Sample records for caesium isothermal migration

  1. Human metabolism of caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics in Malmoe (Sweden); Falk, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden); Lauridsen, Bente [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Rahola, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Soogard-Hansen, J. [NRPA - Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)


    A study of the human biokinetics of caesium in two forms, i.) incorporated in foodstuff (137Cs in perch and mushrooms) and ii.) in ionic state ({sup 134}Cs in aqueous solution) has been carried out at the department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, starting in 2001. The results of the pilot study were published in 2004, and a continuation of that study has now been carried out by means of NKS funding (NKS-B Cskinetik). The aim is to, i.) investigate whether Scandinavian populations exhibit shorter biological half-time of radiocaesium than other populations; ii.) extend the biokinetic study to additional human subjects from the other Nordic countries. Results from the continued study further indicate a near complete absorption of radiocaesium in the gastro-intestinal tract, be it in ion state or contained in food matrix. So far, the literature survey of Nordic studies on biokinetics of Cs suggests that the biological half time is somewhat shorter among Scandinavian males (84 days vs. ICRP-value of 110 days), although females do not exhibit any significant difference (64 days vs ICRP value of 65 days). (au)

  2. On the horseshoe drag of a low-mass planet. I - Migration in isothermal disks


    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S.


    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formal- ism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horse- shoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, ...

  3. On the Horseshoe Drag of a Low-Mass Planet. I. Migration in Isothermal Disks (United States)

    Casoli, J.; Masset, F. S.


    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formalism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horseshoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, and not only of the horseshoe region, thereby deserving to be called corotation torque. We find that evanescent waves launched downstream of the horseshoe U-turns by the perturbations of vortensity exert a feedback on the upstream region, that render the horseshoe region asymmetric. This asymmetry scales with the vortensity gradient and with the disk's aspect ratio. It does not depend on the planetary mass, and it does not have any impact on the horseshoe drag. Since the horseshoe drag has a steep dependence on the width of the horseshoe region, we provide an adequate definition of the width that needs to be used in horseshoe drag estimates. We then consider the case of locally isothermal disks, in which the temperature is constant in time but depends on the distance to the star. The horseshoe drag appears to be different from the case of a globally isothermal disk. The difference, which is due to the driving of vortensity in the vicinity of the planet, is intimately linked to the topology of the flow. We provide a descriptive interpretation of these effects, as well as a crude estimate of the dependency of the excess on the temperature gradient.

  4. Migration of a surfactant-laden droplet in non-isothermal Poiseuille flow

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sayan; Som, S K; Chakraborty, Suman


    The motion of a surfactant-laden viscous droplet in the presence of background non-isothermal Poiseuille flow is studied analytically and numerically. Specifically, the effect of interfacial Marangoni stress due to non-uniform distribution of surfactants and temperature at the droplet interface on the velocity and direction of motion of the droplet along the centerline of imposed Poiseuille flow is investigated in the presence of linearly varying temperature field. In the absence of thermal convection, fluid inertia and shape deformation, the interfacial transport of bulk-insoluble surfactants is governed by the surface Peclet number which represents the relative strength of the advective transport of surfactant over the diffusive transport. We obtain analytical solution for small and large values of the surface Peclet number. Numerical solution is obtained for arbitrary surface Peclet number, which compares well with the analytical solution. Depending on the direction of temperature gradient with respect to ...

  5. Structure of caesium disulfate at 120 and 273 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Kenny; Berg, Rolf W.; Eriksen, Kim Michael


    The crystal structures of Cs2S2O7 at 120 and 273 K have been determined from X-ray single-crystal data. Caesium disulfate represents a new structure type with a uniquely high number of independent formula units at 120 K: In one part caesium ions form a tube surrounding the disulfate ions, [Cs8(S2O7...

  6. Lattice dynamical calculations for bcc caesium chloride | Taura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the obtained results agree reasonably well with the experimental data of the bcc Caesium Chloride. Keywords: Bcc caesium chloride; Lattice dynamics; Phonon dispersion; Density of state; Specific heat. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 261 – 266 ...

  7. Distribution coefficients of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium on Olkiluoto soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, M.; Lusa, M.; Virtanen, S.; Vaelimaa, I.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland); Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    Retention of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium was investigated on soil samples from Olkiluoto using laboratory batch sorption experiments. Distribution coefficients were measured for both dried and sieved and untreated (wet, not sieved) mineral soil and humus in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD-analysis. Caesium was sorbed efficiently on mineral soil samples and less efficiently on humus. Sorption decreased with decreasing cation exchange capacity and clay fraction content. The effect of competing cations decreased in the order Cs{sup +}>NH{sub 4}{sup +}>K{sup +}>Ca{sup 2+}>Na{sup +}. Chlorine was not retained by mineral soil samples, and the sorption was weak on humus. The sorption of iodine was the strongest on humus and the weakest on the untreated mineral soil samples in the anaerobic conditions. In the mineral soil samples, the sorption decreased with decreasing organic matter content and increasing pH. The retention of niobium on soil samples was the most efficient among the studied elements. The retention was high regardless of the aeration conditions. Sorption on humus was smaller. Selenium was retained efficiently on humus. Sorption on mineral soil samples was stronger in aerobic conditions. Sorption increased with time. Technetium was sorbed well on humus and anaerobic, untreated mineral soil samples. Sorption increased with increasing organic matter content and decreasing redox potential. The results from the sorption experiments are used in the site specific radionuclide migration modelling. (orig.)

  8. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina


    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  9. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina


    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  10. New Composite Sorbents for Caesium and Strontium Ions Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kartel


    Full Text Available Composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from plant residues of agriculture and food industry, modified with ferrocyanides of d-metals and hydrated antimony pentoxide were prepared. Caesium and strontium ions removal from water was tested by radiotracer method. Sorption of heavy metal ions, methylene blue, gelatin, vitamin B12 was also studied.

  11. The distribution of radioactive caesium in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment, Dept. of NBC Defence, Umeaa (Sweden)


    The behaviour of radioactive caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in boreal forests of the Nordic countries is reviewed with emphasis on its distribution in various time perspectives. The analysis has thus been focused on data of relevance for both early and later phases after fallout over forest areas. Possibilities and limitation in using data from other time periods or regions, than that characterised by fallout over the boreal zones after the Chernobyl event are also discussed. This concerns extrapolations from information pertaining to neighbouring ecological areas - at higher altitudes (alpine, and sub-alpine regions) or below the southern limit (i.e. in the hemiboreal and nemoboreal zones), and to future time with respect to predictions of the behaviour of Cs-137, based on results for OLD (i.e. from atmospheric weapons tests - mainly in the sixties) versus CHERNOBYL caesium. Beside the principal terrestrial constituents of the soil-plant-animal system, the BOREAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM will for the present purpose be considered to comprise the semi-aquatic and aquatic components pertaining to peat, open peat bog, and ground water. This implies that run-off from a catchment constitutes the main link between the terrestrial part considered here and the aquatic ecosystem proper. In boreal forests the humus layer usually retains a major fraction of the fallout of radioactive caesium, evidently even several decades after deposition. This notable feature, as well as a persistent high availability in important food-chains, emerges from the present Nordic radioecological research. Both constitute facets of a singularity conservative - although not at all static - situation prevailing for radioactive caesium in the boreal forest. The implication is that for Cs-137 physical decay will be the major factor of loss from the boreal ecosystem in a long-term perspective, and that runoff, particularly from peat bogs, is expected to be the second in order of importance. (orig./HP).

  12. Optimization of caesium dynamics in large and powerful RF sources for negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimo, Alessandro; Wimmer, Christian; Wuenderlich, Dirk; Fantz, Ursel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    The development of large and powerful RF sources for negative hydrogen and deuterium ions is mandatory for the realization of the Neutral Beam Injection system at ITER. Caesium seeding into negative ion sources is necessary to obtain the required ion current with a tolerable level of co-extracted electrons. The caesium dynamics, during both plasma and vacuum phases, was investigated by means of the Monte Carlo transport code CsFlow3D, which is used to simulate the time evolution of the distribution of neutral and ionic caesium in the IPP prototype RF ion source. Simulations were performed for different durations of plasma-on and plasma-off phases, with the purpose of understanding how the duty cycle influences the caesium distribution and hence the source performance. In order to investigate asymmetry effects in the caesium distribution, caused by the positioning of caesium evaporator, the caesium coverage on the top and on the bottom part of the plasma grid was simulated and data were compared to the caesium density measured by laser absorption in the prototype source. The next step will be to introduce in the code the simulation of diagnostics such as laser absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy, in order to achieve a direct benchmark of the code with experimental data.

  13. Available area isotherm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, JC; Wesselingh, JA

    A new isotherm is presented for adsorption of proteins, the available area isotherm. This isotherm has a steric basis, unlike the (steric) mass action model. The shape of the available area isotherm is determined only by geometric exclusion. With the new isotherm, experimental results can be fitted

  14. Caesium extraction by calixarene molecules: Some aspects of extraction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Volle, G


    In the framework of the environment Code (2000 studies were developed to recover long-lived fission products (F.P.) from acidic highly radioactive effluents issuing the reprocessing of spent fuels, to destroy them by transmutation or to encapsulate them into specific matrices. Efforts had been directed towards caesium, particularly {sup 135}Cs, which is one of the most harmful fission products because of its long half life (more than 2.10{sup 6} years) and its mobility in repository. The flow-sheet will be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was decided to define a process based on liquid-liquid extraction. Crown-calixarenes molecules were chosen for process development. To refine the flowsheet diagram, it is necessary to know the rate constants of the implied chemical reactions involved in the extraction. This paper describes the first determination of rate constant in the Cs extraction with crown calixarenes. (authors)

  15. Highly NO2 sensitive caesium doped graphene oxide conductometric sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Piloto


    Full Text Available Here we report on the synthesis of caesium doped graphene oxide (GO-Cs and its application to the development of a novel NO2 gas sensor. The GO, synthesized by oxidation of graphite through chemical treatment, was doped with Cs by thermal solid-state reaction. The samples, dispersed in DI water by sonication, have been drop-casted on standard interdigitated Pt electrodes. The response of both pristine and Cs doped GO to NO2 at room temperature is studied by varying the gas concentration. The developed GO-Cs sensor shows a higher response to NO2 than the pristine GO based sensor due to the oxygen functional groups. The detection limit measured with GO-Cs sensor is ≈90 ppb.

  16. Zeolite and bentonite as caesium binders in reindeer feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman


    Full Text Available The effects of zeolite and bentonite on the accumulation and excretion of radiocaesium (Cs-137 in reindeer were studied in two feeding experiments. Six animals in each experiment were given lichens contaminated with radiocaesium from fallout after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In addition, they were fed pellets containing bentonite (Experiment I or zeolite (Experiment II. Two animals, controls, in each experiment received no caesium-binder. The activity concentration of radiocaesium in blood was used to evalute the radiocaesium level in the body. Faeces and urine were collected to measue the excration of radiocaesium. The animals in Experiment I were depleted of radiocaesium before the start of the experiment. After three weeks, with an intake of 17 - 18 kBq Cs-137/day, the controls had reached activity concentrations of radiocaesium in blood corresponding to 4 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. Reindeer fed 23 or 46 g of bentonite per day stabilized at values below 0.8 kfiq/kg in muscle. In Experiment II, the reindeer started with radiocaesium activity concentrations in blood corresponding to 2 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. After four weeks of feeding, with an intake at about 8.5 kBq Cs-137/day, controls had increased their radiocaesium values by an average of 40%. Reindeer receiving 25 or 50 g zeolite per day decreased with 18 and 45%, respectively. Net absorption of radiocaesium from the gastro-intestinal tract was calculated at 50 -70% in animals receiving no caesium-binder. Reindeer fed bentonite had an absorption below 10% while those fed zeolite absorbed around 35%.

  17. Density functional theory metadynamics of silver, caesium and palladium diffusion at β-SiC grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabone, Jeremy, E-mail: [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); López-Honorato, Eddie [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo, Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial, Ramos Arizpe 25900, Coahuila (Mexico)


    Highlights: • DFT metadynamics of diffusion of Pd, Ag and Cs on grain boundaries in β-SiC. • The calculated diffusion rates for Pd and Ag tally with experimental release rates. • A mechanism of release other than grain boundary diffusion seems likely for Cs. - Abstract: The use of silicon carbide in coated nuclear fuel particles relies on this materials impermeability towards fission products under normal operating conditions. Determining the underlying factors that control the rate at which radionuclides such as Silver-110m and Caesium-137 can cross the silicon carbide barrier layers, and at which fission products such as palladium could compromise or otherwise alter the nature of this layer, are of paramount importance for the safety of this fuel. To this end, DFT-based metadynamics simulations are applied to the atomic diffusion of silver, caesium and palladium along a Σ5 grain boundary and to palladium along a carbon-rich Σ3 grain boundary in cubic silicon carbide at 1500 K. For silver, the calculated diffusion coefficients lie in a similar range (7.04 × 10{sup −19}–3.69 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) as determined experimentally. For caesium, the calculated diffusion rates are very much slower (3.91 × 10{sup −23}–2.15 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) than found experimentally, suggesting a different mechanism to the simulation. Conversely, the calculated atomic diffusion of palladium is very much faster (7.96 × 10{sup −11}–7.26 × 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) than the observed penetration rate of palladium nodules. This points to the slow dissolution and rapid regrowth of palladium nodules as a possible ingress mechanism in addition to the previously suggested migration of entire nodules along grain boundaries. The diffusion rate of palladium along the Σ3 grain boundary was calculated to be slightly slower (2.38 × 10{sup −11}–8.24 × 10{sup −10} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) than along the Σ5 grain boundary. Rather

  18. Assessment of the caesium-137 flux adsorbed to suspended sediment in a reservoir in the contaminated Fukushima region in Japan. (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Golosov, Valentin; Shiiba, Michiharu; Hori, Tomoharu


    We estimated the flux of caesium-137 adsorbed to suspended sediment in the Kusaki Dam reservoir in the Fukushima region of eastern Japan, which was contaminated by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. The amount and rate of reservoir sedimentation and the caesium-137 concentration were validated based on the mixed-particle distribution and a sediment transport equation. The caesium-137 and sediment flux data suggested that wash load, suspended load sediment, and caesium-137 were deposited and the discharge and transport processes generated acute pollution, especially during extreme rainfall-runoff events. Additionally, we qualitatively assessed future changes in caesium-137 and sediment fluxes in the reservoir. The higher deposition and discharge at the start of the projection compared to the 2090s are most likely explained by the radioactive decay of caesium-137 and the effects of reservoir sedimentation. Predictions of the impacts of future climate on sediment and caesium-137 fluxes are crucial for environmental planning and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DFT study of caesium ion complexation by cucurbit[n]urils (n = 5-7). (United States)

    Pichierri, Fabio


    Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the available crystallographic data we have investigated the binding of hydrated Cs(+) ions to the pumpkin-shaped cucurbituril macrocycles, CB[n] with n = 5-7. The calculations indicate that besides the interactions between caesium ions and the carbonyl-laced portals, also the hydrogen bonds established between the coordinated water molecules and the macrocycle do contribute to the overall binding affinity. Although the other alkali metal ions compete for binding with caesium, the partial dehydration of the caesium aqua ions is likely favoured by the relatively small interaction energy associated with the water-Cs(+) bond. The inclusion inside the macrocycle's cavity of either one water molecule or one chloride anion enhances the binding of Cs(+) due to the additional ion-dipole or ion-ion interactions, respectively, established within the complexes. An advantage in using cucurbituril macrocycles for the sequestration of caesium ions from an aqueous solution is the possibility of binding two hydrated metal ions by the carbonyl-laced portals thereby forming 1 : 2 complexes.

  20. Modelling of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.; Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.


    The Chernobyl accident has clearly shown the long-term effects of a radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems. This report is based on a literature review of models which describe the migration of radionuclides, radioactive caesium in particular, in forest ecosystems. The report describes the particularities of the forest ecosystem, the time dynamics of the contamination, the transfer processes and factors influencing caesium migration. This provides a basis for a discussion of different approaches for modelling caesium migration in the forest. It is concluded that the studied dynamic models include the most relevant transfer processes both for the acute and the long-term phase after a radioactive deposition. However, most models are site specific and do not consider some of the factors responsible for the differences in radionuclide behaviour and distribution in different types of forests. Although model improvements are constrained by the availability of experimental data and by the lack of knowledge of the migration mechanisms some possible improvements are discussed. This report is part of the LANDSCAPE project. -An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in the semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. 42 refs, 3 tabs, 9 figs.

  1. Caesium-rich micro-particles: A window into the meltdown events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (United States)

    Furuki, Genki; Imoto, Junpei; Ochiai, Asumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Nanba, Kenji; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Grambow, Bernd; Ewing, Rodney C.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi


    The nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 caused partial meltdowns of three reactors. During the meltdowns, a type of condensed particle, a caesium-rich micro-particle (CsMP), formed inside the reactors via unknown processes. Here we report the chemical and physical processes of CsMP formation inside the reactors during the meltdowns based on atomic-resolution electron microscopy of CsMPs discovered near the FDNPP. All of the CsMPs (with sizes of 2.0-3.4 μm) comprise SiO2 glass matrices and ~10-nm-sized Zn-Fe-oxide nanoparticles associated with a wide range of Cs concentrations (1.1-19 wt% Cs as Cs2O). Trace amounts of U are also associated with the Zn-Fe oxides. The nano-texture in the CsMPs records multiple reaction-process steps during meltdown in the severe FDNPP accident: Melted fuel (molten core)-concrete interactions (MCCIs), incorporating various airborne fission product nanoparticles, including CsOH and CsCl, proceeded via SiO2 condensation over aggregates of Zn-Fe oxide nanoparticles originating from the failure of the reactor pressure vessels. Still, CsMPs provide a mechanism by which volatile and low-volatility radionuclides such as U can reach the environment and should be considered in the migration model of Cs and radionuclides in the current environment surrounding the FDNPP.

  2. Deposition of caesium and strontium substances on growing crops: Effects and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, S. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Soil and Environment (Sweden))


    Full text: To investigate how the two radionuclides caesium (134Cs) and strontium (85Sr) are taken up and transported to the harvested parts (the seeds) by fallout in a growing crop. Further on how this is related to the size and time of the fallout. From the information collected recommendation of suitable countermeasures at different scenarios to prevent further spreading to food stuff can be suggested. In the project a number of field trials where artificial deposited by the two radionuclides 134Cs and 85Sr in a contaminated rainfall, on the two agricultural crops Brassica napus L. (spring rape) and Triticum aestivum L. (spring wheat). The trial contained different treatments where the radionuclides where deposited by a rainfall simulator at different growing stages of the crops. The field trial continues for two more years and the reason for that is due to the variation of the climate for the different years. The radionuclides were applied in the form of a wet deposition and the rainfall was about 1 mm m-1 with a concentration of 20 kBq m-1 for each radionuclide. Samples were taken from the plots at the day(s) after the treatment of contaminated rainfall, both from the latest treated plots and from the earlier treated plots. The hypotheses are: 1. That the size of the deposition and the time in relation to the development stages of the crop will steer how much caesium and strontium that are coughed, detained and transferred to the harvested parts. 2. That the levels of caesium and strontium in the harvested parts of the crops are related to the insensitivity of the rainfall after a deposition and also how long time the first intensive rain will occur. 3. That the size of caesium and strontium in harvested plant parts are related to the size of uptake throw the leaves. 4. If the deposition of caesium and strontium will be the same, the levels of caesium will be much higher than strontium in the harvested parts. (author)

  3. Crystal structure control of aluminized clay minerals on the mobility of caesium in contaminated soil environments (United States)

    Dzene, Liva; Ferrage, Eric; Viennet, Jean-Christophe; Tertre, Emmanuel; Hubert, Fabien


    Radioactive caesium pollution resulting from Fukushima Dai-ichi and Chernobyl nuclear plant accidents involves strong interactions between Cs+ and clays, especially vermiculite-type minerals. In acidic soil environments, such as in Fukushima area, vermiculite is subjected to weathering processes, resulting in aluminization. The crystal structure of aluminized clays and its implications for Cs+ mobility in soils remain poorly understood due to the mixture of these minerals with other clays and organic matter. We performed acidic weathering of a vermiculite to mimic the aluminization process in soils. Combination of structure analysis and Cs+ extractability measurements show that the increase of aluminization is accompanied by an increase in Cs+ mobility. Crystal structure model for aluminized vermiculite is based on the interstratification of unaltered vermiculite layers and aluminized layers within the same particle. Cs+ in vermiculite layers is poorly mobile, while the extractability of Cs+ is greatly enhanced in aluminized layers. The overall reactivity of the weathered clay (cation exchange capacity, Cs+ mobility) is then governed by the relative abundance of the two types of layers. The proposed layer model for aluminized vermiculite with two coexisting populations of caesium is of prime importance for predicting the fate of caesium in contaminated soil environments.

  4. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H- formation at ion source relevant parameters (United States)

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.


    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density nH- /ne is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of nH- /ne on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5 cm at 0.3 Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance nH- /ne like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5 cm sample distance and 0.3 Pa, linearly decreasing with decreasing distance to 7% at 1.5 cm. Thus, tantalum and tungsten do not

  5. Intravesicle Isothermal DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Lindsey A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial and viral DNA replication was previously reconstituted in vitro from component parts 1234. Significant advances in building minimal cell-like structures also have been made recently 567. Combining the two approaches would further attempts to build a minimal cell-like structure capable of undergoing evolution by combining membrane encapsulation and genome replication. Towards this end, we attempted to use purified genomic replication protein components from thermophilic bacterial sources to copy strands of DNA isothermally within lipid vesicles. Findings Bacterial replication components (such as helicases and DNA polymerases are compatible with methods for the generation of lipid vesicles. Encapsulation inside phospholipid vesicles does not inhibit the activity of bacterial DNA genome replication machinery. Further the described system is efficient at isothermally amplifying short segments of DNA within phospholipid vesicles. Conclusions Herein we show that bacterial isothermal DNA replication machinery is functional inside of phospholipid vesicles, suggesting that replicating cellular mimics can be built from purified bacterial components.

  6. The radiation defect accumulation in scintillative crystals of caesium halides under intense electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Galiy, P V


    The characteristics of defect accumulation and radiolysis at CsI crystals under mean energies of electron irradiation at wide dose rates and ranges of doses have been investigated by such methods: thermostimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS). The limit dose rates and absorbed doses of electron irradiation that lead to defects accumulation at room temperature in crystals volume and also surface stoichiometry violation have been evaluated. The doses of electron irradiation that lead to CsI radiolysis, with caesium coagulation in metallic phase have been determined. Some quasi periodic connection of such process with irradiation dose was observed.

  7. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

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    Sposito Garrison


    Full Text Available Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  8. Isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Lewis, Edwin A; Murphy, Kenneth P


    Isothermal titration calorimetry is an ideal technique for measuring biological binding interactions. It does not rely on the presence of chromophores or fluorophores, nor does it require an enzymatic assay. Because the technique relies only on the detection of a heat effect upon binding, it can be used to measure the binding constant, K, the enthalpy of binding, DeltaH degrees and the stoichiometry, or number of binding sites, n. This chapter describes instrumentation, experimental design, and the theoretical underpinnings necessary to run and analyze a calorimetric binding experiment.

  9. Micrometer-level naked-eye detection of caesium particulates in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizo Mori, Masaaki Akamatsu, Ken Okamoto, Masato Sumita, Yoshitaka Tateyama, Hideki Sakai, Jonathan P Hill, Masahiko Abe and Katsuhiko Ariga


    Full Text Available Large amounts of radioactive material were released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan, contaminating the local environment. During the early stages of such nuclear accidents, iodine I-131 (half-life 8.02 d is usually detectable in the surrounding atmosphere and bodies of water. On the other hand, in the long-term, soil and water contamination by Cs-137, which has a half-life of 30.17 years, is a serious problem. In Japan, the government is planning and carrying out radioactive decontamination operations not only with public agencies but also non-governmental organizations, making radiation measurements within Japan. If caesium (also radiocaesium could be detected by the naked eye then its environmental remediation would be facilitated. Supramolecular material approaches, such as host–guest chemistry, are useful in the design of high-resolution molecular sensors and can be used to convert molecular-recognition processes into optical signals. In this work, we have developed molecular materials (here, phenols as an optical probe for caesium cation-containing particles with implementation based on simple spray-on reagents and a commonly available fluorescent lamp for naked-eye detection in the solid state. This chemical optical probe provides a higher spatial resolution than existing radioscopes and gamma-ray cameras.

  10. Sources of present Chernobyl-derived caesium concentrations in surface air and deposition samples. (United States)

    Hötzl, H; Rosner, G; Winkler, R


    The sources of Chernobyl-derived caesium concentrations in air and deposition samples collected from mid-1986 to the end of 1990 at Munich-Neuherberg, Germany, were investigated. Local resuspension has been found to be the main source. By comparison with deposition data from other locations it is estimated that within a range from 20 Bq m-2 to 60 kBq m-2 of initially deposited 137Cs activity approximately 2% is re-deposited by the process of local resuspension in Austria, Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom, while significantly higher total resuspension is to be expected for Denmark and Finland. Stratospheric contribution to the present concentrations is shown to be negligible. This is confirmed by cross correlation analysis between the time series of 137Cs in air and precipitation before and after the Chernobyl accident and the respective time series of cosmogenic 7Be, which is an indicator of stratospheric input. Seasonal variations of caesium concentrations with maxima in the winter months were observed.

  11. Photoluminescence properties of Er-doped Ge–In(Ga)–S glasses modified by caesium halides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, Z.G.; Zavadil, Jiří; Kostka, P.; Djouama, T.; Reinfelde, M.


    Roč. 254, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 1600662. ISSN 0370-1972 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : caesium halides * chalcohalide glass es * erbium doping * transmission spectroscopy * photoluminiscence Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2016

  12. Photoluminescence properties of Er-doped Ge–In(Ga)–S glasses modified by caesium halides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, Z.G.; Zavadil, Jiří; Kostka, Petr; Djouama, T.; Reinfelde, M.


    Roč. 254, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 1600662. ISSN 0370-1972 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : caesium halides * chalcohalide glass es * erbium doping * transmission spectroscopy * photoluminiscence Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2016

  13. Covariant Description of Isothermic Surfaces (United States)

    Tafel, J.


    We present a covariant formulation of the Gauss-Weingarten equations and the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi equations for surfaces in 3-dimensional curved spaces. We derive a coordinate invariant condition on the first and second fundamental form which is locally necessary and sufficient for the surface to be isothermic. We show how to construct isothermic coordinates.

  14. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments. (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz


    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sorption isotherm measurements by NMR. (United States)

    Leisen, Johannes; Beckham, Haskell W; Benham, Michael


    An experimental setup is described for the automated recording of sorption isotherms by NMR experiments at precisely defined levels of relative humidity (RH). Implementation is demonstrated for a cotton fabric; Bloch decays. T1 and T2* relaxation times were measured at predefined steps of increasing and decreasing relative humidities (RHs) so that a complete isotherm of NMR properties was obtained. Bloch decays were analyzed by fitting to relaxation functions consisting or a slow- and a fast-relaxing component. The fraction of slow-relaxing component was greater than the fraction of sorbed moisture determined from gravimetric sorption data. The excess slow-relaxing component was attributed to plasticized segments of the formerly rigid cellulose matrix. T1 and T2* sorption isotherms exhibit hysteresis similar to gravimetric sorption isotherms. However, correlating RH to moisture content (MC) reveals that both relaxation constants depend only on MC, and not on the history of moisture exposure.

  16. Isolation and identification of cobalt- and caesium-resistant bacteria from a nuclear fuel storage pond. (United States)

    Dekker, Linda; Osborne, Thomas H; Santini, Joanne M


    One of the issues facing the nuclear power industry is how to store spent nuclear fuel which is contaminated with radionuclides produced during nuclear fission, including caesium ((134)Cs(+), (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+)) and cobalt ((60)Co(2+)). In this study, we have isolated Co(2+)- and Cs(+)-resistant bacteria from water collected from a nuclear fuel storage pond. The most resistant Cs(+) and Co(2+) isolates grew in the presence of 500 mM CsCl and 3 mM CoCl2. Strain Cs67-2 is resistant to fourfold more Cs(+) than Cupriavidus metallidurans str. CH34 making it the most Cs(+)-resistant strain identified to date. The Cs(+)-resistant isolates were closely related to bacteria in the Serratia and Yersinia genera, while the Co(2+)-resistant isolates were closely related to the Curvibacter and Tardiphaga genera. These new isolates could be used for bioremediation. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  17. Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites (United States)

    Yakunin, Sergii; Protesescu, Loredana; Krieg, Franziska; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I.; Nedelcu, Georgian; Humer, Markus; de Luca, Gabriele; Fiebig, Manfred; Heiss, Wolfgang; Kovalenko, Maksym V.


    Metal halide semiconductors with perovskite crystal structures have recently emerged as highly promising optoelectronic materials. Despite the recent surge of reports on microcrystalline, thin-film and bulk single-crystalline metal halides, very little is known about the photophysics of metal halides in the form of uniform, size-tunable nanocrystals. Here we report low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from ~10 nm monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br or I, or mixed Cl/Br and Br/I systems). We find that room-temperature optical amplification can be obtained in the entire visible spectral range (440-700 nm) with low pump thresholds down to 5+/-1 μJ cm-2 and high values of modal net gain of at least 450+/-30 cm-1. Two kinds of lasing modes are successfully observed: whispering-gallery-mode lasing using silica microspheres as high-finesse resonators, conformally coated with CsPbX3 nanocrystals and random lasing in films of CsPbX3 nanocrystals.

  18. Baseline Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 inventory assessment for Central Europe (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Borelli, Pasquale; Evrard, Olivier; Ketterer, Michael; Mabit, Lionel; van Oost, Kristof; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos


    Artificial fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 released as products of the thermonuclear weapons testing that took place from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s and from nuclear power plant accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) are useful tools to quantify soil redistribution. In combination with geostatistics, FRNs may have the potential to bridge the gap between small scale process oriented studies and modelling that simplifies processes and effects over large spatial scales. An essential requirement for the application of FRNs as soil erosion tracers is the establishment of the baseline fallout at undisturbed sites before its comparison to those inventories found at sites undergoing erosion/accumulation. For this purpose, undisturbed topsoil (0-20cm) samples collected in 2009 within the framework of the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) have been measured by gamma-spectrometry and ICP-MS to determine 137Cs (n=145) and 239+240Pu (n=108) activities. To restrict the analysis to undisturbed reference sites a geospatial database query selecting only sites having a slope angle Chernobyl fallout. The establishment of such baseline inventory map will provide a unique opportunity to assess soil redistribution for a comparable time-frame (1953-2009) following a harmonised methodological protocol across national boundaries.

  19. Transmutation of ABO4 compounds incorporating technetium-99 and caesium-137 (United States)

    Kuo, E. Y.; Qin, M. J.; Thorogood, G. J.; Huai, P.; Ren, C. L.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Middleburgh, S. C.


    The stability of a series of {AB}{{{O}}}4 minerals incorporating radioactive {}99{Tc} during the latter’s β-decay to {}99{Ru} was investigated theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) computations. The compounds investigated were {{KTcO}}4, {{RbTcO}}4 and {{CsTcO}}4. The stability of the latter, {{CsTcO}}4, during transmutation, when the caesium consists of the radioactive isotope {}137{Cs}, was also investigated. For each of the compounds, two similar possible crystal structure types—scheelite and pseudoscheelite—were considered. As the {}99{Tc} decays, or the {}137{Cs} decays to {}137{Ba}, reaction enthalpies were calculated for possible decompositions or precipitations of the transmuting compounds. All the possible decompositions or precipitations investigated had positive reaction enthalpies, suggesting that the transmuting compounds are all chemically stable. Volume and lattice parameter changes, however, suggest that {{KTcO}}4 would also be structurally stable during transmutation to {{KRuO}}4, but that {{CsTcO}}4 would not be structurally stable during its transmutation to {{BaRuO}}4.

  20. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Ofstad, Frode; Roenning, Jan S.; Watson, Robin J.


    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days ({approx} 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focussing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway. (auth)

  1. Distribution of radioactive caesium in the population of northern Sweden 1988-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, L.; Wickman, G.; Aagren, G. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Eriksson, A. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Forensic Medicine; Jonsson, H.; Tavelin, B. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology


    During the period from May 1988 until June 1993 the {sup 137}Cs concentration was measured in 751 samples of psoas muscle from selected medico-legal autopsy cases in the northern half of Sweden. In this area the deposition level of {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl accident varied from negligible to 100 kBq.m{sup -2}. Northern Sweden is characterised by large boreal forest areas and a sparse population. The rural population often has a high level of subsistence through meat from reindeer, moose and other game, fresh water fish, forest wild berries and mushrooms. From a multiple linear regression performed on the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the 751 measured samples of human muscle, the effective half-time of caesium whole-body content in the population could be assessed as 3.7 years. A slight increase in {sup 137}Cs concentration was observed with the age of the individual and a significant difference between the sexes, the level for men exceeded that for women by 23%. The dose commitment to this population of approximately 900,000 inhabitants from internal radiation due to the Chernobyl debris could, by this model, be estimated at 220 man.Sv which, with the current ICRP lifetime risk estimates, would cause an addition of ten fatal cancer cases. (author).

  2. Adapting the Caesium-137 technique to document soil redistribution rates associated with traditional cultivation practices in Haiti. (United States)

    Velasco, H; Astorga, R Torres; Joseph, D; Antoine, J S; Mabit, L; Toloza, A; Dercon, G; Walling, Des E


    Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of 137Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area. The local 137Cs reference inventory, measured at an adjacent undisturbed flat area, was 670 Bq m-2 (SD = 100 Bq m-2, CV = 15%, n = 7). Within the study area, where cultivation commenced in 1992 after deforestation, three representative downslope transects were sampled. These were characterized by 137Cs inventories ranging from 190 to 2200 Bq m-2. Although, the study area was cultivated by the local farmers, the 137Cs depth distributions obtained from the area differed markedly from those expected from a cultivated area. They showed little evidence of tillage mixing within the upper part of the soil or, more particularly, of the near-uniform activities normally associated with the plough layer or cultivation horizon. They were very similar to that found at the reference site and were characterized by high 137Cs activities at the surface and much lower activities at greater depths. This situation is thought to reflect the traditional manual tillage practices which cause limited disturbance and mixing of the upper part of the soil. It precluded the use of the conversion models normally used to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements on cultivated soils and the Diffusion and Migration conversion model frequently used for uncultivated soils was modified for application to

  3. The influence of caesium-137 distribution in Poland's north-eastern ecosystem on effective dose 10 years after the Chernobyl disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalewski, M.; Kapata, J.; Tomczak, M


    A comparison is presented of particular methods of exposure in the first year after the Chernobyl disaster and ten years later. This comparison shows that the population exposure due to the presence of radiocaesium in the environment results from the presence of caesium contained in the soil, which provides 68% of the dose (as compared to 32% in 1987) while the influence of diet has been reduced to 32% (from 68%). The exposure from caesium-137 contained in the air has dropped from 14% to 0. The effective dose from caesium has been 50 times smaller than that from environmental sources of the natural radiation estimated for the region under study to be 1.61 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  4. Radioactive caesium in Boreal forest landscapes - Dynamics and transport in food webs. Summary of research 1986-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T


    The need for - but also the paucity of - radioecological knowledge concerning the boreal forest became particularly apparent after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl in April 1986. As a consequence several new projects were initiated in the Nordic countries with particular focus on the behaviour of radioactivecaesium in terrestrial and aquatic systems characteristic for the Fenno-Scandinavian landscapes. Among these new projects a multi-disciplinary co-operation in Umeaa between scientists at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and the Defence Research Establishment emerged. Initially this joint work focused mainly on descriptions of the dynamic changes of the content of radioactive caesium in soil-plant and animal communities in the county of Vaesterbotten. Most of the studies have been performed at the Vindeln experimental forest, 60 km NW of Umeaa. Plants of key interest were: bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), birch (Betula spp.), and pine (Pinus sylvestris), and among the animals: the moose (Alces alces) and a small rodent, the forest vole (Clethrionomus glareolus). Gradually over the past ten years the research has entered the stage where the specific causes of the caesium behaviour have been addressed - partly by the help of models developed for simulating forest ecosystems, partly by complementary field experiments. This paper reviews our main findings on this theme concerning the behaviour of radioactive caesium in boreal landscapes and significant pathways to man, as has become apparent from the radioecological co-operation dating from about ten years back. A list of the publications arising from these studies since 1986 is also presented in this report.

  5. Conformational changes in gastric mucoproteins induced by caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride (United States)

    Snary, David; Allen, Adrian; Pain, Roger H.


    1. Caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride were shown to cause conformational changes in the high-molecular-weight mucoprotein A of water-soluble gastric mucus with no change in molecular weight. 2. Increasing concentrations of CsCl decrease the viscosity of the mucoprotein bringing about a transition which is essentially complete in 0.1m-CsCl. The shear-dependence of viscosity of the mucoprotein is abolished by low concentrations of CsCl. The normally highly expanded molecule becomes contracted in CsCl to a molecule having the same symmetry but a smaller volume and decreased solvation, in keeping with an increased sedimentation coefficient (18.7S→33S). 3. This contracted form does not revert to the native conformation on removal of the CsCl. 4. A mechanism is discussed in terms of the effect of the Cs+ and Cl−ions on water structure and the water–mucoprotein interaction. 5. Guanidinium chloride causes the CsCl-treated material to expand, in keeping with a decrease in s025,w (33S→26S). This is analogous to the known unfolding effect of guanidinium chloride on proteins and suggests that guanidinium chloride solubilizes groups involved in stabilizing the contracted structure. Removal of the guanidinium chloride results in a limited aggregation of four mucoprotein molecules. 6. These results show that caution must be exercised before interpreting the physical properties of mucoproteins which have been treated with CsCl and/or guanidinium chloride. PMID:4463954

  6. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry of RNA


    Salim, Nilshad N.; Feig, Andrew L.


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a fast and robust method to study the physical basis of molecular interactions. A single well-designed experiment can provide complete thermodynamic characterization of a binding reaction, including Ka, ΔG, ΔH, ΔS and reaction stoichiometry (n). Repeating the experiment at different temperatures allows determination of the heat capacity change (ΔCP) of the interaction. Modern calorimeters are sensitive enough to probe even weak biological interactions...

