient for a complete description of the quaternary system, the work is being continued within an EC joint research project. (orig.) With 84 refs., 8 tabs., 47 figs [de

  12. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  13. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Reigosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a solid justification, and typically make use of target species that do not co-exist with the donor species under natural conditions. We also found that most studies do not take the additional steps in order to purify and identify the bioactive molecules. We recommend that further studies be conducted in order to explore the potential of plant biodiversity in Brazil. Such studies could lead to the development of new molecular structures (allelochemicals that could be used in the control of pests and weeds, thereby reducing the use of the harmful synthetic herbicides that are currently being widely employed.

  14. CONTRAST STUDY ON CT AND BA IN DIAGNOSIS OF PATIENTS WITH ATHEROTHROMBOTIC BRAIN INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshun Liu; Haixiang Gao; Xiaomei Fu; Po Ma

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To explore applied value on CT and BA in diagnosis of patients with atherothrombotic brain infarction. Methods:CT and BA were examined in 246 patients with atherothrombotic brain infarction. Results:The different change of CT and BA were showed in 246 patients with atherothrombotic brain infarction. Conclusions: There were separately different advantage and shortcoming in CT and BA in diagnosis of atherothrombotic brain infarction. The value of clinical application of BA was important in diagnosis of atherothrombotic brain infarction.

  15. Nuclear charge radii and nuclear moments of neutron deficient Ba isotopes from high resolution laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, G.; Bekk, K.; Goering, S.; Hanser, A.; Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1978-07-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the BaI 6s 2 1 S 0 -6s6p 1 P 1 transitions (lambda = 553.6 nm) in neutron deficient Ba nuclides (N 131 Ba, 128 Ba, in addition to remeasurements of all stable Ba nuclides. The extracted values of delta 2 >, the observed odd-even staggering and the nuclear moments are discussed in the light of other theoretical and experimental nuclear structure studies of the region 50 [de

  16. Contribuição ao estudo da circulação e do transporte de volume da corrente do Brasil entre o Cabo de São Tomé e a Baía de Guanabara Contribution to the studies of transport and circulation of the Brazil current in the are a between Cabo de São Tomé and Guanabara Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R Signorini

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Tal estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a velocidade e o transporte de volume da Corrente do Brasil, no seu trecho entre Cabo de São Tomé e Cabo Frio, fazendo uso do calculo geostrofico aplicado às secções amostradas durante os cruzeiros de abril e julho de 1970 e de julho de 1973. Foram localizados dois vórtices anticiclônicos, um durante o período de abril de 1970 e o outro durante julho de 1973. O valor máximo de velocidade da corrente na superfície foi de aproximadamente 70 cm/s e o transporte de volume foi de 14 x 10(6 m³/s. Foi possível também confirmar a existência de um meandro da Corrente do Brasil através da utilização de uma secção de BT (batitermografo mecânico associada a um registro contínuo de salinidade e de temperatura obtido com um termosalinografo.During the periods of April, July, 1970 and July, 1973, océanographic cruises were conducted in order to investigate the variability of the Brazil Current in the region between Cabo de Sao Tomé and Guanabara Bay. The geostrophic model of ocean circulation was applied using the hydrographie data collected during the cruise. From this study, a maximum velocity of 70 cm/sec and a volume trans port of 14 x 10(6 m³/sec were reported. The dynamic topography with reference to the 500 db surface, showed the presence of anticyclonic eddies during the periods of April, 1970, and July, 1973. The thermohaline structure within a meander of the Brazil Current is also presented utilizing the data coming from a continuous salinity and temperature recorder in conection with the data coming from a simultaneous BT section.

  17. Metaplasia mieloide do baço na Ancilostomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1934-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquizamos, no figado e baço de dez casos puros de ancilostomose, elementos hemocitopoieticos; verificamos o peso do baço em 23 casos de individuos com idades compreendidas entre 3 e 60 anos; não encontramos, em nenhum caso, celulas hemoformadoras no figado. Em sete casos, encontramos, no baço, elementos da série vermelha em adiantado estado de evolução (eritroblastos ortocromaticos de nucleo picnotico. Em alguns destes casos observamos megacariocitos e numerosos mielocitos eosinofilos. Os tres casos que não apresentavam metaplasia mieloide no baço, eram os de individuos acima de 50 anos de idade. Entretanto, em outro caso de um individuo com 59 anos esta metaplasia foi verificada. Em individuos acima de 20 anos, o peso médio do baço, em nove casos, mostrou-se igual ao peso normal. Em 14 casos, compreendidos entre 3 e 14 anos, o peso deste orgão foi sempre sensivelmente mais elevado que nos normais de idade correspondente. Estes resultados sugerem a possibilidade de ser a metaplasia mieloide responsavel pelos aumentos de pezo nos baços de individuos jovens, vitimados pela anemia ancilostomica. A notavel proliferação dos eritroblastos ortocromaticos mostra que o grão e a rapidez da regeneração sanguinea, após a administração de ferro, são devidos, essencialmente, á grande quantidade de hemoglobina já preformada no baço e na medula ossea dos organismos ancilostomados.

  18. Long-term evolution of denudational escarpments in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherem, Luis Felipe Soares; Varajão, Cesar Augusto C.; Braucher, Regis; Bourlés, Didier; Salgado, André Augusto R.; Varajão, Angélica C.

    2012-11-01

    Topographic relief in southeastern Brazil consists of a sequence of stepped surfaces that formed after the fragmentation of Gondwana during the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary tectonic pulses. This region is drained by four major rivers within four major river basins, with interfluves that contain denudational escarpments, fault escarpments and mountain ranges. This study presents an analysis of the long-term evolution of two denudational escarpments, the Cristiano Otoni and the São Geraldo steps, which divide the river basins of the São Francisco, Doce and Paraíba do Sul rivers in southeastern Brazil. Denudation rates were obtained through the measurement of mean concentrations of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in sand-sized fluvial quartz sediments collected from granitic terrains. The rates were calculated and compared with one another and correlated to the basin-scale mean relief, slope, area, and stream power. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo highlands are 8.77 (± 2.78) m My- 1 and 15.68 (± 4.53) m My- 1, respectively. The mean denudation rates of the Cristiano Otoni and São Geraldo escarpments are 17.50 (± 2.71) m My- 1 and 21.22 (± 4.24) m My- 1, respectively. The denudation rates of the catchments of highlands that drain toward the escarpments are similar to those of their respective highlands. The results demonstrate that relief and slope have similar positive control on the denudation rates for all of the samples despite their different geomorphic context and history of landscape evolution. The São Francisco River Basin is losing area to the Doce River Basin, which, in turn, is losing area to the Paraíba do Sul River Basin.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of the Ceratiomyxales (Myxomycetes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Order Ceratiomyxales, which belongs to subclass Ceratiomyxomycetidae, includes the exospore bearing Myxomycetes, solely comprising family Ceratiomyxaceae and genus Ceratiomyxa, with four species. Based on the literature, on herbarium collections, and on recent surveys carried out by the authors in different states and ecosystems, it was possible to determine the occurrence and distribution of C. fruticulosa (cosmopolitan,C. morchella and C. sphaerosperma (predominantly tropical or subtropical in northeastern Brazil. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as a map of their geographical distribution in eight of the nine states of Northeast Brazil. This order is being recorded for the first time for the state of Sergipe. Ceratiomyxa morchella and C. sphaerosperma are being cited for the first time for the state of Paraíba.A ordem Ceratiomyxales, pertencente à subclasse Ceratiomyxomycetidae, reúne os representantes exosporados dos Myxomycetes, compreendendo apenas a família Ceratiomyxaceae e o gênero Ceratiomyxa, com quatro espécies. Com base na literatura, coleções de herbário e coletas recentes realizadas pelos autores em diferentes estados e ecossistemas, foi possível estabelecer a ocorrência e distribuição na região Nordeste do Brasil de C. fruticulosa, cosmopolita, C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma, predominantemente tropicais ou subtropicais. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações das espécies, bem como mapa de distribuição geográfica em oito dos nove estados situados no Nordeste do país. A ordem está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o estado de Sergipe. C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma constituem primeira referência para o estado da Paraíba.

  20. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, H

    1996-01-01

    Prior to the successful, low-cost, multimedia campaigns of GAPA-Bahia (GAPA-BA), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), campaigns to educate people about HIV, AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were produced by the Brazilian National AIDS/STD Program. Their first campaign, in 1990, focused on fear; their second, in 1995, known as the Braulio campaign, targeted poor men with little education via a conversation between a man and his penis "which had its own will power, opinions about condoms, and a compulsion to have sex." Both campaigns failed. GAPA-BA, in 1990, joined the chorus protesting the campaigns; the NGO believed the messages failed because 1) frightening people drives them away from information and 2) frequent association of AIDS with death is depressing and carries a subliminal message of guilt to those infected. GAPA-BA became the first NGO to produce low-cost, multimedia campaigns nationwide. They focused on "the social responsibility of fighting the disease while emphasizing the value of life and individual sexual freedom." The first campaign, in 1993 and in 1994, used charismatic singers to send short messages encouraging individual responsibility in condom use. The second campaign, in 1995, used "elements from the local culture by affirming the Afro-Bahain heritage expressed in popular music and dance." The light-hearted prevention message during Carnival was "Don't hide from pleasure, avoid AIDS" as a condom was inflated. The 1996 campaign ("Don't rely on luck; use a condom") required five newspaper ads, radio spots, TV ads, 25,000 posters, billboards, and ads on public buses. Five HIV-infected or HIV-affected persons spoke about their lives. This was the first time people living with HIV/AIDS took on educational roles and shed their dangerous and frightening stereotypes. The campaigns are sponsored by donors or remain low in cost because community-based organizations have sensitized other social actors who respond through the community

  1. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  2. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Palhares, L.C.; Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Parotocinclus seridoensis, a new hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the upper rio Piranhas-Açu basin, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telton Pedro A. Ramos

    Full Text Available A new species of Parotocinclus is described from the upper rio Piranhas-Açu basin, northeastern Brazil. The new species differs from all its congeners, except P. bidentatus, P. muriaensis (both from rio Paraíba do Sul basin, southeastern Brazil, and P. spilurus (rio Jaguaribe basin, northeastern Brazil by presenting the adipose fin rudimentary or absent. The new species differs from P. bidentatus, P. muriaensis, and P. spilurus mainly by presenting the abdomen region extensively naked, with few reduced rounded dermal platelets between the pectoral girdle and the anus. Parotocinclus seridoensis is probably an endemic species of the semi-arid Caatinga, region where the genus presents high species richness.