  7. The burden of cesium 137 in forest clerks; Die Belastung mit Caesium 137 bei Beschaeftigten der Forstverwaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechotowski, I.; Jaroni, J. [Landesgesundheitsamt Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Link, B. [Arbeits- und Sozialministerium des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Groezinger, O. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)


    In 47 forest clerks from the regions Ortenau and Oberschwaben in south-west Germany the incorporation of cesium 137 and potassium 40 was measured in autumn 1994. Soil burden as well as burden of nutrition with cesium 137 are different in these regions for geological reasons and as a result of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. Caused by low content of clay in Oberschwaben, the transfer of cesium to plants is assisted. Heavy rainfall after the nuclear accident led to an additional increase of burden. The median of the concentration of cesium 137 was 1.4 Bq/kg body weight. The median for potassium 40 was 58 Bq/kg body weight. For cesium 137 regional differences were observed. For persons from Oberschwaben the median for cesium 137 was with 2.8 Bq/kg body weight clearly higher than for persons from Ortenau with 0,6 Bq/kg body weight. Concerning nutrition habits, the clearest difference was found comparing persons who had ate a minimum of four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks with persons who had ate less than four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks. The difference was greater in Oberschwaben than in Ortenau. The effective dose of cesium 137 calculated on the basis of the incorporation is very low compared to natural radiation. This is also valid for persons from Oberschwaben. (orig.) [German] Im Herbst 1994 wurde bei insgesamt 47 Bediensteten der Forstverwaltung aus den Regionen Ortenaukreis und Oberschwaben die Inkorportation an Caesium 137 und Kalium 40 gemessen. Sowohl die Bodenbelastung als auch die Belastung von Nahrungsmitteln mit Caesium 137 unterscheiden sich in diesen Gebieten bedingt durch geologische Besonderheiten und in Folge des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl. Aufgrund eines geringen Anteils an Tonerden wird in Oberschwaben der Caesiumtransfer in Pflanzen beguenstigt, eine zusaetzliche Erhoehung der Belastung erfolgte durch starke Niederschlaege nach dem Reaktorunfall. Die Konzentration fuer

  8. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.


    caesium concentration in minke whales from the North Sea is in accordance with previous findings that Cs-137 levels in the marine environment of the North Atlantic region decrease with increasing distance from major point sources (i.e. nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in the UK and France, and outflow...

  9. Isothermal titration calorimetry of RNA. (United States)

    Salim, Nilshad N; Feig, Andrew L


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a fast and robust method to study the physical basis of molecular interactions. A single well-designed experiment can provide complete thermodynamic characterization of a binding reaction, including K(a), DeltaG, DeltaH, DeltaS and reaction stoichiometry (n). Repeating the experiment at different temperatures allows determination of the heat capacity change (DeltaC(P)) of the interaction. Modern calorimeters are sensitive enough to probe even weak biological interactions making ITC a very popular method among biochemists. Although ITC has been applied to protein studies for many years, it is becoming widely applicable in RNA biochemistry as well, especially in studies which involve RNA folding and RNA interactions with small molecules, proteins and with other RNAs. This review focuses on best practices for planning, designing and executing effective ITC experiments when one or more of the reactants is an RNA.

  10. Improved electron collection in fullerene via caesium iodide or carbonate by means of annealing in inverted organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Jouad Zouhair


    Full Text Available Inverted organic photovoltaic cells (IOPVCs, based on the planar heterojunction C60/CuPc, were grown using MoO3 as anode buffer layer and CsI or Cs2CO3 as cathode buffer layer (CBL, the cathode being an ITO coated glass. Work functions, Φf, of treated cathode were estimated using the cyclic voltammetry method. It is shown that Φf of ITO covered with a Cs compounds is decreased. This decrease is amplified by the annealing. It is shown that the thermal deposition under vacuum of the CBL induces a partial decomposition of the caesium compounds. In parallel, the formation of a compound with the In of ITO is put in evidence. This reaction is amplified by annealing, which allows obtaining IOPVCs with improved efficiency. The optimum annealing conditions is 150 °C for 5 min.

  11. [Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate]. (United States)

    Morfeld, P; Reddemann, J; Schungel, P; Kienzle, E


    This replication study investigated whether the 137caesium (137Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories.

  12. Relationship between caesium-137 and soil organic carbon (SOC) in cultivated and uncultivated/grazing landscapes (United States)

    Martinez, C.; Hancock, G. R.; Kalma, J. D.


    The soil carbon pool is a key element within the global carbon cycle. Almost twice the size of the atmospheric carbon pool, and approximately three times that of all living things (biosphere), the soil carbon pool is a significant sink or reservoir for organic carbon. The impact of soil redistribution processes (i.e. soil erosion and deposition) on the movement, storage and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) has become a subject of debate amongst the scientific community. One school of thought claims soil erosion promotes the storage or sequestration of C (i.e. erosion is a net atmospheric C sink), while others suggest that soil erosion leads to the removal of SOC from the landscape through reduced productivity and soil degradation (i.e. erosion is a net atmospheric C source). Recently, studies have investigated the effects of soil redistribution on SOC using the caesium-137 (137Cs) radio-isotope method. The 137Cs method provides an opportunity to trace the fate of soil (and SOC) in a spatially distributed fashion. Strong and statistically significant relationships between SOC and 137Cs have been observed in heavily cultivated (i.e. highly disturbed) landscapes. These findings have lead to a number of common conclusions, namely that 137Cs and SOC are moving by the same physical processes and the same physical pathways, leading to the possibility of using 137Cs as tool by which to determine SOC distribution patterns. While the literature regarding the relationship between SOC and 137Cs within highly disturbed, cultivated landscapes appears to be reasonably established, there has been a dearth of studies in uncultivated (i.e. largely undisturbed) environments. In this study, we use the 137Cs method to quantify soil redistribution patterns (vertical and lateral) and examine the relationship with SOC for a 150ha catchment in the Upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The study site has a number of areas which are subject to different land use histories

  13. 'Migration & Integration'


    Lisa Pilgram


    Migration, Integration : [kommunalpolitische Herausforderungen]. - Augsburg : Geo-Anwenderzentrum, [ca. 2004]. - XVIII, 281 S. - (Angewandte Sozialgeographie ; 49) (GEO-Taschenbuch). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2003

  14. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić


    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  15. Cohort migration. (United States)

    Taeuber, K E


    Most migration analyses focus on net migration and are concerned with areal redistributions of population. Migration may also be studied as an event in the life-cycle of an individual, and migration rates may be defined as properties of cohorts. A number of efforts to examine migration as a cohort process has been hampered by the character of available data [or the United States. Rather than await the development of a registration system-either directly or via social security and tax records-the collection of residence histories is suggested as the most feasible approach to obtaining suitable data. A schematic representation of residence histories clarifies their relation to other types of migration data and illustrates the need to design such surveys with specific research purposes in mind. Exploratory work with the 1958 Residence History Supplement to the Current Population Survey (by Beale, Shryock, myself, and various colleagues) demonstrates the utility of this approach.Local studies have made fruitful use of residence histories but typically are unable to delineate birth cohorts or other appropriate base populations exposed to risk. Development of cohort migration techniques analogous to the life table approach to mortality or cohort Jertility analysis requires national data. But migration, unlike Jertility and mortality, involves events that are reversible and repeatable. Hence the demographer's stock of analytic tools requires expansion. To the sociologist-demographer, experimentation with cohort migration models seems to be getting at one of the crucial methodological problems of sociology, the analysis of social mobility. A mutually profitable interchange with students of social mobility is envisaged.

  16. [Internal migration]. (United States)

    Borisovna, L


    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  17. A novel LC-IDMS/MS method for the determination of the cardiac glycosides digoxin and digitoxin using caesium adducts. (United States)

    Kaiser, Patricia; Akerboom, Theodorus; Wood, William Graham; Reinauer, Hans


    This article describes an essential improvement of the published candidate reference measurement procedure for digoxin and digitoxin and compares it with the original method. The novelty of the method lies in the measurement of the caesium (Cs+) ion as product ion in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) with potentially improved analytical specificity whilst retaining a comparable accuracy and precision at therapeutic levels. The original measurement procedure used the single-ion mode (SIM). The dissociation of the Cs+ adducts in MRM leads to the formation of Cs+ ions as main charged product in high yield. The present method results in a product ion signal intensity in MRM for digoxin and digitoxin of up to 80% of the precursor ion signal intensity in SIM. The precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the new method for digoxin was 3.18% (SIM) and 2.28% (MRM) at a concentration of 0.66 microg/l and 1.26% (SIM) or 1.65% (MRM) at 2.0 microg/l. The corresponding data for digitoxin were 1.21% (SIM) and 1.62% (MRM) at 24 microg/l and 1.46% (SIM) and 1.13% (MRM) at 42 microg/l.

  18. Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake reduce contamination of forage grasses? - Can inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium accumulation by forage grasses be used to reduce contamination of cows' milk in radiologically contaminated areas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrose, B. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Beresford, N. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Broadley, M.; Crout, N.M.J.; King, J.; Young, S. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Lovatt, A. [Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3E E (United Kingdom); Thomson, R. [Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Roddinglaw Road, Edinburgh, EH12 9FJ (United Kingdom)


    Radiocaesium and radiostrontium primarily enter the food chain via plant root uptake, including indirectly via animal fodders. Inter-species variation in caesium and strontium accumulation in plants has previously been reported to be over two orders of magnitude. This variation could be exploited to select crops with relatively low uptake to reduce transfer of these radionuclides to consumers in contaminated areas. Exploiting intra-species (i.e. inter-cultivar) variation in caesium and strontium uptake has not yet been evaluated as a remediation strategy as sufficient data have not been available. As cows' milk has been one of the main contributors to human dose following the Chernobyl and Mayak accidents, we have chosen to focus on elucidating the extent and nature of inter-cultivar variation in caesium and strontium uptake in forage grasses. A total of 412 cultivars from four species of forage grass; perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; 284 cultivars), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; 17 cultivars), hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridum; 101 cultivars) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; 10 cultivars) were sampled from 20 sets of experimental plots in Aberystwyth (Wales, UK) and Edinburgh (Scotland, UK). Fifty-nine cultivars were grown in both locations. At least three replicates of the same cultivar were grown in each set of plots. Vegetation samples from 2208 plots were collected both in spring 2013 (May-June) and summer 2013 (August-September). The samples were oven-dried and milled then analysed for elemental composition using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable caesium and strontium were measured as a proxy measurement for radiocaesium and radiostrontium concentrations. Concentrations of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium (potassium and calcium) and a number of other elements were measured. Soil samples from the experimental plots were also collected, dried, milled and analysed using ICP-MS. This paper will present

  19. Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Zih-Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu


    Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) CNW-N are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of S. obliquus CNW-N with increasing temperature is characterized by four-stage decomposition. Depending on the torrefaction temperature, light, mild, and severe torrefaction from the weight loss and the maximum decomposition rate of the microalga can be classified. Under the same average temperature and torrefaction duration, non-isothermal torrefaction gives more severe pretreatment than the isothermal one. Increasing the heating rate of non-isothermal torrefaction also intensifies the pretreatment severity. Therefore, microalgae can be torrefied via non-isothermal torrefaction in a shorter time under the same pretreatment extent. The atomic H/C ratio in the microalga decreases with increasing torrefaction severity, whereas the atomic O/C ratio rises. The analysis suggests that the activation energy of isothermal torrefaction is 57.52×10(3)Jmol(-1), while it is between 40.14×10(3) and 88.41×10(3)Jmol(-1) for non-isothermal torrefaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling of Experimental Adsorption Isotherm Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjun Chen


    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most effective technologies widely used in global environmental protection areas. Modeling of experimental adsorption isotherm data is an essential way for predicting the mechanisms of adsorption, which will lead to an improvement in the area of adsorption science. In this paper, we employed three isotherm models, namely: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich to correlate four sets of experimental adsorption isotherm data, which were obtained by batch tests in lab. The linearized and non-linearized isotherm models were compared and discussed. In order to determine the best fit isotherm model, the correlation coefficient (r2 and standard errors (S.E. for each parameter were used to evaluate the data. The modeling results showed that non-linear Langmuir model could fit the data better than others, with relatively higher r2 values and smaller S.E. The linear Langmuir model had the highest value of r2, however, the maximum adsorption capacities estimated from linear Langmuir model were deviated from the experimental data.

  1. Applicability of Different Isothermal EOS at Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika P. Joshi


    Full Text Available The present study explains the behaviour of nanomaterials such as AlN, CdSe, Ge, WC, and Ni- and Fe-filled-MWCNTs under high pressure. Among the number of isothermal EOSs available, we prefer only two parameter-based isothermal equations (i.e., Murnaghan equation, usual Tait's equation, Suzuki equation and Shanker equation. The present work shows the theoretical study of thermo-elastic properties especially relative compression (V/V0, isothermal bulk modulus (KP/K0, and compressibility (αP/α0 of nanomaterials. After comparing all formulations with available experimental data, we conclude that pressure dependence of relative compression (V/V0 for the nanomaterials, are in good agreement for all the equations at lower pressure range. At higher pressure range, Suzuki and Shanker formulations show some deviation from experimental values.

  2. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  3. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  4. Dateline Migration. (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.


    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  5. A modified version of the combined in-diffusion/abrasive peeling technique for measuring diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in argillaceous rocks: a test study on the diffusion of caesium in Opalinus Clay. (United States)

    Van Loon, Luc R; Müller, Werner


    A filter free diffusion set-up was developed for measuring the diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in indurated argillaceous rocks such as Opalinus Clay (OPA) that normally disintegrate when contacted with a solution. Small bore cores drilled parallel to the bedding plane and embedded in epoxy resin were found to be stable and could be used for performing in-diffusion measurements. The method was tested with the diffusion of caesium, spiked with caesium-134, in Opalinus Clay. The profile of Cs in the clay sample was determined with a modified version of the abrasive peeling technique. The diffusion parameters obtained for caesium were in fair agreement with those determined earlier using the classical through-diffusion technique where stainless steel filters were used to confine the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.





    Gibbs adsorption isotherm of the multicomponent system for concentration instead of chemical potential as independent variables is deduced and explained in a simple way. For the multicomponent system composed of α and β phases with plane interface, if the β phase is a dilute solution, and component k is solvent as well as $c_k^\\alpha \\ll c_k^\\beta, c_i^\\alpha \\ll c_i^\\beta$, Gibbs adsorption isotherm of component i can be expressed as $\\Gamma_i^{(k)} = -(c_i^\\beta/RT)(\\partial \\gamma/\\partial...

  7. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  8. A new approach to predicting environmental transfer of radionuclides to wildlife: A demonstration for freshwater fish and caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A., E-mail: [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Yankovich, T.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Environment and Forestry, 125, 15 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 2X8 (Canada); Wood, M.D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, Room 323, Peel Building, University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Andersson, P. [Strålsäkerhetsnymdigheten, Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Muikku, M. [STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Willey, N.J. [Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)


    The application of the concentration ratio (CR) to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in wildlife from those in soil or water has become the widely accepted approach for environmental assessments. Recently both the ICRP and IAEA have produced compilations of CR values for application in environmental assessment. However, the CR approach has many limitations, most notably, that the transfer of most radionuclides is largely determined by site-specific factors (e.g. water or soil chemistry). Furthermore, there are few, if any, CR values for many radionuclide-organism combinations. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach and, as an example, demonstrate and test this for caesium and freshwater fish. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites. The REML analysis generated a mean value for each species on a common scale after REML adjustment taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we subsequently test the hypothesis that the REML model outputs can be used to predict radionuclide, in this case radiocaesium, activity concentrations in unknown species from the results of a species which has been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 Finnish lakes; these data had not been used in our initial analyses. We recommend that this alternative approach be further investigated for other radionuclides and ecosystems. - Highlights: • An alternative approach to estimating radionuclide transfer to wildlife is presented. • Analysed a dataset comprising 53 freshwater fish species collected from 67 sites. • Residual Maximum Likelihood mixed model regression is used. • Model output takes account of the effect of inter-site variation. • Successfully predicted {sup 137}Cs concentrations in

  9. Finding Eroding Areas and Patterns with GIS, Caesium-137 Tracers, and Community Knowledge in the Ethiopian Highlands (United States)

    Guzman, C. D.; Tilahun, S. A.; Zegeye, A. D.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T. S.


    While soil erosion has been reducing agricultural productivity in developing countries for decades, its effects and seriousness are gaining more attention, especially with respect to shortening the life of reservoirs for hydroelectric power generation. This has urged policy makers to develop comprehensive sustainable strategies for environmental conservation. To develop such strategies, however, assumptions made within the different areas of knowledge that concurrently study soil conservation must be challenged and verified. A central aim of this study on soil erosion and conservation is to bridge between social science and engineering disciplines by comparing and contrasting estimates and identification of eroding areas and patterns. In Debre Mewi, Ethiopia, we examine spatial and temporal variations in erosion from an agricultural watershed and its subsequent soil nutrient changes using GIS-based erosion prediction tools, the soil-adsorbed radionuclide caesium-137 as a sediment tracer, and community knowledge. We plan to reconcile differences between theoretical formulations, actual measurements, and community perceptions and insight. Sixteen sites are monitored in this small watershed 50 km south of Lake Tana, with characteristic semi-monsoonal rains, during the long (kremt) rainy season for topsoil depth change, water table height, soil nutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca), and ceasium-137 inventory. While focus group discussions and transect walks with the community describe spring flow paths, saturated areas, degraded areas and active gullies as primary zones of erosion, GIS-based prediction tools treat steep slopes and cropped land as areas vulnerable to erosion. Cs-137 tracers map the upland mildly sloping areas to be eroding at a greater average rate than any of the mid-slope or toe-slope areas. Finally, from these comparisons, we draw information helpful in understanding why and how sediment concentration and erosion decreases and what impact we can expect to see

  10. Forage grasses with lower uptake of caesium and strontium could provide 'safer' crops for radiologically contaminated areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Penrose

    Full Text Available Substitution of a species or cultivar with higher uptake of an element by one with lower uptake has been proposed as a remediation strategy following accidental releases of radioactivity. However, despite the importance of pasture systems for radiological dose, species/cultivar substitution has not been thoroughly investigated for forage grasses. 397 cultivars from four forage grass species; hybrid ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. x Lolium multiflorum Lam., perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.; were sampled from 19 field-based breeding experiments in Aberystwyth and Edinburgh (UK in spring 2013 and analysed for caesium (Cs and strontium (Sr concentrations. In order to calculate concentration ratios (CRs; the concentration of an element in a plant in relation to the concentration in the soil, soils from the experiments were also analysed to calculate extractable concentrations of Cs and Sr. To test if cultivars have consistently low Cs and Sr concentration ratios, 17 hybrid ryegrass cultivars were sampled from both sites again in summer 2013 and spring and summer 2014. Tall fescue cultivars had lower Cs and Sr CRs than the other species. Three of the selected 17 hybrid ryegrass cultivars had consistently low Cs CRs, two had consistently low Sr CRs and one had consistently low Cs and Sr CRs. Cultivar substitution could reduce Cs CRs by up to 14-fold and Sr CRs by 4-fold in hybrid ryegrass. The identification of species and cultivars with consistently low CRs suggests that species or cultivar substitution could be an effective remediation strategy for contaminated areas.

  11. Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern Algeria chott Baghdad natural brine. M Zatout, M Hacini, A.H. Hamzaoui, A M'nif. Abstract. Southern Algerian's natural brine sampled from chott Baghdad may be a source of mineral salts with a high economic value. These salts are recoverable by simple ...

  12. LIMEPY: Lowered Isothermal Model Explorer in PYthon (United States)

    Gieles, Mark; Zocchi, Alice


    LIMEPY solves distribution function (DF) based lowered isothermal models. It solves Poisson's equation used on input parameters and offers fast solutions for isotropic/anisotropic, single/multi-mass models, normalized DF values, density and velocity moments, projected properties, and generates discrete samples.

  13. LNA-modified isothermal oligonucleotide microarray for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental results revealed that KOD Dash DNA polymerase could efficiently incorporate Cy3-dCTP into the PCR products, and the LNA-isothermal ... Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, China ...

  14. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailey, A.E.


    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  15. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in the Student Laboratory (United States)

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Yujing; Li, Xi


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the measurement of the heat produced by the stepwise addition of one substance to another. It is a common experimental technique, for example, in pharmaceutical science, to measure equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies. We describe a stirring device and an injection pump that can be used with a…

  16. Coronal Loops: Evolving Beyond the Isothermal Approximation (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Cirtain, J. W.; Allen, J. D.


    Are coronal loops isothermal? A controversy over this question has arisen recently because different investigators using different techniques have obtained very different answers. Analysis of SOHO-EIT and TRACE data using narrowband filter ratios to obtain temperature maps has produced several key publications that suggest that coronal loops may be isothermal. We have constructed a multi-thermal distribution for several pixels along a relatively isolated coronal loop on the southwest limb of the solar disk using spectral line data from SOHO-CDS taken on 1998 Apr 20. These distributions are clearly inconsistent with isothermal plasma along either the line of sight or the length of the loop, and suggested rather that the temperature increases from the footpoints to the loop top. We speculated originally that these differences could be attributed to pixel size -- CDS pixels are larger, and more `contaminating' material would be expected along the line of sight. To test this idea, we used CDS iron line ratios from our data set to mimic the isothermal results from the narrowband filter instruments. These ratios indicated that the temperature gradient along the loop was flat, despite the fact that a more complete analysis of the same data showed this result to be false! The CDS pixel size was not the cause of the discrepancy; rather, the problem lies with the isothermal approximation used in EIT and TRACE analysis. These results should serve as a strong warning to anyone using this simplistic method to obtain temperature. This warning is echoed on the EIT web page: ``Danger! Enter at your own risk!'' In other words, values for temperature may be found, but they may have nothing to do with physical reality. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. (United States)

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae


    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A preference for migration


    Stark, Oded


    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  19. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy


    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi


    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn?Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova


    Full Text Available In the paper, we use the data on the content of caesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and in Bryansk region adult inhabitant’s body, on their food ration and its changes during the first years after the Chernobyl accident, and on the measures to protect the population from internal exposure. We calculate dynamics of 137Cs intake in the body and its contents therein, while maintaining a traditional diet and while replacing food products for radiationfree ones. The results show that the actual 137Cs content in the body is usually below the one calculated on the basis of the food ration. It was found out that individual 137Cs contents in the body correlate with the rate of meat, dairy and natural food products consumption and with factors of protection from internal exposure. The efficiency of the protective measures to reduce the intake and the content of caesium radionuclides in the body of inhabitants, as well as the average effective dose in the first years after the accident has been quantitatively assessed.

  1. Studies of nuclear-waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, October 1977-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M G; Rickert, P G; Fried, S M; Friedman, A M; Steindler, M J


    The first phenomenon studied is incomplete water-nuclide-rock reaction because of slow reaction kinetics. A kinetic factor derived from the experimental results for strontium migration through glauconite (a hydrous silicate) was expressed in terms of the linear flow rate of solution and can be used to predict migration due to solution flow at rates of 0 to about 12 cm/min (60 km/y). Continuous-flow infiltration experiments with americium in fissures gave results that are predicted by a migration model that includes kinetic factors measured in experiments with static fluids. The results suggest that kinetic factors are as important as equilibrium adsorption parameters in predicting nuclide migration. The second phenomenon studied was the amount of adsorbed nuclide not being proportional to the nuclide concentration in solution (nonlinear adsorption isotherm). For cesium adsorption on limestone, a nonlinear isotherm was found to occur in the range of initial cesium concentrations from about 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -9/M. This adsorption property was confirmed by results of column-infiltration experiments in which cesium migration through oolitic limestone was found to be sensitive to the amount of cesium in solution. The existence of a nonlinear isotherm precludes the use of a single partition value (K/sub D/) to describe cesium migration in limestone at cesium concentrations above about 10/sup -9/M. Therefore, the effects of nonlinear isotherms are germane to nuclide migration. 24 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene


    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...... conditions can not be elucidated. These effects have been observed with isothermal calorimetry bringing forth new information about the reaction of enzymes catalyzing transesterification. Enzymatic biodiesel production has until now not been investigated with isothermal microcalorimetry, but the results...

  3. Analysis of Cooperativity by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Brown


    Full Text Available Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.

  4. Analysis of cooperativity by isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Brown, Alan


    Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.

  5. Analysis of Cooperativity by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry


    Brown, Alan


    Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of coop...

  6. Sorption isotherms of Portuguese varieties of pears.


    Barroca, Maria João


    In this study the desorption isotherms of fresh pears were investigated at 30 ºC for fruits of the varieties Amêndoa, Amorim, Carapinheira Branca and S. Bartolomeu, all original from Portugal. This value of temperature was established to represent the summer average daily temperatures in Portugal, where the solar dried of pears is carried out. From the results obtained it was possible to verify that the behaviour of the equilibrium moisture content against the corresponding water activity is ...

  7. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrevski Vangelče


    Full Text Available The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for estimation and selection of the best sorption isotherm equations were used. For each equation and experimental data set, the average performance index was calculated and models were ranked afterwards. After that, some statistical rejection criteria were checked (D’Agostino-Pearson test of normality, single-sample run test and significance and precision of the model parameters. The performed statistical analysis shows that the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB equation has the highest value of average performance index, but higher correlation between pair of parameters leads to lower precision of estimated parameters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31058

  8. Dehydroxylation induced structural transformations in montmorillonite: an isothermal FTIR study (United States)

    Ogloza, A. A.; Malhotra, V. M.


    Fourier transform infrared ( FTIR) measurements on thermally shocked (290montmorillonite from Texas show that the dehydroxylation temperature for this mineral is much lower than previously reported in the literature and depends upon the thermal soak time used. The effect of thermal shock temperature on vibrational frequencies, originating from the silicate sheet, and the intensity of Al-OH-Al stretching mode suggest that Camontmorillonite dehydroxylates at 903 montmorillonite indicates that the dehydroxylation of this montmorillonite proceeds via the development of intermediate structural phases. As noted by previous authors, the dehydroxylation of Mg2+ and Fe3+ octahedral sites does not affect the overall structure. However, if ˜75 percent of the hydroxyls attached to Al3+ are lost, then the lattice manifests an intermediate structural phase. In this intermediate phase, the structure of both octahedral and silicate layers is affected. On a further loss of hydroxyls (˜90% of Al3+ hydroxyls), the final montmorillonite dehydroxylate phase develops. The vibrational analysis of an isothermally treated sample suggests that the final phase is induced due to the rearrangement of the silicate oxygens, which leave the coordination around Al to be 5. The dehydroxylation results of montmorillonite (Texas) have been discussed in terms of known mechanisms, and it appears that the dehydroxylation starts at the surface and proceeds via proton delocalization at trans hydroxyl positions, followed by the protons' migration across the vacant cation sites with the formation of H2O molecules below the hexagonal holes.

  9. Adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic solution onto porous adsorbents (United States)

    Bono, A.; Ramlan, N. A.; Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Chu, C. M.; Farm, Y. Y.


    Adsorption isotherm is essential component in the understanding of the adsorption process. Several methods of the measurements, analysis and interpretation of adsorption from solution have been reported in the literature. Most of the measurements of adsorption isotherm from solution were involved the measurement of excess isotherm conducted at low region of sorbates concentration. Direct interpretation of excess adsorption isotherm as adsorption isotherm is always been practice. Therefore, in this work a study on the measurement of the adsorption isotherm from solution of non-azeotropic organic solvent mixture onto porous adsorbents for whole range of liquid concentration was conducted. The study included the measurement of excess adsorption isotherm using conventional technique. Theoretical analysis and interpretation of adsorption isotherm from the excess isotherm were conducted using Pseudo Ideal Adsorption, Gibbs Dividing Plane Model and Langmuir-Fruendlich binary isotherm model. For organic solvents, acetone and propanol were chosen as the adsorbates due to the non-azeotropic properties in the mixture. Activated carbon and silicalite were chosen as adsorbents due to the different in their porosity such as macro porous and micro porous structure. The result of the study has revealed that the adsorption isotherm of non-azeotropic mixture onto activated carbon and silicalite can be interpreted as monolayer type of adsorption.

  10. [Rural migration in Poland]. (United States)

    Rakowski, W


    Migration of the rural population in Poland from 1946 to 1983 is analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Consideration is given to regional variations in migration patterns, the causes of migration, and the impact of migration on areas of origin.

  11. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs (United States)

    Pierens, A.


    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  12. Migration of birds (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  13. Isothermal Gravitational Segregation: Algorithms and Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsson, Snorri; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    New algorithms for calculating the isothermal equilibrium state of reservoir fluids under the influence of gravity are presented. Two types of specifications are considered: the specification of pressure and composition at a reference depth; and the specification of the total overall content...... of the reservoir, along with the reservoir geometry. It is shown how both types of calculations can be performed in an efficient and robust manner using volume-based thermodynamics. The new method makes it possible to evaluate the influence of reservoir geometry and gravity segregation on the hydrocarbon reserves...

  14. Monitoring of caesium-137 in food plants and muscle from moose, red deer and wild reindeer in 2010.; Overvaaking av cesium-137 i beitevekster og kjoett av elg, hjort og villrein i 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiberg, Vebjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Solberg, Erling J.; Skuterud, Lavrans


    The monitoring of Cs-137 fall-out from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, started the same year. Several plants and wild reindeer in natural ecosystems in Nord-Rondane have been followed annually ever since. Four more wild reindeer ranges were included in 2001: Setesdal-Ryfylkeheiene, Hardangervidda, Nord-Ottadalen, Snoehetta and Nord-Rondane. From 2007 Forollhogna was also included. On fixed plots in Nord-Rondane and Snoehetta some of the reindeer forage plants, including both higher plants and fruticose lichens, have been sampled and analyzed annually since 1986. This was also done in 2010. In addition plants and lichens were sampled at five locations along an altitudinal gradient at Soendre Knutshoe, and at 7-8 locations along an east-west gradient from Kollaflata to Skarhoe in the Jora valley continuing along the Aursjoe to Torbudalen. All these locations were sampled annually between 1987-1990, but they have not been sampled since. In 2010 samples from red deer and moose was also collected from eight different regions located within the following counties: Oppland, Telemark, Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Sogn and Fjordane, Nord-Troendelag, Nordland and Troms. Red deer were sampled in four regions and moose in six. Both species were sampled in Oppland. In 2010 76, 49 and 61 samples were collected from wild reindeer, red deer and moose respectively. All measures of caesium levels were performed on dried samples. For the 596 samples of plants and lichen the results refer to caesium-levels in dried samples. For the meat samples, results refer to caesium-137 levels in raw meat. Due to large variation in measured levels of caesium within species and sampling area, we give median values instead of mean values.The highest caesium levels in wild reindeer were found in Snoehetta (1010 Bq/kg) and Nord-Rondane (2686 Bq/kg). The levels found in the other areas were considerably lower. The highest caesium levels in both red deer (Sel, 677 Bq/kg) and moose (Vaaga, 365 Bq/kg) were found


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin


    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  16. Moisture sorption isotherms of cereals at different temperatures. (United States)

    Ertugay, M F; Certel, M


    In this research, moisture sorption isotherms of wheat (Kink and Lancer) barley, rye, oat and corn were determined at 20, 25, 35, 50 and 70 degrees C. The sorption isotherm curves of all cereal samples showed the characteristics of type II isotherm. This indicated that the adsorption occurred in cereal samples was a multilayer adsorption and cereal samples were of a microcapillary structure. In addition, the adsorption in cereal samples decreased as temperature increased.

  17. Isothermal and non-isothermal sublimation kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl{sub 4}) for producing nuclear grade Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hong [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mi Sun [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST), Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Dong Joon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo Hyun, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Sublimation of ZrCl{sub 4} is important for the production of nuclear grade metallic Zr in Kroll's process. The sublimation kinetics of ZrCl{sub 4} was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The sublimation rate of ZrCl{sub 4} increased with increasing temperature under isothermal conditions. ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation was confirmed to be a zero-order process under isothermal conditions, whereas it was first-order kinetics under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energy of ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation under isothermal conditions was 21.7 kJ mol{sup −1}. The activation energy for non-isothermal sublimation was 101.4 kJ mol{sup −1} and 108.1 kJ mol{sup −1} with the Kissinger method and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method, respectively. These non-isothermal activation energies were very close to the heat of sublimation (103.3 kJ mol{sup −1}). Sublimation occurs by two elementary steps: surface reaction and desorption. Therefore, the overall activation energy of ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation is 104.8 (±3.4) kJ mol{sup −1}. The activation energy of the surface reaction and desorption steps are proposed to be 83.1 kJ mol{sup −1} and 21.7 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Sublimation kinetics of ZrCl{sub 4} was quantitatively analyzed using TGA method. • Isothermal and non-isothermal sublimation kinetics were quantitatively evaluated. • Activation energies of isothermal and non-isothermal kinetics were obtained. • Sublimation mechanism was proposed from kinetic analyses and SEM observations. • This kinetic information will be very useful in production of nuclear grade Zr.

  18. Isothermal titration calorimetry of supramolecular polymers. (United States)

    Arnaud, Alix; Bouteiller, Laurent


    A method to characterize the self-association of supramolecular polymers by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been designed. Association constants in the range 10(4)-10(6) dm(3) mol(-1) have been successfully determined from the heat exchange occurring when a supramolecular polymer solution is injected into a calorimetric cell containing pure solvent. Very good agreement with literature values has been obtained. Compared to other techniques (such as NMR or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), the use of ITC presents several advantages: (i) the enthalpy of association is obtained together with the association constant from the same experiment, (ii) the measurements can be performed in almost any solvent, and (iii) systems with higher association constants can be characterized.

  19. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić


    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  20. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi


    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM).

  1. New Theoretical Expressions for the Five Adsorption Type Isotherms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical parameters intervening in the adsorption process that present the models could deduced directly from the adsorption isotherms with numerical simulation. We determine the adequate model for each Type isotherm, which fixes with direct numerical simulation the monlayer, multilayer or condensation ...

  2. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and thermal behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The thermal behaviour and crystallization kinetics of PA12/SEBS-g-MA blends were investigated under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The macrokinetic model given by Avrami was used to analyse both the non-.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and isotherm studies of new composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sorption isotherm studies of La 3 + , Ce 3 + , Nd 3 + and Sm 3 + ions were performed at differentreaction temperatures and analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Raduchkivich and Temkin isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Δ G ∘ , Δ H ∘ and Δ S ∘ were determined and found to be endothermic ...

  4. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polyethylene–clay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of pure medium density polyethylene (MDPE) and MDPE– clay nanocomposites have been investigated by differential scanning calorimeter. The modified Avrami,. Ozawa, Liu and Ziabicki equations have been applied to describe non-isothermal crystallization process. The.

  5. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantunen, A.P.K.; Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.


    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped

  6. Estimation of Specific Surface Area using Langmuir Isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: A comparison of four widely used linear equations of the Langmuir types of isotherm (The. Langmuir Type 1, 2, 3 and 4 ) were examined in an experiment using dye sorption onto derived acid and salt treated Fish Activated Carbon (H3PO4-FAC and ZnCl2-FAC respectively). Isotherm parameters obtained.

  7. Synthesis, non-isothermal crystallization and magnetic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A non-isothermal study of the crystallization kinetic of ferrite/PEVA nanocomposite was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It was observed that the Ozawa equation describes perfectly the primary process of non-isothermal ...

  8. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The isothermal compressibility of these mixtures has also been computed theoretically using different models for hard sphere equations of state and Flory's statistical theory. Computed values of isothermal compressibility have been compared with experimental findings. A satisfactory agreement has been observed.

  9. An improved experimental and regression methodology for sorption isotherms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirijns, E.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Straten, van G.


    Sorption isotherms of corn and starch cylinders with immobilised catalase are experimentally determined at different temperatures for use in drying models in optimal control studies. This application of the sorption isotherm requires an accurate prediction of the sorption data at different

  10. Synthesis, characterization and isotherm studies of new composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Atomic Energy Authority, Hot Labs Center, Cairo 13759, Egypt. 2Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, ... coagulation, sedimentation, flotation, filtration, membrane processes, electrochemical techniques, ion ...... isotherm relating to the amount of gas adsorbed on a surface. Now, this model is a well-known isotherm ...

  11. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics for dibenzothiophene on activated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adsorption isotherms were obtained and desulphurization kinetics were carried out on solutions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and thiophene in a model fuel. The efficiencies of DBT and thiophene removal were reported. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The highest adsorption capacity for ...

  12. The analysis of isotherms of radionuclides sorption by inorganic sorbents (United States)

    Bykova, E. P.; Nedobukh, T. A.


    The isotherm of cesium sorption by an inorganic sorbent based on granulated glauconite obtained in a wide cesium concentrations range was mathematically treated using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson sorption models. The algorithms of mathematical treatment of experimental data using these models were described; parameters of all isotherms were determined. It was shown that estimating the correctness of various sorption models relies not only on the correlation coefficient values but also on the closeness of the calculated and experimental data. Various types of sorption sites were found as a result of mathematical treatment of the isotherm of cesium sorption. The algorithm was described and calculation of parameters of the isotherm was performed under the assumption that simultaneous sorption on all three types of sorption sites occurs in accordance with Langmuir isotherm.

  13. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan


    Sub-zero treatment of steels with an M1 below 0°C relies (partly) on a continuation of the martensite formation. The present work reports on the observation of isothermal martensite formation in the sub-zero temperature regime for two steels: AISI 1070 and AISI 52100. Samples were austenitized......, quenched in oil, and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the sub-zero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5 K....../min) at temperatures in the range of 80-233 K. The kinetics of isothermal martensite formation depends strongly on the temperature and can be described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov kinetics. Isothermal experiments with dilatometry indicated the occurrence of a volume increase on isothermal holding, consistent...

  14. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per


    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content......, cation exchange capacity) and engineering properties (e.g., swelling potential). Our objectives for this work were to: (i) evaluate the potential of several theoretical and empirical isotherm models to accurately describe measured moisture adsorption/desorption isotherms (aw range of 0.03 to 0.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...

  15. A "release" protocol for isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Heerklotz, H H; Binder, H; Epand, R M


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has become a standard method for investigating the binding of ligands to receptor molecules or the partitioning of solutes between water and lipid vesicles. Accordingly, solutes are mixed with membranes (or ligands with receptors), and the subsequent heats of incorporation (or binding) are measured. In this paper we derive a general formula for modeling ITC titration heats in both binding and partitioning systems that allows for the modeling of the classic incorporation or binding protocols, as well as of new protocols assessing the release of solute from previously solute-loaded vesicles (or the dissociation of ligand/receptor complexes) upon dilution. One major advantage of a simultaneous application of the incorporation/binding and release protocols is that it allows for the determination of whether a ligand is able to access the vesicle interior within the time scale of the ITC experiment. This information cannot be obtained from a classical partitioning experiment, but it must be known to determine the partition coefficient (or binding constant and stochiometry) and the transfer enthalpy. The approach is presented using the partitioning of the nonionic detergent C12EO7 to palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. The release protocol could also be advantageous in the case of receptors that are more stable in the ligand-saturated rather than the ligand-depleted state.