  4. Petrology of Terra Nova pluton, Brazil, and associated ultrapotassic dykes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, A.F. da; Thompson, R.N.; Leat, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Upper Precambrian Terra Nova Pluton, situated 550 Km inland from Recife, Brazil, is 220 Km 2 in area and intrudes deformed metasedimentary rocks of the Pianco-Alto Brigida Mobile Belt. The Pluton shows complex petrological relationships. It consists of subalkaline quartz-monzonites and quartz-syenites, and the major minerals are K-feldspars, albite, hornblende, and quartz. The pluton is intermediate in composition (SiO 2 = 58.9-65.6 wt%, MgO=0.9-3.7 wt%) and is dominantly potassic (K 2 O=3.3-5.6 wt %; K 2 O/Na 2 O=0.9-1.8). Ba (up to 2.300 ppm) and Sr (up to 1,100 ppm) are abundant in the rocks, and LREE are enriched relative to HREE (La N /Lu N = 25.6-43.2). There is no significant Eu Anomaly. Rounded autoliths within the pluton are similar, but more mafic in composition (SiO 2 =54.6-57.5 wt %; MgO=4.9-6.4 wt %). A suite of dykes cut pluton and the surrounding country rocks. These dykes are varied in composition, encompassing most of the chemical range shown by the pluton and associated autoliths. The dykes are holocrystalline, peralkaline, and strongly enriched in both K 2 O(K 2 O=5.3-11.4 wt %) and Ba (Ba=2,400 ppm-10,500 ppm), which are considered to be magmatic abundances. The dykes have similar REE and other trace elements and ratios to the autoliths and plutonic rocks, and the dykes and the pluton are thought to be chemically related. The Terra Nova Pluton records the fractionation of mantle-derived ultrapotassic magma from mafic to intermediate compositions. (author) [pt

  5. Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Souza Machado Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O hábito de fumar em geral se inicia na adolescência. No Brasil, as estimativas da freqüência deste hábito entre adolescentes variam de 1% até 35%. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo entre os adolescentes da oitava série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do curso médio, em escolas de Salvador - Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODO: Feito um estudo do tipo corte transversal de caráter exploratório. Foram aplicados 3.500 questionários a alunos matriculados entre a 8ª série do ensino fundamental e a 3ª série do ensino médio, em cinco escolas da região metropolitana de Salvador (BA. Análise estatística: medidas descritivas e de associação (razão de prevalência e o teste t de Student e o do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre adolescentes de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, considerando-se os 3.180 questionários válidos, sendo maior no sexo masculino (14% que no feminino (6%. À medida que aumentava a idade, elevava-se essa prevalência. A média de idade do início do tabagismo foi de 14 ± 2 anos. Dentre adolescentes, 46% experimentaram o cigarro e 20% destes continuaram fumando. Entre filhos de fumantes a freqüência foi maior. O número médio de cigarros consumidos por dia pelos adolescentes que fumavam diariamente (n = 132 foi de 7 ± 6, sendo maior no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do tabagismo em uma amostra selecionada de adolescentes escolares de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, sendo maior entre os indivíduos do sexo masculino. A experimentação e a influência dos pais foram associadas ao tabagismo nos adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were

  6. LDC nuclear power: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.

    1982-01-01

    Brazil has been expanding its nuclear power since 1975, following the Bonn-Brasilia sales agreement and the 1974 denial of US enriched uranium, in an effort to develop an energy mix that will reduce dependence and vulnerability to a single energy source or supplier. An overview of the nuclear program goes on to describe domestic non-nuclear alternatives, none of which has an adequate base. The country's need for transfers of capital, technology, and raw materials raises questions about the advisability of an aggressive nuclear program in pursuit of great power status. 33 references

  7. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  8. Operability test procedure for 211BA flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this operability test procedure (OTP) is to verify the 211-BA flow proportional sampler system and components function correctly as intended by design. System test will include the sampling system, all associated instrumentation, and Facility Process Monitor and Control System (FPMCS). The combined chemical sewer stream from B Plant flows through sump 211BA-SMP-01 located in 211-BA and is continuously monitored for gamma and beta radiation and pH. 211-BA has been upgraded to include a flow proportional sampler. A specified sample volume will be withdrawn at programmed intervals from the 211BA sump and deposited in a 19 liter plastic carboy. The sampler will be programmed per the vendor installation and operations manual by B Plant instrument maintenance personnel. Samples will be taken during five consecutive sample cycles with the sample volumes and sample frequencies recorded for comparison purposes. Additional tests related to the sampler include the alarm circuitry for loss of power and failure to obtain sample

  9. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr., E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University, Lucknow-229001, U.P India (India); Bhamu, K. C. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Goa-403 206 (India); Sharma, Ramesh, E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Feroze Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Raebareli-229001, U.P India (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3} by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO{sub 3} doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO{sub 3} is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO{sub 3} is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  10. An approach to WWER fuels with BaCo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.; Demarco, G.

    2008-01-01

    BaCo is a code for the simulation of the behaviour of a nuclear fuel rod under operation conditions. BaCo, a quasi 2D code based on a finite differences scheme, has been used for simulating PHWR, CANDU, PWR, BWR, MOX, WWER, and experimental fuel rods. We improve the performance of BaCo with a set of tools based on the method of finite elements for 3D analysis of the stress-strain state. We can simulate any UO 2 pellet geometry. Standard WWER-440 fuel assemblies irradiated in the Kola-3 reactor of the CRP FUMEX II of the IAEA were the first WWER simulations with BaCo. We find a very good agreement among our calculations, the experimental results and other qualified fuel codes. We present the BaCo code and our results for PWR and WWER fuels of the CRP FUMEX II, the 3D analysis of WWER fuel pellet and the projections of these results with the Argentinean nuclear fuels development. (authors)

  11. Tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba: estudo retrospectivo Bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba: retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão M. Figueiredo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a frequência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais positivos para a tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba. Foram utilizados dados da Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado, coletados de suas 23 microrregiões, durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a julho de 2009. Durante esse período, foram examinadas 10.963 propriedades e 54.472 bovinos foram submetidos ao teste de tuberculinização. Para o diagnóstico foi utilizada, como prova de triagem, a tuberculinização cervical simples para gado de leite e a tuberculinização na prega caudal para gado de corte; como prova confirmatória foi utilizada a tuberculinização cervical comparativa. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das propriedades investigadas, 62 (0,57% apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo e dos animais analisados, 136 (0,25% foram positivos. Houve diferença significativa (pThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency of positive herds (foci and positive animals for bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba, Northeast region of Brazil. Data from the Agency of Agricultural Protection in the state, collected from its 23 microregions, during the January 2008 to July 2009 period, were used. During this period, 10,963 herds were examined and 54,472 cattle were submitted to the tuberculin test. For diagnosis the cervical and caudal-fold tuberculin tests were used as screening tests in dairy and beef cattle, respectively; as confirmatory test, comparative cervical test was used. A herd was considered focus when presented at least one positive animal. Of the herds investigated, 62 (0.57% had at least one positive animal, and of the animals examined, 136 (0.25% were positive. There was significant difference (p<0.001 in the proportion of positivity for females (0.32% and males (0.04%. Despite low frequency of foci of brucellosis and seropositive animals, it is

  12. Magnetic expression of the Transbrasiliano Lineament, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotti, R. M.; Curto, J. B.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Roig, H. L.; Almeida, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Transbrasiliano lineament is a continental-sized discontinuity exposed between the Amazonian craton and the eastern portion of the South American Platform. It is over 3,000 km long, extending from northern Paraguay, across the Tocantins Province and the Phanerozoic Paraná and Parnaíba basins, down to the Ceará Atlantic coast. In the context of West Gondwana, this large continental structure extends to the African continent along the 4o30 lineament. Its NE-SW preferential trend is marked by strong magnetic anomalies at the crustal level and by low velocity zones of S waves within the mantle, suggesting lithosphere thinning. On the surface the Transbrasiliano lineament translates as aligned drainage and ridges in the continental relief, and is comprised of a set of N20-50E Late Neoproterozoic ductile right-lateral shear zones, brittlely reactivated during the Mesozoic. Different interpretations were forwarded along the years, suggesting that the lineament represents a mega-suture active during Gondwana Supercontinent amalgamation, in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, or seeing the strike-slip ductile faults as the result of shearing related with post-collision stages of the Brasiliano orogeny. Fault reactivation is believed to have controlled graben formation, sediment accumulation and magmatism of the Jaibaras basin in NW Ceará, as well as the establishing of depocentres within the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, influencing also sedimentation at the Atlantic coast. Although a direct link with the lineament has not been established, nearby areas are the site of seismic activity, mainly in NW Ceará and close to the Goiás-Tocantins border in central Brazil. The lineament is covered by aeromagnetic surveys collected over decades. Qualitative interpretation of magnetic and remote sensing data shows that the Transbrasiliano lineament is comprised of a system of ductile shear zones, forming parallel sets of faults penetrating below the large Paraná and

  13. Metal concentrations in surface sediments of Paraiba do Sul River (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.O.; Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; UERJ, Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Paraiba do Sul River is located in a strategic region between the most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil. In the last years, an increase in the water pollution has been reported, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction from the riverbed. This work used total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) to determine metals in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediments. The metals identified were Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. (author)

  14. Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Viana, Thércia Guedes; Peixoto, Eliane R de M; Barros, Fabiana C R de; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Perini, Edson

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009) were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug in Brazil was conducted. Five companies were granted a permission to market unfractioned heparin in Brazil. Three of them are porcine in origin and two of them are bovine in origin, with only one explicitly showing this information in the package insert. The effectiveness and safety of heparin studied in non-Brazilian populations may not represent the Brazilian reality, since most countries no longer produce bovine heparin. The currently marketed heparin has approximately 10% less anticoagulant activity than that previously produced and this change may have clinical implications. Evidence about the lack of dose interchangeability between bovine and porcine heparins and the unique safety profile of these drugs indicates the need to follow the treatment and the patients' response. Events threatening the patient's safety must be reported to the pharmacovigilance system in each particular country.