  16. Isothermal thermogravimetric data acquisition analysis system (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth, Jr.


    The description of an Isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Data Acquisition System is presented. The system consists of software and hardware to perform a wide variety of TGA experiments. The software is written in ANSI C using Borland's Turbo C++. The hardware consists of a 486/25 MHz machine with a Capital Equipment Corp. IEEE488 interface card. The interface is to a Hewlett Packard 3497A data acquisition system using two analog input cards and a digital actuator card. The system provides for 16 TGA rigs with weight and temperature measurements from each rig. Data collection is conducted in three phases. Acquisition is done at a rapid rate during initial startup, at a slower rate during extended data collection periods, and finally at a fast rate during shutdown. Parameters controlling the rate and duration of each phase are user programmable. Furnace control (raising and lowering) is also programmable. Provision is made for automatic restart in the event of power failure or other abnormal terminations. Initial trial runs were conducted to show system stability.

  17. Sorption isotherm characteristics of aonla flakes. (United States)

    Alam, Md Shafiq; Singh, Amarjit


    The equilibrium moisture content was determined for un-osmosed and osmosed (salt osmosed and sugar osmosed) aonla flakes using the static method at temperatures of 25, 40,50, 60 and 70 °C over a range of relative humidities from 20 to 90%. The sorption capacity of aonla decreased with an increase in temperature at constant water activity. The sorption isotherms exhibited hysteresis, in which the equilibrium moisture content was higher at a particular equilibrium relative humidity for desorption curve than for adsorption. The hysteresis effect was more pertinent for un-osmosed and salt osmosed samples in comparison to sugar osmosed samples. Five models namely the modified Chung Pfost, modified Halsey, modified Henderson, modified Exponential and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) were evaluated to determine the best fit for the experimental data. For both adsorption and desorption process of aonla fruit, the equilibrium moisture content of un-osmosed and osmosed aonla samples can be predicted well by GAB model as well as modified Exponential model. Moreover, the modified Exponential model was found to be the best for describing the sorption behaviour of un-osmosed and salt osmosed samples while, GAB model for sugar osmosed aonla samples.

  18. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris


    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  19. Migration and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nando Sigona


    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has not radically transformed migration patterns in the Mediterranean, and the label ‘migration crisis’ does not do justice to the composite and stratified reality.

  20. Essays on temporary migration


    Mestres Domenech, J.


    My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption decisions. We simulate our model with return intentions and perform policy simulations. The se...

  1. Irregular Migration of Egyptians


    ROMAN, Howaida


    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective polic...

  2. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier


    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  3. More Myths of Migration. (United States)

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail


    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  4. Phase field modeling of dendritic coarsening during isothermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo


    Full Text Available Dendritic coarsening in Al-2mol%Si alloy during isothermal solidification at 880K was investigated by phase field modeling. Three coarsening mechanisms operate in the alloy: (a melting of small dendrite arms; (b coalescence of dendrites near the tips leading to the entrapment of liquid droplets; (c smoothing of dendrites. Dendrite melting is found to be dominant in the stage of dendritic growth, whereas coalescence of dendrites and smoothing of dendrites are dominant during isothermal holding. The simulated results provide a better understanding of dendrite coarsening during isothermal solidification.

  5. Total Correlation Function Integrals and Isothermal Compressibilities from Molecular Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Rasmus; Peters, Günther H.j.; Abildskov, Jens


    Generation of thermodynamic data, here compressed liquid density and isothermal compressibility data, using molecular dynamics simulations is investigated. Five normal alkane systems are simulated at three different state points. We compare two main approaches to isothermal compressibilities: (1...... in approximately the same amount of time. This suggests that computation of total correlation function integrals is a route to isothermal compressibility, as accurate and fast as well-established benchmark techniques. A crucial step is the integration of the radial distribution function. To obtain sensible results...

  6. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko


    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton-to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium ({sup 129-131}Cd) and caesium ({sup 132,146-148}Cs) isotopes. Measurements were done at the on-line radioactive ion-beam facility ISOLDE by using the four-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The cadmium isotopes are key nuclides for the synthesis of stable isotopes around the mass peak A = 130 in the Solar System abundance.

  7. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085660; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Kreim, Susanne

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton- to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium (129−131 Cd) and caesium...

  8. Microhydration of caesium compounds: Cs, CsOH, CsI and Cs₂I₂ complexes with one to three H₂O molecules of nuclear safety interest. (United States)

    Sudolská, Mária; Cantrel, Laurent; Cernušák, Ivan


    Structure and thermodynamic properties (standard enthalpies of formation and Gibbs free energies) of hydrated caesium species of nuclear safety interest, Cs, CsOH, CsI and its dimer Cs₂I₂, with one up to three water molecules, are calculated to assess their possible existence in severe accident occurring to a pressurized water reactor. The calculations were performed using the coupled cluster theory including single, double and non-iterative triple substitutions (CCSD(T)) in conjunction with the basis sets (ANO-RCC) developed for scalar relativistic calculations. The second-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian was used to account for the scalar relativistic effects. Thermodynamic properties obtained by these correlated ab initio calculations (entropies and thermal capacities at constant pressure as a function of temperature) are used in nuclear accident simulations using ASTEC/SOPHAEROS software. Interaction energies, standard enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of successive water molecules addition determine the ordering of the complexes. CsOH forms the most hydrated stable complexes followed by CsI, Cs₂I₂, and Cs. CsOH still exists in steam atmosphere even at quite high temperature, up to around 1100 K.

  9. Ideal Adsorption Isotherm Behavior for Cooling Applications. (United States)

    Bagheri, Morteza H; Schiffres, Scott N


    Purely heat-driven refrigeration has the potential for high primary-energy efficiency, especially when powered by waste heat or solar thermal sources. This paper presents a novel expression for the ideal adsorption step location as a function of operating conditions. This methodology is then applied to a hypothetical stepwise material to evaluate its intrinsic efficiency. This analysis technique is then extended to allow facile efficiency comparisons for any adsorbent-refrigerant pair using an adsorbent's isotherm and heat of adsorption properties. This work focuses on limitations to efficiency due to the equilibrium thermodynamics. It is found that a stepwise adsorbent can have a single-effect intrinsic efficiency of as high as about 85% of Carnot, assuming typical adsorbent specific heats and uptake capacity. Using these tools, we analyze the maximum ratio of cooling to heat input (coefficient of performance) for two adsorption pairs, zeolite 13X-water and UiO-66-water, which are found to have maximum coefficients of performance of 0.52 and 0.88 for a cold-side temperature of 10 °C and an ambient temperature of 30 °C, respectively. Meanwhile, the maximum fraction of Carnot cooling is 37% for zeolite 13X-water and 67% for UiO-66-water. Moreover, these peak fractions of Carnot occur at much higher regeneration temperatures for 13X (196 °C) than for UiO-66 (60 °C). These two materials could be coupled in a two-stage cascading triple-effect adsorption cycle that operates with a combined coefficient of performance of 1.50 at a regeneration temperature of 196 °C, a cold-side temperature of 10 °C, and an ambient temperature of 30 °C.

  10. Runaway gas accretion and gap opening versus type I migration (United States)

    Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.


    Growing planets interact with their natal protoplanetary disc, which exerts a torque onto them allowing them to migrate in the disc. Small mass planets do not affect the gas profile and migrate in the fast type-I migration. Although type-I migration can be directed outwards for planets smaller than 20 - 30M⊕ in some regions of the disc, planets above this mass should be lost into the central star long before the disc disperses. Massive planets push away material from their orbit and open a gap. They subsequently migrate in the slower, type II migration, which could save them from migrating all the way to the star. Hence, growing giant planets can be saved if and only if they can reach the gap opening mass, because this extends their migration timescale, allowing them to eventually survive at large orbits until the disc itself disperses. However, most of the previous studies only measured the torques on planets with fixed masses and orbits to determine the migration rate. Additionally, the transition between type-I and type-II migration itself is not well studied, especially when taking the growth mechanism of rapid gas accretion from the surrounding disc into account. Here we use isothermal 2D disc simulations with FARGO-2D1D to study the migration behaviour of gas accreting protoplanets in discs. We find that migrating giant planets always open gaps in the disc. We further show analytically and numerically that in the runaway gas accretion regime, the growth time-scale is comparable to the type-I migration time-scale, indicating that growing planets will reach gap opening masses before migrating all the way to the central star in type-I migration if the disc is not extremely viscous and/or thick. An accretion rate limited to the radial gas flow in the disc, in contrast, is not fast enough. When gas accretion by the planet is taken into account, the gap opening process is accelerated because the planet accretes material originating from its horseshoe region. This

  11. Improved Isotherm Data for Adsorption of Methane on Activated Carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Loh, Wai Soong


    This article presents the adsorption isotherms of methane onto two different types of activated carbons, namely, Maxsorb III and ACF (A-20) at temperatures from (5 to 75) °C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa. The volumetric technique has been employed to measure the adsorption isotherms. The experimental results presented herein demonstrate the improved accuracy of the uptake values compared with previous measurement techniques for similar adsorbate-adsorbent combinations. The results are analyzed with various adsorption isotherm models. The heat of adsorption, which is concentration and temperature dependent, has been calculated from the measured isotherm data. Henry\\'s law coefficients for these adsorbent-methane pairs are also evaluated at various temperatures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polyethylene–clay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MDPE) and MDPE–clay nanocomposites have been investigated by differential scanning calorimeter. The modified Avrami, Ozawa, Liu and Ziabicki equations have been applied to describe non-isothermal crystallization process. The results of ...

  13. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan


    Sub-zero treatment of steels with an Mf below zero degrees Celsius relies (partly) on a continuation of the martensite formation. The present work reports on the observation of isothermal martensite formation in the sub-zero temperature regime for two steels: AISI 1070 and AISI 52100. Samples were...... austenitized and quenched in oil and thereafter investigated with vibrating sample agnetometry, which allows a quantitative assessment of the fraction of retained austenite as a function of the subzero temperature and time. Isothermal martensite formation was observed on interrupting the continuous cooling (5...... with a continuation of the martensitic transformation. On prolonged isothermal holding a volume reduction was observed for AISI 52100, but not for AISI 1070. A mechanism is proposed that explains the occurrence of isothermal martensite formation....

  14. Effect of Gold Content on the Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints Under Isothermal Aging (United States)

    Powers, Mike; Pan, Jianbiao; Silk, Julie; Hyland, Patrick


    Au over Ni on Cu is a widely used printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, under bump metallization (UBM), and component lead metallization. It is generally accepted that less than 3 wt.% Au in Sn-Pb solder joints inhibits formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds (IMC). However, the critical limit for Au content in Pb-free solder joints is not well established. Three surface-mount package platforms, one with a matte Sn surface finish and the others with Ni/Au finish, were soldered to Ni/Au-finished PCB using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder, in a realistic manufacturing setting. The assembled boards were divided into three groups: one without any thermal treatment, one subjected to isothermal aging at 125°C for 30 days, and the third group aged at 125°C for 56 days. Representative solder joints were cross-sectioned and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to investigate the evolution of the solder joint morphology as a function of Au content and isothermal aging. It was found that, if Cu is available to dissolve in the solder joint, the migration of AuSn4 from the bulk to the interface as a result of thermal aging is mitigated.

  15. Determination of Differential Enthalpy and Isotherm by Adsorption Calorimetry


    Garcia-Cuello, V.; Moreno-Piraján, J. C; Giraldo-Gutiérrez, L.; K. Sapag; Zgrablich, G.


    An adsorption microcalorimeter for the simultaneous determination of the differential heat of adsorption and the adsorption isotherm for gas-solid systems are designed, built, and tested. For this purpose, a Calvet heat-conducting microcalorimeter is developed and is connected to a gas volumetric unit built in stainless steel to record adsorption isotherms. The microcalorimeter is electrically calibrated to establish its sensitivity and reproducibility, obtaining K=154.34±0.23 WV−1. The adsor...

  16. Simple isotherm equations to fit type I adsorption data


    Mosquera, Martin A.


    A simple model to fit experimental data of adsorption of gases and vapours on microporous adsorbents (type I isotherms) is proposed. The main assumption is that the adsorbate phase can be divided into identical and non-interacting effective subsystems. This gives rise to a simple multiparametric isotherm based on the grand canonical ensemble statistics, whose functional form is a ratio of two polynomial functions. The parameters are interpreted as effective equilibrium constants. A simplified...

  17. Karakteristik Kurva Isotherm Sorpsi Air Tepung Jagung Instan


    Nur Aini; Vicentius Prihananto; Gunawan Wijonarko


    Instantiation of flour was expected to affect the equilibrium moisture content which changes the nature of the product. Instant corn flour as raw material of semi-moist foods should be determined of its equilibrium moisture content using the curve of moisture sorption isotherm. Curves of moisture sorption isotherm plays an important role in food drying system, particularly for predicting the shelf life of foods that have low water content. The research was aimed to obtain moisture...

  18. Karakteristik Kurva Isotherm Sorpsi Air Tepung Jagung Instan


    Aini, Nur; Prihananto, Vicentius; Wijonarko, Gunawan


    Instantiation of flour was expected to affect the equilibrium moisture content which changes the nature of the product. Instant corn flour as raw material of semi-moist foods should be determined of its equilibrium moisture content using the curve of moisture sorption isotherm. Curves of moisture sorption isotherm plays an important role in food drying system, particularly for predicting the shelf life of foods that have low water content. The research was aimed to obtain moisture sorption is...

  19. Isothermal Roll Forging of T55 Compressor Blades. Phase 2 (United States)


    Roll-Forging From 0.375 Inch Ti6Al4V to 7 Simulated Mid-Span Shrouded Blade in One Pass 5 Comparison of Airfoil Edge Finishing Operations 9 6...Isothermal Rolled Ti6Al4V Bar (single pass) (#74-20001 Figure 4. Isothermal Roll-Forging From 0.375 Inch Ti6A14V to Simulated Mid

  20. Isothermal Calorimetry for Biological Applications in Food Science and Technology


    Wadsö, Lars; Gomez, Federico


    All physical, chemical and biological processes produce heat and isothermal calorimetry is a general measurement technique to study all kinds of processes by the heat they produce. This paper gives several examples of studies of biological processes in the food area using isothermal calorimetry. It is for example shown how different unit operations influence respiration of vegetable tissue, how the kinetics of a fermentation process can be studied, and how spoilage processes can be followed f...

  1. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin


    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  2. A study on moisture isotherms of formulations: the Use of polynomial equations to predict the moisture isotherms of tablet products


    Li, Yanxia; Sanzgiri, Yeshwant D.; Chen, Yisheng


    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of manufacturing parameters on the moisture sorption isotherms of some tablet formulations and to predict the moisture isotherms of the final formulations using polynomial equations. Three tablet formulations including a placebo and 2 drug products were prepared through wet granulation, drying, compression, and coating processes. Equilibrium moisture content of excipients and granules at 25°C with different relative humidities were ...

  3. Ocean dynamic processes causing spatially heterogeneous distribution of sedimentary caesium-137 massively released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (United States)

    Higashi, H.; Morino, Y.; Furuichi, N.; Ohara, T.


    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radiocaesium 137Cs that were released into the environment by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 are widely known to have extensively migrated to Pacific Ocean sediment off of eastern Japan. Several recent reports have stated that the sedimentary 137Cs is now stable with a remarkably heterogeneous distribution. The present study elucidates ocean dynamic processes causing this heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution in and around the shelf off Fukushima and adjacent prefectures. We performed a numerical simulation of oceanic 137Cs behaviour for about 10 months after the accident, using a comprehensive dynamic model involving advection-diffusion transport in seawater, adsorption and desorption to and from particulate matter, sedimentation and suspension on and from the bottom, and vertical diffusion transport in the sediment. A notable simulated result was that the sedimentary 137Cs significantly accumulated in a swath just offshore of the shelf break (along the 50-100 m isobath) as in recent observations, although the seabed in the entire simulation domain was assumed to have ideal properties such as identical bulk density, uniform porosity, and aggregation of particles with a single grain diameter. This result indicated that the heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution was not necessarily a result of the spatial distribution of 137Cs sediment adsorptivity. The present simulation suggests that the shape of the swath is mainly associated with spatiotemporal variation between bottom shear stress in the shallow shelf (< 50 m depths) and that offshore of the shelf break. In a large part of the shallow shelf, the simulation indicated that strong bottom friction suspending particulate matter from the seabed frequently occurred via a periodic spring tide about every 2 weeks and via occasional strong wind. The sedimentary 137Cs thereby could hardly stay on the surface of the seabed with the result that

  4. Production of valuable pyrolytic oils from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in Indonesia using non-isothermal and isothermal experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Mamad Gandidi


    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW, disposed of at open dumping sites, poses health risks, contaminates surface water, and releases greenhouse gasses such as methane. However, pyrolysis offers the opportunity to convert MSW into Bio-Oil (BO for clean energy resource. In this paper, an MSW sample consisting of plastic, paper and cardboard, rubber and textiles, and vegetable waste is pyrolysed on a laboratory scale in a fixed-bed vacuum reactor. In the non-isothermal process, the sample was fed into the reactor and then heated. In the isothermal process, the reactor is first heated and then the sample is added. The non-isothermal process created greater BO in both quality and quantity. The BO had a larger amount of gasoline species than diesel-48 fuel, with at 33.44%the BO produced by isothermal pyrolysis and 36.42% in non-isothermal pyrolysis. However the product of isothermal pyrolysis had a higher acid content that reduced its heating value.

  5. Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study on undisturbed soil column from headwater catchment (United States)

    Sobotkova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Tesar, Miroslav


    Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration experiments with tracer breakthrough were carried out in the laboratory on intact column of sandy loam soil taken from Roklan site (Sumava Mountains, Czech Republic). In the case of isothermal experiment, the temperature of infiltrating water was almost equal to the initial temperature of the sample. For the non-isothermal case the infiltration was performed using water approximately 10 °C colder than was the initial temperature of soil sample. The experiments were otherwise conducted under the same initial and boundary conditions. Pressure heads and temperatures in two depths (8.8 and 15.3 cm) inside the soil were monitored as well as the temperature of water entering and leaving the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample by gravity and outflow was measured using tipping bucket flowmeter. Permeability of the sample calculated for steady state stages of the experiment showed that significant difference between water flow rates recorded during two experiment could not be justified only by temperature induced changes of water viscosity and density. Results of deuterium breakthrough were nearly identical for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  6. Differential binding models for isothermal titration calorimetry: moving beyond the Wiseman isotherm. (United States)

    Herrera, Isaac; Winnik, Mitchell A


    We present a set of model-independent differential equations to analyze isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments. In contrast with previous approaches that begin with specific assumptions about the number of binding sites and the interactions among them (e.g., sequential, independent, cooperative), our derivation makes more general assumptions, such that a receptor with multiple sites for one type of ligand species (homotropic binding) can be studied with the same analytical expression. Our approach is based on the binding polynomial formalism, and the resulting analytical expressions can be extended to account for any number of binding sites and any type of binding interaction among them. We refer to the set of model-independent differential equations to study ITC experiments as a differential binding model (DBM). To demonstrate the flexibility of our DBM, we present the analytical expressions to study receptors with one or two binding sites. The DBM for a receptor with one site is equivalent to the Wiseman isotherm but with a more intuitive representation that depends on the binding polynomial and the dimensionless parameter c = K·MT, where K is the binding constant and MT the total receptor concentration. In addition, we show how to constrain the general DBM for a receptor with two sites to represent sequential, independent, or cooperative binding interactions between the sites. We use the sequential binding model to study the binding interaction between Gd(III) and citrate anions. In addition, we simulate calorimetry titrations of receptors with positive, negative, and noncooperative interactions between the two binding sites. Finally, we derive a DBM for titrations of receptors with n-independent binding sites.

  7. Dialogues on migration policy


    Giugni, Marco; Passy, Florence


    Dialogues on Migration Policy brings together leading American and European scholars of immigration politics to address migration policy. Editors Marco Giugni and Florence Passy's aim to present a number of informed "dialogues" addressing three main theoretical concerns in this field: the role of the national state in a globalizing world, the determinants of policy change, and the role of collective interests in migration policy. Adopting an unconventional format, the novelty of Dialogues on ...

  8. Many Faces of Migrations


    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs


    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  9. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  10. Migration and Its Consequences


    Ivan Vasile Ivanoff


    ABSTRACT: Migration, as a social phenomenon, has an especially complex character and can be analyzed from the point of view of the state which is the source of the migration as well as from the point of view of the state which is the destination of the migration. Its causes are especially complex but the economic ones are determinant and are fundamentally different of the causes which determine the population to seek refuge in case of armed conflict. The effects of the migration are equally c...

  11. Migration into art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...... visibility and recognition of migrant artists, and the interrelations between aesthetics and politics, including the balancing of aesthetics, politics and ethics in representations of forced migration....

  12. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  13. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.


    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for

  14. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  15. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    (co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  16. The Globalisation of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić


    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities. First, in accordance with Saskia Sassen’s analysis, the author rejects the wide-spread notion that unqualified migrants have lost an (important role in »global cities«, i.e. in the centres of the new (global economy. Namely, the post-modern service sector cannot function without the support of a wide range of auxiliary unqualified workers. Second, a critical comparison with traditional overseas mass migration to the USA at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries indicates that present international migration is, perhaps, less extensive – however it is important to take into consideration various limitations that previously did not exist, and thus the present migration potential is in really greater. Third, globalisation is more evident in a diversification of the forms of migration: the source area of migrants to the New World and Europe has expanded to include new regions in the world; new immigration areas have arisen (the Middle East, new industrial countries of the Far East, South Europe; intra-regional migration has intensified. Forth, globalisation is linked to an increased migration of experts and the pessimistic notion of a brain drain has been replaced by the optimistic idea of a brain gain. Fifth, contemporary international migration has been associated with a crisis of the national model of citizenship. Sixth, the interlinking of (migrant cultural communities regardless of distance and the physical proximity of cultural centres (the

  17. Determination of Differential Enthalpy and Isotherm by Adsorption Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Garcia-Cuello


    Full Text Available An adsorption microcalorimeter for the simultaneous determination of the differential heat of adsorption and the adsorption isotherm for gas-solid systems are designed, built, and tested. For this purpose, a Calvet heat-conducting microcalorimeter is developed and is connected to a gas volumetric unit built in stainless steel to record adsorption isotherms. The microcalorimeter is electrically calibrated to establish its sensitivity and reproducibility, obtaining K=154.34±0.23 WV−1. The adsorption microcalorimeter is used to obtain adsorption isotherms and the corresponding differential heats for the adsorption of CO2 on a reference solid, such as a NaZSM-5 type zeolite. Results for the behavior of this system are compared with those obtained with commercial equipment and with other studies in the literature.

  18. Migration and Environmental Hazards (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.


    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  19. Migration of health workers. (United States)

    Buchan, James


    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  20. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)


    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  1. A discrete version of the Darboux transform for isothermic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hertrich-Jeromin, U J; Pinkall, U; Hertrich-Jeromin, Udo; Hoffmann, Tim; Pinkall, Ulrich


    We study Christoffel and Darboux transforms of discrete isothermic nets in 4-dimensional Euclidean space: definitions and basic properties are derived. Analogies with the smooth case are discussed and a definition for discrete Ribaucour congruences is given. Surfaces of constant mean curvature are special among all isothermic surfaces: they can be characterized by the fact that their parallel constant mean curvature surfaces are Christoffel and Darboux transforms at the same time. This characterization is used to define discrete nets of constant mean curvature. Basic properties of discrete nets of constant mean curvature are derived.

  2. Isothermal Gas assisted displacement of a polystyrene melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase in the s......Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase...

  3. Interpretation of Quasi-Isothermal Thermogravimetric Weight Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft


    Quasi-isothermal analysis (QIA) is a very useful technique. Compared to conventional non-isothermal thermogravimetry, close-lying reactions can easily be separated by use of this method and kinetic data can be obtained for each intermediate reaction in a single run. This paper discusses the shape...... of the weight and temperature curves expected in QIA for different controlling mechanisms, and a method is given for calculating the activation energies from these curves. As an example, the QIA curves obtained in thermal decomposition of ammonium-uranyl carbonate (AUC) are analysed and the kinetics of some...... of the intermediate reactions are determined....

  4. European migration: Push and pull

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmermann, Klaus F


      In recent decades, Europe has experienced periods of push and pull migration. Whereas pull migration has been seen as economically beneficial, there is concern that push migration will accelerate the employment crisis...

  5. Migration and AIDS. (United States)


    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  6. Migration of the population. (United States)

    Krasinets, E


    Two factors influence foreign migration balance of the Russian Federation. The first factor involves the migration process between Russia and former union republics. The influx of population to the Russian Federation from other republics of the former Soviet Union is considered as one of the largest in the world. The average annual migratory growth of Russia during the years 1991-94 as a result of this migration exchange has tripled as compared with 1986-90, with a total of 2.7 million Russians who migrated into Russia. However, from 1996 up to the present time, the number of persons arriving in Russia declined dramatically. Meanwhile, the second factor that determines the country's migration balance is emigration to the far abroad. The most significant trend in determining the development of internal migration in Russia is the outflow of population from northern and eastern regions. The directions of internal and external migratory flows have a large influence on the migration balance in Russia's rural areas. The reduction of migratory flows in rural areas is the direct result of processes in the economic sphere. It confirms the reconstruction of rural-urban migratory exchange.

  7. mediated isothermal amplification of the pat selectable marker gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Nov 28, 2011 ... *Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel: 86-10-51503668; Fax: 86-10-51503980. Abbreviations: LAMP, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification;. PCR, polymerase chain reaction; FIP, forward inner primer;. BIP, backward inner primer; GMOs, genetically modified organisms; CTAB, cetyl ...

  8. Non-isothermal Moisture Transport Through Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    conclusions and therefore the question about existence of the type of transport forms driven by the non-isothermal effects remains open. Rather surprisingly, all the materials, including the almost non-hygroscopic materials (e.g. rock wool) and very hygroscopic materials (e.g. cellulose insulation) showed...

  9. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a new cation sorbent, which bore carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of tartaric acid (TA) derived from esterified wheat straw (EWS), was originally prepared by solid phase thermochemistry method. The isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of basic dye sorptions from aqueous solution onto EWS were investigated ...

  10. Water Sorption Isotherm Characteristics of Seeds of Six Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Sorption Isotherm Characteristics of Seeds of Six Indigenous Forest Tree Species in Ghana. ... West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... The relationship between storage temperature, relative humidity and seed water content was investigated for six indigenous forest tree seed species, namely Garcinia kola, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvalho Engler-Pinto Júnior


    Full Text Available Thermal gradients arising during transient regimes of start-up and shutdown operations produce a complex thermal and mechanical fatigue loading which limits the life of turbine blades and other engine components operating at high temperatures. More accurate and reliable assessment under non-isothermal fatigue becomes therefore mandatory. This paper investigates the nickel base superalloy CM 247LC-DS under isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF. Test temperatures range from 600°C to 1,000°C. The behavior of the alloy is strongly affected by the temperature variation, especially in the 800°C-1,000°C range. The Ramberg-Osgood equation fits very well the observed isothermal behavior for the whole temperature range. The simplified non-isothermal stress-strain model based on linear plasticity proposed to represent the thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior was able to reproduce the observed behavior for both in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycling.

  12. Isothermal martensite formation at sub-zero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojko, Allan; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Slycke, Jan


    Sub-zero treatment of steels with an Mf below 0°C relies (partly) on a continuation of the martensite formation. The present work reports on the observation of isothermal martensite formation in the sub-zero temperature regime for two steels: AISI 1070 and AISI 52100. Samples were austenitized...

  13. LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalek, W.R.; Liew, R.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Zeegers, J.C.H.

    In this paper subgrid models for LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow are tested and improved for three Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity, Reτ of 150, 395, and 950 with the aim to develop a simulation method for LES of a droplet-laden Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. A new subgrid

  14. Whole genome amplification: Use of advanced isothermal method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 29, 2010 ... Whole genome amplification: Use of advanced isothermal method. Sima Moghaddaszadeh Ahrabi1, Safar Farajnia2,3*, Ghodratollah Rahimi-Mianji4, Soheila. Montazer Saheb3 ... Moreover, application of high fidelity and high possessive DNA ..... between I-PEP with MDA by using serial dilutions of.

  15. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isentropic compressibility has been widely used to study the molecular interactions through its excess value. On the other hand, it can also be used to deduce other useful thermodynamic properties such as isothermal compressibility (βT ), heat capacity ratio (γ), internal pressure (pi) and cohesive energy density (CED).

  16. Evaluation of loop mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important global public health problem. The lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic testing is an important impediment to global tuberculosis control. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid method for nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we assessed the performance of an ...

  17. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics for dibenzothiophene on activated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometre. Adsorption isotherms were obtained and desulphurization kinetics were carried out on solutions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and thiophene in a model fuel. The efficiencies of DBT ...

  18. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 15, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on ... al., 2008), castor seed shell (Oladoja et al., 2008), coffee husk (Oliveira et al., 2008), neem leaf powder (Tahir et ... length and washed with tap water to remove soil and dust and then dried overnight at 50°C. Dried wheat straw ...

  19. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari, E-mail:; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier


    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R{sup 2} > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T{sub B} = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  20. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic study of ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments. (United States)

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Grčić, Ivana; Šimić, Iva; Župan, Josip


    In this study, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of ciprofloxacin on seven sediments in a batch sorption process were examined. The effects of contact time, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature and ionic strength on the sorption process were studied. The K d parameter from linear sorption model was determined by linear regression analysis, while the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms by linear and nonlinear methods. The estimated K d values varied from 171 to 37,347 mL/g. The obtained values of E (free energy estimated from D-R isotherm model) were between 3.51 and 8.64 kJ/mol, which indicated a physical nature of ciprofloxacin sorption on studied sediments. According to obtained n values as measure of intensity of sorption estimate from Freundlich isotherm model (from 0.69 to 1.442), ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments can be categorized from poor to moderately difficult sorption characteristics. Kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model (R 2  > 0.999). Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were calculated to estimate the nature of ciprofloxacin sorption. Results suggested that sorption on sediments was a spontaneous exothermic process.

  1. On the calculation of disjoining pressure isotherms for nonaqueous films. (United States)

    Correa, Rafael; Saramago, Benilde


    A review of the methods of London and Hamaker and of Lifshitz for calculating disjoining pressure isotherms of nonaqueous liquid films is presented. The disjoining pressure isotherms for films of n-octane and of three triglycerides (tributyrin, tricaprylin, and triolein) on glass were calculated using both methods. The disjoining pressure isotherms for films on silanized glass were calculated using only the London-Hamaker approach. The refractive indices and static dielectric constants, necessary for the calculations, were measured. The silanized glass was considered to be the original glass covered by a layer with the same characteristic frequency as the underlying glass and a smaller limiting value of the dielectric constant epsilon(0). The limiting dielectric constant epsilon(0) and the thickness of the surface layer were taken as adjustable parameters. The disjoining pressure isotherms indicate that all films are stable on glass. In contrast, the stability of the films formed on silanized glass was found to depend mainly on the value of epsilon(0) and, less strongly, on the thickness of the surface layer. The stability of the films decreased with the decrease of epsilon(0) and, for each value of epsilon(0), was maximal for the thinnest surface layer.

  2. Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease that has received much attention recently, due to the increasing economic losses this disease inflicts upon the pig industry worldwide. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) methodology was designed for diagnosing H.

  3. Non-isothermal gas absorption with reversible chemical reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vas Bhat, R.D.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van; Benes, N.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.


    A fundamental description of non-isothermal mass transfer accompanied by a single reversible chemical reaction has been presented. The description is based on the Higbie penetration theory. Arrhenius type dependence of solubility, reaction rates and diffusivities on temperature has been assumed.

  4. Non-isothermal gas absorption with reversible chemical reaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vas bhat, R.D.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, Geert


    A fundamental description of non-isothermal mass transfer accompanied by a single reversible chemical reaction has been presented. The description is based on the Higbie penetration theory. Arrhenius type dependence of solubility, reaction rates and diffusivities on temperature has been assumed.

  5. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Can Provide Critical Thinking Opportunities (United States)

    Moore, Dale E.; Goode, David R.; Seney, Caryn S.; Boatwright, Jennifer M.


    College chemistry faculties might not have considered including isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in their majors' curriculum because experimental data from this instrumental method are often analyzed via automation (software). However, the software-based data analysis can be replaced with a spreadsheet-based analysis that is readily…

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpeas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpeas was investigated The nonirradiated and irradiated cowpeas exhibited the typical three stage sigmoidal curve found in most foods. There was also a concomitant increase in the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) as relative humidity increased for ...

  7. Migration og etnicitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe


    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....



    Kobylinsky S. V.; Usenko A. S.


    Several peculiarities of the implementation of migration policy in the Russian Federation were considered in this article. We have shown main provisions on refugees and forced migrants from the Ukraine and labor migration. On the basis of the study we have suggested an improvement of migration legislation, in particular, creation of a single codex and migration police

  9. Migration and health. (United States)

    Evans, J; Baldwin, W


    Investigation of migration and health often forces us to acknowledge that the types of migration (international, internal, and residential) interact with each other as well as other population parameters such as the age/sex structure, sexual activity, fertility, mortality, and family structure. Research on migration is often obscured by these interactions. In fact, the adoption of a health perspective in the design of migration research represents a substantial improvement over traditional approaches that are based on distinctions among the various types of population movement. This is because a health perspective treats population movement as a dynamic process by which individuals are related to specific locations by reason of their participation in human networks. In other words, migration is regarded as a human process rather than a discrete event, and accordingly, it becomes less important to describe the individual's involvement with human networks and the institutions sustaining them. The use of a health perspective in migration research often calls our attention to the ways in which the types of migration are interconnected. For example, a migrant from Mexico might exhibit considerable internal mobility and may circulate between Mexico might exhibit considerable internal mobility and may circulate between Mexico and the US over several years until he develops enough contacts in the US to settle in a particular community in which his personal contact with human networks and place-specific institutions are conducive to settlement. Through him, family members may attach to the community. In the process, they all encounter health risks, make demands on the health care system, change the demographic/health characteristics of both sending and receiving places, sometimes act as transmitting agents of disease to those with whom they interact and, undergo changes in their levels of personal development and well-being. A research perspective that investigates these

  10. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe


    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...... the creation of object surrogates as an abstraction of the abovementioned style of migration. We introduce Øjeblik, a distribution-free subset of Obliq, and provide three different configuration-style semantics, which only differ in the respective aliasing model. We show that two of the semantics, one of which...... matches Obliq’s implementation, render migration unsafe, while our new proposal for a third semantics is provably safe. Our work suggests a straightforward repair of Obliq’s aliasing model such that it allows programs to safely migrate objects....

  11. LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow (United States)

    Michałek, W. R.; Liew, R.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Zeegers, J. C. H.


    In this paper subgrid models for LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow are tested and improved for three Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity, Reτ of 150, 395, and 950 with the aim to develop a simulation method for LES of a droplet-laden Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. A new subgrid model combining the beneficial properties of the dynamic eddy-viscosity model and the approximate deconvolution model is proposed. Furthermore, the subgrid model in the droplet equations based on approximate deconvolution is found to perform well also in non-isothermal channel flow. At the highest Reynolds number in the test the dynamic model yields results with a similar accuracy as the approximate deconvolution model.

  12. LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalek, W R; Kuerten, J G M [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Liew, R; Zeegers, J C H, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    In this paper subgrid models for LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow are tested and improved for three Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity, Re{sub {tau}} of 150, 395, and 950 with the aim to develop a simulation method for LES of a droplet-laden Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. A new subgrid model combining the beneficial properties of the dynamic eddy-viscosity model and the approximate deconvolution model is proposed. Furthermore, the subgrid model in the droplet equations based on approximate deconvolution is found to perform well also in non-isothermal channel flow. At the highest Reynolds number in the test the dynamic model yields results with a similar accuracy as the approximate deconvolution model.

  13. Exploring Isothermal Layers in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer (United States)

    Wilkins, Joseph


    Simulating the stable atmospheric boundary-layer presents a significant challenge to numerical models due to the interactions of several processes with widely varying scales. The goal of this project is to more clearly define the cause of isothermal layers observed during the Meteorological Experiment in Arizona's Meteor Crater and to test the National Taiwan University/Purdue University (NTU/P) model in stable environments with complex terrain. The NTU/P model is able to utilize the actual terrain data with minimal smoothing for stability. We have found that isothermal profiles can be generated by the standing wave that develops due to weak wind flowing over the crater. However, the horizontal heterogeneity is greater than observed. Continued effort will explore enhancing horizontal mixing due to turbulence and radiative transfer. Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation Program, Summer Research Opportunities Program.

  14. Rapid and fully automated Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per


    Eminent environmental challenges such as remediation of contaminated sites, the establishment and maintenance of nuclear waste repositories, or the design of surface landfill covers all require accurate quantification of the soil water characteristic at low water contents. Furthermore, several...... and pesticide volatilization, toxic organic vapor sorption kinetics, and soil water repellency are illustrated. Several methods to quantify hysteresis effects and to derive soil clay content and specific surface area from VSA-measured isotherms are presented. Besides above mentioned applications, potential...... essential but difficult-to-measure soil properties such as clay content and specific surface area are intimately related to water vapor sorption. Until recently, it was a major challenge to accurately measure detailed water vapor sorption isotherms within an acceptable time frame. This priority...

  15. Detection of fish nocardiosis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. (United States)

    Itano, T; Kawakami, H; Kono, T; Sakai, M


    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel method that amplifies DNA with high specificity and rapidity under isothermal conditions. In this study, using the LAMP method, a protocol for detecting Nocardia seriolae which is a causative agent of fish nocardiosis, was designed. A set of four primers, two inner and two outer, were designed based on the sequence of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer region of N. seriolae. Time and temperature conditions for detection of N. seriolae were optimized for 60 min at 65 degrees C. Other fish pathogen was not amplified by this LAMP system. The detection of N. seriola using LAMP was found to be more sensitive than that by polymerase chain reaction. LAMP is a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic procedure for detection of N. seriolae. LAMP is a useful diagnostic method for fish nocardiosis.

  16. Characterization of protein-protein interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Leavitt, Stephanie A; Freire, Ernesto


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful technique to study both protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. This methods chapter is devoted to describing protein-protein interactions, in particular, the association between two different proteins and the self-association of a protein into homodimers. ITC is the only technique that determines directly the thermodynamic parameters of a given reaction: DeltaG, DeltaH, DeltaS, and DeltaCP. Isothermal titration calorimeters have evolved over the years and one of the latest models is the VP-ITC produced by Microcal, Inc. In this chapter we will be describing the general procedure for performing an ITC experiment as well as for the specific cases of porcine pancreatic trypsin binding to soybean trypsin inhibitor and the dissociation of bovine pancreatic alpha-chymotrypsin.

  17. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, R. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Rampino, A. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bellich, B.; Elisei, E. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cesàro, A. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Saboungi, M.-L. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Univ-UPMC, Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)


    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  18. Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Yogurt Powder Containing Candied Chestnut Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur Bastıoğlu


    Full Text Available Yogurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. Moisture sorption isotherms of yogurt powder samples, plain (YP, and containing 5, 10, 20% candied chestnut puree (CCP were determined at 25°C using the standard, static-gravimetric method. The experimental adsorption data of yogurt powders at 25°C were fitted to 14 sorption equations which are most widely used to fit experimental sorption data of various food materials. The parameters of the sorption models were estimated from the experimental results by using the nonlinear regression analysis. The GAB model gave the closet fit to the sorption data of freeze dried yogurt powders with candied chestnut puree at 25°C. BET, Ferro Fanton, Henderson, Halsey, Oswin and Modified Oswin models are also acceptable for describing the adsorption isotherms for freeze dried yogurt with candied chestnut puree at 25°C.

  19. Adsorption Isotherms of Phenol and 4-Chlorophenol on Petroleum Asphaltenes Adsorption du phénol et du 4-chlorophénol sur les asphaltènes pétroliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaoui M.


    Full Text Available The adsorption isotherms for phenol and 4-chlorophenol from water onto asphaltenes flocculated in bulk and asphaltenes deposited on silica were established by frontal analysis chromatography at 293, 298, 303, and 308 K. The adsorption was more important with asphaltenes flocculated in bulk and corresponded to a Freundlich isotherm mechanism. The high adsorbed amount of phenols suggests possible migration of phenols through the loose asphaltene structure. Isotherms observed with the silica coated by asphaltenes showed that adsorption occurs in two stages corresponding probably to two different organizations of solute molecules at the surface. Les isothermes d'adsorption du phénol et du 4-chlorophénol en solution dans l'eau sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse et sur des asphaltènes déposés sur de la silice ont été déterminés par analyse chromatographique frontale à 293, 298, 303 et 308 K. L'adsorption sur des asphaltènes floculés en masse était la plus importante avec des isothermes correspondant à un mécanisme de Freundlich. La quantité élevée de phénols adsorbés suggère une migration possible des molécules du phénol à travers la structure peu compacte des asphaltènes. Les isothermes observés dans le cas de silice tapissée d'asphaltènes ont montré que l'adsorption se produit en deux étapes correspondant probablement à deux organisations différentes des molécules de soluté à la surface.

  20. A mathematical model for isothermal heap and column leaching


    Lima L.R.P. de Andrade


    Leaching occurs in metals recovery, in contaminated soil washing, and in many natural processes, such as fertilizer dissolution and rock weathering. This paper presents a model developed to simulate the transient evolution of the dissolved chemical species in the heap and column isothermal leaching processes. In this model, the solid bed is numerically divided into plane layers; the recovery of the chemical species, the enrichment of the pregnant leach solution, and the residual concentration...

  1. Performance assessment and isotherm modeling of dye uptake by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different isotherms were used to model data obtained from adsorption of textile dye from waste water. Applicability of the models followed the trend; Langmuir (R2 = 0.87-0.989) > Radushkevich – Dubinin (R2=0.731-0.973)> Frendhich (R2=0.735-0.967) > Temkin (R2=0.742-0.951). The Langmuir separation factor (RL) ...

  2. The isothermal dust condensation of Nova Vulpeculae 1976 (United States)

    Ney, E. P.; Hatfield, B. F.


    Nova Vulpeculae 1976 has been followed with broad-band photometry at wavelengths of 0.5 to 12.5 microns from day 3 to day 235. Three definite phases are identified. They are expanding pseudophotosphere, free-free expansion, and dust condensation. A very long (day 80 to day 220) period of isothermal infrared emission (temperature approximately 900 K) is accompanied by an exponential decrease in infrared luminosity and is interpreted in terms of continuous mass ejection in the nova wind.

  3. En fornemmelse for migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  4. More myths of migration. (United States)

    Basch, L; Lerner, G


    This paper discusses some of the myths of migration. The 5 myths presented are: 1) racism has little to do with the causes of migration and does not necessarily impede the adjustment or success of migrants; 2) in areas where there is a strong feminist movement and trade unions, migrant women receive their support and can count on the solidarity of these organizations; 3) transnational corporations are positive forces in the developing countries where they operate--not only do they provide these states with new sources of capital, but they also impart new industrial skills to the labor force; 4) migration today is essentially short-term in nature--it therefore does not have a strong impact on family life; and 5) most migrants cluster together in ethnic enclaves which provide a strong source of support and diminish dislocation inherent in the migrant process.

  5. Disjoining pressure isotherms of water-in-bitumen emulsion films. (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn D; Czarnecki, Jan; Masliyah, Jacob


    In the oil sands industry, undesirable water-in-oil emulsions are often formed during the bitumen recovery process where water is used to liberate bitumen from sand grains. Nearly all of the water is removed except for a small percentage (approximately 1 to 2%), which remains in the solvent-diluted bitumen as micrometer-sized droplets. Knowledge of the colloidal forces that stabilized these water droplets would help to increase our understanding of how these emulsions are stabilized. In this study, the thin liquid film-pressure balance technique has been used to measure isotherms of disjoining pressure in water/toluene-diluted bitumen/water films at five different toluene-bitumen mass ratios. Even though a broad range of mass ratios was studied, only two isotherms are obtained, indicating a possible change in the molecular orientation of surfactant molecules at the bitumen/water interfaces. At low toluene-bitumen mass ratios, the film stability appears to be due to a strong, short-range steric repulsion created by a surfactant bilayer. Similar isotherms were obtained for water/toluene-diluted asphaltene/water films, indicating that the surface active material at the interface probably originated from the asphaltene fraction of the bitumen. However, unlike the bitumen films, films of toluene-diluted asphaltenes often formed very rigid interfaces similar to the "protective skin" described by other researcher.

  6. Study of adsorption isotherms of green coconut pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Carolina Gonçalves Lavoyer


    Full Text Available Brazil is considered one of the largest producers and consumers of tropical fruits. Green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. stands out not only for its production and consumption, but also for the high amount of waste produced by coconut water industry and in natura consumption. Therefore, there is a need for utilization of this by-product. This study aims to study the adsorption isotherms of green coconut pulp and determine its isosteric heat of sorption. The adsorption isotherms at temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C were analyzed, and they exhibit type III behavior, typical of sugar rich foods. The experimental results of equilibrium moisture content were correlated by models present in the literature. The Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer (GAB model proved particularly good overall agreement with the experimental data. The heat of sorption determined from the adsorption isotherms increased with the decrease in moisture content. The heat of sorption is considered as indicative of intermolecular attractive forces between the sorption sites and water vapor, which is an important factor to predict the shelf life of dried products.

  7. Laplace pressure based disjoining pressure isotherm in non symmetric conditions (United States)

    Huerre, Axel; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Maggs, A. C.; Theodoly, Olivier; Jullien, Marie-Caroline


    Understanding the stability and dynamics of two phase systems, such as foams and emulsions, in porous media is still a challenge for physicists and calls for a better understanding of the intermolecular interactions between interfaces. In a classical approach, these interactions are investigated in the framework of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory by building disjoining pressure isotherms. This paper reports on a technique allowing the measurement of disjoining pressure isotherms in a thin liquid film squeezed by either a gas or a liquid phase on a solid substrate. We couple a Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy set-up to a microfluidic channel that sets the disjoining pressure through the Laplace pressure. This simple technique is found to be both accurate and precise. The Laplace pressure mechanism provides extremely stable conditions and offers opportunity for parallelizing experiments by producing several drops in channels of different heights. We illustrate its potential by comparing experimental isotherms for oil—[(water and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)]—glass systems with different models focusing on the electrostatic contribution of the disjoining pressure. The extracted values of the interface potentials are in agreement with the constant surface potential model and with a full computation. The derived SDS surface concentration agrees with values reported in the literature. We believe that this technique is suitable for investigating other working fluids and intermolecular interactions at smaller scales.

  8. Water vapor adsorption isotherms of agar-based nanocomposite films. (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan


    Adsorption isotherms of agar and agar/clay nanocomposite films prepared with different types of nanoclays, that is, a natural montmorillonite (Cloisite Na(+) ) and 2 organically modified montmorillonites (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A), were determined at 3 different temperatures (10, 25, and 40 °C). The water vapor adsorption behavior of the nanocomposite films was found to be greatly influenced with the type of clay. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) isotherm model parameters were estimated by using both polynomial regression and nonlinear regression methods and it was found that the GAB model fitted adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the film samples. The monolayer moisture content (m(o) ) of the film samples was also greatly affected by the type of nanoclay used, that is, m(o) of nanocomposite films was significantly lower than that of the neat agar film. Nanocomposite films prepared with hydrophobic nanoclays (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A) exhibited lower m(o) values than those prepared with hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+) ). © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Moisture sorption isotherms of fresh and blanched pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucídio Molina Filho


    Full Text Available Moisture desorption isotherms of fresh and heat blanched pumpkins (Cucurbita moschata were determined at three temperatures (30, 50 and 70 °C, using the standard, static-gravimetric method. The GAB, Oswin, BET, Halsey, and Henderson models were tested and, with the exception of the Henderson model, showed satisfactory fits to the experimental data. The GAB model was used to analyze the fitting ability to describe the isotherm type. The shape of the desorption isotherms of fresh and blanched pumpkin at 30 and 50 °C was intermediate to types II and III, and at 70 °C it was of type II for the blanched pumpkin and close to type II for the fresh sample. The influence of blanching on the decrease in equilibrium moisture was very small compared to the fresh samples and it was related to the loss of soluble solids during the pre-treatment. The isosteric heat of sorption measures indicated that a larger amount of heat was required to remove the water from the fresh samples than from the blanched ones.

  10. Transventricular Migration of Neurocysticercosis. (United States)

    Shah, Abhidha; Vutha, Ravikiran; Sankhe, Shilpa; Goel, Atul


    The movements of a neurocysticercosis cyst within the ventricular cavity have been identified rarely. A 22-year old male patient presented with the main symptom of diplopia for about a week. Findings of the neurologic examination revealed bilateral sixth cranial nerve weakness. Investigations during the period showed an intraventricular tumor that migrated from lateral ventricle to the third ventricle and subsequently to the fourth ventricle. The lesion was resected from the fourth ventricle and was identified to be a neurocysticercosis cyst. Such an intraventricular migration of any kind of tumor has not been recorded in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    three consecutive summers from 2010 to 2012. The articles focus on various aspects of the migrant experience and try to answer questions about migrant identity and its representations in literature and the media. The book closes with an original play by Carlos Morton, the Chicano playwright working......(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  12. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till


    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  13. Samtidskunst og migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...... Europa og i bredere forstand Vesten. Rapporten er en intern rapport som er lavet i tilknytning til det kollektive forskningsprojekt "Islam i europæisk litteratur" på Afdelingen for Litteraturvidenskab og Moderne Kultur og indleveret til dette projekts leder, Peter Madsen....

  14. Making Migration Meaningful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger


    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during periods...... of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility is also...

  15. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond


    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  16. [Migration and diabetes]. (United States)

    Aydinkoc-Tuzcu, Kadriye; Schindler, Karin; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter


    The article deals with the demographic data of migration in Austria and with therapeutic advice concerning drug therapy and diabetes education for patients with migration background. In this context socio-cultural specifics are discussed. These suggestions are seen complementary to the general treatment guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association.Especially for the fast months Ramadan there are a lot of informations. The most important point is that the patient care must be highly individualized and the management plan may differ for each patient.

  17. What's driving migration? (United States)

    Kane, H


    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  18. Atmospheric lifetime of caesium-137 as an estimate of aerosol lifetime -quantified from global measurements in the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident (United States)

    Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard


    Radionuclides like caesium-137 (137Cs) can be emitted to the atmosphere in great quantities during nuclear accidents and are of significant health impact. A global set of radionuclide measurements collected over several months after the accidental release from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 has been used to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs. Lifetime is here defined as the e-folding time scale (the time interval in which the exponential decay of the 137Cs quantity has decreased by factor of e). The estimated atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs can also be used as an estimate of the lifetime of aerosols in the atmosphere. This is based on the fact that 137Cs attaches to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and trace their fate in the atmosphere. The 137Cs "tags" the AM aerosols and both the 137Cs and AM aerosols are removed simultaneously from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. The 137Cs emitted from Fukushima attached mainly to sulphate aerosols in the size range 0.1-2 μm diameter. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations from several stations spread mostly over the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated, and the decrease in activity concentrations over time (after correction for radioactive decay) reflects the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition. Corrections for air mass transport were made using measurements of the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) which was also released during the accident. This noble gas does not attach to the aerosols and was thus used as a passive tracer of air mass transport. The atmospheric lifetime of 137Cs was estimated to 10.0-13.9 days during April and May 2011. This represents the atmospheric lifetime of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical northern hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources

  19. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.


    This presentation will show the results of a paper currently under review in ACPD and some additional new results, including more data and with an independent box modeling approach to support some of the findings of the ACPD paper. On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started early, before active venting was performed. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they

  20. Migration scenarii in extrasolar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crida A.


    Full Text Available In this review talk, I present the theory of type I migration of small mass planets, and its latest developments that open the possibility of outward migration in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk. I also review the type II migration of giant planets, and mention the runaway, type III. Then, we focus on the migration of pairs of planets in resonance. The eccentricity of the planets raise, and possibly their mutual inclination as well. Also, the migration rate can be changed, and directed outward if the outer planet is the lighter. Last, we present a synthetic scenario of migration for the giant planets of our Solar System.

  1. A simple isothermal DNA amplification method to screen black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infection. (United States)

    Alhassan, Andy; Makepeace, Benjamin L; LaCourse, Elwyn James; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Carlow, Clotilde K S


    Onchocerciasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Adult worms live in subcutaneous tissues and produce large numbers of microfilariae that migrate to the skin and eyes. The disease is spread by black flies of the genus Simulium following ingestion of microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. Currently, transmission is monitored by capture and dissection of black flies and microscopic examination of parasites, or using the polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of parasite DNA in pools of black flies. In this study we identified a new DNA biomarker, encoding O. volvulus glutathione S-transferase 1a (OvGST1a), to detect O. volvulus infection in vector black flies. We developed an OvGST1a-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay where amplification of specific target DNA is detectable using turbidity or by a hydroxy naphthol blue color change. The results indicated that the assay is sensitive and rapid, capable of detecting DNA equivalent to less than one microfilaria within 60 minutes. The test is highly specific for the human parasite, as no cross-reaction was detected using DNA from the closely related and sympatric cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi. The test has the potential to be developed further as a field tool for use in the surveillance of transmission before and after implementation of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis.

  2. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - I. Static migration torque (United States)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Gressel, Oliver; Lyra, Wladimir


    Motivated by models suggesting that the inner planet forming regions of protoplanetary discs are predominantly lacking in viscosity-inducing turbulence, and are possibly threaded by Hall-effect generated large-scale horizontal magnetic fields, we examine the dynamics of the corotation region of a low-mass planet in such an environment. The corotation torque in an inviscid, isothermal, dead zone ought to saturate, with the libration region becoming both symmetrical and of a uniform vortensity, leading to fast inward migration driven by the Lindblad torques alone. However, in such a low viscosity situation, the material on librating streamlines essentially preserves its vortensity. If there is relative radial motion between the disc gas and the planet, the librating streamlines will no longer be symmetrical. Hence, if the gas is torqued by a large-scale magnetic field so that it undergoes a net inflow or outflow past the planet, driving evolution of the vortensity and inducing asymmetry of the corotation region, the corotation torque can grow, leading to a positive torque. In this paper, we treat this effect by applying a symmetry argument to the previously studied case of a migrating planet in an inviscid disc. Our results show that the corotation torque due to a laminar Hall-induced magnetic field in a dead zone behaves quite differently from that studied previously for a viscous disc. Furthermore, the magnetic field induced corotation torque and the dynamical corotation torque in a low viscosity disc can be regarded as one unified effect.

  3. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah


    rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...

  4. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog


    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  5. Digitizing migration heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi


    Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...

  6. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  7. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.


    Full Text Available Ringing of birds unveiled many aspects of avian migration and dispersal movements. However, there is even much more to be explored by the use of ringing and other marks. Dispersal is crucial in understanding the initial phase of migration in migrating birds as it is to understand patterns and processes of distribution and gene flow. So far, the analysis of migration was largely based on analysing spatial and temporal patters of recoveries of ringed birds. However, there are considerable biases and pitfalls in using recoveries due to spatial and temporal variation in reporting probabilities. Novel methods are required for future studies separating the confounding effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of recovery data and heterogeneity of the landscape as well. These novel approaches should aim a more intensive and novel use of the existing recovery data by taking advantage of, for instance, dynamic and multistate modeling, should elaborate schemes for future studies, and should also include other marks that allow a more rapid data collection, like telemetry, geolocation and global positioning systems, and chemical and molecular markers. The latter appear to be very useful in the delineating origin of birds and connectivity between breeding and non–breeding grounds. Many studies of migration are purely descriptive. However, King and Brooks (King & Brooks, 2004 examine if movement patterns of dolphins change after the introduction of a gillnet ban. Bayesian methods are an interesting approach to this problem as they provide a meaningful measure of the probability that such a change occurred rather than simple yes/no response that is often the result of classical statistical methods. However, the key difficulty of a general implementation of Bayesian methods is the complexity of the modelling —there is no general userfriendly package that is easily accessible to most scientists. Drake and Alisauskas (Drake & Alisauskas, 2004 examine the

  8. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco


    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  9. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  10. Migrating the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure to lit...

  11. Practical Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Johny


    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  12. Halting Migration: Numerical Calculations of Corotation Torques in the Weakly Nonlinear Regime (United States)

    Duffell, Paul C.


    Planets in their formative years can migrate due to the influence of gravitational torques in the protoplanetary disk they inhabit. For low-mass planets in an isothermal disk, it is known that there is a strong negative torque on the planet due to its linear perturbation to the disk, causing fast inward migration. The current investigation demonstrates that in these same isothermal disks, for intermediate-mass planets, there is a strong positive nonlinear corotation torque due to the effects of gas being pulled through a gap on horseshoe orbits. For intermediate-mass planets, this positive torque can partially or completely cancel the linear (Type I) torque, leading to slower or outward migration, even in an isothermal disk. The effect is most significant for super-Earth and sub-Jovian planets, during the transition from a low-mass linear perturber to a nonlinear gap-opening planet, when the planet has opened a so-called “partial gap,” though the precise values of these transition masses depend sensitively on the disk model (density profile, viscosity, and disk aspect ratio). In this study, numerical calculations of planet-disk interactions calculate these torques explicitly, and scalings are empirically constructed for migration rates in this weakly nonlinear regime. These results find outward migration is possible for planets with masses in the range 20-100 {M}\\oplus , though this range depends on the disk model considered. In the disk models where torque reversal occurs, the critical planet-to-star mass ratio for torque reversal was found to have the robust scaling {q}{crit}\\propto \\sqrt{α }{(h/r)}3, where α is the dimensionless viscosity parameter and h/r is the disk aspect ratio.

  13. From Migration Regime to Regional Citizenry: Migration and Identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine the East African common market, taken as a regional migration regime, and draw its implications for intra-regional migration and identity formation. Using desk research, I analyse the common market Protocol's provisions and envisage the implications of its implementation for intraregional migration and identity ...

  14. The International Organization for Migration in Global Migration Governance


    Poulsen, Sofie Havn; Andersen, Lise


    This project focuses on the IOM, the notion of global governance of migration and the interaction between these two. The point of departure has been an attempt to grasp the current global approach to migration and comprehend whether, or to what degree, there is governance of migration issues taking place at a global level.

  15. Globalization, Migration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George, Susan


    Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce

  16. Zimbabwe's Exodus Crisis, Migration, Survival

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Remittances, Informalisation and Dispossession in Urban Zimbabwe Sarah Bracking and Lloyd Sachikonye. 324. Chapter Fifteen Transnationalism and Undocumented Migration Between Rural Zimbabwe and South Africa France Maphosa. 346. Chapter Sixteen Metaphors of Migration: Zimbabwean Migrants in the South ...

  17. [Migration processes in small towns]. (United States)

    Makowska, K


    Changing migration patterns in Poland and their impact on small towns are analysed with a focus on the period since the 1950s. The analysis shows that although migration previously benefited major urban areas at the expense of small towns, the migration situation of small towns has recently improved.

  18. Musei del migration heritage / Migration heritage museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dragoni


    Since the second half of the 1960s of the 20th century, a profound cultural innovation was accompanied to the radical change in the social, political and economic climate. The anthropological notion of culture as opposed to idealistic vision, the unusual and strong interest in material culture, the enunciation of the concept of cultural property by the Franceschini Commission, the luck of the Public History bring a change of the disciplinary statutes of historical sciences, which begin to attend to social history, focusing on the spontaneous sources of information and initiating experiences of oral history. To all this a remarkable transformation of the themes and of the social function of museums is added. This paper illustrates, in relation to this more general context, the foundation and the dissemination of museums dedicated to the history of migration in Italy and in the world, enunciates their possible social utility for the integration of present migrants in Italy and illustrates, by way of example, the museum recently opened in Recanati.

  19. Modeling Cavitation in ICE Pistons Made with Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Astanin


    Full Text Available Possible causes for cavitations in parts made with an Al-Si eutectic alloy AK12D (AlSi12 were explored with mathematical and physical modeling with involved acoustic emission. Pores were formed from micro-cracks, which appear during the early stages of a deformation process, with the help of micro-stresses appearing at phase boundaries (Al/Si interface due to thermal expansion. At the design stage of isothermal forgings of such products it is recommended to provide a scheme of the deformed shape, which is under uniform compression, to compensate for the inter-phase stresses.

  20. High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel Precipitation During Isothermal Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Domankova


    Full Text Available The time-temperature-precipitation in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel was investigated using light optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The isothermal precipitation kinetics curves and the corresponding precipitation activation energy were obtained. The diffusion activation energy of M2N precipitation is 129 kJ/mol. The results show that critical temperature for M2N precipitation is about 825°C with the corresponding incubation period 2.5 min.

  1. Thermodynamic and themoeconomic optimization of isothermal endoreversible chemical engine models (United States)

    Ocampo-García, A.; Barranco-Jiménez, M. A.; Angulo-Brown, F.


    A branch of finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) is the thermoeconomical analysis of simplified power plant models. The most studied models are those of the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) and Novikov-Chambadal types. In the decade of 90's of the past century, the FTT analysis of thermal engines was extended to chemical engines. In the present paper we made a thermoeconomical analysis of heat engines and chemical engines of the CA and Novikov types. This study is carried out for isothermal endoreversible chemical engine models with a linear mass transfer law and under three different modes of thermodynamic performance (maximum power, maximum ecological function and maximum efficient power).

  2. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: Assisted Crystallization of RNA-Ligand Complexes. (United States)

    Da Veiga, Cyrielle; Mezher, Joelle; Dumas, Philippe; Ennifar, Eric


    The success rate of nucleic acids/ligands co-crystallization can be significantly improved by performing preliminary biophysical analyses. Among suitable biophysical approaches, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is certainly a method of choice. ITC can be used in a wide range of experimental conditions to monitor in real time the formation of the RNA- or DNA-ligand complex, with the advantage of providing in addition the complete binding profile of the interaction. Following the ITC experiment, the complex is ready to be concentrated for crystallization trials. This chapter describes a detailed experimental protocol for using ITC as a tool for monitoring RNA/small molecule binding, followed by co-crystallization.

  3. Isothermal titration calorimetry for studying protein-ligand interactions. (United States)

    Damian, Luminita


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a biophysical technique that allows a thermodynamic characterization of an interactive system. It is a free in solution technique that requires no labeling, using heat as signal. ITC allows simultaneous determination of affinity K a, stoichiometry n, enthalpy change ΔH and calculation of free energy change ΔG and entropy change ΔS in one single experiment. It is the only technique that allows direct enthalpy change measurement. By accessing the enthalpy change, we get a step closer in estimating the driving forces that characterize the interaction of a protein with a ligand, information much needed in the drug discovery process.

  4. Applications of isothermal titration calorimetry in RNA biochemistry and biophysics. (United States)

    Feig, Andrew L

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been applied to the study of proteins for many years. Its use in the biophysical analysis of RNAs has lagged significantly behind its use in protein biochemistry, however, in part because of the relatively large samples required. As the instrumentation has become more sensitive, the ability to obtain high quality data on RNA folding and RNA ligand interactions has improved dramatically. This review provides an overview of the ITC experiment and describes recent work on RNA systems that have taken advantage of its versatility for the study of small molecule binding, protein binding, and the analysis of RNA folding. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Isotherm of ligand adsorption on DNA at multiplicative noise. (United States)

    Arakelyan, Valeri; Harutyunyan, Sos; Andriasyan, Vardan; Arakelyan, Hakob


    Fluctuations of the number of ligands adsorbed on macromolecules are considered in the case when the number of ligands in the solution fluctuates under the action of fluctuations of the external medium (external noise). For the case of small filling, the multiplicative type of stochastic differential equation is obtained, describing the time variation of the number of ligands adsorbed on macromolecules. The isotherm of adsorption of ligands on DNA is obtained. It is shown that at small ligand concentrations, for some relations between adsorption parameters and the intensity of the external noise, no macromolecule adsorption of ligands takes place.

  6. Isothermal assembly of DNA origami structures using denaturing agents. (United States)

    Jungmann, Ralf; Liedl, Tim; Sobey, Thomas L; Shih, William; Simmel, Friedrich C


    DNA origami is one of the most promising recent developments in DNA self-assembly. It allows for the construction of arbitrary nanoscale patterns and objects by folding a long viral scaffold strand using a large number of short "staple" strands. Assembly is usually accomplished by thermal annealing of the DNA molecules in buffer solution. We here demonstrate that both 2D and 3D origami structures can be assembled isothermally by annealing the DNA strands in denaturing buffer, followed by a controlled reduction of denaturant concentration. This opens up origami assembly for the integration of temperature-sensitive components.

  7. Isothermal dust models of Herschel-ATLAS galaxies (United States)

    Smith, D. J. B.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Maddox, S. J.; Dunne, L.; Bonfield, D. G.; Eales, S.; Serjeant, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Baes, M.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Gonzàlez-Nuevo, J.; van der Werf, P.; Virdee, J.; Bourne, N.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Valiante, E.


    We use galaxies from the Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey, and a suite of ancillary simulations based on an isothermal dust model, to study our ability to determine the effective dust temperature, luminosity and emissivity index of 250 μm selected galaxies in the local Universe (z < 0.5). As well as simple far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of individual galaxies based on χ2 minimization, we attempt to derive the best global isothermal properties of 13 826 galaxies with reliable optical counterparts and spectroscopic redshifts. Using our simulations, we highlight the fact that applying traditional SED fitting techniques to noisy observational data in the Herschel Space Observatory bands introduces artificial anti-correlation between derived values of dust temperature and emissivity index. This is true even for galaxies with the most robust statistical detections in our sample, making the results of such fitting difficult to interpret. We apply a method to determine the best-fitting global values of isothermal effective temperature and emissivity index for z < 0.5 galaxies in H-ATLAS, deriving Teff = 22.3 ± 0.1 K and β = 1.98 ± 0.02 (or Teff = 23.5 ± 0.1 K and β = 1.82 ± 0.02 if we attempt to correct for bias by assuming that Teff and βeff are independent and normally distributed). We use our technique to test for an evolving emissivity index, finding only weak evidence. The median dust luminosity of our sample is log10(Ldust/L⊙) = 10.72 ± 0.05, which (unlike Teff) shows little dependence on the choice of β used in our analysis, including whether it is variable or fixed. In addition, we use a further suite of simulations based on a fixed emissivity index isothermal model to emphasize the importance of the H-ATLAS PACS data for deriving dust temperatures at these redshifts, even though they are considerably less sensitive than the SPIRE data. Finally, we show that the majority of galaxies detected by H-ATLAS are normal star

  8. [Medical genetics and migration]. (United States)

    Feingold, J


    Any migration results in the transfer of normal and pathological genes from one population to another. The frequency of pathological genes may vary according to the population, sickle cell anaemia, for instance, being frequent in Africa and cystic fibrosis in Europe. It follows that the hereditary pathology of migrants is not the same as that of the host population, at least during the immediate post-migration years; subsequently, all depends on the degree of cross-breeding. In epidemiological genetics the study of the frequency of some diseases in the original population, among migrants and in the host population enables the effects of genes and environment on the aetiology of these diseases to be investigated.

  9. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements...... were related to the yearly progression of an environmental surrogate for food availability along the course of migration. In one species, with multiple, different non-breeding staging sites, environmental conditions explain movements well and also how yearly differences explain differences in timing...

  10. Religion, migration og integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn


    Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i integrationss......Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i...

  11. Forced Migration: Refugee Populations (United States)

    Boyle, Joyceen S.


    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that manifests in various contexts. This article describes the impact of the movement of large numbers of people in several African countries, producing a unique type of migrant—the refugee. We describe issues that refugee movements create on fragile health care systems, situations that precipitate refugee movements, certain human rights violations that are of particular concern such as gender based violence (GBV) and child soldiers, and lastly, implications for nursing practice and policy. We use examples from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current literature, as well as the international experience of the authors, this article presents an overview of forced migration and discusses opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  12. Syrian Crisis and Migration


    Pinar Yazgan; Deniz Eroglu Utku; Ibrahim Sirkeci


    With the growing insurrections in Syria in 2011, an exodus in large numbers have emerged. The turmoil and violence have caused mass migration to destinations both within the region and beyond. The current "refugee crisis" has escalated sharply and its impact is widening from neighbouring countries toward Europe. Today, the Syrian crisis is the major cause for an increase in displacement and the resultant dire humanitarian situation in the region. Since the conflict shows no signs of abating i...

  13. Retrograde Gastrojejunostomy Tube Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke Adesina


    Full Text Available Percutaneous enteral feeding tubes are placed about 250,000 times each year in the United States. Although they are relatively safe, their placement may be complicated by perforation, infection, bleeding, vomiting, dislodgment, and obstruction. There have been numerous reports of antegrade migration of gastrojejunostomy (G-J tubes. We report a case of G-J tube regurgitation following protracted vomiting and discuss the management of this very rare entity.

  14. American Migration Controversies


    Milan Mesić


    The USA has been and has remained the world's most important immigration country. The last quarter of the 20th century has been marked by a new mass immigration wave that in absolute size of the immigration flow can be compared to the highest flows in the previous century. This recent migration, however, differs from traditional immigration to America in that it includes a greater ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. The vast majority of today's immigrants, both legal and clandestine, co...

  15. Enforcement and illegal migration


    Pia Orrenius


    Border enforcement of immigration laws attempts to raise the costs of illegal immigration, while interior enforcement also lowers the benefits. Border and interior enforcement therefore reduce the net benefits of illegal immigration and should lower the probability that an individual will decide to migrate. While some empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as significant deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries significant uni...

  16. Conservation physiology of animal migration (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.


    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  17. Migration Profile NIGERIA 1. Structural Migration Profile 2. Flash Migration Profile (January - March 2017)




    The new generation of Migration Profiles aims at collecting knowledge on migration and development at regular, short intervals (3/6 months) and with a sub-national coverage, providing tailored monitoring and ensuring comparability across countries. It links migration, developmental and humanitarian aspects as well as analyses on the EU strategic role vis-à-vis the third country, including its political, financial and humanitarian support. This publication reproduces the Migration Profile of N...

  18. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber


    We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.

  19. Migration of liquid phase from the primary/peritectic interface in a temperature gradient (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, XinZhong; Su, YanQing; Guo, JingJie


    The migration of the liquid droplets from the primary α/peritectic β interface at the peritectic temperature TP has been observed and analyzed in a Sn-Ni peritectic alloy. During the isothermal annealing stage of the interrupted directional solidification, a concentration gradient is established across the liquid droplets along the direction of the temperature gradient due to the temperature gradient zone melting. Simultaneous remelting/resolidification at the top/bottom of the liquid droplets by this concentration gradient have been confirmed to lead to migration of these droplets towards higher temperatures. The dependence of the migration distance of the liquid droplets on isothermal annealing time has been well predicted. Furthermore, since the lengths of the liquid droplet are not uniform along the direction of the temperature gradient, the remelting/resolidification rates which are dependent on the local morphology of liquid droplet are different at different local positions of the liquid droplets. It has been demonstrated that the morphology of the liquid droplet was also influenced by the morphologies of the liquid phase themselves. Therefore, the morphology of the liquid droplet itself changes from spherical to some kinds of irregular shapes during its migration.

  20. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik


    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  1. Physical Guidance of Cell Migration (United States)

    Losert, Wolfgang

    Cells migrate as individuals or groups, to perform critical functions in life from organ development to wound healing and the immune response. While directed migration of cells is often mediated by chemical or physical gradients, our recent work has demonstrated that the physical properties of the microenvironment can also control and guide migration. I will describe how an underlying wave-like process of the actin scaffolding drives persistent migration, and how such actin waves are nucleated and guided by the texture of the microenvironment. Based on this observation we design textures capable of guiding cells in a single preferred direction using local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales, or altering migration in other ways. This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of Dictyostelium cells and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  2. Isothermal decomposition kinetics of nickel (II) hydroxide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, C.S., E-mail: Casey.Carney@CONTR.NETL.DOE.GOV [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States); AECOM, P.O. Box 1959, Albany, OR (United States); Chinn, R.E.; Doğan, Ö.N. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States); Gao, M.C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States); AECOM, P.O. Box 1959, Albany, OR (United States)


    Highlights: • A first order random nucleation model was proposed for the decomposition of nickel hydroxide. • Trapped lattice product water greatly suppressed high conversion reaction rates. • Annealing experiments of the Ni–Ni(OH){sub 2}–NiO phase triangle yielded only two phases: Ni and NiO. • This Ni–Ni(OH){sub 2}–NiO phase triangle in the Ni-rich corner of the Ni–O–H system was confirmed. - Abstract: Nickel (II) hydroxide powder was investigated by thermogravimetry for isothermal decomposition kinetics and verification of the Ni–O–H ternary phase diagram at low temperatures. The activation energy and frequency factor were measured as E{sub a} = 134 kJ/mol and A = 1.27 × 10{sup 10} s{sup −1}, respectively. The validity of the first-order random nucleation model was confirmed, as opposed to diffusion and or moving-boundary models. The dependence of TGA results on specimen size was noted. The Ni–Ni(OH){sub 2}–NiO phase triangle was confirmed. Accordingly, a thermodynamic description of the system was established in the Ni-rich corner, and the isotherm at room temperature is calculated.

  3. Technical Assessment of Isothermal and Non-Isothermal Modelings of Natural Gas Pipeline Operational Conditions Évaluation technique de modélisations isothermes et non isothermes de conditions opérationnelles de conduites de gaz naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaye S.


    Full Text Available Modeling of equipment in a gas pipeline was performed here by deriving a new form of conservation equation set for compressible flow. Then a section of the third Iranian gas transmission pipeline (Nourabad-Pataveh-Dorahan, N-P-D was investigated by isothermal (IT and non-isothermal (NIT modeling approaches taking into account the effects of ground temperature. In the first part, the steady state operation of the N-P-D pipeline including a compressor station at Pataveh was studied. For the known values of natural gas mass flow rate, and inlet/outlet gas pressures at Nourabad/Dorahan points, the IT and NIT modelings showed about 33.7%, 16.6% and 23% maximum difference percent points for the compressors head, compressors rotational speed and fuel consumption rates respectively. In the second part, the unsteady operation of the N-P-D pipeline due to the shutdown of a compressor at Pataveh Compressor Station (PCS was studied. The results confirmed that at lower ground temperatures (0 and 20°C, the remaining compressors could compensate the loss of one compressor. However, at higher ground temperatures (40 and 50°C, the compressors had to run faster than the highest permissible speed to be able to deliver a certain mass flow rate without reducing the required pipeline pressure. In all above studied cases, the computing time for the non-isothermal modeling was about three times longer than that for the isothermal one. Une modélisation d'équipement au sein d'un gazoduc a été réalisée en dérivant une nouvelle forme d'ensemble d'équations de conservation pour un écoulement compressible. Une section du troisième réseau de distribution de gaz iranien (Nourabad-Pataveh-Dorahan, N-P-D a été ensuite étudiée selon des approches de modélisation isotherme (IT et non isotherme (NIT en prenant en compte les effets de la température du sol. Dans la première partie, le fonctionnement en régime stationnaire du gazoduc N-P-D, comprenant une station

  4. Obtaining a TRIP microstructure by thermomechanical treatment without isothermal holding (United States)

    Masek, B.; Jirkova, H.; Kucerova, L.; F-X Wagner, M.


    The contemporary development of technological processes for the production of modern multiphase steels can be characterized by the need for precise control of their technological parameters. The design of modern technological processes that allow sophisticated microstructures to be obtained usually cannot be carried out on real production equipment for technical as well as economical reasons. Therefore, new processes and test devices are continuously being developed to make it possible to simulate and model thermomechanical treatments on small specimens with precise control and monitoring of process parameters. A simulator for experimental modelling of thermomechanical processes has been developed at the University of West Bohemia. In this paper, to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating thermomechanical treatments with this setup on a lab scale, we discuss the thermomechanical treatment of TRIP steels without isothermal holding - a processing route that is difficult to handle and thus poses several technological as well as economic problems. The realistic processing of wire rolling with different cooling strategies is tested on the TRIP CMnSiNb steel. Our results show that the processing route without isothermal holding allows to obtain multiphase microstructures with a tensile strength of up to 835 MPa and a ductility A5mm = 25%.

  5. Microfluidic continuous flow digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Chen, Liben; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei


    Digital nucleic acid detection is rapidly becoming a popular technique for ultra-sensitive and quantitative detection of nucleic acid molecules in a wide range of biomedical studies. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the most popular way of conducting digital nucleic acid detection. However, due to the need for thermocycling, digital PCR is difficult to implement in a streamlined manner on a single microfluidic device, leading to complex fragmented workflows and multiple separate devices and instruments. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an excellent isothermal alternative to PCR with potentially better specificity than PCR because of the use of multiple primer sets for a nucleic acid target. Here we report a microfluidic droplet device implementing all the steps required for digital nucleic acid detection including droplet generation, incubation and in-line detection for digital LAMP. As compared to microchamber or droplet array-based digital assays, the continuous flow operation of this device eliminates the constraints on the number of total reactions imposed by the footprint of the device and the analysis throughput caused by the time for lengthy incubation and transfer of materials between instruments.