  15. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  16. Thin film hybrid Josephson junctions with Co doped Ba-122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Doering, Sebastian; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Grosse, Veit; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Iida, Kazumasa; Kurth, Fritz; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Moench, Ingolf [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Integrative Nanowissenschaften, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Josephson junctions are a strong tool to investigate fundamental superconducting properties, such as gap behaviour, dependencies from external fields and the order parameter symmetry. Finding secure values enables the possibility of theoretical descriptions to understand the physical processes within the new iron-based superconductors. Based on Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ba-122) layers produced via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O{sub 3} substrates, we manufactured superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor (S-N-S) junctions structures by using photolithography, ion beam etching as well as insulating SiO{sub 2} layers. We present working Ba-122/Au/PbIn thin film Josephson junctions with different contact areas and barrier thicknesses, their temperature dependence and response to microwave irradiation. The calculated I{sub c}R{sub N} product is in the range of a couple of microvolts.

  17. The BaBar instrumented flux return performance: lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, F; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Brau, J E; Brigljevic, V; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Eichenbaum, A; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, F; Frey, R; Gatto, C; Graug; Iakovlev, N I; Iwasaki, M; Johnson, J R; Lange, D J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lü, C; Macri, M; Messner, R; Moore, T B; Morganti, S; Neal, H; Neri, N; Palano, A; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piredda, G; Robutti, E; Roodman, A; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Sinev, N B; Soha, A; Strom, D; Tosi, S; Vavra, J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has operated an instrumented flux return (IFR) system covering over 2000 m sup 2 with resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for nearly 3 years. The chambers are constructed of bakelite sheets separated by 2 mm. The inner surfaces are coated with linseed oil. This system provides muon and neutral hadron detection for BaBar. Installation and commissioning were completed in 1998, and operation began mid-year 1999. While initial performance of the system reached design, over time, a significant fraction of the RPCs demonstrated significant degradation, marked by increased currents and reduced efficiency. A coordinated effort of investigations have identified many of the elements responsible for the degradation. This article presents our current understanding of the aging process of the BaBar RPCs along with the action plan to combat performance degradation of the IFR system.

  18. Growth and scintillation properties of BaMgF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Furuya, Yuki; Kamada, Kei; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Chani, Valery

    2010-01-01

    By using the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method, the barium magnesium fluoride (BaMgF 4 ) single crystalline scintillator was produced. The crystal was cut and mirror polished to the physical dimensions of 1x2x10 mm 3 for examination of scintillation properties. BaMgF 4 demonstrated ∼70% transmittance in wavelength range above 170 nm, and strong emission peaking around 205 nm was observed under X-ray excitation. The absolute light yield of BaMgF 4 was 1300±100 ph/MeV, and the decay time profile showed two components as 0.57±0.01 (70%) and 2.2±0.31 (30%) ns at room temperature.

  19. Synthesis of BaTiO3 nanoparticles from TiO2-coated BaCO3 particles derived using a wet-chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Mochizuki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BaCO3 particles coated with amorphous TiO2 precursor are prepared by a wet chemical method to produce BaTiO3 nanoparticles at low temperatures. Subsequently, we investigate the formation behavior of BaTiO3 particles and the particle growth behavior when the precursor is subjected to heat treatment. The state of the amorphous TiO2 coating on the surface of BaCO3 particles depends on the concentration of NH4HCO3, and the optimum concentration is found to be in the range 0.5–1.0 M. Thermogravimetric curves of the BaCO3 particles coated with the TiO2 precursor, prepared from BaCO3 particles of various sizes, show BaTiO3 formation occurring mainly at 550–650 °C in the case of fine BaCO3 particles. However, as evidenced from the curves, the temperature of formation of BaTiO3 shifts to higher values with an increase in the size of the BaCO3 particles. The average particle size of single phase BaTiO3 at heat-treatment temperature of 650–900 °C is observed to be in the range 60–250 nm.

  20. The interaction of NO2 with BaO: from cooperative adsorption to Ba(NO3)2 formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Cheol-Woo W.; Kwak, Ja Hun H.; Szanyi, Janos

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water on the morphology of BaO/Al2O3-based NOx storage materials was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of this multi-spectroscopy study reveal that, in the presence of water, surface Ba-nitrates convert to bulk nitrates, and water facilitates the formation of large Ba(NO3)2 particles. The conversion of surface to bulk Ba-nitrates is completely reversible, i.e. after the removal of water from the storage material a significant fraction of the bulk nitrates re-convert to surface nitrates. NO2 exposure of a H2O-containing (wet) BaO/Al2O3 sample results in the formation of nitrites and bulk nitrates exclusively, i.e. no surface nitrates form. After further exposure to NO2, the nitrites completely convert to bulk nitrates. The amount of NOx taken up by the storage material is, however, essentially unaffected by the presence of water, regardless of whether the water was dosed prior to or after NO2 exposure. Based on the results of this study we are now able to explain most of the observations reported in the literature on the effect of water on NOx uptake on similar storage materials

  1. Scintillation and radiation damage of doped BaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zufang; Xu Zizong; Chang Jin

    1992-01-01

    The emission spectra and the radiation damage of BaF 2 crystals doped Ce and Dy have been studied. The results indicate that the doped BaF 2 crystals have the intrinsic spectra of impurity besides the intrinsic spectra of BaF 2 crystals. The crystals colored and the transmissions decrease with the concentration of impurity in BaF 2 crystals after radiation by γ-ray of 60 Co. The doped Ce BaF 2 irradiated by ultraviolet has faster recover of transmissions but for doped Dy the effect is not obvious. The radiation resistance is not good as pure BaF 2 crystals

  2. Analysis of Behavior of Vegetation in the Year of 2016 for the Municipality of Remanso- BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Farias de Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are a natural problem in the Northeastern Brazilian region, in addition the rainfall distribution poorly distributed spatially and temporally results in seasonal changes in the surface vegetation. Consequently, the monitoring and evaluation of vegetation in the northeast region of Brazil has become increasingly constant. For this evaluation several techniques are used, but the use of environmental satellites is increasingly applied, such as the Landsat 8 satellite, where the products generated for the calculation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were used. In this circumstance, the objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetation behavior through the NDVI and to analyze the interaction of the same with the occurrence of precipitation in the municipality of Remanso-BA throughout the year 2016. For the calculation and elaboration of the thematic maps of NDVI were respectively, the software Erdas 9.2 and Qgis 2.14.2. In the study, 11 images of the Landsat 8 satellite corresponding to orbit 218 and quadrant 067 were used. The results showed high NDVI values in the rainy season, while in the dry season the values were lower, a significant reduction occurred during the year in the area Of body of water in which is the Lago de Sobradinho. It was also evident the decrease of dense vegetation in the first months of the year and the increase of areas devoid of vegetation due to lack of rain. However, the variations of NDVI were due to the occurrence of precipitation over the period studied

  3. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  4. Rates of pulmonary infection by pentastomids in lizards species from a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Santana, G G; Vieira, W L S; Wanderley, I C; Ribeiro, S C

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary parasitism by pentastomids was examined in two lizard species inhabiting an area of restinga vegetation (coastal sand dunes) situated in the municipality of Mataraca (6 degrees 29' S and 34 degrees 56' W), on the extreme northern coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 123 lizards were collected, being 75 specimens of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Gymnophtalmidae) and 48 specimens of Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae). Only a single species of Pentastomida (Raillietiella mottae) was found parasitizing three females M. maximiliani, with a prevalence of 4% and an average infection intensity of 2.3 +/- 1.3 (range 1-5). The infection rate by pentastomids encountered in the present study was similar to that seen with other species of restinga lizards. Raillietiella mottae is a generalist parasite species that is probably transmitted by common and widely distributed insects making up part of the diet of many insectivorous lizard species from northeastern Brazil.

  5. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  6. Development of BaSO4:Eu thermoluminescence phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusoodanan, U.; Jose, M.T.; Lakshmanan, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    A highly sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor based on BaSO 4 :Eu was developed following the coprecipitation technique and firing in argon atmosphere at 1123 K. Photoluminescence studies confirm that firing in argon atmosphere instead of air increased the incorporation of Eu ions in 2+ valence state. At low γ-ray doses, its TL sensitivity is nearly 2 to 3 times higher than that of CaSO 4 :Dy phosphor. The other salient features of this BaSO 4 :Eu TL phosphor are a constant glow curve shape and a nearly linear γ-ray dose response

  7. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  8. Development of BaSO sub 4 :Eu thermoluminescence phosphor

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusoodanan, U; Lakshmanan, A R

    1999-01-01

    A highly sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor based on BaSO sub 4 :Eu was developed following the coprecipitation technique and firing in argon atmosphere at 1123 K. Photoluminescence studies confirm that firing in argon atmosphere instead of air increased the incorporation of Eu ions in 2+ valence state. At low gamma-ray doses, its TL sensitivity is nearly 2 to 3 times higher than that of CaSO sub 4 :Dy phosphor. The other salient features of this BaSO sub 4 :Eu TL phosphor are a constant glow curve shape and a nearly linear gamma-ray dose response.

  9. Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga2O3-Ta2O5 system and the structure of Ba6Ga21TaO40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiang; Yu, Xiaodi; Kuang, Xiaojun; Su, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) ternary system at 1200 °C were determined. The A(6)B(10)O(30) tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) related solution in the BaO-Ta(2)O(5) subsystem dissolved up to ~11 mol % Ga(2)O(3), forming a ternary trapezoid-shaped TTB-related solid solution region defined by the BaTa(2)O(6), Ba(1.1)Ta(5)O(13.6), Ba(1.58)Ga(0.92)Ta(4.08)O(13.16), and Ba(6)GaTa(9)O(30) compositions in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Two ternary phases Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) and eight-layer twinned hexagonal perovskite solid solution Ba(8)Ga(4-x)Ta(4+0.6x)O(24) were confirmed in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) crystallized in a monoclinic cell of a = 15.9130(2) Å, b = 11.7309(1) Å, c = 5.13593(6) Å, β = 107.7893(9)°, and Z = 1 in space group C2/m. The structure of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was solved by the charge flipping method, and it represents a three-dimensional (3D) mixed GaO(4) tetrahedral and GaO(6)/TaO(6) octahedral framework, forming mixed 1D 5/6-fold tunnels that accommodate the Ba cations along the c axis. The electrical property of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was characterized by using ac impedance spectroscopy.