  6. Reliable prediction of adsorption isotherms via genetic algorithm molecular simulation. (United States)

    LoftiKatooli, L; Shahsavand, A


    Conventional molecular simulation techniques such as grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) strictly rely on purely random search inside the simulation box for predicting the adsorption isotherms. This blind search is usually extremely time demanding for providing a faithful approximation of the real isotherm and in some cases may lead to non-optimal solutions. A novel approach is presented in this article which does not use any of the classical steps of the standard GCMC method, such as displacement, insertation, and removal. The new approach is based on the well-known genetic algorithm to find the optimal configuration for adsorption of any adsorbate on a structured adsorbent under prevailing pressure and temperature. The proposed approach considers the molecular simulation problem as a global optimization challenge. A detailed flow chart of our so-called genetic algorithm molecular simulation (GAMS) method is presented, which is entirely different from traditions molecular simulation approaches. Three real case studies (for adsorption of CO2 and H2 over various zeolites) are borrowed from literature to clearly illustrate the superior performances of the proposed method over the standard GCMC technique. For the present method, the average absolute values of percentage errors are around 11% (RHO-H2), 5% (CHA-CO2), and 16% (BEA-CO2), while they were about 70%, 15%, and 40% for the standard GCMC technique, respectively.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption isotherms of grape seed (United States)

    Majd, Kamran Maleki; Karparvarfard, Seyed H.; Farahnaky, Asgar; Ansari, Sara


    In this study the moisture sorption isotherm of grape seed was determined by using a static gravimetric method at 35-65°C and 0.108-0.821 water activity range. The sorption isotherms were found to be typical sigmoid shape of most food materials. Five models including the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (2-parameter), Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer (3-parameter), Oswin (2-parameter), Ferro-Fontan (3-parameter) and Peleg (4-parameter) models were considered to fit the experimental data. The Ferro- Fontan and Peleg equations (at three temperatures 35, 45, 65°C) having R2 greater than 0.97 and lower values of standard error of estimate and deviation modulus gave the best fit of the experimental data throughout the entire range of water activity. The net isosteric heat of sorption, calculated by Calusius-Clapeyron equation on experimental data, was found to be a polynomial and exponential function of equilibrium moisture content within the temperature range investigated.

  8. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl


    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs, which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2–18.3 EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1–3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated 133Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h into 133Xe. There is strong evidence that the 133Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For 137

  9. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Burkhart, J.F.; Eckhardt, S. [NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Seibert, P. [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology; Wotawa, G. [Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Arnold, D. [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology; Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. of Energy Technologies; Tapia, C. [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Physics and Nucelar Engineering; Vargas, A. [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. of Energy Technologies; Yasunari, T.J. [Univs. Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States). Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology and Research


    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 ({sup 133}Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for {sup 137}Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding {sup 133}Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2-18.3) EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated {sup 133}Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h) into {sup 133}Xe. There is strong evidence that the {sup 133}Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For {sup 137}Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 36

  10. Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Xiao


    Nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but much less investigated under non-isothermal conditions. However, once the heat exchange between subsystems is rather slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system meets great challenge, which is indeed the case inside many kinds of living organisms. Here we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics, in the master-equation models, to the situation in which the temperatures of subsystems can be far from uniform. We first obtain a new thermodynamic relation between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials under such a non-isothermal circumstances, which immediately implies simply applying the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactants' temperature, is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction-rate formulas which not only obey the new ...

  11. Modeling and analysis for general non-isothermal convective phase field systems


    Haas, Robert


    In this work general non-isothermal phase field models for multi-phase and multi-component systems are considered. The modelling of the free energy by Ginzburg-Landau functionals for multi-phase systems is considered and analyzed theoretically and numerically. Furthermore a general non-isothermal phase field model for convective systems with multiple components and phases has been derived. Finally for a isothermal multi-phase phase field model the existence of a solution is proved in...

  12. PEMODELAN ISOTERMIS SORPSI AIR PADA MODEL PANGAN [Modelling of Moisture Sorption Isotherm in Food Model


    Dede R Adawiyah*; Soewarno T Soekarto2)


    Moisture sorption isotherm of food powder products is pertinent in processing and stability of food. Food model consisted of tapioca starch, casein, palm oil and sucrose. The moisture sorption isotherm curves of the food model, tapioca starch and casein were sigmoid indicating the typical shape of amorphous product, while the water sorption isotherm of sucrose was a broken-line curve showing typical shape of crystalline material. The Guggenheim – Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was the best m...

  13. A study of the water vapor sorption isotherms of hardened cement pastes: Possible pore structure changes at low relative humidity and the impact of temperature on isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Using water vapor sorption isotherms measured by the “dynamic vapor sorption” (DVS) method, a resaturation study was conducted to investigate possible pore structure changes of hardened cement paste samples caused by the drying at low relative humidity during desorption measurements. The results...... cement paste samples and a model material MCM-41. The pronounced impact of temperature on desorption isotherms of cement based materials as reported in literature was not found in this investigation. The results suggest that the differences between the sorption isotherms measured at different...

  14. ILO - International Migration Programme. (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam


    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  15. International Migration of Couples


    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu


    We analyze emigration and return decisions of Danish couples. Our main questions are how emigration and return migration decisions depend on education, earnings, and the number and age of children. We use register data on full population from 1982 to 2006, focusing on opposite-gender couples in which the female is aged 23 to 37, and the male 25 to 39. We find that power couples in which both are highly educated are most likely to emigrate, but also most likely to return. Couples in which only...

  16. Globalization, migration and health. (United States)

    Burnett, Angela


    The term 'globalization' describes the integration of economic systems through improved communication, but it also represents increased insecurity for those with few resources--particularly refugees. This article examines why people migrate, their numbers, constraints on their movement and their particular health care needs. Immigrants have much to contribute to their recipient countries, but at some loss to their homelands. Both economically and morally, more liberal immigration policies would be beneficial. Policies towards asylum seekers should not be more restrictive in the aftermath of 11 September 2001 and detention should be the exception rather than the rule. Globalization should be managed so as to improve people's lives throughout the world.

  17. [Obesity, migration and adolescence]. (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise


    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  18. Urbanization, Migration, Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin


    Full Text Available In the contemporary world urbanization becomes a large-scale process. Huge flows of people migrate from poorer districts to the cities with a higher level of consumption. It takes migrants about 15-25 years to give up their traditional ascetic way of life. In this period the ‘new citizens’ try to arrange compact settlements with an archaic way of life, insanitary conditions, high criminogenity and an authoritative local self-government. The processes of formation and decay of the ascetic enclave are viewed through the example of the ‘Shanghai’ trading neighborhood in Irkutsk.

  19. Migration and loving


    Gevrek, Deniz


    This paper explores the relationship between anti-miscegenation laws, interracial marriage and black males' geographical distribution in the U.S. during and after the Great Migration. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in the case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967, which forced the last 16 Southern states to strike down their anti-miscegenation laws, creates a unique opportunity to explore the impact of an exogenous change in a state's laws regulating interracial marriages. Analyzing the U.S. Census...

  20. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  1. Network migration for printers

    CERN Multimedia


    Further to the recent General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation (as announced in the Bulletin - see here), please note that the majority of print devices will be automatically migrated to the new network IP address range on Tuesday 27 September.   This change should be transparent for these devices and therefore end-users, provided you have installed the printers from the Print Service website. A small number of devices will require manual intervention from the Printer Support team in order to migrate correctly. These devices will not change their IP address until the manual intervention, which will be carried out before Monday 3rd October. However, if you have mistakenly connected directly to the printer’s IP address, then your printing will be affected – please uninstall the printer (for help, see: KB3785), and re-install it from the Print Service website (or follow instructions for visitor machines). Please do this as soon as possible in order to avoid printing issues, t...

  2. Isothermal Microcalorimetry to Investigate Non Specific Interactions in Biophysical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ball


    Full Text Available Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC is mostly used to investigate the thermodynamics of “specific” host-guest interactions in biology as well as in supramolecular chemistry. The aim of this review is to demonstrate that ITC can also provide useful information about non-specific interactions, like electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. More attention will be given in the use of ITC to investigate polyelectrolyte-polyelectrolyte (in particular DNA-polycation, polyelectrolyte-protein as well as protein-lipid interactions. We will emphasize that in most cases these “non specific” interactions, as their definition will indicate, are favoured or even driven by an increase in the entropy of the system. The origin of this entropy increase will be discussed for some particular systems. We will also show that in many cases entropy-enthalpy compensation phenomena occur.

  3. Detection of Botrytis cinerea by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. (United States)

    Tomlinson, J A; Dickinson, M J; Boonham, N


    To develop a sensitive, rapid and simple method for detection of Botrytis cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) that would be suitable for use outside a conventional laboratory setting. A LAMP assay was designed based on the intergenic spacer of the B. cinerea nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The resulting assay was characterized in terms of sensitivity and specificity using DNA extracted from cultures. The assay consistently amplified 65 pg B. cinerea DNA. No cross-reactivity was observed with a range of other fungal pathogens, with the exception of the closely related species Botrytis pelargonii. Use of a novel real-time LAMP platform (the OptiGene Genie I) allowed detection of B. cinerea in infected rose petals, with amplification occurring in cut flowers, fruit and vegetables. © 2010 British Crown Copyright. Letters in Applied Microbiology 51, 650-657 © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Approximate Analytical Solutions to the Relativistic Isothermal Gas Spheres (United States)

    Saad, A. S.; Nouh, M. I.; Shaker, A. A.; Kamel, T. M.


    In this paper we introduce a novel analytical solution to Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, which is ultimately a hydrostatic equilibrium equation derived from general relativity in the framework of relativistic isothermal spheres. To improve the convergence radii of the obtained series solutions, a combination of an Euler-Abel transformation and a Padé approximation has been done. The solutions are given in the ξ-θ and ξ-ν phase planes taking into account the general relativistic effects σ=0.1, 0.2 and 0.3. A comparison between the results obtained by the suggested approach and the numerical one indicates a good agreement, with a maximum relative error of order 10-3, which establishes the validity and accuracy of the method. The proposed procedure accelerated the power series solution about ten times that of the traditional one. An application to a neutron star is presented.

  5. Novel investigation of enzymatic biodiesel reaction by isothermal calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søtoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud V.


    Isothermal calorimetry (ITC) was used to investigate solvent-free enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40 °C. The aim of the study was to determine reaction enthalpy for the enzymatic...... transesterification and to elucidate the mass transfer and energetic processes taking place. Based on the measured enthalpy and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40 °C for the two systems was determined as −9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and −9.3 ± 0.7 k...

  6. Simulation of non-isothermal transient flow in gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Luis Carlos; Soares, Matheus; Lima, Enrique Luis; Pinto, Jose Carlos [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Muniz, Cyro; Pires, Clarissa Cortes; Rochocz, Geraldo [ChemTech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Modeling of gas pipeline usually considers that the gas flow is isothermal (or adiabatic) and that pressure changes occur instantaneously (quasi steady state approach). However, these assumptions are not valid in many important transient applications (changes of inlet and outlet flows/pressures, starting and stopping of compressors, changes of controller set points, among others). Besides, the gas properties are likely to depend simultaneously on the pipe position and on the operation time. For this reason, a mathematical model is presented and implemented in this paper in order to describe the gas flow in pipeline when pressure and temperature transients cannot be neglected. The model is used afterwards as a tool for reconciliation of available measured data. (author)

  7. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil


    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  8. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H. [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical engineering, Technical university of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick’s second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared to an analytical solution and very good agreement is found.

  9. Chemomechanics of acidic ionomers: Hydration isotherms and physical model (United States)

    Knauth, P.; Sgreccia, E.; Di Vona, M. L.


    The hydration isotherms of various ionomers (Nafion, Sulfonated Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, Sulfonated Poly-Phenyl-Sulfone) were measured and described by a thermodynamic model, assuming ideality and a linear relation between the thermodynamic osmotic pressure and the volume of the internal electrolytic solution. The only two parameters used are related to measurable physical properties: the deformation parameter, inversely proportional to the elastic modulus of the ionomer, and the free volume parameter. The experimental trends are well reproduced by the model, showing that it captures the main physical features and is suitable for semi-quantitative analysis of ionomer hydration. It indicates that the ionomers behave in good approximation like elastic solids in the studied range of water activities (0 dehydration at low humidity, which should increase their durability.

  10. Isothermal Aging Precipitate of TB17 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zhe


    Full Text Available Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, X-Ray Diffraction(XRD and Optical Microscope(OMwere employed to investigate the aging precipitation behavior of a new type of ultra-high strength TB17 titanium alloy. The results show that during heat solution treated in the β phase field followed by aging the secondary α phase is nucleated, precipitated and grew on the β phase matrix,and the precipitated phase is lamellar structure which has burgers relation with the matrix. The secondary α phase content is increased rapidly and finally reach a steady-state as aging time increased and the final product of aging consists of α phase and β phase. there is a good linearity relationship between the content of secondary α phase and the hardness of age hardening. The TB17 titanium alloy isothermal phase transformation kinetics can be described by JMAK equation.

  11. Isothermal titration calorimetry for measuring macromolecule-ligand affinity. (United States)

    Duff, Michael R; Grubbs, Jordan; Howell, Elizabeth E


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a useful tool for understanding the complete thermodynamic picture of a binding reaction. In biological sciences, macromolecular interactions are essential in understanding the machinery of the cell. Experimental conditions, such as buffer and temperature, can be tailored to the particular binding system being studied. However, careful planning is needed since certain ligand and macromolecule concentration ranges are necessary to obtain useful data. Concentrations of the macromolecule and ligand need to be accurately determined for reliable results. Care also needs to be taken when preparing the samples as impurities can significantly affect the experiment. When ITC experiments, along with controls, are performed properly, useful binding information, such as the stoichiometry, affinity and enthalpy, are obtained. By running additional experiments under different buffer or temperature conditions, more detailed information can be obtained about the system. A protocol for the basic setup of an ITC experiment is given.

  12. Characterization of molecular interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Krell, Tino; Lacal, Jesús; García-Fontana, Cristina; Silva-Jiménez, Hortencia; Rico-Jiménez, Miriam; Lugo, Andrés Corral; Darias, José Antonio Reyes; Ramos, Juan-Luis


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is based on a simple titration of one ligand with another and the small heat changes caused by the molecular interaction are detected. From one ITC experiment the complete set of thermodynamic parameters of binding including association and dissociation constants as well as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and free energy can be derived. Using this technique almost any type of molecular interaction can be analyzed. Both ligands are in solution, and there is no need for their chemical derivatization. There are no limits as to the choice of the analysis buffer, and the analysis temperature can be set between 4 and 80 °C. This technique has been primarily applied to study the interaction between various proteins of Pseudomonas with small molecule ligands. In addition, ITC has been used to study the binding of Pseudomonas proteins to target DNA fragments.

  13. Dust ion acoustic solitary structures in presence of isothermal positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Ashesh; Bandyopadhyay, Anup


    The Sagdeev potential technique has been employed to study the dust ion acoustic solitary waves and double layers in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged static dust grains, adiabatic warm ions, and isothermally distributed electrons and positrons. A computational scheme has been developed to draw the qualitatively different compositional parameter spaces or solution spaces showing the nature of existence of different solitary structures with respect to any parameter of the present plasma system. The qualitatively distinct solution spaces give the overall scenario regarding the existence of different solitary structures. The present system supports both positive and negative potential double layers. The negative potential double layer always restricts the occurrence of negative potential solitary waves, i.e., any sequence of negative potential solitary waves having monotonically increasing amplitude converges to a negative potential double layer. However, there exists a ...

  14. Phosphorus isothermal adsorption characteristics of mulch of bioretention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ying


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify mulch of bioretention which has high phosphorus sorption capacity. The phosphorus adsorption characteristics of five types of mulch of bioretention are studied by three isothermal adsorption experiments. Results show that the Langmuir eqution is suitable for describing absorption characteristics of five types of mulch. The positive values of Gibbs free energy for phosphorus indicate that the phosphorus biosorption by five mulches is a non-spontaneous process, and the values of mean sorption free energy of mulch are less than 8 kJ/mol, which proves that the adsorption process can be dominated by physical forces. The vermiculite is the better mulch of bioretention based on high phosphorus removal capacity.

  15. Equivalent dose determination using a quartz isothermal TL signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberghe, D.A.G.; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.


    We report on further developments in the use of an isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) signal for determining the equivalent dose (De) in unheated sedimentary quartz. In order to minimise sensitivity change during the first measurement, the ITL signal is measured at 270 °C following a preheat...... agreement with the expected burial dose in samples from a variety of depositional environments and ages. Our results suggest that measurement of the ITL signal at 270 °C enables the quartz 325 °C TL peak to be used for accurate dose measurements on a single aliquot. The signal allows dating over at least...... the same age range as the OSL signal, and it appears especially advantageous for application to quartz samples for which the OSL signal saturates below 500 Gy....

  16. Isothermal Reactor for Continuous Flow Microwave-Assisted Chemical Reaction (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Mitsuhiro; Togashi, Shigenori; Hasebe, Shinji

    An isothermal reactor in which reaction solutions can be controlled at constant temperature under constant microwave irradiation was developed. This is useful for investigating microwave effects on chemical reactions that are not observed under conventional heating conditions. We devised a structure in which a heat-transfer medium with a low dielectric loss factor, which hardly absorbs any microwaves, flowed outside a spiral reaction tube and designed the basic structure of the reactor using electromagnetic simulation to optimize the energy absorption rate. The conditions for increasing the temperature controlling ability of the reactor were also investigated theoretically and experimentally by taking into consideration the influences of three elements: the velocity of the internal fluid, the material for the tube, and the velocity of the external fluid. The velocity of the external fluid had the greatest influence on temperature controlling ability and the material for the tube had the least influence under the experimental conditions. The overall heat transfer coefficient was about 3.9×102 W/(m2·K) when water flowed through the quartz reaction tube at 7.1 mm/s and the external fluid flowed outside the tube at 44 mm/s. We also tested and confirmed that the temperature of water used as internal fluid could be controlled to within ±1.5 K at 309.3 K when microwaves at 26 W were irradiated into the reactor, whereas the temperature of water was over 373 K and boiled without the heat-transfer medium flowing outside the reaction tube using a conventional method of microwave heating. In addition, we investigated microwave effects on Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction using the developed isothermal reactor and we confirmed that the temperatures were controlled well in the reactor. The yields obtained by microwave heating were almost the same as that obtained by oil-bath heating.

  17. Liouvillian integrability of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacono, Roberto, E-mail: [ENEA-C. R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy); Llibre, Jaume, E-mail: [Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)


    We examine the integrability properties of the Einstein field equations for static, spherically symmetric fluid spheres, complemented with an isothermal equation of state, ρ = np. In this case, Einstein's equations can be reduced to a nonlinear, autonomous second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) for m/R (m is the mass inside the radius R) that has been solved analytically only for n = -1 and n = -3, yielding the cosmological solutions by De Sitter and Einstein, respectively, and for n = -5, case for which the solution can be derived from the De Sitter's one using a symmetry of Einstein's equations. The solutions for these three cases are of Liouvillian type, since they can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Here, we address the question of whether Liouvillian solutions can be obtained for other values of n. To do so, we transform the second order equation into an equivalent autonomous Lotka–Volterra quadratic polynomial differential system in R² and characterize the Liouvillian integrability of this system using Darboux theory. We find that the Lotka–Volterra system possesses Liouvillian first integrals for n = -1, -3, -5, which descend from the existence of invariant algebraic curves of degree one, and for n = -6, a new solvable case, associated to an invariant algebraic curve of higher degree (second). For any other value of n, eventual first integrals of the Lotka–Volterra system, and consequently of the second order ODE for the mass function must be non-Liouvillian. This makes the existence of other solutions of the isothermal fluid sphere problem with a Liouvillian metric quite unlikely.

  18. Monitoring of nanoclay-protein adsorption isotherms via fluorescence techniques. (United States)

    Felbeck, Tom; Moss, Sebastian; Botas, Alexandre M P; Lezhnina, Marina M; Ferreira, Rute A S; Carlos, Luís D; Kynast, Ulrich H


    The investigation of nanoparticles and their interaction with bio-macromolecules have become an important issue; the widely discussed protein corona around nanoparticles and their biological fate in general have drawn particular attention. Here, we focus on nanoclay dispersions and the use of solvatochromic fluorescent dyes (Dansyl and Coumarin 153) for monitoring the interaction with two model proteins, bovine serum albumin and β-lactoglobulin. On one hand, these dyes are poorly emissive in water, but experience a boost in their fluorescence when adsorbed into the hydrophobic domains of proteins. On the other hand, (nano)clays and clay minerals have previously been investigated in terms of their individual protein adsorption isotherms and their usefulness for the solubilization of water-insoluble dyes into an aqueous environment. In the following, we have combined all three individual parts (nanoclay, fluorophore and protein) in dispersions in a wide range of concentration ratios to systematically study the various adsorption processes via fluorescence techniques. In order to clarify the extent of dye diffusion and adsorption-desorption equilibria in the investigations, nanoclay hybrids with an adsorbed dye (Coumarin 153) and a covalently conjugated dye (Dansyl) were compared. The results suggest that the fluorescence progression of protein titration curves correlate with the amount of protein adsorbed, matching their reported adsorption isotherms on hectorite clays. Furthermore, experimental data on the protein monolayer formation around the nanoclays could be extracted due to only minor alterations of the dispersions' optical quality and transparency. In this manner, a fluorescence-based monitor for the formation of the globular protein layer around the nanoclay was realized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal decomposition and non-isothermal decomposition kinetics of carbamazepine (United States)

    Qi, Zhen-li; Zhang, Duan-feng; Chen, Fei-xiong; Miao, Jun-yan; Ren, Bao-zeng


    The thermal stability and kinetics of isothermal decomposition of carbamazepine were studied under isothermal conditions by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at three heating rates. Particularly, transformation of crystal forms occurs at 153.75°C. The activation energy of this thermal decomposition process was calculated from the analysis of TG curves by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Doyle, distributed activation energy model, Šatava-Šesták and Kissinger methods. There were two different stages of thermal decomposition process. For the first stage, E and log A [s-1] were determined to be 42.51 kJ mol-1 and 3.45, respectively. In the second stage, E and log A [s-1] were 47.75 kJ mol-1 and 3.80. The mechanism of thermal decomposition was Avrami-Erofeev (the reaction order, n = 1/3), with integral form G(α) = [-ln(1 - α)]1/3 (α = ˜0.1-0.8) in the first stage and Avrami-Erofeev (the reaction order, n = 1) with integral form G(α) = -ln(1 - α) (α = ˜0.9-0.99) in the second stage. Moreover, Δ H ≠, Δ S ≠, Δ G ≠ values were 37.84 kJ mol-1, -192.41 J mol-1 K-1, 146.32 kJ mol-1 and 42.68 kJ mol-1, -186.41 J mol-1 K-1, 156.26 kJ mol-1 for the first and second stage, respectively.

  20. Inverse square law isothermal property in relativistic charged static distributions (United States)

    Hansraj, Sudan; Qwabe, Nkululeko


    We analyze the impact of the inverse square law fall-off of the energy density in a charged isotropic spherically symmetric fluid. Initially, we impose a linear barotropic equation of state p = αρ but this leads to an intractable differential equation. Next, we consider the neutral isothermal metric of Saslaw et al. [Phys. Rev. D 13, 471 (1996)] in an electric field and the usual inverse square law of energy density and pressure results thus preserving the equation of state. Additionally, we discard a linear equation of state and endeavor to find new classes of solutions with the inverse square law fall-off of density. Certain prescribed forms of the spatial and temporal gravitational forms result in new exact solutions. An interesting result that emerges is that while isothermal fluid spheres are unbounded in the neutral case, this is not so when charge is involved. Indeed it was found that barotropic equations of state exist and hypersurfaces of vanishing pressure exist establishing a boundary in practically all models. One model was studied in depth and found to satisfy other elementary requirements for physical admissibility such as a subluminal sound speed as well as gravitational surface redshifts smaller than 2. Buchdahl [Acta Phys. Pol. B 10, 673 (1965)], Böhmer and Harko [Gen. Relat. Gravit. 39, 757 (2007)] and Andréasson [Commum. Math. Phys. 198, 507 (2009)] mass-radius bounds were also found to be satisfied. Graphical plots utilizing constants selected from the boundary conditions established that the model displayed characteristics consistent with physically viable models.

  1. Precision retrieval of non-isothermal exo-atmospheres (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo Peter; Rocchetto, Marco


    Spectroscopy of extrasolar planets is as fast moving as it is new. When trying to characterise the atmospheres of these foreign worlds, we are faced with three challenges: 1) The correct treatment of atmospheric opacities at high temperatures, 2) Low signal-to-noise of the observed data, and 3) Large, degenerate parameter spaces. To advance in the interpretation of exoplanetary atmospheres, one must address these challenges in one coherent framework. This is particularly true for emission spectroscopy, where the need for non-isothermal temperature-pressure profiles significantly increases degeneracies in low signal-to-noise data. In the light of these challenges, we developed a novel, bayesian atmospheric retrieval suite, Tau-REx (Waldmann et al. 2015a,b). Tau-REx is a full line-by-line emission/transmission spectroscopy retrieval code based on the most complete hot line-lists from the ExoMol project. For emission spectroscopy, the correct retrieval of the atmosphere’s thermal gradient is extremely challenging with sparse and/or low SNR data. Tau-REx implements a novel two-stage retrieval algorithm which allows the code to iteratively adapt its retrieval complexity to the likelihood surface of the observed data. This way we achieve a very high retrieval accuracy and robustness to low SNR data. Using nested-sampling in conjunction with large scale cluster computing, Tau-REx integrates the full Bayesian Evidence, which allows for precise model selection of the exoplanet’s chemistry and thermal dynamics. Precision and statistical rigour is paramount in the measurement of quantities such as the carbon-oxygen ratio of planets which allow insights into the formation history of these exotic worlds. In this conference I will discuss the intricacies of retrieving the thermal emission of non-isothermal atmospheres and what can be learned from data of current and future facilities.

  2. Circular Migration and Human Development


    Newland, Kathleen


    This paper explores the human development implications of circular migration — both where it occurs naturally and where governments work to create it. The paper discusses various conceptions and definitions of circular migration, and concludes that circular migration is not intrinsically positive or negative in relation to human development; its impact depends upon the circumstances in which it occurs, the constraints that surround it and—above all—the degree of choice that individuals can ex...

  3. The challenges of managing migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia


    Migration and urbanisation are driven by economic growth and social change, but also by deepening inequalities. Managing migration should not be equated with curbing it, as this inevitably reduces migrants' rights. But managing population movement whilst respecting the rights of migrants and nonmigrants, supporting the contribution of migration to poverty reduction and economic growth in sending and receiving areas and reducing the human and material costs of movement means that fundamental challenges need to be addressed.

  4. Macrostabilization of the Migration Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea


    Full Text Available MacLabour migration is a present phenomenon in the European Union. This phenomenon takes over the entire European continent, but especially in the EU countries. The labor market in Europe is increasingly affected by population aging. Economic differences between European countries make workforce in developing countries to move to developed countries where they find it easier to work and receive higher remuneration than in their home countries. This article tracks labor migration from/to EU, employment in Romania and Romanian migration towards the countries of Western Europe. It also presents statistics on labor migration in the EU and its impact on the labor market

  5. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration. (United States)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi


    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  6. Les questions de migrations internationales (Questions of International Migrations). (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane


    Education about international migration should (1) utilize a framework of historical evolution; (2) stress the growing interdependence of nations; (3) emphasize universal moral values and the role of the individual in human rights; and (4) consider the complementary or competing portraits of international migration presented by the media. (DMM)

  7. Countering inbreeding with migration 1. Migration from unrelated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The eff'ect of migration on inbreeding is moclelled fbr small populations with immigrants from a large unrelated population. Different migration rates and numbers fbr the two sexes are assumed, and a general recursion equation for inbreeding progress derived, which can be shown to lead to an equilibrium inbreeding ...

  8. Patterns of East to West migration in the context of European migration systems possibilities and limits of migration control


    Irina Molodikova


    This paper gives an overview of the main migration trends of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) migration system in the context of the development of EU migration and migration control and seeks to explain the peculiarities of the CIS migration system’s development.

  9. Parametric generation of Alfven and sound waves in the solar atmosphere. Isothermal atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fajnshtejn, S.M. (Gor' kovskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    The parametric instability of Alfven and sound waves in an isothermal layer of the solar plasma is investigated. Conditions of the wave generation are found under the condition that the velocities of Alfven waves and isothermal sound are constant. The results obtained are used for the interpretation of attenuation of Alfven wave fluxes in solar spots.

  10. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per


    sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the 24 applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present validation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0...

  11. Prediction of Pure Component Adsorption Equilibria Using an Adsorption Isotherm Equation Based on Vacancy Solution Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Krøll, Annette Elisabeth


    An adsorption isotherm equation for nonideal pure component adsorption based on vacancy solution theory and the Non-Random-Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation is found to be useful for predicting pure component adsorption equilibria at a variety of conditions. The isotherm equation is evaluated successfully...

  12. The Langmuir isotherm: a commonly applied but misleading approach for the analysis of protein adsorption behavior. (United States)

    Latour, Robert A


    The Langmuir adsorption isotherm provides one of the simplest and most direct methods to quantify an adsorption process. Because isotherm data from protein adsorption studies often appear to be fit well by the Langmuir isotherm model, estimates of protein binding affinity have often been made from its use despite that fact that none of the conditions required for a Langmuir adsorption process may be satisfied for this type of application. The physical events that cause protein adsorption isotherms to often provide a Langmuir-shaped isotherm can be explained as being due to changes in adsorption-induced spreading, reorientation, clustering, and aggregation of the protein on a surface as a function of solution concentration in contrast to being due to a dynamic equilibrium adsorption process, which is required for Langmuir adsorption. Unless the requirements of the Langmuir adsorption process can be confirmed, fitting of the Langmuir model to protein adsorption isotherm data to obtain thermodynamic properties, such as the equilibrium constant for adsorption and adsorption free energy, may provide erroneous values that have little to do with the actual protein adsorption process, and should be avoided. In this article, a detailed analysis of the Langmuir isotherm model is presented along with a quantitative analysis of the level of error that can arise in derived parameters when the Langmuir isotherm is inappropriately applied to characterize a protein adsorption process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of sugar sorption isotherm measurement by frontal analysis under industrial processing conditons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, J.A.; Bosch, H.; de Haan, A.B.; Bussmann, Paul J.T.


    This paper evaluates frontal analysis for routine sugar isotherm measurements at industrial conditions, that is concentrations up to 400 kg/m3 and a temperature of 60 °C. Sugar isotherms for a gel type cation-exchange resin loaded with metal ions were measured in a HPLC set-up equipped with a UV

  14. Migration - utopia or myopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Osborne


    Full Text Available Peter Osborne spent a sabbatical in northern America and was surprised that so many scientists and students stated that caribou migration was largely the result of mosquito pressure. He failed however to find any documented evidence of this claim although he was constantly confronted by the well known «facts» that mosquitoes had been observed to drive caribou crazy and even kill juveniles. The issue Osborne wishes to focus is that an experimentally unsubstantiated anthropomorphism appears to have become critical evidence in support of a theory. A recent article in Nature (393, 511-513, 1998 devoted to the uses of 'science in fiction' to stimulate thought and discussion about aspects of academia encouraged him to write the following comment in the form of a parody of ancient Greek dialogues.

  15. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin


    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  16. Migration issues important -- Mongolia. (United States)


    Migration and urbanization are issues that require increasing attention in Mongolia. Mr. Sodov Sonin, Minister of Health and Social Welfare, stated at the Forum that fertility has declined, but mortality, in particular the mortality of children and mothers, is still too high. In addition, there is a significant gap between the knowledge of and behaviors concerning reproductive health, which is one of the causes of the country's high abortion rates. However, on the positive side, literacy is high among women--70% of the students in Mongolia's higher educational institutions are female and the State recognizes equal rights for women. Moreover, programs that promote health and education, including the National Program on Reproductive Health, are being implemented; but despite all these, Mongolia still lacks the human and financial resources to implement the ICPD Program of Action satisfactorily. The country also needs dramatic changes in mind-set and in terms of capacity building, given its ongoing socioeconomic transition.

  17. Migration: the trends converge. (United States)


    Formerly, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the US have served as permanent destinations for immigrants, while Europe's migrants have moved to more northerly countries to work for a time and then returned home. From 1973-1975 Europe's recruitment of foreign workers virtually ended, although family reunion for those immigrants allowed in was encouraged. Problems resulting from this new settlement migration include low paying jobs for immigrant women, high unemployment, and inadequate education for immigrant children. Illegal migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean enter the US and Canada each year while illegal North African immigrants enter Italy, Spain, and Greece. North America, Australia, and Europe have all received political refugees from Asia and Latin America. Increasingly, these foreigners compete in the labor market rather than simply fill jobs the native workers do not want. All the receiving countries have similar policy priorities: 1) more effective ways for controlling and monitoring inflows and checking illegal immigration; 2) encouraging normal living patterns and accepting refugees; and 3) integrating permanent migrants into the host country. Europe's public immigration encouragement prior to the first oil shock, has left some countries with a labor force that is reluctant to return home. It is unlikely that Europe will welcome foreign labor again in this decade, since unemployment among young people and women is high and family reunion programs may still bring in many immigrants. Less immigration pattern change will probably occur in North America, Australia, and New Zealand since these countries' populations are still growing and wages are more flexible. Immigration, regulated by policy, and emigration, determined by market forces, now are working in the same direction and will likely reduce future migration flows.

  18. Isothermal Transformation of a Commercial Super-Bainitic Steel: Part I Microstructural Characterization and Hardness (United States)

    Han, Ying; Xiu, Wencui; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Hua


    The effects of isothermal treatment on the microstructure and hardness of commercial super-bainitic steel were investigated. A series of isothermal treatments were carried out at temperatures of 210-250 °C for different time periods. The results indicate that the bainitic reaction and hardness were very sensitive to the isothermal transformation temperature. The fine super-bainitic microstructure, containing the carbide-free bainitic ferrite lath and the carbon-enriched retained austenite film, can be produced by heating to 210 °C for 30 h, resulting in a hardness of 662 HV. By increasing the isothermal transformation temperature, the bainitic transformation kinetic is accelerated; however, this is at the expense of coarsening bainitic ferrite laths and decreasing the bainitic ferrite quantity. The relationship between hardness and microstructures obtained under different isothermal treatments, which is correlated with the carbon concentration, dislocation density, bainitic amount and super-bainite size, is discussed in detail.

  19. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions; Transfert de radioelements en zone non saturee. Etude experimentale et modelisation appliquees au Site Pilote de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szenknect, St


    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  20. A ''missing'' caesium member in the family of A{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12} aluminophosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvanskaya, Larisa [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Crystallography; National Univ. of Science and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation).; Yakubovich, Olga [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Crystallography


    A new caesium aluminophosphate, Cs{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}, has been synthesized by spontaneous crystallization from the melt and structurally characterized. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, with a=9.7675(2) Aa, b=17.7537(3) Aa, c=8.1063(2) Aa, V=1405.71(2) Aa{sup 3}, and Z=4. Its crystal structure is based on an open interrupted framework built by alternating AlO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra with Cs ions occupying the channels. The Cs{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12} framework topology resembles the previously known 4.8.12-net, which has been reported in the [C{sub 4}N{sub 3}H{sub 16}][Al{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}] phase prepared by solvothermal synthesis in the presence of diethylenetriamine (DETA). The crystal chemical relationships between the K, Rb, Cs, Tl, [NH{sub 4}] and [C{sub 4}N{sub 3}H{sub 16}]-members of the A{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12} family of compounds are discussed.

  1. Effect of Various Silica Nanofluids: Reduction of Fines Migrations and Surface Modification of Berea Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockey Abhishek


    Full Text Available This work is aimed at addressing surface modification of berea sandstone by silica nanofluids (NFs. Three types of nanofluids were used: silica/deionized water (DIW, silica in DIW with a stabilizer fluid (3-Mercaptopropyl Trimethoxysilane and sulfonate-functionalized silica in DIW. Core flood studies showed that application of silica nanoparticles (NPs improved water injectivity in sandstone. The change in the measured zeta potential indicated surface modification of sandstone by application of NPs. Computation of the surface forces showed that the modified berea sandstone has net attractive potential with fines (obtained from water/rock interaction leading to reduction of fines migration, hence improvement of water injectivity. It was also observed that the silica NPs have greater affinity to adhere/adsorb on quartz surfaces than kaolinite in berea core. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope imaging and isothermal static adsorption tests. Although the stabilizing of NFs almost did not reduce the fine migration, as was qualitatively indicated by the pressure drop, it enhanced the NPs adsorption on the minerals as obtained by isothermal static adsorption tests. The reduction of fines migration due surface modification by silica NP suggests that NPs can be utilized to overcome the problem of formation damage induced during low salinity flooding in sandstones.

  2. Family migration and migrant integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.; Triandafyllidou, A.


    Family migration and integration are intimately related concepts in contemporary policy discourses in major migrant receiving countries. In these discourses, both family related migration as such and the migrant family as an institution are problematised with regard to their relation to integration.

  3. Migration Decisions of Skilled Migrants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eskelä, Elina


    ...-speaking destination countries such as the United States. This paper enhances the understanding of student mobility in exploring the migration motives of international students in the case of a less common destination. Keywords International students skilled migration immigration Helsinki Finland Elina Eskel* University of Helsinki, Finland Received 24 Oc...

  4. Challenged by migration: Europe's options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Amelie F.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.


    This paper examines the migration and labour mobility in the European Union and elaborates on their importance for the existence of the EU. Against all measures of success, the current public debate seems to suggest that the political consensus that migration is beneficial is broken. This comes with


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    179 imbues them with less international profile. More recently, the refuges problem could in some sense be seen as a form of forced migration, but these are also largely within the continent. The Migration that engages our attention in this paper specifically relates to the voluntary movement of people from one continent to ...

  6. Africa: Setting for Human Migration (United States)

    Buuba, Babacar Diop


    Analysis of African migrations can help to understand prehistoric, historical, ancient modern and contemporaneous migrations. Movements of populations were and continue to be so intense that, for some analysts, they constitute one of the dominant trends of the history and destiny of the very old continent. African and non-African states, whether…

  7. International migration and its regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baganha, M.I.; Doomernik, J.M.J.; Gsir, S.; Hofmann, M.; Kraler, A.; Penninx, R; Kraal, K.; Berger, M.


    A fundamental issue in society today, migration has been undergoing a new dynamic transformation, calling for new policy approaches. This new dynamic is not yet understood clearly, let alone that adequate policy answers for ‘the managing’ of these new migration processes and the consequences for

  8. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel


    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  9. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter


    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  10. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature (United States)

    Binek, Christian


    Voltage-controlled spintronics is of particular importance to continue progress in information technology through reduced power consumption, enhanced processing speed, integration density, and functionality in comparison with present day CMOS electronics. Almost all existing and prototypical solid-state spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism, enabling spin-selective transmission or scattering of electrons. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is a key challenge to better spintronics. Currently, most attempts to electrically control magnetism focus on potentially large magnetoelectric effects of multiferroics. We report on our interest in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O3 (chromia). Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias is achieved at room temperature in perpendicular anisotropic Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd exchange bias heterostructures. This discovery promises significant implications for potential spintronics. From the perspective of basic science, our finding serves as macroscopic evidence for roughness-insensitive and electrically controllable equilibrium boundary magnetization in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. The latter evolves at chromia (0001) surfaces and interfaces when chromia is in one of its two degenerate antiferromagnetic single domain states selected via magnetoelectric annealing. Theoretical insight into the boundary magnetization and its role in electrically controlled exchange bias is gained from first-principles calculations and general symmetry arguments. Measurements of spin-resolved ultraviolet photoemission, magnetometry at Cr 2 O3 (0001) surfaces, and detailed investigations of the unique exchange bias properties of Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd including its electric controllability provide macroscopically averaged information about the boundary magnetization of chromia. Laterally resolved X-ray PEEM and temperature dependent MFM reveal detailed microscopic information of the chromia

  11. The challenge of migration and health. (United States)

    Carballo, Manuel


    Dr Manuel Carballo of the International Centre for Migration and Health provides the background to migration and its impact on the health of migrating peoples and the health care systems that treat them.

  12. Microfluidics to define leukocyte migration patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boneschansker, Johan


    Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. In this thesis, we design and validate microfluidic devices that allow for precise quantification of leukocyte migration patterns. Our microfluidic platform can quantify migration patterns using single-cell quantitative metrics that

  13. Migration process control in the modern society


    A R Dimaev


    The sociological way of the migration phenomenon can be considered only in complex. As a social science of migration we should understand the social science control, which is based on direct and indirect control of migration process.

  14. Internal and international migration in Nepal. (United States)

    Kc, B K


    Internal and international migration trends in Nepal are reviewed using data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses. The causes and consequences of migration are considered. The need for policies to control migration of all kinds is stressed.

  15. Survey of the year 2008: applications of isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Falconer, Robert J; Penkova, Anita; Jelesarov, Ilian; Collins, Brett M


    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a fast, accurate and label-free method for measuring the thermodynamics and binding affinities of molecular associations in solution. Because the method will measure any reaction that results in a heat change, it is applicable to many different fields of research from biomolecular science, to drug design and materials engineering, and can be used to measure binding events between essentially any type of biological or chemical ligand. ITC is the only method that can directly measure binding energetics including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity changes. Not only binding thermodynamics but also catalytic reactions, conformational rearrangements, changes in protonation and molecular dissociations can be readily quantified by performing only a small number of ITC experiments. In this review, we highlight some of the particularly interesting reports from 2008 employing ITC, with a particular focus on protein interactions with other proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and drugs. As is tradition in these reviews we have not attempted a comprehensive analysis of all 500 papers using ITC, but emphasize those reports that particularly captured our interest and that included more thorough discussions we consider exemplify the power of the technique and might serve to inspire other users.

  16. Sorption isotherms for oat flakes (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgar Zapata M.


    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37°C, using a gravimetric technique in an a w range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r² and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE. The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r² of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied a w range, as did the security moisture (X S. These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 25°C and of 38% up to 37°C.

  17. Novel investigation of enzymatic biodiesel reaction by isothermal calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek, E-mail: [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Westh, Peter [Department of Life Science and Chemistry, Roskilde University, PO Box 260, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, Knud V.; Norddahl, Birgir [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)


    Isothermal calorimetry (ITC) was used to investigate solvent-free enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40 {sup o}C. The aim of the study was to determine reaction enthalpy for the enzymatic transesterification and to elucidate the mass transfer and energetic processes taking place. Based on the measured enthalpy and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40 {sup o}C for the two systems was determined as -9.8 {+-} 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and -9.3 {+-} 0.7 kJ/mole when rapeseed oil and ethanol was used. Simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics was not an appropriate choice for describing the kinetics of this heterogeneous system. The experiments demonstrated the possibility of investigating complex reaction mixtures using ITC. Although it is possible to determine thermodynamic properties such as reaction enthalpy and reaction rate, the difficulty in actually measuring the true non-mass-transfer-limited reaction kinetics is exposed by the high time resolution of ITC.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of isothermal cruciform jet flow: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Kannan


    Full Text Available The present work is a numerical study of a turbulent isothermal jet issuing from cruciform nozzle into still air at a high Reynolds number of 1.7 × 105. The numerical simulation was carried out by using open source CFD tool OpenFOAM®. Three-dimensional cuboid shaped domain was used to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow field. The simulation was carried out by solving the filtered Navier–Stokes equations along with Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES solutions are compared with experimental data for validation of the jet flow physics. The flow field of turbulent jet from cruciform nozzle are described in terms of inverse mean axial velocity decay and visualizations. The vortical structures are visualized using iso-surface contours of vorticity magnitude. The vortical structures develop from the cruciform nozzle is significantly different from axisymmetric nozzles. The vortical structures show changes in shape as they move downstream from the nozzle. The cruciform jet shows complex vorticity dynamics in the near field region.

  19. Integrated Microfluidic Nucleic Acid Isolation, Isothermal Amplification, and Amplicon Quantification (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G.; Liu, Changchun; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H.


    Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (nucleic acids (NAs) are extracted from relatively large (~mL) volume sample lysates using an embedded porous silica glass fiber or cellulose binding phase (“membrane”) to capture sample NAs in a flow-through, filtration mode; (2) NAs captured on the membrane are isothermally (~65 °C) amplified; (3) amplicon production is monitored by real-time fluorescence detection, such as with a smartphone CCD camera serving as a low-cost detector; and (4) paraffin-encapsulated, lyophilized reagents for temperature-activated release are pre-stored in the chip. Limits of Detection (LOD) better than 103 virons/sample can be achieved. A modified chip with conduits hosting a diffusion-mode amplification process provides a simple visual indicator to readily quantify sample NA template. In addition, a companion microfluidic device for extracting plasma from whole blood without a centrifuge, generating cell-free plasma for chip-based molecular diagnostics, is described. Extensions to a myriad of related applications including, for example, food testing, cancer screening, and insect genotyping are briefly surveyed. PMID:27600235

  20. Isothermal and Two-Temperature Zone Selenization of Mo Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaupmees


    Full Text Available Glass/Mo, Mo foil, glass/Mo/In, and glass/Mo/Cu stacked layers were selenized in closed vacuum tubes by isothermal and/or two-temperature zone annealing in Se vapors. The selenization process was studied dependent on Se vapor pressure, temperature and time. Samples were selenized from 375 to 580°C for 30 and 60 minutes. The applied Se pressure was varied between 130 and 4.4⋅103 Pa. The increase of MoSe2 film thickness was found to depend on the origin of Mo. MoSe2 thickness dL on Mo-foil was much higher than on sputtered Mo layers, and it depended linearly on time and as a power function dL~PSe1/2 on Se vapor pressure. The residual oxygen content in the formed MoSe2 layers was much lower in the two-zone selenization process. If Mo was covered with Cu or In before selenization, these were found to diffuse into formed MoSe2 layer. All the MoSe2 layers showed p-type conductivity.

  1. Effect of a stirring process in an isothermal titration microcalorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socorro, F.; Nuez, I. de la; Alvarez, L.; Rodriguez de Rivera, M


    In this paper, it is analysed the way in which the thermodynamic results obtained in an isothermal titration microcalorimeter, with continuous injection of a liquid and a variable mass are affected. Two aspects are presented, the first one refers to a variation in the baseline that takes place when the liquid mass is increased in the laboratory cell, this variation is due to the change in the thermal coupling between the stirrer and its contact with the thermostat. The second aspect is the analysis of the effect of the stirring process and the injection velocity on the homogenization of the remaining mixture in the laboratory cell. The aim of the study of these two previous aspects is to increase the accuracy of the thermodynamic measures carried out. The variation of the baseline affects in a percentage from 1 to 2% of the total energy developed. It is also shown the necessity of a stirring process according to the injection velocity in order to obtain a homogeneous mixture at every instant. This fact allows to carry out a deconvolution of the calorimetric signal and to obtain directly the power developed in the mixture process in terms of the amount of mixed substance [Meas. Sci. Technol. 1 (1990) pp. 1285-1290; J. Thermal Analysis 41 (1994) pp. 1385-1392].

  2. Isothermal absorption of soluble gases by atmospheric nanoaerosols. (United States)

    Elperin, T; Fominykh, A; Krasovitov, B; Lushnikov, A


    We investigate mass transfer during the isothermal absorption of atmospheric trace soluble gases by a single droplet whose size is comparable to the molecular mean free path in air at normal conditions. It is assumed that the trace reactant diffuses to the droplet surface and then reacts with the substances inside the droplet according to the first-order rate law. Our analysis applies a flux-matching theory of transport processes in gases and assumes constant thermophysical properties of the gases and liquids. We derive an integral equation of Volterra type for the transient molecular flux density to a liquid droplet and solve it numerically. Numerical calculations are performed for absorption of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), dinitrogen trioxide (N(2)O(3)), and chlorine (Cl(2)) by liquid nanoaerosols accompanied by chemical dissociation reaction. It is shown that during gas absorption by nanoaerosols, the kinetic effects play a significant role, and neglecting kinetic effects leads to a significant overestimation of the soluble gas flux into a droplet during the entire period of gas absorption.

  3. Horseshoe Drag in Three-dimensional Globally Isothermal Disks (United States)

    Masset, F. S.; Benítez-Llambay, P.


    We study the horseshoe dynamics of a low-mass planet in a three-dimensional, globally isothermal, inviscid disk. We find, as reported in previous work, that the boundaries of the horseshoe region (separatrix sheets) have cylindrical symmetry about the disk’s rotation axis. We interpret this feature as arising from the fact that the whole separatrix sheets have a unique value of Bernoulli’s constant, and that this constant does not depend on altitude, but only on the cylindrical radius, in barotropic disks. We next derive an expression for the torque exerted by the horseshoe region on the planet, or horseshoe drag. Potential vorticity is not materially conserved as in two-dimensional flows, but it obeys a slightly more general conservation law (Ertel’s theorem) that allows an expression for the horseshoe drag identical to the expression in a two-dimensional disk to be obtained. Our results are illustrated and validated by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The horseshoe region is found to be slightly narrower than previously extrapolated from two-dimensional analyses with a suitable softening length of the potential. We discuss the implications of our results for the saturation of the corotation torque, and the possible connection to the flow at the Bondi scale, which the present analysis does not resolve.

  4. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn (United States)

    Galceran, R.; Fina, I.; Cisneros-Fernández, J.; Bozzo, B.; Frontera, C.; López-Mir, L.; Deniz, H.; Park, K.-W.; Park, B.-G.; Balcells, Ll.; Martí, X.; Jungwirth, T.; Martínez, B.


    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  5. Generalized linear isotherm regularity equation of state applied to metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sun


    Full Text Available A three-parameter equation of state (EOS without physically incorrect oscillations is proposed based on the generalized Lennard-Jones (GLJ potential and the approach in developing linear isotherm regularity (LIR EOS of Parsafar and Mason [J. Phys. Chem., 1994, 49, 3049]. The proposed (GLIR EOS can include the LIR EOS therein as a special case. The three-parameter GLIR, Parsafar and Mason (PM [Phys. Rev. B, 1994, 49, 3049], Shanker, Singh and Kushwah (SSK [Physica B, 1997, 229, 419], Parsafar, Spohr and Patey (PSP [J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 113, 11980], and reformulated PM and SSK EOSs are applied to 30 metallic solids within wide pressure ranges. It is shown that the PM, PMR and PSP EOSs for most solids, and the SSK and SSKR EOSs for several solids, have physically incorrect turning points, and pressure becomes negative at high enough pressure. The GLIR EOS is capable not only of overcoming the problem existing in other five EOSs where the pressure becomes negative at high pressure, but also gives results superior to other EOSs

  6. Probing lectin-mucin interactions by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. (United States)

    Dam, Tarun K; Brewer, C Fred


    Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) can directly determine the thermodynamic binding parameters of biological molecules including affinity constant, binding stoichiometry, and heat of binding (enthalpy) and indirectly the entropy and free energy of binding. ITC has been extensively used to study the binding of lectins to mono- and oligosaccharides, but limited applications to lectin-glycoprotein interactions. Inherent experimental challenges to ITC include sample precipitation during the experiment and relative high amount of sample required, but careful design of experiments can minimize these problems and allow valuable information to be obtained. For example, the thermodynamics of binding of lectins to multivalent globular and linear glycoproteins (mucins) have been described. The results are consistent with a dynamic binding mechanism in which lectins bind and jump from carbohydrate to carbohydrate epitope in these molecules leading to increased affinity. Importantly, the mechanism of binding of lectins to mucins appears similar to that for a variety of protein ligands binding to DNA. Recent results also show that high affinity lectin-mucin cross-linking interactions are driven by favorable entropy of binding that is associated with the bind and jump mechanism. The results suggest that the binding of ligands to biopolymers, in general, may involve a common mechanism that involves enhanced entropic effects that facilitate binding interactions.

  7. Measuring the Kinetics of Molecular Association by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. (United States)

    Vander Meulen, Kirk A; Horowitz, Scott; Trievel, Raymond C; Butcher, Samuel E


    The real-time power response inherent in an isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiment provides an opportunity to directly analyze association kinetics, which, together with the conventional measurement of thermodynamic quantities, can provide an incredibly rich description of molecular binding in a single experiment. Here, we detail our application of this method, in which interactions occurring with relaxation times ranging from slightly below the instrument response time constant (12.5 s in this case) to as large as 600 s can be fully detailed in terms of both the thermodynamics and kinetics. In a binding titration scenario, in the most general case an injection can reveal an association rate constant (kon). Under more restrictive conditions, the instrument time constant-corrected power decay following each injection is simply an exponential decay described by a composite rate constant (kobs), from which both kon and the dissociation rate constant (koff) can be extracted. The data also support the viability of this exponential approach, for kon only, for a slightly larger set of conditions. Using a bimolecular RNA folding model and a protein-ligand interaction, we demonstrate and have internally validated this approach to experiment design, data processing, and error analysis. An updated guide to thermodynamic and kinetic regimes accessible by ITC is provided. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling of Non-isothermal Austenite Formation in Spring Steel (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng; Li, Junling


    The austenitization kinetics description of spring steel 60Si2CrA plays an important role in providing guidelines for industrial production. The dilatometric curves of 60Si2CrA steel were measured using a dilatometer DIL805A at heating rates of 0.3 K to 50 K/s (0.3 °C/s to 50 °C/s). Based on the dilatometric curves, a unified kinetics model using the internal state variable (ISV) method was derived to describe the non-isothermal austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA, and the abovementioned model models the incubation and transition periods. The material constants in the model were determined using a genetic algorithm-based optimization technique. Additionally, good agreement between predicted and experimental volume fractions of transformed austenite was obtained, indicating that the model is effective for describing the austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA steel. Compared with other modeling methods of austenitization kinetics, this model, which uses the ISV method, has some advantages, such as a simple formula and explicit physics meaning, and can be probably used in engineering practice.

  9. A New Approach in Regression Analysis for Modeling Adsorption Isotherms (United States)

    Onjia, Antonije E.


    Numerous regression approaches to isotherm parameters estimation appear in the literature. The real insight into the proper modeling pattern can be achieved only by testing methods on a very big number of cases. Experimentally, it cannot be done in a reasonable time, so the Monte Carlo simulation method was applied. The objective of this paper is to introduce and compare numerical approaches that involve different levels of knowledge about the noise structure of the analytical method used for initial and equilibrium concentration determination. Six levels of homoscedastic noise and five types of heteroscedastic noise precision models were considered. Performance of the methods was statistically evaluated based on median percentage error and mean absolute relative error in parameter estimates. The present study showed a clear distinction between two cases. When equilibrium experiments are performed only once, for the homoscedastic case, the winning error function is ordinary least squares, while for the case of heteroscedastic noise the use of orthogonal distance regression or Margart's percent standard deviation is suggested. It was found that in case when experiments are repeated three times the simple method of weighted least squares performed as well as more complicated orthogonal distance regression method. PMID:24672394

  10. A mathematical model for isothermal heap and column leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima L.R.P. de Andrade


    Full Text Available Leaching occurs in metals recovery, in contaminated soil washing, and in many natural processes, such as fertilizer dissolution and rock weathering. This paper presents a model developed to simulate the transient evolution of the dissolved chemical species in the heap and column isothermal leaching processes. In this model, the solid bed is numerically divided into plane layers; the recovery of the chemical species, the enrichment of the pregnant leach solution, and the residual concentration of the leaching agent are calculated by interactions among the layers. The solution flow in the solid bed is assumed as unidirectional without dispersion, and the solid-fluid reaction is described by a diffusive control model that is integrated analytically for each time step. The data set used in the model include physical-chemical, geometrical, and operational variables, such as: leachable chemical species content, leaching agent flow rate and concentration, particles size distribution, solution residence time in the solid bed, and solid bed length, weight and irrigated area. The results for two case studies, namely, an industrial gold heap leaching and a pilot column copper acid leaching, showed that the model successful predict the general features of the process time evolution.

  11. Dielectric response of epoxy-amine compositions during isothermal curing (United States)

    Rodin, D. L.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Yablokova, M. Yu.


    The change in electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity during the curing of epoxy-amine compositions in a mixture with the thermoplastic Ultem 1000 polyetherimide at 180°C is studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. TGDDM epoxy resin and DADPS, MDEA, and MIPA amine curing agents are used as the epoxy-amine composition. The times of the gel and glass transition are determined from the time and frequency dependences of the dielectric response of the investigated mixtures. At a certain step of curing of epoxy-amine compositions, the separation of a new phase enriched with the thermoplastic is detected. This separation is accompanied by charge accumulation along the phase boundary and its interaction with the external electric field. In the dielectric spectrum, this effect of phase separation appears as an individual relaxation process with characteristic parameters of dielectric relaxation. It is found that at the final step of isothermal curing, there is a glass transition of the polymer, leading to a sharp drop in the reaction rate and stabilization of the dielectric response with respect to time. The detected steps of the reaction and the corresponding changes in the structure and rheology of the investigated polymer systems are characterized and confirmed by methods of viscometry and optical microscopy.

  12. Numerical modeling of isothermal compositional grading by convex splitting methods

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiteng


    In this paper, an isothermal compositional grading process is simulated based on convex splitting methods with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. We first present a new form of gravity/chemical equilibrium condition by minimizing the total energy which consists of Helmholtz free energy and gravitational potential energy, and incorporating Lagrange multipliers for mass conservation. The time-independent equilibrium equations are transformed into a system of transient equations as our solution strategy. It is proved our time-marching scheme is unconditionally energy stable by the semi-implicit convex splitting method in which the convex part of Helmholtz free energy and its derivative are treated implicitly and the concave parts are treated explicitly. With relaxation factor controlling Newton iteration, our method is able to converge to a solution with satisfactory accuracy if a good initial estimate of mole compositions is provided. More importantly, it helps us automatically split the unstable single phase into two phases, determine the existence of gas-oil contact (GOC) and locate its position if GOC does exist. A number of numerical examples are presented to show the performance of our method.

  13. A numerical study of non-isothermal turbulent coaxial jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Abderrazak, Kamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, Georges le; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Marseille (France)


    In this work, we propose to study non isothermal air-air coaxial jets with two different approaches: parabolic and elliptic approaches. The standard k-{epsilon} model and the RSM model were applied in this study. The numerical resolution of the equations governing this flow type was carried out for: the parabolic approach, by a ''home-made'' CFD code based on a finite difference method, and the elliptic approach by an industrial code (FLUENT) based on a finite volume method. In forced convection mode (Fr={infinity}), the two turbulence models are valid for the prediction of the mean flow. But for turbulent sizes, k-{epsilon} model gives results closer to those achieved in experiments compared to RSM Model. Concerning the limit of validity of the parabolic and elliptic approaches, we showed that for velocities ratio r lower than 1, the results of the two approaches were satisfactory. On the other hand, for r>1, the difference between the results became increasingly significant. In mixed convection mode (Fr{approx_equal}20), the results obtained by the two turbulence models for the mean axial velocity were very different even in the plume region. For the temperature and the turbulent sizes the two models give satisfactory results which agree well with the correlations suggested by the experimenters for X{>=}20. Thus, the second order model with {sigma}{sub t}=0.85 is more effective for a coaxial jet study in a mixed convection mode. (orig.)

  14. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B Poole

    Full Text Available In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  15. Moisture Adsorption Isotherms and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Tannic Acid (United States)

    Červenka, L.; Cacková, L.


    Moisture adsorption isotherms of tannic acid were determined at 5, 15, and 35°C with the use of the static gravimetric method in the range 0.113-0.980 aw (aw is the water activity). It was shown that tannic acid adsorbed more water at 5°C. The experimental data fitted well to the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer and Yanniotis-Blahovec equations, giving the corresponding parameters by nonlinear regression. The monolayer moisture content, number of monolayers, and the surface area of sorption were demonstrated to decrease with increasing temperature. Mesopores dominated below the monolayer moisture content followed by the formation of macropores. The variation of the differential enthalpy and entropy with the moisture content showed that water was strongly bound to the surface of tannic acid below the moisture content 5.0 g water/100 g dry basis. The adsorption process was found to be enthalpy-driven; however, it was not spontaneous at a low moisture content, as follows from the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The variation of the net integral enthalpy and entropy (at a constant spreading pressure) with the moisture content exhibited maximum and minimum values, respectively. This behavior indicated that water molecules were strongly bound to the tannic acid surface at the moisture content up to its monolayer values.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia COJOCARU


    Full Text Available This paper presents recent trends and flows of labor migration and its impact on economic and social life. Main aim of this research sets up the influence of the migration on the European economics and its competitiveness. Methods of research are: method of comparison, analysis method, method of deduction, method of statistics, modeling method. The economic impact of migration has been intensively studied but is still often driven by ill-informed perceptions, which, in turn, can lead to public antagonism towards migration. These negative views risk jeopardising efforts to adapt migration policies to the new economic and demographic challenges facing many countries. Migration Policy looks at the evidence for how immigrants affect the economy in three main areas: The labour market, public purse and economic growth. In Europe, the scope of labour mobility greatly increased within the EU/EFTA zones following the EU enlargements of 2004, 2007 and 2014-2015. This added to labour markets’ adjustment capacity. Recent estimates suggest that as much as a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock – that is occurring at different times and with different intensities across countries – may have been absorbed by migration within a year.

  17. On the concept of migration policy




    The article analyzes existing in the different sources of non-fiction variety of interpretations of the term “migration policy”. The variety of approaches to the concept of “politics” and “the migration process” gives rise to different points of view on the vision of migration policy. Contradictions are clearly seen in the difference in definitions of migration policy. Migration policy a purposeful activity of political institutions, aimed at streamlining and regulation of migration processes...

  18. Migration in two directions. (United States)

    Slim, Rita; Koussa, Salam; Awada, Hassan; Yaghi, Cesar; Honein, Khalil; Sayegh, Raymond


    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), the modality of choice for long-term enteral access, is generally a safe procedure but can be associated with many potential complications. Report two different and late complications of PEG in two patients fed at home, leading them to the emergency department. A 75-year-old man and a 14-year-old young man with PEG presented to the emergency department with two different complications related to the gastrostomy tube. The first patient developed fever and deterioration in mental status due to parietal abscess which developed secondary to the migration of the internal button of the gastrostomy tube in the abdominal wall. He was treated with antibiotics and the gastrostomy tube was extracted. The second one presented upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to intestinal perforation at the level of the internal button of the gastrostomy tube. Bleeding and perforation were treated conservatively and he had a good evolution. Persons taking care of patients with PEG tube must be aware of potential complications. The position and the permeability of the tube must be systematically checked before feeding and medical advice should immediately be asked for in case of doubt or in the presence of any alarming sign.

  19. Psychosocial Aspects of Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Tuzcu


    Full Text Available The incident of migration that occurs as a result of the mobility of individuals between various regions and is considered a social change process brings along various factors. Among these factors, the most important one is the culture of the new society where the immigrant begins to live and the process of adaptation with this culture. Individuals from different cultures are required to live together, cope with differences and overcome the difficulties. The process of adaptation to the new lifestyle might cause the individual to have some feelings such as loneliness, socially isolation, being alienated, being regretful and self-depreciation, and consequently experience a greater stress. Being unable to cope with stress efficiently creates risks in individuals in terms of health problems such as anxiety and depression. Healthcare professionals are required to evaluate life styles, difficulties and coping levels of immigrants in order to protect and develop their mental health. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 56-66

  20. Accurate Cure Modeling for Isothermal Processing of Fast Curing Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bernath


    Full Text Available In this work a holistic approach for the characterization and mathematical modeling of the reaction kinetics of a fast epoxy resin is shown. Major composite manufacturing processes like resin transfer molding involve isothermal curing at temperatures far below the ultimate glass transition temperature. Hence, premature vitrification occurs during curing and consequently has to be taken into account by the kinetic model. In order to show the benefit of using a complex kinetic model, the Kamal-Malkin kinetic model is compared to the Grindling kinetic model in terms of prediction quality for isothermal processing. From the selected models, only the Grindling kinetic is capable of taking into account vitrification. Non-isothermal, isothermal and combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements are conducted and processed for subsequent use for model parametrization. In order to demonstrate which DSC measurements are vital for proper cure modeling, both models are fitted to varying sets of measurements. Special attention is given to the evaluation of isothermal DSC measurements which are subject to deviations arising from unrecorded cross-linking prior to the beginning of the measurement as well as from physical aging effects. It is found that isothermal measurements are vital for accurate modeling of isothermal cure and cannot be neglected. Accurate cure predictions are achieved using the Grindling kinetic model.

  1. Isotherm type shift of hydrophobic interaction adsorption and its effect on chromatographic behavior. (United States)

    Meng, Qingqiang; Wang, Jiaxing; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo


    Adsorption isotherm type is a key factor in simulating chromatographic profiles. In this study, the adsorption isotherm type of pure bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) on hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) media was found to shift from Freundlich to Langmuir with the increase of salt concentration. For BSA on butyl-, phenyl- and octyl-sepharose, the isotherm type shift occurred when the salt concentrations were higher than 1.8, 1.5 and 1.4 mol/L, respectively. For IgG, the turning points were 1.0 mol/L on phenyl-sepharose and 0.9 mol/L on octyl-sepharose. Circular dichroism spectra and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography found no obvious conformational change or oligomer formation for the proteins in the solutions with different salt concentrations. HIC profiles of BSA and IgG revealed that the isotherm type shift greatly affected the chromatographic behavior, because the original single peak was coincidentally split into two peaks at the salt concentrations over which the isotherm type shift occurred. Combining both the isotherm type shift and peak-splitting phenomena, it was possible that the change of protein-protein repulsion among adsorbed protein molecules under different salt concentrations caused the abnormal behavior of adsorption isotherm and chromatographic profiles.

  2. Population commission discusses international migration. (United States)


    At the 30th session of the Commission on Population and Development during February 24-28, 1997, international migration was the main topic, with special linkages between migration and development and on gender issues and the family. New and emerging issues were also considered. Members stressed the need for more reliable data on migration, the direction of migrants flows, and the characteristics of migrants. The Commission requested a task force on basic social services to hold a technical symposium of experts on international migration in 1998. Its chair, Dr. Nafis Sadik, said that migration issues should based on the reality of choice not on coercive measures or quotas. Almost half of the migrants globally are women. The Commission was given a new impetus by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. Migration pressures intensified in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, creating areas of concern: the negative impact of short-term migration on working conditions in host countries; migration pressures emanating from climatic change; the protection of migrant women and their children; the right of receiving countries to regulate access to their territory; the adverse consequences of forced migration; the situation of persons whose asylum claims have been rejected; the trafficking in women and children, prostitution and coercive adoption; and the sudden and massive arrival of refugees in need of international protection. The 1998 session of the Commission will feature the theme of health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age.

  3. Soil-adjusted sorption isotherms for arsenic(V) and vanadium(V) (United States)

    Rückamp, Daniel; Utermann, Jens; Florian Stange, Claus


    The sorption characteristic of a soil is usually determined by fitting a sorption isotherm model to laboratory data. However, such sorption isotherms are only valid for the studied soil and cannot be transferred to other soils. For this reason, a soil-adjusted sorption isotherm can be calculated by using the data of several soils. Such soil-adjusted sorption isotherms exist for cationic heavy metals, but are lacking for heavy metal oxyanions. Hence, the aim of this study is to establish soil-adjusted sorption isotherms for the oxyanions arsenate (arsenic(V)) and vanadate (vanadium(V)). For the laboratory experiment, 119 soils (samples from top- and subsoils) typical for Germany were chosen. The batch experiments were conducted with six concentrations of arsenic(V) and vanadium(V), respectively. By using the laboratory data, sorption isotherms for each soil were derived. Then, the soil-adjusted sorption isotherms were calculated by non-linear regression of the sorption isotherms with additional soil parameters. The results indicated a correlation between the sorption strength and oxalate-extractable iron, organic carbon, clay, and electrical conductivity for both, arsenic and vanadium. However, organic carbon had a negative regression coefficient. As total organic carbon was correlated with dissolved organic carbon; we attribute this observation to an effect of higher amounts of dissolved organic substances. We conclude that these soil-adjusted sorption isotherms can be used to assess the potential of soils to adsorb arsenic(V) and vanadium(V) without performing time-consuming sorption experiments.

  4. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  5. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...

  6. Countering inbreeding with migration 1. Migration from unrelated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l2-(1 -rn)(t -m)l|,. (1.14) with all terms as defined fbr (1.5). Equation (1.14) does not appear to be directly amenable to the development of general rules for the limitation ... effects of migration and restricted population size with equal numbers of the two sexes and with only male migration. N'lale rnigrant number. Herd size l1 .'l.

  7. NASTRAN migration to UNIX (United States)

    Chan, Gordon C.; Turner, Horace Q.


    COSMIC/NASTRAN, as it is supported and maintained by COSMIC, runs on four main-frame computers - CDC, VAX, IBM and UNIVAC. COSMIC/NASTRAN on other computers, such as CRAY, AMDAHL, PRIME, CONVEX, etc., is available commercially from a number of third party organizations. All these computers, with their own one-of-a-kind operating systems, make NASTRAN machine dependent. The job control language (JCL), the file management, and the program execution procedure of these computers are vastly different, although 95 percent of NASTRAN source code was written in standard ANSI FORTRAN 77. The advantage of the UNIX operating system is that it has no machine boundary. UNIX is becoming widely used in many workstations, mini's, super-PC's, and even some main-frame computers. NASTRAN for the UNIX operating system is definitely the way to go in the future, and makes NASTRAN available to a host of computers, big and small. Since 1985, many NASTRAN improvements and enhancements were made to conform to the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standards. A major UNIX migration effort was incorporated into COSMIC NASTRAN 1990 release. As a pioneer work for the UNIX environment, a version of COSMIC 89 NASTRAN was officially released in October 1989 for DEC ULTRIX VAXstation 3100 (with VMS extensions). A COSMIC 90 NASTRAN version for DEC ULTRIX DECstation 3100 (with RISC) is planned for April 1990 release. Both workstations are UNIX based computers. The COSMIC 90 NASTRAN will be made available on a TK50 tape for the DEC ULTRIX workstations. Previously in 1988, an 88 NASTRAN version was tested successfully on a SiliconGraphics workstation.

  8. [International migration: 1979]. (United States)


    Statistics on international migration in Panama in 1979 are provided for the 3 airports, 6 seaports, and 2 border crossings used by international travelers. The categories of visitors, temporary visitors, immigrants, and residents among those entering and leaving the country are defined and the data collection procedures are briefly specified. Between 1975-79, the number of persons entering the country through all points increased from 392,449 to 520,454, while the number departing increased from 397,759 to a figure provisionally estimated at 514,250. In 1979, 317,303 men and 203,151 women entered the country, 427,527 by air, 89,764 by land, and 3,163 by sea. 473 men and 355 women immigrated, all arriving by air. 391,502 of those entering were visitors, 2,407 were temporary visitors, and 98,589 were residents, of whom 81,462 were Panamanian and 17,127 foreign. Another table indicates the number of persons by category entering at each point by month; December had the highest number of arrivals, 56,070, followed by July, with 47,889. Other tables indicate the number of arrivals by category according to country of nationality and country of permanent residence; the number of arrivals by sex and category in 5-year age groups; the number of visitors entering for motives related to travel according to nationality and country of residence; the number entering by duration of stay, according to reasons for travel and country of residence; the number entering through the airport at Tocumen or the border crossing at Paso de Canoa, by motives for travel, according to country of residence, and by sex and age; and the number of returning Panamanian residents by port of entry and nationality, according to point of origin. Data are also provided on the number leaving by category for each point of departure and month of departure.

  9. The migration challenge for PAYG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanyan, Gurgen


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2014), s. 1023-1038 ISSN 0933-1433 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : public pension s * PAYG * unskilled migration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2014

  10. The migration challenge for PAYG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanyan, Gurgen


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2014), s. 1023-1038 ISSN 0933-1433 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : public pension s * PAYG * unskilled migration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2014

  11. Migration, distress and cultural identity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhugra, Dinesh


    ...; they also attempt to settle down by either assimilation or biculturalism. In this paper, various hypotheses explaining the act of migration and its relationship with mental distress are described...

  12. Assessment of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth on lettuce exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. (United States)

    de Oliveira Elias, Susana; Noronha, Tiago Baptista; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar


    This study aimed to assess the growth of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Pathogens were inoculated on lettuce separately and stored under isothermal condition at 5 °C, 10 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C for both bacteria, at 40 °C for Salmonella and 42 °C for E. coli O157:H7. Growth curves were built by fitting the data to the Baranyi's DMFit, generating R2 values greater than 0.92 for primary models. Secondary models were fitted with Ratkowsky equations, generating R2 values higher than 0.91 and RMSE lower than 0.1. Experimental data showed that both bacteria could grow at all temperatures. Also, the growth of both pathogens under non-isothermal conditions was studied simulating temperatures found from harvest to supermarkets in Brazil. Models were analysed by R2, RMSE, bias factor (Bf) and accuracy factor (Af). Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were able to grow in this temperature profile and the models could predict the behavior of these microorganisms on lettuce under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Based on the results, a negligible growth time (ς) was proposed to provide the time which lettuce could be exposed to a specific temperature and do not present an expressive growth of bacteria. The ς was developed based on Baranyi's primary model equation and on growth potential concept. ς is the value of lag phase added of the time necessary to population grow 0.5 log CFU/g. The ς of lettuce exposed to 37 °C was 1.3 h, while at 5 °C was 3.3 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review of Population Balance Modelling for Isothermal Bubbly Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman C.P. Cheung


    Full Text Available In this article, we present a review of the state-of-the-art population balance modelling techniques that have been adopted to describe the phenomenological nature of isothermal bubbly flows. The main focus of the review can be broadly classified into three categories: (i Numerical approaches or solution algorithms of the PBE; (ii Applications of the PBE in practical gas-liquid multiphase problems and (iii Possible aspects of the future development in population balance modelling. For the first category, details of solution algorithms based on both method of moment (MOM and discrete class method (CM that have been proposed in the literature are provided. Advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are also discussed from the theoretical and practical viewpoints. For the second category, applications of existing population balance models in practical multiphase problems that have been proposed in the literature are summarized. Selected existing mathematical closures for modelling the “birth” and “death” rate of bubbles in gas-liquid bubbly flows are introduced. Particular attention is devoted to assess the capability of some selected models in predicting bubbly flow conditions through detail validation studies against experimental data. These studies demonstrate that good agreement can be achieved by the present model by comparing the predicted results against measured data with regards to the radial distribution of void fraction and sauter mean bubble diameter. Finally, weaknesses and limitations of the existing models are revealed are suggestions for further development are discussed. Emerging topics for future population balance studies are provided as to complete the aspect of population balance modelling.

  14. Characterization of β-lactamase activity using isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ye; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Yang, Ke-Wu; Lei, Jin-E; He, Yuan


    Hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotic by β-lactamase is the most common mechanism of β-lactam resistance in clinical isolates. Timely detection and characterization of β-lactamases are therefore of utmost biomedical importance. Conventional spectrophotometric method is time-consuming and cannot provide thermodynamic information on β-lactamases. A new assay was developed for the study of β-lactamase activity in protein solutions (Metallo-β-lactamase L1) and in clinical bacterial cells, based on heat-flow changes derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of β-lactams using isothermal titration calorimetry. (1) The thermokinetic parameters of three antibiotics (penicillin G, cefazolin and imipenem) and the inhibition constant of an azolylthioacetamide inhibitor were determined using the calorimetric assay. The results from the calorimetric assays were consistent with the data from the spectrophotometric assay. (2) The values of heat change in the calorimetric assay using two clinical Escherichia coli strains correlated well with their antibiotic susceptibility results from the broth dilution experiment. The subtypes of β-lactamase were also determined in the calorimetric assay. The ITC assay is a reliable and fast method to study β-lactamase enzyme kinetics and inhibition. It can also provide thermodynamic information on antibiotic hydrolysis, which has been taken advantage of in this work to study β-lactamase activity in two clinical Escherichia coli isolates. As the first calorimetric study of β-lactamase activity, it may provide a new assay to assist biomedical validation of new β-lactamase inhibitors, and also has potential applications on rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing and screening β-lactamase producing bacteria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    KAUST Repository

    Scribano, Gianfranco


    The counterflow configuration is a canonical stagnation flow, featuring two opposed impinging round jets and a mixing layer across the stagnation plane. Although counterflows are used extensively in the study of reactive mixtures and other applications where mixing of two streams is required, quantitative data on the scaling properties of the flow field are lacking. The aim of this work is to characterize the velocity and mixing fields in isothermal counterflows over a wide range of conditions. The study features both experimental data from particle image velocimetry and results from detailed axisymmetric simulations. The scaling laws for the nondimensional velocity and mixture fraction are obtained as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number and the ratio of the separation distance of the nozzles to their diameter. In the range of flow configurations investigated, the nondimensional fields are found to depend primarily on the separation ratio and, to a lesser extent, the Reynolds number. The marked dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles, which becomes less important as the separation ratio decreases. The normalized strain rate and scalar dissipation rate at the stagnation plane are found to attain limiting values only for high values of the Reynolds number. These asymptotic values depend markedly on the separation ratio and differ significantly from the values produced by analytical models. The scaling of the mixing field does not show a limiting behavior as the separation ratio decreases to the smallest practical value considered.