  10. Perceptions of termites in urban areas of semiarid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avany Bezerra Gusmão

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p117 Perception of termites in urban areas of semiarid Brazil. Termites are present in the daily life of most people, although they usually evoke a sense of strong dislike, especially in populations of urban areas. This study sought to analyze the perception of these insects in human populations in urban areas in the towns of Fagundes (A1 and Pocinhos (A2, in Paraíba state, Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were answered by 100 residents in these two areas, following both synchronic and diachronic situations. In spite of the fact that most of the interviewees (64% in A1 and 72% in A2 were able to identify termites by morphology and had knowledge of use for treating eight types of human diseases, very few understood their ecological roles in nature. Attempts to eliminate termites from human environments were linked to the popular belief that these animals are sources of bad luck. Twenty-two percent of the interviewees in A1 and 8% in A2 believe that termites are capable of doing damage or harm, of having a foul smell, and/or of containing pus.In this sense, academic studies are important because they can inform people of the ecological roles of termites in natural and urban environments, while demystifying the termite as an agent of fear and destruction.

  11. Praseodymium valency from crystal structure in Pr-Ba-Cu-O and (Y-Pr)-Ba-Cu-O single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, G.; Albouy, P.A.; Monod, P.; Ribault, M.

    1990-01-01

    The substitution of Pr to Y leads to materials with a general formula (Y 1-v Pr v ) (Ba 2-x Pr x ) (Cu 3-y vac y ) O 6+x/2-y+z and with a structural transition around v + x' ∼ 0.5. For v + x 0.5 the crystals are tetragonal, La 1.5 Ba 1.5 Cu 3 O 7±z type, with the characteristic tri-twinning of this phase. The Pr valency, in the range 3-3.2 + depending on preparation conditions, is determined from interatomic distances. Orthorhombic crystals of Pr Ba Cu O prepared at high temperatures exhibit a high amount of defects, y ∼ 0.25 on the Cu(1) site and are semiconductors with a T -1/4 activation law attributed to the praseodymium valence fluctuation

  12. Opening up Brazil's hydrocarbon sector - the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline, which transports natural gas more than 3000 km from Bolivia to Brazil, cost US$2.1 billion to construct. Despite the substantial benefits for both Bolivia and Brazil and the involvement of reputable private partners, the perceived risks and complexities of this large project made financing it major challenge. neither of these countries has had a tradition of independent regulation or economic fuel pricing, and the pipeline was the first major gas infrastructure project involving the private sector in Brazil. The presentation explains the historical features of the project and how the project was used to open up Brazilian oil and gas sector to private investment and competition. (author)

  13. Electoral Governance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Marchetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral governance has increasingly more frequently been the object of study of the comparative politics literature. This article examines the electoral governance institutional model adopted in Brazil and its consequences for political/electoral competition. It is argued herein that Brazil’s Electoral Justice System, motivated by the institutional design, has ended up becoming one of the main actors of the country’s recent democratic consolidation, being decisive not only with regard to rule adjudication and application, but also to rulemaking. With the purpose of assessing this governance model in action, three important recent rulings by Brazil’s Electoral Justice System are analysed here: verticalization of the coalitions, reduction in the number of councillors, and party loyalty.

  14. First occurrence of the crab Calappa nitida Holthuis, 1958 (Brachyura, Calappidae, Calappinae on the coast of the state of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissandra Corrêa Fernandes-Góes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a female of Calappa nitida found at a water-pump station on a shrimp farm, in a mangrove located in Cajueiro da Praia, state of Piauí, within the Parnaíba River Delta Environmental Preservation Area. Although C. nitida occurs in northern and northeastern Brazil, this first record from Piauí fills one of the gaps in its known range.

  15. Punta Pitt, Galapagos Ba/Ca Data for 1963-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File contains Ba/Ca data (in mmol/mol) presented by Lea et al. (1989). Samples were measured at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by D. Lea. Ba...

  16. Growth and characterization of acentric BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Szymborska-Małek, Katarzyna; Gągor, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-05-15

    Growth, single crystal X-ray diffraction, polarized Raman and infrared (IR) studies of BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} are presented. Raman and IR spectra of polycrystalline BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} are also reported to facilitate assignment of modes. BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} borate crystallizes in trigonal system, space group R3c, with lattice parameters: a=5.1540(4) Å, c=33.901(3) Å. It accommodates dolomite-like structure doubled in the c direction, which is built of alternating layers of HfO{sub 6} octahedra and BaO{sub 6} distorted trigonal prisms that are connected through borate groups. The obtained structural as well as spectroscopic data show that BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is isostructural with BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and the deviations from centrosymmetry is small. - Graphical abstract: Arrangement of BO{sub 3} groups in BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} along the c direction in one unit cell. Dark and light blue denote different borate groups. - Highlights: • BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} single crystals were grown. • X-ray diffraction showed that this borate crystallizes in the acentric R3c structure. • Raman and IR spectra were measured for BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, respectively. • Assignment of modes is proposed.

  17. BaM bentonite and some of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, Oldřich; Vávra Michal; Kachlík, Martin; Maca, Karel; Kotnour, Petr; Pospíšková, Ilona

    2018-01-01

    BaM bentonite is lime-magnesium bentonite of domestic origin. Its properties were measured experimentally with focus on the following parameters: composition, morphology and particle size distribution, powder bulk density, powder pressing parameters, shear strength, and water saturation. The findings will find use in nuclear safety assessments of engineered bentonite barriers in underground nuclear waste disposal facilities. (orig.)

  18. Generator Coordinate Method Analysis of Xe and Ba Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Teruya, Eri

    Nuclear structure of Xe and Ba isotopes is studied in terms of the quantum-number projected generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM reproduces well the energy levels of high-spin states as well as low-lying states. The structure of the low-lying states is analyzed through the GCM wave functions.

  19. Superconductivity of Ba8Si46-xGax clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruihong; Chen, Ning; Ma, Xingqiao; Cao, Guohui; Luo, Z. P.; Hu, C. R.; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

    2007-03-01

    We have presented a combined experimental and theoretical study of the effect of Gallium substitution on the superconductivity of the type I clathrate Ba8Si46-xGax. In Ga-doped clathrates, the Ga state is found to be strongly hybridized with the cage conduction-band state. Ga substitution results in a shift toward to a lower energy, a decrease of density of states at Fermi level, a lowering of the carrier concentration and a breakage of integrity of the sp3 hybridized networks. These play key roles in the suppression of superconductivity. For Ba8Si40Ga6, the onset of the superconducting transition occurs at Tc=3.3 K. The investigation of the magnetic superconducting state shows that Ba8Si40Ga6 is a type II superconductor. The critical magnetic fields were measured to be Hc1=35 Oe and Hc2=8.5 kOe. Our estimate of the lectron-phonon coupling reveals that Ba8Si40Ga6 is a moderate phonon-mediated BCS superconductor.

  20. Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting film on oxidized silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.; Khokle, W.S.; Dubey, R.C.; Singhal, S.; Nagpal, K.C.; Rao, G.S.T.; Jain, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    We report thick superconducting films of Y-Ba-Cu-O on oxidized silicon substrates. The critical temperatures for onset and zero resistance are 96 and 77 K, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis predicts 1, 2, 3 composition and orthorhombic phase of the film

  1. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  2. The BaBar detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J. -M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O' Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T' Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; de Sangro, R.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musico, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Wu, J.; Adametz, A.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Gaillard, J. R.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Taylor, G. P.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Hamilton, R.; Lee, S. -J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Fischer, P. -A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Schott, G.; Albert, J. N.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Breton, D.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Dû, S.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Nief, J. Y.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Bellodi, G.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dixon, P.; George, K. A.; Menges, W.; Potter, R. J. L.; Sacco, R.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Sigamani, M.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Allison, J.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D. S.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Kelly, M. P.; Kolya, S. D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Naisbit, M. T.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; West, T. J.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S. Y.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Koeneke, K.; Lang, M. I.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yi, M.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; Klemetti, M.; Lindemann, D.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Mclachlin, S. E.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Cerizza, G.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Pellegrini, R.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Godang, R.; Brunet, S.; Cote, D.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Brau, B.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Smith, D. S.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Iwasaki, M.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Borsato, E.; Castelli, G.; Colecchia, F.; Crescente, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Fanin, C.; Furano, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Marzolla, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Solagna, P.; Stevanato, E.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Akar, S.; Bailly, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J. J.; Lebbolo, H.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Marchiori, G.; Martin, L.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Pivk, M.; Prendki, J.; Roos, L.; Sitt, S.; Stark, J.; Thérin, G.; Vallereau, A.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Pennazzi, S.; Pioppi, M.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Fernholz, R. E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Sands, W. R.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Bulfon, C.; Buccheri, E.; Cavoto, G.; D' Orazio, A.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Li Gioi, L.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; del Re, D.; Renga, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Bünger, C.; Christ, S.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Condurache, C.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Ricciardi, S.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P. -F.; Georgette, Z.; Graziani, G.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Micout, P.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Akre, R.; Aston, D.; Azemoon, T.; Bard, D. J.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Becla, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Berger, N.; Bertsche, K.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bouldin, K.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Browne, M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Burgess, W.; Cai, Y.; Cartaro, C.; Ceseracciu, A.; Claus, R.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Cristinziani, M.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fan, S.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gaponenko, I.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.; Hast, C.; Hee, C.; Himel, T.; Hryn' ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Hung, T.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kharakh, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Krasnykh, A.; Krebs, J.; Kroeger, W.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Lüth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; Melen, R.; Menke, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Messner, R.; Moss, L. J.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; O' Grady, C. P.; O' Neill, F. G.; Ofte, I.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Piemontese, M.; Pierson, S.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Ratkovsky, S.; Reif, R.; Rivetta, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Smith, D.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stanek, M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Teytelman, D.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Trunov, A.; Turner, J.; van Bakel, N.; van Winkle, D.; Va' vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Weber, T.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Meyer, T. I.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Liu, J.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.; Soffer, A.; De Silva, A.; Lund, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Agarwal, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Brown, C. M.; Choi, H. H. F.; Fortin, D.; Fransham, K. B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hollar, J. J.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Tan, P.; Vuosalo, C. O.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Greene, M. G.; Kordich, T. M. B.

    2013-11-01

    The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  3. Observation of high spin levels in Cs from Ba decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1157–1162. Observation of high spin levels in. 131. Cs from. 131. Ba decay. M SAINATH, DWARAKA RANI RAO*, K VENKATARAMANIAH and P C SOOD. Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam 515 134, India. £Permanent address: Department of Physics, ...

  4. Enhanced Optical Performance of BaMgAl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, L.J.; Dong, Juntao; Wang, Yinping; Zhang, Bi; Zhou, Zheng Yang; Jian, Xian; Wu, Mengqiang; Xu, Xin; van Ommen, J.R.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies have been adopted to improve thermal degradation of phosphors. Because of the stability and high transmittance of graphene, here we report a novel method of carbon coating on BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BAM) phosphor particles through chemical vapor

  5. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R

    2008-01-01

    .... Lula was re-elected in the second round of voting with fairly broad popular support. His immediate tasks were to boost Brazil's lagging economic growth and address the issues of crime, violence, and poverty...