  16. Integrated Microfluidic Nucleic Acid Isolation, Isothermal Amplification, and Amplicon Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mauk


    Full Text Available Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (<60 min, low-cost, convenient, field-deployable sequence-specific nucleic acid-based amplification tests (NAATs are described. A microfluidic point-of-care (POC diagnostics test to quantify HIV viral load from blood samples serves as a representative and instructive example to discuss the technical issues and capabilities of “lab on a chip” NAAT devices. A portable, miniaturized POC NAAT with performance comparable to conventional PCR (polymerase-chain reaction-based tests in clinical laboratories can be realized with a disposable, palm-sized, plastic microfluidic chip in which: (1 nucleic acids (NAs are extracted from relatively large (~mL volume sample lysates using an embedded porous silica glass fiber or cellulose binding phase (“membrane” to capture sample NAs in a flow-through, filtration mode; (2 NAs captured on the membrane are isothermally (~65 °C amplified; (3 amplicon production is monitored by real-time fluorescence detection, such as with a smartphone CCD camera serving as a low-cost detector; and (4 paraffin-encapsulated, lyophilized reagents for temperature-activated release are pre-stored in the chip. Limits of Detection (LOD better than 103 virons/sample can be achieved. A modified chip with conduits hosting a diffusion-mode amplification process provides a simple visual indicator to readily quantify sample NA template. In addition, a companion microfluidic device for extracting plasma from whole blood without a centrifuge, generating cell-free plasma for chip-based molecular diagnostics, is described. Extensions to a myriad of related applications including, for example, food testing, cancer screening, and insect genotyping are briefly surveyed.

  17. Migration of the Nellix endoprosthesis. (United States)

    England, Andrew; Torella, Francesco; Fisher, Robert K; McWilliams, Richard G


    This study reports the incidence and sequelae of migration of the Nellix (Endologix Inc, Irvine, Calif) endoprosthesis after endovascular aneurysm sealing. A review was performed of the follow-up imaging of all endovascular aneurysm sealing patients in a university hospital endovascular program who had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. The first postoperative and latest follow-up computed tomography scans were used to measure the distances between the proximal and distal borders of the stent grafts relative to reference vessels using a previously validated technique. Device migration was based on previously established criteria and defined as any stent graft movement of ≥4 mm related to a predefined reference vessel. Device movement in a caudal direction was given a positive value, and movement in a cranial direction was denoted by a negative value. Eighteen patients (35 stent grafts) were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective review. The mean preoperative abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter was 57 mm (standard deviation [SD], 5; range, 50-67 mm) and aortic neck length was 30 mm (SD, 16; range, 6-62 mm). Proximal migration, according to study definitions, was identified in six stent grafts (17%), all in a caudal direction. At 1 year the mean proximal migration distance was +6.6 mm (SD, 1.6; range, +4.7-+9.2 mm). Migration occurred in a single stent graft in four patients and bilaterally in one. No distal migration occurred. Proximal migration of the Nellix endoprosthesis does occur and was without any sequelae in our series. Further investigations into the long-term positional stability of the Nellix device, together with a more thorough understanding of the etiology and consequences of migration, are required. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metallicity, planetary formation and migration


    Livio, M.; Pringle, J. E.


    Recent observations show a clear correlation between the probability of hosting a planet and the metallicity of the parent star. Since radial velocity surveys are biased, however, towards detecting planets with short orbital periods, the probability-metallicity correlation could merely reflect a dependence of migration rates on metallicity. We investigated the possibility, but find no basis to suggest that the migration process is sensitive to the metallicity. The indication is, therefore, th...

  19. Computational Economic Modeling of Migration


    Klabunde, Anna


    In this paper an agent-based model of endogenously evolving migrant networks is developed to identify the determinants of migration and return decisions. Individuals are connected by links, the strength of which declines over time and distance. Methodologically, this paper combines parameterization using data from the Mexican Migration Project with calibration. It is shown that expected earnings, an idiosyncratic home bias, network ties to other migrants, strength of links to the home country...

  20. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte


    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.

  1. The dynamics of mass migration (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Zenteno, Rene M.


    We specify a set of equations defining a dynamic model of international migration and estimate its parameters by using data specially collected in Mexico. We then used it to project the a hypothetical Mexican community population forward in time. Beginning with a stable population of 10,000 people, we project ahead 50 years under three different assumptions: no international migration; constant probabilities of in- and out-migration, and dynamic schedules of out- and in-migration that change as migratory experience accumulates. This exercise represents an attempt to model the self-feeding character of international migration noted by prior observers and theorists. Our model quantifies the mechanisms of cumulative causation predicted by social capital theory and illustrates the shortcomings of standard projection methodologies. The failure to model dynamically changing migration schedules yields a 5% overstatement of the projected size of the Mexican population after 50 years, an 11% understatement of the total number of U.S. migrants, a 15% understatement of the prevalence of U.S. migratory experience in the Mexican population, and an 85% understatement of the size of the Mexican population living in the United States. PMID:10220465

  2. Isothermal Age-hardening Behaviour in a Multi-purpose Dental Casting Gold Alloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIM, Hyung-ll; AHN, Ho-Kyung; LEE, Hee-Kyung; HISATSUNE, Kunihiro; SEOL, Hyo-Joung; TAKUMA, Yasuko


    The isothermal age-hardening behaviour of a multi-purpose dental casting gold alloy was investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction study, scanning electron microscopic observations...

  3. Adsorption Isotherms of CH 4 on Activated Carbon from Indonesian Low Grade Coal

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Awaludin


    This article presents an experimental approach for the determination of the adsorption isotherms of methane on activated carbon that is essential for methane storage purposes. The experiments incorporated a constant-volume- variable-pressure (CVVP) apparatus, and two types of activated carbon have been investigated, namely, activated carbon derived from the low rank coal of the East of Kalimantan, Indonesia, and a Carbotech activated carbon. The isotherm results which cover temperatures from (300 to 318) K and pressures up to 3.5 MPa are analyzed using the Langmuir, Tóth, and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) isotherm models. The heat of adsorption for the single component methane-activated carbon system, which is concentration- and temperature-dependent, is determined from the measured isotherm data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 20C Isotherm Depth (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 20C Isotherm Depth (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,...

  6. Heat transfer corrected isothermal model for devolatilization of thermally-thick biomass particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hao; Wu, Hao; Lin, Weigang

    Isothermal model used in current computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model neglect the internal heat transfer during biomass devolatilization. This assumption is not reasonable for thermally-thick particles. To solve this issue, a heat transfer corrected isothermal model is introduced. In this model......, two heat transfer corrected coefficients: HT-correction of heat transfer and HR-correction of reaction, are defined to cover the effects of internal heat transfer. A series of single biomass devitalization case have been modeled to validate this model, the results show that devolatilization behaviors...... of both thermally-thick and thermally-thin particles are predicted reasonable by using heat transfer corrected model, while, isothermal model overestimate devolatilization rate and heating rate for thermlly-thick particle.This model probably has better performance than isothermal model when it is coupled...

  7. Comparison of optimised isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by kudzu. (United States)

    Allen, Stephen J; Gan, Quan; Matthews, Ronan; Johnson, Pauline A


    This study assesses the use of dried (5% w/w moisture) kudzu (Peuraria lobata ohwi) as an adsorbent medium for the removal of two basic dyes, Basic Yellow 21 and Basic Red 22, from aqueous solutions. The extent of adsorption was measured through equilibrium sorption isotherms for the single component systems. Equilibrium was achieved after 21 days. The experimental isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Toth isotherm equations. A detailed error analysis was undertaken to investigate the effect of using different error criteria for the determination of the single component isotherm parameters. The performance of the kudzu was compared with an activated carbon (Chemviron F-400). Kudzu was found to be an effective adsorbent for basic dye colour removal; though its capacity for colour removal was not as high as an activated carbon, the potential appeared to exist to use it as an alternative to activated carbon where carbon cost was prohibitive.

  8. Method to Predict Tempering of Steels Under Non-isothermal Conditions (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Kohli, A.


    A common way of representing the tempering responses of steels is with a "tempering parameter" that includes the effect of temperature and time on hardness after hardening. Such functions, usually in graphical form, are available for many steels and have been applied for isothermal tempering. In this article, we demonstrate that the method can be extended to non-isothermal conditions. Controlled heating experiments were done on three grades in order to verify the method.

  9. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface


    Ng, Kim Choon; Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ismail, Azahar Bin


    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to corr...

  10. Parameterizing sorption isotherms using a hybrid global-local fitting procedure (United States)

    Matott, L. Shawn; Singh, Anshuman; Rabideau, Alan J.


    Predictive modeling of the transport and remediation of groundwater contaminants requires an accurate description of the sorption process, which is usually provided by fitting an isotherm model to site-specific laboratory data. Commonly used calibration procedures, listed in order of increasing sophistication, include: trial-and-error, linearization, non-linear regression, global search, and hybrid global-local search. Given the considerable variability in fitting procedures applied in published isotherm studies, we investigated the importance of algorithm selection through a series of numerical experiments involving 13 previously published sorption datasets. These datasets, considered representative of state-of-the-art for isotherm experiments, had been previously analyzed using trial-and-error, linearization, or non-linear regression methods. The isotherm expressions were re-fit using a 3-stage hybrid global-local search procedure (i.e. global search using particle swarm optimization followed by Powell's derivative free local search method and Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg non-linear regression). The re-fitted expressions were then compared to previously published fits in terms of the optimized weighted sum of squared residuals (WSSR) fitness function, the final estimated parameters, and the influence on contaminant transport predictions - where easily computed concentration-dependent contaminant retardation factors served as a surrogate measure of likely transport behavior. Results suggest that many of the previously published calibrated isotherm parameter sets were local minima. In some cases, the updated hybrid global-local search yielded order-of-magnitude reductions in the fitness function. In particular, of the candidate isotherms, the Polanyi-type models were most likely to benefit from the use of the hybrid fitting procedure. In some cases, improvements in fitness function were associated with slight ( 50%) changes in parameter values were noted. Despite

  11. Studies on moisture sorption isotherms for osmotically dehydrated papaya cubes and verification of selected models. (United States)

    Jain, S K; Verma, R C; Sharma, G P; Jain, H K


    The water desorption properties of osmotically dehydrated papaya cubes at various temperatures were studied by fitting experimental isotherms in Henderson, Oswin, Chen and Clayton and Kuhn equations having 2 parameters and Henderson and Oswin equations were modified to describe the temperature dependence of isotherm data. Oswin equation was useful to predict the equilibrium moisture content values for use in determining the effective moisture diffusion coefficient during subsequent air drying process.

  12. Parameterizing sorption isotherms using a hybrid global-local fitting procedure. (United States)

    Matott, L Shawn; Singh, Anshuman; Rabideau, Alan J


    Predictive modeling of the transport and remediation of groundwater contaminants requires an accurate description of the sorption process, which is usually provided by fitting an isotherm model to site-specific laboratory data. Commonly used calibration procedures, listed in order of increasing sophistication, include: trial-and-error, linearization, non-linear regression, global search, and hybrid global-local search. Given the considerable variability in fitting procedures applied in published isotherm studies, we investigated the importance of algorithm selection through a series of numerical experiments involving 13 previously published sorption datasets. These datasets, considered representative of state-of-the-art for isotherm experiments, had been previously analyzed using trial-and-error, linearization, or non-linear regression methods. The isotherm expressions were re-fit using a 3-stage hybrid global-local search procedure (i.e. global search using particle swarm optimization followed by Powell's derivative free local search method and Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg non-linear regression). The re-fitted expressions were then compared to previously published fits in terms of the optimized weighted sum of squared residuals (WSSR) fitness function, the final estimated parameters, and the influence on contaminant transport predictions - where easily computed concentration-dependent contaminant retardation factors served as a surrogate measure of likely transport behavior. Results suggest that many of the previously published calibrated isotherm parameter sets were local minima. In some cases, the updated hybrid global-local search yielded order-of-magnitude reductions in the fitness function. In particular, of the candidate isotherms, the Polanyi-type models were most likely to benefit from the use of the hybrid fitting procedure. In some cases, improvements in fitness function were associated with slight (50%) changes in parameter values were noted. Despite these

  13. Linking Poverty, Irregular Migration and Human Trafficking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration literature suggests that poverty, irregular migration and human trafficking are causally linked. However, empirical studies linking these aspects of migration are scarce. This is because, as clandestine activities, data collection on these aspects of migration presents serious challenges. As a result of these ...

  14. Rural-Urban Migration in Colombia. (United States)

    Schultz, T. Paul

    The rural-urban migration pattern in Colombia during the last 25 years has resulted in a population increase in urban areas from 30 to 52 percent of the total population. This study explores the causes of internal migration. Migration rates are estimated for various groups in the population to clarify who migrates and to where. A model of…

  15. Towards a new understanding of migration timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Muskens, Gerard; Kruckenberg, Helmut; Glazov, Peter; Weinzierl, Rolf; Nolet, Bart A.; Wikelski, Martin


    According to migration theory and several empirical studies, long-distance migrants are more time-limited during spring migration and should therefore migrate faster in spring than in autumn. Competition for the best breeding sites is supposed to be the main driver, but timing of migration is

  16. Distance and Intrastate College Student Migration (United States)

    Alm, James; Winters, John V.


    Most studies of student migration focus on "interstate" migration of college students, largely because the aggregate data typically used are limited in geographic specificity to states. However, interstate migration is only a small part of the total student migration. Public institutions generally get most of their students from within…

  17. Characterization of nitrogen adsorption isotherms of thermally-treated organoclays using multifractal analysis (United States)

    Lado, Marcos; Borisover, Mikhail; Paz-Gonzalez, Antonio


    Nitrogen adsorption isotherms of soils have been reported to exhibit multifractal behavior. In the present work, multifractal analysis is used to characterize changes in N2 adsorption isotherms of organoclays prepared with different cations and exposed to various thermal treatments. Wyoming bentonite was exchanged with benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA-clay), tetraethylammonium (TEA-clay), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium exchanged at 41 and 90% of the cation exchange capacity of the clay (HDTMA41- and HDTMA90-clay). The resulting organoclays were exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 420°C during two hours, freeze-dried, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured at 77°K. The obtained isotherms showed multifractal behavior, and parameters derived from Rényi and singularity spectra varied with changes in the organic cation and the treatment temperature. The type of cation was the dominant factor responsible for changes in spectra, and significant interactions were observed between type of cation and temperature for several parameters. Significant correlations were found between organic carbon content and multifractal parameters, indicating a relation between changes in N2 sorption sites and thermal transformations of the organic cations. Significant correlations were also found between some multifractal parameters and the heterogeneity exponent of a Freundlich model fitted to nitrobenzene isotherms measured in the organoclays, suggesting that multifractal analysis of N2 adsorption isotherms could be useful to analyze the heterogeneity of sorption sites when sorption determinations yield a limited amount of data.

  18. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon


    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to correlate to a certain type of isotherm patterns. There is yet a universal approach in developing these isotherm models. In this paper, we demonstrate that the characteristics of all sorption isotherm types can be succinctly unified by a revised Langmuir model when merged with the concepts of Homotattic Patch Approximation (HPA) and the availability of multiple sets of site energy accompanied by their respective fractional probability factors. The total uptake (q/q*) at assorted pressure ratios (P/P s ) are inextricably traced to the manner the site energies are spread, either naturally or engineered by scientists, over and across the heterogeneous surfaces. An insight to the porous heterogeneous surface characteristics, in terms of adsorption site availability has been presented, describing the unique behavior of each isotherm type.

  19. A Universal Isotherm Model to Capture Adsorption Uptake and Energy Distribution of Porous Heterogeneous Surface. (United States)

    Ng, Kim Choon; Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ismail, Azahar Bin


    The adsorbate-adsorbent thermodynamics are complex as it is influenced by the pore size distributions, surface heterogeneity and site energy distribution, as well as the adsorbate properties. Together, these parameters defined the adsorbate uptake forming the state diagrams, known as the adsorption isotherms, when the sorption site energy on the pore surfaces are favorable. The available adsorption models for describing the vapor uptake or isotherms, hitherto, are individually defined to correlate to a certain type of isotherm patterns. There is yet a universal approach in developing these isotherm models. In this paper, we demonstrate that the characteristics of all sorption isotherm types can be succinctly unified by a revised Langmuir model when merged with the concepts of Homotattic Patch Approximation (HPA) and the availability of multiple sets of site energy accompanied by their respective fractional probability factors. The total uptake (q/q*) at assorted pressure ratios (P/P s ) are inextricably traced to the manner the site energies are spread, either naturally or engineered by scientists, over and across the heterogeneous surfaces. An insight to the porous heterogeneous surface characteristics, in terms of adsorption site availability has been presented, describing the unique behavior of each isotherm type.

  20. Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution unto Modified Rice Husk: Isotherms Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Dada


    Full Text Available Investigation of the sorption potential of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent was carried out. The rice husk was modified with orthophosphoric acid and was used for adsorption of lead (II ions (Pb2+ from aqueous solution. Physicochemical properties of the modified rice husk were determined. Equilibrium sorption data were confirmed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms. On the basis of adsorption isotherm graphs, R2 values were determined to be 0.995, 0.916, and 0.797 for Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich isotherms, respectively, indicating that the data fitted well into the adsorption isotherms, but Langmuir isotherm is a better model. The maximum monolayer coverage from Langmuir studies, Qmax=138.89 mg/g, Langmuir isotherm constant, KL=0.699 L/mg, and the separation factor, RL=1.41×10−2 at 100 mg/L of lead(II ions indicating that the sorption process, was favourable. The suitability of modified rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution and its potential for pollution control is established.

  1. Residence time measurement of an isothermal combustor flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Liangta; Spencer, Adrian [Loughborough University, Department of Aero and Auto Engineering, Loughborough (United Kingdom)


    technique is described here for a single-phase isothermal flow field, but with consideration, it could be extended to studying reacting flows to provide more insight into important mixing phenomena and relevant timescales. (orig.)

  2. Bondi-Hoyle accretion in an isothermal magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Aaron T.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cunningham, Andrew J., E-mail: [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-23, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    In regions of star formation, protostars and newborn stars will accrete mass from their natal clouds. These clouds are threaded by magnetic fields with a strength characterized by the plasma β—the ratio of thermal and magnetic pressures. Observations show that molecular clouds have β ≲ 1, so magnetic fields have the potential to play a significant role in the accretion process. We have carried out a numerical study of the effect of large-scale magnetic fields on the rate of accretion onto a uniformly moving point particle from a uniform, non-self-gravitating, isothermal gas. We consider gas moving with sonic Mach numbers of up to M≈45; magnetic fields that are either parallel, perpendicular, or oriented 45° to the flow; and β as low as 0.01. Our simulations utilize adaptive mesh refinement in order to obtain high spatial resolution where it is needed; this also allows the boundaries to be far from the accreting object to avoid unphysical effects arising from boundary conditions. Additionally, we show that our results are independent of our exact prescription for accreting mass in the sink particle. We give simple expressions for the steady-state accretion rate as a function of β and M for the parallel and perpendicular orientations. Using typical molecular cloud values of M∼5 and β ∼ 0.04 from the literature, our fits suggest that a 0.4 M {sub ☉} star accretes ∼4 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, almost a factor of two less than accretion rates predicted by hydrodynamic models. This disparity can grow to orders of magnitude for stronger fields and lower Mach numbers. We also discuss the applicability of these accretion rates versus accretion rates expected from gravitational collapse, and under what conditions a steady state is possible. The reduction in the accretion rate in a magnetized medium leads to an increase in the time required to form stars in competitive accretion models, making such models less efficient than predicted by

  3. Effect of inflow condition on near-field prediction of Large Eddy Simulations of isothermal and non-isothermal turbulent jets (United States)

    Salkhordeh, Sasan; Kimber, Mark


    In order to develop an experimentally validated computational model, turbulent round jets have been studied extensively under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology. Capturing the near-field physics of a turbulent jet has been a challenge when utilizing LES. To address this concern, the effect of inlet flow profile and turbulent fluctuations on the evolution of both type of jets has been analyzed in detail by performing separate large eddy simulations of the flow in the nozzle upstream of the jet inlet to accurately determine the inlet turbulent spectra. From the precursor simulations, the accurate turbulence fluctuations at the jet nozzle can be sampled and then implement to the inlet boundary of the main jet simulation. Properly specifying the turbulent fluctuations at the jet inlet was found to play a vital role in order to accurately predict key characteristics throughout the computational domain. For isothermal jets, the experimental measurements of Hussein et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 1994 Jan;258:31-75) has been simulated computationally using LES. The experimental measurement of Mi et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2001 Apr;432:91-125) has been chosen for performing LES for a non-isothermal jet at the same Reynolds number and identical temperature difference. The LES results show good agreement for first and higher order statistics of velocities and temperatures in both near field and far-field data.

  4. Migration and sustainability - compatible or contradictory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge


    When the migration issue is discussed in a sustainability perspective, two questions are vital: 1) What is the relationship between migration and the global population growth? 2) What is the relationship between migration and consumption growth, and how does migration influence the distribution o...... of consumption possibilities both between and within industrialized and developing countries? Based on responses to these questions, it is argued that reasonably managed migration will be compatible with sustainable development....

  5. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giavi

    Full Text Available Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  6. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats. (United States)

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael


    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  7. Environmental Change and Human Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić


    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the journal Migration and Ethnic Themes (MET is an occasion to announce a new key issue in the modern world’s future, which, in the authors’ opinion, is becoming the central theme within multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field of migration studies. This concerns the displacement of people in the local and national context as well as migration across national borders, at the regional and global level, which are directly or indirectly caused by environmental change. The recent genetic studies on the origins and development of the human race further confirm that the human ecological migrations are the first and the oldest type of migrations at all. In addition, as archaeological and other findings suggest, just this type of migration sometimes played a key role in the emergence, decay and changing of ancient civilizations. It seems that the early researchers of migration studies had a lot in mind considering changes in natural environment as an important determinant of human spatial movements. The interest for this topic in the social sciences had trailed off until the re-emergence in the second half of the 1980s. The authors accept the classification on the causal categories of “environmental migration” as: a “natural” disasters; b “urban-industrial” disasters, and c exploitation and degradation of resources. Further, they deal with the definition of basic concepts, first of all with disputes about the definition of “environmental refugees” as opposed to “environmental migrants”. Finally, the authors systematize two major competing approaches to migration and migrants caused by environmental change. The first one is “the alarmist” and the second one “the sceptic” approach. Luckily, the Sceptics are able (for now to prove that deterrent worse-case scenarios on increasingly powerful and unstoppable “waves” of environmental migrants (refugees have not been achieved. This serves them as

  8. ESCAP migration study gathers momentum. (United States)


    A comparative study is being conducted in the ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) region on the relationships of migration and urbanization to development. The 1st stage of the study will entail the preparation of country reports on the census analysis of migration, urbanization and development. The 2nd stage will involve preparation of a series of national migration surveys. The 3rd phase will involve assisting member governments to formulate a comprehensive population redistribution policy as part of their national development planning. 1st-phase country reports have been completed in Sri Lanka, South Korea, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Migration in Sri Lanka has largely been rural-to-rural with little urbanization so far. The picture in South Korea has been the opposite, with rapid urbanization in the 1960s and 1970s; the government is hoping to divert some population to smaller cities away from Seoul. The pattern in the Philippines is 1 of urban primacy with the metropolis of Manila accounting for over 1/3 of the country's total population. Indonesia is characterized by a dense heartland in the Java-Bali regions. However, the rate of urbanization here has been slower. Migrants in all the countries studied are preponderantly young. The sex differential varies from country to country. The influence of migration on subsequent fertility is unknown.

  9. The International-Migration Network

    CERN Document Server

    Fagiolo, Giorgio


    This paper studies international migration from a complex-network perspective. We define the international-migration network (IMN) as the weighted-directed graph where nodes are world countries and links account for the stock of migrants originated in a given country and living in another country at a given point in time. We characterize the binary and weighted architecture of the network and its evolution over time in the period 1960-2000. We find that the IMN is organized around a modular structure characterized by a small-world pattern displaying disassortativity and high clustering, with power-law distributed weighted-network statistics. We also show that a parsimonious gravity model of migration can account for most of observed IMN topological structure. Overall, our results suggest that socio-economic, geographical and political factors are more important than local-network properties in shaping the structure of the IMN.

  10. Isotherm investigation for the sorption of fluoride onto Bio-F: comparison of linear and non-linear regression method (United States)

    Yadav, Manish; Singh, Nitin Kumar


    A comparison of the linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm among three most commonly used adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson) was made to the experimental data of fluoride (F) sorption onto Bio-F at a solution temperature of 30 ± 1 °C. The coefficient of correlation (r2) was used to select the best theoretical isotherm among the investigated ones. A total of four Langmuir linear equations were discussed and out of which linear form of most popular Langmuir-1 and Langmuir-2 showed the higher coefficient of determination (0.976 and 0.989) as compared to other Langmuir linear equations. Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms showed a better fit to the experimental data in linear least-square method, while in non-linear method Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations showed the best fit to the tested data set. The present study showed that the non-linear method could be a better way to obtain the isotherm parameters and represent the most suitable isotherm. Redlich-Peterson isotherm was found to be the best representative (r2 = 0.999) for this sorption system. It is also observed that the values of β are not close to unity, which means the isotherms are approaching the Freundlich but not the Langmuir isotherm.

  11. Water-Column Stratification Observed along an AUV-Tracked Isotherm (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Messié, M.; Ryan, J. P.; Kieft, B.; Stanway, M. J.; Hobson, B.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Raanan, B. Y.; Smith, J. M.; Chavez, F.


    Studies of marine physical, chemical and microbiological processes benefit from observing in a Lagrangian frame of reference, i.e. drifting with ambient water. Because these processes can be organized relative to specific density or temperature ranges, maintaining observing platforms within targeted environmental ranges is an important observing strategy. We have developed a novel method to enable a Tethys-class long-range autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) (which has a propeller and a buoyancy engine) to track a target isotherm in buoyancy-controlled drift mode. In this mode, the vehicle shuts off its propeller and autonomously detects the isotherm and stays with it by actively controlling the vehicle's buoyancy. In the June 2015 CANON (Controlled, Agile, and Novel Observing Network) Experiment in Monterey Bay, California, AUV Makai tracked a target isotherm for 13 hours to study the coastal upwelling system. The tracked isotherm started from 33 m depth, shoaled to 10 m, and then deepened to 29 m. The thickness of the tracked isotherm layer (within 0.3°C error from the target temperature) increased over this duration, reflecting weakened stratification around the isotherm. During Makai's isotherm tracking, another long-range AUV, Daphne, acoustically tracked Makai on a circular yo-yo trajectory, measuring water-column profiles in Makai's vicinity. A wave glider also acoustically tracked Makai, providing sea surface measurements on the track. The presented method is a new approach for studying water-column stratification, but requires careful analysis of the temporal and spatial variations mingled in the vehicles' measurements. We will present a synthesis of the water column's stratification in relation to the upwelling conditions, based on the in situ measurements by the mobile platforms, as well as remote sensing and mooring data.

  12. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility. (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer's "historical principle" this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  13. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  14. Genre et migration au Maroc


    KHACHANI, Mohamed


    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Une des principales caractéristiques récentes de la migration marocaine est sa tendance à une féminisation soutenue. Le projet migratoire - qui était un projet d’hommes - intéresse de plus en plus les femmes marocaines au point de constituer actuellement près de la moitié de l’effectif migratoire marocain. Cette reconnaissance de l'importance des femmes dans la construction de l'espace migratoire a placé ...

  15. Automation of Flexible Migration Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk von Suchodoletz


    Full Text Available Many digital preservation scenarios are based on the migration strategy, which itself is heavily tool-dependent. For popular, well-defined and often open file formats – e.g., digital images, such as PNG, GIF, JPEG – a wide range of tools exist. Migration workflows become more difficult with proprietary formats, as used by the several text processing applications becoming available in the last two decades. If a certain file format can not be rendered with actual software, emulation of the original environment remains a valid option. For instance, with the original Lotus AmiPro or Word Perfect, it is not a problem to save an object of this type in ASCII text or Rich Text Format. In specific environments, it is even possible to send the file to a virtual printer, thereby producing a PDF as a migration output. Such manual migration tasks typically involve human interaction, which may be feasible for a small number of objects, but not for larger batches of files.We propose a novel approach using a software-operated VNC abstraction layer in order to replace humans with machine interaction. Emulators or virtualization tools equipped with a VNC interface are very well suited for this approach. But screen, keyboard and mouse interaction is just part of the setup. Furthermore, digital objects need to be transferred into the original environment in order to be extracted after processing. Nevertheless, the complexity of the new generation of migration services is quickly rising; a preservation workflow is now comprised not only of the migration tool itself, but of a complete software and virtual hardware stack with recorded workflows linked to every supported migration scenario. Thus the requirements of OAIS management must include proper software archiving, emulator selection, system image and recording handling. The concept of view-paths could help either to automatically determine the proper pre-configured virtual environment or to set up system

  16. Networks, linkages, and migration systems. (United States)

    Fawcett, J T


    Recent theoretical interest in migration systems calls attention to the functions of diverse linkages between countries in stimulating, directing,and maintaining international flows of people. This article proposes a conceptual framework for the non-people linkages in international migration systems and discusses the implications for population movement of the 4 categories and 3 types of linkages that define the network. The 4 categories include 1) state to state relations, 2) mass culture connections, 3) family and personal networks, and 4) migrant agency activities. The 3 types of linkages are 1) tangible linkages, 2) regulatory linkages, and 3) relational linkages.

  17. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.


    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  18. Full wavefield migration : Utilization of multiples in seismic migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.; Verschuur, D.J.


    The next generation migration technology considers multiple scattering as vital information, allowing the industry to generate significantly better images of the subsurface. The proposed full wavefield algorithm (FWM) makes use of two-way wave theory that is formulated in terms of one-way

  19. Countering inbreeding with migration 2. Migration from related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conservation and breeding, large populations are important for evolutionary viability and selection progress. On the other hand, practical and economic rcasons may exist for population subdivision. These populations (islands) may be tied together to form effectively a single population (archipelago) by migration rates of ...

  20. Trade and migration: the case of NAFTA. (United States)

    Martin, P L


    "This article provides background information on NAFTA [the North American Free Trade Agreement], reviews data on its economic effects, and summarizes studies and projections of NAFTA's likely effects on Mexico-to-U.S. migration. Migration factors (demand-pull, supply-push, and networks) are examined to determine whether NAFTA's effect on economic development particularly in the border areas will accelerate or retard migration. The conclusion is that NAFTA is likely to produce a temporary migration hump, slightly raising already high migration levels in the 1990s, but reducing the volume of Mexico-to-U.S. migration that would otherwise occur over subsequent decades." excerpt

  1. The use of synthesized aqueous solutions for determining strontium sorption isotherms (United States)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Bunde, R.L.; Hemming, C.; Rosentreter, J.; Welhan, J.


    The use of synthesized aqueous solutions for determining experimentally derived strontium sorption isotherms of sediment was investigated as part of a study accessing strontium chemical transport properties. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium sorption isotherms using synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically represent water from a natural aquifer with respect to major ionic character and pH. A strontium sorption isotherm for a sediment derived using a synthesized aqueous solution was found to be most comparable to an isotherm derived using natural water when the synthesized aqueous solution contained similar concentrations of calcium and magnesium. However, it is difficult to match compositions exactly due to the effects of disequilibrium between the solution and the sediment. Strong linear relations between sorbed strontium and solution concentrations of calcium and magnesium confirm that these cations are important co-constituents in these synthesized aqueous solutions. Conversely, weak linear relations between sorbed strontium and solution concentrations of sodium and potassium indicate that these constituents do not affect sorption of strontium. The addition of silica to the synthesized aqueous solution does not appreciably affect the resulting strontium sorption isotherm.

  2. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO); Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.


    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  3. PEMODELAN ISOTERMIS SORPSI AIR PADA MODEL PANGAN [Modelling of Moisture Sorption Isotherm in Food Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede R Adawiyah*


    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherm of food powder products is pertinent in processing and stability of food. Food model consisted of tapioca starch, casein, palm oil and sucrose. The moisture sorption isotherm curves of the food model, tapioca starch and casein were sigmoid indicating the typical shape of amorphous product, while the water sorption isotherm of sucrose was a broken-line curve showing typical shape of crystalline material. The Guggenheim – Anderson-de Boer (GAB model was the best model to predict sigmoid sorption isotherm curve (tapioca starch, casein and food model at the whole range of experimental aw (0.07 – 0.97 while the Braunauer Emnet Teller (BET model only fitted for aw up to 0.6. The Water binding capacity of tapioca at monolayer (Mm was higher than casein and food model but the coefficient of adsorption energy (C was lower than that of casein. Addition of oil at the food model decreased the water binding capacity at monolayer. The Grover model was more suitable than Ross model to predict the water sorption isotherm curve of food model from its composition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Samarghandi ، M. Hadi ، S. Moayedi ، F. Barjasteh Askari


    Full Text Available The adsorption of a mono azo dye methyl-orange (MeO onto granular pinecone derived activated carbon (GPAC, from aqueous solutions, was studied in a batch system. Seven two-parameter isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevic, Temkin, Halsey, Jovanovic and Hurkins-Jura were used to fit the experimental data. The results revealed that the adsorption isotherm models fitted the data in the order of Jovanovic (X2=1.374 > Langmuir > Dubinin-Radushkevic > Temkin > Freundlich > Halsey > Hurkins-Jura isotherms. Adsorption isotherms modeling showed that the interaction of dye with activated carbon surface is localized monolayer adsorption. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo-second order, Elovich and Lagergren kinetic models. Lagergren first order model was found to agree well with the experimental data (X2=9.231. In order to determine the best-fit isotherm and kinetic models, two error analysis methods of Residual Mean Square Error and Chi-square statistic (X2 were used to evaluate the data.

  5. Novel silica-based hybrid adsorbents: lead(II) adsorption isotherms. (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Wang, Xin


    Water pollution caused by the lead(II) from the spent liquor has caught much attention. The research from the theoretical model to application fundaments is of vital importance. In this study, lead(II) adsorption isotherms are investigated using a series of hybrid membranes containing mercapto groups (-SH groups) as the hybrid adsorbents. To determine the best fitting equation, the experimental data were analyzed using six two-parameter isotherm equations (i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, Harkins-Jura, and Halsey isotherm models). It was found that the lead(II) adsorption on these samples followed the Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Halsey isotherm models. Moreover, the mean free energy of adsorption was calculated using Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model and it was confirmed that the adsorption process was physical in nature. These findings are very meaningful in the removal of lead(II) ions from water using the hybrid membranes as adsorbents.

  6. Novel Silica-Based Hybrid Adsorbents: Lead(II Adsorption Isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liu


    Full Text Available Water pollution caused by the lead(II from the spent liquor has caught much attention. The research from the theoretical model to application fundaments is of vital importance. In this study, lead(II adsorption isotherms are investigated using a series of hybrid membranes containing mercapto groups (–SH groups as the hybrid adsorbents. To determine the best fitting equation, the experimental data were analyzed using six two-parameter isotherm equations (i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R, Temkin, Harkins-Jura, and Halsey isotherm models. It was found that the lead(II adsorption on these samples followed the Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R, and Halsey isotherm models. Moreover, the mean free energy of adsorption was calculated using Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model and it was confirmed that the adsorption process was physical in nature. These findings are very meaningful in the removal of lead(II ions from water using the hybrid membranes as adsorbents.

  7. Thermodynamic investigations of protein's behaviour with ionic liquids in aqueous medium studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Kumar, Arvind


    While a number of reports appear on ionic liquids-proteins interactions, their thermodynamic behaviour using suitable technique like isothermal titration calorimetry is not systematically presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a key technique which can directly measure the thermodynamic contribution of IL binding to protein, particularly the enthalpy, heat capacities and binding stoichiometry. Ionic liquids (ILs), owing to their unique and tunable physicochemical properties have been the central area of scientific research besides graphene in the last decade, and growing unabated. Their encounter with proteins in the biological system is inevitable considering their environmental discharge though most of them are recyclable for a number of cycles. In this article we will cover the thermodynamics of proteins upon interaction with ILs as osmolyte and surfactant. The up to date literature survey of IL-protein interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry will be discussed and parallel comparison with the results obtained for such studies with other techniques will be highlighted to demonstrate the accuracy of ITC technique. Net stability of proteins can be obtained from the difference in the free energy (ΔG) of the native (folded) and denatured (unfolded) state using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation (ΔG=ΔH-TΔS). Isothermal titration calorimetry can directly measure the heat changes upon IL-protein interactions. Calculation of other thermodynamic parameters such as entropy, binding constant and free energy depends upon the proper fitting of the binding isotherms using various fitting models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using heat pipe to make isotherm condition in catalytic converters of sulfuric acid plants (United States)

    Yousefi, M.; Pahlavanzadeh, H.; Sadrameli, S. M.


    In this study, for the first time, it is tried to construct a pilot reactor, for surveying the possibility of creating isothermal condition in the catalytic convertors where SO2 is converted to SO3 in the sulfuric acid plants by heat pipe. The thermodynamic and thermo-kinetic conditions were considered the same as the sulfuric acid plants converters. Also, influence of SO2 gas flow rate on isothermal condition, has been studied. A thermo-siphon type heat pipe contains the sulfur + 5% iodine as working fluid, was used for disposing the heat of reaction from catalytic bed. Our results show that due to very high energy-efficiency, isothermal and passive heat transfer mechanism of heat pipe, it is possible to reach more than 95% conversion in one isothermal catalytic bed. As the results, heat pipe can be used as a certain piece of equipment to create isothermal condition in catalytic convertors of sulphuric acid plants. With this work a major evaluation in design of sulphuric acid plants can be taken place.