  6. Brazil's Difficult Road to Greatness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, David C

    2008-01-01

    Brazil is an emerging country that has made important strides in consolidating its democracy, constructing a diversified and financially sound economy, and enhancing its diplomatic participation on the world stage...

  7. Intermetallic and metal-rich phases in the system Li-Ba-In-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Vajenine, Grigori V.; Kienle, Lorenz; Duppel, Viola; Simon, Arndt

    2010-01-01

    Three new intermetallic phases, BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 , BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 , and BaLi 1.06 In 1.16 and two subnitrides Li 35 In 45 Ba 39 N 9 and LiIn 2 Ba 3 N 0.83 have been synthesized and their crystal structures have been determined. According to single crystal X-ray diffraction data BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 and BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 crystallize with hexagonal symmetry (BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 : P6 3 /mmc, a=10.410(2), c=8.364(2) A, Z=6, V=785.0(2) A 3 ) and BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 : P6/mmm, a=17.469(1), c=10.6409(7) A, Z=30, V=2813.5(8) A 3 ), while BaLi 1.06 In 1.16 has a rhombohedral structure (R-3c, a=18.894(3), c=85.289(17) A, Z=276, V=26368(8) A 3 ). BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 is isostructural with the known phase BaLi 4 . The phase BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 is structurally related to Na 8 K 23 Cd 12 In 48 , while BaLi 1.06 In 1.16 is isostructural with Li 33.3 Ba 13.1 Ca 3 . A sample containing structurally similar BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 and BaLi 1.02 In 1.16 was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Li 35 In 45 Ba 39 N 9 and LiIn 2 Ba 3 N 0.83 crystallize with tetragonal (I-42m, a=15.299(2), c=30.682(6) A, Z=2, V=7182(2) A 3 ) and cubic (Fd-3m, a=14.913(2) A, Z=8, V=3316.7(7) A 3 ) symmetry, respectively. While the first-mentioned subnitride belongs to the Li 80 Ba 39 N 9 structure type, the second extends the structural family of Ba 6 In 4.78 N 2.72 . The structural features of the new compounds are discussed in comparison to the known phases and the results of total energy calculations. - Graphical abstract: One-dimensional chain of face-sharing centered icosahedra in BaLi 2.1 In 1.9

  8. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.D.; Fonte, J. da; Suckau, V.; Thakur, V.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  9. High-Temperature Superconductivity in Doped BaFe2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This thesis provides a detailed look on the synthesis, structural features and physical properties of iron arsenides. Especially the properties of BaFe 2 As 2 and the solid solutions (Ba 1-x K x )Fe 2 As 2 , (Ba 1-x Sr x )Fe 2 As 2 and BaFe 2 (As 1-x P x ) 2 which were all synthesized by solid state reactions by heating mixtures of the elements, were intensively investigated.

  10. Superconductivity in gallium-substituted Ba8Si46 clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ning; Luo, Z. P.; Ma, Xingqiao; Cao, Guohui; Feng, Z. S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical investigation of superconductivity in Ga-substituted type-I silicon clathrates. We prepared samples of the general formula Ba8Si46-xGax , with different values of x . We show that Ba8Si40Ga6 is a bulk superconductor, with an onset at TC≈3.3K . For x=10 and higher, no superconductivity was observed down to T=1.8K . This represents a strong suppression of superconductivity with increasing Ga content, compared to Ba8Si46 with TC≈8K . Suppression of superconductivity can be attributed primarily to a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level, caused by a reduced integrity of the sp3 -hybridized networks as well as the lowering of carrier concentration. These results are corroborated by first-principles calculations, which show that Ga substitution results in a large decrease of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, which explains the decreased superconducting critical temperature within the BCS framework. To further characterize the superconducting state, we carried out magnetic measurements showing Ba8Si40Ga6 to be a type-II superconductor. The critical magnetic fields were measured to be HC1≈35Oe and HC2≈8.5kOe . We deduce the London penetration depth λ≈3700Å and the coherence length ξc≈200Å . Our estimate of the electron-phonon coupling reveals that Ba8Si40Ga6 is a moderate phonon-mediated BCS superconductor.

  11. Crystallization of the HigBA2 toxin-antitoxin complex from Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadǽi, San; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The genome of Vibrio cholerae encodes two higBA toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules that are activated by amino-acid starvation. Here, the TA complex of the second module, higBA2, as well as the C-terminal domain of the corresponding HigA2 antitoxin, have been purified and crystallized. The HigBA2 compl...

  12. Effect of Barium-Precursors on Reaction Kinetics in Y-Ba-Cu-O System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reactions of stoichiometric Y2O3, CuO, and different Ba salts or oxides (BaCO3, Ba(NO3)2, BaO2, BaCuO2) for forming various compounds in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system (i.e., YBa2Cu3O7-δ, BaCuO2, Y2BaCuO5 and Y2Cu2O5) were systematically investigated by thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry. The relevant activation energies were calculated from thermogravimetric data. It is found that the reaction pathway significantly depends on the thermal stability of the Ba precursors. Binary BaO-CuO phases form at low temperature (650~700 ℃) when in presence of easy-to-decompose Ba precursors, and then slowly transform to ternary compounds. On the contrary, when Ba ions are released at temperature higher than 900 ℃, ternary phases form directly from the components.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  14. First-principles study of (Ba ,Ca ) TiO3 and Ba (Ti ,Zr ) O3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Danila; Cano, Andrés; Ghosez, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    (Ba ,Ca ) TiO3 and Ba (Ti ,Zr ) O3 solid solutions are the building blocks of lead-free piezoelectric materials that attract a renewed interest. We investigate the properties of these systems by means of first-principles calculations, with a focus on the lattice dynamics and the competition between different ferroelectric phases. We first analyze the four parent compounds in order to compare their properties and their different tendency towards ferroelectricity. The core of our study is systematic characterization of the binary systems (Ba ,Ca ) TiO3 and Ba (Ti ,Zr ) O3 within both the virtual crystal approximation and direct supercell calculations. In the case of Ca doping, we find a gradual transformation from B -site to A -site ferroelectricity due to steric effects that largely determines the behavior of the system. In the case of Zr doping, in contrast, the behavior is eventually dominated by cooperative Zr-Ti motions and the local electrostatics. In addition, our comparative study reveals that the specific microscopic physics of these solids sets severe limits to the applicability of the virtual crystal approximation for these systems.

  15. Optical characteristics of BaGa2S4:Ho3+ and BaGa2Se4:Ho3+ single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Sung-Hyu; Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Wha-Tek

    2005-01-01

    BaGa 2 S 4 , BaGa 2 S 4 :Ho 3+ , BaGa 2 Se 4 , and BaGa 2 Se 4 :Ho 3+ single crystals were grown by using the chemical transport reaction method. The optical energy gaps of the single crystals were investigated in the temperature region from 11 K to 300 K. The temperature dependence of the optical energy gap was well fitted by the Varshni equation. Two broad emission bands were observed in the photoluminescence spectra of the single crystals. These bands were attributed to donor-acceptor pair recombinations. Sharp emission peaks were observed in the BaGa 2 S 4 :Ho 3+ and the BaGa 2 Se 4 :Ho 3+ single crystals and were assigned to radiation recombination between split Stark levels of Ho 3+ .

  16. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  17. Syntheses, crystal structures and characterizations of BaZn(SeO3)2 and BaZn(TeO3)Cl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hailong; Feng Meiling; Mao Jianggao

    2006-01-01

    Two new barium zinc selenite and tellurite, namely, BaZn(SeO 3 ) 2 and BaZn(TeO 3 )Cl 2 , have been synthesized by the solid state reaction. The structure of BaZn(SeO 3 ) 2 features double chains of [Zn(SeO 3 ) 2 ] 2- anions composed of four- and eight-member rings which are alternatively along a-axis. The double chains of [Zn 2 (TeO 3 ) 2 Cl 3 ] 3- anions in BaZn(TeO 3 )Cl 2 are formed by Zn 3 Te 3 rings in which each tellurite group connects with three ZnO 3 Cl tetrahedra. BaZn(SeO 3 ) 2 and BaZn(TeO 3 )Cl 2 are wide bandgap semiconductors based on optical diffuse reflectance spectrum measurements. -- Graphical abstract: Two new barium zinc selenite and tellurite, namely, BaZn(SeO 3 ) 2 and BaZn(TeO 3 )Cl 2 , have been synthesized by solid state reaction. The structure of BaZn(SeO 3 ) 2 features 1D double chains of [Zn(SeO 3 ) 2 ] 2- anions composed of four- and eight-member rings which are alternatively along a-axis. The 1D double chains of [Zn 2 (TeO 3 ) 2 Cl 3 ] 3- anions in BaZn(TeO 3 )Cl 2 are formed by Zn 3 Te 3 rings in which each tellurite group connects with one ZnO 3 Cl and two ZnO 2 Cl 2 tetrahedra. BaZn(SeO 3 ) 2 and BaZn(TeO 3 )Cl 2 are wide bandgap semiconductors based on optical diffuse reflectance spectrum measurements

  18. Prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 in nursing mothers from the state of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Flávia C F; Kashima Haddad, Simone; de Medeiros Filho, João G; Costa, Maria José C; Diniz, Margareth F M; Fernandes, Melina P; de Araújo, Lenisio B; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2008-08-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus known as a direct causal agent of a malignant disease. The vertical route of HTLV transmission is the most frequent pathway of the virus contamination. This study was performed to determine the prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 infection among nursing women. From January 2004 to January 2005, blood samples from 1033 nursing mothers from Paraíba, Brazil were evaluated for HTLV antibodies by ELISA and HTLV-1 viral particles confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HTLV antibodies were detected in 7 women. The overall seroprevalence ratio was 0.68% and HTLV-1 viral sequences were confirmed by PCR in 2 women. These preliminary data suggest that HTLV screening should be introduced as a mandatory test before breastfeeding and breast milk donation in Paraíba, Brazil. Additionally, counseling programs would help reduce the prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 infected individuals in this Brazilian region.

  19. Experimental investigation of decay properties of neutron deficient $^{116-118}$Ba isotopes and test of $^{112-115}$Ba beam counts

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study decay of neutron deficient isotopes $^{116-118}$Ba using Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSSD). To study delayed-proton and $\\alpha$-decay branching ratios of $^{116-118}$Ba are of special interest because of their vicinity to the proton drip line. The nuclear life-times and properties of the proton unstable states of Cs isotopes, populated through decay of $^{116-118}$Ba isotopes will be measured. In addition to that we propose beam development of $^{112-115}$Ba to study exotic decay properties of these neutron deficient nuclei and to search for super-allowed $\\alpha$-decay in future.

  20. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Kaeppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

    1994-03-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of 134 Ba, 135 Ba, 136 Ba, and 137 Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π Barium Fluoride Detector. Several runs have been performed under different experimental conditions to study the systematic uncertainties, which resulted mainly from the large ratios of total to capture cross sections of up to 400. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ∼3%, an improvement by factors of five to eight compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134 Ba and 136 Ba the N s ratio was determined to 0.875±0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134 Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T 8 =2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the N s systematics in the mass range A=120 to 150 is achieved. This allows for a more reliable separation of s- and r-process yields, resulting in an improved assignment of the respective contributions to elemental barium that is required for comparison with stellar observations. (orig.) [de

  1. Influence of Impurities on the Luminescence of Er3+ Doped BaTiO3 Nanophosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Webler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of barium carbonate (BaCO3 phase on the luminescence properties of barium titanate nanocrystals (BaTiO3 powders was investigated. Structural and optical characterizations of erbium (Er3+ doped BaTiO3 synthesized by the sol-emulsion-gel were performed. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, we identified the presence of impurities related to BaCO3 and quantified its fraction. It was observed that the presence of BaCO3 phase, even at low levels, depletes significantly the infrared-to-visible upconverted luminescence efficiency of the produced nanopowders.

  2. Effects of Ce, La and Ba addition on the electrochemical behavior of super duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yun-Ha; Choi, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Jung-Gu; Park, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of rare earth metal (REM: Ce, La) and Ba addition on aqueous corrosion properties of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) were investigated by electrochemical tests and surface analyses. The results of potentiodynamic test indicated that the passive range increased by the addition of Ce, La, and Ba, indicating increased relative resistance to localized corrosion. The EIS measurements showed that the Ce-La-Ba-bearing alloys exhibited higher R ct and R p values than the Ce-La-Ba-free alloy at the passive and breakdown states. Furthermore, the additions of REMs and Ba together promoted the formation of dense chromium-enriched passive film.

  3. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

    1993-01-01

    A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images.

  4. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  5. Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba-Stonehouse, V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  6. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  7. Metals in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Nathalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil with about 19 millions of inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than 8 million motor vehicles and strong industrial activity at the metropolitan region, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, there is little information on metal contents in the metropolitan region soils, which would be very useful as a fingerprint of the environmental pollution. The present study aimed to determine As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown Sao Paulo city: Consolacao/Reboucas Avenues; 23 de Maio Avenue and Tiradentes Avenue, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impact. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results show metal concentration levels higher than the values reference values for soils of Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State Sao Paulo (CETESB) guidelines. As, Ba and Zn showed concentration levels above the Intervention Values in some points, indicating direct or indirect potential risks to human health. The traffic related element Ba, Sb and Zn presented concentrations above the Prevention Values in points with high density traffic and may be associated to vehicular emissions. (author)

  8. Characterization of heavy metals in a uranium ore region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Jairo Dias; dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; dos Santos Júnior, José Araújo; Genezini, Frederico Antonio; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; de Oliveira, Iane Andrade

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of As, Zn, Co, Cr, and Ba were determined in soil samples from an anomalous uranium ore region in the countryside of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main land use system in this region is dairy farming, and there is a need to evaluate the potential risk of milk contamination. Twenty-three soil samples were activated with neutrons and analyzed using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer system. The results, recorded in mg kg(-1), varied from 0.4 to 6.7 for As, from 17.0 to 110.0 for Zn, from 2.8 to 38.4 for Co, from 12.1 to 65.5 for Cr, and from 443.0 to 1,497.0 for Ba. All of the Ba concentrations were higher than the intervention value adopted by the Brazilian National Environmental Board. This finding justifies research in other environmental areas to predict the toxicological risks to the local population.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of BaTiO3 ferroelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    BaTiO 3 powder was prepared at low temperatures using the solid-state reaction, starting with two different precursors; the BaCO 3 /TiO 2 and the Ba(NO 3 ) 2 /TiO 2 powder mixtures. It was found that, a single phase BaTiO 3 was formed after calcination at 750 degree C for 10 h and at 600 degree C for 6 h for the first and second mixtures, respectively. Thermal and XRD analyses were used to study the formation kinetics of BaTiO 3 . Contracting volume reaction model was found to control both reactions. The SEM of the as milled powder, TMA, TG and thermodynamics analysis have been used to propose a realistic approach describing the reaction mechanism of BaTiO 3 . Characterization and the dielectric properties of the sintered BaTiO 3 were investigated. The relative permittivity and the dielectric loss measured at room temperature and at 1 khz were 2028.5 and 0.043 for BaTiO 3 prepared from BaCO 3 /TiO 2 , while they were 1805.33 and 0.41 for BaTiO 3 prepared from Ba(NO 3 ) 2 /TiO 2 .

  10. Luminescent properties of BaCl2-Eu microcrystals embedded in a CsI matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushak, A.; Vistovskyy, V.; Voloshinovskii, A.; Savchyn, P.; Antonyak, O.; Demkiv, T.; Dacyuk, Yu.; Myagkota, S.; Gektin, A.

    2013-01-01

    The spectral-luminescent properties of CsI-BaCl 2 (1 mol%)-Eu(0.02 mol%) crystalline system are studied. Europium ion doped BaCl 2 microcrystals embedded in a CsI matrix are revealed on CsI-BaCl 2 (1 mol%)-Eu(0.02 mol%) freshly cleaved surface by the scanning electron microscopy. The size of microcrystals is shown to be within 0.5–5 microns. The luminescent parameters of the BaCl 2 -Eu 2+ microcrystals are shown to be similar to ones of a single crystal analogue. The 4f → 5d absorption transitions in europium ions and the reabsorption of the intrinsic emission of the CsI host are the main excitation mechanisms of europium luminescence in the BaCl 2 microcrystals. -- Highlights: ► The formation of chloride BaCl 2 :Eu microcrystals in the case of BaCl 2 doped CsI crystal has been revealed. ► The observed size of microcrystals at BaCl 2 concentration of 1% is about 0.5–5 μm. ► Majority of Eu 2+ ions in CsI-BaCl 2 -EuCl 3 crystalline system enters into BaCl 2 microcrystals. ► The luminescent parameters of the BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals and its bulk analogue are similar

  11. Effect of lithium doping in BaTiO3 ceramics for vibration sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, E.; Murugan, S.; Jayakumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Phase pure undoped and Lithium doped BaTiO3 particles have been synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method. Substitution of Lithium at the Ba2+ site in BaTiO3 lattice has been investigated. The structural, vibrational, electrical and mechanical characterization have been carried out. The poled samples were used as a sensing element for the detection of mechanical oscillations and the presence of 80 Hz pulse in the output spectrum manifest the response of the sensor element to the applied mechanical stress. In comparison with pure BaTiO3 the sensitivity of Li doped BaTiO3 is 14 times greater than the pure BaTiO3. This confirms that Li doped BaTiO3 could be an efficient candidate for the functionalization of vibration sensors in space application.

  12. Growth of BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films by using aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite thick films were grown by using aerosol deposition at room temperature with BaTiO3 and PVDF powders. To produce a uniform composition in ceramic and polymer composite films, which show a substantial difference in specific gravity, we used PVDF-coated BaTiO3 powders as the starting materials. An examination of the microstructure confirmed that the BaTiO3 were well distributed in the PVDF matrix in the form of a 0 - 3 compound. The crystallite size in the BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films was 5 ˜ 50 times higher than that in pure BaTiO3 thick films. PVDF plays a role in suppressing the fragmentation of BaTiO3 powder during the aerosol deposition process and in controlling the relative permittivity.

  13. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    A conspectus of the Lycopodiaceae in Brazil is presented, following a generic classification based on anatomy, chromosome numbers, spores and gametophytes, as well as recent molecular studies. The species of Lycopodiaceae occurring in Brazil, traditionally treated conservatively, were grouped...

  14. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... approaches different technologies applied in the Brazil nut products process. Key words: ... forest and adjacent areas in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru (Ferreira et al., 2011). ... ''Scientific evidence suggests”, but does not prove, that.

  15. All about neosporosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990’s N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  16. Performances of RPCs in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Robert

    2003-09-26

    The BaBar experiment uses a big system based on RPC detectors to discriminate muons from pions and to identify neutral hadrons. About 2000 m{sup 2} of RPC chambers have been working at SLAC since the end of 1998. We report on the performances of the RPC chambers focusing on new problems discovered in the RPC behavior. These problems started very soon after the installation of the chambers on the detector when the high ambient temperature triggered an increase of dark currents inside the chambers and a reduction of the efficiency. Careful analysis of the BaBar data and dedicated R&D efforts in the laboratory have helped to identify the main source of the trouble in the linseed oil varnish on the bakelite electrodes.

  17. AMiBA: BROADBAND HETERODYNE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.-T.; Li, C.-T.; Hwang, Y.-J.; Jiang Homin; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, C.-H.; Chang, S.-H.; Chang, S.-W.; Han, C.-C.; Huang, Y.-D.; Kubo, Derek; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei Tashun; Chiueh, T.-D.; Chu, T.-H.; Wang Huei; Kesteven, Michael; Wilson, Warwick

    2009-01-01

    The Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background (AMiBA) has reported the first results on the detection of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The objectives required small reflectors in order to sample large-scale structures (20'), while interferometry provided modest resolutions (2'). With these constraints, we designed for the best sensitivity by utilizing the maximum possible continuum bandwidth matched to the atmospheric window at 86-102 GHz, with dual polarizations. A novel wide-band analog correlator was designed that is easily expandable for more interferometer elements. Monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit technology was used throughout as much as possible in order to miniaturize the components and to enhance mass production. These designs will find application in other upcoming astronomy projects. AMiBA is now in operation since 2006, and we are in the process to expand the array from seven to 13 elements.