  9. Determination of low levels of amorphous content in inhalation grade lactose by moisture sorption isotherms. (United States)

    Vollenbroek, Jasper; Hebbink, Gerald A; Ziffels, Susanne; Steckel, Hartwig


    Alpha-lactose monohydrate is widely used as an excipient in dry powder inhalers, and plays a very important role in the efficiency of the drug delivery. Due to the processing, low levels of amorphous lactose could be present in the blends. Varying amounts could have a strong effect on the efficiency of drug delivery of the powder blends. Therefore, the accurate measurement of low levels of amorphous lactose content is very important. A new method was developed to measure the amorphous content, based on dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). In contrast to the traditional re-crystallization approach of amorphous lactose, the new method is based on moisture sorption isotherms. Moisture sorption isotherms of blends of crystalline alpha-lactose and freeze-dried or spray-dried amorphous lactose were measured. By fitting the data with a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) isotherm, a linear correlation was found between measured and actual amorphous content for the whole range of 0.1-100%. Differences between freeze-dried and spray-dried lactose, due to different molecular arrangements, could be removed by a preconditioning the samples at 35% RH prior to the isotherm measurement. It was shown that accurate determination of very low concentrations of amorphous lactose content is possible using moisture sorption isotherm analyses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary report on the evaluation of a 1977--1985 edited sorption data base for isotherm modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polzer, W.L.; Beckman, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fuentes, H.R.; Yong, C.; Chan, P. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States); Rao, M.G. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States)


    Sorption data bases collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1977 to 1985 for the Yucca Mountain Project.(YMP) have been inventoried and fitted with isotherm expressions. Effects of variables (e.g., particle size) on the isotherm were also evaluated. The sorption data are from laboratory batch measurements which were not designed specifically for isotherm modeling. However a limited number of data sets permitted such modeling. The analysis of those isotherm data can aid in the design of future sorption experiments and can provide expressions to be used in radionuclide transport modeling. Over 1200 experimental observations were inventoried for their adequacy to be modeled b isotherms and to evaluate the effects of variables on isotherms. About 15% of the observations provided suitable data sets for modeling. The data sets were obtained under conditions that include ambient temperature and two atmospheres, air and CO{sub 2}.

  11. New theoretical expressions for the five adsorption type isotherms classified by BET based on statistical physics treatment. (United States)

    Khalfaoui, M; Knani, S; Hachicha, M A; Lamine, A Ben


    New theoretical expressions to model the five adsorption isotherm types have been established. Using the grand canonical ensemble in statistical physics, we give an analytical expression to each of five physical adsorption isotherm types classified by Brunauer, Emett, and Teller, often called BET isotherms. The establishment of these expressions is based on statistical physics and theoretical considerations. This method allowed estimation of all the mathematical parameters in the models. The physicochemical parameters intervening in the adsorption process that the models present could be deduced directly from the experimental adsorption isotherms by numerical simulation. We determine the adequate model for each type of isotherm, which fixes by direct numerical simulation the monolayer, multilayer, or condensation character. New equations are discussed and results obtained are verified for experimental data from the literature. The new theoretical expressions that we have proposed, based on statistical physics treatment, are rather powerful to better understand and interpret the various five physical adsorption type isotherms at a microscopic level.

  12. Globalisation and Migration in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forced and people who migrate on this reason without formal documents often risk harassment from immigration and law enforcement authorities of the host country. ..... crime. The ubiquity of cellular phones and proliferation of cyber communica- tion systems means that instant linkages can be made across countries without.

  13. [The questions of international migration]. (United States)

    Samman, M L


    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified)

  14. Migration monitoring with automated technology (United States)

    Rhonda L. Millikin


    Automated technology can supplement ground-based methods of migration monitoring by providing: (1) unbiased and automated sampling; (2) independent validation of current methods; (3) a larger sample area for landscape-level analysis of habitat selection for stopover, and (4) an opportunity to study flight behavior. In particular, radar-acoustic sensor fusion can...

  15. The concept of crisis migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McAdam


    Full Text Available "Crisis migration needs to be understood in terms of ‘tipping points’, which are triggered not just by events but also by underlying structural processes. It is important for policymakers for there to be an adequate theory behind the concept of ‘crisis migration’ so that responses are appropriate, timely and thoughtful. "

  16. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.


    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  17. Marriage migration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk


    Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to

  18. Measuring attitudes towards unauthorized migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Krumov, K.; Van Le, H.; Larsen, K.S.


    This study reports on the development and cross-national utility of a Likert type scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized migration into a foreign country in two samples from "migrant-sending" nations. In the first phase a pool of 86 attitude statements were administered to a sample of 505

  19. Bird Migration Across the Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Herbert H.T.; Namgail, Tsewang


    Birds migrating across the Himalayan region fly over the highest peaks in the world, facing immense physiological and climatic challenges. The authors show the different strategies used by birds to cope with these challenges. Many wetland avian species are seen in the high-altitude lakes of the

  20. Migrations of sandy beach meiofauna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    animals leaving the surface area when the wave surges crossed their habitat. His samples, however, only covered the ..... I ,,10 animals. •• 50 animals. FIGURE 4. Vertical distribution of meiofau na per 57 em1 in the top 24 em of sand during the l4-hour vertical migration experimenL. ~. N o o t"' o o -("). > > "f1. ~. -("). > :z: >. <.

  1. Assessment of contemporary erosion/sedimentation rates trend within a small well-cultivated catchments using caesium-137 as a chronomarker (on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia) (United States)

    Sharifullin, Aidar; Gusarov, Artem; Gafurov, Artur; Golosov, Valentin


    extreme (storm) precipitation (>50 mm per a day). The influence of agricultural activity on the erosion and sedimentation changeability was insignificant, although some regional variation of crop rotation including an increase in the proportion of perennial grasses obviously caused the decline in soil losses during warm period of year. The similar trend of erosion/sedimentation rates due to mostly climate changes was identified for south-western sector of the East European Plain, but the more serious reduction of erosion rates is established for the Middle Volga region. Keywords: erosion, sedimentation, sediment, caesium-137, dry valley, small catchment, cultivated lands, Republic of Tatarstan, East European Plain.

  2. Migration Theories and Mental Health in Toni Morrison's Jazz


    Leila Tafreshi Motalgh; Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya


    This article aims to elaborate the relationship between migration and mental health problems that are evident in migrant women in Toni Morrison's Jazz (1992). To this end, pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress factors are identified in the novel based on Danish Bhugra's theory of migration. It seems that pre-migration stress factors and traumas are associated with the push theory of migration, while post-migration stresses are associated with the pull theory of migration. Despite...



    Mutiara Nur Alfiah; Sri Hartini; Margareta Novian Cahyanti


    This research aims to determine moisture sorption isotherm curves, moisture sorption isotherm models and thermodynamic properties of fermented cassava flour by red yeast rice. The moisture sorption isotherm model used are Guggenheim Anderson deBoer (GAB), Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET) and Caurie. Meanwhile, the test of modelling accuray by Mean Relative Deviation (MRD) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The thermodynamic properties, i.e., enthalpy and entropy were calculated by Clausius - Clape...

  4. Mediterranean Migrations: Regionalisms Versus Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baldwin-Eduards


    Full Text Available This paper challenges the claim of globalisation as a cause ofimmigration into Southern Europe and, on an empirical basis, identifies regionalisation as being the primary issue, along with networked migratory patterns. However, the changing patterns of immigration do present challenges to both state and society. It is argued here that recent policy responses in Portugal, Italy and Spain have been inconsistent and irrational – reflecting more the ‘securitisation’ of migration than European reality. Earlier policy innovations are identified, by country and date: most of these have now been abandoned. It is suggested that all of Southern Europe has converged onto a statist, restrictionist model of immigration control that was formerly held only by Greece. The principal characteristics of this model are outlined, along with a migration flowchart and indicative data for migrant flows and sub-flows in Italy and Spain. In the final section, I try to show that the needs of the economy cannot be predicted, immigration cannot becontrolled in the manner currently being enforced across Southern Europe, and attempts to do so will damage rather than improve economic productivity and growth. The concept of an accomodating immigration policy is advanced, whereby the state tries to manage the needs of both employers and potential migrants. Six guidelines for policy development are suggested – most of which have alreadybeen successfully carried out in the European Union. These are the following: migration in order to find a job; circular cross-border migration; EU level negotiation of readmission agreements; the need for a variety of migration-for-employment schemes; legal residence should not depend upon continuity of employment; and discreet legalisation will still be needed in Southern Europe.

  5. Depth migration and de-migration for 3-D migration velocity analysis; Migration profondeur et demigration pour l'analyse de vitesse de migration 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, F.


    3-D seismic imaging of complex geologic structures requires the use of pre-stack imaging techniques, the post-stack ones being unsuitable in that case. Indeed, pre-stack depth migration is a technique which allows to image accurately complex structures provided that we have at our disposal a subsurface velocity model accurate enough. The determination of this velocity model is thus a key element for seismic imaging, and to this end, migration velocity analysis methods have met considerable interest. The SMART method is a specific migration velocity analysis method: the singularity of this method is that it does not rely on any restrictive assumptions on the complexity of the velocity model to determine. The SMART method uses a detour through the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting multi-offset kinematic information hardly accessible in the time domain. Once achieved the interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated seismic data, a kinematic de-migration technique of the interpreted events enables to obtain a consistent kinematic database (i.e. reflection travel-times). Then, the inversion of these travel-times, by means of reflection tomography, allows the determination of an accurate velocity model. To be able to really image geologic structures for which the 3-D feature is predominant, we have studied the implementation of migration velocity analysis in 3-D in the context of the SMART method, and more generally, we have developed techniques allowing to overcome the intrinsic difficulties in the 3-D aspects of seismic imaging. Indeed, although formally the SMART method can be directly applied to the case of 3-D complex structures, the feasibility of its implementation requires to choose well the imaging domain. Once this choice done, it is also necessary to conceive a method allowing, via the associated de-migration, to obtain the reflection travel-times. We first consider the offset domain which constitutes, still today, the strategy most usually used

  6. Adsorption isotherms of hog plum (Spondias mombin L. pulp powder obtained by spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gomes de Moura Neto


    Full Text Available Food sorption isotherms are highly important to predict drying time and storage conditions of a product. Current assay evaluates the behavior of adsorption isotherms of hog plum powder obtained by spray-dryer, through mathematical models. GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin models were adjusted to the experimental data at 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC. The BET model best adjusted to the atomized hog plum for all temperatures tested, with an error ranging between 8.45 and 11.17%. The coefficient of determination (R2 had rates higher than 0.9900 for all the adjusted models. The behavior of hog plum powder adsorption isotherms was classified as Type III.

  7. Kinetic and isotherm studies of Cu(II) biosorption onto valonia tannin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengil, I. Ayhan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Sakarya University, 54100 Sakarya (Turkey)], E-mail:; Ozacar, Mahmut [Department of Chemistry, Science and Arts Faculty, Sakarya University, 54100 Sakarya (Turkey); Tuerkmenler, Harun [Institute of Sciences and Technology, Sakarya University, 54040 Sakarya (Turkey)


    The biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by valonia tannin resin was investigated as a function of particle size, initial pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms that govern copper removal and find a suitable equilibrium isotherm and kinetic model for the copper removal in a batch reactor. The experimental isotherm data were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The equilibrium data fit well in the Langmuir isotherm. The experimental data were analysed using four sorption kinetic models - the pseudo-first- and second-order equations, the Elovich and the intraparticle diffusion model equation - to determine the best fit equation for the biosorption of copper ions onto valonia tannin resin. Results show that the pseudo-second-order equation provides the best correlation for the biosorption process, whereas the Elovich equation also fits the experimental data well.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar M. Soteras


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the determination of adsorption and desorption isotherms of cow whole milk powder. The experiments have been carried out at 15, 25 and 40 ºC, in ranges of moisture and water activity characteristic of normal conditions in which the processes of drying, packaging and storage are developed. By studying the influence of the temperature on the experimental plots, the isosteric adsorption heat was determined. Experimental data were correlated to the referential model of Guggenheim, Anderson and Boer (GAB. For both, adsorption and desorption, a good model fit was observed. The isotherms showed very similar shapes between them and, by comparing adsorption and desorption isotherms, the phenomenon of hysteresis was confirmed.

  9. Parametric Analysis of a Heavy Metal Sorption Isotherm Based on Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico M. Gomes


    Full Text Available Heavy metals are widely recognized as being hazardous to human health and environmentally aggressive. The literature reports different approaches for lead removal, for example, water hyacinths. Heavy metal sorption isotherm modeling represents an important tool towards the study of equilibrium conditions. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, based on derivatives of arbitrary order. Recently, a novel isotherm based on fractional calculus was proposed for lead sorption using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. This paper reports a general procedure on error analysis and its influence on parameter estimation. It was applied to mathematical models based on fractional differential equations, focusing on a heavy metal novel isotherm sorption model. Parameter variance was calculated by using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix, and joint parameter confidence regions were generated, being successfully able to show that the fractional nature of the model is statistically valid.

  10. Prediction of the competitive adsorption isotherms of 2-phenylethanol and 3-phenylpropanol by artificial neural networks. (United States)

    Wu, Xiuhong; Wang, Shaoyan; Zhang, Renzhuang; Gao, Zhiming


    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were regarded as data-mapping networks with strong nonlinear fitting abilities. A 2-6-2 network was used to determine the competitive adsorption isotherm of 2-phenylethanol (PE) and 3-phenylpropanol (PP). The ANN results were forms of data mapping rather than theoretical mathematical model. The ANN architecture was established after training with a set of experimental data. The established ANN was applied to predict the adsorption isotherms of PE and PP. The selection of parameters for the ANN was discussed. The results indicate that ANN has excellent potential for use in non-linear chromatography for the prediction of adsorption isotherms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Migration, Poverty, and the Rural South (United States)

    Bacon, Lloyd


    Employs the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity'' data to test hypotheses about differences in migration selectivity depending on the structural distance traversed in the migration process. (Author/JM)

  12. Individual decisions to migrate during civil conflict. (United States)

    Bohra-Mishra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S


    The existing literature on forced migration limits our understanding of how violence affects migration to competing destinations. This article adds to the literature on forced migration by studying how armed violence during a period of civil conflict in south-central Nepal influenced the likelihood of local, internal, and international migration. We find that violence has a nonlinear effect on migration, such that low to moderate levels of violence reduce the odds of movement, but when violence reaches high levels, the odds of movement increase. We also find that the effect of violence on mobility increases as the distance of the move increases. When we consider the influence of violence on microlevel decision-making, we find that the effects of individual and household-level determinants were mostly consistent with hypotheses derived from contemporary theories of voluntary migration and that no predictor of migration influenced the decision to migrate differently in the presence of violence.



    Monica SERBAN


    The role state plays in international migration gathers more and more attention in migration studies, across different disciplines. Policies implemented in order to manage migration are a point of high interest in the space of destination countries. Yet, even though our knowledge from destination perspective has constantly increased, origin state is still under the shadow of a biased research agenda. We have little insights on the way migration policies at origin are built, enforced or on the...

  14. Migration in Asia-Europe Relations


    Juego, Bonn


    There is a remarkable difference between viewing migration as a 'social integration' issue, on the one hand, and migration as a 'social relation'. The idea of ‘social integration’ has unrealistic assumptions that see migration as a one-way process, that societies and human relations are static, and that migrants are mechanical. Policies that are founded on unrealistic assumptions are most likely to generate tensions, conflicts, and contradictions. For a migration process to succeed in forging...

  15. Evolution with Stochastic Fitness and Stochastic Migration (United States)

    Rice, Sean H.; Papadopoulos, Anthony


    Background Migration between local populations plays an important role in evolution - influencing local adaptation, speciation, extinction, and the maintenance of genetic variation. Like other evolutionary mechanisms, migration is a stochastic process, involving both random and deterministic elements. Many models of evolution have incorporated migration, but these have all been based on simplifying assumptions, such as low migration rate, weak selection, or large population size. We thus have no truly general and exact mathematical description of evolution that incorporates migration. Methodology/Principal Findings We derive an exact equation for directional evolution, essentially a stochastic Price equation with migration, that encompasses all processes, both deterministic and stochastic, contributing to directional change in an open population. Using this result, we show that increasing the variance in migration rates reduces the impact of migration relative to selection. This means that models that treat migration as a single parameter tend to be biassed - overestimating the relative impact of immigration. We further show that selection and migration interact in complex ways, one result being that a strategy for which fitness is negatively correlated with migration rates (high fitness when migration is low) will tend to increase in frequency, even if it has lower mean fitness than do other strategies. Finally, we derive an equation for the effective migration rate, which allows some of the complex stochastic processes that we identify to be incorporated into models with a single migration parameter. Conclusions/Significance As has previously been shown with selection, the role of migration in evolution is determined by the entire distributions of immigration and emigration rates, not just by the mean values. The interactions of stochastic migration with stochastic selection produce evolutionary processes that are invisible to deterministic evolutionary theory

  16. Migration, Youth, and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia


    Brauw, Alan de


    This paper explores the relationship between migration and agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. Given that there are fairly significant returns to either rural-urban or international migration for labor in Ethiopia, it could be that credit constraints hindering migration start-up are an unexplored constraint against migration. The paper primarily uses the Ethiopia Rural Household Survey panel and a migrant listing exercise completed after the 2009 survey round to explore whether past agricu...

  17. Biological aspects of human migration and mobility. (United States)

    Mascie-Taylor, C G N; Krzyżanowska, M


    This paper reviews how migration, both geographical and social, impacts on variation in some human biological traits. Migration and mobility are considered in relation to anthropometric traits and indices, psychometric traits, health, disease and nutrition, temperature regulation and metabolism, mental health and gene flow. It is well known that migration is important in disease transmission but, as this paper demonstrates, migration can have both positive and negative impacts on both donor and recipient populations for a wide range of human traits.

  18. Migration and rural opportunities in Nigeria. (United States)

    Adepoju, A


    This study is concerned with migration to rural areas in Nigeria. The author examines the rural economic structures, social systems, and demographic features affecting such migration. These features are compared for migrants and nonmigrants in the cash cropping and subsistence cropping areas of southwestern Nigeria. The results suggest that rural migration in southwestern Nigeria is mainly urban-rural migration of a colonizing type. Data for the study are from a survey of 1,782 households in 12 villages.

  19. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria. (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D


    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  20. Asymptotic solution to the isothermal nth order distributed activation energy model using the Rayleigh Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Dhaundiyal


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the influence of relevant parameters of biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solution of the isothermal nth-order distributed activation energy model (DAEM using the Rayleigh distribution as the initial distribution function F(E of the activation energies. In this study, the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the reaction order and the scale parameters are investigated. This paper also derived the asymptotic approximation for the DAEM. The influence of these parameters is used to calculate the kinetic parameters of the isothermal nth-order DAEM with the help of thermo-analytical results of TGA/DTG analysis.

  1. Polymer-based microfluidic chips for isothermal amplification of nucleic acids (United States)

    Posmitnaya, Y. S.; Rudnitskaya, G. E.; Tupik, A. N.; Lukashenko, T. A.; Bukatin, A. C.; Evstrapov, A. A.


    Creation of low-cost compact devices based on microfluidic platforms for biological and medical research depends on the degree of development and enhancement of prototyping technologies. Two designs of polymer and hybrid microfluidic devices fabricated by soft lithography and intended for isothermal amplification and polymerase chain reaction are presented in this paper. The digital helicase-dependent isothermal amplification was tested in the device containing a droplet generator. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out in the hybrid microfluidic device having ten reaction chambers. A synthesized cDNA fragment of GAPDH housekeeping gene was used as a target.

  2. Non-isothermal buoyancy-driven exchange flows in inclined pipes (United States)

    Eslami, B.; Shariatnia, S.; Ghasemi, H.; Alba, K.


    We study non-isothermal buoyancy-driven exchange flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids in an inclined pipe experimentally. The heavy cold fluid is released into the light hot one in an adiabatic small-aspect-ratio pipe under the Boussinesq limit (small Atwood number). At a fixed temperature, the two fluids involved have the same viscosity. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement is first found against rather recent studies in literature on isothermal flows where the driving force of the flow comes from salinity as opposed to temperature difference. The degree of flow instability and mixing enhances as the pipe is progressively inclined towards vertical. Similar to the isothermal limit, maximal rate of the fluids interpenetration in the non-isothermal case occurs at an intermediate angle, β . The interpenetration rate increases with the temperature difference. The degree of fluids mixing and diffusivity is found to increase in the non-isothermal case compared to the isothermal one. There has also been observed a novel asymmetric behavior in the flow, never reported before in the isothermal limit. The cold finger appears to advance faster than the hot one. Backed by meticulously designed supplementary experiments, this asymmetric behavior is hypothetically associated with the wall contact and the formation of a warm less-viscous film of the fluid lubricating the cold more-viscous finger along the pipe. On the other side of the pipe, a cool more-viscous film forms decelerating the hot less-viscous finger. Double diffusive effects associated with the diffusion of heat and mass (salinity) are further investigated. In this case and for the same range of inclination angles and density differences, the level of flow asymmetry is found to decrease. The asymmetric behaviour of the flow is quantified over the full range of experiments. Similar to the study of Salort et al. ["Turbulent velocity profiles in a tilted heat pipe," Phys. Fluids 25(10), 105110

  3. The Relation between Immersion Calorimetry and the Parameters of the Water Adsorption Isotherm on Active Carbons


    Kraehenbuehl, Francis; Quellet, Christian; Schmitter, Beat; Stoeckli, Fritz


    It is shown that for active carbons with a single type of hydrophilic adsorption sites, the enthalpy of immersion into water is related to the number of sites, a0, and to a parameter, c, both of which appear in the Dubinin–Serpinskii equation for the water adsorption isotherm. The correlation was established on the basis of data for 13 different active carbons whose sites were either acidic or of the carbonyl type. It follows that the adsorption branch of the water isotherm can be calculated ...

  4. Microstructural characterization and thermal cycling reliability of solders under isothermal aging and electrical current (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti Singh

    Solder joints on printed circuit boards provide electrical and mechanical connections between electronic devices and metallized patterns on boards. These solder joints are often the cause of failure in electronic packages. Solders age under storage and operational life conditions, which can include temperature, mechanical loads, and electrical current. Aging occurring at a constant temperature is called isothermal aging. Isothermal aging leads to coarsening of the bulk microstructure and increased interfacial intermetallic compounds at the solder-pad interface. The coarsening of the solder bulk degrades the creep properties of solders, whereas the voiding and brittleness of interfacial intermetallic compounds leads to mechanical weakness of the solder joint. Industry guidelines on solder interconnect reliability test methods recommend preconditioning the solder assemblies by isothermal aging before conducting reliability tests. The guidelines assume that isothermal aging simulates a "reasonable use period," but do not relate the isothermal aging levels with specific use conditions. Studies on the effect of isothermal aging on the thermal cycling reliability of tin-lead and tin-silver-copper solders are limited in scope, and results have been contradictory. The effect of electrical current on solder joints has been has mostly focused on current densities above 104A/cm2 with high ambient temperature (≥100oC), where electromigration, thermomigration, and Joule heating are the dominant failure mechanisms. The effect of current density below 104A/cm2 on temperature cycling fatigue of solders has not been established. This research provides the relation between isothermal aging and the thermal cycling reliability of select Sn-based solders. The Sn-based solders with 3%, 1%, and 0% silver content that have replaced tin-lead are studied and compared against tin-lead solder. The activation energy and growth exponents of the Arrhenius model for the intermetallic growth in

  5. Design of a New Type of Compact Chemical Heater for Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal G Shah

    Full Text Available Previous chemical heater designs for isothermal nucleic acid amplification have been based on solid-liquid phase transition, but using this approach, developers have identified design challenges en route to developing a low-cost, disposable device. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a new heater configuration suitable for isothermal amplification in which one reactant of an exothermic reaction is a liquid-gas phase-change material, thereby eliminating the need for a separate phase-change compartment. This design offers potentially enhanced performance and energy density compared to other chemical and electric heaters.

  6. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen


    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  7. Thermodynamics of Surfactants, Block Copolymers and Their Mixtures in Water: The Role of the Isothermal Calorimetry (United States)

    De Lisi, Rosario; Milioto, Stefania; Muratore, Nicola


    The thermodynamics of conventional surfactants, block copolymers and their mixtures in water was described to the light of the enthalpy function. The two methodologies, i.e. the van’t Hoff approach and the isothermal calorimetry, used to determine the enthalpy of micellization of pure surfactants and block copolymers were described. The van’t Hoff method was critically discussed. The aqueous copolymer+surfactant mixtures were analyzed by means of the isothermal titration calorimetry and the enthalpy of transfer of the copolymer from the water to the aqueous surfactant solutions. Thermodynamic models were presented to show the procedure to extract straightforward molecular insights from the bulk properties. PMID:19742173

  8. Juridical structures: refugees and migration. (United States)

    Veiter, T


    The juridical problems in regard to the concepts of refugee, expulsion, and migration are complicated. If one speaks about migration in Europe, one must 1st distinguish between Eastern and Western Europe. In the communist states of Eastern Europe the refugee problem does not exist officially, with the only existing refugee problem in Yugoslavia, which has signed and ratified the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951. In the other East European states the right to asylum exists, but refugees are granted asylum only if they are persecuted in their country of origin for their communist ideas and activities. In speaking of migration, one must distinguish between migration, forced migration, mass migration, emigration, immigration, the shift of populations, and refugees. In the communist countries of Eastern Europe the right to emigration is not respected, although certain exceptions, as in Poland or Yugoslavia do exist. Generally, in the communist states emigration is not allowed and illegal emigration is punished as "Flight from the Republic." With a few exceptions, political and other persecutions are no longer so typical within Europe. In the last decades, the refugee problem has changed to other continents: Afghanistan/Pakistan, Iran, Sri Lanka, East Timor, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan, Tchad, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Angola. The refugee problem in Europe consists mainly in the large afflux of refugees coming from places with other cultural (and religious) attributes. The Islamic immigrants declare themselves regularly as political refugees and hope to be acknowledged as such by the receiving state. The fear of the governments and populations of the receiving countries is that it would not be possible to assimilate such aliens who do not belong to the Christian culture of Europe. Formerly, refugees came mostly from the Christian countries of Eastern Europe with the same race identity and the same religion. For years now, more and more foreign workers are a kind of migrant

  9. Step-Wise Migration : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardede, Elda; McCann, Philip; Venhorst, Viktor


    The objective of this paper is to study multiple internal migration trajectories in Indonesia, with special attention to step-wise migration. Step-wise migration involves moves with smaller steps from village to nearby small town, to larger town, and then to big cities rather than a direct move from

  10. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.


    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    borders, legally or illegally (IOM, 2003: 14). Personal relations which connect migrants, former migrants and non-migrants with each other in the places of origin and destination increase the probability of international labour migration in connection with circular migration and chain migration processes. As social networks ...

  12. Zimbabwe's Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Zimbabwe's Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival. Book cover Zimbabwe's Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival. Editor(s):. Jonathan Crush and Daniel Tevera. Publisher(s):. Southern African Migration Programme, IDRC. July 1, 2010. ISBN: 9781920409227. 420 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552504994. Download PDF · Read the e- ...

  13. Migration, Remittances, and Forest Dependence in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Remittances, and Forest Dependence in Ethiopia: Implications for Food Security, Gender, and Forest Conservation. This project will provide evidence that offers important insight into the connection between migration, gender, and forest dependence in rural Ethiopia. Need for labour migration, forest resources ...

  14. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru]. (United States)

    Cotlear, D


    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  15. The cost of migration: spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.


    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are

  16. The cost of migration : Spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Piersma, Theunis


    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are

  17. Japanese Migration and the Americas: An Introduction to the Study of Migration. (United States)

    Mukai, Gary; Brunette, Rachel

    This curriculum module introduces students to the study of migration, including a brief overview of some categories of migration and reasons why people migrate. As a case study, the module uses the Japanese migration experience in the United States, Peru, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. The module introduces students to…

  18. Self-Selection Patterns in Mexico-U.S. Migration: The Role of Migration Networks


    David McKenzie; Hillel Rapoport


    The authors examine the role of migration networks in determining self-selection patterns of Mexico-U.S. migration. They first present a simple theoretical framework showing how such networks impact on migration incentives at different education levels and, consequently, how they are likely to affect the expected skill composition of migration. Using survey data from Mexico, the authors th...


    CERN Multimedia


    Restricted services from 3 to 7 November 2001 Due to the migration of the Oracle HR application to the Web, some services which rely on the application's availability may be disturbed from Friday 2 November at 17:30 until Thursday 8 November at 08:30. Amongst those services: HR Division: records office, recruitment, claims and benefits. FI Division: personnel accounting, advances and claims. ST Division: registration office (access cards). SPL Division: external firm staff records. EP Division: users' office. Experiments' secretariats: PIE, Greybook. Divisional secretariats: externals, internal addresses. All information concerning this migration is available at: We apologize for any inconvenience and thank you in advance for your understanding.

  20. Physicists' Forced Migrations under Hitler (United States)

    Beyerchen, Alan


    When the Nazis came to power in early 1933 they initiated formal and informal measures that forced Jews and political opponents from public institutions such as universities. Some physicists retired and others went into industry, but most emigrated. International communication and contact made emigration a viable option despite the desperate economic times in the Great Depression. Another wave of emigrations followed the annexation of Austria in 1938. Individual cases as well as general patterns of migration and adaptation to new environments will be examined in this presentation. One important result of the forced migrations was that many of the physicists expelled under Hitler played important roles in strengthening physics elsewhere, often on the Allied side in World War II.

  1. Labour Migration and Shadow Prices


    Henry J. Bruton


    The effect of migration and home remittances .on the shadow prices of labour and foreign exchange is analysed here, taking into consideration changes in their social marginal productivities.It is argued tha r appreciation of currency, due to large capital inflows and not to increased productivity, results in a misallocation of resources, and, therefore, there is an urgent need for a proper analysis to determine the optimal level of emigrants.

  2. Incentives and disincentives: international migration. (United States)

    Bhagwati, J N


    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  3. Asia Strategy on International Migration


    Yasushi Iguchi


    Japan needs to develop a strategy for planning and realizing economic integration suitable for Asia. Such a strategy should cover not only liberalization of trade in goods and services and investment but also management of international migration. When developing the strategy, it is important to recognize that since the turn of the century, the leadership of globalization is shifting from developed countries to emerging countries.

  4. Heterogeneous Workers, Trade, and Migration


    Heiland, Inga; Kohler, Wilhelm


    We argue that the narrative of variety-induced gains from trade in differentiated goods needs revision. If producing differentiated varieties of a good requires differentiated skills and if the work force is heterogeneous in these skills, then firms are likely to have monopsony power. We show that trade then has adverse labor market effects: It increases the monopsony power of firms and worsens the average quality of matches between firms and workers. We also show that international migration...

  5. Influences of environmental cues, migration history and habitat familiarity on partial migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik


    The factors that drive partial migration in organisms are not fully understood. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), a freshwater fish, engage in partial migration where parts of populations switch between summer habitats in lakes and winter habitats in connected streams. To test if the partial migration trait...... is phenotypically plastic or has genetic components, we translocated roach from 2 populations with different opportunities for migration to a lake with migration opportunity, containing a local roach population. This enabled monitoring of partial migration of fish in 3 different situations: 1) previous opportunity...... in the lake with migration opportunity where from group 2 fish were translocated. Directional migration in and out of the lakes was monitored using Passive Integrated Transponder technology. Translocated fish with previous migration opportunity showed migration patterns more similar to local fish than...

  6. Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Galas


    Full Text Available Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer. During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location. In addition, cortical-layer specific regulatory factors such as neuropeptides (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, somatostatin or proteins (tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1 have been shown to inhibit or stimulate the migratory process of interneurons. These factors show further complexity because somatostatin, PACAP, or tPA have opposite or no effect on interneuron migration depending on which layer or cell type they act upon. External factors originating from environmental conditions (light stimuli, pollutants, nutrients or drug of abuse (alcohol also alter normal cell migration, leading to cerebellar disorders.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Illegal migration is a mobile phenomenon, which ignores national borders, a threat that originates outside the community and extends to Western societies. This phenomenon is becoming larger and irregular migrants are often in a precarious situation and exposed to the criminals involved in various manifestations of organized crime. The future risk factors of the illegal migration are the demographic bomb, because the population is decreasing in European countries and increasing rapidly in poorer countries, droughts, floods, deforestation, that cause conflicts between climate refugees , extreme poverty, totalitarian regimes, epidemics, can trigger millions of people, the elderly and the working population imbalance which leads to the permanent import of immigrants To combat this phenomenon, states must engage and cooperate with each other. Measures taken by states must balance their integration policy for immigrants, legally residents and asylum policy to comply with international conventions. Also, states must adopt anti-immigrant policies, consisting of subordination visa policy to the interests of international security and exchange of information and, not least, to continue the Schengen process, as a value of humanitarian law applied in the field. The aim of the research is to characterize this dangerous phenomenon for the society and the goal is to identify strategies to combat illegal migration.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)


    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  9. Why Migrate: For Study or for Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S. Brezis


    Full Text Available Over the past decades, globalization has led to a huge increase in the migration of workers, as well as students. This paper develops a simple two-step model that describes the decisions of an individual vis-à-vis education and migration, and presents a unified model, wherein the two migration decisions are combined into a single, unique model. This paper shows that under the plausible assumption that costs of migration differ over the human life cycle, the usual brain drain strategy is sub-optimal. With an increase in globalization, the brain drain strategy will be replaced by the strategy of migration of students.

  10. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette


    A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...... of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong...

  11. Influences of environmental cues, migration history, and habitat familiarity on partial migration


    Christian Skov; Kim Aarestrup; Henrik Baktoft; Jakob Brodersen; Christer Brönmark; Lars-Anders Hansson; Nielsen, Einar E.; Tine Nielsen; P Anders Nilsson


    The factors that drive partial migration in organisms are not fully understood. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), a freshwater fish, engage in partial migration where parts of populations switch between summer habitats in lakes and winter habitats in connected streams. To test if the partial migration trait is phenotypically plastic or has genetic components, we translocated roach from 2 populations with different opportunities for migration to a lake with migration opportunity, containing a local roa...

  12. Emerging Transnational migration from Romanian villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Sandu


    Full Text Available This article presents the first results of a community census (December 2001 on temporary external migration at the level of all Romanian villages. Local key informants filled in the questionnaire on international temporary migration and its sociodemographic profile. As function of the key destinations, the Romanian villages cluster into six major migration fields: Germany, Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Spain. At a more detailed level, considering multiple destinations, those fields break into 15 regions of migration.Village-level analysis of the phenomenon indicates a strong selectivity of migration depending on village characteristics. About 4 percent of the total villages of the country account for more than 60 percent of the total return migration from abroad. These are villages of a high probability of transnationalism. Circular or transnational migration is shown to be connected with the basic characteristics of the migration system of the country: the villages where village to city commuting declined sharply after 1990 and where return migration from cities was high recorded a higher propensity for circular migration abroad. A set of about 2700 villages of high migration prevalence is described as «probable transnational communities».

  13. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico. (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R


    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  14. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.


    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...... migration are reflected upon: what ecological factors can shape the evolution of migratory dimorphism? How is partial migration maintained over evolutionary timescales? What proximate mechanisms determine whether an individual is migratory or remains resident? Following this, the consequences of partial...... migration are considered, in an ecological and evolutionary context, and also in an applied sense. Here it is argued that understanding the concept of partial migration is crucial for fisheries and ecosystem managers, and can provide information for conservation strategies. The review concludes...

  15. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola


    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  16. Crystallization kinetics of the Cu50Zr50 metallic glass under isothermal conditions (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Jian, Zengyun; Xu, Junfeng; Zhu, Man; Chang, Fange; Han, Amin


    Amorphous structure of the melt-spun Cu50Zr50 amorphous alloy ribbons were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Isothermal crystallization kinetics of these alloy ribbons were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Besides, Arrhenius and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equations were utilized to obtain the isothermal crystallization kinetic parameters. As shown in the results, the local activation energy Eα decreases by a large margin at the crystallized volume fraction αbasically constant at 0.1<α<0.9. Therefore, it turns out that the unchanged barrier is overcome in the crystallization process. Finally, Eα rapidly decreases at 0.9<α<1, implying that crystallization becomes easier and easier to proceed. Nucleation activation energy Enucleation is greater than growth activation energy Egrowth, so nucleation is harder than growth in isothermal process. In terms of the local Avrami exponent n(α), it ranges 1.1-7.4, revealing that isothermal crystallization mechanism is interface-controlled one- two- or three-dimensional growth with different nucleation rates.

  17. Pressure-area isotherm of a lipid monolayer from molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Monticelli, Luca; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter


    We calculated the pressure-area isotherm of a dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid monolayer from molecular dynamics simulations using a coarse-grained molecular model. We characterized the monolayer structure, geometry, and phases directly from the simulations and compared the calculated

  18. Integrated nozzle - flapper valve with piezoelectric actuator and isothermal chamber: a feedback linearization multi control device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamali, Mohammadreza; Jazayeri, Seyed Ali [K. N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farid [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kawashima, Kenji [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagawa, Toshiharu [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces a new nozzle-flapper valve with isothermal chamber using piezoelectric actuator. It controls the pressure and flow rate simply, effectively and separately. The proposed valve uses isothermal chamber presenting practical isothermal condition due to its large heat transfer interfaces filled by metal wool. The valve uses stacked type piezoelectric actuator with unique advantages. By using this valve, a simple method has been fulfilled to control flow rate or pressure of ideal gases in a pneumatic actuators. Experimental results demonstrated applications of the proposed valve to control either pressure or flow rate in pneumatic circuits. This valve can be also used in the pilot stage valve to actuate the main stage of a much bigger pneumatic valve. Designated structure contains only one pressure sensor installed on the isothermal control chamber, capable of controlling both pressure and flow rate. The desired output mass flow rate of the valve is controlled by the pressure changes during positioning of piezoelectric actuator at proper position. The proposed valve can control steady and unsteady oscillatory flow rate and pressure effectively, using nonlinear control method such as feedback linearization approach. Its effectiveness is demonstrated and validated through simulation and experiments.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Thermal Behavior, Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Polymorphism of Palm Oil Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li


    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of palm stearin (PS and palm olein (PO was explored by monitoring peak temperature transitions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The fatty acid composition (FAC, isothermal crystallization kinetics studied by pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR and isothermal microstructure were also compared. The results indicated that the fatty acid composition had an important influence on the crystallization process. PS and PO both exhibited more multiple endotherms than exotherms which showed irregular peak shapes. An increasing in cooling rate, generally, was associated with an increase in peak size. Application of the Avaimi equation to isothermal crystallization of PS and PO revealed different nucleation and growth mechanisms based on the Avrami exponents. PS quickly reached the end of crystallization because of more saturated triacylglycerol (TAG. The Avrami index of PS were the same as PO under the same isothermal condition at lower temperatrue, indicating that the crystallization mechanism of the two samples based on super-cooling state were the same. According to the polarized light microscope (PLM images, crystal morphology of PS and PO was different. With the temperature increased, the structure of crystal network of both PS and PO gradually loosened.

  20. Non-isothermal effects on multi-phase flow in porous medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Wang, W; Park, C. H.


    In this paper a ppT -formulation for non-isothermal multi-phase flow is given including diffusion and latent heat effects. Temperature and pressure dependencies of governing parameters are considered, in particular surface tension variation on phase interfaces along with temperature changes. A weak...