  18. DIRC - a particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, A.

    1999-10-01

    The DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs. (author)

  19. Configuration Database for BaBar On-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salnikov, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The configuration database is one of the vital systems in the BaBar on-line system. It provides services for the different parts of the data acquisition system and control system, which require run-time parameters. The original design and implementation of the configuration database played a significant role in the successful BaBar operations since the beginning of experiment. Recent additions to the design of the configuration database provide better means for the management of data and add new tools to simplify main configuration tasks. We describe the design of the configuration database, its implementation with the Objectivity/DB object-oriented database, and our experience collected during the years of operation

  20. Dynamic moments of inertia in Xe, Cs and Ba nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Samman, H.; Barci, V.; Gizon, A.

    1984-01-01

    The γ-rays following the reactions induced by 12 C ions on 115 In, 112 , 117 , 122 Sn and 123 Sb targets have been investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional arrangement. The collective moment of inertia I( 2 ) /sub band/ of 118 , 122 Xe, 123 Cs and 128 , 130 Ba have been extracted from the energy-correlation spectra. The behaviour of these nuclei and the observed differences are interpreted in terms of high-spin collective properties. Data are also presented on the effective moment of inertia I( 2 )/sub eff/ of 118 Xe and 130 Ba measured by sum-spectrometer techniques. 13 references

  1. Dynamic Displacement Disorder of Cubic BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paściak, M.; Welberry, T. R.; Kulda, J.; Leoni, S.; Hlinka, J.

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the x-ray diffuse scattering intensity of BaTiO3 has been recorded in a synchrotron experiment and simultaneously computed using molecular dynamics simulations of a shell model. Together, these have allowed the details of the disorder in paraelectric BaTiO3 to be clarified. The narrow sheets of diffuse scattering, related to the famous anisotropic longitudinal correlations of Ti ions, are shown to be caused by the overdamped anharmonic soft phonon branch. This finding demonstrates that the occurrence of narrow sheets of diffuse scattering agrees with a displacive picture of the cubic phase of this textbook ferroelectric material. The presented methodology allows one to go beyond the harmonic approximation in the analysis of phonons and phonon-related scattering.

  2. Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78% of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins.

  3. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  4. Extended analysis of six-times ionized barium (Ba VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.K.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2013-01-01

    The seventh spectrum of barium (Ba VII) has been investigated using experimental recordings made on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph in Canada in the wavelength region 300–2000 Å. The data below 350 Å was supplemented from the spectrograms recorded on a 10.7-m grazing incidence spectrograph of NIST laboratory USA. The sources used to excite the spectra in both the cases were triggered spark. Previously reported levels of 5s 2 5p 2 , 5s5p 3 , 5s 2 5p5d and 5s 2 5p6s in Ba VII have been confirmed except the 1 P 1 level of 5s 2 5p5d. The analysis has been extended considerably to include new configurations 5s 2 5p6d and 5s 2 5p7s in odd parity configuration and doubly excited configurations 5s 2 5p6p, 5s 2 5p4f, 5s 2 5p5f, 5p 4 , 5s5p 2 5d and 5s5p 2 6s in even parity configuration. The 3 F 4 level of 5s 2 5p5d configuration has now been established through the identification of transitions from 5s 2 5p6p. In all, one hundred twenty-two levels have been established in this spectrum out of which ninety-two are new. A configuration interaction Hartree–Fock calculation supports the analysis. -- Highlights: ► The spectrum of Ba was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. ► Atomic transitions for Ba VII were identified to established new energy levels. ► CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. ► Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated

  5. Extended analysis of four-times ionized barium: (Ba V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.K.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The fifth spectrum of barium (Ba V) has been investigated with the aid of experimental recordings made on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the Antigonish laboratory (Canada) in the wavelength region 300–2080 Å using triggered spark as an excitation source. The spectral analysis has been extended considerably to include new configuration 5s 2 5p 3 6p in even parity configuration and, 5s 2 5p 3 6d and 5s 2 5p 3 7s in odd parity configuration. Previously reported levels of the ground configuration and three lowest excited configurations 5s5p 5 , 5s 2 5p 3 5d and 5s 2 5p 3 6s in Ba V have been confirmed and all the J≥4 unknown levels of 5s 2 5p 3 5d configuration have now been established through the identification of transitions from the levels of 5s 2 5p 3 6p configuration. All the levels of 5s 2 5p 3 6p configuration and thirty seven out of forty eight levels of the 5s 2 5p 3 6d and 5s 2 5p 3 7s configurations have now been established. A configuration interaction Hartree–Fock calculation supports the analysis. -- Highlights: • The spectrum of Ba was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. • CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Atomic transitions for Ba V were identified to established new energy levels. • Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated

  6. Standardization of 137 Cs+137m Ba by Liquid Scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Arcos, J.M., los; Grau Carles, A.

    1995-09-01

    A procedure for the preparation of a stable, homogeneous solution of ''137 Cs+''137m Ba, for use in liquid scintillation measurements, is described. Its count rate stability and spectral time evolution has been followed for several weeks. The solution has been standardised by the CIEMAT/NIST method in both Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel, to a combined uncertainty lower than 0,51% (k=1)

  7. Interface control in BaTiO3 based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Mario; Elissalde, Catherine; Chung, U.-Chan

    2010-03-01

    Core shell BaTiO3 based particles sintered using advanced processes provide a high control of grain boundaries in bulk composites. As a result, supercapacitor behavior was evidenced which came from the balance between inner grain conductivity and grain boundary dielectric barrier. Thanks to the core-shell structure of the starting particles, improved control of the effective dielectric parameters can be achieved.

  8. Crazy for Ya Ba: methamphetamine use among northern Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anjalee

    2014-07-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Thailand has been one of the largest per capita consumers of methamphetamine pills (ya ba - "crazy drug") in the world and one of the leading consumers of methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, with its youth comprising the majority of users. This article examines the socio-cultural context of methamphetamine use among young Thai in order to understand its widespread appeal. The study is based on 18 months of ethnographic research in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, between 2002 and 2006 and a follow-up field trip in 2011. In-depth interviews were carried out with 211 young people aged between 15 and 25 in institutional and non-institutional settings. Many of the findings derive from participant observation and informal interviews with a small sample of 20 people. Chiang Mai youth have transformed methamphetamine from a labourers' drug centred on economic utility to a multi-purpose youth drug primarily consumed for pleasure and performance. Ya ba appeals to many young Thai due to its positive image as a modern and fashionable consumer commodity, with confidence in these synthetic pills drawing on and mirroring a broader faith in modern (western) medicine. The growing demand for ya ba in northern Thailand is in part a reflection of the changing social values that have accompanied rapid urbanisation and modernisation in Thailand. In their overwhelming aspiration to be modern, young Thai are consuming ya ba not to rebel against the dominant culture, but to keep up with the demands and expectations of a modern capitalist society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematics of triaxial deformation in Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.; Vogel, O.; von Brentano, P.; Gelberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    The (β,γ) deformation parameters of even-even Xe, Ba, and Ce nuclei have been calculated by using the triaxial rotor model. Deformation parameters calculated, on one hand, from decay properties and, on the other hand, from energies are in good agreement. The smooth dependence of the deformation parameters on Z and N is discussed. The results are compared with those extracted from properties of odd-A nuclei

  10. Identical bands in Ba-Dy, N < 104 space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, H.M.; Vidya Devi; Gupta, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of the existence of identical bands, in even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei, in normal deformed bands and superdeformed bands has become the subject of great interest in recent years. Here the search have been taken for such bands for the normal deformed, even-Z, even-N nuclei of Ba and Dy for 82< N<104 major shell space

  11. Ferromagnetic clusters in polycrystalline BaCoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, P.M.; Pardo, V.; Calle, C. de la; Baldomir, D.; Alonso, J.A.; Rivas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline BaCoO 3 was synthesized by a citrate technique using thermal treatments at high oxygen pressure. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on the compound were carried out under AC conditions. The magnetic properties of the material at low temperatures were found to be determined by the appearance of nanoscale ferromagnetic (FM) regions and not by a true magnetic phase transition. These clusters have a mean size of about 1 nm in diameter and obey an Arrhenius-like thermal relaxation

  12. From Ba3Ta5O14N to LaBa2Ta5O13N2: Decreasing the optical band gap of a photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anke, B.; Bredow, T.; Pilarski, M.; Wark, M.; Lerch, M.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow LaBa 2 Ta 5 O 13 N 2 was successfully synthesized as phase-pure material crystallizing isostructurally to previously reported Ba 3 Ta 5 O 14 N and mixed-valence Ba 3 Ta V 4 Ta IV O 15 . The electronic structure of LaBa 2 Ta 5 O 13 N 2 was studied theoretically with the range-separated hybrid method HSE06. The most stable structure was obtained when lanthanum was placed on 2a and nitrogen on 4h sites confirming Pauling's second rule. By incorporating nitrogen, the measured band gap decreases from ∼3.8 eV for the oxide via 2.74 eV for Ba 3 Ta 5 O 14 N to 2.63 eV for the new oxide nitride, giving rise to an absorption band well in the visible-light region. Calculated fundamental band gaps confirm the experimental trend. The atom-projected density of states has large contributions from N2p orbitals close to the valence band edge. These are responsible for the observed band gap reduction. Photocatalytic hydrogen formation was investigated and compared with that of Ba 3 Ta 5 O 14 N revealing significantly higher activity for LaBa 2 Ta 5 O 13 N 2 under UV-light. - Graphical abstract: X-ray powder diffraction pattern of LaBa 2 Ta 5 O 13 N 2 with the results of the Rietveld refinements. Inset: Unit cell of LaBa 2 Ta 5 O 13 N 2 and polyhedral representation of the crystal structure. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a new oxide nitride LaBa 2 Ta 5 O 13 N 2 . • Refinement of the crystal structure. • Quantum chemical calculations provided band gap close to the measured value. • New phase shows a higher photocatalytic H 2 evolution rate compared to prior tested Ba 3 Ta 5 O 14 N.

  13. Ultrasonic investigations on polonides of Ba, Ca, and Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Devraj; Bhalla, Vyoma [Amity School of Engineering and Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Applied Physics; Bala, Jyoti [Amity School of Engineering and Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Applied Physics; Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha Univ., New Delhi (India). USICT; Wadhwa, Shikha [Amity Univ., Noida (India). Amity Inst. of Nanotechnology

    2017-07-01

    The temperature-dependent mechanical and ultrasonic properties of barium, calcium, and lead polonides (BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo) were investigated in the temperature range 100-300 K. The second- and third-order elastic constants (SOECs and TOECs) were computed using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential and these in turn have been used to estimate other secondary elastic properties such as strength, anisotropy, microhardness, etc. The theoretical approach followed the prediction that BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo are brittle in nature. PbPo is found to be the hardest amongst the chosen compounds. Further the SOECs and TOECs are applied to determine ultrasonic velocities, Debye temperature, and acoustic coupling constants along left angle 100 right angle, left angle 110 right angle, and left angle 111 right angle orientations at room temperature. Additionally thermal conductivity has been computed using Morelli and Slack's approach along different crystallographic directions at room temperature. Finally ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation mechanisms has been computed for BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo. The behaviour of these compounds is similar to that of semi-metals with thermal relaxation time of the order 10{sup -11} s. The present computation study is reasonably in agreement with the available theoretical data for the similar type of materials.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of (Ba,Yb doped ceria nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Matović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanometric size (Ba, Yb doped ceria powders with fluorite-type structure were obtained by applying selfpropagating room temperature methods. Tailored composition was: Ce0.95−xBa0.05YbxO2−δ with fixed amount of Ba − 0.05 and varying Yb content “x” from 0.05 to 0.2. Powder properties such as crystallite and particle size and lattice parameters have been studied. Röntgen diffraction analyses (XRD were used to characterize the samples at room temperature. Also, high temperature treatment (up to 1550°C was used to follow stability of solid solutions. The mean diameters of the nanocrystals are determined from the full width at half maxima (FWHM of the XRD peaks. It was found that average diameter of crystallites is less than 3 nm. WilliamsonHall plots were used to separate the effect of the size and strain in the nanocrystals.

  15. Computational study of Ca, Sr and Ba under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jona, F; Marcus, P M

    2006-01-01

    A first-principles procedure for the calculation of equilibrium properties of crystals under hydrostatic pressure is applied to Ca, Sr and Ba. The procedure is based on minimizing the Gibbs free energy G (at zero temperature) with respect to the structure at a given pressure p, and hence does not require the equation of state to fix the pressure. The calculated lattice constants of Ca, Sr and Ba are shown to be generally closer to measured values than previous calculations using other procedures. In particular for Ba, where careful and extensive pressure data are available, the calculated lattice parameters fit measurements to about 1% in three different phases, both cubic and hexagonal. Rigid-lattice transition pressures between phases which come directly from the crossing of G(p) curves are not close to measured transition pressures. One reason is the need to include zero-point energy (ZPE) of vibration in G. The ZPE of cubic phases is calculated with a generalized Debye approximation and applied to Ca and Sr, where it produces significant shifts in transition pressures. An extensive tabulation is given of structural parameters and elastic constants from the literature, including both theoretical and experimental results

  16. Computational study of Ca, Sr and Ba under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jona, F; Marcus, P M [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2275 (United States)

    2006-05-17

    A first-principles procedure for the calculation of equilibrium properties of crystals under hydrostatic pressure is applied to Ca, Sr and Ba. The procedure is based on minimizing the Gibbs free energy G (at zero temperature) with respect to the structure at a given pressure p, and hence does not require the equation of state to fix the pressure. The calculated lattice constants of Ca, Sr and Ba are shown to be generally closer to measured values than previous calculations using other procedures. In particular for Ba, where careful and extensive pressure data are available, the calculated lattice parameters fit measurements to about 1% in three different phases, both cubic and hexagonal. Rigid-lattice transition pressures between phases which come directly from the crossing of G(p) curves are not close to measured transition pressures. One reason is the need to include zero-point energy (ZPE) of vibration in G. The ZPE of cubic phases is calculated with a generalized Debye approximation and applied to Ca and Sr, where it produces significant shifts in transition pressures. An extensive tabulation is given of structural parameters and elastic constants from the literature, including both theoretical and experimental results.

  17. The BaBar Software Architecture and Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmo, Gabriele

    2003-01-01

    The BaBar experiment has in place since 1995 a software release system (SRT Software Release Tools) based on CVS (Concurrent Version System) which is in common for all the software developed for the experiment, online or offline, simulation or reconstruction. A software release is a snapshot of all BaBar code (online, offline, utilities, scripts, makefiles, etc.). This set of code is tested to work together, and is indexed by a release number (e.g., 6.8.2) so a user can refer to a particular release and get reproducible results. A release will involve particular versions of packages. A package generally consists of a set of code for a particular task, together with a GNU makefile, scripts and documentation. All BaBar software is maintained in AFS (Andrew File System) directories, so the code is accessible worldwide within the Collaboration. The combination SRT, CVS, AFS, has demonstrated to be a valid, powerful and efficient way of organizing the software infrastructure of a modern HEP experiment with collaborating Institutes distributed worldwide, both in a development and production phase

  18. Cesium immobilization in (Ba,Cr)-hollandites: Effects on structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumurugoti, Priyatham; Sundaram, S. K.; Misture, Scott T.

    2018-02-01

    Hollandites with compositions Ba1.15-xCs2xCr2.3Ti5.7O16 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.15) intended for the immobilization of cesium (Cs) from nuclear waste have been prepared, characterized, and analyzed for Cs retention properties. Sol-gel synthesized powders were used for structural characterization using a combination of X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction techniques. Phase-pure hollandites adopting tetragonal (I4/m) or monoclinic symmetry (I2/m) were observed to form in the compositional range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4. Structural models for the compositions, x = 0, 0.15, and 0.25 were developed from Rietveld analysis of powder diffraction data. Refined anisotropic displacement parameters (βij) for the Ba and Cs ions in the hollandite tunnels indicate local disorder of Ba/Cs along the tunnel direction. In addition, weak superlattice reflections were observed in X-ray and electron diffraction patterns that were due to the compositional modulation i.e., ordering of ions and vacancies along tunnel direction. Our overall observations suggest the phase-pure hollandites studied assumed supercell structures with ordered tunnel cations, which in turn have positional disorder in individual supercells.

  19. Ultrasonic Investigations on Polonides of Ba, Ca, and Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devraj; Bhalla, Vyoma; Bala, Jyoti; Wadhwa, Shikha

    2017-10-01

    The temperature-dependent mechanical and ultrasonic properties of barium, calcium, and lead polonides (BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo) were investigated in the temperature range 100-300 K. The second- and third-order elastic constants (SOECs and TOECs) were computed using Coulomb and Born-Mayer potential and these in turn have been used to estimate other secondary elastic properties such as strength, anisotropy, microhardness, etc. The theoretical approach followed the prediction that BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo are brittle in nature. PbPo is found to be the hardest amongst the chosen compounds. Further the SOECs and TOECs are applied to determine ultrasonic velocities, Debye temperature, and acoustic coupling constants along , , and orientations at room temperature. Additionally thermal conductivity has been computed using Morelli and Slack's approach along different crystallographic directions at room temperature. Finally ultrasonic attenuation due to phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation mechanisms has been computed for BaPo, CaPo, and PbPo. The behaviour of these compounds is similar to that of semi-metals with thermal relaxation time of the order 10-11 s. The present computation study is reasonably in agreement with the available theoretical data for the similar type of materials.

  20. Electronic States of IC60BA and PC71BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Wen-Jie; Li Hong-Nian; Zhang Wen-Hua; Zhu Jun-Fa; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic states of IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM using first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The energy level structures for all possible isomers are reported and compared with those of C 60 , C 70 and PC 61 BM. The attachment of the side chains can raise the LUMO energies and decrease the HOMO-LUMO gaps, and thus helps to increase the power-conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the PES studies, we prepared IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM films on Si:H(111) substrates to construct adsorbate/substrate interfaces describable with the integer charge-transfer (ICT) model. Successful measurements then revealed that one of the most important material properties for an electron acceptor, the energy of the negative integer charge-transfer state (E ICT− ), is 4.31 eV below the vacuum level for PC 71 BM. The E ICT− of IC 60 BA is smaller than 4.14 eV

  1. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  2. FY16 Brazil Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Brazil assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Brazil perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Brazil on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Bra...

  3. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, N.

    2000-08-31

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

  4. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  5. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  6. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  7. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of the perovskite-related BA{sub 1+y}UO{sub 3+x} and (BA,SR){sub 1+y}UO{sub 3+x} phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordfunke, E.H.P. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Booij, A.S. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Smit-Groen, V. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Vlaanderen, P. van [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); IJdo, D.J.W. [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Gorlaeus Labs.

    1996-11-01

    The perovskite-type BaUO{sub 3} structure has been investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The Ba/U ratio, the (Ba, Sr)/U ratio, and the oxygen stoichiometry in Ba{sub 1+y}UO{sub 3+x} were varied, and the integral enthalpies of formation determined by solution calorimetry. In addition, equilibrium oxygen partial pressures were measured using a reversible EMF cell. The chemical defect mechanism is discussed, and it is shown that a continuous series BaUO{sub 3}-Ba{sub 1+y}UO{sub 3+x}-Ba{sub 3}UO{sub 6} exist in which uranium vacancies are gradually filled up with barium ions, whereas uranium is oxidized via the pentavalent to the hexavalent state in Ba{sub 3}UO{sub 6}(=Ba{sub 2}(Ba, U)O{sub 6}). (orig.).

  8. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  9. Synthesis and electrical properties of BaBiO3 and high resistivity BaTiO3–BaBiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics of the composition BaBiO3 (BB were sintered in oxygen to obtain a single phase with monoclinic I2/m symmetry as suggested by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of bismuth in two valence states — 3+ and 5+. Optical spectroscopy showed presence of a direct bandgap at ∼ 2.2eV and a possible indirect bandgap at ∼ 0.9eV. This combined with determination of the activation energy for conduction of 0.25eV, as obtained from ac impedance spectroscopy, suggested that a polaron-mediated conduction mechanism was prevalent in BB. The BB ceramics were crushed, mixed with BaTiO3 (BT, and sintered to obtain BT–BB solid solutions. All the ceramics had tetragonal symmetry and exhibited a normal ferroelectric-like dielectric response. Using ac impedance and optical spectroscopy, it was shown that resistivity values of BT–BB were orders of magnitude higher than BT or BB alone, indicating a change in the fundamental defect equilibrium conditions. A shift in the site occupancy of Bi to the A-site is proposed to be the mechanism for the increased electrical resistivity.

  10. Kinetics of phosphorus sorption in soils in the state of Paraíba¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmannuella Costa Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil P sorption capacity has been studied for many years, but little attention has been paid to the rate of this process, which is relevant in the planning of phosphate fertilization. The purpose of this experiment was to assess kinetics of P sorption in 12 representative soil profiles of the State of Paraíba (